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Sample records for cellular surface characteristics

  1. Cellular Responses Evoked by Different Surface Characteristics of Intraosseous Titanium Implants

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Liviu; Jadwat, Yusuf; Khammissa, Razia A. G.; Meyerov, Robin; Lemmer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The properties of biomaterials, including their surface microstructural topography and their surface chemistry or surface energy/wettability, affect cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The nanotopography of moderately rough implant surfaces enhances the production of biological mediators in the peri-implant microenvironment with consequent recruitment of differentiating osteogenic cells to the implant surface and stimulates osteogenic maturation. Implant surfaces with moderately rough topography and with high surface energy promote osteogenesis, increase the ratio of bone-to-implant contact, and increase the bonding strength of the bone to the implant at the interface. Certain features of implant surface chemistry are also important in enhancing peri-implant bone wound healing. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the more important features of titanium implant surfaces which have an impact on osseointegration. PMID:25767803

  2. Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating on Ti-6Al-4V: surface characteristics, corrosion properties and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Lin; Sun, Tao; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-03-01

    To enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V and extend its lifetime in medical applications, Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating was synthesized on the surface via plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). Surface morphology and cross sectional morphology of the composite coating were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating was composed of non-stoichiometric titanium oxide, titanium nitride and titanium oxynitride, no obvious characteristic peak corresponding to the crystalline phases of them was detected in the X-ray diffraction pattern. In accordance with Owens-Wendt equation, surface free energy of the uncoated and coated samples was calculated and compared. Moreover, the corrosion behavior of uncoated and coated samples was evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, and an equivalent circuit deriving from Randles model was used to fit Bode plots and describe the electrochemical processes occurring at the sample/electrolyte interface. On the basis of the equivalent circuit model, the resistance of the composite coating was 4.7 times higher than that of the passive layer on uncoated samples, indicating the enhanced corrosion resistance after PIIID treatment. Compared to uncoated Ti-6Al-V, Ti-O-N/Ti-coated samples facilitated ostoblast proliferation within 7 days of cell culture, while there was no statistically significant difference in alkaline phosphate activity between uncoated and coated samples during 21 days of cell culture. PMID:25737126

  3. Sound attenuation characteristics of cellular metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Satya Surya Srinivas

    could be mitigated by the addition of appropriate treatments such as a lightweight grid that modified the incident sound field to be normally directed. Although the performance of the metamaterial-based barrier solutions was better compared to the conventional ones, the performance can be poor at the system eigenfrequencies. The possibility of shifting energy from the deficit bands to other regions where the barriers are more efficient was numerically explored for embodiments of segmented cellular materials having non-linear stiffness characteristics. The acoustical behavior of such materials was probed through representative two-dimensional models of a segmented plate with a contact interface. Super-harmonic response peaks were observed for pure harmonic excitations, the strength of which were found to strongly depend on the degree of non-linearity or bilinear stiffness ratio. The closer an excitation frequency was to the characteristic eigenfrequencies of the structure, the stronger was the super-harmonic response, which supported the idea of transferring energy from problematic frequency bands to higher frequencies. Finally, the possibility of a spatial-shift of energy from longitudinal to lateral direction was explored with the idea of eliminating the design constraints associated with conventional absorbing materials, and with the hope of realizing a compact sound absorber. The embodiment was a two-phase chiral composite made using a Topologically Interlocked Material (TIM) with its unit cell being a tetrahedron consisting of two helicoid dissections. A comparative study was conducted with standard microstructures inspired by the Voigt and Reuss models. The twist mode of the chiral composites was found to be excited by an incident sound field normal to the plane of the TIM assembly. Although this behavior is not unique to a chiral microstructure, many other microstructures do not exhibit this behavior. The excitation of the twist mode by the incident sound field

  4. Surface characteristics of thermally treated titanium surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yang-Jin; Cui, De-Zhe; Jeon, Ha-Ra; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kim, Ok-Su

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The characteristics of oxidized titanium (Ti) surfaces varied according to treatment conditions such as duration time and temperature. Thermal oxidation can change Ti surface characteristics, which affect many cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the surface characteristics and cell response of thermally treated Ti surfaces. Methods The samples were divided into 4 groups. Control: machined smooth titanium (Ti-S) was untreated. Group I: Ti-S was treated in a furnace at 300℃ for 30 minutes. Group II: Ti-S was treated at 500℃ for 30 minutes. Group III: Ti-S was treated at 750℃ for 30 minutes. A scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and X-ray diffraction were used to assess surface characteristics and chemical composition. The water contact angle and surface energy were measured to assess physical properties. Results The titanium dioxide (TiO2) thickness increased as the treatment temperature increased. Additional peaks belonging to rutile TiO2 were only found in group III. The contact angle in group III was significantly lower than any of the other groups. The surface energy significantly increased as the treatment temperature increased, especially in group III. In the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, after 24 hours of incubation, the assessment of cell viability showed that the optical density of the control had a higher tendency than any other group, but there was no significant difference. However, the alkaline phosphatase activity increased as the temperature increased, especially in group III. Conclusions Consequently, the surface characteristics and biocompatibility increased as the temperature increased. This indicates that surface modification by thermal treatment could be another useful method for medical and dental implants. PMID:22803009

  5. Sialidases as regulators of bioengineered cellular surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Cristina Y; Ryan, Matthew J; d'Alarcao, Marc; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Human sialidases (NEUs) catalyze the removal of N-acetyl neuraminic acids from the glycome of the cell and regulate a diverse repertoire of nominal cellular functions, such as cell signaling and adhesion. A greater understanding of their substrate permissivity is of interest in order to discern their physiological functions in disease states and in the design of specific and effective small molecule inhibitors. Towards this, we have synthesized soluble fluorogenic reporters of mammalian sialidase activity bearing unnatural sialic acids commonly incorporated into the cellular glycocalyx via metabolic glycoengineering. We found cell-surface sialidases in Jurkat capable of cleaving unnatural sialic acids with differential activities toward a variety of R groups on neuraminic acid. In addition, we observed modulated structure–activity relationships when cell-surface sialidases were presented glycans with unnatural bulky, hydrophobic or fluorinated moieties incorporated directly via glycoengineering. Our results confirm the importance of cell-surface sialidases in glycoengineering incorporation data. We demonstrate the flexibility of human NEUs toward derivatized sugars and highlight the importance of native glycan presentation to sialidase binding and activity. These results stand to inform not only metabolic glycoengineering efforts but also inhibitor design. PMID:25795684

  6. A model for the volumetric radiation characteristics of cellular ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Viskanta, R.; Gore, J.P.

    1997-12-01

    A unit cell based model for cellular ceramics was developed in conjunction with the discrete ordinates method for radiative transfer to predict theoretically the effective volumetric radiation characteristics of the cellular ceramics. Model input parameters include the porosity, pores per centimeter (PPC) and reflectivity of the solid material. Numerical calculations of the extinction coefficients and single scattering albedo are reported over the range of reflectivities from 0 to 1, porosities from 0.6 to 0.95 and PPC from 4 to 26. A comparison between model predictions and spectral emittance data for cellular ceramics reported in the literature shows agreement within 5 to 10% which is within experimental uncertainty.

  7. Cellular Stress Response to Engineered Nanoparticles: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Cellular Uptake

    EPA Science Inventory

    CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE TO ENGINEERED NANOPARTICLES: EFFECT OF SIZE, SURFACE COATING, AND CELLULAR UPTAKE RY Prasad 1, JK McGee2, MG Killius1 D Ackerman2, CF Blackman2 DM DeMarini2 , SO Simmons2 1 Student Services Contractor, US EPA, RTP, NC 2 US EPA, RTP, NC The num...

  8. Parameters and characteristics governing cellular internalization and trans-barrier trafficking of nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Karmani; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Bijukumar, Divya; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2015-01-01

    Cellular internalization and trans-barrier transport of nanoparticles can be manipulated on the basis of the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of nanoparticles. Research has shown that these factors significantly influence the uptake of nanoparticles. Dictating these characteristics allows for the control of the rate and extent of cellular uptake, as well as delivering the drug-loaded nanosystem intra-cellularly, which is imperative for drugs that require a specific cellular level to exert their effects. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles should be optimal for the nanosystem to bypass the natural restricting phenomena of the body and act therapeutically at the targeted site. The factors at the focal point of emerging smart nanomedicines include nanoparticle size, surface charge, shape, hydrophobicity, surface chemistry, and even protein and ligand conjugates. Hence, this review discusses the mechanism of internalization of nanoparticles and ideal nanoparticle characteristics that allow them to evade the biological barriers in order to achieve optimal cellular uptake in different organ systems. Identifying these parameters assists with the progression of nanomedicine as an outstanding vector of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25834433

  9. Spectral Characteristics of Titan's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Turner, Jake D.; Penteado, Paulo; Khamsi, Tymon B.; Soderblom, Jason M.

    2014-11-01

    Cassini/Huygens and ground-based measurements of Titan reveal an eroded surface, with lakes, dunes, and sinuous washes. These features, coupled with measurements of clouds and rain, indicate the transfer of methane between Titan’s surface and atmosphere. The presence of methane-damp lowlands suggests further that the atmospheric methane (which is continually depleted through photolysis) may be supplied by sub-surface reservoirs. The byproducts of methane photolysis condense onto the surface, leaving layers of organic sediments that record Titan’s past atmospheres.Thus knowledge of the source and history of Titan's atmosphere requires measurements of the large scale compositional makeup of Titan's surface, which is shrouded by a thick and hazy atmosphere. Towards this goal, we analyzed roughly 100,000 spectra recorded by Cassini’s Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Our study is confined to the latitude region (20S—20N) surrounding the landing site of the Huygens probe (at 10S, 192W), which supplied only measurement of the vertical profiles of the methane abundance and haze scattering characteristics. VIMS near-IR spectral images indicate subtle latitudinal and temporal variations in the haze characteristics in the tropics. We constrain these small changes with full radiative transfer analyses of each of the thousands of VIMS spectra, which were recorded of different terrains and at different lighting conditions. The resulting models of Titan’s atmosphere as a function of latitude and year indicate the seasonal migration of Titan’s tropical haze and enable the derivation of Titan’s surface albedo at 8 near-IR wavelength regions where Titan’s atmosphere is transparent enough to allow visibility to the surface. The resultant maps of Titan’s surface indicate a number of terrain types with distinct spectral characteristics that are suggestive of atmospheric and surficial processes, including the deposition of organic material, erosion of

  10. Wettability and cellular response of UV light irradiated anodized titanium surface

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyou-Hwa; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The object of this study was to investigate the effect of UV irradiation (by a general commercial UV sterilizer) on anodized titanium surface. Surface characteristics and cellular responses were compared between anodized titanium discs and UV irradiated anodized titanium discs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Titanium discs were anodized and divided into the following groups: Group 1, anodized (control), and Group 2, anodized and UV irradiated for 24 hours. The surface characteristics including contact angle, roughness, phase of oxide layer, and chemical elemental composition were inspected. The osteoblast-like human osteogenic sarcoma (HOS) cells were cultured on control and test group discs. Initial cellular attachment, MTS-based cell proliferation assay, and ALP synthesis level were compared between the two groups for the evaluation of cellular response. RESULTS After UV irradiation, the contact angle decreased significantly (P<.001). The surface roughness and phase of oxide layer did not show definite changes, but carbon showed a considerable decrease after UV irradiation. Initial cell attachment was increased in test group (P=.004). Cells cultured on test group samples proliferated more actively (P=.009 at day 2, 5, and 7) and the ALP synthesis also increased in cells cultured on the test group (P=.016 at day 3, P=.009 at day 7 and 14). CONCLUSION UV irradiation induced enhanced wettability, and increased initial cellular responses of HOS cells on anodized titanium surface. PMID:21814613

  11. Cell Surface Changes Associated with Cellular Immune Reactions in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nappi, Anthony J.; Silvers, Michael

    1984-09-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster a temperature-induced change in immune competence accompanies cell surface alterations that cause its blood cells to adhere and to encapsulate a parasite. At 29 degrees C the blood cells of the tumorous-lethal (Tuml) mutant show a high degree of immune competence and encapsulate the eggs of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. At 21 degrees C the blood cells are essentially immune incompetent. High percentages of lectin binding cells were found under conditions which potentiated cellular encapsulation responses. Some immune reactive blood cells did not bind lectin. The low percentages of lectin binding cells in susceptible hosts suggest that developing parasites alter the cell surface of the blood cells of immune reactive hosts.

  12. Cell surface changes associated with cellular immune reactions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Nappi, A J; Silvers, M

    1984-09-14

    In Drosophila melanogaster a temperature-induced change in immune competence accompanies cell surface alterations that cause its blood cells to adhere and to encapsulate a parasite. At 29 degrees C the blood cells of the tumorous-lethal (Tuml) mutant show a high degree of immune competence and encapsulate the eggs of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. At 21 degrees C the blood cells are essentially immune incompetent. High percentages of lectin binding cells were found under conditions which potentiated cellular encapsulation responses. Some immune reactive blood cells did not bind lectin. The low percentages of lectin binding cells in susceptible hosts suggest that developing parasites alter the cell surface of the blood cells of immune reactive hosts. PMID:6433482

  13. A cellular automata approach for modeling surface water runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozefik, Zoltan; Nanu Frechen, Tobias; Hinz, Christoph; Schmidt, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    This abstract reports the development and application of a two-dimensional cellular automata based model, which couples the dynamics of overland flow, infiltration processes and surface evolution through sediment transport. The natural hill slopes are represented by their topographic elevation and spatially varying soil properties infiltration rates and surface roughness coefficients. This model allows modeling of Hortonian overland flow and infiltration during complex rainfall events. An advantage of the cellular automata approach over the kinematic wave equations is that wet/dry interfaces that often appear with rainfall overland flows can be accurately captured and are not a source of numerical instabilities. An adaptive explicit time stepping scheme allows for rainfall events to be adequately resolved in time, while large time steps are taken during dry periods to provide for simulation run time efficiency. The time step is constrained by the CFL condition and mass conservation considerations. The spatial discretization is shown to be first-order accurate. For validation purposes, hydrographs for non-infiltrating and infiltrating plates are compared to the kinematic wave analytic solutions and data taken from literature [1,2]. Results show that our cellular automata model quantitatively accurately reproduces hydrograph patterns. However, recent works have showed that even through the hydrograph is satisfyingly reproduced, the flow field within the plot might be inaccurate [3]. For a more stringent validation, we compare steady state velocity, water flux, and water depth fields to rainfall simulation experiments conducted in Thies, Senegal [3]. Comparisons show that our model is able to accurately capture these flow properties. Currently, a sediment transport and deposition module is being implemented and tested. [1] M. Rousseau, O. Cerdan, O. Delestre, F. Dupros, F. James, S. Cordier. Overland flow modeling with the Shallow Water Equation using a well balanced

  14. Charged group surface accessibility determines micelleplexes formation and cellular interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yang; Sen, Soumyo; Král, Petr; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-04-01

    Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The model micelle system was formed from methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) mixed with methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-b-oligoarginine (mPEG-PLA-Rx, x = 8 or 15). Surface properties of the micelles were varied by controlling the oligoarginine block length and conjugation density. Micelles were observed to have a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment where the PLA block constituted the hydrophobic core, mPEG and oligoarginine formed a hydrophilic corona. Significantly different thermodynamic behaviors were observed during the interaction of single stranded miRNA with micelles of different surface properties, and the resulting micelleplexes mediated substantial cellular association. Depending upon the oligoarginine length and density, micelles exhibited miRNA loading capacity directly related to the presentation of charged groups on the surface. The effect of charged group accessibility of cationic micelle on micelleplex properties provides guidance on future miRNA delivery system design.Micelleplexes are a class of nucleic acid carriers that have gained acceptance due to their size, stability, and ability to synergistically carry small molecules. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA gene regulator that is consists of 19-22 nucleotides. Altered expression of miRNAs plays an important role in many human diseases. Using a model 22-nucleotide miRNA sequence, we investigated the interaction between charged groups on the micelle surface and miRNA. The

  15. Cellular interactions of surface modified nanoporous silicon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Laaksonen, Päivi; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B.; Hirvonen, Jouni; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Santos, Hélder A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi nanoparticles incubated in pH 7.4, which renders the particles the possibility for further track-imaging applications. The results highlight the potential of HFBII coating for improving wettability, increasing biocompatibility and possible intestinal association of PSi nanoparticulates for drug delivery applications.In this study, the self-assembly of hydrophobin class II (HFBII) on the surface of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) nanoparticles was investigated. The HFBII-coating converted the hydrophobic particles into more hydrophilic ones, improved the particles' cell viability in both HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines compared to uncoated particles, and enhanced the particles' cellular association. The amount of HFBII adsorbed onto the particles was also successfully quantified by both the BCA assay and a HPLC method. Importantly, the permeation of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin, loaded into THCPSi particles across Caco-2 monolayers was not affected by the protein coating. In addition, 125I-radiolabelled HFBII did not extensively permeate the Caco-2 monolayer and was found to be stably adsorbed onto the THCPSi

  16. The genomic characteristics and cellular origin of chromothripsis.

    PubMed

    Storchová, Zuzana; Kloosterman, Wigard P

    2016-06-01

    Human genomes are continuously subjected to mutations, which can drive genetic diseases and cancer. An intriguing recent finding has been the discovery of chromothripsis, a spectacular and complex form of chromosome rearrangement that can occur in the genomes of cancer cells and patients with congenital diseases. Chromothripsis has been described in a large array of human cancers and various types of chromothripsis have appeared, which differ in complexity and genomic hallmarks. From the combined genomic data a consensus hypothesis has been inferred, involving aberrant DNA replication and chromosome shattering as the underlying processes explaining chromothripsis. In addition, recent work has established several cellular models that recapitulate chromothripsis under defined experimental conditions. One of these models indicates that chromothripsis can originate from DNA damage in micronuclei, providing an elegant explanation for the restriction of chromothriptic rearrangements to a single chromosome. Alternatively, chromothripsis can be caused by telomere crisis, a process that involves formation of dicentric chromosomes and chromatin bridges. Here, we summarize the genomic features of chromothripsis and we discuss experimental approaches that allow dissection of the chromothripsis process. PMID:27023493

  17. The characteristics of four ratcheting states in cellular flames.

    PubMed

    Gorman, M; el-Hamdi, M; Pearson, B

    2009-09-01

    A premixed flat flame on a circular porous plug burner can form patterns of one or two concentric rings of cells in which brighter, hotter regions are separated by darker, cooler cusps and folds. Dynamic states are found at parameter values that are interleaved between those of the ordered states. Rotating states, modulated rotating states, hopping states, and intermittently ordered states have all been observed with motions of approximately 100 degrees/s. These states have been described using the ideas of dynamical systems. Their characteristics have been analyzed using modal decomposition techniques. Ratcheting states are qualitatively and quantitatively different from these other dynamic states. In ratcheting states one or both of the concentric rings rotate very slowly, approximately 0.8 degrees/s, each speeding up and slowing down in a manner unique to that state. Measurements of the angular displacement and computed values of the angular velocity are presented for four ratcheting states. The experimental results are discussed in the context of the physical characteristics of the flame front and in terms of bifurcations of systems with symmetry. Many of the principal features of ratcheting motion are not yet understood. PMID:19792020

  18. The role of surface charge in cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of medical nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2012-01-01

    Many types of nanoparticles (NPs) are tested for use in medical products, particularly in imaging and gene and drug delivery. For these applications, cellular uptake is usually a prerequisite and is governed in addition to size by surface characteristics such as hydrophobicity and charge. Although positive charge appears to improve the efficacy of imaging, gene transfer, and drug delivery, a higher cytotoxicity of such constructs has been reported. This review summarizes findings on the role of surface charge on cytotoxicity in general, action on specific cellular targets, modes of toxic action, cellular uptake, and intracellular localization of NPs. Effects of serum and intercell type differences are addressed. Cationic NPs cause more pronounced disruption of plasma-membrane integrity, stronger mitochondrial and lysosomal damage, and a higher number of autophagosomes than anionic NPs. In general, nonphagocytic cells ingest cationic NPs to a higher extent, but charge density and hydrophobicity are equally important; phagocytic cells preferentially take up anionic NPs. Cells do not use different uptake routes for cationic and anionic NPs, but high uptake rates are usually linked to greater biological effects. The different uptake preferences of phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells for cationic and anionic NPs may influence the efficacy and selectivity of NPs for drug delivery and imaging. PMID:23144561

  19. The gingival Stillman’s clefts: histopathology and cellular characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cassini, Maria Antonietta; Cerroni, Loredana; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Orlandi, Augusto; Pilloni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim of the study Stillman’s cleft is a mucogingival triangular-shaped defect on the buccal surface of a root with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to examine the Stillman’s cleft obtained from excision during root coverage surgical procedures at an histopathological level. Materials and method Harvesting of cleft was obtained from two periodontally healthy patients with a scalpel and a bevel incision and then placed in a test tube with buffered solution to be processed for light microscopy. Results Microscopic analysis has shown that Stillman’s cleft presented a lichenoid hand-like inflammatory infiltration, while in the periodontal patient an inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia was identified. Conclusion Stillman’s cleft remains to be investigated as for the possible causes of such lesion of the gingival margin, although an inflammatory response seems to be evident and active from a strictly histopathological standpoint. PMID:26941897

  20. The marginating-pulmonary immune compartment in mice exhibits increased NK cytotoxicity and unique cellular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Benish, Marganit; Melamed, Rivka; Rosenne, Ella; Neeman, Elad; Sorski, Liat; Levi, Ben; Shaashua, Lee; Matzner, Pini; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2014-01-01

    To test whether marginating-pulmonary (MP) leukocytes in mice have a unique potential to identify and destroy aberrant circulating cells, we compared MP to circulating leukocytes with respect to natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity, proinflammatory characteristics, molecular determinants of activation, and response to IL-12 immunostimulation. Cytotoxicity was assessed employing the YAC-1, B16F10, and 3LL target lines. C57BL/6 mice were injected with either saline or murine IL-12 (0.1 or 0.5 µg/mouse), either once or three times 48-h apart. Twenty-four hours after last injection, cardiac blood was withdrawn and MP leukocytes were collected by forced lung perfusion. NK cytotoxicity, cellular composition, and surface molecular markers were studied. MP leukocytes exhibited greater NK cytotoxicity than circulating leukocytes against the syngeneic B16F10 and 3LL tumor lines, but not against the allogeneic YAC-1 line. NKG2D and IL-12 receptor expression predicted NK cytotoxicity in circulating leukocytes, but not in MP leukocytes. IFNγ-receptor, IL-12-receptor, CD69, CD11a, and CD11b showed different patterns of expression in the two leukocyte populations, suggesting pro-inflammatory characteristics of the MP compartment. IL-12 stimulation caused differential effects on these markers and also elevated cytotoxicity in both compartments, but in different effector: target ratio-dependent patterns. MP leukocytes may play a critical role in eliminating aberrant circulating cells due to their enhanced NK cytotoxicity and given their strategic location in the lungs vasculature, which forces physical interactions with all circulating aberrant cells. MP-NK cells are unique in their cytotoxic mechanisms against syngeneic targets and in their activation profile and response to immunostimulatory agents. PMID:24132552

  1. Surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of a manganese-containing titanium oxide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Youn-Jeong; Jang, Je-Hee

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of a titanium (Ti) oxide layer incorporating the manganese ions (Mn) obtained by hydrothermal treatment with the expectation of utilizing potent integrin-ligand binding enhancement effect of Mn for future applications as an endosseous implant surface. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical profilometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The in vitro biocompatibility of the Mn-containing Ti oxide surface was evaluated in comparison with untreated bare Ti using a mouse calvaria-derived osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1). The hydrothermal treatment produced a nanostructured Mn-incorporated Ti oxide layer approximately 0.6 μm thick. ICP-AES analysis demonstrated that the Mn ions were released from the hydrothermally treated surface into the solution. Mn incorporation notably decreased cellular attachment, spreading, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteoblast phenotype gene expression compared with the bare Ti surface (p < 0.05). The results indicate that the Mn-incorporation into the surface Ti oxide layer has no evident beneficial effects on osteoblastic cell function, but instead, actually impaired cell behavior.

  2. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  3. Effects of surface viscoelasticity on cellular responses of endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Motahare-Sadat; Katbab, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Background: One area of nanoscience deals with nanoscopic interactions between nanostructured materials and biological systems. To elucidate the effects of the substrate surface morphology and viscoelasticity on cell proliferation, fractal analysis was performed on endothelial cells cultured on nanocomposite samples based on silicone rubber (SR) and various concentrations of organomodified nanoclay (OC). Methods: The nanoclay/SR ratio was tailored to enhance cell behavior via changes in sample substrate surface roughness and viscoelasticity. Results: Surface roughness of the cured SR filled with negatively-charged nanosilicate layers had a greater effect than elasticity on cell growth. The surface roughness of SR nanocomposite samples increased with increasing the OC content, leading to enhanced cell growth and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. This was consistent with the decrease in SR segmental motions and damping factor as the primary viscoelastic parameters by the nanosilicate layers with increasing clay concentrations. Conclusions: The inclusion of clay nanolayers affected the growth and behavior of endothelial cells on microtextured SR. PMID:26989733

  4. Tuning cellular responses to BMP-2 with material surfaces.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Elisa; Valat, Anne; Picart, Catherine; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada

    2016-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been known for decades as a strong osteoinductive factor and for clinical applications is combined solely with collagen as carrier material. The growing concerns regarding side effects and the importance of BMP-2 in several developmental and physiological processes have raised the need to improve the design of materials by controlling BMP-2 presentation. Inspired by the natural cell environment, new material surfaces have been engineered and tailored to provide both physical and chemical cues that regulate BMP-2 activity. Here we describe surfaces designed to present BMP-2 to cells in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. This is achieved by trapping BMP-2 using physicochemical interactions, either covalently grafted or combined with other extracellular matrix components. In the near future, we anticipate that material science and biology will integrate and further develop tools for in vitro studies and potentially bring some of them toward in vivo applications. PMID:26704296

  5. Tuning cellular responses to BMP-2 with material surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Picart, Catherine; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has been known for decades as a strong osteoinductive factor and for clinical applications is combined solely with collagen as carrier material. The growing concerns regarding side effects and the importance of BMP-2 in several developmental and physiological processes have raised the need to improve the design of materials by controlling BMP-2 presentation. Inspired by the natural cell environment, new material surfaces have been engineered and tailored to provide both physical and chemical cues that regulate BMP-2 activity. Here we describe surfaces designed to present BMP-2 to cells in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. This is achieved by trapping BMP-2 using physicochemical interactions, either covalently grafted or combined with other extracellular matrix components. In the near future, we anticipate that material science and biology will integrate and further develop tools for in vitro studies and potentially bring some of them toward in vivo applications. PMID:26704296

  6. Complement-coagulation crosstalk on cellular and artificial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wiegner, Rebecca; Chakraborty, Shinjini; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2016-10-01

    The humoral serine proteases of the complement system and the coagulation system play central roles during the events of an inflammatory response. While the complement system confers immunoprotective and -regulatory functions, the coagulation cascade is responsible to ensure hemostatic maintenance. Although these two systems individually unfold during inflammation, several studies have reported on the "crosstalk" between components of the complement and the coagulation system in the fluid phase. However, both cascades are usually initiated on or in close proximity to foreign or activated surfaces, and there is increasing evidence for interacting complement and coagulation proteins on various superficial areas on endothelium, circulating entities like platelets, leukocytes, microparticles and pathogens, and even on artificial surfaces. This review aims at summarizing these interactions to complete the picture. PMID:27371975

  7. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models are extended to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface ('constant flux') layer. The atmospheric surface layer consists of an interfacial sublayer immediately adjacent to the ground and an overlying fully turbulent surface sublayer where wind-shear production of turbulence dominates buoyancy production. Within the interfacial sublayer, sensible and latent heat are transported by non-steady molecular diffusion into small-scale eddies which intermittently burst through this zone. Both the thickness of the interfacial sublayer and the characteristics of the turbulent eddies penetrating through it depend on whether airflow is aerodynamically smooth or aerodynamically rough, as determined by the Roughness Reynold's number. Within the overlying surface sublayer, similarity theory can be used to express the mean vertical windspeed, temperature, and water vapor profiles in terms of a single parameter, the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed using data from the TPRC Data Series and the first-order Chapman-Cowling expressions; the required collision integrals were approximated using the Lenard-Jones potential. Parameterizations for specific heat and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Brutsart model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length was modified to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface

  8. Thrombospondin-1 interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi surface calreticulin to enhance cellular infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Candice A; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y; Ikejiani, Adaeze O; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N; Cardenas, Tatiana C; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A; Lima, Maria F; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  9. Thrombospondin-1 Interacts with Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Calreticulin to Enhance Cellular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Candice A.; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y.; Ikejiani, Adaeze O.; Udoko, Aniekanabasi N.; Cardenas, Tatiana C.; Pratap, Siddharth; Duquette, Mark A.; Lima, Maria F.; Lawler, Jack; Villalta, Fernando; Nde, Pius N.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which is a neglected tropical disease that produces severe pathology and mortality. The mechanisms by which the parasite invades cells are not well elucidated. We recently reported that T. cruzi up-regulates the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) to enhance the process of cellular invasion. Here we characterize a novel TSP-1 interaction with T. cruzi that enhances cellular infection. We show that labeled TSP-1 interacts specifically with the surface of T. cruzi trypomastigotes. We used TSP-1 to pull down interacting parasite surface proteins that were identified by mass spectrometry. We also show that full length TSP-1 and the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 (NTSP) interact with T. cruzi surface calreticulin (TcCRT) and other surface proteins. Pre-exposure of recombinant NTSP or TSP-1 to T. cruzi significantly enhances cellular infection of wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) compared to the C-terminal domain of TSP-1, E3T3C1. In addition, blocking TcCRT with antibodies significantly inhibits the enhancement of cellular infection mediated by the TcCRT-TSP-1 interaction. Taken together, our findings indicate that TSP-1 interacts with TcCRT on the surface of T. cruzi through the NTSP domain and that this interaction enhances cellular infection. Thus surface TcCRT is a virulent factor that enhances the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection through TSP-1, which is up-regulated by the parasite. PMID:22808206

  10. Effect of surface tension anisotropy on cellular morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Sekerka, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional weakly nonlinear analysis for conditions near the onset of instability at the crystal-melt interface was carried out to second order, taking into account the effects of latent heat generation and surface-tension anisotropy of the crystal-melt interface; particular consideration was given to the growth of a cubic crystal in the 001-, 011-, and 111-line directions. Numerical calculations by McFadden et al. (1987), performed for an aluminum-chromium alloy with the assumption of a linear temperature field and an isotropic surface tension, showed that only hexagonal nodes (and not hexagonal cells) occurred near the onset of instability. The results of the present analysis indicate that the nonlinear temperature field (which occurs when thermal conductivities of the crystal and the melt are different and/or the latent heat effects are not negligible) can modify this result and, for certain alloys and processing conditions, can cause the occurrence of hexagonal cells near the onset of instability.

  11. Enhanced cellular mobility guided by TiO2 nanotube surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brammer, Karla S; Oh, Seunghan; Gallagher, John O; Jin, Sungho

    2008-03-01

    The in vitro endothelial response of primary bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) was investigated on a flat Ti surface vs a nanostructured TiO2 nanotube surface. The nanotopography provided nanoscale cues that facilitated cellular probing, cell sensing, and especially cell migration, where more organized actin cytoskeletal filaments formed lamellipodia and locomotive morphologies. Motile cell protrusions were able to probe down into the nanotube pores for contact stimulation, and focal adhesions were formed and disassembled readily for enhanced advancement of cellular fronts, which was not observed on a flat substrate of titanium. NOx and endothelin-1 functional assays confirmed that the nanotubes also up-regulated an antithrombic cellular state for maintaining vascular tone. The enhanced endothelial response to TiO2 nanotubes is significant for a potential modification of vascular stent surfaces in order to increase the rate and reliability of endothelialization and endothelial cell migration onto the stent for repairing arterial injury after activation. PMID:18251515

  12. Fault-tolerance and thermal characteristics of quantum-dot cellular automata devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anduwan, G. A.; Padgett, B. D.; Kuntzman, M.; Hendrichsen, M. K.; Sturzu, I.; Khatun, M.; Tougaw, P. D.

    2010-06-01

    We present fault tolerant properties of various quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) devices. Effects of temperatures and dot displacements on the operation of the fundamental devices such as a binary wire, logical gates, a crossover, and an exclusive OR (XOR) have been investigated. A Hubbard-type Hamiltonian and intercellular Hartree approximation have been used for modeling, and a uniform random distribution has been implemented for the defect simulations. The breakdown characteristics of all the devices are almost the same except the crossover. Results show that the success of any device is significantly dependent on both the fabrication defects and temperatures. We have observed unique characteristic features of the crossover. It is highly sensitive to defects of any magnitude. Results show that the presence of a crossover in a XOR design is a major factor for its failure. The effects of temperature and defects in the crossover device are pronounced and have significant impact on larger and complicated QCA devices.

  13. Different characteristics of tuberculous pleural effusion according to pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehee; Lim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) exhibits different characteristics according to pleural fluid cellular predominance or whether the pleural fluid is free-flowing or loculated. However, its categorization based on either of these factors alone may be insufficient to properly reflect the heterogeneous manifestation of TPE. We evaluated the characteristics of the four TPE groups classified according to cellular predominance and whether the fluid is free-flowing or loculated. Methods A cohort of 375 patients with TPE was retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings were compared between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE, and between free-flowing and loculated effusion for both neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE. Results Lymphocytic TPE and neutrophilic TPE were observed in 336 (90%) and 39 (10%) patients, respectively. Pleural fluid loculation was present in 36% and 31% of the patients in the lymphocytic and neutrophilic groups, respectively. A few parameters of the laboratory findings between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE patients showed significant differences. However, these significant differences were prominently observed when comparing free-flowing and loculated subgroups of the respective neutrophilic and lymphocytic groups. Pleural fluid pH, lactate dehydrogenase, and adenosine deaminase levels were significantly different among the four subgroups. The neutrophilic loculated subgroup exhibited the most intense pleural inflammation and the highest mycobacterial yields when compared to the other subgroups. However, the percentage of neutrophils in the pleural fluid was not positively associated with the probability of culture-positive effusion. Conclusions The heterogeneous manifestation of TPE would be better characterized by using a classification system based on combined pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation, with the neutrophilic loculated subgroup contributing to most of the clinically significant

  14. The utility of polyester and cotton as swabbing substrates for the removal of cellular material from surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Christina M; Kaufman, Stacie R; Quarino, Lawrence

    2011-03-01

    Various types of cotton and polyester fabrics were tested to ascertain the optimal physical and chemical characteristics of fabrics needed for the removal of cellular material from surfaces. DNA quantitation values obtained on dried saliva stains showed no difference between cotton and polyester across all constructions and solvent conditions. Fabrics used dry and with water yielded higher quantitation values than those used with isopropanol. Quantitation values were also higher for wovens and nonwovens than knits across all solvent conditions. Low thread count fabrics used with water yielded higher quantitation values, but no correlation between thread count and quantitation values was observed with dry fabrics. A low thread count woven fabric, however, outperformed other tested fabrics when swabbing object surfaces in a highly used room. Full DNA profiles from fingerprints on glass surfaces were obtained with low thread count woven and nonwoven fabrics but not with the knit fabric tested. PMID:21342191

  15. Characteristic variations in reflectance of surface soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Surface soil samples from a wide range of naturally occurring soils were obtained for the purpose of studying the characteristic variations in soil reflectance as these variations relate to other soil properties and soil classification. A total 485 soil samples from the U.S. and Brazil representing 30 suborders of the 10 orders of 'Soil Taxonomy' was examined. The spectral bidirectional reflectance factor was measured on uniformly moist soils over the 0.52 to 2.32 micron wavelength range with a spectroradiometer adapted for indoor use. Five distinct soil spectral reflectance curve forms were identified according to curve shape, the presence or absence of absorption bands, and the predominance of soil organic matter and iron oxide composition. These curve forms were further characterized according to generically homogeneous soil properties in a manner similar to the subdivisions at the suborder level of 'Soil Taxonomy'. Results indicate that spectroradiometric measurements of soil spectral bidirectional reflectance factor can be used to characterize soil reflectance in terms that are meaningful to soil classification, genesis, and survey.

  16. Surface topography and chemistry shape cellular behavior on wide band-gap semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Bain, Lauren E; Collazo, Ramon; Hsu, Shu-Han; Latham, Nicole Pfiester; Manfra, Michael J; Ivanisevic, Albena

    2014-06-01

    The chemical stability and electrical properties of gallium nitride make it a promising material for the development of biocompatible electronics, a range of devices including biosensors as well as interfaces for probing and controlling cellular growth and signaling. To improve the interface formed between the probe material and the cell or biosystem, surface topography and chemistry can be applied to modify the ways in which the device interacts with its environment. PC12 cells are cultured on as-grown planar, unidirectionally polished, etched nanoporous and nanowire GaN surfaces with and without a physisorbed peptide sequence that promotes cell adhesion. While cells demonstrate preferential adhesion to roughened surfaces over as-grown flat surfaces, the topography of that roughness also influences the morphology of cellular adhesion and differentiation in neurotypic cells. Addition of the peptide sequence generally contributes further to cellular adhesion and promotes development of stereotypic long, thin neurite outgrowths over alternate morphologies. The dependence of cell behavior on both the topographic morphology and surface chemistry is thus demonstrated, providing further evidence for the importance of surface modification for modulating bio-inorganic interfaces. PMID:24590161

  17. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for cellular uptake of surface-modified nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Rallo, Robert; Bilal, Muhammad; Cohen, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed, for cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) of the same iron oxide core but with different surface-modifying organic molecules, based on linear and non-linear (epsilon support vector regression (ε-SVR)). A linear QSAR provided high prediction accuracy of R2=0.751 (coefficient of determination) using 11 descriptors selected from an initial pool of 184 descriptors calculated for the NP surfacemodifying molecules, while a ε-SVR based QSAR with only 6 descriptors improved prediction accuracy to R2=0.806. The linear and ε-SVR based QSARs both demonstrated good robustness and well spanned applicability domains. It is suggested that the approach of evaluating pertinent descriptors and their significance, via QSAR analysis, to cellular NP uptake could support planning and interpretation of toxicity studies as well as provide guidance for the tailor-design NPs with respect to targeted cellular uptake for various applications. PMID:25747434

  18. Surface modification of a POSS-nanocomposite material to enhance cellular integration of a synthetic bioscaffold

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Claire; Klanrit, Poramate; Butler, Colin R.; Varanou, Aikaterini; Platé, Manuela; Hynds, Robert E.; Chambers, Rachel C.; Seifalian, Alexander M.; Birchall, Martin A.; Janes, Sam M.

    2016-01-01

    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) is a versatile nanocomposite biomaterial with growing applications as a bioscaffold for tissue engineering. Integration of synthetic implants with host tissue can be problematic but could be improved by topographical modifications. We describe optimization of POSS-PCU by dispersion of porogens (sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose) onto the material surface, with the principle aim of increasing surface porosity, thus providing additional opportunities for improved cellular and vascular ingrowth. We assess the effect of the porogens on the material's mechanical strength, surface chemistry, wettability and cytocompatibilty. Surface porosity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was no alteration in surface chemistry and wettability and only modest changes in mechanical properties were detected. The size of porogens correlated well with the porosity of the construct produced and larger porogens improved interconnectivity of spaces within constructs. Using primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) we demonstrate moderate in vitro cytocompatibility for all surface modifications; however, larger pores resulted in cellular aggregation. These cells were able to differentiate on POSS-PCU scaffolds. Implantation of the scaffold in vivo demonstrated that larger pore sizes favor cellular integration and vascular ingrowth. These experiments demonstrate that surface modification with large porogens can improve POSS-PCU nanocomposite scaffold integration and suggest the need to strike a balance between the non-porous surfaces required for epithelial coverage and the porous structure required for integration and vascularization of synthetic scaffolds in future construct design. PMID:26790147

  19. Surface modification of a POSS-nanocomposite material to enhance cellular integration of a synthetic bioscaffold.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Claire; Klanrit, Poramate; Butler, Colin R; Varanou, Aikaterini; Platé, Manuela; Hynds, Robert E; Chambers, Rachel C; Seifalian, Alexander M; Birchall, Martin A; Janes, Sam M

    2016-03-01

    Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) is a versatile nanocomposite biomaterial with growing applications as a bioscaffold for tissue engineering. Integration of synthetic implants with host tissue can be problematic but could be improved by topographical modifications. We describe optimization of POSS-PCU by dispersion of porogens (sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose) onto the material surface, with the principle aim of increasing surface porosity, thus providing additional opportunities for improved cellular and vascular ingrowth. We assess the effect of the porogens on the material's mechanical strength, surface chemistry, wettability and cytocompatibilty. Surface porosity was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was no alteration in surface chemistry and wettability and only modest changes in mechanical properties were detected. The size of porogens correlated well with the porosity of the construct produced and larger porogens improved interconnectivity of spaces within constructs. Using primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) we demonstrate moderate in vitro cytocompatibility for all surface modifications; however, larger pores resulted in cellular aggregation. These cells were able to differentiate on POSS-PCU scaffolds. Implantation of the scaffold in vivo demonstrated that larger pore sizes favor cellular integration and vascular ingrowth. These experiments demonstrate that surface modification with large porogens can improve POSS-PCU nanocomposite scaffold integration and suggest the need to strike a balance between the non-porous surfaces required for epithelial coverage and the porous structure required for integration and vascularization of synthetic scaffolds in future construct design. PMID:26790147

  20. Surface characteristics of PLA and PLGA films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragkumar N, Thanki; Edith, Dellacherie; Six, Jean-Luc

    2006-12-01

    Surface segregation and restructuring in polylactides (poly( D, L-lactide) and poly( L-lactide)) and poly( D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films of various thicknesses were investigated using both attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle relaxation measurements. In case of poly( D,L-lactide) (DLPLA), it was observed that the surface segregation and the surface restructuring of methyl side groups are influenced by the polymer film thickness. This result has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the same way, PLGA thick films were also characterized by an extensive surface segregation of methyl side groups. Finally, surface restructuring was investigated by dynamic contact angle measurements and it was observed when film surface comes into contact with water. In parallel, we also found that poly( L-lactide) (PLLA) thin and clear films with thickness ˜15 μm undergo conformational changes on the surface upon solvent treatment with certain solvents. The solvent treated surface of PLLA becomes hazy and milky white and its hydrophobicity increases compared to untreated surface. FTIR spectroscopic analysis indicated that polymer chains at the surface undergo certain conformational changes upon solvent treatment. These changes are identified as the restricted motions of C-O-C segments and more intense and specific vibrations of methyl side groups. During solvent treatment, the change in water contact angle and FTIR spectrum of PLLA is well correlated.

  1. Sterilization-Induced Changes in Surface Topography of Biodegradable POSS-PCLU and the Cellular Response of Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yildirimer, Lara; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-06-01

    The field of tissue engineering is rapidly evolving, generating numerous biodegradable materials suited as regeneration platforms. Material sterility is of fundamental importance for clinical translation; however, a few studies have systematically researched the effects of different sterilization methods on biodegradable materials. Here, we exposed a novel bioabsorbable nanocomposite based on a poly(ɛ-caprolactone urea) urethane backbone integrating polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nanoparticles (POSS-PCLU) to autoclave, microwave, antibiotics, and 70% ethanol sterilization and systematically correlated differences in material characteristics to the attachment, viability, proliferative capacity, and shape of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa). Nanotopographical profiling of autoclaved or microwaved surfaces revealed relatively deep nano-grooves, increasing total surface area, roughness, and hydrophobicity, which resulted in significantly fewer adherent cells. Antibiotics or 70% ethanol-treated surfaces displayed shallower nano-grooves, a more hydrophilic character, and significantly greater cellular adhesion (p<0.05). In fact, relative cell proliferation on ethanol-treated films surpassed that of cells grown on every other surface by a factor of 9 over 7 days. Filamentous actin staining demonstrated spindle-like morphologies characteristic of HDFa when grown on ethanol-treated films as opposed to cells grown on other films that were significantly more spread out (p<0.05). We argue that treatment with 70% ethanol serves not only as a laboratory-based sterilizing agent but also as a postproduction processing tool to enhance cytocompatibility of tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:25398409

  2. Characteristics of Middle School Students Learning Actions in Outdoor Mathematical Activities with the Cellular Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh; Baya'a, Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Learning in the cellular phone environment enables utilizing the multiple functions of the cellular phone, such as mobility, availability, interactivity, verbal and voice communication, taking pictures or recording audio and video, measuring time and transferring information. These functions together with mathematics-designated cellular phone…

  3. Surface characteristics and bioactivity of an anodized titanium surface

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyul; Lee, Bo-Ah; Piao, Xing-Hui; Chung, Hyun-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface properties and biological response of an anodized titanium surface by cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity analysis. Methods Commercial pure titanium (Ti) disks were prepared. The samples were divided into an untreated machined Ti group and anodized Ti group. The anodization of cp-Ti was formed using a constant voltage of 270 V for 60 seconds. The surface properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and an image analyzing microscope. The surface roughness was evaluated by atomic force microscopy and a profilometer. The contact angle and surface energy were analyzed. Cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated using mouse MC3T3-E1 cells. Results The anodized Ti group had a more porous and thicker layer on its surface. The surface roughness of the two groups measured by the profilometer showed no significant difference (P>0.001). The anodized Ti dioxide (TiO2) surface exhibited better corrosion resistance and showed a significantly lower contact angle than the machined Ti surface (P>0.001). Although there was no significant difference in the cell viability between the two groups (P>0.001), the anodized TiO2 surface showed significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (P<0.001). Conclusions These results suggest that the surface modification of Ti by anodic oxidation improved the osteogenic response of the osteoblast cells. PMID:24040573

  4. The reflectance characteristics of snow covered surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    Data analysis techniques were developed to most efficiently use available satellite measurements to determine and understand components of the surface energy budget for ice and snow-covered areas. The emphasis is placed on identifying the important components of the heat budget related to snow surfaces, specifically the albedo and the energy consumed in the melting process. Ice and snow charts are prepared by NOAA from satellite observations which map areas into three relative reflectivity zones. Field measurements are analyzed of the reflectivity of an open snow field to assist in the interpretation of the NOAA reflectivity zones.

  5. Surface decoration by Spirulina polysaccharide enhances the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of selenium nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Tang, Quanming; Zhong, Xueyun; Bai, Yan; Chen, Tianfeng; Zhang, Yibo; Li, Yinghua; Zheng, Wenjie

    2012-01-01

    A simple and solution-phase method for functionalization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with Spirulina polysaccharides (SPS) has been developed in the present study. The cellular uptake and anticancer activity of SPS-SeNPs were also evaluated. Monodisperse and homogeneous spherical SPS-SeNPs with diameters ranging from 20 nm to 50 nm were achieved under optimized conditions, which were stable in the solution phase for at least 3 months. SPS surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of SeNPs toward several human cancer cell lines. A375 human melanoma cells were found extremely susceptible to SPS-SeNPs with half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration value of 7.94 μM. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that SPS-SeNPs inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in sub-G1 cell population, deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation, chromatin condensation, and phosphatidylserine translocation. Results suggest that the strategy to use SPS as a surface decorator could be an effective way to enhance the cellular uptake and anticancer efficacy of nanomaterials. SPS-SeNPs may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent against human cancers. PMID:22359460

  6. Native cellular fluorescence characteristics of normal and malignant epithelial cells from human larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmeswearan, Diagaradjane; Ganesan, Singaravelu; Nalini, R.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Veeraganesh, V.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1997-08-01

    Many applications of native fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules such as Try, Tyr, Phe, NADH and FAD are reported on both the characterization and the discrimination of malignant tissues from the normal. In the field of diagnostic oncology, extensive studies have been made to distinguish the normal from malignant condition in breast, cervix, colon and bronchus. From the studies made by Alfano and co-workers, it was found that the emission at 340 and 440 nm under UV excitation have shown statistically significant difference between normal and malignant tissues. As tissues are highly complex in nature, it is worth to known whether the changes arise from cells or from other extracellular tissue components, so as to enable us to have better understanding on the transformation mechanism of normal into malignant and to go for an improved approach in the effective optical diagnosis. In this context, the present study addresses the question of whether there are differences in the native cellular fluorescence characteristics between normal and malignant epithelial cells from human larynx. With this aim, the UV fluorescence emission spectra in the wavelength region of excitation between 270 - 310 nm and the excitation spectra for 340 nm emission were measured and analyzed. In order to quantify the altered fluorescence signal between the normal and malignant cells, different ratio parameters were introduced.

  7. Thermal characteristics of the lunar surface layer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, C. J.; Birkebak, R. C.; White, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of the fines from the Apollo 12 landing site have been determined as a function of their relevant parameters. These properties include the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, directional reflectance and emittance. The density used was the same as that observed from the returned core-tube samples and so should be close to the true density of the surface layer at the Apollo 12 site. The measured properties are used to calculate the diurnal temperature variation of the moon's surface as well as for several depths below the surface. The maximum surface of 389 K is obtained at lunar noon while the minimum temperature of 86.1 K is obtained at sunrise. It is shown that the most significant effects on temperature, as compared with previous calculations, are caused by using the directional reflectance which controls the amount of solar energy absorption during the day in place of a constant hemispherical reflectance. The results are compared with previous analyses and remote measurements.

  8. The Development of Surface Roughness and Implications for Cellular Attachment in Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Miller, Sharon; deGroh, Kim; Chan, Amy; Sahota, Mandeep

    2001-01-01

    The application of a microscopic surface texture produced by ion beam sputter texturing to the surfaces of polymer implants has been shown to result in significant increases in cellular attachment compared to smooth surface implants in animal studies. A collaborative program between NASA Glenn Research Center and the Cleveland Clinic Foundation has been established to evaluate the potential for improving osteoblast attachment to surfaces that have been microscopically roughened by atomic oxygen texturing. The range of surface textures that are feasible depends upon both the texturing process and the duration of treatment. To determine whether surface texture saturates or continues to increase with treatment duration, an effort was conducted to examine the development of surface textures produced by various physical and chemical erosion processes. Both experimental tests and computational modeling were performed to explore the growth of surface texture with treatment time. Surface texturing by means of abrasive grit blasting of glass, stainless steel, and polymethylmethacry I ate surfaces was examined to measure the growth in roughness with grit blasting duration by surface profilometry measurements. Laboratory tests and computational modeling was also conducted to examine the development of texture on Aclar(R) (chlorotfifluoroethylene) and Kapton(R) polyimide, respectively. For the atomic oxygen texturing tests of Aclar(R), atomic force microscopy was used to measure the development of texture with atomic oxygen fluence. The results of all the testing and computational modeling support the premise that development of surface roughness obeys Poisson statistics. The results indicate that surface roughness does not saturate but increases as the square root of the treatment time.

  9. Platelet adhesion and cellular interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) immobilized onto silicone rubber membrane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hsiue, G H; Lee, S D; Chang, P C

    1996-01-01

    Cellular interaction and platelet adsorption were investigated on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) immobilized silicone rubber membrane (SR) which has polyacrylic acid grafts on the surfaces. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) had been introduced to the SR surface after Ar plasma treatment of SR surfaces to introduce peroxide groups. Surface characterizations were made using ATR-FTIR, ESCA, SEM, and contact angle measurements. Experimental results obtained by ESCA high resolution curve fitting spectra indicated that the amount of bisamino PEO of different molecular weights immobilized onto SR surfaces were similar, which showed that the influence of the length of molecular chains (-C-C-O-) on the reactivity of terminal amino group is negligible. The wettability of modified SR surfaces increased with an increase in PEO molecular weight. Biological studies such as corneal epithelial cell culture and blood platelet adhesion were performed to understand the biocompatibility of modified SR surfaces. Biological studies using corneal epithelial cells showed that cell migration, attachment and proliferation onto PEO-20000 immobilized SR surface were suppressed, whereas these biological activities on PEO-600 were enhanced. Another study on platelet adhesion revealed that many platelets attached to PEO-600 immobilized SR, while platelet deposition was rarely observed on SR grafted with PEO-3350. The effects of different PEO molecular chains on biological response were discussed. PMID:8836831

  10. Upper surface blowing aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryle, D. M., Jr.; Braden, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance at cruise, and noise effects due to variations in nacelle and wing geometry and mode of operation are studied using small aircraft models that simulate upper surface blowing (USB). At cruise speeds ranging from Mach .50 to Mach .82, the key determinants of drag/thrust penalties are found to be nozzle aspect ratio, boattailing angle, and chordwise position; number of nacelles; and streamlined versus symmetric configuration. Recommendations are made for obtaining favorable cruise configurations. The acoustic studies, which concentrate on the noise created by the jet exhaust flow and its interaction with wing and flap surfaces, isolate several important sources of USB noise, including nozzle shape, exit velocity, and impingement angle; flow pathlength; and flap angle and radius of curvature. Suggestions for lessening noise due to trailing edge flow velocity, flow pathlength, and flow spreading are given, though compromises between some design options may be necessary.

  11. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  12. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers extend elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface layer. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed. Parameterizations for specific heat and and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Prandtl and Schmidt numbers derived from these thermophysical properties were found to range from 0.78 - 1.0 and 0.47 - 0.70, respectively, for Mars. Brutsaert's model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the researchers modified the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. This length scale was then utilized with similarity theory turbulent flux profiles with the same form as those used by Businger et al. and others. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.

  13. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  14. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface. PMID:26611148

  15. Effect of cleaning and sterilization on titanium implant surface properties and cellular response

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Hwa; Olivares-Navarrete, Rene; Baier, Robert E.; Meyer, Anne E.; Tannenbaum, Rina; Boyan, Barbara D.; Schwartz, Zvi

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) has been widely used as an implant material due to the excellent biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of its oxide surface. Biomaterials must be sterile before implantation, but the effects of sterilization on their surface properties have been less well studied. The effects of cleaning and sterilization on surface characteristics were bio-determined using contaminated and pure Ti substrata first manufactured to present two different surface structures: pretreated titanium (PT, Ra = 0.4 μm) (i.e. surfaces that were not modified by sandblasting and/or acid etching); (SLA, Ra = 3.4 μm). Previously cultured cells and associated extracellular matrix were removed from all bio-contaminated specimens by cleaning in a sonicator bath with a sequential acetone–isopropanol–ethanol–distilled water protocol. Cleaned specimens were sterilized with autoclave, gamma irradiation, oxygen plasma, or ultraviolet light. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements, profilometry, and scanning electron microscopy were used to examine surface chemical components, hydrophilicity, roughness, and morphology, respectively. Small organic molecules present on contaminated Ti surfaces were removed with cleaning. XPS analysis confirmed that surface chemistry was altered by both cleaning and sterilization. Cleaning and sterilization affected hydrophobicity and roughness. These modified surface properties affected osteogenic differentiation of human MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Specifically, autoclaved SLA surfaces lost the characteristic increase in osteoblast differentiation seen on starting SLA surfaces, which was correlated with altered surface wettability and roughness. These data indicated that recleaned and resterilized Ti implant surfaces cannot be considered the same as the first surfaces in terms of surface properties and cell responses. Therefore, the reuse of Ti implants after resterilization may not result in the same tissue responses as

  16. A Surface-Charge Study on Cellular-Uptake Behavior of F3-Peptide-Conjugated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yang, Mo; Park, Ji-Ho; Singelyn, Jennifer; Ma, Huiqing; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2011-01-01

    Surface-charge measurements of mammalian cells in terms of Zeta potential are demonstrated as a useful biological characteristic in identifying cellular interactions with specific nanomaterials. A theoretical model of the changes in Zeta potential of cells after incubation with nanoparticles is established to predict the possible patterns of Zeta-potential change to reveal the binding and internalization effects. The experimental results show a distinct pattern of Zeta potential change that allows the discrimination of human normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) from human cancer breast epithelial cells (MCF-7) when the cells are incubated with dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles that contain tumor-homing F3 peptides, where the tumor-homing F3 peptide specifically bound to nucleolin receptors that are overexpressed in cancer breast cells. PMID:19554564

  17. On the Interaction between Marine Boundary Layer Cellular Cloudiness and Surface Heat Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Wang, Hailong; Yamaguchi, T.

    2014-01-02

    The interaction between marine boundary layer cellular cloudiness and surface uxes of sensible and latent heat is investigated. The investigation focuses on the non-precipitating closed-cell state and the precipitating open-cell state at low geostrophic wind speed. The Advanced Research WRF model is used to conduct cloud-system-resolving simulations with interactive surface fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol, and with a detailed representation of the interaction between aerosol particles and clouds. The mechanisms responsible for the temporal evolution and spatial distribution of the surface heat fluxes in the closed- and open-cell state are investigated and explained. It is found that the horizontal spatial structure of the closed-cell state determines, by entrainment of dry free tropospheric air, the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and water vapor, and, to a lesser degree, of the surface sensible and latent heat flux. The synchronized dynamics of the the open-cell state drives oscillations in surface air temperature, water vapor, and in the surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat, and of sea salt aerosol. Open-cell cloud formation, cloud optical depth and liquid water path, and cloud and rain water path are identified as good predictors of the spatial distribution of surface air temperature and sensible heat flux, but not of surface water vapor and latent heat flux. It is shown that by enhancing the surface sensible heat flux, the open-cell state creates conditions by which it is maintained. While the open-cell state under consideration is not depleted in aerosol, and is insensitive to variations in sea-salt fluxes, it also enhances the sea-salt flux relative to the closed-cell state. In aerosol-depleted conditions, this enhancement may replenish the aerosol needed for cloud formation, and hence contribute to the perpetuation of the open-cell state as well. Spatial homogenization of the surface fluxes is found to have

  18. Emergence of density dynamics by surface interpolation in elementary cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Juan Carlos; Medina-Marin, Joselito; Martínez, Genaro J.; Hernández-Romero, Norberto

    2014-04-01

    A classic problem in elementary cellular automata (ECAs) is the specification of numerical tools to represent and study their dynamical behaviour. Mean field theory and basins of attraction have been commonly used; however, although the first case gives the long term estimation of density, frequently it does not show an adequate approximation for the step-by-step temporal behaviour; mainly for non-trivial behaviour. In the second case, basins of attraction display a complete representation of the evolution of an ECA, but they are limited up to configurations of 32 cells; and for the same ECA, one can obtain tens of basins to analyse. This paper is devoted to represent the dynamics of density in ECAs for hundreds of cells using only two surfaces calculated by the nearest-neighbour interpolation. A diversity of surfaces emerges in this analysis. Consequently, we propose a surface and histogram based classification for periodic, chaotic and complex ECA.

  19. Spatial characteristics of ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmrich, Johannes; Thomson, Jim; Rogers, W. Erick; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Lehner, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    The spatial variability of open ocean wave fields on scales of O (10km) is assessed from four different data sources: TerraSAR-X SAR imagery, four drifting SWIFT buoys, a moored waverider buoy, and WAVEWATCH III Ⓡ model runs. Two examples from the open north-east Pacific, comprising of a pure wind sea and a mixed sea with swell, are given. Wave parameters attained from observations have a natural variability, which decreases with increasing record length or acquisition area. The retrieval of dominant wave scales from point observations and model output are inherently different to dominant scales retrieved from spatial observations. This can lead to significant differences in the dominant steepness associated with a given wave field. These uncertainties have to be taken into account when models are assessed against observations or when new wave retrieval algorithms from spatial or temporal data are tested. However, there is evidence of abrupt changes in wave field characteristics that are larger than the expected methodological uncertainties.

  20. Spatial characteristics of ocean surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmrich, Johannes; Thomson, Jim; Rogers, W. Erick; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Lehner, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    The spatial variability of open ocean wave fields on scales of O (10km) is assessed from four different data sources: TerraSAR-X SAR imagery, four drifting SWIFT buoys, a moored waverider buoy, and WAVEWATCH III Ⓡ model runs. Two examples from the open north-east Pacific, comprising of a pure wind sea and a mixed sea with swell, are given. Wave parameters attained from observations have a natural variability, which decreases with increasing record length or acquisition area. The retrieval of dominant wave scales from point observations and model output are inherently different to dominant scales retrieved from spatial observations. This can lead to significant differences in the dominant steepness associated with a given wave field. These uncertainties have to be taken into account when models are assessed against observations or when new wave retrieval algorithms from spatial or temporal data are tested. However, there is evidence of abrupt changes in wave field characteristics that are larger than the expected methodological uncertainties.

  1. 3D surface reconstruction and visualization of the Drosophila wing imaginal disc at cellular resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Linge; Widmann, Thomas; Jülicher, Frank; Dahmann, Christian; Breen, David

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying and visualizing the shape of developing biological tissues provide information about the morphogenetic processes in multicellular organisms. The size and shape of biological tissues depend on the number, size, shape, and arrangement of the constituting cells. To better understand the mechanisms that guide tissues into their final shape, it is important to investigate the cellular arrangement within tissues. Here we present a data processing pipeline to generate 3D volumetric surface models of epithelial tissues, as well as geometric descriptions of the tissues' apical cell cross-sections. The data processing pipeline includes image acquisition, editing, processing and analysis, 2D cell mesh generation, 3D contourbased surface reconstruction, cell mesh projection, followed by geometric calculations and color-based visualization of morphological parameters. In their first utilization we have applied these procedures to construct a 3D volumetric surface model at cellular resolution of the wing imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster. The ultimate goal of the reported effort is to produce tools for the creation of detailed 3D geometric models of the individual cells in epithelial tissues. To date, 3D volumetric surface models of the whole wing imaginal disc have been created, and the apicolateral cell boundaries have been identified, allowing for the calculation and visualization of cell parameters, e.g. apical cross-sectional area of cells. The calculation and visualization of morphological parameters show position-dependent patterns of cell shape in the wing imaginal disc. Our procedures should offer a general data processing pipeline for the construction of 3D volumetric surface models of a wide variety of epithelial tissues.

  2. Surface Characteristics of Titanium during ECM Process for Biomedical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dhobe, Shirish D.; Doloi, B.; Bhattacharyya, B.

    2011-01-17

    Electrochemical machining is described as the controlled removal of metal by anodic dissolution of the workpiece in electrolyte cell. Titanium is extensively used in aerospace, defence, biomedical applications. The human response to implanted titanium parts strongly related to the implant surface conditions. The aim of this paper is to present experimental investigation on electrochemically machined surface characteristics acquired on titanium, utilizing developed cross flow electrolyte system. It is observed that applied voltage and electrolyte flow rate are the some of the persuading parameter to attain desired surface characteristics on machined surface. Attempt has made to develop surface along with self-generated oxide layer, which facilitates in improving the corrosion and chemical resistance of titanium implant in biomedical application. The surface roughness of oxide layered machined surface obtained within 2.4 {mu}m to 2.93 {mu}m, which is within acceptable value for functional attachment between bone and implant.

  3. Amplitude and phase images of cellular structures with a scanning surface plasmon microscope.

    PubMed

    Berguiga, L; Roland, T; Monier, K; Elezgaray, J; Argoul, F

    2011-03-28

    Imaging cellular internal structure at nanometer scale axial resolution with non invasive microscopy techniques has been a major technical challenge since the nineties. We propose here a complement to fluorescence based microscopies with no need of staining the biological samples, based on a Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscope (SSPM). We describe the advantages of this microscope, namely the possibility of both amplitude and phase imaging and, due to evanescent field enhancement by the surface plasmon resonance, a very high resolution in Z scanning (Z being the axis normal to the sample). We show for fibroblast cells (IMR90) that SSPM offers an enhanced detection of index gradient regions, and we conclude it is very well suited to discriminate regions of variable density in biological media such as cell compartments, nucleus, nucleoli and membranes. PMID:21451685

  4. Sensitive and label-free quantification of cellular biothiols by competitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Kun; Ji, Ji; Liu, Baohong

    2016-05-15

    A label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based method for the rapid quantification detection of cellular biothiols at picomolar levels was developed by using a mechanism of binary competitive adsorption to regulate the plasmon coupling behavior of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). 4,4'-Dipyridyl (Dpy), a small organic ligand with two symmetrically located pyridine rings, was used to shorten the inter-particle space and generate a multitude of "hot spots", which in turn amplified the fingerprint signals of Dpy molecules. When biothiols were introduced into the Dpy-containing solution of Au NPs, they competitively adsorbed to the metal surface through the much stronger S-Au linkage, leading to the disaggregation of Au NPs and SERS quenching of Dpy molecules. The change of SERS responses was quantitatively related to biothiols added to the solution, and the detection limit down to 0.14pM for GSH was facilely achieved without any pre-concentration. The total assay time, including data analysis was within 8min. Finally, the SERS-based method was successfully applied to measure cellular biothiols, indicating its potential applicability in biological and biomedical research. PMID:26992511

  5. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  6. Produce Surface Characteristics Affect Product Quality and Safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface characteristics of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables vary largely among produce types, maturities and processing procedure. Studies have shown that the surface topography of produce significantly affected adherence, attachment, and biofilm formation of bacteria, as well as their removal a...

  7. Geology and surface characteristics of Bell Regio, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Rogers, Patricia G.

    1993-01-01

    Bell Regio is a broad topographic rise located at approximately 30 deg N, 45 deg E which extends approximately 1500 km in the N-S direction and is characterized by extensive volcanism. The geology and surface characteristics of Bell Regio are examined in order to understand the geologic evolution of the region and the surface characteristics of the major volcanic units. Relationships between Magellan SAR backscatter values and altimeter-derived ring slope data are analyzed, and terrestrial SAR data are used to suggest possible surface morphologies.

  8. Fracture surface characteristics of off-axis composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, J. H.; Chamis, C. C.

    1977-01-01

    The fracture surface characteristics of off-axis high-modulus graphite-fiber/epoxy composite specimens were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The specimens were subjected to tensile loading at various angles (0-90 deg) to the fiber direction. SEM photomicrographs of the fractured surfaces revealed three different load angle regions with distinct fracture characteristics. Based on these revelations, criteria were established which can be used to characterize fracture surfaces with respect to a predominant 'single-stress' fracture mode.

  9. Array of amorphous calcium phosphate particles improves cellular activity on a hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, InAe; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun-Man

    2010-04-01

    Poor interaction between cells and surfaces, especially hydrophobic surfaces, results in delayed proliferation and increased apoptosis due to low cell adhesion signaling. To improve cell adhesion, hydrophilic array of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) was fabricated on a surface. A phosphate-buffered solution containing calcium ions was prepared at low temperature to prevent spontaneous precipitation. Then, the ion solution was heated to generate nuclei of ACP nanoparticles. The ACP nanoparticles adhered to the hydrophobic polystyrene surface forming an array composed of ACP particles. Multiple treatments of these nuclei with fresh CaP ion solutions increased the diameter and decreased the solubility of ACP particles enough to mediate cellular adhesion. The particle density in the array was dependent on the ion concentration of the CaP ion solutions. The ACP array improved a wide variety of activities when osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the ACP array fabricated on a hydrophobic bacteriological dish surface, compared to those cultured without the ACP array in vitro. The use of ACP array resulted in a lower apoptosis and also increased the spreading of cells to form stress fibers and focal contacts. Cells cultured on the ACP array proliferated more than cells cultured on a hydrophobic surface without the ACP array. The ACP array increased the expression of markers of differentiation in osteoblast. These results indicate that an array of ACP can be used as a coating material for enhancing biocompatibility in tissue engineering or biomaterials rather than modifying the surface with organic molecules. PMID:20119940

  10. The relationship between cellular adhesion and surface roughness in polystyrene modified by microwave plasma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Biazar, Esmaeil; Heidari, Majid; Asefnezhad, Azadeh; Montazeri, Naser

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surface modification of medical polymers can improve biocompatibility. Pure polystyrene is hydrophobic and cannot provide a suitable environment for cell cultures. The conventional method for surface modification of polystyrene is treatment with plasma. In this study, conventional polystyrene was exposed to microwave plasma treatment with oxygen and argon gases for 30, 60, and 180 seconds. Methods and results: Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectra investigations of irradiated samples indicated clearly the presence of functional groups. Atomic force microscopic images of samples irradiated with inert and active gases indicated nanometric surface topography. Samples irradiated with oxygen plasma showed more roughness (31 nm) compared with those irradiated with inert plasma (16 nm) at 180 seconds. Surface roughness increased with increasing duration of exposure, which could be due to reduction of the contact angle of samples irradiated with oxygen plasma. Contact angle analysis showed reduction in samples irradiated with inert plasma. Samples irradiated with oxygen plasma showed a lower contact angle compared with those irradiated by argon plasma. Conclusion: Cellular investigations with unrestricted somatic stem cells showed better adhesion, cell growth, and proliferation for samples radiated by oxygen plasma with increasing duration of exposure than those of normal samples. PMID:21698084

  11. Surface charge and cellular processing of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes determine pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela A; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, André E; Xia, Tian

    2013-03-26

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored. In this study, we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes' pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylate (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2), and polyetherimide (PEI)-modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR, and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size, and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1β, TGF-β1, and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity toward lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEI-MWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis. These

  12. The Surface Charge and Cellular Processing of Covalently Functionalized Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Determine Pulmonary Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruibin; Wang, Xiang; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Zhang, Haiyuan; Chang, Chong Hyun; Lin, Sijie; Meng, Huan; Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Meiying; Li, Zongxi; Hwang, Angela; Song, Tze-Bin; Xu, Run; Yang, Yang; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Nel, André E.; Xia, Tian

    2014-01-01

    Functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) are being produced in increased volume because of the ease of dispersion and maintenance of the pristine material physicochemical properties when used in composite materials as well as for other commercial applications. However, the potential adverse effects of f-CNTs have not been quantitatively or systematically explored, and in this study we used a library of covalently functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs), established from the same starting material, to assess the impact of surface charge in a predictive toxicological model that relates the tubes’ pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic effects at cellular level to the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Carboxylated (COOH), polyethylene glycol (PEG), amine (NH2), sidewall amine (sw-NH2) and polyetherimide (PEI) modified MWCNTs were successfully established from raw or as-prepared (AP-) MWCNTs, and comprehensively characterized by TEM, XPS, FTIR and DLS to obtain information about morphology, length, degree of functionalization, hydrodynamic size and surface charge. Cellular screening in BEAS-2B and THP-1 cells showed that, compared to AP-MWCNTs, anionic functionalization (COOH and PEG) decreased the production of pro-fibrogenic cytokines and growth factors (including IL-1β, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA), while neutral and weak cationic functionalization (NH2 and sw-NH2) showed intermediary effects. In contrast, the strongly cationic PEI-functionalized tubes induced robust biological effects. These differences could be attributed to differences in cellular uptake and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which depends on the propensity towards lysosomal damage and cathepsin B release in macrophages. Moreover, the in vitro hazard ranking was validated by the pro-fibrogenic potential of the tubes in vivo. Compared to pristine MWCNTs, strong cationic PEIMWCNTs induced significant lung fibrosis, while carboxylation significantly decreased the extent of pulmonary fibrosis

  13. The surface state of hematite and its wetting characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shrimali, Kaustubh; Jin, Jiaqi; Hassas, Behzad Vaziri; Wang, Xuming; Miller, Jan D

    2016-09-01

    Apart from being a resource for iron/steel production, the iron oxide minerals, goethite and hematite, are used in the paint, cosmetics, and other industries as pigments. Surface characteristics of these minerals have been studied extensively both in resource recovery by flotation and in the preparation of colloidal dispersions. In this current research, the wetting characteristics of goethite (FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3) have been analyzed by means of contact angle, bubble attachment time, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements as well as by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS). Goethite is naturally hydroxylated and wetted by water at all pH values. In contrast, the anhydrous hematite surface (001) was found to be slightly hydrophobic at natural pH values with a contact angle of about 50°. At alkaline pH hydroxylation of the hematite surface occurs rapidly and the hematite becomes hydrophilic. The wetting characteristics of the hematite surface then vary between the hydrophobic anhydrous hematite and the completely hydrophilic hydroxylated hematite, similar to goethite. The hydrophobicity can be restored by heating of the hydroxylated hematite surface at 60°C. The hydrophobic character of the anhydrous hematite (001) surface is confirmed by MDS which also reveals that after hydrolysis the hematite (001) surface can be wetted by water, similar to the goethite (001) surface. PMID:27236840

  14. Characteristics of the ToxCast In Vitro Datasets from Biochemical and Cellular Assays

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurement of perturbation of critical signaling pathways and cellular processes using in vitro assays provides a means to predict the potential for chemicals to cause injury in the intact animal. To explore the utility of such an approach, a diverse collection of 467 assays acr...

  15. A propagating ATPase gradient drives transport of surface-confined cellular cargo

    PubMed Central

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony G.; Neuman, Keir C.; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The faithful segregation of duplicated genetic material into daughter cells is critical to all organisms. In many bacteria, the segregation of chromosomes involves transport of “centromere-like” loci over the main body of the chromosome, the nucleoid, mediated by a two-protein partition system: a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and an ATPase stimulator, ParB, which binds to the centromere-like loci. These systems have previously been proposed to function through a filament-based mechanism, analogous to actin- or microtubule-based movement. Here, we reconstituted the F-plasmid partition system using a DNA-carpeted flow cell as an artificial nucleoid surface and magnetic beads coated with plasmid partition complexes as surface-confined cargo. This minimal system recapitulated directed cargo motion driven by a surface ATPase gradient that propagated with the cargo. The dynamics are consistent with a diffusion-ratchet model, whereby the cargo dynamically establishes, and interacts with, a concentration gradient of the ATPase. A chemophoresis force ensues as the cargo perpetually chases the ATPase gradient, allowing the cargo to essentially “surf” the nucleoid on a continuously traveling wave of the ATPase. Demonstration of this non–filament-based motility mechanism in a biological context establishes a distinct class of motor system used for the transport and positioning of large cellular cargo. PMID:24567408

  16. The relationship between cellular adhesion and surface roughness for polyurethane modified by microwave plasma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Azhdadi, S Neda Kh; Asefnezhad, Azadeh; Sadraeian, Mohammad; Montazeri, Mohamad; Biazar, Esmaeil

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of medical polymers is carried out to improve biocompatibility. In this study, conventional polyurethane was exposed to microwave plasma treatment with oxygen and argon gases for 30 seconds and 60 seconds. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectra investigations of irradiated samples indicated the presence of functional groups. Atomic force microscope images of samples irradiated with inert and active gases indicated the nanometric topography of the sample surfaces. Samples irradiated by oxygen plasma indicated high roughness compared with those irradiated by inert plasma for the different lengths of time. In addition, surface roughness increased with time, which can be due to a reduction of contact angle of samples irradiated by oxygen plasma. Contact angle analysis indicated a reduction in samples irradiated with both types of plasma. However, samples irradiated with oxygen plasma indicated lower contact angle compared with those irradiated by argon plasma. Cellular investigations with unrestricted somatic stem cells showed better adhesion, cell growth, and proliferation among samples radiated by oxygen plasma for longer than for normal samples. PMID:21556340

  17. Effects of surface chemistry on the optical properties and cellular interaction of lanthanide-based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza, Francisco J.; Avalos, Julio C.; Mimun, Lawrence C.; Yust, Brian G.; Tsin, Andrew; Sardar, Dhiraj K.

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) such as KYb2F7:Tm3+ potential in biomedical applications due to their ability to absorb and emit within the biological window, where near infrared light is less attenuated by soft tissue. This results in less tissue damage and deeper tissue penetration making it a viable candidate in biological imaging. Another big factor in determining their ability to perform in a biological setting is the surface chemistry. Biocompatible coatings, including polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), pluronic and folic acid are commonly used because they pose several advantages such as ease of functionalization, better dispersion, and higher cellular uptake. To study the effects of the NP surface chemistry, KYb2F7:Tm3+ a solvothermal method using PEG, PVP, pluronic acid, and folic acid as a capping agent, followed by thorough optical characterizations. Optical changes were thoroughly studied and compared using absorption, emission, and quantum yield data. Cell viability was obtained by treating Rhesus Monkey Retinal Endothelial cells (RhREC) with KYb2F7:Tm3+ and counting viable cells following a 24 hour uptake period. The work presented will compare the optical properties and toxicity dependency on the surface chemistry on KYb2F7:Tm3+. The results will also indicate that KYb2F7:Tm3+ nanoparticles are viable candidates for various biomedical applications.

  18. Role of Surface Characteristics in Urban Meteorology and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, David Jean

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result in higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4^circ C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  19. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  20. Surface properties of lipoplexes modified with mannosylerythritol lipid-a and tween 80 and their cellular association.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wuxiao; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Qi, Xianrong; Kitamoto, Dai; Maitani, Yoshie

    2009-02-01

    The surface properties of cationic liposomes and lipoplexes largely determine the cellular association and gene transfection efficiency. In this study, we measured the surface properties, such as zeta potentials, surface pH and hydration levels of MHAPC- and OH-Chol-lipoplexes and their cellular association, without and with the modification of biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) or Tween 80 (MHAPC=N,N-methyl hydroxyethyl aminopropane carbamoyl cholesterol; OH-Chol=cholesteryl-3beta-carboxyamindoethylene-N-hydroxyethylamine). Compared to OH-Chol-lipoplexes, the higher cellular association of MHAPC-lipoplexes correlated with the significantly higher zeta potentials, lower surface pH levels and "drier" surface, as evaluated by the generalized polarization of laurdan. Both MEL-A and Tween 80 modification of MHAPC-lipoplexes did not significantly change zeta potentials and surface pH levels, while MEL-A modification of OH-Chol-lipoplexes seriously decreased them. MEL-A hydrated the liposomal surface of MHAPC-lipoplexes but dehydrated that of OH-Chol-lipoplexes, while Tween 80 hydrated those of MHAPC- and OH-Chol-lipoplexes. In all, cationic liposomes composed of lipids with secondary and tertiary amine exhibited different surface properties and cellular associations of lipoplexes, and modification with surfactants further enlarged their difference. The strong hydration ability of Tween 80 may relate to the low cellular association of lipoplexes, while the dehydration of MEL-A-modified OH-Chol-lipoplexes seemed to compensate the negative zeta potential for the cellular association of lipoplexes. PMID:19182402

  1. Surface charge and wetting characteristics of layered silicate minerals.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xihui; Gupta, Vishal; Du, Hao; Wang, Xuming; Miller, Jan D

    2012-11-01

    The surface characteristics, including surface charge and wettability, of layered silicates are reviewed based on experimental results and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) results. The surface charge features of important layered silicates including mica, talc, and kaolinite are described from atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, electrophoresis measurements, and/or results from potentiometric titration. In addition, the wetting characteristics of the silica tetrahedral surface which is common to all layered silicates are examined with different experimental techniques and results are discussed. The wettability of trilayer silicates and bilayer silicates is discussed, particularly the wettability of the silica tetrahedral face and alumina octahedral face of kaolinite based on MDS results as well as recent AFM results. PMID:22809732

  2. Satellite Retrieval of Marine Stratocumulus Surface Coupling State and its Effect on the Clouds Cellular Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, T.; Rosenfeld, D.

    2014-12-01

    A methodology for a complete description of the marine stratocumulus clouds geometrical and microphysical properties was developed and tested. These include, among others, coupling state and cloud geometrical depth. The methodology combines simultaneous observations from several A-TRAIN instruments (CALIPSO, CloudSat and MODIS) and re-analysis data. Analysis of different types of Marine Stratocumulus (MSC) scenes revealed interesting features. While most of the MSC that we have analyzed existed within a coupled Marine Boundary Layer (MBL), those that existed in a de-coupled MBL, i.e., cloud layer that is de-coupled from the ocean surface, lacked the typical spatial cellular organization. It was found that the occurrence of rain within closed cells breaks and organizes them into open cells only when the clouds are coupled with the surface. Otherwise the closed cells remain as thin lightly precipitating stratiform clouds having low cloud water. The coupling state was also found to affect the ability of drizzle to break closed cells, so that closed cells in a de-coupled MBL tend to produce stronger drizzle before breaking up. We hypothesize that rain driven downdrafts hit the surface and form gust fronts that trigger convective elements, which break the cloud deck, only when the clouds are coupled to the surface. Among the other problems that can be answered by using the presented methodology is disentangling the role of large scale meteorology and aerosols on the development of precipitation (i.e., cloud depth versus droplet concentrations as a limiting factor for drizzle initiation). Examples will be shown together with their physical interpretation.

  3. Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Cellular Protrusions: Structural Characteristics and Functional Competence▿†

    PubMed Central

    Paloheimo, Outi; Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Tauriainen, Sisko; Välilehto, Outi; Kirjavainen, Sanna; Niskanen, Einari A.; Laakkonen, Johanna P.; Hyöty, Heikki; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2011-01-01

    Virus-induced alterations in cell morphology play important roles in the viral life cycle. To examine the intracellular events of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection, green monkey kidney (GMK) cells were either inoculated with the virus or transfected with the viral RNA. Various microscopic and flow cytometric approaches demonstrated the emergence of CVB3 capsid proteins at 8 h posttransfection, followed by morphological transformation of the cells. The morphological changes included formation of membranous protrusions containing viral capsids, together with microtubules and actin. Translocation of viral capsids into these protrusions was sensitive to cytochalasin D, suggesting the importance of actin in the process. Three-dimensional (3D) live-cell imaging demonstrated frequent contacts between cellular protrusions and adjacent cells. Markedly, in spite of an increase in the cellular viral protein content starting 8 h postinfection, no significant decrease in cell viability or increase in the amount of early apoptotic markers was observed by flow cytometry by 28 h postinfection. Comicroinjection of viral RNA and fluorescent dextran in the presence of neutralizing virus antibody suggested that these protrusions mediated the spread of infection from one cell to another prior to virus-induced cell lysis. Altogether, the CVB3-induced cellular protrusions could function as a hitherto-unknown nonlytic mechanism of cell-to-cell transmission exploited by enteroviruses. PMID:21525342

  4. A Cellular Automata Based Model for Simulating Surface Hydrological Processes in Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Baumgartl, Thomas; Huang, Longbin; Weatherley, Dion

    2014-05-01

    The Runoff Model Based on Cellular Automata (RunCA) has been developed to simulate the surface hydrological processes at the catchment scale by integrating basic cellular automata (CA) rules with fundamental measureable hydraulic properties. In this model, a two-dimensional lattice composed of a series of rectangular cells was employed to cover the study area. Runoff production within each cell was simulated by determining its water depth based on the rainfall, interception, infiltration and the balance between inflows and outflows. Particularly different infiltration equations were incorporated to make the model applicable for both single rainfall event (short term simulation) and multiple rainfall events (long term simulation). The distribution of water flow among cells was determined by applying CA transition rules based on the improved minimization-of-difference algorithm and the calculated spatially and temporally varied flow velocities according to the Manning's equation. RunCA was tested and validated at two catchments (Pine Glen Basin and Snow Shoe Basin, USA) with data taken from literature. The predicted hydrographs agreed well with the measured results. Simulated flow maps also demonstrated the model capability in capturing both the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff process. Model sensitivity analysis results showed that the simulated hydrographs were mostly influenced by the input parameters that represent the final steady infiltration rate, as well as the model settings of time step and cell size. Compared to some conventional distributed hydrologic models that calculate the runoff routing process by solving complex continuity equations, this model integrates a novel method and is expected to be more computationally efficient as it is based on simple CA transition rules when determining the flow distribution.

  5. RunCA: A cellular automata model for simulating surface runoff at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qi; Weatherley, Dion; Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The Runoff Model Based on Cellular Automata (RunCA) has been developed to simulate surface runoff at different scales by integrating basic cellular automata (CA) rules with fundamental measureable hydraulic properties. In this model, a two-dimensional lattice composed of a series of rectangular cells was employed to cover the study area. Runoff production within each cell was simulated by determining the cell state (height) that consists of both cell elevation and water depth. The distribution of water flow among cells was determined by applying CA transition rules based on the minimization-of-difference algorithm and the calculated spatially varied flow velocities. RunCA was verified and validated by three steps. Good agreement with the analytical solution was achieved under simplified conditions in the first step. Then, results from runoff experiments on small laboratory plots (2 m × 1 m) showed that the model was able to well predict the hydrographs, with the mean Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency greater than 0.90. RunCA was also applied to a large scale site (Pine Glen Basin, USA) with data taken from literature. The predicted hydrograph agreed well with the measured results. Simulated flow maps in this basin also demonstrated the model capability in capturing both the spatial and temporal variations in the runoff process. Model sensitivity analysis results showed that the calculated total runoff and total infiltration were most sensitive to the input parameters representing the final steady infiltration rate at both scales. The Manning's roughness coefficient and the setting of cell size did not affect the results much at the small plot scale, but had large influences at the large basin scale.

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  8. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  9. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  11. Noise characteristics of upper surface blown configurations: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.; Gibson, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A systematic experimental program was conducted to develop a data base for the noise and related flow characteristics of upper surface blown configurations. The effect of various geometric and flow parameters was investigated experimentally. The dominant noise was identified from the measured flow and noise characteristics to be generated downstream of the trailing edge. The possibilities of noise reduction techniques were explored. An upper surface blown (USB) noise prediction program was developed to calculate noise levels at any point and noise contours (footprints). Using this noise prediction program and a cruise performance data base, aircraft design studies were conducted to integrate low noise and good performance characteristics. A theory was developed for the noise from the highly sheared layer of a trailing edge wake. Theoretical results compare favorably with the measured noise of the USB model.

  12. Surface Breakdown Characteristics of Silicone Oil for Electric Power Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Junichi; Nakajima, Akitoshi; Miyahara, Hideyuki; Takuma, Tadasu; Okabe, Shigemitu; Kohtoh, Masanori; Yanabu, Satoru

    This paper describes the surface breakdown characteristics of the silicone oil which has the possibility of the application to innovative switchgear as an insulating medium. At the first step, we have experimentally studied on the impulse breakdown characteristics of the configuration with a triple-junction where a solid insulator is in contact with the electrode. The test configurations consist of solid material (Nomex and pressboard) and liquid insulation oil (silicone and mineral oil). We have discussed the experimental results based on the maximal electric field at a triple-junction. As the second step, we have studied the configuration which may improve the surface breakdown characteristics by lowering the electric field near the triple-junction.

  13. The Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils as Affected by Surface Roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    HOCKER RAY W

    1933-01-01

    The effect on airfoil characteristics of surface roughness of varying degrees and types at different locations on an airfoil was investigated at high values of the Reynolds number in a variable density wind tunnel. Tests were made on a number of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 0012 airfoil models on which the nature of the surface was varied from a rough to a very smooth finish. The effect on the airfoil characteristics of varying the location of a rough area in the region of the leading edge was also investigated. Airfoils with surfaces simulating lap joints were also tested. Measurable adverse effects were found to be caused by small irregularities in airfoil surfaces which might ordinarily be overlooked. The flow is sensitive to small irregularities of approximately 0.0002c in depth near the leading edge. The tests made on the surfaces simulating lap joints indicated that such surfaces cause small adverse effects. Additional data from earlier tests of another symmetrical airfoil are also included to indicate the variation of the maximum lift coefficient with the Reynolds number for an airfoil with a polished surface and with a very rough one.

  14. Effect of surface roughness on characteristics of spherical shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Paul W; Mcfarland, Donald R

    1955-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on a small-scale test layout in which direct observation of the shock wave movement with time could be made in order to determine the effects of surface roughness on the characteristics of spherical shock waves. Data were obtained with 15-gram pentolite charges at four heights of burst, both for a smooth surface and for a surface completely covered with pyramid-shaped roughness elements. The observations resulted in determinations of shock peak overpressure and Mach stem height as a function of distance for each test. Comparison of the smooth-surface data with those obtained for the extremely rough condition showed a small net effort of roughness on the shock peak overpressures at the surface for all burst heights, the effect being to lower the overpressures. The effect of surface roughness on the Mach stem formation and growth was to delay the formation at the greatest charge height and to lower the height of the Mach stem for all heights.Comparison of the free-air shock peak overpressures with larger scale data showed good similarity of the overpressure-distance relationships. The data did not fit a geometrical similarity parameter for the path of the triple point at different heights of burst suggested by other investigators. A simple similarity parameter (relating the horizontal distance to the theoretical point of Mach formation) was found which showed only a small influence of burst height on the path of the triple point. While the data presented provide knowledge of the effect of many surface-roughness elements on the overall shock characteristics, the data do not provide insight into the details of the air-flow characteristics along the surface, nor the relative contribution of individual roughness elements to the results obtained.

  15. Effect of Surface Treatment on the Surface Characteristics of AISI 316L Stainless Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steve; Selvaduray, Guna

    2005-01-01

    The ability of 316L stainless steel to maintain biocompatibility, which is dependent upon the surface characteristics, is critical to its effectiveness as an implant material. The surfaces of mechanically polished (MP), electropolished (EP) and plasma treated 316L stainless steel coupons were characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) for chemical composition, Atomic Force Microscopy for surface roughness, and contact angle measurements for critical surface tension. All surfaces had a Ni concentration that was significantly lower than the bulk concentration of -43%. The Cr content of the surface was increased significantly by electropolishing. The surface roughness was also improved significantly by electropolishing. Plasma treatment had the reverse effect - the surface Cr content was decreased. It was also found that the Cr and Fe in the surface exist in both the oxide and hydroxide states, with the ratios varying according to surface treatment.

  16. The Cellular Automata for modelling of spreading of lava flow on the earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, A.

    2012-12-01

    Volcanic risk assessment is a very important scientific, political and economic issue in densely populated areas close to active volcanoes. Development of effective tools for early prediction of a potential volcanic hazard and management of crises are paramount. However, to this date volcanic hazard maps represent the most appropriate way to illustrate the geographical area that can potentially be affected by a volcanic event. Volcanic hazard maps are usually produced by mapping out old volcanic deposits, however dynamic lava flow simulation gaining popularity and can give crucial information to corroborate other methodologies. The methodology which is used here for the generation of volcanic hazard maps is based on numerical simulation of eruptive processes by the principle of Cellular Automata (CA). The python script is integrated into ArcToolbox in ArcMap (ESRI) and the user can select several input and output parameters which influence surface morphology, size and shape of the flow, flow thickness, flow velocity and length of lava flows. Once the input parameters are selected, the software computes and generates hazard maps on the fly. The results can be exported to Google Maps (.klm format) to visualize the results of the computation. For validation of the simulation code are used data from a real lava flow. Comparison of the simulation results with real lava flows mapped out from satellite images will be presented.

  17. The cellular automata for modelling of spreading of lava flow on the earth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarna, Alexandra; Cirbus, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic risk assessment is a very important scientific, political and economic issue in densely populated areas close to active volcanoes. Development of effective tools for early prediction of a potential volcanic hazard and management of crises are paramount. However, to this date volcanic hazard maps represent the most appropriate way to illustrate the geographical area that can potentially be affected by a volcanic event. Volcanic hazard maps are usually produced by mapping out old volcanic deposits, however dynamic lava flow simulation gaining popularity and can give crucial information to corroborate other methodologies. The methodology which is used here for the generation of volcanic hazard maps is based on numerical simulation of eruptive processes by the principle of Cellular Automata (CA). The python script is integrated into ArcToolbox in ArcMap (ESRI) and the user can select several input and output parameters which influence surface morphology, size and shape of the flow, flow thickness, flow velocity and length of lava flows. Once the input parameters are selected, the software computes and generates hazard maps on the fly. The results can be exported to Google Maps (.klm format) to visualize the results of the computation. For validation of the simulation code are used data from a real lava flow.

  18. Surface states and annihilation characteristics of positrons trapped at the (100) and (111) surfaces of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Fry, J. L.; Weiss, A. H.

    2004-10-01

    Recent studies of Si(100) and Si(111) using positron annihilation induced Auger-electron spectroscopy (PAES) reveal that experimental annihilation probabilities of surface trapped positrons with relevant Si core-level electrons differ significantly for two faces of clean Si, an elemental semiconductor. These experimental results are investigated theoretically by performing calculations of the “image-potential” positron surface states and annihilation characteristics of the surface trapped positrons with relevant Si core-level electrons for the ideally terminated, nonreconstructed and reconstructed Si(100)-(2×1) and Si(111)-(7×7) surfaces. Computed positron surface binding energies demonstrate their sensitivity to the specific atomic structure of the topmost layers of surfaces, and, when compared to positron work functions, the stability of positron surface states on all studied Si(100) and Si(111) surfaces. The positron surface state wave function was found to be localized in a potential well on the vacuum side at both nonreconstructed semiconductor surfaces. The (2×1) reconstruction of the Si(100) surface causes the positron surface state wave function to extend into the lattice in the regions where atoms are displaced away from their ideal terminated positions. A comparison of theoretical and experimental positron surface binding energies for Si(100) shows that the best agreement is achieved when the reconstructed Si(100)-(2×1) surface is described within the asymmetric dimer model. Calculations indicate that the positron surface state wave function is localized in all three dimensions in the corner hole regions of the reconstructed Si(111)-(7×7) surface. This localization provides an explanation for previous experiments that failed to show the anisotropy in the electron-positron pair momentum density distribution expected for a positron surface state delocalized in the plane of the surface. Positron annihilation characteristics are calculated for each

  19. Determining the source characteristics of explosions near the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, Michael E.; Ford, Sean R.

    2015-05-01

    We present a method to determine source characteristics of explosions near the Earth's surface. The technique accounts for the reduction in amplitudes as the explosion depth approaches the free surface and less energy is coupled into the ground. We apply the method to the Humming Roadrunner series of shallow explosions in New Mexico where the yields and depths are known. Knowledge of the material properties is needed for both source coupling/excitation and the free surface effect. Although there is the expected trade-off between depth and yield, the estimated yields are close to the known values when the depth is constrained to the free surface. We then apply the method to a regionally recorded explosion in Syria. We estimate an explosive yield less than the 60 t claimed by sources in the open press. The modifications to the method allow us to apply the technique to new classes of events.

  20. Microscopic Study of Surface Microtopographic Characteristics of Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Sezin, M.; Croharé, L.; Ibañez, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the micro topographic characteristics of dental implants submitted to different surface treatments, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Implants were divided into 7 groups of 3 specimens each, according to the surface treatment used: group 1: Osseotite, BIOMET 3i; group 2: SLA surface, Institut Straumann AG; group 3: Oxalife surface, Tree-Oss implant; group 4: B&W implant surface; group 5: Q-implant surface; group 6: ML implant surface; group 7: RBM surface, Rosterdent implant. The surfaces were examined under SEM (Carl Zeiss FE-SEM-SIGMA). Image Proplus software was used to determine the number and mean diameter of pores per area unit (mm). The data obtained were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney test. A confocal laser microscope (LEXT-OLS4100 Olympus) was used to conduct the comparative study of surface roughness (Ra). Data were analyzed using Tukey's HSD test. Results: The largest average pore diameter calculated in microns was found in group 5 (3.45 µm+/-1.91) while the smallest in group 7 (1.47µm+/-1.29). Significant differences were observed among each one of the groups studied (p<0.05). The largest number of pores/mm2 was found in group 2 (229343) and the smallest number in group 4 (10937). Group 2 showed significant differences regarding the other groups (p<0.05). The greatest roughness (Ra) was observed in group 2 (0.975µm+/-0.115) and the smallest in group 4 (0.304µm+/-0.063). Group 2 was significantly different from the other groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The micro topography observed in the different groups presented dissimilar and specific features, depending on the chemical treatment used for the surfaces.. PMID:27335615

  1. Pore geometry of dispenser cathode surface vs. emission characteristics, and Ba recovery characteristics after ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Toshiharu; Nakamura, Osamu; Matsumoto, Sadao; Uda, Eiichirou

    1999-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the emission characteristics and barium recovery characteristics after ion bombardment of two types of Ir-coated dispenser cathodes having a pore density on the surface layer of the cathodes of 4×10 4 and 1.3×10 4 pores/mm 2. Cathode current was measured under pulse operation in a range of 0.1-9% duty cycle. When the duty cycle dependence of emissions was examined, the current densities of both cathodes were the same in the case of 0.1% duty cycle, delivering about 12 A/cm 2. The work functions also showed the same value. However, evaluations of 4% duty cycle and 9% duty cycle found that the cathode with a higher pore density showed emission characteristics higher by 50% and 70%. Regarding the recovery time of barium and oxygen after argon ion bombardment with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), the low-pore-density cathode required as long as 3 min for recovery, whereas the high-pore-density cathode recovered in 1.1 min. From the above experiments, it was clarified that emission characteristics under high duty and barium recovery characteristics after ion bombardment can be improved by increasing the pore density of the surface layer. The basic mechanisms leading to these results were also theoretically considered by solving surface diffusion equations.

  2. [Clinical course and characteristics of cellular and humoral immunity in patients with allergic rhinitis].

    PubMed

    Sakevych, V D; Kutsenko, N L; Mykytiuk, M V; Kaĭdashev, I P

    2014-01-01

    In research the condition cellular and humoral immunity is defined at allergic rhinitis--AR (n = 45) for an estimation of mechanisms pathogeny this disease. The AR in 76% of cases has the hereditary nature mainly from outside mothers (36%), begins more often at children's and teenage age (88%) and in 44% is accompanied by other allergic pathology. In structure of a sensibilization of patients the allergic rhinitis the basic place is occupied with pollen, household, fungoid and epidermal allergens, allergic reaction (83% of cases) thus prevailed. As a result of the spent researches rising of relative quantity CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells is taped, at the same time rising of an average level of the general IgE--(198,20 +/- 11,42) IU/ml is noted. In cytokine regulations at patients an allergic rhinitis rising IL-4 and depression IL-10 is noted. Thus, the conducted research suggests that an allergic rhinitis--disease with involving in process of regulation of the immune answer of certain type regulatory T of cells. PMID:24908954

  3. A Three-Dimensional Receiver Operator Characteristic Surface Diagnostic Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves are commonly applied as metrics for quantifying the performance of binary fault detection systems. An ROC curve provides a visual representation of a detection system s True Positive Rate versus False Positive Rate sensitivity as the detection threshold is varied. The area under the curve provides a measure of fault detection performance independent of the applied detection threshold. While the standard ROC curve is well suited for quantifying binary fault detection performance, it is not suitable for quantifying the classification performance of multi-fault classification problems. Furthermore, it does not provide a measure of diagnostic latency. To address these shortcomings, a novel three-dimensional receiver operator characteristic (3D ROC) surface metric has been developed. This is done by generating and applying two separate curves: the standard ROC curve reflecting fault detection performance, and a second curve reflecting fault classification performance. A third dimension, diagnostic latency, is added giving rise to 3D ROC surfaces. Applying numerical integration techniques, the volumes under and between the surfaces are calculated to produce metrics of the diagnostic system s detection and classification performance. This paper will describe the 3D ROC surface metric in detail, and present an example of its application for quantifying the performance of aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. Metric limitations and potential enhancements are also discussed

  4. Cytoplasmic domains determine signal specificity, cellular routing characteristics and influence ligand binding of epidermal growth factor and insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, H; Dull, T J; Honegger, A M; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1989-01-01

    The cell surface receptors for insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) both employ a tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity to fulfil their distinct biological roles. To identify the structural domains responsible for various receptor activities, we have generated chimeric receptor polypeptides consisting of major EGF and insulin receptor structural domains and examined their biochemical properties and cellular signalling activities. The EGF-insulin receptor hybrids are properly synthesized and transported to the cell surface, where they form binding competent structures that are defined by the origin of their extracellular domains. While their ligand binding affinities are altered, we find that these chimeric receptors are fully functional in transmitting signals across the plasma membrane and into the cell. Thus, EGF receptor and insulin receptor cytoplasmic domain signalling capabilities are independent of their new heterotetrameric or monomeric environments respectively. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domains carry the structural determinants that define kinase specificity, mitogenic and transforming potential, and receptor routing. Images PMID:2583088

  5. Testing smooth surface characteristics based on thermal infrared polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Wang, Zhen; Hong, Jin; Qiao, Yan-li; Chen, Yi-qiong

    2007-12-01

    A novel optical method was provided to test the sample surface using a thermal polarimeter. The polarimeter consists of a rotary polarization filter and a thermal imaging system that is based on an uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) in long wave infrared (LWIR, 8~12μm) band. The thermal infrared polarization images of a Vernier caliper head were taken by a rotary polarizing filter at angles of 0°, 60°, 120° degrees. These images were saved into a computer and were calculated with Stokes parameter formulas to produce digital images of Stokes parameters I, Q and U, degree of linear polarization and direction of polarization. These images clearly show the difference between different areas of Vernier caliper, and this difference is not obtainable from the intensity images. Experimental results show that the introduced method can extract surface roughness information from thermal images and can distinguish different surface characteristics quickly.

  6. Outgassing characteristics and microstructure of an electropolished stainless steel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, N.; Sato, T.; Adachi, S.; Kanazawa, T. )

    1990-03-01

    Outgassing characteristics of an electropolished stainless steel (304) pipe wall were investigated by an isolation method. The free outgassing rate after an {ital in} {ital situ} bakeout (150 {degree}C, 20 h) was estimated as low as 1.6{times}10{sup {minus}12} Pa l s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}. After the {ital in} {ital situ} bakeout, H{sub 2} molecules were steadily evolved from the pipe wall, whereas most of CO, C, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} molecules were emitted from the operating mass spectrometer and Bayard--Alpert gauge with incandescent filaments. Auger depth profile analysis revealed that the oxide layer of an electropolished surface was cleaner, thinner, and finer in microstructure than that of a buff-polished surface. This is the reason why an electropolished surface showed a very low outgassing rate.

  7. Chemical and morphological characteristics of lithium electrode surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Vasquez, R. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Lithium electrode surfaces were analyzed for chemical and morphological characteristics, using electron spectroscopy chemical analysis (ESCA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Samples included lithium metal and lithium electrodes which were cycled in a 1.5 M lithium arsenic hexafluoride/two-methyl tetrahydrofuran electrolyte. Results show that the surface of the as-received lithium metal was already covered by a film composed of LiO2 and an Li2O/CO2 adduct with a thickness of approximately 100-200 A. No evidence of Ni3 was found. Upon exposure of the lithium electrode to a 1.5 M LiAsF6/2-Me-THF electrochemical environment, a second film was observed to form on the surface, consisting primarily of As, Si, and F, possibly in the form of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides or lithium fluorosilicates. It is suggested that the film formation may be attributed to salt degradation.

  8. Surface characteristics of posterior composites after polishing and toothbrushing.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, J W; Ruyter, I E

    1987-10-01

    The surface characteristics of eight posterior and two anterior composite resins were studied by SEM and profilometric tracings. The materials included both chemically cured and light-cured resin systems. Two posterior materials were microfilled composites; the others were conventional or hybrid types. The anterior composites were of conventional and hybrid types. At various steps in the procedures the following polishing/brushing treatments were evaluated: 1) dry polishing with Sof-lex discs followed by brushing with toothpaste; and 2) wet polishing with diamond pastes of increasing fineness, followed by brushing with toothpaste. The base line before the polishing/brushing procedures was obtained by wet polishing on silicon-carbide paper (4000 grit). All materials could be polished to a comparable smoothness by the Sof-lex discs, but this polishing procedure was associated with the development of an amorphous surface layer. Polishing with diamond pastes gave various results, with a 20-fold difference in surface roughness values from the smoothest to the roughest material. Toothbrushing after polishing with the Sof-lex system increased the surface roughness for all materials, but to various degrees. The two microfilled and four of the conventional posterior composites showed comparable surface roughness values, whereas two remaining posterior and the two anterior materials showed two to three times higher surface roughness values after toothbrushing. PMID:3478939

  9. Differential Effects of Polymer-Surface Decoration on Drug Delivery, Cellular Retention, and Action Mechanisms of Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanyuan; Hu, Hao; He, Lizhen; Chen, Tianfeng

    2015-12-01

    Polymer-surface decoration has been found to be an effective strategy to enhance the biological activities of nanomedicine. Herein, three different types of polymers with a cancer-targeting ligand Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (RGD) have been used to decorate mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and the functionalized nanosystems were used as drug carriers of oxaliplatin (OXA). The results showed that polymer-surface decoration of the MSNs nanosystem by poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) significantly enhanced the anticancer efficacy of OXA, which was much higher than that of chitosan (CTS). This effect was closely related to the enhancement of the cellular uptake and cellular drug retention. Moreover, PEI@MSNs-OXA possessed excellent advantages in penetrating ability and inhibitory effects on SW480 spheroids that were used to simulate the in vivo tumor environments. Therefore, this study provides useful information for the rational design of a cancer-targeted MSNs nanosystem with polymer-surface decoration. PMID:26248202

  10. Secretory proteins characteristic of environmental changes in cellular signal transduction: Expression in oral fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mednieks, M. I.; Burke, J. C.; Sivakumar, T. P.; Hand, A. R.; Grindeland, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    Past studies have shown that both hypo- and hyper-gravity have significant consequences on a variety of tissues and organ systems. It is not known if the effects of environmental stimuli such as altered gravity are beneficial or detrimental, and if the effects can be prevented or reversed. Animal experiments from the Space Lab and Cosmos missions indicate that events that are mediated by cyclic AMP, such as cellular responses to catecholamine and peptide hormone action, are significantly altered in a number of tissues as a consequence of space flight. A secretory cyclic AMP-receptor protein (cARP), is present in saliva, and can serve as an indicator of individual responses to physiologic and environmental stress. Animal experiments have shown that the hypergravity component of space flight is a significant stress factor. In humans, cARP levels in each individual are constant under normal conditions, but elevated after acute stress. Additionally, the levels of cARP in secreted saliva can be compared to those in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), which reflects the protein composition of serum. The ratio of cARP in saliva to that in GCF can be used as a measure of basal compared to hyper-or hypo-gravity values. An ultimate goal is to test hyper and zero G responses in human saliva to determine if cARP is a suitable index of acute and chronic stress. A miniaturized test kit for saliva collection has been designed. Samples can be collected and stored till analyses are carried out that will distinguish the effects of increased gravity from those of one and zero G. Such tests can serve as an individualized monitoring system for physiologic responses either in space or on earth. .

  11. Anthropometric characteristics of wrists joint surfaces depending on lunate types.

    PubMed

    Dyankova, S

    2007-10-01

    It is well known that the lunate presents with two main types: lunate type I has one facet of its distal surface only for capitates, whereas lunate type II has two facets of the same surface for capitate and for hamate. Our previous anthropometric studies showed that the lunate type II wrists are of greater size than the lunate type I wrists. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the lunate types and the presence or absence of hamato-lunate joint correlate with anthropometric characteristics of the joint surfaces of other wrists. Sixteen sets of macerated wrists with the lunate type I and 21 with the lunate type II were studied. Two-thousand-four-hundred-and-forty-eight anthropometric measurements were done (for 68 anthropometric indicators) and 864 anthropometric indices were calculated (for 24 anthropometric indices) separately for the wrist joint surfaces. The absolute value of the anthropometric indicators of the joint surfaces of the separated wrists were greater in the wrists with the lunate type II, except for the indicators "Greatest length of the dorsal joint surface of pisiform", "Width of the proximal joint surface, measured in the middle" and "Greatest width of the proximal joint surface" for the trapezoid and "Greatest height of the ulnar joint surface" for the capitate. The enlargement of the joint surfaces for the scaphoid was mainly in proximo-distal direction. The enlargement for the triquetrum and pisiform was mainly in radio-ulnar direction. The enlargement for trapezium, trapezoid and capitate was mainly in dorso-volar direction (except for the ulnar joint surface of capitate). The enlargement for hamate was mainly in radio-ulnar and dorso-volar directions (except for the joint surfaces for capitate and triquetrum). The calculated indices illustrate the quantitative proportions of the variations mentioned above. The anthropometric differences are a good reason to make a clear distinction between both types of wrist joint

  12. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    PubMed

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed. PMID:20155290

  13. Arecibo radar observations of Martian surface characteristics near the equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. A.; Tyler, G. L.; Campbell, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    Mars radar observations at 12.6-cm wavelength indicate that many of what were potential Viking landing sites along the planet's equator are rougher than interpretations of Mariner 9 images suggested. Root mean square surface slopes are typically 5 degrees in the region bounded by 160 and 200 degrees W, 0 and 12 degrees S. From Tharsis Montes west to 160 degrees W, radar-scattering characteristics suggest extreme roughness on small scales, perhaps exceeding 10 degrees in rms magnitude. East of Tharsis and north of Valles Marineris the surface is smooth, with values of rms slope as low as 1 degree; the elevation of this plateau was too high for a Viking landing. Study of spectral shapes indicates the Hagfors scattering law remains the best descriptor of quasi-specular surface scattering properties in an average sense; widespread variations in the surface argue against its indiscriminate use, however. Backscattering at moderate (25-40 degrees) incidence angles was studied qualitatively and was found to be significantly above the level predicted by a strictly quasi-specular (e.g., Hagfors) process; it also is variable over the surface.

  14. Alterations in cellular differentiation, mitogenesis, cytoskeleton and growth characteristics during Syrian hamster embryo cell multistep in vitro transformation.

    PubMed

    Isfort, R J; Cody, D B; Doersen, C J; Kerckaert, G A; Leboeuf, R A

    1994-10-01

    In vitro Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation is a neoplastic process that proceeds through several identifiable consecutive stages including in vitro morphological transformation (mt), acquisition of immortality (I+), acquisition of tumorigenicity (T+) and tumor-derived cells (I'TD). Eight transformed lineages consisting of cells at the mt, I+, T+ and I'TD stages were assayed for alterations in general markers of cell differentiation, mitogenic signaling pathways, cytoskeleton and cellular growth in 3D matrix. Alterations in cellular differentiation markers included a decrease in H19 gene expression and placental alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity at the mt stage in all lineages examined with a complete absence of H19 gene expression and placental alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity by the I'TD stage in a majority of transformed lineages. Changes in mitogenic signaling pathways included the production of autocrine growth factors and alterations in growth factor-induced immediate early gene expression by the I'TD stage of transformation in the majority of transformed lineages investigated. By the I'TD stage of transformation in most lineages, changes in both the cytoskeleton (including a decrease in tropomyosin-I gene expression) and the Matrigel growth characteristics of SHE cells were observed. PMID:7927892

  15. Multilayer Coating of Tetrandrine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles: Effect of surface charges on cellular uptake rate and drug release profile.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Li, Ke; Chen, Zhe; Shi, Chen

    2016-02-01

    The effect of surface charges on the cellular uptake rate and drug release profile of tetrandrine-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (TPNs) was studied. Stabilizer-free nanoprecipitation method was used in this study for the synthesis of TPNs. A typical layer-by-layer approach was applied for multi-coating particles' surface with use of poly(styrene sulfonate) sodium salt (PSS) as anionic layer and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as cationic layer. The modified TPNs were characterized by different physicochemical techniques such as Zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The drug loading efficiency, release profile and cellular uptake rate were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. The resultant PSS/PAH/PSS/PAH/TPNs (4 layers) exhibited spherical-shaped morphology with the average size of 160.3±5.165 nm and zeta potential of-57.8 mV. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading efficiency were 57.88% and 1.73%, respectively. Multi-layer coating of polymeric materials with different charges on particles' surface could dramatically influence the drug release profile of TPNs (4 layers vs. 3 layers). In addition, variable layers of surface coating could also greatly affect the cellular uptake rate of TPNs in A549 cells within 8 h. Overall, by coating particles' surface with those different charged polymers, precise control of drug release as well as cellular uptake rate can be achieved simultaneously. Thus, this approach provides a new strategy for controllable drug delivery. PMID:26838734

  16. Improved Negative Differential Resistance Characteristics in Surface Tunnel Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Tetsuya; Baba, Toshio

    1994-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new type of Surface Tunnel Transistor (STT) which displays improved negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics. In this device, called channel-doped STT (CD-STT), the channel region is direclly doped with donors in order to increase the channel carrier density. A peak current is obtained that is 103 times larger than that of a conventional STT. To reduce the valley current further, a blocking layer consisting of an i-GaAs is inserted at the gate/drain overlap region. The resulting device, called blocking layer inserted STT (BLI-STT), exhibits excellent NDR characteristics with a peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of 4.8 at room temperature, a value which is more than 4 times larger than that of a conventional STT.

  17. Surface wave propagation characteristics in atmospheric pressure plasma column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pencheva, M.; Benova, E.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    2007-04-01

    In the typical experiments of surface wave sustained plasma columns at atmospheric pressure the ratio of collision to wave frequency (ν/ω) is much greater than unity. Therefore, one might expect that the usual analysis of the wave dispersion relation, performed under the assumption ν/ω = 0, cannot give adequate description of the wave propagation characteristics. In order to study these characteristics we have analyzed the wave dispersion relationship for arbitrary ν/ω. Our analysis includes phase and wave dispersion curves, attenuation coefficient, and wave phase and group velocities. The numerical results show that a turning back point appears in the phase diagram, after which a region of backward wave propagation exists. The experimentally observed plasma column is only in a region where wave propagation coefficient is higher than the attenuation coefficient. At the plasma column end the electron density is much higher than that corresponding to the turning back point and the resonance.

  18. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species. PMID:25721476

  19. Method and apparatus for testing surface characteristics of a material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David L. (Inventor); Kersker, Karl D. (Inventor); Richardson, David E. (Inventor); Stratton, Troy C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method, apparatus and system for testing characteristics of a material sample is provided. The system includes an apparatus configured to house the material test sample while defining a sealed volume against a surface of the material test sample. A source of pressurized fluid is in communication with, and configured to pressurize, the sealed volume. A load applying apparatus is configured to apply a defined load to the material sample while the sealed volume is monitored for leakage of the pressurized fluid. Thus, the inducement of surface defects such as microcracking and crazing may be detected and their effects analyzed for a given material. The material test samples may include laminar structures formed of, for example, carbon cloth phenolic, glass cloth phenolic, silica cloth phenolic materials or carbon-carbon materials. In one embodiment the system may be configured to analyze the material test sample while an across-ply loading is applied thereto.

  20. Rebound characteristics for ash particles impacting a planar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming; Li, Sufen; Han, Jian; Xie, Jun

    2013-06-01

    The formation of ash deposition on the heat transfer tubes in a boiler reduces the heat transfer coefficient by about 25%. Because of these fouling layers, the efficiency with which energy can be absorbed from flue gases is reduced. The growth of ash deposition is strongly dependent on the interaction of the incident particle with the surface of heat transfer tubes. In this study the interaction is modeled as the outcome of collision between an incident fly ash particle and planar surface that represents a heat transfer surface. The present paper focuses on the applicability of the experimental results to indicate the rebound characteristics of fly ash particles impacting a planar surface. This is studied by impaction experiments of fly ash particles from the power plant dust, under various particle diameters and with different velocities (ranging from 0.1 to 20 m/s). The experiments are carried out in an atmospheric column, and using a digital camera system, individual impacts are recorded. Furthermore, the measured coefficient of restitution values can be predicted by a dynamic simulation model.

  1. Surface sediment characteristics and tower karst dissolution, Guilin, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tao

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution of extensive outcrops of limestone and dolostone in humid tropical and subtropical southern China produced numerous caves and residual hills that are referred as tower karst. This study identifies and relates the physical and chemical characteristics of the surface sediment with the limestone bedrock in Guilin to assess the influence of the limestone dissolution process on sediment composition. The results of this study indicated that (i) both limestone and dolostone of the region are very pure (99.5% and 98.5% of CaCO 3 and MgCO 3, respectively); (ii) the material composition of limestone and dolostone is different from that of soil and sediment of the region: constituents of surface sediments are highly related with the clastic sedimentary rocks, such as the mudstone, but show negative correlation with limestone and dolostone; (iii) the limestone formations are highly resistant to physical weathering and disintegration; their durability versus physical weathering and their high susceptibility to chemical dissolution account for why residual towers can form and persist; (iv) a dual-zone environmental structure exists vertically downward from the surface in Guilin: the zone of unconsolidated clastic sediments that is predominantly acidic, and the zone of karstified limestone that is predominantly basic. The evidence suggests that the environment and processes differ in these two zones. The chemical dissolution of limestone that formed tower karst of the region is not mainly responsible for the accumulation of clastic sediment on the surface.

  2. Geoacoustic characteristics of surface sediments in the southern Korean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Kim, D. C.; Lee, G.

    2012-12-01

    In the southwestern East Sea, South Sea, and southeastern Yellow Sea, surface sediment core samples were acquired to understand geoacoustic properties offshore of the Korean Peninsula. Some of the samples, sediment texture (mean grain size), physical properties, and compressional wave velocity were measured. And the other samples, we also converted from mean grain size data to sound velocity using empirical equation calculated from the existing data, and constructed the geoacoustic database. From these processes, we produced the distribution map of geoacoustic characteristics throughout the study area. The distribution map shows the considerably similar pattern to the mean grain size data. Coastal regions, particularly on the river mouths, mean grain sizes are generally small and sound velocity values are under 1,550 m/s. They are believed to present mud deposits from the adjacent rivers. Ulleung Basin, shows approximately 1,500 m/s sound velocity, the region is composed of fine sediments deposited in the deep sea environment. Mean grain size and sound velocity increases in the outer shelf, it is related to coarse relict sediment that deposited in the coastal environment during sea level lowstand. The distinguishing features of surface sediment such as fine coastal mud and coarser mid-shelf deposits, they are well reflected on the geoacoustic distribution map. It is possible to consider that, consequently, geoacoustic characteristics are in close connection with sediment texture and geophysical properties.

  3. Relating urban surface temperature to surface characteristics in Beijing area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weidong; Lu, Liping; Ye, Caihua; Liu, Yonghong

    2009-10-01

    The surface environment and the thermal infrared information of remote sensing have been widely used to study urban climate. In this paper, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in 2008 were applied to study the relationship between urban surface temperature and surface characteristics within the Beijing 5th ring road area of China. The thermal band data of TM combined with classification-based surface emissivity were utilized to estimate land surface temperature (LST). Meanwhile, surface characteristics parameters, such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the Normalized Difference Building Index (NDBI) and the Normalized Difference Bareness Index (NDBaI) were calculated according to related arithmetic respectively. The quantitative relationship between LST and NDVI, MNDWI, NDBI and NDBaI were investigated according to urban main land use/cover types (water body, vegetation and built-up surfaces). The results showed there were negative correlations between LST and NDVI, MNDWI for vegetation and built-up land use/cover types, positive correlations between LST and NDBI, NDBaI for vegetation and built-up land use/cover types. In general, in the area 5th ring road of Beijing the distribution of NDVI, MNDWI and NDBI directly defined the distribution of LST. For built-up land use/cover type, the NDVI was small, However, NDBI and LST were high. While in the area with more water and vegetation, the NDVI and MNDWI were high and LST was small. There were obvious correlation between LST and urban surface characteristics.

  4. Surface characteristics of a novel hydroxyapatite-coated dental implant

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ui-Won; Hwang, Ji-Wan; Choi, Da-Yae; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kwon, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the surface characteristics and bond strength produced using a novel technique for coating hydroxyapatite (HA) onto titanium implants. Methods HA was coated on the titanium implant surface using a super-high-speed (SHS) blasting method with highly purified HA. The coating was performed at a low temperature, unlike conventional HA coating methods. Coating thickness was measured. The novel HA-coated disc was fabricated. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed directly on the disc to evaluate crystallinity. Four novel HA-coated discs and four resorbable blast medium (RBM) discs were prepared. Their surface roughnesses and areas were measured. Five puretitanium, RBM-treated, and novel HA-coated discs were prepared. Contact angle was measured. Two-way analysis of variance and the post-hoc Scheffe's test were used to analyze differences between the groups, with those with a probability of P<0.05 considered to be statistically significant. To evaluate exfoliation of the coating layer, 7 sites on the mandibles from 7 mongrel dogs were used. Other sites were used for another research project. In total, seven novel HA-coated implants were placed 2 months after extraction of premolars according to the manufacturer's instructions. The dogs were sacrificed 8 weeks after implant surgery. Implants were removed using a ratchet driver. The surface of the retrieved implants was evaluated microscopically. Results A uniform HA coating layer was formed on the titanium implants with no deformation of the RBM titanium surface microtexture when an SHS blasting method was used. Conclusions These HA-coated implants exhibited increased roughness, crystallinity, and wettability when compared with RBM implants. PMID:22586524

  5. Characteristics of surface roughness associated with leading edge ice accretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    1994-01-01

    Detailed size measurements of surface roughness associated with leading edge ice accretions are presented to provide information on characteristics of roughness and trends of roughness development with various icing parameters. Data was obtained from icing tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) using a NACA 0012 airfoil. Measurements include diameters, heights, and spacing of roughness elements along with chordwise icing limits. Results confirm the existence of smooth and rough ice zones and that the boundary between the two zones (surface roughness transition region) moves upstream towards stagnation region with time. The height of roughness grows as the air temperature and the liquid water content increase, however, the airspeed has little effect on the roughness height. Results also show that the roughness in the surface roughness transition region grows during a very early stage of accretion but reaches a critical height and then remains fairly constant. Results also indicate that a uniformly distributed roughness model is only valid at a very initial stage of the ice accretion process.

  6. Identification of PM10 characteristics involved in cellular responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B).

    PubMed

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Den Hond, Elly; Govarts, Eva; Colles, Ann; Koppen, Gudrun; Staelens, Jeroen; Mampaey, Maja; Janssen, Nicole; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-08-01

    reduction in cell viability was significantly correlated with BC, Cd and Pb. The induction of IL-8 in Beas-2B cells was significantly associated with Cu, Ni and Zn and endotoxin. Endotoxin levels explained 33% of the variance in IL-8 induction. A significant interaction between ambient temperature and endotoxin on the pro-inflammatory activity was seen. No association was found between OP and the cellular responses. This study supports the hypothesis that, on an equal mass basis, PM10 induced biological effects differ due to differences in PM10 characteristics. Metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn), BC, and endotoxin were among the main determinants for the observed biological responses. PMID:27177354

  7. Surface and subsurface cracks characteristics of single crystal SiC wafer in surface machining

    SciTech Connect

    Qiusheng, Y. Senkai, C. Jisheng, P.

    2015-03-30

    Different machining processes were used in the single crystal SiC wafer machining. SEM was used to observe the surface morphology and a cross-sectional cleavages microscopy method was used for subsurface cracks detection. Surface and subsurface cracks characteristics of single crystal SiC wafer in abrasive machining were analysed. The results show that the surface and subsurface cracks system of single crystal SiC wafer in abrasive machining including radial crack, lateral crack and the median crack. In lapping process, material removal is dominated by brittle removal. Lots of chipping pits were found on the lapping surface. With the particle size becomes smaller, the surface roughness and subsurface crack depth decreases. When the particle size was changed to 1.5µm, the surface roughness Ra was reduced to 24.0nm and the maximum subsurface crack was 1.2µm. The efficiency of grinding is higher than lapping. Plastic removal can be achieved by changing the process parameters. Material removal was mostly in brittle fracture when grinding with 325# diamond wheel. Plow scratches and chipping pits were found on the ground surface. The surface roughness Ra was 17.7nm and maximum subsurface crack depth was 5.8 µm. When grinding with 8000# diamond wheel, the material removal was in plastic flow. Plastic scratches were found on the surface. A smooth surface of roughness Ra 2.5nm without any subsurface cracks was obtained. Atomic scale removal was possible in cluster magnetorheological finishing with diamond abrasive size of 0.5 µm. A super smooth surface eventually obtained with a roughness of Ra 0.4nm without any subsurface crack.

  8. Characteristics of Planar Monopole Antenna on High Impedance Electromagnetic Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Jastram, Nathan; Ponchak, George E.; Franklin, Rhonda R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time measured characteristics of a planar monopole antenna placed directly on a high impedance electromagnetic surface or artificial magnetic conductor (AMC). The return loss and radiation patterns are compared between the antenna in free space, and when placed directly on a perfect electrical conductor (PEC), and on the AMC. The antenna measured in free space has a wide pass band from 3 to 10 GHz. The return loss for the antenna on the PEC is nearly all reflected back and the return loss for the antenna on the AMC has a 10 dB bandwidth from 7.5 to 9.5 GHz. The gain of the antenna in free space, on PEC and on AMC is 1, -12 and 10 dBi, respectively. This indicates that the AMC is working properly, sending all the radiation outward with little loss.

  9. Characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of surface sterilization using electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma were investigated. High-energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed in the ECR zone using electric probe and optical emission spectroscopic methods. A biological indicator (BI), Geobacillus stearothermophilus, containing 1 × 106 spores was sterilized in 120 s by exposure to oxygen discharges while maintaining a temperature of approximately 55 °C at the BI installation position. Oxygen radicals and high-energy electrons were found to be the sterilizing species in the ECR region. It was demonstrated that the ECR plasma could be produced in narrow tubes with an inner diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, sterilization tests confirmed that the spores present inside the narrow tube were successfully inactivated by ECR plasma irradiation.

  10. VolRoverN: Enhancing surface and volumetric reconstruction for realistic dynamical simulation of cellular and subcellular function

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John; Daniel, Eric; Kinney, Justin; Bartol, Tom; Sejnowski, Terrence; Johnston, Daniel; Harris, Kristen; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2014-01-01

    Establishing meaningful relationships between cellular structure and function requires accurate morphological reconstructions. In particular, there is an unmet need for high quality surface reconstructions to model subcellular and synaptic interactions among neurons at nanometer resolution. We address this need with VolRoverN, a software package that produces accurate, efficient, and automated 3D surface reconstructions from stacked 2D contour tracings. While many techniques and tools have been developed in the past for 3D visualization of cellular structure, the reconstructions from VolRoverN meet specific quality criteria that are important for dynamical simulations. These criteria include manifoldness, water-tightness, lack of self- and object-object-intersections, and geometric accuracy. These enhanced surface reconstructions are readily extensible to any cell type (including glia) and are used here on complex spiny dendrites and axons from mature rat hippocampal area CA1. Both spatially realistic surface reconstructions and reduced skeletonizations are produced and formatted by VolRoverN for easy input into analysis software packages for neurophysiological simulations at multiple spatial and temporal scales ranging from ion electro-diffusion to electrical cable models. PMID:24100964

  11. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8) on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT) and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP). The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24455730

  12. Investigation Into the Accuracy of 3D Surface Roughness Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumermanis, M.; Rudzitis, J.; Mozga, N.; Ancans, A.; Grislis, A.

    2014-04-01

    The existing standards for surface roughness cover only two dimensions, while in reality this is three-dimensional (3D). In particular, the 3D surface roughness parameters are important for solving the contact surface mechanics problems as related to the accuracy of 3D surface roughness characteristics. One of the most important factors for determination of 3D characteristics is the number of data points (NDP) on the x- and y-axes (i.e. in cut-off length). The NDP has a profound effect on the accuracy of measurement results, measuring time and volume of the output data (especially along the y-axis, where the NDP is identical to the number of parallel profiles). At a too small NDP the results will be incorrect and with too broad scatter, while a too large NDP - though not enlarging the range of basic information - considerably increases the measuring time. Therefore, the aim of the work was to find the optimal NDP for such surface processing methods as grinding, spark erosion and shot methods of surface treatment. Eksistējošie virsmas raupjuma standarti apskata virsmas raupjumu tikai divās dimensijās. Tomēr reālais virsmas raupjums pēc savas dabas ir trīsdimensiju (3D) objekts. Līdz ar to virsmas raupjums ir jāraksturo ar 3D parametriem. Un no šo parametru noteikšanas precizitātes ir atkarīgi tālākie virsmas aprēķini, piemēram, virsmu kontaktēšanās process. Viens no svarīgākajiem faktoriem, raksturojot virsmas raupjumu 3D, pielietojot kontakta tipa mēriekārtas, ir datu punktu skaits pa abām mērīšanas asīm x un y. Ar datu punktu skaitu mēs saprotam to skaitu mērīšanas bāzes garumā. Datu punktu skaits būtiski ietekmē sagaidāmo mērījumu rezultātu precizitāti, mērīšanai nepieciešamo laiku un izejas datu faila izmērus (sevišķi y-ass virzienā, kur katrs datu punkts ir paralēls profils). Datu punktu skaitam ir jābūt optimālam. Pārāk mazs punktu skaits noved pie neprecīziem rezultātiem un lielas to izkliedes, savuk

  13. Cryoplanation Surfaces of Beringian Uplands: (Un)Characteristic Periglacial Landscapes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, F. E.; Nyland, K.

    2012-12-01

    Periglacial research, like many other branches of geomorphology, has undergone profound shifts in scale and paradigmatic emphasis over the past century. Once the focus of investigations embracing regional and even subcontinental scales, periglacial geomorphology has more recently been described by several authorities as "the study of surface decorations" in cold, nonglacial environments. A plenary overview of the subject at the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost in 2008 concluded that "characteristic periglacial landscapes" do not exist. The uplands of unglaciated Beringia are dominated by a suite of major landscape elements referred to collectively by the geomorphic term "cryoplanation." Many scientists have associated cryoplanation landforms with periglacial processes, while others attribute them primarily to geologic structure. The landforms consist of series of sharp high-level terraces, pediment-like surfaces, and rectilinear debris slopes. Minor periglacial features such as solifluction lobes and sorted patterned ground are often superimposed on cryoplanation surfaces. Cryoplanation features extend over unglaciated uplands from the northern Urals to the Mackenzie Mountains of northwestern Canada. They are particularly well formed in the uplands of the Russian Far East and the Alaskan Interior, and comprise a distinctive Beringian landscape. Their orientation patterns and elevational trends are similar to those of glacial cirques, indicating that the landforms have considerable potential for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Despite a long history of research by such iconic scientists as Obrachov, Péwé, and Demek, the origin of cryoplanation landforms and landscapes remains obscure, speculative, and controversial. In this presentation we stress the need for collaborative, interdisciplinary, and international research on cryoplanation landscapes, involving critical field experiments, cosmogenic dating, geographic information science, remote sensing

  14. Tuning the Surface of Nanoparticles: Impact of Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) on Protein Adsorption in Serum and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Koshkina, Olga; Westmeier, Dana; Lang, Thomas; Bantz, Christoph; Hahlbrock, Angelina; Würth, Christian; Resch-Genger, Ute; Braun, Ulrike; Thiermann, Raphael; Weise, Christoph; Eravci, Murat; Mohr, Benjamin; Schlaad, Helmut; Stauber, Roland H; Docter, Dominic; Bertin, Annabelle; Maskos, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Due to the adsorption of biomolecules, the control of the biodistribution of nanoparticles is still one of the major challenges of nanomedicine. Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) for surface modification of nanoparticles is applied and both protein adsorption and cellular uptake of PEtOxylated nanoparticles versus nanoparticles coated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and non-coated positively and negatively charged nanoparticles are compared. Therefore, fluorescent poly(organosiloxane) nanoparticles of 15 nm radius are synthesized, which are used as a scaffold for surface modification in a grafting onto approach. With multi-angle dynamic light scattering, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, gel electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, it is demonstrated that protein adsorption on PEtOxylated nanoparticles is extremely low, similar as on PEGylated nanoparticles. Moreover, quantitative microscopy reveals that PEtOxylation significantly reduces the non-specific cellular uptake, particularly by macrophage-like cells. Collectively, studies demonstrate that PEtOx is a very effective alternative to PEG for stealth modification of the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:27281039

  15. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-03-01

    To elucidate the initial attachment mechanism of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis, developing rat molars were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to observe details of the positional association of cemental and dentinal fibrils during cementogenesis. An initial hematoxylin stained, cementum layer began to form on the root dentin surface with the first dentin mineralization in both acellular and cellular cementogenesis. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the dentin surface also began at this point. At the initial attachment the intermingling of cemental and dentinal fibrils occurred only in places. With advanced cementogenesis the initial cementum layer became the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. This suggests that cemental fibrils attach on the initial cementum layer, and not directly on dentinal fibrils, so that the layer results in the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. The present study suggests that an intervening adhesive is necessary for the cemento-dentinal attachment at any stage of cementogenesis in rat molars. PMID:11325058

  16. Characterization of cellular response to thiol-modified gold surfaces implanted in mouse peritoneal cavity.

    PubMed

    Nygren, H; Kanagaraja, S; Braide, M; Eriksson, C; Lundström, I

    1999-05-01

    The early inflammatory reaction in vivo to three well defined surfaces-gold, gold coated with glutathione (GSH), and 3-mercapto-1, 2-propanediol (MG)-was assessed as manifested by the adherence and activation of inflammatory cells during implantation intraperitoneally in mice. Evaluation of cell adhesion and activation was done by immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies directed against cell differentiation antigens CD11b/CD18, CD74, and CD25 or by measurement by chemoluminescence of reactive oxygen radical species produced by adhering cells. Cell recruitment and activation was slow on the GSH-coated gold surfaces. These surfaces also had the highest percentage of adhering cells with an intact cell membrane. The MG-coated surfaces, on the other hand, rapidly recruited and activated cells and also caused cell membrane leakage to propidium iodide, suggesting cell membrane damage or cell death. The respiratory burst of adhering cells was stimulated by phorbol-myristate acetate on the GSH-coated surface but not on the MG-coated surface and by opsonized zymosan on the Mg-coated surface but only to a small degree on the GSH-coated surface. The respiratory burst following zymosan activation of cells adhering to the MG-coated surface was inhibited by treatment with 2. 3-diphosphoglycerate, a phospholipase D inhibitor. The presented data suggest that peritoneal leukocytes adhering to foreign materials may raise a respiratory burst response via a phospholipase D-dependent and protein kinase C-independent pathway. PMID:10397965

  17. Cellular network formation of hydrophobic alkanethiol capped gold nanoparticles on mica surface mediated by water islands.

    PubMed

    John, Neena S; Raina, Gargi; Sharma, Ashutosh; Kulkarni, Giridhar U

    2010-09-01

    Dendritic and cellular networks of nanoparticles are known to form commonly either by random diffusion-limited aggregation or by solvent evaporation dynamics. Using alkanethiol capped gold nanoparticles deposited on mica imaged under ambient and controlled water vapor conditions by atomic force microscope and in situ scanning electron microscope, respectively, we show a third mechanism in action. The cellular network consisting of open and closed polygons is formed by the nucleation and lateral growth of adsorbed water islands, the contact lines of which push the randomly distributed hydrophobic nanoparticles along the growth directions, eventually leading to the polygonal structure formation as the boundaries of the growing islands meet. Such nanoparticle displacement has been possible due to the weakly adhering nature of the hydrophilic substrate, mica. These results demonstrate an important but hitherto neglected effect of adsorbed water in the structure formation on hydrophilic substrates and provide a facile tool for the fabrication of nanoparticle networks without specific particle or substrate modifications and without a tight control on particle deposition conditions during the solvent evaporation. PMID:20831330

  18. Relevant aspects in the surface properties in titanium dental implants for the cellular viability.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Ortega, E; Alfonso-Rodríguez, C A; Monsalve-Guil, L; España-López, A; Jiménez-Guerra, A; Garzón, I; Alaminos, M; Gil, F J

    2016-07-01

    Roughness and topographical features are the most relevant of the surface properties for a dental implant for its osseointegration. For that reason, we studied the four surfaces more used in titanium dental implants: machined, sandblasted, acid etching and sandblasted plus acid etching. The roughness and wettability (contact angle and surface free energy) was studied by means 3D-interferometric microscope and sessile drop method. Normal human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) were obtained from small oral mucosa biopsies and were used for cell cultures. To analyze cell integrity, we first quantified the total amount of DNA and LDH released from dead cells to the culture medium. Then, LIVE/DEAD assay was used as a combined method assessing cell integrity and metabolism. All experiments were carried out on each cell type cultured on each Ti material for 24h, 48h and 72h. To evaluate the in vivo cell adhesion capability of each Ti surface, the four types of discs were grafted subcutaneously in 5 Wistar rats. Sandblasted surfaces were significantly rougher than acid etching and machined. Wettability and surface free energy decrease when the roughness increases in sand blasted samples. This fact favors the protein adsorption. The DNA released by cells cultured on the four Ti surfaces did not differ from that of positive control cells (p>0.05). The number of cells per area was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the sand-blasted surface than in the machined and surface for both cell types (7±2 cells for HGF and 10±5 cells for SAOS-2). The surface of the machined-type discs grafted in vivo had a very small area occupied by cells and/or connective tissue (3.5%), whereas 36.6% of the sandblasted plus acid etching surface, 75.9% of sandblasted discs and 59.6% of acid etching discs was covered with cells and connective tissue. Cells cultured on rougher surfaces tended to exhibit attributes of more differentiated osteoblasts than cells cultured on smoother surfaces. These surface

  19. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  20. Development of a cell culture surface conversion technique using alginate thin film for evaluating effect upon cellular differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Y.; Tsusu, K.; Minami, K.; Nakanishi, Y.

    2014-06-15

    Here, we sought to develop a cell culture surface conversion technique that would not damage living cells. An alginate thin film, formed on a glass plate by spin coating of sodium alginate solution and dipping into calcium chloride solution, was used to inhibit adhesion of cells. The film could be removed by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) at any time during cell culture, permitting observation of cellular responses to conversion of the culture surface in real time. Additionally, we demonstrated the validity of the alginate thin film coating method and the performance of the film. The thickness of the alginate thin film was controlled by varying the rotation speed during spin coating. Moreover, the alginate thin film completely inhibited the adhesion of cultured cells to the culture surface, irrespective of the thickness of the film. When the alginate thin film was removed from the culture surface by EDTA, the cultured cells adhered to the culture surface, and their morphology changed. Finally, we achieved effective differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotube cells by cell culture on the convertible culture surface, demonstrating the utility of our novel technique.

  1. A propagating ATPase gradient drives transport of surface-confined cellular cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchiarelli, Anthony; Neuman, Keir; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The process of DNA segregation is of central importance for all organisms. Although eukaryotic mitosis is relatively well established, the most common mechanism employed for bacterial DNA segregation has been unclear. ParA ATPases form dynamic patterns on the bacterial nucleoid, to spatially organize plasmids, chromosomes and other large cellular cargo, but the force generating mechanism has been a source of controversy and debate. A dominant view proposes that ParA-mediated transport and cargo positioning occurs via a filament-based mechanism that resembles eukaryotic mitosis. Here we present direct evidence against such models. Our cell-free reconstitution supports a non-filament-based mode of transport that may be as widely found in nature as actin filaments and microtubules.

  2. Investigation of cellular and protein interactions with model self-assembled monolayer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegoulia, Vassiliki Apostolou

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiolates on gold have been used to investigate the effect of substrate surface properties on bacterial and blood cell adhesion in the presence and absence of blood proteins. Protein adsorption and binding strength on SAMs as well as complement activation by these model surfaces were also studied. It is hoped that information gained, regarding factors that influence biological processes, will lead to strategies for designing materials and surfaces that specifically inhibit cell adhesion and protein adsorption. Single component SAMs of the general formula HS(CH2) 10X, where X = CH3, CH2OH. COOH and CH2(OCH 2CH2)3OH, and two component mixed SAMs created from binary solutions of HS(CH2), OCH3 and HS(CH 2)10CH2OH, were used. Adhesion was investigated under well-defined flow conditions. Adhesion was found to be higher for the hydrophobic methyl and minimal for the tri(ethyleneoxide) terminated SAM. Preincubation of the SAMs with fibrinogen led to an increase in cell adhesion for bacteria and a decrease for leukocyte adhesion. The effect of surface chemistry on protein adsorption was studied for three blood proteins, fibrinogen, fibronectin and albumin. Adsorption was found to be higher on the hydrophobic CH3 surface and lower but comparable for the other surfaces while proteins adsorbed strongly on all surfaces. SAMs were also used to evaluate complement activation by foreign surfaces. The hydroxyl rich SAMs were found to activate complement more significantly than the anionic carboxyl and the hydrophobic methyl terminated SAMs. A surface modification was introduced to incorporate a zwitterionic phosphorylcholine (PC) group on a hydroxyl monolayer in an effort to create a biomimetic surface that could minimize cell adhesion and protein adsorption. The good antifouling properties of the phosphorylcholine modified surface led to the synthesis of a novel phosphorylcholine functionalized thiol. Single component and two component

  3. [INVITED] Laser treatment of Inconel 718 alloy and surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser surface texturing of Inconel 718 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface is achieved by controlling the laser scanning speed and the laser output power. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the treated surface are analyzed using the analytical tools including optical, electron scanning, and atomic force microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardnes and friction coefficient of the laser treated surface are measured. Residual stress formed in the surface region is determined from the X-ray diffraction data. Surface hydrophobicity of the laser treated layer is assessed incorporating the sessile drop method. It is found that laser treated surface is free from large size asperities including cracks and the voids. Surface microhardness increases significantly after the laser treatment process, which is attributed to the dense layer formation at the surface under the high cooling rates, dissolution of Laves phase in the surface region, and formation of nitride species at the surface. Residual stress formed is compressive in the laser treated surface and friction coefficient reduces at the surface after the laser treatment process. The combination of evaporation and melting at the irradiated surface results in surface texture composes of micro/nano-poles and pillars, which enhance the surface hydrophobicity.

  4. Noncovalent Cell Surface Engineering: Incorporation of Bioactive Synthetic Glycopolymers into Cellular Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Rabuka, David; Forstner, Martin B.; Groves, Jay T.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2009-01-01

    The controlled addition of structurally defined components to live cell membranes can facilitate the molecular level analysis of cell surface phenomena. Here we demonstrate that cell surfaces can be engineered to display synthetic bioactive polymers at defined densities by exogenous membrane insertion. The polymers were designed to mimic native cell-surface mucin glycoproteins, which are defined by their dense glycosylation patterns and rod-like structures. End-functionalization with a hydrophobic anchor permitted incorporation into the membranes of live cultured cells. We probed the dynamic behavior of cell-bound glycopolymers bearing various hydrophobic anchors and glycan structures using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Their diffusion properties mirrored those of many natural membrane-associated biomolecules. Furthermore, the membrane-bound glycopolymers were internalized into early endosomes similarly to endogenous membrane components and were capable of specific interactions with protein receptors. This system provides a platform to study cell-surface phenomena with a degree of chemical control that cannot be achieved using conventional biological tools. PMID:18402449

  5. Cytotoxicity of quantum dots used for in vitro cellular labeling: role of QD surface ligand, delivery modality, cell type, and direct comparison to organic fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Bradburne, Christopher E; Delehanty, James B; Boeneman Gemmill, Kelly; Mei, Bing C; Mattoussi, Hedi; Susumu, Kimihiro; Blanco-Canosa, Juan B; Dawson, Philip E; Medintz, Igor L

    2013-09-18

    Interest in taking advantage of the unique spectral properties of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) has driven their widespread use in biological applications such as in vitro cellular labeling/imaging and sensing. Despite their demonstrated utility, concerns over the potential toxic effects of QD core materials on cellular proliferation and homeostasis have persisted, leaving in question the suitability of QDs as alternatives for more traditional fluorescent materials (e.g., organic dyes, fluorescent proteins) for in vitro cellular applications. Surprisingly, direct comparative studies examining the cytotoxic potential of QDs versus these more traditional cellular labeling fluorophores remain limited. Here, using CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) QDs as a prototypical assay material, we present a comprehensive study in which we characterize the influence of QD dose (concentration and incubation time), QD surface capping ligand, and delivery modality (peptide or cationic amphiphile transfection reagent) on cellular viability in three human cell lines representing various morphological lineages (epithelial, endothelial, monocytic). We further compare the effects of QD cellular labeling on cellular proliferation relative to those associated with a panel of traditionally employed organic cell labeling fluorophores that span a broad spectral range. Our results demonstrate the important role played by QD dose, capping ligand structure, and delivery agent in modulating cellular toxicity. Further, the results show that at the concentrations and time regimes required for robust QD-based cellular labeling, the impact of our in-house synthesized QD materials on cellular proliferation is comparable to that of six commercial cell labeling fluorophores. Cumulatively, our results demonstrate that the proper tuning of QD dose, surface ligand, and delivery modality can provide robust in vitro cell labeling reagents that exhibit minimal impact on cellular viability. PMID:23879393

  6. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare differential domains from orthologous surface proteins induce distinct cellular immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Leal, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos; Virginio, Veridiana Gomes; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Paes, Jéssica Andrade; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2016-07-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma flocculare are two genetically close species found in the swine respiratory tract. Despite their similarities, while M. hyopneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia, M. flocculare is a commensal bacterium. Genomic and transcriptional comparative analyses so far failed to explain the difference in pathogenicity between these two species. We then hypothesized that such difference might be, at least in part, explained by amino acid sequence and immunological or functional differences between ortholog surface proteins. In line with that, it was verified that approximately 85% of the ortholog surface proteins from M. hyopneumoniae 7448 and M. flocculare present one or more differential domains. To experimentally assess possible immunological implications of this kind of difference, the extracellular differential domains from one pair of orthologous surface proteins (MHP7448_0612, from M. hyopneumoniae, and MF_00357, from M. flocculare) were expressed in E. coli and used to immunize mice. The recombinant polypeptides (rMHP61267-169 and rMF35767-196, respectively) induced distinct cellular immune responses. While, rMHP61267-169 induced both Th1 and Th2 responses, rMF35767-196 induced just an early pro-inflammatory response. These results indicate that immunological properties determined by differential domains in orthologous surface protein might play a role in pathogenicity, contributing to elicit specific and differential immune responses against each species. PMID:27283856

  7. Relationship between complement activation, cellular uptake and surface physicochemical aspects of novel PEG-modified nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, V C; Legrand, P; Gulik, A; Bourdon, O; Gref, R; Labarre, D; Barratt, G

    2001-11-01

    The aim of our work was to examine the relationship between modifications of the surface of nanocapsules (NC) by adsorption or covalent grafting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEG), and changes in their phospholipid (PL) content on complement activation (C3 cleavage) and on uptake by macrophages. The physicochemical characterization of the NC included an investigation of their properties, such as surface charge, size, hydrophilicity, morphology and homogeneity. This is the first time that such properties have been correlated with biological interactions for NC, a novel carrier system with a structure more complex than nanospheres. C3 crossed immunoelectrophoresis revealed the reduced activation for NC with longer PEG chain and higher density, although all formulations induced C3 cleavage to a lesser or greater extent. NC bearing PEG covalently bound to the surface were weaker activators of complement than plain PLA [poly(D,L-lactide)] NC or nanospheres (NS). Furthermore, the fluorescent/confocal microscopy of J774A1 cells in contact with NC reveal a dramatically reduced interaction with PEG-bearing NC. However, the way in which PEG was attached (covalent or adsorbed) seemed to affect the mechanism of uptake. Taken together, these results suggest that the low level of protein binding to NC covered with a high density of 20kDa PEG chains is likely to be due to the steric barriers surrounding these particles, which prevents protein adsorption and reduces their interaction with macrophages. PMID:11575471

  8. Roles for glycosylation of cell surface receptors involved in cellular immune recognition.

    PubMed

    Rudd, P M; Wormald, M R; Stanfield, R L; Huang, M; Mattsson, N; Speir, J A; DiGennaro, J A; Fetrow, J S; Dwek, R A; Wilson, I A

    1999-10-22

    The majority of cell surface receptors involved in antigen recognition by T cells and in the orchestration of the subsequent cell signalling events are glycoproteins. The length of a typical N-linked sugar is comparable with that of an immunoglobulin domain (30 A). Thus, by virtue of their size alone, oligosaccharides may be expected to play a significant role in the functions and properties of the cell surface proteins to which they are attached. A databank of oligosaccharide structures has been constructed from NMR and crystallographic data to aid in the interpretation of crystal structures of glycoproteins. As unambiguous electron density can usually only be assigned to the glycan cores, the remainder of the sugar is then modelled into the crystal lattice by superimposing the appropriate oligosaccharide from the database. This approach provides insights into the roles that glycosylation might play in cell surface receptors, by providing models that delineate potential close packing interactions on the cell surface. It has been proposed that the specific recognition of antigen by T cells results in the formation of an immunological synapse between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell. The cell adhesion glycoproteins, such as CD2 and CD48, help to form a cell junction, providing a molecular spacer between opposing cells. The oligosaccharides located on the membrane proximal domains of CD2 and CD48 provide a scaffold to orient the binding faces, which leads to increased affinity. In the next step, recruitment of the peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) by the T-cell receptors (TCRs) requires mobility on the membrane surface. The TCR sugars are located such that they could prevent non-specific aggregation. Importantly, the sugars limit the possible geometry and spacing of TCR/MHC clusters which precede cell signalling. We postulate that, in the final stage, the sugars could play a general role in controlling the assembly and stabilisation of the

  9. Effect of surface characteristics on retention and removal of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on surfaces of spinach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topography and the spatial heterogeneity of produce surfaces may impact the attachment of microbial cells onto produce surfaces and affect disinfection efficacy. In this study, the effects of produce surface characteristics on the removal of bacteria were studied. Fresh spinach leaves were sp...

  10. Synergistic effect of topography, surface chemistry and conductivity of the electrospun nanofibrous scaffold on cellular response of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lingling; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Hu, Jue; Chen, Menglin; Besenbacher, Flemming; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2016-09-01

    Electrospun nanofibrous nerve implants is a promising therapy for peripheral nerve injury, and its performance can be tailored by chemical cues, topographical features as well as electrical properties. In this paper, a surface modified, electrically conductive, aligned nanofibrous scaffold composed of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polypyrrole (Ppy), referred to as o-PLAPpy_A, was fabricated for nerve regeneration. The morphology, surface chemistry and hydrophilicity of nanofibers were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle, respectively. The effects of these nanofibers on neuronal differentiation using PC12 cells were evaluated. A hydrophilic surface was created by Poly-ornithine coating, which was able to provide a better environment for cell attachment, and furthermore aligned fibers were proved to be able to guide PC12 cells grow along the fiber direction and be beneficial for neurite outgrowth. The cellular response of PC12 cells to pulsed electrical stimulation was evaluated by NF 200 and alpha tubulin expression, indicating that electrical stimulation with a voltage of 40mV could enhance the neurite outgrowth. The PC12 cells stimulated with electrical shock showed greater level of neurite outgrowth and smaller cell body size. Moreover, the PC12 cells under electrical stimulation showed better viability. In summary, the o-PLAPpy_A nanofibrous scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of PC12 cells in the absence of electrical stimulation, which could be potential candidate for nerve regeneration applications. PMID:27232305

  11. Integrated automated nanomanipulation and real-time cellular surface imaging for mechanical properties characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Zareian, Ramin; Jalili, Nader

    2012-10-01

    Surface microscopy of individual biological cells is essential for determining the patterns of cell migration to study the tumor formation or metastasis. This paper presents a correlated and effective theoretical and experimental technique to automatically address the biophysical and mechanical properties and acquire live images of biological cells which are of interest in studying cancer. In the theoretical part, a distributed-parameters model as the comprehensive representation of the microcantilever is presented along with a model of the contact force as a function of the indentation depth and mechanical properties of the biological sample. Analysis of the transfer function of the whole system in the frequency domain is carried out to characterize the stiffness and damping coefficients of the sample. In the experimental section, unlike the conventional atomic force microscope techniques basically using the laser for determining the deflection of microcantilever's tip, a piezoresistive microcantilever serving as a force sensor is implemented to produce the appropriate voltage and measure the deflection of the microcantilever. A micromanipulator robotic system is integrated with the MATLAB® and programmed in such a way to automatically control the microcantilever mounted on the tip of the micromanipulator to achieve the topography of biological samples including the human corneal cells. For this purpose, the human primary corneal fibroblasts are extracted and adhered on a sterilized culture dish and prepared to attain their topographical image. The proposed methodology herein allows an approach to obtain 2D quality images of cells being comparatively cost effective and extendable to obtain 3D images of individual cells. The characterized mechanical properties of the human corneal cell are furthermore established by comparing and validating the phase shift of the theoretical and experimental results of the frequency response.

  12. Effect of sterilization process on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of pure Mg and MgCa alloys.

    PubMed

    Liu, X L; Zhou, W R; Wu, Y H; Cheng, Y; Zheng, Y F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various sterilization methods on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of MgCa alloy, with pure Mg as a comparison, including steam autoclave sterilization (SA), ethylene oxide steam sterilization (EO), glutaraldehyde sterilization (GD), dry heat sterilization (DH) and Co60 γ ray radiation sterilization (R) technologies. The surface characterizations were performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and surface free energy measurement, whereas the cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility were evaluated by cellular adhesive experiment, platelet adhesion and hemolysis test. The results showed that the five sterilization processes caused more changes on the surface of MgCa alloy than that on the surface of pure Mg. The GD sterilization caused the most obvious changes on the surface of the pure Mg, and the SA sterilization made the largest alteration on the MgCa alloy surface. The GD and DH sterilization processes could cause increases on surface free energy for both pure Mg and MgCa alloys, while the other three sterilization processes reduced the surface free energy. The DH and GD sterilization processes caused the least alteration on the cell adhesion on pure Mg surface, whereas the EO sterilization performed the greatest impact on the cell adhesion on the Mg-Ca alloy surface. The hemolysis percentage of pure Mg and MgCa alloys were reduced by SA sterilization, meanwhile the other four sterilization processes increased their hemolysis percentages significantly, especially for the EO sterilization. PMID:23910326

  13. Characteristics of Pool Boiling on Graphite-Copper Composite Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chao, David F.; Yang, Wen-Jei

    2002-01-01

    Nucleate pool boiling performance of different liquids on graphite-copper composite (Gr-Cu) surfaces has been experimentally studied and modeled. Both highly wetting fluids, such as freon-113 and pentane, and a moderately wetting fluid (water) were tested on the Gr-Cu surfaces with different graphite-fiber volume fractions to reveal the enhancement effects of the composite surfaces on the nucleate pool boiling. Results of the experiments show that the graphite-fiber volume fraction has an optimum value. The Gr-Cu composite surface with 25 percent graphite-fiber volume (f=0.25) has a maximum enhancement effect on the nucleate boiling heat transfer comparing to the pure copper surface. For the highly wetting fluid, the nucleate boiling heat transfer is generally enhanced on the Gr- Cu composite surfaces by 3 to 6 times shown. In the low heat flux region, the enhancement is over 6 times, but in the high heat flux region, the enhancement is reduced to about 40%. For the moderately wetting fluid (water), stronger enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer is achieved on the composite surface. It shown the experimental results in which one observes the nucleate boiling heat transfer enhancement of 5 to 10 times in the low heat flux region and an enhancement of 3 to 5 times in the high heat flux region. Photographs of bubble departure during the initial stage of nucleate boiling indicate that the bubbles detached from the composite surface are much smaller in diameter than those detached from the pure copper surface. Typical photographs are presented.It shows that the bubbles departed from the composite surface have diameters of only O(0.1) mm, while those departed from the pure copper surface have diameters of O(1) mm. It is also found that the bubbles depart from the composite surface at a much higher frequency, thus forming vapor columns. These two phenomena combined with high thermal conductivity of the graphite fiber are considered the mechanisms for such a

  14. Non-contact monitoring of electrical characteristics of silicon surface and near-surface region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, P.; Brubaker, M.; Staffa, J.; Kamieniecki, E.; Ruzyllo, J.

    1998-11-01

    The SPV-based method of Surface Charge Profiling (SCP) is discussed, and its applications in silicon surface monitoring in IC manufacturing are reviewed. The SCP method shows high sensitivity to changes in the condition of the Si surface (e.g. surface cleaning operations) and a very thin near-surface region (e.g. variations of active dopant concentration near the surface).

  15. One-step Melt Synthesis of Water Soluble, Photoluminescent, Surface-Oxidized Silicon Nanoparticles for Cellular Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Manhat, Beth A.; Brown, Anna L.; Black, Labe A.; Ross, J.B. Alexander; Fichter, Katye; Vu, Tania; Richman, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a versatile, one-step melt synthesis of water-soluble, highly emissive silicon nanoparticles using bi-functional, low-melting solids (such as glutaric acid) as reaction media. Characterization through transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy shows that the one-step melt synthesis produces nanoscale Si cores surrounded by a silicon oxide shell. Analysis of the nanoparticle surface using FT-IR, zeta potential, and gel electrophoresis indicates that the bi-functional ligand used in the one-step synthesis is grafted onto the nanoparticle, which allows for tuning of the particle surface charge, solubility, and functionality. Photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared glutaric acid-synthesized silicon nanoparticles show an intense blue-green emission with a short (ns) lifetime suitable for biological imaging. These nanoparticles are found to be stable in biological media and have been used to examine cellular uptake and distribution in live N2a cells. PMID:23139440

  16. Surface characteristics of aesthetic restorative materials - an SEM study.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, R; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J

    2007-01-01

    To determine the degree of surface roughness of glass-ionomer cements (GICs) and polyacid-modified resin composite (PAMRC) after polishing and immersion in various foodstuffs. Three tooth-coloured restorative materials were used: a PAMRC (F2000), a conventional glass-ionomer cement (CGIC) (Fuji IX) and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RM-GIC) (Fuji II LC). Disk-shaped specimens were prepared and tested with either a plastics matrix finish or after polishing with wet silicon carbide papers up to 2000-grit. All specimens were immersed in 37 degrees C-distilled water for 1 week, followed by three different foodstuffs (red wine, coffee or tea) for a further 2 weeks. Replicas of specimens were prepared by taking polyvinyl siloxane impressions, casting in epoxy resin, gold sputter-coating and examining using a Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The polished and matrix finish specimens of F2000 showed many microcracks at low magnification, and eroded surfaces with missing and protruding particles at high magnification in the polished specimens. The surface-polished specimens of Fuji II LC were considerably rougher than the matrix-finish specimens, with large voids and protruding filler particles. The effects of foodstuffs on Fuji II LC and F2000 were not noticeable. The CGIC became noticeably rougher after exposure to coffee and tea. All specimens had the smoothest surface when they were cured against a plastics matrix strip, and all materials had a rougher surface after polishing. None of the foodstuffs produced a perceptible increase in roughness on RM-GIC and PAMRC surfaces, whereas coffee and tea markedly increased the surface roughness of Fuji IX. PMID:17207080

  17. Contributions of adhesive proteins to the cellular and bacterial response to surfaces treated with bioactive polymers: case of poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) grafted titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Felgueiras, Helena P; Aissa, Ines Ben; Evans, Margaret D M; Migonney, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The research developed on functionalized model or prosthetic surfaces with bioactive polymers has raised the possibility to modulate and/or control the biological in vitro and in vivo responses to synthetic biomaterials. The mechanisms underlying the bioactivity exhibited by sulfonated groups on surfaces involves both selective adsorption and conformational changes of adsorbed proteins. Indeed, surfaces functionalized by grafting poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) [poly(NaSS)] modulate the cellular and bacterial response by inducing specific interactions with fibronectin (Fn). Once implanted, a biomaterial surface is exposed to a milieu of many proteins that compete for the surface which dictates the subsequent biological response. Once understood, this can be controlled by dictating exposure of active binding sites. In this in vitro study, we report the influence of binary mixtures of proteins [albumin (BSA), Fn and collagen type I (Col I)] adsorbed on poly(NaSS) grafted Ti6Al4V on the adhesion and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and the adhesion and proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Outcomes showed that poly(NaSS) stimulated cell spreading, attachment strength, differentiation and mineralization, whatever the nature of protein provided at the interface compared with ungrafted Ti6Al4V (control). While in competition, Fn and Col I were capable of prevailing over BSA. Fn played an important role in the early interactions of the cells with the surface, while Col I was responsible for increased alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphate productions associated with differentiation. Poly(NaSS) grafted surfaces decreased the adhesion of S. aureus and the presence of Fn on these chemically altered surfaces increased bacterial resistance ≈70% compared to the ungrafted Ti6Al4V. Overall, our study showed that poly(NaSS) grafted Ti6Al4V selectively adsorbed proteins (particularly Fn) promoting the adhesion and differentiation of osteoblast

  18. Influence of finishing by burnishing on surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saï, W. Bouzid; Lebrun, J. L.

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of residual stresses, microhardness, and roughness in relation to the finishing process. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to determine the residual stresses, which were measured from the surface to the bottom of the machined workpiece. Processes that were studied included turning, grinding, and burnishing. Burnishing was done on a surface that was initially turned, or turned and then ground. A duplex stainless steel was used in this study. This material belongs to a high-strength stainless steel family with high corrosion resistance properties. We noted that the burnishing process produces the best quality of the surface when compared with turning or grinding.

  19. Exploring the proteomic characteristics of the Escherichia coli B and K-12 strains in different cellular compartments.

    PubMed

    Han, Mee-Jung

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli, one of the well-characterized prokaryotes, has been the most widely used bacterial host in scientific studies and industrial applications. Many different strains have been developed for the widespread use of E. coli in biotechnology, and selecting an ideal host to produce a specific protein of interest is a critical step in developing a production process. The E. coli B and K-12 strains are among the most frequently used bacterial hosts for the production of recombinant proteins as well as small-molecule metabolites such as amino acids, biofuels, carboxylic acids, diamines, and others. However, both strains have distinctive differences in genotypic and phenotypic attributes, and their behaviors can still be unpredictable at times, especially while expressing a recombinant protein. Therefore, in this review, an in-depth analysis of the physiological behavior on the proteomic level was performed, wherein the particularly distinct proteomic differences between the E. coli B and K-12 strains were investigated in the four distinctive cellular compartments. Interesting differences in the proteins associated with key cellular properties including cell growth, protein production and quality, cellular tolerance, and motility were observed between the two representative strains. The resulting enhancement of knowledge regarding host physiology that is summarized herein is expected to contribute to the acceleration of strain improvements and optimization for biotechnology-related processes. PMID:26777236

  20. Effect of Surface Roughness on Characteristics of Spherical Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Paul W.; McFarland, Donald R.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of peak overpressure and Mach stem height were made at four burst heights. Data were obtained with instrumentation capable of directly observing the variation of shock wave movement with time. Good similarity of free air shock peak overpressure with larger scale data was found to exist. The net effect of surface roughness on shock peak overpressures slightly. Surface roughness delayed the Mach stem formation at the greatest charge height and lowered the growth at all burst heights. A similarity parameter was found which approximately correlates the triple point path at different burst heights.

  1. Wind Characteristics of Coastal and Inland Surface Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Chelakara; Lazarus, Steven; Jin, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    Lidar measurements of the winds in the surface layer (up to 80 m) inland and near the beach are studied to better characterize the velocity profile and the effect of roughness. Mean and root-mean-squared profiles of horizontal and vertical wind components are analyzed. The effects of variable time (18, 60 and 600 seconds) averaging on the above profiles are discussed. The validity of common surface layer wind profile models to estimate skin friction drag is assessed in light of these measurements. Other turbulence statistics such as auto- and cross- correlations in spatial and temporal domains are also presented. The help of FIT DMES field measurement crew is acknowledged.

  2. Drag reduction characteristics of small amplitude rigid surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, A. M., Jr.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of reducing drag by using rigid, wavy surfaces is investigated both analytically and experimentally. Although pressure drag for rigid sine-wave surfaces can be predicted empirically, viscous drag for even shallow waves was poorly predicted by state-of-the-art turbulent boundary layer calculation procedures. Calculations for the effects of geometric and fluid variables on total wave drag are presented under the philosophy that trends will be nearly correct even though levels are probably incorrect. Experiments by the present authors indicate that a total drag reduction with wavy walls is possible.

  3. Friction-factor characteristics for narrow channels with honeycomb surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, T. W.; Morrison, G. L.; Childs, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental determination of friction-factors for the flow of air in a narrow channel lined with various honeycomb geometries has been carried out. Test results show that, generally, the friction-factor is nearly constant or slightly decreases as the Reynolds number increases, a characteristic common to turbulent flow in pipes. However, in some test geometries this trend is remarkably different. The friction factor dramatically drops and then rises as the Reynolds number increases. This phenomenon can be characterized as a 'friction-factor jump'. Further investigations of the acoustic spectrum and friction-factor measurements for a broad range of Reynolds numbers indicate that the 'friction-factor jump' phenomenon is accompanied by an onset of a normal mode resonance excited coherent flow fluctuation structure, which occurs at Reynolds number of the order of 10,000. The purpose of this paper is to explain the friction-factor-jump phenomenon and friction-factor characteristics.

  4. [Characteristics of surface runoff pollution of Shanghai urban area].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-feng; Li, Tian; Li, He

    2007-07-01

    Sampling and monitoring of surface runoff in Shanghai urban area were carried out during rainy seasons from 2003 to 2005, and pollutographs of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N, TP and TN of 56 rainfall events from 19 sampling sites were analyzed. Discharge processes of runoff pollutants during rain events and relationships of the processes with rainfall characters were discussed, and event mean concentrations (EMCs) were calculated. Probability distribution of EMCs and correlation between EMCs and rain characters were analyzed. Medium event mean concentrations of pollutants in surface runoff of Shanghai urban area are: COD 205, BOD5 68, SS 185, NH4+ -N 3.14,TP 0.40, TN 7.23 (mg/L), which are much higher than those in Paris urban area. The ratio of BOD5 to COD is 0.37, which is very high for surface runoff compared with that of large cities of developed countries. Results show that impervious surface pollution is serious in Shanghai urban area and some measures must be taken to improve urban water environment quality except stormwater separation. PMID:17891947

  5. The influence of fabric surface characteristics on satellite bloodstain morphology.

    PubMed

    Miles, H F; Morgan, R M; Millington, J E

    2014-07-01

    Bloodstains on fabrics such as clothing, soft furnishings or carpets are often encountered in casework. These stains often have a distinctive morphology that includes satellite stains, thought to be a highly sensitive feature that is a function of surface roughness. This study presents the findings of experimental studies conducted with proxy blood on two fabrics, similar in labeled composition, to assess the influence of fabric type on satellite stain generation. The morphology of proxy blood stains on the two fabric types were found to be statistically distinguishable from one another, with the volume of satellite stains generated being dependent upon the surface roughness of the fabric. These findings provide an initial step that illustrates the viability of providing an empirical evidence base for the interpretation of satellite stains in forensic blood pattern analysis (BPA). PMID:25002043

  6. Tribological characteristics of a composite total-surface hip replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Roberts, J. C.; Ling, F. F.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous fiber, woven E glass composite femoral shells having the same elastic properties as bone were fabricated. The shells were then encrusted with filled epoxy wear resistant coatings and run dry against ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups in 42,000 and 250,000 cycle wear tests on a total hip simulator. The tribological characteristics of these continuous fiber particulate composite femoral shells articulating with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups were comparable to those of a vitallium ball articulating with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cup.

  7. Characteristics of bird communities on surface mine lands in Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Fred J.; Kelly, Jeffrey

    1981-09-01

    A variety of species was observed as either visitors, permanent, or summer residents on surface mines with different ecological adaptations. Passerine species were the most prevalent of the 25 families represented. Bird communities as well as individual species were correlated with the structure and species of vegetation on the mines. The composition of the bird communities changed in response to successional vegetation stages from grassland to forest communities.

  8. Radar, visual and thermal characteristics of Mars - Rough planar surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    High-resolution Viking Orbiter images contain significant information on Martian surface roughness at 25- to 100-m lateral scales, while earth-based radar observations of Mars are sensitive to roughness at lateral scales of 1 to 30 m or more. High-rms slopes predicted for the Tharsis-Memnonia-Amazonis volcanic plains from extremely weak radar returns are qualitatively confirmed by the Viking image data. Large-scale, curvilinear ridges on lava flows in the Memnonia Fossae region are interpreted as innate flow morphology caused by compressional foldover of moving lava sheets of possible rhyolite-dacite composition. The presence or absence of a recent mantle of fine-grained eolian material on the volcanic surfaces studied was determined by the visibility of fresh impact craters with diameters less than 50 m. Lava flows with surfaces modified by eolian erosion and deposition occur west-northwest of Apollinaris Patera at the border of the cratered equatorial uplands and southern Elysium Planitia. Nearby yardangs, for which radar observations indicate very high-rms slopes, are similar to terrestrial features of similar origin.

  9. Alkyne-Modulated Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering-Palette for Optical Interference-Free and Multiplex Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Ren, Jia-Qiang; Zhang, Xia-Guang; Wu, De-Yin; Shen, Ai-Guo; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2016-06-21

    The alkyne tags possess unique interference-free Raman emissions but are still hindered for further application in the field of biochemical labels due to its extremely weak spontaneous Raman scattering. With the aid of computational chemistry, herein, an alkyne-modulated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) palette is constructed based on rationally designed 4-ethynylbenzenethiol derivatives for spectroscopic signature, Au@Ag core for optical enhancement and an encapsulating polyallylamine shell for protection and conjugation. Even for the pigment rich plant cell (e.g., pollen), the alkyne-coded SERS tag can be highly discerned on two-dimension distribution impervious to strong organic interferences originating from resonance-enhanced Raman scattering or autofluorescence. In addition, the alkynyl-containing Raman reporters contribute especially narrow emission, band shift-tunable (2100-2300 cm(-1)) and tremendously enhanced Raman signals when the alkynyl group locates at para position of mercaptobenzene ring. Depending on only single Raman band, the suggested alkyne-modulated SERS-palette potentially provides a more effective solution for multiplex cellular imaging with vibrant colors, when the hyperspectral and fairly intense optical noises originating from lower wavenumber region (<1800 cm(-1)) are inevitable under complex ambient conditions. PMID:27223333

  10. Surface and semantic processing of cellular transport representations by high school students with low and high prior knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Michelle Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior knowledge of cell transport processes on how students viewed and interpreted visual representations related to that topic. The participants were high school students (n=65) enrolled in Advanced Placement biology. Prior knowledge was assessed using a modified version of the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test (Odom & Barrow, 1995). Eye movements were measured to reveal how students distribute their visual attention as they perceive and interpret graphics; in addition, interviews and questionnaires were employed to provide more interpretive data sources. The first manuscript of the study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and students' ability to perceive salient features and interpret graphic representations of cellular transport. The results from eye tracking data, interviews, and questionnaire responses were triangulated and revealed differences in how high and low prior knowledge students attended to and interpreted various features of the graphic representations. Without adequate domain knowledge, low prior knowledge students focused on surface features of the graphics to build an understanding of the concepts represented. High prior knowledge students, with more abundant and better organized domain knowledge, were more likely to attend to thematically relevant content in the graphics and construct deeper understandings. The second manuscript of the study examines the influence of prior knowledge on how students transitioned among the macroscopic and molecular representations of selected graphics. Eye tracking and sequential analysis results indicated that high prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the molecular representations, where as low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between the macroscopic representations. In addition, low prior knowledge students transitioned more frequently between macroscopic and molecular representations

  11. Characteristics of turbulent structures in the unstable atmospheric surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schols, J. L. J.; Jansen, A. E.; Krom, J. G.

    1985-10-01

    An atmospheric surface-layer (ASL) experiment conducted at a meteorological site in the Oostelijk-Flevoland polder of the Netherlands is described. Turbulent fluctuations of wind velocity, air temperature and static pressure were measured, using three 10 m towers. Simultaneous turbulent signals at several heights on the towers were used to investigate the properties of the turbulent structures which contribute most significantly to the turbulent vertical transports in the unstable ASL. These turbulent structures produce between 30 and 50% of the mean turbulent vertical transport of horizontal alongwind momentum and they contribute to between 40 and 50% of the mean turbulent vertical heat transport; in both cases this occurs during 15 to 20% of the total observation time. The translation speed of the turbulent structures equals the wind speed averaged over the depth of the ASL, which scales on the surface friction velocity. The inclination angle of the temperature interface at the upstream edge of the turbulent structures to the surface is significantly smaller than that of the internal shear layer, which is associated with the temperature interface. The turbulent structures in the unstable ASL are determined by a large-scale temperature field: Convective motions, which encompass the whole depth of the planetary boundary layer (PBL), penetrate into the ASL. The curvature of the vertical profile of mean horizontal alongwind velocity forces the alignment of the convective cells in the flow direction (Kuettner, 1971), which have an average length of several hundreds of metres and an average width of a few tens of metres. This mechanism leads to the formation of turbulent structures, which extend throughout the depth of the ASL.

  12. Radar, visual and thermal characteristics of Mars: Rough planar surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    High-resolution Viking Orbiter images (10 to 15 m/pixel) contain significant information on Martian surface roughness at 25- to 100-m lateral scales, whereas Earth-based radar observations of Mars are sensitive to roughness at lateral scales of 1 to 30 m, or more. High-rms slopes predicted for the Tharsis-Memnonia-Amazonis volcanic plains from extremely weak radar returns (low peak radar cross section) are qualitatively confirmed by the Viking image data. Large-scale, curvilinear (but parallel) ridges on lava flows in the Memnonia Fossae region are interpreted as innate flow morphology caused by compressional foldover of moving lava sheets of possible rhyolite-dacite composition. The presence or absence of a recent mantle of fine-grained eolian material on the volcanic surfaces studied was determined by the visibility of fresh impact craters with diameters less than 50 m. Lava flows south and west of Arsia Mons, and within the large region of low thermal inertia centered on Tharsis Montes (H. H. Kieffer et al., 1977, J. Geophys. Res.82, 4249-4291), were found to possess such a recent mantle. At predawn residual temperatures ??? -10K (south boundary of this low-temperature region), lava flows are shown to have relatively old eolian mantles. Lava flows with surfaces modified by eolian erosion and deposition occur west-northwest of Apollinaris Patera at the border of the cratered equatorial uplands and southern Elysium Planitia. Nearby yardangs, for which radar observations indicate very high-rms slopes, are similar to terrestrial features of similar origin. ?? 1980.

  13. Noise characteristics of upper surface blown configurations: Analytical Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Pennock, A. P.; Tam, C. K. W.

    1978-01-01

    Noise and flow results of upper surface blown configurations were analyzed. The dominant noise source mechanisms were identified from experimental data. From far-field noise data for various geometric and operational parameters, an empirical noise prediction program was developed and evaluated by comparing predicted results with experimental data from other tests. USB aircraft compatibility studies were conducted using the described noise prediction and a cruise performance data base. A final design aircraft was selected and theory was developed for the noise from the trailing edge wake assuming it as a highly sheared layer.

  14. Characteristics of density currents over regular and irregular rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaganagar, K.

    2013-12-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used as a tool to understand the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of density currents. Simulations have been performed for lock-exchange flow with gate separating the dense and the lighter fluid. As the lock is released the dense fluid collapses with the lighter fluid on the top, resulting in formation of horizontally evolving density current. The talk will focus on the fundamental differences between the propagation of the density current over regular and irregular rough surfaces. The flow statistics and the flow structures are discussed. The results have revealed the spacing between the roughness elements is an important factor in classifying the density currents. The empirical relations of the front velocity and location for the dense and sparse roughness have been evaluated in terms of the roughness height, spacing between the elements and the initial amount of lock fluid. DNS results for a dense current flowing over a (a) smooth and (b) rough bottom with egg-carton roughness elements in a regular configuration. In these simulations the lock-exchange box is located in the middle of the channel and has two gates which allow two dense currents to be generated, one moving to the right and one to the left side of the channel. Note how the dense current interface presents smaller structures when over a rough bottom (right).

  15. Airmass Characteristics of Surface Air Quality over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Edwards, D. P.; Emmons, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from a study that quantifies the impacts of various sources on surface air quality over California. The focus of the analysis is on summer 2008, when the ARCTAS-CARB aircraft campaign, a joint program between NASA and the California Air Resources Board took place. The study integrates the global chemistry transport model MOZART-V4 with the regional WRF-Chem model. Both models employ the same chemistry scheme and emissions allowing for a high level of synergy across model scales. The global model provides time and space varying boundary conditions for the regional simulations. Aircraft measurements from the field campaign will be used together with in-situ observations from ground (U.S. EPA Air Quality Monitoring System) as well as satellite retrievals (e.g. Aura/OMI NO2 and HCHO, Aura/TES CO and O3, Terra/MOPITT CO) for evaluating the model simulations and supporting the analysis. Tracer simulations are performed to estimate the relative impacts of anthropogenic emissions, wildfires and pollution inflow on surface air.

  16. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  17. Surface acid-base characteristics of fiber materials by contact angle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Youan . Dept. of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry)

    1993-11-05

    Contact angle measurements were used to study the surface acid-base characteristics of treated and untreated carbon fibers, and of treated and untreated silicon carbide fibers. It has been shown that, when untreated the surfaces of these two fibers exhibits amphoteric, but the base character is dominant. After oxidization in a liquid phase, the surface acid character of the carbon fibers changes little, whereas the base character becomes much stronger. The treatment, with boiling-concentrated HNO[sub 3] for three hours and the sintering treatment in air at 500 C. for eight hours, has little effect on the surface acid-base characteristics of the silicon carbide fibers.

  18. Simulation model of speed-density characteristics for mixed bicycle flow—Comparison between cellular automata model and gas dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuichao; Ren, Gang; Yang, Renfa

    2013-10-01

    The mixed bicycle flow refers to the bicycle flow containing electric bicycles. The traffic characteristics data of the mixed bicycle flow was collected by the virtual coil method in Nanjing and Ningbo, China. And the speed-density characteristics of the mixed bicycle flow with different proportions of electric bicycles were obtained. The results show that the overall speed of the mixed bicycle flow containing electric bicycles is higher than that of pure bicycle flow when the density is relatively low. The speed decreases when the density is higher than 0.08 bic/m2; the speed-density characteristics of the bicycles and the electric bicycles tend to be the same when the density is higher than 0.25 bic/m2. And when the density reaches 0.58 bic/m2, the mixed bicycle flow becomes blocked and the speed is zero. The cellular automata model and gas dynamics model were also adopted to simulate the speed-density characteristics of the mixed bicycle flow. The simulation results of the cellular automata model are effectively consistent with the actual survey data when the density is lower than 0.225 bic/m2; the simulation results of the gas dynamics model are effectively consistent with the actual survey data when the density is higher than 0.300 bic/m2; but both of the two types of simulation models are inapplicable when the density is between 0.225 and 0.300 bic/m2. These results will be used in the management of mixed bicycles and the research of vehicle-bicycle conflict and so on.

  19. Brush seal low surface speed hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-06-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping,' and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  20. Brush seal low surface speed hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-01-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping,' and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  1. A new metric of analyzing the surface optical characteristic based on the measurement of Mueller matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xiu-qin; Gu, Guo-hua; Yang, Wei; Qian, Wei-xian

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we propose to obtain the optical characteristics on material surface by Mueller calculus. In our research, a new metric for Mueller matrices, named R(M) , is defined to describe the polarization and depolarization characteristics on material surface by analyzing the constitute of Mueller matrices. The definition of R(M) is derived from the definition of the depolarization scalar metric for Mueller matrices named Q (M ) which can show the diattenuation and depolarization characteristics. With the advantage of Q (M ) , we assumed and proved the advantage of R(M) against the traditional metrics, the polarizance parameter P(M) and the depolarization index DI (M ) . This comparison can fully illustrate the value of R(M) . It is considered that P(M) and DI (M ) which cannot analyze the optical characteristics commonly to give a comprehensive evaluation. However, composed of P(M) and DI (M ) , R(M) can comprehensively reflect the optical signification which P(M) and DI (M ) represent. R(M) can be used to analyze different optical polarized characteristics on material surface with five bounds as totally depolarizing, partially depolarizing, totally polarizing, partially polarizing, nondepolarizing nonpolarizing. This means that R(M) can enable us to distinguish different materials by their different polarized characteristic on surface. With the definition of R(M) , it can be known that how the optical polarized characteristics work to change the polarized state of incident light on material surface.

  2. Recontextualising Cellular Respiration in Upper Secondary Biology Education. Characteristics and Practicability of a Learning and Teaching Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierdsma, Menno; Knippels, Marie-Christine; van Oers, Bert; Boersma, Kerst

    2016-01-01

    Since concepts may have different meanings in different contexts, students have to learn to recontextualise them, i.e. to adapt their meanings to a new context. It is unclear, however, what characteristics a learning and teaching strategy for recontextualising should have. The study aims to develop such a learning and teaching strategy for…

  3. Surface characteristics and evolution of debris covered glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölg, Nico; Vieli, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias; Bauder, Andreas; Bhattacharya, Atanu

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change has led to increasing glacier retreat in most parts of the world. However, many heavily debris-covered glaciers have shown much smaller recession rates than their clean-ice neighbours. This can be attributed to the insulation effect of the supraglacial debris. Remote-sensing based investigations revealed that recent mass balances of debris-covered glaciers are equally negative. This fact is partly due to enhanced melting at supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs but can also be caused by reduced mass flux. In this context, insufficient process understanding constitutes a major challenge for large scale glacier change assessment and modelling. In this project, we aim at better understanding the evolution of glaciers in connection with changes in supra-glacial debris coverage. It is performed on Zmutt Glacier in Matter valley in Switzerland and on Gangotri Glacier in Garwhal Himalaya in India. Changes in glacier length, area, debris coverage, and surface elevation were compiled based on topographic maps, oblique photos, aerial and satellite orthoimages, digital terrain models (DTMs), and glacier monitoring data for a 50 (Gangotri) and 120 (Zmutt) year period, respectively. The subsequent analysis revealed that Zmutt Glacier has been in a slow but almost continuous retreating state since the end of the 19th century and showed a clear reduction in glacier area and volume. Similarly, Gangotri Glacier has retreated and, to a smaller degree, lost volume. However, the change in glacier length and area is clearly smaller than for other nearby, less debris-covered or debris-free glaciers. This fact is attributed to the larger debris-covered area that has steadily increased. Further in the project, this data will serve as an important input and validation for the envisaged 3D flow modelling and, hence, will contribute to the understanding of the development of glaciers and debris-covered ice in a period of fast climatic changes.

  4. Utilization of hyperspectral camera for determination of camouflage surfaces spectral characteristics homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racek, František; Jobánek, Adam; Baláž, Teodor

    2015-10-01

    The paper deals with description of newly developing method of Hyperspectral camera utilization for determination of camouflage surfaces spectral characteristics homogeneity. The color patterns of camouflage surfaces are usually checked pointwise. It is assumed subsequently that the spectral characteristics of the pattern are the same for whole area of camouflage surface. The essential properties of hyperspectral camera allow to determine the level of spectral qualities homogeneity of the surface. Although the respective snapping of hyperspectral image is fairly easy, the evaluation of HS datacube features specific problems connected with homogeneity of illuminance, optical system aberrations, transformation to reflectance and spectral unmixing. All the measurement aspects have to be taken into account to correctly determine the homogeneity of camouflage surfaces spectral characteristics.

  5. Fabrication and condensation characteristics of metallic superhydrophobic surface with hierarchical micro-nano structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Fuqiang; Wu, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    Metallic superhydrophobic surfaces have various applications in aerospace, refrigeration and other engineering fields due to their excellent water repellent characteristics. This study considers a simple but widely applicable fabrication method using a two simultaneous chemical reactions method to prepare the acid-salt mixed solutions to process the metal surfaces with surface deposition and surface etching to construct hierarchical micro-nano structures on the surface and then modify the surface with low surface-energy materials. Al-based and Cu-based superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated using this method. The Al-based superhydrophobic surface had a water contact angle of 164° with hierarchical micro-nano structures similar to the lotus leaves. The Cu-based surface had a water contact angle of 157° with moss-like hierarchical micro-nano structures. Droplet condensation experiments were also performed on these two superhydrophobic surfaces to investigate their condensation characteristics. The results show that the Al-based superhydrophobic surface has lower droplet density, higher droplet jumping probability, slower droplet growth rate and lower surface coverage due to the more structured hierarchical structures.

  6. Optical device for measuring a surface characteristic of an object by multi-color interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V. (Inventor); Smart, Anthony E. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An interferometer having a light beam source that produces a plurality of separate and distinct wavelengths of light. Optic fibers are used to transport the wavelengths of light toward an object surface and to allow light reflected from the object to pass through a polarizer to improve the polarization ratio of the reflected light to determine a characteristic of the object surface.

  7. Association of synoptic variability in surface turbulent fluxes with cyclone characteristics in the Northern hemisphere midlatitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Surface turbulent heat fluxes are primarily responsible for variability of surface ocean heat budget on synoptic and interannual scales. On synoptic time scale they are highly variable in time ranging from hundreds to thousands W/m2. This variability is primarily driven by variations of near surface atmospheric characteristics controlled in midlatitudes by atmospheric cyclones. We focus on understanding the mechanisms of synoptic variability of surface turbulent fluxes and particularly on the origins of extreme turbulent fluxes and their further impact on the atmospheric and oceanic dynamics. The main questions addressed in this study are (i) what are the large scale atmospheric conditions associated with extreme ocean surface fluxes and to what extent they are related to cyclones, (ii) what is the role of extreme surface fluxes in the variability of oceanic heat content, and (iii) which characteristics of atmospheric cyclones are most sensitive to the surface ocean flux signals? To answer these questions, we analyse statistical characteristics of surface turbulent heat fluxes and cyclone characteristics over the midlatitudinal North Atlantic and North Pacific. Further we investigate links of cyclones and surface fluxes with each other focusing on cyclone life cycle characteristics such as deepening rates, propagation velocities, life time and clustering. We derived characteristics of the extreme surface fluxes from the empirical probability distributions of surface fluxes from the NCEP-CFSR reanalysis for the period 1979-onwards. Cyclone tracking for the same period has been performed using state of the art numerical tracking algorithm applied to the reanalysis SLP at 6-hourly resolution. We argue that the presence of the high pressure system following to the rare part of propagating cyclone is a critical condition for the formation of extreme surface ocean fluxes which are associated with the cyclone-anticyclone interaction zone rather than with cyclone per se

  8. Analysis of Surface Defects on the Reverse Characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuno, Takashi; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Konishi, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takeo; Endo, Takeshi; Ishiko, Masayasu

    The good relations between the reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes and the surface defects were obtained. The reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes were categorized in three groups as follows: (A) low blocking voltage, (B) high leakage current and (C) low leakage current. The groups of (A) and (B) were caused by the existences of the micropipe and small particles, and the carrot-like defects on the SiC surfaces, respectively. In group (C), there was no defect on the surfaces observed by the optical microscope. The structure of carrot-like defect was analyzed by the cathode-luminescence and TEM.

  9. Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxicity of β-Lactoglobulin Nanoparticles: The Effects of Particle Size and Surface Charge

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ho-Kyung; Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Won-Jae

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary to understand the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of food-grade delivery systems, such as β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) nanoparticles, for the application of bioactive compounds to functional foods. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between the physicochemical properties of β-lg nanoparticles, such as particle size and zeta-potential value, and their cellular uptakes and cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. Physicochemical properties of β-lg nanoparticles were evaluated using particle size analyzer. Flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to investigate cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of β-lg nanoparticles. The β-lg nanoparticles with various particle sizes (98 to 192 nm) and zeta-potential values (−14.8 to −17.6 mV) were successfully formed. A decrease in heating temperature from 70°C to 60°C resulted in a decrease in the particle size and an increase in the zeta-potential value of β-lg nanoparticles. Non-cytotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with β-lg nanoparticles. There was an increase in cellular uptake of β-lg nanoparticles with a decrease in particle size and an increase in zeta-potential value. Cellular uptake β-lg nanoparticles was negatively correlated with particle size and positively correlated with zeta-potential value. Therefore, these results suggest that the particle size and zeta-potential value of β-lg nanoparticles play an important role in the cellular uptake. The β-lg nanoparticles can be used as a delivery system in foods due to its high cellular uptake and non-cytotoxicity. PMID:25656189

  10. Secondary electron emission characteristics of ion-textured copper and high-purity isotropic graphite surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N.; Jensen, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentally determined values of true secondary electron emission and relative values of reflected primary electron yield for untreated and ion textured oxygen free high conductivity copper and untreated and ion textured high purity isotropic graphite surfaces are presented for a range of primary electron beam energies and beam impingement angles. This investigation was conducted to provide information that would improve the efficiency of multistage depressed collectors (MDC's) for microwave amplifier traveling wave tubes in space communications and aircraft applications. For high efficiency, MDC electrode surfaces must have low secondary electron emission characteristics. Although copper is a commonly used material for MDC electrodes, it exhibits relatively high levels of secondary electron emission if its surface is not treated for emission control. Recent studies demonstrated that high purity isotropic graphite is a promising material for MDC electrodes, particularly with ion textured surfaces. The materials were tested at primary electron beam energies of 200 to 2000 eV and at direct (0 deg) to near grazing (85 deg) beam impingement angles. True secondary electron emission and relative reflected primary electron yield characteristics of the ion textured surfaces were compared with each other and with those of untreated surfaces of the same materials. Both the untreated and ion textured graphite surfaces and the ion treated copper surface exhibited sharply reduced secondary electron emission characteristics relative to those of untreated copper. The ion treated graphite surface yielded the lowest emission levels.

  11. Bioactivity and Surface Characteristics of Titanium Implants Following Various Surface Treatments: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar K, Aswini; Bhatt, Vinaya; Balakrishnan, Manilal; Hashem, Mohamed; Vellappally, Sajith; Aziz A Al Kheraif, Abdul; Halawany, Hassan Suliman; Abraham, Nimmi Biju; Jacob, Vimal; Anil, Sukumaran

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the surface topography, hydrophilicity, and bioactivity of titanium implants after 3 different surface treatments (sandblasting and acid etching, modified sandblasting and acid etching, and thermal oxidation) with those of machined implants. One hundred indigenously manufactured threaded titanium implants were subjected to 3 methods of surface treatment. The surface roughness of the nontreated (Group A) and treated samples (Groups B through D) was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and profilometer. The wettability was visually examined using a colored dye solution. The calcium ions attached to the implant surface after immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) were assessed on days 1, 2, and 7 with an atomic electron spectroscope. The data were analyzed statistically. The SBF test allowed the precipitation of a calcium phosphate layer on all surface-treated samples, as evidenced in the SEM analysis. A significantly higher amount of calcium ions and increased wettability were achieved in the thermally oxidized samples. The mean roughness was significantly lower in Group A (0.85 ± 0.07) compared to Group B (1.35 ± 0.17), Group C (1.40 ± 0.14), and Group D (1.36 ± 0.18). The observations from this in vitro study indicated that surface treatment of titanium improved the bioactivity. Moreover, results identified the implants that were sandblasted, acid etched, and then oxidized attracted more calcium ions. PMID:25105748

  12. Discrete-hole film cooling characteristics over concave and convex surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Shao-Yen; Yao, Yong-Qing; Xia, Bin; Tsou, Fu-Kang

    The local film-cooling effectiveness and local pressure distribution for single-row discrete holes were measured over the whole areas of concave and convex surfaces, using a plexiglass test section with curvature radii of 140 mm and 70 mm for the concave and the convex surfaces and film-cooling holes (34 on the convex surface and 22 on the concave surface) 8 mm in diameter. The results indicate that the concave surface has the widest film-cooling coverage area in the z-direction (perpendicular to the x-flow direction), while the highest film-cooling effectiveness of the convex surface is near the ejection hole. High blowing ratios at holes have an adverse effect on film cooling. The weakest cooling region is near the center line between holes; such a poorly cooled region is larger on convex surfaces than on the concave ones. Optimal design characteristics for turbine blades surfaces are discussed.

  13. The Study of Cellular and Molecular Physiological Characteristics of Sperm in Men Living in the Aral Sea Region

    PubMed Central

    Kultanov, Berikbay Z.; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S.; Ivasenko, Svetlana A.; Tatina, Yelena S.; Kelmyalene, Assel A.; Assenova, Lyazzat H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Extreme environmental situation in the Aral crisis has caused a massive chemical pollution of the territory for decades with high doses of pesticides, herbicides. Discharge of industrial waste into the rivers that feed the Aral Sea has lead to the development of various pathological processes in the human body, as well as disruption of reproductive function in young men. AIM: To evaluate the performance of molecular cellular changes in the sperm of men under the influence of dust and salt aerosols in Aral Sea region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical and laboratory studies were conducted in men 5 settlements (Aralsk-city, v. Aiteke-Bi, v. Zhalagash, v. Zhusaly, v. Shieli). We have studied male ejaculate obtained after 4-5 days of abstinence, and placed it in a warm tube with a glass stopper. On the investigation proceeded ejaculate within 20-30 minutes after its preparation, during which time he was subjected to liquefaction. Isolation and quantification of ASF, RNA, DNA, and determining the fraction of histones in sperm was performed by the method of Markusheva and Savina. RESULTS: It was found that the value of ASF in the semen of men living in the zone of ecological disaster higher compared with the values of parameters in men living in the area of environmental crisis, and this trend is observed in all age groups. The study of circulating extracellular DNA and RNA in the sperm of men registered their decline with a corresponding increase of acid precursors that can be attributed to the degradation of nucleic acids under the influence of negative factors in the complex area of ecological trouble. Also, according to a study in men residing in the areas of environmental catastrophe at the age of 18-29 years, found an increased content of the H1 histone H2A lower total fraction, H3, H4 - and a sharp increase in histone H2B content - histones. CONCLUSIONS: Men living in environmentally disadvantaged areas of Kyzylorda region under the influence of dust and

  14. Laser treatment of a neodymium magnet and analysis of surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Rizwan, M.; Kassas, M.

    2016-08-01

    Laser treatment of neodymium magnet (Nd2Fe14B) surface is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas. A thin carbon film containing 12% WC carbide particles with 400 nm sizes are formed at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools. The corrosion resistance of the laser treated surface is analyzed incorporating the potentiodynamic tests carried out in 0.05 M NaCl+0.1 M H2SO4 solution. The friction coefficient of the laser treated surface is measured using the micro-scratch tester. The wetting characteristics of the treated surface are assessed incorporating the sessile water drop measurements. It is found that a dense layer consisting of fine size grains and WC particles is formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer. Corrosion resistance of the surface improves significantly after the laser treatment process. Friction coefficient of laser treated surface is lower than that of the as received surface. Laser treatment results in superhydrophobic characteristics at the substrate surface. The formation of hematite and grain size variation in the treated layer slightly lowers the magnetic strength of the laser treated workpiece.

  15. Effects of storage medium and UV photofunctionalization on time-related changes of titanium surface characteristics and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Chen, Yun; Yang, Guo-Li; Wang, Xiao-Xiang; He, Fu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Ming

    2016-07-01

    Storage in aqueous solution and ultraviolet (UV) photofunctionalization are two applicable methods to overcome the biological aging and increase the bioactivity of titanium. As information regarding the combined effects of storage medium and UV photofunctionalization has never been found in published literatures, this study focused on whether appropriate storage methods and UV photofunctionalization have synergistic effects on the biological properties of aged titanium surfaces. Titanium plates and discs were sandblasted and acid etched and then further prepared in five different modes as using different storage mediums (air or dH2 O) for 4 weeks and then with or without UV treatment. The surface characteristics were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the surfaces, and cellular morphology, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin release were evaluated. The results showed that nanostructures were observed on water-stored titanium surfaces with a size of about 15 × 20 nm(2) . UV treatment was effective to remove the hydrocarbon contamination on titanium surfaces stored in either air or water. UV photofunctionalization further enhanced the already increased bioactivity of modSLA on initial cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin release. Overall, UV photofunctionalization was effective in further enhancing the already increased bioactivity by using dH2 O as storage medium, and the effect of UV treatment was much more overwhelming than that of the storage medium. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 932-940, 2016. PMID:25969950

  16. Reflectance characteristics of uniform earth and cloud surfaces derived from Nimbus-7 ERB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, V. R.; Stowe, L. L.

    1984-06-01

    The effect of solar zenith angle (SZA) on the reflectance characteristics of terrestrial surfaces is investigated in data obtained with the Nimbus-7 earth-radiation-budget (ERB) instrument on 61 days during 1978-1979. Ground-based measurements and data from the Nimbus-7 temperature-humidity IR radiometer are used for comparison, and the results are presented in graphs and maps. It is found that increasing SZA leads to increased specularity in water, land, snow, and clouds; increased albedo in all surfaces except snow; and a change from limb darkening to limb brightening in land and cloud surfaces. Water surfaces exhibit limb brightening at all SZAs.

  17. Enhancing the Representation of Subgrid Land Surface Characteristics in Land Surface Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Yinghai; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi

    2013-09-27

    Land surface heterogeneity has long been recognized and increasingly incorporated in the land surface modelling. In most existing land surface models, the spatial variability of surface cover is represented as subgrid composition of multiple surface cover types. In this study, we developed a new subgrid classification method (SGC) that accounts for the topographic variability of the vegetation cover. Each model grid cell was represented with a number of elevation classes and each elevation class was further described by a number of vegetation types. The numbers of elevation classes and vegetation types were variable and optimized for each model grid so that the spatial variability of both elevation and vegetation can be reasonably explained given a pre-determined total number of classes. The subgrid structure of the Community Land Model (CLM) was used as an example to illustrate the newly developed method in this study. With similar computational burden as the current subgrid vegetation representation in CLM, the new method is able to explain at least 80% of the total subgrid PFTs and greatly reduced the variations of elevation within each subgrid class compared to the baseline method where a single elevation class is assigned to each subgrid PFT. The new method was also evaluated against two other subgrid methods (SGC1 and SGC2) that assigned fixed numbers of elevation and vegetation classes for each model grid with different perspectives of surface cover classification. Implemented at five model resolutions (0.1°, 0.25°, 0.5°, 1.0° and 2.0°) with three maximum-allowed total number of classes N_class of 24, 18 and 12 representing different computational burdens over the North America (NA) continent, the new method showed variable performances compared to the SGC1 and SGC2 methods. However, the advantage of the SGC method over the other two methods clearly emerged at coarser model resolutions and with moderate computational intensity (N_class = 18) as it

  18. Biochar production from coffee residues: Optimization of surface characteristics and sorptive behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2015-04-01

    Biochar with high surface area is a promising sorbent for environmental remediation and is produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Knowing the surface characteristics increases our understanding of biochar interactions with pollutants. The hypothesis of the present study is that by controlling pyrolysis conditions, the surface characteristics and subsequently the sorption behavior of produced biochars can be optimized. Coffee residues were dried overnight at 50oC and then pyrolized into a gradient furnace at 850oC. Different solid/oxygen ratios during pyrolysis were tested as well as the up scaling of the process. The biochars produced were systematically characterized for their surface characteristics such as BET surface area, open surface area, pore and micropore volume, and average pore size. The effect of pyrolysis on the biochar suspension pH was examined with the mass addition technique that involves the addition of increasing amounts of the biochar to bottles containing 0.1 M NaNO3. FTIR analysis was used in order to determine the functional groups of the coffee residue and of the biochars. The macrostructure of the biochars was visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Total Carbon (TC) in the samples was determined by Carlo Erba Elemental Analyzer CHNS, EO 1108 after calibration with standard samples. The sorption behavior of produced biochars was tested with two different pollutants (Hg(II), phenanthrene) using batch reactors with the same initial single-compound solution and the same mass of coffee residue and different biochars. The biochars produced exhibited a wide range of surface area from 21 to 770 m2/g and open surface area due to macropores from 21 to 65 m2/g. This suggests that the surface area in the biochars with high surface area results from the formation of pores. Actually for the biochar with the highest surface area, it was calculated that up to 90

  19. Characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons in a dielectrically chiral-metal-chiral waveguiding structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Junqing

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate theoretically the characteristics of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with an asymmetric chiral-metal-chiral (CMC) waveguide structure, under realistic frequency dependencies of the permittivity and chirality parameters. Generalized dispersion relations are derived which can be applied to the nonchiral SPPs. We find that the existence of cutoffs in different modes for the CMC structures may facilitate the design of mode-selective surface plasmon waveguides. CMC-SPPs also exhibit an interesting dependence of the polarization on the chiral strength. These novel characteristics of CMC-SPPs provide new possibilities for the design of more compact nanophotonic devices. PMID:27420505

  20. The implant surface characteristics and peri-implantitis. An evidence-based update.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, C Davila; Almas, K

    2016-03-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease of the peri-implant mucosa with the loss of supporting bone. Because of the absence of an un-inflamed connective tissue zone between the healthy and diseased sites, peri-implant lesions are thought to progress more rapidly than periodontal lesions, suggesting the importance of early diagnosis and intervention if possible. A number of risk factors have been identified that may lead to the initiation and progression of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, eg., previous periodontal disease, poor plaque control, inability to clean, residual cement, smoking, genetic factors, diabetes, occlusal overload, rheumatoid arthritis, increased time of loading and alcohol consumption. At present there is not much literature available, highlighting the relationship between implant surface characteristics and peri-implant diseases. Implant surface characteristics vary with respect to topography, roughness and clinical composition, including turned, blasted, acid etched, porous sintered, oxidized, plasma sprayed and hydroxyapatite coated surfaces and their combinations. So the aim of this review is to explore the relationship between the characteristics of implant surface, the prevalence and incidence of peri-implantitis. This would help to identify plausible influence of surface characteristics, oral hygiene instructions and maintenance of implants for the long-term uneventful success of implant therapy. PMID:27434917

  1. Cross-correlation methods for studying near- and farfield noise characteristics of flow-surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Y. S.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic methods based on cross-correlation techniques are presented for experimental studies of near- and farfield noise characteristics in airflow-surface interaction problems. Analyses show that, in near- and farfields, the noise characteristics due to the surface contribution of fluctuating pressures and velocities and due to the volume contribution of the turbulence in the flow can be determined separately. Both farfield noise intensities and nearfield acoustic energy fluxes can be expressed in terms of appropriate cross correlations. These correlations can be obtained by making microphone measurements in the farfield, in the nearfield, and on the surface. Examples of the applications to the noise field generated by impinging jets, by surface blowing jets, and by turbulent flow over trailing edges are presented. Advantages of the present method over conventional methods are also discussed.

  2. Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Byeong-Yun; Lee, Kang-Min; Kim, Byoung-Yong; Kim, Young-Hwan; Han, Jin-Woo; Han, Jeong-Min; Lee, Sang-Keuk; Seo, Dae-Shik

    2008-09-15

    The surface modification characteristics of liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers irradiated with various argon (Ar) ion beam (IB) energies were investigated as a substitute for rubbing technology. Various pretilt angles were created on the IB-irradiated polyimide (PI) surfaces after IB irradiation, but the Ar ions did not alter the morphology on the PI surface, indicating that the pretilt angle was not due to microgrooves. The chemical bonding states of the IB-irradiated PI surfaces were analyzed in detail by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to verify the compositional behavior for the LC alignment. Chemical structure analysis showed that the alignment ability of LCs was due to the preferential reorientation of the carbon network due to the breaking of C=O double bonds in the imide ring parallel to the incident IB direction. The potential of applying nonrubbing technology to display devices was further supported by the superior electro-optical characteristics compared to rubbed PI.

  3. Acoustic radiation and surface pressure characteristics of an airfoil due to incident turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterson, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of the noise and unsteady surface pressure characteristics of an isolated airfoil in a uniform mean velocity, homogeneous, nearly-isotropic turbulence field was conducted. Wind tunnel experiments were performed with a 23 cm chord, two dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil over a free stream Mach number range of 0.1 to 0.5. Far-field noise spectra and directivity were measured in an anechoic chamber that surrounded the tunnel open jet test section. Spanwise and chordwise distribution of unsteady airfoil surface pressure spectra and surface pressure cross-spectra were obtained. Incident turbulence intensities, length scales, spectra, and spanwise cross-spectra, required in the calculation of far-field noise and surface pressure characteristics were also measured.

  4. Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

  5. Experimental Study on Surface Characteristics of Laser Cladding Layer Regulated by High-Frequency Microforging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiang Fang; Zhou, Ju; Qiu, Chang Jun; He, Bin; Ye, Jiang; Yuan, Bo; Pi, Zhengqing

    2011-03-01

    High-frequency microforging technology is used to produce micrometer-scale plastic deformation on the surface of material out of the vibration impact of a forging punch, and the cumulative effect of its various frequencies on micrometer-scale plastic deformation can cause changes of surface microstructure and mechanical properties. This study used (1) a self-made machine to treat NiCrBSi alloy, (2) a mechanical comparator and optical microscopy (OM) to study the geometric characteristics of plastic deformation, (3) OM and scanning electric microscopy (SEM) to observe influence on surface microstructure and cracking behavior of the laser cladding layer under microforging, (4) x-ray diffractometer (XRD) to measure the surface residual stress of laser cladding layer before and after forging, and (5) microhardness tester and wearing experimental machine to study changes of microhardness, friction coefficient, and wear characteristics of laser cladding layer after microforging. The results have shown that high-frequency microforging could produce plastic deformation about 150 μm deep on the surface of NiCrBSi alloy clad by laser. Regular dendrite and eutectic crystallization microstructure, which is a peculiar characteristic of the laser cladding layer, was broken into pieces and formed residual compression residual stress on the surface. Resistance to cracking of laser cladding layer improved greatly, microhardness and wearability increased, and the friction coefficient did not under go a noticeable change.

  6. Textured carbon on copper: A novel surface with extremely low secondary electron emission characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curren, A. N.; Jensen, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimentally determined values of true secondary electron emission and relative values of reflected primary electron yield for a range of primary electron beam energies and beam impingement angles are presented for a series of novel textured carbon surfaces on copper substrates. (All copper surfaces used in this study were oxygen-free, high-conductivity grade). The purpose of this investigation is to provide information necessary to develop high-efficiency multistage depressed collectors (MDC's) for microwave amplifier traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) for communications and aircraft applications. To attain the highest TWT signal quality and overall efficiency, the MDC electrode surface must have low secondary electron emission characteristics. While copper is the material most commonly used for MDC electrodes, it exhibits relatively high levels of secondary electron emission unless its surface is treated for emission control. The textured carbon surface on copper substrate described in this report is a particularly promising candidate for the MDC electrode application. Samples of textured carbon surfaces on copper substrates typical of three different levels of treatment are prepared and tested for this study. The materials are tested at primary electron beam energies of 200 to 2000 eV and at direct (0 deg) to near-grazing (85 deg) beam impingement angles. True secondary electron emission and relative reflected primary electron yield characteristics of the textured surfaces are compared with each other and with those of untreated copper. All the textured carbon surfaces on copper substrate tested exhibited sharply lower secondary electron emission characteristics than those of an untreated copper surface.

  7. Electron reflection and secondary emission characteristics of sputter-textured pyrolytic graphite surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Curren, A. N.; Sovey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Low secondary and reflected primary electron emission from the collector electrode surfaces is important for optimum collector efficiency and hence for high overall efficiency of microwave amplifier tubes used in communication satellites and in military systems. Ion sputter texturing of the surface effectively suppresses electron emission from pyrolytic graphite, which is a promising collector electrode material. Secondary and reflected primary electron emission characteristics of sputter textured pyrolytic graphite surfaces with microstructures of various sizes and densities are presented. The microstructure with the lowest electron emission levels, less than those of soot, consists of a dense array of tall, thin spires.

  8. Surface phenotypic characteristics and virulence of Spanish isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida after passage through fish.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, A I; Pérez, M J; Rodríguez, L A; Nieto, T P

    1995-01-01

    Eleven strains of Aeromonas salmonicida were passaged twice by intraperitoneal injection through rainbow trout and reisolated from the kidney of moribund fish. The surface characteristics and virulence of the strains changed following passage through fish. None of the in vitro tests used could effectively predict the in vivo virulence. PMID:7646039

  9. Variability of Surface Characteristics and Transport Behavior of Escherichia coli Isolates from Different Host

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli is a commonly used indicator organism for detecting the presence of fecal-borne pathogenic microorganisms in water supplies. The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism has led to numerous studies looking at surface characteristics and transport behavior of this important mic...

  10. Spatio-temporal variations in surface characteristics over the North American Monsoon region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we summarize the surface characteristics for six locations in western Mexico and southwestern USA (from a subhumid climate in Jalisco, Mexico to the Sonoran Desert climate in Arizona, USA),that lie along a meridional transect within the North American Monsoon (NAM) core region using av...

  11. Field emission characteristics of nano-diamond cathode surface by graphitization pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yan-mei; Yang, Yan-ning; Liu, Qiao-ping; Li, Wei-xia

    2016-03-01

    Cathode samples of nano-diamond by graphitization pretreatment with different temperatures were fabricated by electrophoresis, then the structures and morphologies of the cathode samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the field emission tests were conducted. The effects of graphitization pretreatment on the field emission characteristics of nano-diamond cathode surface on titanium substrate are studied. The results indicate that the surface morphologies of nano-diamond cathode samples after graphitization pretreatment change a lot, and the field emission characteristics in low-voltage area are improved obviously. However, in high-voltage area, the curve distortion happens, and it doesn't conform the mechanism of field emission characteristics.

  12. Effect of Autoclave Cycles on Surface Characteristics of S-File Evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Razavian, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Pedram; Mojtahedi, Hamid; Nazeri, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Presence of surface defects in endodontic instruments can lead to unwanted complications such as instrument fracture and incomplete preparation of the canal. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of autoclave cycles on surface characteristics of S-File by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: In this experimental study, 17 brand new S-Files (#30) were used. The surface characteristics of the files were examined in four steps (without autoclave, 1 autoclave cycle, 5 autoclave cycles and 10 autoclave cycles) by SEM under 200× and 1000× magnifications. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the paired sample t-test, independent sample t-test and multifactorial repeated measures ANOVA. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: New files had debris and pitting on their surfaces. When the autoclave cycles were increased, the mean of surface roughness also increased at both magnifications (P<0.05). Moreover, under 1000× magnification the multifactorial repeated measures ANOVA showed more surface roughness (P<0.001). Conclusion: Sterilization by autoclave increased the surface roughness of the files and this had was directly related to the number of autoclave cycles. PMID:26843874

  13. Influence law of structural characteristics on the surface roughness of a magnetorheological-finished KDP crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoshan; Li, Shengyi; Hu, Hao; Li, Qi; Tie, Guipeng

    2014-11-01

    A new nonaqueous and abrasive-free magnetorheological finishing (MRF) method is adopted for processing potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal due to its low hardness, high brittleness, temperature sensitivity, and water solubility. This paper researches the influence of structural characteristics on the surface roughness of MRF-finished KDP crystal. The material removal by dissolution is uniform layer by layer when the polishing parameters are stable. The angle between the direction of the polishing wheel's linear velocity and the initial turning lines will affect the surface roughness. If the direction is perpendicular to the initial turning lines, the polishing can remove the lines. If the direction is parallel to the initial turning lines, the polishing can achieve better surface roughness. The structural characteristic of KDP crystal is related to its internal chemical bonds due to its anisotropy. During the MRF finishing process, surface roughness will be improved if the structural characteristics of the KDP crystal are the same on both sides of the wheel. The processing results of (001) plane crystal show we can get the best surface roughness (RMS of 0.809 nm) if the directions of cutting and MRF polishing are along the (110) direction. PMID:25402879

  14. Surface characteristics analysis of polypropylene treated by dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishime, T. M. C.; Toth, A.; Hein, L. R. O.; Kostov, K. G.

    2012-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) samples were treated by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) in order to modify their surface characteristics. The XPS analysis reveals that the DBD treatment added oxygen atoms to the PP surface. These polar groups cause increase in the wettability as shown by water contact angle measurements. The formation of low-molecular-weight oxidized materials (LMWOMs) in the form of small nodules on the PP surface was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The presence of oxygen polar groups on the PP surface was also confirmed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). All analysis were performed before and after rinsing the treated samples in water and showed that the LMWOM can be removed from the surface by polar solvents.

  15. Simulation of nonlinear superconducting rf losses derived from characteristic topography of etched and electropolished niobium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A simplified numerical model has been developed to simulate nonlinear superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) losses on Nb surfaces. This study focuses exclusively on excessive surface resistance (Rs ) losses due to the microscopic topographical magnetic field enhancements. When the enhanced local surface magnetic field exceeds the superconducting critical transition magnetic field Hc , small volumes of surface material may become normal conducting and increase the effective surface resistance without inducing a quench. We seek to build an improved quantitative characterization of this qualitative model. Using topographic data from typical buffered chemical polish (BCP)- and electropolish (EP)-treated fine grain niobium, we have estimated the resulting field-dependent losses and extrapolated this model to the implications for cavity performance. The model predictions correspond well to the characteristic BCP versus EP high field Q0 performance differences for fine grain niobium. We describe the algorithm of the model, its limitations, and the effects of this nonlinear loss contribution on SRF cavity performance.

  16. Effect of the Surface Condition of a Wing on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrance, S J

    1934-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of the surface conditions of a wing on the aerodynamic characteristics of an airplane, tests were conducted in the N.A.C.A. full-scale wind tunnel on the Fairchild F-22 airplane first with normal commercial finish of wing surface and later with the same wing polished. Comparison of the characteristics of the airplane with the two surface conditions shows that the polish caused a negligible change in the lift curve, but reduced the minimum drag coefficient by 0.001. This reduction in drag if applied to an airplane with a given speed of 200 miles per hour and a minimum drag coefficient of 0.025 would increase the speed only 2.9 miles per hour, but if the speed remained the same, the power would be reduced 4 percent.

  17. System and method for non-destructive evaluation of surface characteristics of a magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Jiles, David C.; Sipahi, Levent B.

    1994-05-17

    A system and a related method for non-destructive evaluation of the surface characteristics of a magnetic material. The sample is excited by an alternating magnetic field. The field frequency, amplitude and offset are controlled according to a predetermined protocol. The Barkhausen response of the sample is detected for the various fields and offsets and is analyzed. The system produces information relating to the frequency content, the amplitude content, the average or RMS energy content, as well as count rate information, for each of the Barkhausen responses at each of the excitation levels applied during the protocol. That information provides a contiguous body of data, heretofore unavailable, which can be analyzed to deduce information about the surface characteristics of the material at various depths below the surface.

  18. Emission and surface characteristic of ternary alloy Ir/Re/W-coated impregnated tungsten cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honglai; Liu, Yanwen; Zhang, Mingchen; Li, Yutao

    2005-09-01

    In order to improve the activation characteristics and emission ability of the conventional Ir-coated impregnated tungsten cathodes, a new type of dispenser cathode with ternary alloy Ir/Re/W coating was developed. The improved cathodes show higher emission current density and faster activation characteristics than that of the conventional pure Ir-coated impregnated tungsten cathodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the element compositions on the surface of the cathodes coated with pure Ir and Ir/Re/W alloy. The results show that for pure Ir coating cathode, binary alloy (Ir/W) is formed. The surface atom concentration is near 50/50 after full activation. For ternary alloy coating cathode, the surface atom concentration has changed from 35%Ir-25%Re-40%W to 33%Ir-19%Re-48%W before and after activation.

  19. Aging Characteristics on Epoxy Resin Surface Under Repetitive Microsecond Pulses in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Xiong; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ruixue; Rao, Zhangquan; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Research on aging characteristics of epoxy resin (EP) under repetitive microsecond pulses is important for the design of insulating materials in high power apparatus. It is because that very fast transient overvoltage always occurs in a power system, which causes flashover and is one of the main factors causing aging effects of EP materials. Therefore, it is essential to obtain a better understanding of the aging effect on an EP surface resulting from flashover. In this work, aging effects on an EP surface were investigated by surface flashover discharge under repetitive microsecond pulses in atmospheric pressure. The investigations of parameters such as the surface micro-morphology and chemical composition of the insulation material under different degrees of aging were conducted with the aid of measurement methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that with the accumulation of aging energy on the material surface, the particles formed on the material surface increased both in number and size, leading to the growth of surface roughness and a reduction in the water contact angle; the surface also became more absorbent. Furthermore, in the aging process, the molecular chains of EP on the surface were broken, resulting in oxidation and carbonisation. supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (No. E2015502081), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51222701, 51307060), and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB239505-3)

  20. Surface slope characteristics from Thermal Emission Spectrometer emission phase function observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2006-12-01

    It is possible to obtain surface roughness characteristics, by measuring a single surface from multiple emission angles and azimuths in the thermal infrared. Surfaces will have different temperatures depending on their orientation relative to the sun. A different proportion of sunlit versus shaded surfaces will be in the field of view based on the viewing orientation, resulting in apparent temperature differences. This difference in temperature can be utilized to calculate the slope characteristics for the observed area. This technique can be useful for determining surface slope characteristics not resolvable by orbital imagery. There are two main components to this model, a surface DEM, in this case a synthetic, two dimensional sine wave surface, and a thermal model (provided by H. Kieffer). Using albedo, solar longitude, slope, azimuth, along with several other parameters, the temperature for each cell of the DEM is calculated using the thermal model. A temperature is then predicted using the same observation geometries as the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations. A temperature difference is calculated for the two complementary viewing azimuths and emission angles from the DEM. These values are then compared to the observed temperature difference to determine the surface slope. This method has been applied to TES Emission Phase Function (EPF) observations for both the spectrometer and bolometer data, with a footprint size of 10s of kilometers. These specialized types of TES observations measure nearly the same surface from several angles. Accurate surface kinetic temperatures are obtained after the application of an atmospheric correction for the TES bolometer and/or spectrometer. Initial results include an application to the northern circumpolar dunes. An average maximum slope of ~33 degrees has been obtained, which makes physical sense since this is near the angle of repose for sand sized particles. There is some scatter in the data from separate

  1. Surface Structure Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Conidia Mutated in the Melanin Synthesis Pathway and Their Human Cellular Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Beaussart, Audrey; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Sharma, Meenu; Bansal, Kushagra; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Brakhage, Axel A.; Kaveri, Srini V.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

    2014-01-01

    In Aspergillus fumigatus, the conidial surface contains dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin. Six-clustered gene products have been identified that mediate sequential catalysis of DHN-melanin biosynthesis. Melanin thus produced is known to be a virulence factor, protecting the fungus from the host defense mechanisms. In the present study, individual deletion of the genes involved in the initial three steps of melanin biosynthesis resulted in an altered conidial surface with masked surface rodlet layer, leaky cell wall allowing the deposition of proteins on the cell surface and exposing the otherwise-masked cell wall polysaccharides at the surface. Melanin as such was immunologically inert; however, deletion mutant conidia with modified surfaces could activate human dendritic cells and the subsequent cytokine production in contrast to the wild-type conidia. Cell surface defects were rectified in the conidia mutated in downstream melanin biosynthetic pathway, and maximum immune inertness was observed upon synthesis of vermelone onward. These observations suggest that although melanin as such is an immunologically inert material, it confers virulence by facilitating proper formation of the A. fumigatus conidial surface. PMID:24818666

  2. Surface accuracy and radiation pattern characteristics of mesh deployable refector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Miyoshi; Ebisui, Takashi; Okamato, Teruki; Orikasa, Teruaki; Sugimoto, Toshio; Iso, Akio

    To facilitate the growth of mobile satellite communications, both an increase in the Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP) of satellites and improved frequency reuse are required to achiveve compact size, low cost terminal usage, and high channel capacity. High gain and low sidelobe antenna technology are very important for high EIRP and frequency reuse, respectively. These requirements are expected to be met by using a large deployable mesh reflector antenna, which is the key technology for future multibeam moble communications systems. In this paper, surface accruracy and related electrical characteristics are studied using a TETRUS-(Tetra Trigonal Prism Truss) type deployable mesh reflector antenna. Surface accuracy and related electrical characteristics of reflector antennas becaue any distortion of the ideal paraboloidal configuration causes antenna patterns to deteriorate, thereby reducing reflector aperture efficiency and increasing sidelobe and grating lobe levels. The sidelobe and grating lobe characteristics are especially important in frequency reuse. First, we show the problem with the radiation pattern characteristics of TETUS antenna. We then propose a new antenna configuration called the 'HYBRID TETRUS' that improves these characteristics. The mechanical performances of two partial deployable models are also described. Mechanical testing results reveal agreement between the calculated and measured values and high rigidities.

  3. Influence of the cooling liquid on surface quality characteristics in milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampu, N. C.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B. A.; Herghelegiu, E.; Radu, M. C.

    2015-11-01

    Cooling system and cooling liquid characteristics are among the main factors influencing surface quality and tool wear. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of the cooling liquid, used in different concentrations and at different temperatures, on the quality of the surface layer processed by milling. In order to make this analysis a Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) cooling device is used. Three different volumetric ratios were used to modify the concentration of the cooling fluid (25% water to 75% emulsion, 50% water to 50% emulsion, 75% water to 25% emulsion) and three different temperatures. The studies revealed that surface roughness can be correlated with the variation of the cooling liquid temperature while surface flatness can be correlated to both, cooling liquid temperature and concentration.

  4. Quantification of synthetic lens surface characteristics by an optical measurement system as stylus instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Patrick; Wünsche, Christine; Rascher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    A measurement system to monitor the turning tool achieves a reduction in production rejects by decreasing the delay time between tool wear detection and quality control of the surface, which usually takes place after the time-intensive polishing process. In highly automated production of lucent synthetic lenses the standardized polishing process turns out to be inefficient if there is an insufficient surface quality caused by outrunning tool wear limits of the undergone turning process. The possibility to indicate the tool's wear will be demonstrated by checking the surface characteristics of synthetic lenses. For that research an experimental measurement setup is shown. This optical measurement system detects the surface's roughness, which is indicative of tool wear.

  5. Engineering a Biocompatible Scaffold with Either Micrometre or Nanometre Scale Surface Topography for Promoting Protein Adsorption and Cellular Response

    PubMed Central

    Le, Xuan; Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Ali, Nurshahidah; Berry, Cassandra M.; Fawcett, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Surface topographical features on biomaterials, both at the submicrometre and nanometre scales, are known to influence the physicochemical interactions between biological processes involving proteins and cells. The nanometre-structured surface features tend to resemble the extracellular matrix, the natural environment in which cells live, communicate, and work together. It is believed that by engineering a well-defined nanometre scale surface topography, it should be possible to induce appropriate surface signals that can be used to manipulate cell function in a similar manner to the extracellular matrix. Therefore, there is a need to investigate, understand, and ultimately have the ability to produce tailor-made nanometre scale surface topographies with suitable surface chemistry to promote favourable biological interactions similar to those of the extracellular matrix. Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology have produced many new nanomaterials and numerous manufacturing techniques that have the potential to significantly improve several fields such as biological sensing, cell culture technology, surgical implants, and medical devices. For these fields to progress, there is a definite need to develop a detailed understanding of the interaction between biological systems and fabricated surface structures at both the micrometre and nanometre scales. PMID:23533416

  6. Ru(ii)-polypyridyl surface functionalised gold nanoparticles as DNA targeting supramolecular structures and luminescent cellular imaging agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Calvo, Miguel; Orange, Kim N.; Elmes, Robert B. P.; La Cour Poulsen, Bjørn; Williams, D. Clive; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2015-12-01

    The development of Ru(ii) functionalized gold nanoparticles 1-3.AuNP is described. These systems were found to be mono-disperse with a hydrodynamic radius of ca. 15 nm in water but gave rise to the formation of higher order structures in buffered solution. The interaction of 1-3.AuNP with DNA was also studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods and suggested the formation of large self-assembly structures in solution. The uptake of 1-3.AuNP by cancer cells was studied using both confocal fluorescence as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the aim of investigating their potential as tools for cellular biology. These systems displaying a non-toxic profile with favourable photophysical properties may have application across various biological fields including diagnostics and therapeutics.The development of Ru(ii) functionalized gold nanoparticles 1-3.AuNP is described. These systems were found to be mono-disperse with a hydrodynamic radius of ca. 15 nm in water but gave rise to the formation of higher order structures in buffered solution. The interaction of 1-3.AuNP with DNA was also studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods and suggested the formation of large self-assembly structures in solution. The uptake of 1-3.AuNP by cancer cells was studied using both confocal fluorescence as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the aim of investigating their potential as tools for cellular biology. These systems displaying a non-toxic profile with favourable photophysical properties may have application across various biological fields including diagnostics and therapeutics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05598a

  7. Solid particle impingement erosion characteristics of cylindrical surfaces, pre-existing holes and slits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The erosion characteristics of aluminum cylinders sand-blasted with both spherical and angular erodent particles were studied and compared with results from previously studied flat surfaces. The cylindrical results are discussed with respect to impact conditions. The relationship between erosion rate and pit morphology (width, depth, and width to depth ratio) is established. The aspects of (1) erosion rate versus time curves on cylindrical surfaces; (2) long-term exposures; and (3) erosion rate versus time curves with spherical and angular particles are presented. The erosion morphology and characteristics of aluminum surfaces with pre-existing circular cylindrical and conical holes of different sizes were examined using weight loss measurements, scanning electron microscopy, a profilometer, and a depth gage. The morphological features (radial and concentric rings) are discussed with reference to flat surfaces, and the erosion features with spherical microglass beads. The similarities and differences of erosion and morphological features are highlighted. The erosion versus time curves of various shapes of holes are discussed and are compared with those of a flat surface. The erosion process at slits is considered.

  8. The effects of liquid-phase oxidation of multiwall carbon nanotubes on their surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrov, I. N.; Muratov, D. S.; Ilinykh, I. A.; Kolesnikov, E. A.; Godymchuk, A. Yu; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The development of new sorbents based on nanostructured carbon materials recently became a perspective field of research. Main topic of current study is to investigate the effect of different regimes of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) surface modification process on their structural characteristics. MWCNT samples were treated with nitric acid at high temperature. Structural properties were studied using low temperature nitrogen adsorption and acid-base back titration methods. The study showed that diluted nitric acid does not affect MWCNT structure. Concentrated nitric acid treatment leads to formation of 2.8 carboxylic groups per 1 nm2 of the sample surface.

  9. Identification of microbes from the surfaces of food-processing lines based on the flow cytometric evaluation of cellular metabolic activity combined with cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Juzwa, W; Duber, A; Myszka, K; Białas, W; Czaczyk, K

    2016-09-01

    In this study the design of a flow cytometry-based procedure to facilitate the detection of adherent bacteria from food-processing surfaces was evaluated. The measurement of the cellular redox potential (CRP) of microbial cells was combined with cell sorting for the identification of microorganisms. The procedure enhanced live/dead cell discrimination owing to the measurement of the cell physiology. The microbial contamination of the surface of a stainless steel conveyor used to process button mushrooms was evaluated in three independent experiments. The flow cytometry procedure provided a step towards monitoring of contamination and enabled the assessment of microbial food safety hazards by the discrimination of active, mid-active and non-active bacterial sub-populations based on determination of their cellular vitality and subsequently single cell sorting to isolate microbial strains from discriminated sub-populations. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.97; p < 0.05) between the bacterial cell count estimated by the pour plate method and flow cytometry, despite there being differences in the absolute number of cells detected. The combined approach of flow cytometric CRP measurement and cell sorting allowed an in situ analysis of microbial cell vitality and the identification of species from defined sub-populations, although the identified microbes were limited to culturable cells. PMID:27406324

  10. Surface-anchored poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine) with enhanced chirality-selective effect on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun; Wu, Sai; Yao, Mengyun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is one of the ubiquitous phenomena in biological systems. The left handed (L-) amino acids and right handed (D-) sugars are normally found in proteins, and in RNAs and DNAs, respectively. The effect of chiral surfaces at the nanoscale on cellular uptake has, however, not been explored. This study reveals for the first time the molecular chirality on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functions as a direct regulator for cellular uptake. Monolayers of 2-mercaptoacetyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-MAV) and poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-PAV) chiral molecules were formed on AuNPs surface, respectively. The internalized amount of PAV-AuNPs was several times larger than that of MAV-AuNPs by A549 and HepG2 cells, regardless of the chirality difference. However, the D-PAV-AuNPs were internalized with significantly larger amount than the L-PAV-AuNPs. This chirality-dependent uptake effect is likely attributed to the preferable interaction between the L-phospholipid-based cell membrane and the D-enantiomers. PMID:27531648

  11. Surface-anchored poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine) with enhanced chirality-selective effect on cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jun; Wu, Sai; Yao, Mengyun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-01-01

    Chirality is one of the ubiquitous phenomena in biological systems. The left handed (L-) amino acids and right handed (D-) sugars are normally found in proteins, and in RNAs and DNAs, respectively. The effect of chiral surfaces at the nanoscale on cellular uptake has, however, not been explored. This study reveals for the first time the molecular chirality on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functions as a direct regulator for cellular uptake. Monolayers of 2-mercaptoacetyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-MAV) and poly(acryloyl-L(D)-valine (L(D)-PAV) chiral molecules were formed on AuNPs surface, respectively. The internalized amount of PAV-AuNPs was several times larger than that of MAV-AuNPs by A549 and HepG2 cells, regardless of the chirality difference. However, the D-PAV-AuNPs were internalized with significantly larger amount than the L-PAV-AuNPs. This chirality-dependent uptake effect is likely attributed to the preferable interaction between the L-phospholipid-based cell membrane and the D-enantiomers. PMID:27531648

  12. [Special therapeutic surfaces for handling pressure in pediatrics (I). Characteristics and competency].

    PubMed

    García Molina, Pablo; Balaguer López, Evelin

    2009-02-01

    Bed sores among pediatric patients constitutes an all too common adverse effect provoked by the application of new technologies adapted to a pediatrics context. Special Therapeutic Surfaces for Handling Pressure has proven to be an effective measure among adults. But the use of Special Therapeutic Surfaces for Handling Pressure for adults on children constitutes a grave error which can even be prejudicial for a pediatric patient. This is deemed an error due to the differences in anthropometrical measures between children and adults plus the specific design of Special Therapeutic Surfaces for Handling Pressure for adults. So that pediatric patients are benefited by this preventive measure, this measure must be adapted to pediatrics own specific circumstances. Along this line, the use of static Special Therapeutic Surfaces for Handling Pressure on patients at risk has proven to have a better cost-benefit ratio, a greater degree of comfort, and a greater degree of security than dynamic ones. To apply the most adequate Special Therapeutic Surfaces for Handling Pressure, we need to their specific characteristics as well as those of a pediatric patient. The best complement to Special Therapeutic Surfaces for Handling Pressure Special Therapeutic Surfaces for Handling Pressure are local devices which provide relief to pressure, preferably those which comply with the national norms for health products. PMID:19354149

  13. Arecibo radar observations of Mars surface characteristics in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. A.; Tyler, G. L.; Campbell, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    Mars surface characteristics at and near the Viking Chryse and Tritonis Lacus landing areas were determined by radio scatter using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory during 1975-76. Interpretation of each power spectrum suggests rms surface tilts of 4 deg at the final A1WNW (47.9 deg W, 22.5 deg N) site, 5 deg near the original A1 site, and 6 deg between the two. At the back-up site (A2) surface-roughness estimates were about 4 deg. Striking changes in surface texture have been found near the eastern bases of Tharsis Montes and Albor Tholus, each volcanic feature marking the western boundary of very smooth surface units. The roughness sensed at 1- to 100-m scales by radar appears to be relatively independent of the surface units defined at large scale lengths by photogeologists. Radar properties thus provide an additional means by which planetary surfaces may be characterized.

  14. Nanoscale surface modifications to control capillary flow characteristics in PMMA microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhadeep; Roy, Susanta S; D'Sa, Raechelle A; Mathur, Ashish; Holmes, Richard J; McLaughlin, James A

    2011-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic devices have been fabricated using a hot embossing technique to incorporate micro-pillar features on the bottom wall of the device which when combined with either a plasma treatment or the coating of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film presents a range of surface modification profiles. Experimental results presented in detail the surface modifications in the form of distinct changes in the static water contact angle across a range from 44.3 to 81.2 when compared to pristine PMMA surfaces. Additionally, capillary flow of water (dyed to aid visualization) through the microfluidic devices was recorded and analyzed to provide comparison data between filling time of a microfluidic chamber and surface modification characteristics, including the effects of surface energy and surface roughness on the microfluidic flow. We have experimentally demonstrated that fluid flow and thus filling time for the microfluidic device was significantly faster for the device with surface modifications that resulted in a lower static contact angle, and also that the incorporation of micro-pillars into a fluidic device increases the filling time when compared to comparative devices. PMID:21711936

  15. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  16. Cell Surface Profiling Using High-Throughput Flow Cytometry: A Platform for Biomarker Discovery and Analysis of Cellular Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gedye, Craig A.; Hussain, Ali; Paterson, Joshua; Smrke, Alannah; Saini, Harleen; Sirskyj, Danylo; Pereira, Keira; Lobo, Nazleen; Stewart, Jocelyn; Go, Christopher; Ho, Jenny; Medrano, Mauricio; Hyatt, Elzbieta; Yuan, Julie; Lauriault, Stevan; Kondratyev, Maria; van den Beucken, Twan; Jewett, Michael; Dirks, Peter; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Danska, Jayne; Wang, Jean; Wouters, Bradly; Neel, Benjamin; Rottapel, Robert; Ailles, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    Cell surface proteins have a wide range of biological functions, and are often used as lineage-specific markers. Antibodies that recognize cell surface antigens are widely used as research tools, diagnostic markers, and even therapeutic agents. The ability to obtain broad cell surface protein profiles would thus be of great value in a wide range of fields. There are however currently few available methods for high-throughput analysis of large numbers of cell surface proteins. We describe here a high-throughput flow cytometry (HT-FC) platform for rapid analysis of 363 cell surface antigens. Here we demonstrate that HT-FC provides reproducible results, and use the platform to identify cell surface antigens that are influenced by common cell preparation methods. We show that multiple populations within complex samples such as primary tumors can be simultaneously analyzed by co-staining of cells with lineage-specific antibodies, allowing unprecedented depth of analysis of heterogeneous cell populations. Furthermore, standard informatics methods can be used to visualize, cluster and downsample HT-FC data to reveal novel signatures and biomarkers. We show that the cell surface profile provides sufficient molecular information to classify samples from different cancers and tissue types into biologically relevant clusters using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Finally, we describe the identification of a candidate lineage marker and its subsequent validation. In summary, HT-FC combines the advantages of a high-throughput screen with a detection method that is sensitive, quantitative, highly reproducible, and allows in-depth analysis of heterogeneous samples. The use of commercially available antibodies means that high quality reagents are immediately available for follow-up studies. HT-FC has a wide range of applications, including biomarker discovery, molecular classification of cancers, or identification of novel lineage specific or stem cell markers. PMID:25170899

  17. Influence of Surface Characteristics on the Stability of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Butkus, Michael A.; Bays, J. Timothy; Labare, Michael P.

    2003-01-01

    Microelectrophoresis is a common technique for probing the surface chemistry of the Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst. Results of previous studies of the electrophoretic mobility of C. parvum oocysts in which microelectrophoresis was used are incongruent. In this work we demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis may also be used to probe the surface characteristics of C. parvum oocysts, and we related the surface chemistry of C. parvum oocysts to their stability in water. Capillary electrophoresis results indicated that oocysts which were washed in a phosphate buffer solution had neutrally charged surfaces. Inactivation of oocysts with formalin did not influence their electrophoretic mobility, while oocyst populations that were washed in distilled water consisted of cells with both neutral and negative surface charges. These results indicate that washing oocysts in low-ionic-strength distilled water can impart a negative charge to a fraction of the oocysts in the sample. Rapid coagulation experiments indicated that oocysts did not aggregate in a 0.5 M NaCl solution; oocyst stability in the salt solution may have been the result of Lewis acid-base forces, steric stabilization, or some other factor. The presence of sucrose and Percoll could not be readily identified on the surface of C. parvum oocysts by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, suggesting that these purification reagents may not be responsible for the stability of the uncharged oocysts. These findings imply that precipitate enmeshment may be the optimal mechanism of coagulation for removal of oocysts in water treatment systems. The results of this work may help elucidate the causes of variation in oocyst surface characteristics, may ultimately lead to improved removal efficiencies in full-scale water treatment systems, and may improve fate and transport predictions for oocysts in natural systems. PMID:12839749

  18. Phase transition characteristics in the conductivity of VO₂(A) nanowires: size and surface effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, C Q; Shao, Jian; Liu, X L; Chen, Yun; Xiong, W M; Zhang, X Y; Zheng, Yue

    2016-04-21

    Transition-metal oxides have fascinating characteristics, and have been exploited for various applications, such as Mott transistors, optical switches and strain sensors, etc. Vanadium dioxide is a special and important transition-metal oxide, and exhibits the significant behavior of metal-insulator transition. In this work, single crystalline VO2(A) nanowires have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Due to the size and surface effects, the nanowires with different widths show great disparities in their hysteresis loops, phase transition temperatures and electrical conductivities. Our results show that the phase transition temperature is linearly dependent on the inverse of the nanowire widths, and a similar relationship between the electrical conductivity and the width of the nanowires has also been found. More interestingly, the first-order phase transition of the nanowire even coverts into high-order continuous phase transition when the width is below a critical size. To explore the intrinsic influence of the size and surface effects, the analysis of the transmission electron microscopy measurements showed that the rough surface structure of the nanowire is very different to the internal structure, and the thickness of this rough surface structure almost remains unchanged as the with of the nanowire decreases. Our results indicated that the surface structure has a remarkable effect on the phase transition characteristics decreasing nanowire width, and the suitable heterogeneous nucleation originating from the rough surface structure should play a crucial role in properties of the VO2(A) nanowires. Size-dependent phase transition features of the VO2(A) nanowires also suggest that the size and surface effects must be taken into consideration when designing VO2 nanodevices. PMID:27020733

  19. Soybean hull peroxidase immobilization on macroporous glycidyl methacrylates with different surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Prokopijevic, Milos; Prodanovic, Olivera; Spasojevic, Dragica; Stojanovic, Zeljko; Radotic, Ksenija; Prodanovic, Radivoje

    2014-05-01

    Soybean hull peroxidase (SHP, E.C. 1.11.1.7) was immobilized by a glutaraldehyde and periodate method onto series of macroporous copolymers of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) with various surface characteristics and pore size diameters ranging from 44 to 200 nm. Glutaraldehyde immobilization method and poly(GMA-co-EGDMA) named SGE 20/12 with pore sizes of 120 nm gave immobilized enzyme with highest specific activity of 25 U/g. Deactivation studies showed that immobilization increased stability of SHP and that surface characteristics of the used copolymer had a major influence on a stability of immobilized enzyme at high temperatures and in an organic solvent. The highest thermostability was obtained using the copolymer SGE 20/12 with pore size of 120 nm, while the highest stability in dioxane had SHP immobilized onto copolymer SGE 10/4 with pore size of 44 nm. Immobilized SHP showed a wider pH optimum as compared to the native enzyme especially at alkaline pH values and 3.2 times increased K m value for pyrogallol. After 6 cycles of repeated use in batch reactor, immobilized SHP retained 25 % of its original activity. Macroporous copolymers with different surface characteristics can be used for fine tuning of activity and stability of immobilized SHP to obtain a biocatalyst suitable for phenol oxidation or polymer synthesis in organic solvents. PMID:24061564

  20. Tribological characteristics of corrugated nano-scale dimpled and nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, In-Gyu; Lee, Chang-Soon; Cho, In-Shik

    2013-12-01

    The effects of ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) on the tribological characteristics of two different Cu-based alloys sintered on low carbon steel were investigated using a ball-on-disk reciprocating tribometer with a hardened bearing steel ball under oil-lubricated conditions. Experimental results showed that both the UNSM-treated Cu-based alloy specimens reduced the friction coefficient and enhanced the wear resistance compared to those of the polished specimens. Improvements in tribological characteristics of the UNSM-treated specimens may be attributed to the corrugated nano-scale dimpled and nanostructured surfaces and increased hardness. Addition of the 0.52% ferrum to Cu-based alloy is found to be beneficial in improving the tribological characteristics and in reducing the grain size. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to analyze the worn surfaces and characterize the wear mechanisms of the polished and UNSM-treated specimens. SEM analyses showed that the UNSM could reduce the abrasive wear which was the dominant wear mechanism of both Cu-based alloys specimens. In addition, the density and porosity measurement of both sintered Cu-based alloys revealed that the density increased and the porosity decreased after UNSM. PMID:24266221

  1. Augmented cellular uptake of nanoparticles using tea catechins: effect of surface modification on nanoparticle-cell interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi-Ching; Luo, Pei-Chun; Huang, Chun-Wan; Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Ma, Yunn-Hwa

    2014-08-01

    Nanoparticles may serve as carriers in targeted therapeutics; interaction of the nanoparticles with a biological system may determine their targeting effects and therapeutic efficacy. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of tea catechins, has been conjugated with nanoparticles and tested as an anticancer agent. We investigated whether EGCG may enhance nanoparticle uptake by tumor cells. Cellular uptake of a dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) was determined by confocal microscopy, flow cytometry or a potassium thiocyanate colorimetric method. We demonstrated that EGCG greatly enhanced interaction and/or internalization of MNPs (with or without polyethylene glycol) by glioma cells, but not vascular endothelial cells. The enhancing effects are both time- and concentration-dependent. Such effects may be induced by a simple mix of MNPs with EGCG at a concentration as low as 1-3 μM, which increased MNP uptake 2- to 7-fold. In addition, application of magnetic force further potentiated MNP uptake, suggesting a synergetic effect of EGCG and magnetic force. Because the effects of EGCG were preserved at 4 °C, but not when EGCG was removed from the culture medium prior to addition of MNPs, a direct interaction of EGCG and MNPs was implicated. Use of an MNP-EGCG composite produced by adsorption of EGCG and magnetic separation also led to an enhanced uptake. The results reveal a novel interaction of a food component and nanocarrier system, which may be potentially amenable to magnetofection, cell labeling/tracing, and targeted therapeutics.

  2. Surface Interactions with Compartmentalized Cellular Phosphates Explain Rare Earth Oxide Nanoparticle Hazard and Provide Opportunities for Safer Design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Growing international exploitation of rare earth oxides (REOs) for commercial and biological use has increased the possibility of human exposure and adverse health effects. Occupational exposure to rare earth materials in miners and polishers leads to a severe form of pneumoconiosis, while gadolinium-containing MRI contrast agents cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with renal impairment. The mechanisms for inducing these adverse pro-fibrogenic effects are of considerable importance for the safety assessment of REO particles as well as presenting opportunities for safer design. In this study, using a well-prepared REO library, we obtained a mechanistic understanding of how REOs induce cellular and pulmonary damage by a compartmentalized intracellular biotransformation process in lysosomes that results in pro-fibrogenic growth factor production and lung fibrosis. We demonstrate that rare earth oxide ion shedding in acidifying macrophage lysosomes leads to biotic phosphate complexation that results in organelle damage due to stripping of phosphates from the surrounding lipid bilayer. This results in nanoparticle biotransformation into urchin shaped structures and setting in motion a series of events that trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, IL-1β release, TGF-β1 and PDGF-AA production. However, pretreatment of REO nanoparticles with phosphate in a neutral pH environment prevents biological transformation and pro-fibrogenic effects. This can be used as a safer design principle for producing rare earth nanoparticles for biological use. PMID:24417322

  3. Investigations into the molecular-level adhesion characteristics of hydroxyapatite-coated and anodized titanium surfaces using the molecular orbital approach.

    PubMed

    Saju, K K; Jayadas, N H; Vidyanand, S; James, J

    2011-03-01

    It has been established that the adhesion of cells on to the surfaces of orthopaedic implants depends on the ability of the surfaces to accommodate protein molecules. Hydroxyapatite coating and anodizing are the most common methods to make TiAl6V4 implants (Ti) more biocompatible. In this paper Spartan 02, a molecular dynamics software, is used to analyze and predict the bonding characteristics of Extra cellular matrix protein sequence arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) on a Hyrdoxyapatite (HA) coated Ti and an anodized Ti surface based on the property of its constituent atoms, their polarity (net electrostatic charge, Qr), the energies of the molecular orbital E_HOMO (energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital), and E_LUMO (energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital). The results show favourable criterion for formation of bonding between the HOMO orbital of the HA coated and anodized surfaces and LUMO orbital of the glycine strand from the RGD unit. The mechanism of bonding of individual atoms to form primary calcium oxide compounds is likely only in the case of HA coated surfaces . The surface texture of the anodized Ti with inherent porosities appear more responsible for the adsorption of proteins on to them by mechanical interlocking than the formation of any intermediate calcium oxide compounds. PMID:21485326

  4. Sensitivity of coastal meteorology and air quality to urban surface characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Surface characteristics play an important role in shaping the local meteorological conditions in urban areas, and subsequently affect the generation and transport of pollutants. A basic understanding of this relationship in urban climates has led researchers to explore surface modification strategies for cooling cities, saving energy, and reducing pollution. These strategies include planting of urban vegetation and increasing urban albedo, both of which represent a significant modification to the urban surface. The air temperature reductions resulting from enhanced evapotranspiration (from increasing vegetation), and reduced solar gain (from increasing albedo) have positive energy use and air quality implications. Research has shown that decreasing air temperature by 1{degrees}C in the Los Angeles Basin could save consumers $50,000 per hour in avoided energy use and reduce peak ozone levels by 5 to 10 parts per billion. Driven by these figures, this study is part of a larger research effort focusing on air quality in the Los Angeles Basin. Prior to conducting full three-dimensional meteorological simulations and the corresponding photochemical smog simulations, two-dimensional simulations were designed to isolate each surface characteristic and examine its role in a developing mesoscale coastal flow. The air temperature and mixing height impacts, having the most air quality significance, were then investigated through a preliminary photochemical sensitivity study.

  5. Influence of lipid coatings on surface wettability characteristics of silicone hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Bhamla, M Saad; Nash, Walter L; Elliott, Stacey; Fuller, Gerald G

    2015-04-01

    Insoluble lipids serve vital functions in our bodies and interact with biomedical devices, e.g., the tear film on a contact lens. Over a period of time, these naturally occurring lipids form interfacial coatings that modify the wettability characteristics of these foreign synthetic surfaces. In this study, we examine the deposition and consequences of tear film lipids on silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lenses. We use bovine meibum, which is a complex mixture of waxy esters, cholesterol esters, and lipids that is secreted from the meibomian glands located on the upper and lower eyelids of mammals. For comparison, we study two commercially available model materials: dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and cholesterol. Upon deposition, we find that DPPC and meibum remain closer to the SiHy surface than cholesterol, which diffuses further into the porous SiHy matrix. In addition, we also monitor the fate of unstable thin liquid films that consequently rupture and dewet on these lipid-decorated surfaces. This dewetting provides valuable qualitative and quantitative information about the wetting characteristics of these SiHy substrates. We observe that decorating the SiHy surface with simple model lipids such as DPPC and cholesterol increases the hydrophilicity, which consequently inhibits dewetting, whereas meibum behaves conversely. PMID:25280206

  6. Simplified fabrication of back surface electric field silicon cells and novel characteristics of such cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandelkorn, J.; Lamneck, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of the characteristics and behavior of 10 ohm-cm silicon cells having abnormally high open-circuit voltages was made. The cells studied were made by a new, highly simplified, contact fabrication process which creates both a contact and a thin electric field region at the cell back surface without the need for phosphorus layer removal. These cells had open-circuit voltages of about 0.58 V and their performance as a function of thickness, temperature, and 1 MeV electron irradiation is detailed. The study showed that 10 ohm-cm back-surface-field cells can have the high initial efficiencies and desirable temperature behavior of low resistivity cells. Thin back-surface-field cells were made and showed, in addition, much greater radiation damage resistance. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results.

  7. Simplified fabrication of back surface electric field silicon cells and novel characteristics of such cells.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandelkorn, J.; Lamneck, J. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation of the characteristics and behavior of 10 ohm-cm silicon cells having abnormally high open-circuit voltages was made. The cells studied were made by a new, highly simplified, contact fabrication process which creates both a contact and a thin electric field region at the cell back surface without the need for phosphorus layer removal. These cells had open-circuit voltages of about 0.58 V and their performance as a function of thickness, temperature, and 1 MeV electron irradiation is detailed. The study showed that 10 ohm-cm back-surface-field cells can have the high initial efficiencies and desirable temperature behavior of low resistivity cells. Thin back-surface-field cells were made and showed, in addition, much greater radiation damage resistance. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results.

  8. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown wing-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out to develop an engineering method for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with upper surface blown (USB) high lift devices. Potential flow models of the lifting surfaces and the jet wakes are combined to calculate the induced interference of the engine wakes on the wing and flaps. The wing may have an arbitrary planform with camber and twist and multiple trailing edge flaps. The jet wake model has a rectangular cross section over its entire length and it is positioned such that the wake is tangent to the upper surfaces of the wing and flaps. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, spanload distributions, and total lift and pitching-moment coefficients on swept and unswept USB configurations are presented for a wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles.

  9. Surface characteristics and castability of Zr-14Nb alloy dental castings.

    PubMed

    Kajima, Yuka; Doi, Hisashi; Takaichi, Atsushi; Hanawa, Takao; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mechanical properties, surface characteristics and castability of Zr-14Nb dental castings. The mean 0.2% proof and ultimate tensile strengths of Zr-14Nb were approximately 68% and 76% those of Ti-6Al-7Nb, respectively, while they were comparable to Co-29Cr-6Mo. Elongation of Zr-14Nb was the highest of all alloys tested. The hardened reaction layer was formed on the surfaces of the Zr-14Nb castings. The layer consisted of oxygen and aluminum originating form investment. The castability of Zr-14Nb was comparable to that of Ti-6Al-7Nb. Dental castings of Zr-14Nb reveal mechanical properties that were within the range of the other dental alloys. Further improvements in castability and minimization of the surface reaction layer are needed for applications in dental prostheses. PMID:25273042

  10. Dropwise Evaporative Cooling of Heated Surfaces with Various Wettability Characteristics Obtained by Nanostructure Modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-nan; Zhang, Zhen; Ouyang, Xiao-long; Jiang, Pei-xue

    2016-03-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to analyze dropwise evaporative cooling of heated surfaces with various wettability characteristics. The surface wettability was tuned by nanostructure modifications. Spray-cooling experiments on these surfaces show that surfaces with better wettability have better heat transfer rate and higher critical heat flux (CHF). Single droplet impingement evaporative cooling of a heated surface was then investigated numerically with various wettability conditions to characterize the effect of contact angle on spray-cooling heat transfer. The volume of fluid (VOF) model with variable-time stepping was used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain with the kinetic theory model used to predict the evaporation rate at the liquid-gas interface. The numerical results agree with the spray-cooling experiments that dropwise evaporative cooling is much better on surfaces with better wettability because of the better liquid spreading and convection, better liquid-solid contact, and stronger liquid evaporation.

  11. Virtual Surface Characteristics of a Tactile Display Using Magneto-Rheological Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-Hee; Jang, Min-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Virtual surface characteristics of tactile displays are investigated to characterize the feeling of human touch for a haptic interface application. In order to represent the tactile feeling, a prototype tactile display incorporating Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid has been developed. Tactile display devices simulate the finger’s skin to feel the sensations of contact such as compliance, friction, and topography of the surface. Thus, the tactile display can provide information on the surface of an organic tissue to the surgeon in virtual reality. In order to investigate the compliance feeling of a human finger’s touch, normal force responses of a tactile display under various magnetic fields have been assessed. Also, shearing friction force responses of the tactile display are investigated to simulate the action of finger dragging on the surface. Moreover, different matrix arrays of magnetic poles are applied to form the virtual surface topography. From the results, different tactile feelings are observed according to the applied magnetic field strength as well as the arrays of magnetic poles combinations. This research presents a smart tactile display technology for virtual surfaces. PMID:22163769

  12. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C S B

    2016-09-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites. PMID:26852384

  13. Dropwise Evaporative Cooling of Heated Surfaces with Various Wettability Characteristics Obtained by Nanostructure Modifications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

    2016-12-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation was conducted to analyze dropwise evaporative cooling of heated surfaces with various wettability characteristics. The surface wettability was tuned by nanostructure modifications. Spray-cooling experiments on these surfaces show that surfaces with better wettability have better heat transfer rate and higher critical heat flux (CHF). Single droplet impingement evaporative cooling of a heated surface was then investigated numerically with various wettability conditions to characterize the effect of contact angle on spray-cooling heat transfer. The volume of fluid (VOF) model with variable-time stepping was used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain with the kinetic theory model used to predict the evaporation rate at the liquid-gas interface. The numerical results agree with the spray-cooling experiments that dropwise evaporative cooling is much better on surfaces with better wettability because of the better liquid spreading and convection, better liquid-solid contact, and stronger liquid evaporation. PMID:27003427

  14. Influence of ground surface characteristics on the mean radiant temperature in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, Fredrik; Onomura, Shiho; Grimmond, C. S. B.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of variations in land cover on mean radiant temperature (T mrt ) is explored through a simple scheme developed within the radiation model SOLWEIG. Outgoing longwave radiation is parameterised using surface temperature observations on a grass and an asphalt surface, whereas outgoing shortwave radiation is modelled through variations in albedo for the different surfaces. The influence of ground surface materials on T mrt is small compared to the effects of shadowing. Nevertheless, altering ground surface materials could contribute to a reduction in T mrt to reduce the radiant load during heat-wave episodes in locations where shadowing is not an option. Evaluation of the new scheme suggests that despite its simplicity it can simulate the outgoing fluxes well, especially during sunny conditions. However, it underestimates at night and in shadowed locations. One grass surface used to develop the parameterisation, with very different characteristics compared to an evaluation grass site, caused T mrt to be underestimated. The implications of using high temporal resolution (e.g. 15 minutes) meteorological forcing data under partly cloudy conditions are demonstrated even for fairly proximal sites.

  15. Virtual surface characteristics of a tactile display using magneto-rheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chul-Hee; Jang, Min-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Virtual surface characteristics of tactile displays are investigated to characterize the feeling of human touch for a haptic interface application. In order to represent the tactile feeling, a prototype tactile display incorporating Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid has been developed. Tactile display devices simulate the finger's skin to feel the sensations of contact such as compliance, friction, and topography of the surface. Thus, the tactile display can provide information on the surface of an organic tissue to the surgeon in virtual reality. In order to investigate the compliance feeling of a human finger's touch, normal force responses of a tactile display under various magnetic fields have been assessed. Also, shearing friction force responses of the tactile display are investigated to simulate the action of finger dragging on the surface. Moreover, different matrix arrays of magnetic poles are applied to form the virtual surface topography. From the results, different tactile feelings are observed according to the applied magnetic field strength as well as the arrays of magnetic poles combinations. This research presents a smart tactile display technology for virtual surfaces. PMID:22163769

  16. A comparative study of surface acid-base characteristics of natural illites from different origins

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Sun, Z.; Forsling, W.; Du, Q.; Tang, H.

    1999-11-01

    The acid-base characteristics of naturally occurring illites, collected from different locations, were investigated by potentiometeric titrations. The experimental data were interpreted using the constant capacitance surface complexation model. Considerable release of Al and Si from illite samples and subsequent complexation or precipitation of hydroxyl aluminosilicates generated during the acidimetric forward titration and the alkalimetric back titration, respectively, were observed. In order to describe the acid-base chemistry of aqueous illite surfaces, two surface proton-reaction models, introducing the corresponding reactions between the dissolved aluminum species and silicic acid, as well as a surface Al-Si complex on homogeneous illite surface sites, were proposed. Optimization results indicated that both models could provide a good description of the titration behavior for all aqueous illite systems in this study. The intrinsic acidity constants for the different illites were similar in Model 1, showing some generalities in their acid-base properties. Model 1 may be considered as a simplification of Model 2, evident in the similarities between the corresponding constants. In addition, the formation constant for surface Al-Si species (complexes or precipitates) is relatively stable in this study.

  17. Formation and properties of surface-anchored polymer assemblies with tunable physico-chemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao

    We describe two new methodologies leading to the formation of novel surface-anchored polymer assemblies on solid substrates. While the main goal is to understand the fundamentals pertaining to the preparation and properties of the surface-bound polymer assemblies (including neutral and chargeable polymers), several examples also are mentioned throughout the Thesis that point out to practical applications of such structures. The first method is based on generating assemblies comprising anchored polymers with a gradual variation of grafting densities on solid substrates. These structures are prepared by first covering the substrate with a molecular gradient of the polymerization initiator, followed by polymerization from these substrate-bound initiator centers ("grafting from"). We apply this technique to prepare grafting density gradients of poly(acryl amide) (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) on silica-covered substrates. We show that using the grafting density gradient geometry, the characteristics of surface-anchored polymers in both the low grafting density ("mushroom") regime as well as the high grafting density ("brush") regime can be accessed conveniently on a single sample. We use a battery of experimental methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Near-edge absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), contact angle, ellipsometry, to study the characteristics of the surface-bound polymer layers. We also probe the scaling laws of neutral polymer as a function of grafting density, and for weak polyelectrolyte, in addition to the grafting density, we study the affect of solution ionic strength and pH values. In the second novel method, which we coined as "mechanically assisted polymer assembly" (MAPA), we form surface anchored polymers by "grafting from" polymerization initiators deposited on elastic surfaces that have been previously extended uniaxially by a certain length increment, Deltax. Upon releasing the strain in the

  18. Antigenic structure of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen and association with cellular protein p53 on the surfaces of simian virus 40-infected and -transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M; Butel, J S

    1984-01-01

    The antigenic structure of simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen (T-ag) in the plasma membranes of SV40-transformed mouse cells and SV40-infected monkey cells was characterized as a step toward defining possible biological function(s). Wild-type SV40, as well as a deletion mutant of SV40 (dl1263) which codes for a truncated T-ag with an altered carboxy terminus, was used to infect permissive cells. Members of a series of monoclonal antibodies directed against antigenic determinants on either the amino or the carboxy terminus of the T-ag polypeptide were able to precipitate surface T-ag (as well as nuclear T-ag) from both SV40-transformed and SV40-infected cells. Cellular protein p53 was coprecipitated with T-ag by all T-ag-reactive reagents from the surface and nucleus of SV40-transformed cells. In contrast, T-ag, but not T-ag-p53 complex, was recovered from the surface of SV40-infected cells. These results confirm that nuclear T-ag and surface T-ag are highly related molecules and that a complex of SV40 T-ag and p53 is present at the surface of SV40-transformed cells. Detectable levels of such a complex do not appear to be present on SV40-infected cells. Both the carboxy and amino termini of T-ag are exposed on the surfaces of SV40-transformed and -infected cells. The possible relevance of the presence of a T-ag-p53 complex on the surface of SV40-transformed cells and its absence from SV40-infected cells is considered. Images PMID:6205166

  19. Surface characteristics of a self-polymerized dopamine coating deposited on hydrophobic polymer films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinhong; Zhu, Liping; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Baoku; Xu, Youyi

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to explore the fundamental surface characteristics of polydopamine (pDA)-coated hydrophobic polymer films. A poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film was surface modified by dip coating in an aqueous solution of dopamine on the basis of its self-polymerization and strong adhesion feature. The self-polymerization and deposition rates of dopamine on film surfaces increased with increasing temperature as evaluated by both spectroscopic ellipsometry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Changes in the surface morphologies of pDA-coated films as well as the size and shape of pDA particles in the solution were also investigated by SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface roughness and surface free energy of pDA-modified films were mainly affected by the reaction temperature and showed only a slight dependence on the reaction time and concentration of the dopamine solution. Additionally, three other typical hydrophobic polymer films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polyimide (PI) were also modified by the same procedure. The lyophilicity (liquid affinity) and surface free energy of these polymer films were enhanced significantly after being coated with pDA, as were those of PVDF films. It is indicated that the deposition behavior of pDA is not strongly dependent on the nature of the substrates. This information provides us with not only a better understanding of biologically inspired surface chemistry for pDA coatings but also effective strategies for exploiting the properties of dopamine to create novel functional polymer materials. PMID:22011109

  20. Designing and preparation of cytisine alkaloid surface-imprinted material and its molecular recognition characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Bi, Concon; Fan, Li

    2015-03-01

    Based on molecular design, a cytisine surface-imprinted material was prepared using the new surface-imprinting technique of "pre-graft polymerizing and post-imprinting". The graft-polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles was first performed with a surface-initiating system, preparing the grafted particles PGMA/SiO2. Subsequently, a polymer reaction, the ring-opening reaction of the epoxy groups of the grafted PGMA, was conducted with sodium 2,4-diaminobenzene sulfonate (SAS) as reagent, resulting in the functional grafted particles SAS-PGMA/SiO2. The adsorption of cytisine on SAS-PGMA/SiO2 particles reached saturation via strong electrostatic interaction between the sulfonate groups of SAS-PGMA/SiO2 particles and the protonated N atoms in cytisine molecule. Finally, cytisine surface-imprinting was successfully carried out with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker, obtaining cytisine surface-imprinted material MIP-SASP/SiO2. The binding and recognition characteristics of MIP-SASP/SiO2 towards cytisine were investigated in depth. The experimental results show that there is strong electrostatic interaction between particles and cytisine molecules, and on this basis, cytisine surface-imprinting can be smoothly performed. The surface-imprinted MIP-SASP/SiO2 has special recognition selectivity and excellent binding affinity for cytisine, and the selectivity coefficients of MIP-SASP/SiO2 particles for cytisine relative to matrine and oxymatrine, which were used as two contrast alkaloids, are 9.5 and 6.5, respectively.

  1. How do changes to plate thickness, length, and face-connectivity affect femoral cancellous bone's density and surface area? An investigation using regular cellular models.

    PubMed

    Anderson, I A; Carman, J B

    2000-03-01

    Models of regular cellular-solids representing femoral head 'medial group' bone were used to (1) compare thickness data for plate-like and beam-like structures at realistic surface areas and densities; (2) test the validity of a standard formula for trabecular thickness (Tb.Th); and (3) study how systematic changes in cancellous bone thicknesses, spacing, and face-connectivity affect relative density and surface area. Models of different face-connectivities, produced by plate removal from the unit cell, were fitted to bone density and surface area data. The medial group bone was anisotropic: the supero-inferior (SI) direction was the principal direction for bone plate alignment and the plane normal to this had the largest number of bone/void intersections per unit line length (P(I)). A comparison of boundary perimeter per unit area data, in planes normal to SI, with surface area data placed the medial group bone between prismatic structures in which walls are parallel to one principal direction and isotropic structures. Selective removal of plates from a closed-cell model produced a similar result. For the same relative density and surface-area, plate-like models had significantly thinner cross-sections than beam-like models. The formula for Tb.Th produced overestimates of model plate thickness by up to 20% at realistic femoral cancellous densities. Trends in data on surface area to volume ratio and density observed on sampled medial group bone could be simulated by plate thickness changes on models of intermediate face-connectivity (approximately 1.5) or by plate removal from models with relatively thick and short (low aspect-ratio) plates. The latter mechanism is unrealistic for it resulted in beam-like structures at low 'medial group' densities, an architecture unlike the predominantly plate-like bone in the sample. PMID:10673116

  2. Surface energy characteristics of zeolite embedded PVDF nanofiber films with electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dong Hee; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-11-01

    Electrospinning is a nano-scale fiber production method with various polymer materials. This technique allows simple fiber diameters control by changing the physical conditions such as applied voltage and polymer solution viscosity during the fabrication process. The electrospun polymer fibers form a thin porous film with high surface area to volume ratio. Due to these unique characteristics, it is widely used for many application fields such as photocatalyst, electric sensor, and antibacterial scaffold for tissue engineering. Filtration is one of the main applications of electrospun polymer fibers for specific application of filtering out dust particles and dehumidification. Most polymers which are commonly used in electrospinning are hard to perform the filtering and dehumidification simultaneously because of their low hygroscopic property. To overcome this obstacle, the desiccant polymers are developed such as polyacrylic acid and polysulfobetaine methacrylate. However, the desiccant polymers are generally expensive and need special solvent for electrospinning. An alternating way to solve these problems is mixing desiccant material like zeolite in polymer solution during an electrospinning process. In this study, the free surface energy characteristics of electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film with various zeolite concentrations are investigated to control the hygroscopic property of general polymers. Fundamental physical property of wettability with PVDF shows hydrophobicity. The electrospun PVDF film with small weight ratio with higher than 0.1% of zeolite powder shows diminished contact angles that certifying the wettability of PVDF can be controlled using desiccant material in electrospinning process. To quantify the surface energy of electrospun PVDF films, sessile water droplets are introduced on the electrospun PVDF film surface and the contact angles are measured. The contact angles of PVDF film are 140° for without zeolite and 80° for with 5

  3. Simultaneous measurements of shape characteristics and radar backscattering of a water surface in a rain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren; Liu, Xinan; Duncan, James H.

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of radar backscattering from a water surface that is stimulated by a rain field are studied at laboratory scale. The experiment is carried out in a 1.22-m by 1.22-m water pool with a water depth of 0.3 m. Simulated raindrops are generated by an array of 22-gauge needles that are attached to the bottom of a water reservoir located above the pool. A two-dimensional horizontal translational motion is added to the water reservoir in order to vary the drop impact location for each needle during each experimental run. A cinematic Laser-Induced-Florescence (LIF) technique is used to measure the water surface shape while radar backscattering from the water surface is simultaneously recorded by a dual-polarized, ultra-wide band radar. Both the radar return intensity and the water surface shape are measured for a range of rain rates and a range of radar incidence angles. The relationship between the geometric features of the water surface shape and the radar return are explored. The support of the National Science Foundation, Division of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, under grant ARC0962107 is gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Analysis of the Release Characteristics of Cu-Treated Antimicrobial Implant Surfaces Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zietz, Carmen; Fritsche, Andreas; Finke, Birgit; Stranak, Vitezslav; Haenle, Maximilian; Hippler, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    New developments of antimicrobial implant surfaces doped with copper (Cu) ions may minimize the risk of implant-associated infections. However, experimental evaluation of the Cu release is influenced by various test parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the Cu release characteristics in vitro according to the storage fluid and surface roughness. Plasma immersion ion implantation of Cu (Cu-PIII) and pulsed magnetron sputtering process of a titanium copper film (Ti-Cu) were applied to titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) samples with different surface finishing of the implant material (polished, hydroxyapatite and corundum blasted). The samples were submersed into either double-distilled water, human serum, or cell culture medium. Subsequently, the Cu concentration in the supernatant was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. The test fluid as well as the surface roughness can alter the Cu release significantly, whereby the highest Cu release was determined for samples with corundum-blasted surfaces stored in cell medium. PMID:22162672

  5. Analysis of the release characteristics of cu-treated antimicrobial implant surfaces using atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zietz, Carmen; Fritsche, Andreas; Finke, Birgit; Stranak, Vitezslav; Haenle, Maximilian; Hippler, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    New developments of antimicrobial implant surfaces doped with copper (Cu) ions may minimize the risk of implant-associated infections. However, experimental evaluation of the Cu release is influenced by various test parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the Cu release characteristics in vitro according to the storage fluid and surface roughness. Plasma immersion ion implantation of Cu (Cu-PIII) and pulsed magnetron sputtering process of a titanium copper film (Ti-Cu) were applied to titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) samples with different surface finishing of the implant material (polished, hydroxyapatite and corundum blasted). The samples were submersed into either double-distilled water, human serum, or cell culture medium. Subsequently, the Cu concentration in the supernatant was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. The test fluid as well as the surface roughness can alter the Cu release significantly, whereby the highest Cu release was determined for samples with corundum-blasted surfaces stored in cell medium. PMID:22162672

  6. Multivariate analysis for stormwater quality characteristics identification from different urban surface types in macau.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Du, P; Ao, C; Ho, M; Lei, M; Zhao, D; Wang, Z

    2007-12-01

    Statistical analysis of stormwater runoff data enables general identification of runoff characteristics. Six catchments with different urban surface type including roofs, roadway, park, and residential/commercial in Macau were selected for sampling and study during the period from June 2005 to September 2006. Based on univariate statistical analysis of data sampled, major pollutants discharged from different urban surface type were identified. As for iron roof runoff, Zn is the most significant pollutant. The major pollutants from urban roadway runoff are TSS and COD. Stormwater runoff from commercial/residential and Park catchments show high level of COD, TN, and TP concentration. Principal component analysis was further done for identification of linkages between stormwater quality and urban surface types. Two potential pollution sources were identified for study catchments with different urban surface types. The first one is referred as nutrients losses, soil losses and organic pollutants discharges, the second is related to heavy metals losses. PCA was proved to be a viable tool to explain the type of pollution sources and its mechanism for different urban surface type catchments. PMID:17940712

  7. Surface characteristics and damage distributions of diamond wire sawn wafers for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Devayajanam, Srinivas; Basnyat, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes surface characteristics, in terms of its morphology, roughness and near-surface damage of Si wafers cut by diamond wire sawing (DWS) of Si ingots under different cutting conditions. Diamond wire sawn Si wafers exhibit nearly-periodic surface features of different spatial wavelengths, which correspond to kinematics of various movements during wafering, such as ingot feed, wire reciprocation, and wire snap. The surface damage occurs in the form of frozen-in dislocations, phase changes, and microcracks. The in-depth damage was determined by conventional methods such as TEM, SEM and angle-polishing/defect-etching. However, because these methods only provide local information, we have also applied a new technique that determines average damage depth over a large area. This technique uses sequential measurement of the minority carrier lifetime after etching thin layers from the surfaces. The lateral spatial damage variations, which seem to be mainly related to wire reciprocation process, were observed by photoluminescence and minority carrier lifetime mapping. Our results show a strong correlation of damage depth on the diamond grit size and wire usage.

  8. [Surface spectral measurement and characteristics analysis of turbid water in Hangzhou Bay].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Jian-Ming; Ling, Zai-Ying; Zhuo, Gen-Di

    2009-03-01

    Suspended sediment is one of the major optically active substances in coastal waters. The knowledge of its spectral characteristics is the basis for developing precise remote sensing inversion algorithms. Two separate continuous monitoring stations were set near the northern and southern coast of Hangzhou Bay separately, which is typically turbid area in China coastal waters. The above-water measurement method and the American ASD portable spectroscope were adopted to measure the water surface reflectance spectrum. The sediment concentrations of surface water were synchronously acquired when measuring water-leaving radiance. Results show that the sediments concentration is comparatively high and changes dramatically according to tide cycle. The reflectance spectrum at different wavelengths rises corresponding to the increase in sediments concentrations with different extent. When using first derivative method to analysis the spectral characteristic, it can be found that the first reflectance peaks of reflectance spectra appear to shift to long wavelength. There are different correlations between sediment concentrations and each MODIS channel reflectance, which are above 0.5 in 650 nm or longer wavelengths channels and below 0.5 in 400-550 nm channels. The fitting result of regression analysis is preferable with MODIS channel 2 (841-876 nm) and in situ sediment concentrations using least square method, with R2 of exponential above 0.8, which indicated that the MODIS channel 2 can be used for surface water suspended sediments remote sensing inversion, particularly in turbid waters such as bays and estuaries. PMID:19455810

  9. Surface charges and optical characteristic of colloidal cubic SiC nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal cubic silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals with an average diameter of 4.4 nm have been fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of microsized cubic SiC powder. Fourier transform infrared spectra show that these cubic SiC nanocrystals contain carboxylic acid, SiH, CH, and CHx groups. UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy clearly indicate that water and ethanol colloidal suspensions of the as-fabricated colloidal samples exhibit strong and above band gap blue and blue-green emissions. The cubic SiC nanocrystals show different surface charges in water and ethanol solutions due to the interaction of water molecules with polar Si-terminated surfaces of cubic SiC nanocrystals. The results explain the distinctive optical characteristics of colloidal cubic SiC nanocrystals in water and ethanol, and reveal that quantum confinement and surface charges play a great role in determining the optical characteristics of colloidal cubic SiC nanocrystals. PMID:21762496

  10. The effects of droplet characteristics on the surface features in a rain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of the shape of a water surface in response to the impact of simulated raindrops are studied experimentally in a 1.22-m-by-1.22-m water pool with a water depth of 0.3 m. A rain generator consisting of an open-surface water tank with an array of 22-gauge hypodermic needles (typical needle-to-needle spacing of about L0 = 3 . 5 cm) attached to holes in the tank bottom is mounted 2 m above the water pool. The tank is connected to a 2D translation stage to provide a small-radius (surface features, including the crown, stalk and ring waves, due to the impacts of the drops are measured with a cinematic laser-induced- fluorescence (LIF) technique. The dependence of these features on the rain characteristics are discussed. The support of the National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences, and the assistance of Mr. Larry Gong are gratefully acknowledged.

  11. Surface charges and optical characteristic of colloidal cubic SiC nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Chen, Changxin; Li, Jiang-Tao; Yang, Yun; Lin, Zhi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    Colloidal cubic silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals with an average diameter of 4.4 nm have been fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of microsized cubic SiC powder. Fourier transform infrared spectra show that these cubic SiC nanocrystals contain carboxylic acid, SiH, CH, and CHx groups. UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy clearly indicate that water and ethanol colloidal suspensions of the as-fabricated colloidal samples exhibit strong and above band gap blue and blue-green emissions. The cubic SiC nanocrystals show different surface charges in water and ethanol solutions due to the interaction of water molecules with polar Si-terminated surfaces of cubic SiC nanocrystals. The results explain the distinctive optical characteristics of colloidal cubic SiC nanocrystals in water and ethanol, and reveal that quantum confinement and surface charges play a great role in determining the optical characteristics of colloidal cubic SiC nanocrystals.

  12. Determination of control-surface characteristics from NACA plain-flap and tab data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Milton B; Sears, Richard I

    1941-01-01

    The data from previous NACA pressure-distribution investigations of plain flaps and tabs with sealed gaps have been analyzed and are presented in this paper in a form readily applicable to the problems of control-surface design. The experimentally determined variation of aerodynamic parameters with flap chord and tab chord are given in chart form and comparisons are made with the theory. With the aid of these charts and the theoretical relationships for a thin airfoil, the aerodynamic characteristics for control surfaces of any plan form with plain flaps and tabs with sealed gaps may be determined. A discussion of the basic equations of the thin-airfoil theory and the development of a number of additional equations that will be helpful in tail design are presented in the appendixes. The procedure for applying the data is described and a sample problem of horizontal tail design is included. The data presented and the method of application set forth in this report should provide a reasonably accurate and satisfactory means of computing the aerodynamic characteristics of control surfaces.

  13. Mapping the surface characteristics of the Mojave with remote sensing for terrestrial habitat modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, S. A.; Skuse, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution ecological and climate modeling requires quantification of surface characteristics such as rock abundance, soil induration and surface roughness at fine-scale, since these features can affect the micro and macro habitat of a given area and ultimately determine the assemblage of plant and animal species that may occur there. Our objective is to develop quantitative data layers of thermophysical properties of the entire Mojave Desert Ecoregion for applications to habitat modeling being conducted by the USGS Western Ecological Research Center. These research efforts are focused on developing habitat models and a better physical understanding of the Mojave Desert, which have implications the development of solar and wind energy resources, military installation expansion and residential development planned for the Mojave. Thus there is a need to improve our understanding of the mechanical composition and thermal characteristics of natural and modified surfaces in the southwestern US at as high-resolution as possible. Since the Mojave is a sparsely-vegetated, arid landscape with little precipitation, remote sensing-based thermophysical analyses using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) day and nighttime imagery are ideal for determining the physical properties of the surface. New mosaicking techniques for thermal imagery acquired at different dates, seasons and temperatures have allowed for the highest-resolution mosaics yet generated at 100m/pixel for thermal infrared wavelengths. Among our contributions is the development of seamless day and night ASTER mosaics of land surface temperatures that are calibrated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) coincident observations to produce both a seamless mosaic and quantitative temperatures across the region that varies spectrally and thermophysically over a large number of orbit tracks. Products derived from this dataset include surface rock abundance

  14. Hybrid assembly of CPMV viruses and surface characteristics of different mutants.

    PubMed

    Portney, N G; Destito, G; Manchester, M; Ozkan, M

    2009-01-01

    There is a trend toward viral-based hybrid systems to furnish viral nanoparticles with enhanced features, for function beyond a delivery vehicle. Such hybrids have included Nanogold for microwave release, quantum dots and fluorescent moieties, to provide simultaneous imaging capabilities, and iron oxide particles for image enhancement in MRI. Other systems are the subject of ongoing and vigorous research. Nanogold surface decoration of cow pea mosaic virus (CPMV) to form NG-CPMV hybrids were explored to release fluorescent carriers using microwave energy as a model system in this presentation. Thus, emergent viral-based systems will have increasingly sophisticated architectures to provide versatile functions. Zeta potential (ZP) is a powerful tool to probe the electrostatic surface potential of biological materials and remains an untapped method for studying the interaction of nanoparticles with cells. An enormous effort is being made to study nanoparticle-cell interaction, but current throughput solutions (e.g., flow cytometry) cannot differentiate between surface-attached or endocytosed particles, while standard fluorescence microscopy is tedious and costly. CPMV-WT and other mutants (CPMV-T184C, CPMV-L189C) were studied using ZP methods and rationalized based on variations in their surface exposed residue character. Understanding such subtle changes can discretely alter the cell surface interactions due to charge affinity. Applying sensitive ZP measurements on viral nanoparticles is useful to elucidating the characteristics of the surface charge and the potential interaction modes with cell surfaces they may encounter. Thus, ZP can be a unique and efficient tool for studying cell-virus interactions and aid in development of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:19198570

  15. Surface ultrastructural characteristics of Dictyocotyle coeliaca Nybelin, 1941 (Monopisthocotylea: Monocotylidae), an endoparasitic monogenean of rays.

    PubMed

    Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Hemmingsen, Willy; Gibson, David I

    2016-03-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopical observations were made of the surface topography of Dictyocotyle coeliaca (Nybelin, 1941) (Monopisthocotylea: Monocotylidae), a unique endoparasitic monogenean from the body cavity of the ray Amblyraja radiata (Elasmobranchii: Rajidae). Scanning investigation show the presence on the ventral side of the anterior body of smooth areas with pit-like depressions and shallow ridges, whereas the tegument of the middle and posterior regions of the body is extensively folded, and on the dorsal surface the tegument is smooth but interrupted by deep depressions. Transmission observation revealed the presence of invaginations of varying irregularity and depth, which form the various depressions of the tegumental surface. Non-ciliated, dome-shaped papillae occur singly or in groups and are common around the mouth and both the genital and vaginal pores, but exhibit no particular orientation. The haptor is much reduced, compared with that of ectoparasitic monocotylids, and is covered ventrally with an irregular array of 40-70 shallow loculi. Internal differences occur in the thickness of the syncytial tegumentary layer of the haptoral loculi and septa and also in the number of cytoplasmic inclusions. The locular surface has distinct ultrastructural characteristics, the most obvious of which are a honeycomb arrangement of small pockets measuring 0.6 × 0.75 to 1.0 × 1.7 μm in diameter, a terminal web beneath the surface plasma membrane and large outgrowths on the surface of the loculi filled with lysosome-like bodies. The surface specializations of the body and haptoral tegument of D. coeliaca are discussed in relation to their being adaptations to an endoparasitic environment. PMID:26614359

  16. Myosin-II controls cellular branching morphogenesis and migration in 3D by minimizing cell surface curvature

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Hunter; Fischer, Robert A.; Myers, Kenneth A.; Desai, Ravi A.; Gao, Lin; Chen, Christopher S.; Adelstein, Robert; Waterman, Clare M.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2014-01-01

    In many cases cell function is intimately linked to cell shape control. We utilized endothelial cell branching morphogenesis as a model to understand the role of myosin-II in shape control of invasive cells migrating in 3D collagen gels. We applied principles of differential geometry and mathematical morphology to 3D image sets to parameterize cell branch structure and local cell surface curvature. We find that Rho/ROCK-stimulated myosin-II contractility minimizes cell-scale branching by recognizing and minimizing local cell surface curvature. Utilizing micro-fabrication to constrain cell shape identifies a positive feedback mechanism in which low curvature stabilizes myosin-II cortical association, where it acts to maintain minimal curvature. The feedback between myosin-II regulation by and control of curvature drives cycles of localized cortical myosin-II assembly and disassembly. These cycles in turn mediate alternating phases of directionally biased branch initiation and retraction to guide 3D cell migration. PMID:25621949

  17. The Analyses of Turbulence Characteristics in the Atmospheric Surface Layer Using Arbitrary-Order Hilbert Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.; Schmitt, F. G.; Huang, Y. X.; Zhang, H. S.

    2016-05-01

    Turbulent characteristics in the atmospheric surface layer are investigated using a data-driven method, Hilbert spectral analysis. The results from empirical mode decomposition display a set of intrinsic mode functions whose characteristic scales suggest a dyadic filter-bank property. It can be concluded from the joint probability density function of the intrinsic mode functions that the turbulent properties are totally different under different stratifications: the amplitudes (or energies) are arranged according to the stability parameter [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] for stable conditions, but tend to cluster randomly for unstable cases. The intermittency analyses reveal that second-order Hilbert marginal spectra display a power-law behaviour in the inertial subrange, and that the scaling exponent functions deviate from the theoretical values due to the strong intermittency in the stable boundary layer.

  18. The Analyses of Turbulence Characteristics in the Atmospheric Surface Layer using Arbitrary-order Hilbert Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Schmitt, François G.; Huang, Yongxiang; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Turbulent characteristics in the atmospheric surface layer are investigated using a data-driven method, Hilbert spectral analysis. The results from empirical mode decomposition display a set of intrinsic mode functions whose characteristic scales suggest a dyadic filter-bank property. It can be concluded from the joint probability density function of the intrinsic mode functions that the turbulent properties are totally different under different stratifications: the amplitudes (or energies) are arranged according to the stability parameter z/L for stable conditions, but tend to cluster randomly for unstable cases. The intermittency analyses reveal that second-order Hilbert marginal spectra display a power-law behaviour in the inertial subrange, and that the scaling exponent functions present deviation, from the theoretical values due to the strong intermittency in the stable boundary layer.

  19. Trailing edge wake flow characteristics of upper surface blown configurations. [noise generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1978-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating flow characteristics in the wake of upper surface blown flap configurations are presented. Relative importance of the longitudinal and the transverse components of the wake flow turbulence for noise generation are evaluated using correlation between the near-field noise and the wake turbulence. Effects of the jet velocity, the initial turbulence in the jet, and the flap deflection angle on noise and wake flow characteristics are studied. The far-field noise data is compared with the existing empirical prediction method. The measured wake flow properties are compared with an analytical model used in the existing USB wake flow noise theory. The detailed wake flow profiles, wake flow turbulence space-time correlations, wake flow turbulence cross-power spectra, and near-field noise third octave band spectra are presented in the appendices.

  20. Using Nano-mechanics and Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) for Disease Monitoring and Diagnostics at a Cellular Level in Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivanantha, Ninnuja; Ma, Charles; Collins, David J.; Sesen, Muhsincan; Brenker, Jason; Coppel, Ross L.; Neild, Adrian; Alan, Tuncay

    A popular approach to monitoring diseases and their diagnosis is through biological, pathological or immunological characterization. However, at a cellular level progression of certain diseases manifests itself through mechanical effects as well. Here, we present a method which exploits localised flow; surface acoustic wave (SAW) induced acoustic streaming in a 9 μL droplet to characterize the adhesive properties of red blood cells (healthy, gluteraldehyde treated and malaria infected) in approximately 50 seconds. Our results show a 79% difference in cell mobilization between healthy malaria infected RBCs (and a 39% difference between healthy and treated ones), indicating that the method can serve as a platform for rapid clinical diagnosis; where separation of two or more different cell populations in a mixed solution is desirable. It can also act as a key biomarker for monitoring some diseases offering quantitative measures of disease progression and response to therapy.

  1. Probing cellular behaviors through nanopatterned chitosan membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chung-Yao; Sung, Chun-Yen; Shuai, Hung-Hsun; Cheng, Chao-Min; Yeh, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes a high-throughput method for developing physically modified chitosan membranes to probe the cellular behavior of MDCK epithelial cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts adhered onto these modified membranes. To prepare chitosan membranes with micro/nanoscaled features, we have demonstrated an easy-to-handle, facile approach that could be easily integrated with IC-based manufacturing processes with mass production potential. These physically modified chitosan membranes were observed by scanning electron microscopy to gain a better understanding of chitosan membrane surface morphology. After MDCK cells and HIG-82 fibroblasts were cultured on these modified chitosan membranes for various culture durations (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 12 and 24 h), they were investigated to decipher cellular behavior. We found that both cells preferred to adhere onto a flat surface rather than on a nanopatterned surface. However, most (> 80%) of the MDCK cells showed rounded morphology and would suspend in the cultured medium instead of adhering onto the planar surface of negatively nanopatterned chitosan membranes. This means different cell types (e.g. fibroblasts versus epithelia) showed distinct capabilities/preferences of adherence for materials of varying surface roughness. We also showed that chitosan membranes could be re-used at least nine times without significant contamination and would provide us consistency for probing cell-material interactions by permitting reuse of the same substrate. We believe these results would provide us better insight into cellular behavior, specifically, microscopic properties and characteristics of cells grown under unique, nanopatterned cell-interface conditions.

  2. Effects of upper-surface nacelles on longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of high-wing transport configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, L. E.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of installing and streamline contouring upper-surface nacelles on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a high-wing transport configuration. Also investigated were the effects of adding a fairing under the nacelle. The investigation was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.83 at angles fo attack from -2 deg to 4 deg. Flow-through nacelles were used. Streamline contouring the nacelles substantially reduced the interference drag due to installing the nacelles.

  3. In vitro antigen-induced antibody responses to hepatitis B surface antigen in man. Kinetic and cellular requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Cupps, T R; Gerin, J L; Purcell, R H; Goldsmith, P K; Fauci, A S

    1984-01-01

    In this report we define the parameters of the human immune response after immunization with hepatitis B vaccine. 2 wk after booster immunization, there is significant spontaneous secretion of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs IgG), which is not further augmented by stimulation with antigen or pokeweed mitogen (PWM). By 4 wk there is little spontaneous secretion of specific antibody, and low doses of antigen or PWM produce significant increases in the amount of anti-HBs IgG produced. By 8 wk the peripheral blood mononuclear cells are refractory to stimulation by antigen, but anti-HBs IgG is produced in response to PWM. 0.5 yr or more after the last immunization, some individuals will manifest an antigen-induced specific antibody response. This induction of anti-HBs IgG by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is monocyte- and T cell-dependent. Note that there is a dichotomy in the T cell response to HBsAg. The specific antibody response is clearly T cell dependent, but no in vitro T cell proliferative response to HBsAG could be demonstrated in the immunized individuals. Although the precise reason for the absent proliferative response to HBsAg despite well-established humoral immunity has not been determined, there was no evidence to suggest nonspecific suppression by HBsAg or the presence of an adherent suppressor cell population. The ability to evaluate antigen-induced, antigen-specific responses to HBsAg will be useful in defining the unique interaction between the human immune response and this clinically important viral agent. PMID:6332826

  4. Adsorption and recognition characteristics of surface molecularly imprinted polymethacrylic acid/silica toward genistein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Gao, Baojiao; An, Fuqiang; Xu, Zeqing; Zhang, Tingting

    2014-09-12

    In this paper, on the basis of surface-initiated graft polymerization, a new surface molecular imprinting technique is established by molecular design. And molecularly imprinted polymer MIP-PMAA/SiO2 is successfully prepared with genistein as template. The adsorption and recognition characteristics of MIP-PMAA/SiO2 for genistein are studied in depth by using static method, dynamic method and competitive adsorption experiment. The experimental results show that MIP-PMAA/SiO2 possesses very strong adsorption affinity and specific recognition for genistein. The saturated adsorption capacity could reach to 0.36mmolg(-1). The selectivity coefficients relative to quercetin and rutin are 5.4 and 11.8, respectively. Besides, MIP-PMAA/SiO2 is regenerated easily and exhibits excellent reusability. PMID:25085816

  5. Interpolation of a surface from sets of discrete height data of different statistical characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leberl, F.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a method for the interpolation of a unique surface from two sets of independent digital height data of differing statistical characteristics. This method is based on linear prediction and thus relies on the concepts of auto- and cross-covariance functions. The linear prediction algorithm for two sets of digital height measurements is first derived and then evaluated using the method of moving averages and bilinear interpolation for comparison. It is found that the overall root mean square interpolation errors of linear prediction are similar to those from moving averages and bilinear interpolation. This accuracy performance, together with the well known potential for controlled filtering of measuring errors and good-behavior in areas of poor control, makes linear prediction a versatile and general method for interpolating a unique surface from two sets of digital height data, with applications in photogrammetric mapping, remote sensing, and other fields.

  6. Experimental study on the surface characteristics of Pd-based bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Bingli; Zhao, Na; Li, Qian; Hou, Jianhua; Feng, Weina

    2014-12-01

    The metallic glass has many unique and desirable physical and chemical characteristics for their long-range disordered atomic structure, among them the interfacial properties of the metallic glasses are crucial for their applications and manufacturing. In this work, the contact wetting angles between the polymer melts and Pd40Cu30Ni10P20 bulk metallic glass (Pd-BMG) with four kinds of roughness were analyzed. Experiments show the order of four polymers wettability on Pd-BMG was PP > HDPE > COC > PC. The surface free energy of Pd-BMG was estimated by Owens-Wendt method using the contact angles of three testing liquids. Neumann method was also used to further evidence the surface free energy of Pd-BMG comparing with PTFE, mold steels NAK80 and LKM2343ESR. The results provide theoretical and technical supports for the fabrication of metallic glass micro mold and the parameter optimization of polymer micro injection molding.

  7. Soil characteristics and vegetation features of abandoned and artificially revegetated surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Rafaill, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    Soil characteristics and vegetational features of four 15-to-20-year-old contour coal surface mines in the Cumberland Mountains were compared. Two of the mines were abandoned after mining and are located in Campbell County, Tennessee. The other two mines, located in Bell County, Kentucky, were reclaimed after mining. The soils at all four sites were found to be in early stages of soil development. Chemical and physical soil factors were not detrimental to plant growth. Total overstory density at the abandoned sites was similar to that on the reclaimed mines, but one and one-half times as many tree size stems and twice as much basal area coverage were found on the abandoned sites as compared to the reclaimed mines. Many features resulting from prelaw contour mining practices benefited the development of plant communities on the mined land. Information should be sought from the study of plant communities which develop over the years on surface mines.

  8. Spectral characteristics of multimode semiconductor lasers with a high-order surface diffraction grating

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotarev, V V; Leshko, A Yu; Pikhtin, N A; Lyutetskiy, A V; Slipchenko, S O; Bakhvalov, K V; Lubyanskiy, Ya V; Rastegaeva, M G; Tarasov, I S

    2014-10-31

    We have studied the spectral characteristics of multimode semiconductor lasers with high-order surface diffraction gratings based on asymmetric separate-confinement heterostructures grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (λ = 1070 nm). Experimental data demonstrate that, in the temperature range ±50 °C, the laser emission spectrum is ∼5 Å in width and contains a fine structure of longitudinal and transverse modes. A high-order (m = 15) surface diffraction grating is shown to ensure a temperature stability of the lasing spectrum dλ/dT = 0.9 Å K{sup -1} in this temperature range. From analysis of the fine structure of the lasing spectrum, we have evaluated the mode spacing and, thus, experimentally determined the effective length of the Bragg diffraction grating, which was ∼400 μm in our samples. (lasers)

  9. Ground Motion Characteristics Considering Magnitude Dependency and Difference Between Surface and Subsurface Rupture Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, T.; Irikura, K.; Some, P. G.; Miyake, H.; Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Matsu, S.

    2005-12-01

    We have studied differences in ground motion according to fault rupture types and magnitude. We found that three diffferent earthquake categories have distinct ground motion characteristics. Somerville (2003) and Kagawa et al. (2004) found that the ground motion caused by subsurface rupture in the period range around one second is larger than predicted by empirical spectral attenuation relations (Abrahamson and Silva, 1997) for all earthquakes, but ground motion from earthquakes that rupture the surface is smaller in the same period range. We expand their study to smaller earthquakes and add several recent earthquakes. WWe began by dividing the earthquakes into four categories that are a combination of two classifications, i.e. defined and undefined fault, surface and subsurface rupture earthquakes. Each category is divided into larger and smaller earthquakes than about Mw 6.5. Eventually, we classified the earthquakes into three groups: a) Surface rupture type : Ground motion is smaller than average, especially in the period range around 1 second. b) Larger subsurface rupture type : Ground motion is larger than average, especially in the period range around 1 second. c) Smaller subsurface rupture type : Ground motion is larger than average, especially in the period range around 0.1 second. Subsurface rupture earthquakes with small magnitude occur in the deep portion of the seismogenic zone. Deep and high stress asperities generate large ground motions in the short period range. They do not generate pulse like ground motions, because the asperity is too small and deep to cause forward directivity effects, and because the radiation and propagation of ground motion at short periods may be too incoherent to allow the formation of a pulse. Larger subsurface rupture earthquakes have larger asperities that may span a large part of the width of the seismogenic zone, producing coherent directivity pulses with periods of 1 second or more. Kagawa et al. (2004) pointed out

  10. Surface characteristics and bioactivity of a novel natural HA/zircon nanocomposite coated on dental implants.

    PubMed

    Karamian, Ebrahim; Khandan, Amirsalar; Motamedi, Mahmood Reza Kalantar; Mirmohammadi, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    The surface characteristics of implant which influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include surface chemistry, crystal structure and crystallinity, roughness, strain hardening, and presence of impurities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and roughness of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon) nanobiocomposite, coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 15 wt.% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 20 minutes. The composite mixture was coated on 316L SS using plasma spray method. The results are estimated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation to evaluate surface morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze phase composition, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique to evaluate the shape and size of prepared NHA. Surfaces roughness tester was performed to characterize the coated nanocomposite samples. The maximum average R a (14.54 μm) was found in the NHA 10 wt.% of zircon coating. In addition, crystallinity (X c ) was measured by XRD data, which indicated the minimum value (X c = 41.1%) for the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon. Maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon, which was due to two reasons: first, the maximum roughness and, second, the minimum crystallinity of nanobiocomposite coating. PMID:24822204

  11. Surface Characteristics and Bioactivity of a Novel Natural HA/Zircon Nanocomposite Coated on Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Karamian, Ebrahim; Khandan, Amirsalar

    2014-01-01

    The surface characteristics of implant which influence the speed and strength of osseointegration include surface chemistry, crystal structure and crystallinity, roughness, strain hardening, and presence of impurities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity and roughness of a novel natural hydroxyapatite/zircon (NHA/zircon) nanobiocomposite, coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF). NHA/zircon nanobiocomposite was fabricated with 0 wt.%, 5 wt.%, 10 wt.%, and 15 wt.% of zircon in NHA using ball mill for 20 minutes. The composite mixture was coated on 316L SS using plasma spray method. The results are estimated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation to evaluate surface morphology, X-ray diffraction (XRD) to analyze phase composition, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique to evaluate the shape and size of prepared NHA. Surfaces roughness tester was performed to characterize the coated nanocomposite samples. The maximum average Ra (14.54 μm) was found in the NHA 10 wt.% of zircon coating. In addition, crystallinity (Xc) was measured by XRD data, which indicated the minimum value (Xc = 41.1%) for the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon. Maximum bioactivity occurred in the sample containing 10 wt.% of zircon, which was due to two reasons: first, the maximum roughness and, second, the minimum crystallinity of nanobiocomposite coating. PMID:24822204

  12. Some surface characteristics and gas interactions of Apollo 14 fines and rock fragments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.; Wagner, N. J.; Jones, B. R.; Stetter, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Comprehensive survey of the physical surface characteristics of Apollo 14 fines, two fragments of a breccia (14321), and a crystalline rock (14310). The survey was carried out with optical and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy and by studying the adsorption of a variety of gases including nitrogen, hydrogen, and water vapor. Our objective in the optical microscope study was to relate the visible geological and petrological features to the surface properties. Electron microscopy particularly helped relate surface roughness and particle fusion to gas adsorption and pore structure. The fine sample (14163,111) had a surface area of 0.210 sq m/g and a helium density of 2.9 g/cc. Similar values have been observed with breccia fragments. Other observations include physical adsorption of molecular hydrogen at low temperatures and of water vapor at ambient temperatures. It is concluded that these particular lunar materials, while capable of adsorbing water vapor, do not retain it for any significant time at low pressures, nor, under lunar conditions, is there any indication of absorption or penetration.

  13. Plane-wave Sf S reconstruction of water surface characteristics from Lambertian reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Jike, Linhao

    2012-06-01

    The classical shape from shading (SfS) problem of computer vision is concerned with the reconstruction of a 3D object surface from its photographic image. Essential non-uniqueness and intrinsic nonlinearity make the problem challenging. This work considers the case where the object is a water surface so that the statistical approximation by superposition of plane waves is natural. An efficient greedy algorithm involving recursive refinement of wave fronts, subject to a wave-front frequency constraint is developed. The approach is evaluated using simulated reflectance data based on a set of wind-generated wave-field images obtained from detailed wave-tank measurements. The traditional setup for the SfS problem (orthographic cameras, light sources at infinity and the Lambertian surfaces) is used. Generalization to include a specular (Phong) reflectance component is also discussed. Results indicate that key statistical characteristics of the wave field related to its stage of development (evolution) are properly recovered by the approach. Thus there may be future potential for novel photographic-based remote sensing of physical drivers (e.g. wind velocity) of local water surface patterns.

  14. Large eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2014-11-27

    Surface roughness parameters are at the core of every model representation of the coupling and interactions between land-surface and atmosphere, and are used in every model of surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and do not vary them in response to spatial or temporal changes to canopy structure. In part, this is due to the difficulty of reducing the complexity of canopy structure and its spatiotemporal dynamic and heterogeneity to less than a handful of parameters describing its effects of atmosphere–surface interactions. In this study we use large-eddy simulationsmore » to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction. We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but were able to find positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, and between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. Using a decade of wind and canopy structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-resolved parameters in predicting the frictional velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared it with three other semi-empirical models and with a decade of meteorological observations. We found that parameterizations with fixed representations of roughness performed relatively well. Nonetheless, some empirical approaches that incorporate seasonal and inter-annual changes to the canopy structure performed even better than

  15. A HIGH TEMPERATURE TEST FACILITY FOR STUDYING ASH PARTICLE CHARACTERISTICS OF CANDLE FILTER DURING SURFACE REGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.; Rincon, J.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure back pulse cleaning jet. After this cleaning process has been done there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) was built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at high temperatures. The system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. Details of the HTTF apparatus as well as some preliminary test results are presented in this paper. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time.

  16. Synthesis, solubilization, and surface functionalization of highly fluorescent quantum dots for cellular targeting through a small molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Justin F.

    To achieve long-term fluorescence imaging with quantum dots (QDs), a CdSe core/shell must first be synthesized. The synthesis of bright CdSe QDs is not trivial and as a consequence, the role of surfactant in nucleation and growth was investigated. It was found that the type of surfactant used, either phosphonic or fatty acid, played a pivotal role in the size of the CdSe core. The study of surfactant on CdSe synthesis, ultimately led to an electrical passivation method that utilized a short-chained phosphonic acid and highly reactive organometallic precursors to achieve high quantum yield (QY) as has been previously described. The synthesis of QDs using organometallic precursors and a phosphonic acid for passivation resulted in 4 out of 9 batches of QDs achieving QYs greater than 50% and 8 out of 9 batches with QYs greater than 35%. The synthesis of CdSe QDs was done in organic solutions rendering the surface of the particle hydrophobic. To perform cell-targeting experiments, QDs must be transferred to water. The transfer of QDs to water was successfully accomplished by using single acyl chain lipids. A systematic study of different lipid combinations and coatings demonstrated that 20-40 mol% single acyl chained lipids were able to transfer QDs to water resulting in monodispersed, stable QDs without adversely affecting the QY. The advantage to water solubilization using single acyl chain lipids is that the QD have a hydrodynamic radius less than 15 nm, QYs that can exceed 50% and additional surface functionalization can be down using the reactive sites incorporated into the lipid bilayer. QDs that are bright and stable in water were studied for the purpose of targeting G protein-coupled Receptors (GPCR). GPCRs are transmembrane receptors that internalize extracellular cues, and thus mediate signal transduction. The cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Receptor 1 of the model organism Dictyostelium disodium was the receptor of interest. The Halo protein, a genetically

  17. Material Surface Characteristics and Plasma Performance in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Matthew James

    The performance of a tokamak plasma and the characteristics of the surrounding plasma facing component (PFC) material surfaces strongly influence each other. Despite this relationship, tokamak plasma physics has historically been studied more thoroughly than PFC surface physics. The disparity is particularly evident in lithium PFC research: decades of experiments have examined the effect of lithium PFCs on plasma performance, but the understanding of the lithium surface itself is much less complete. This latter information is critical to identifying the mechanisms by which lithium PFCs affect plasma performance. This research focused on such plasma-surface interactions in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX), a spherical torus designed to accommodate solid or liquid lithium as the primary PFC. Surface analysis was accomplished via the novel Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) diagnostic system. In a series of experiments on LTX, the MAPP x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) capabilities were used for in vacuo interrogation of PFC samples. This represented the first application of XPS and TDS for in situ surface analysis of tokamak PFCs. Surface analysis indicated that the thin (dLi ˜ 100nm) evaporative lithium PFC coatings in LTX were converted to Li2O due to oxidizing agents in both the residual vacuum and the PFC substrate. Conversion was rapid and nearly independent of PFC temperature, forming a majority Li2O surface within minutes and an entirely Li2O surface within hours. However, Li2O PFCs were still capable of retaining hydrogen and sequestering impurities until the Li2 O was further oxidized to LiOH, a process that took weeks. For hydrogen retention, Li2O PFCs retained H+ from LTX plasma discharges, but no LiH formation was observed. Instead, results implied that H+ was only weakly-bound, such that it almost completely outgassed as H 2 within minutes. For impurity sequestration, LTX plasma performance

  18. Study of Osteoclast Adhesion to Cortical Bone Surfaces: A Correlative Microscopy Approach for Concomitant Imaging of Cellular Dynamics and Surface Modifications.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, Michal; Addadi, Sefi; Milstein, Yonat; Geiger, Benjamin; Addadi, Lia

    2016-06-22

    Bone remodeling relies on the coordinated functioning of osteoblasts, bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells. The effects of specific chemical and physical bone features on the osteoclast adhesive apparatus, the sealing zone ring, and their relation to resorption functionality are still not well-understood. We designed and implemented a correlative imaging method that enables monitoring of the same area of bone surface by time-lapse light microscopy, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy before, during, and after exposure to osteoclasts. We show that sealing zone rings preferentially develop around surface protrusions, with lateral dimensions of several micrometers, and ∼1 μm height. Direct overlay of sealing zone rings onto resorption pits on the bone surface shows that the rings adapt to pit morphology. The correlative procedure presented here is noninvasive and performed under ambient conditions, without the need for sample labeling. It can potentially be applied to study various aspects of cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26682493

  19. Study of Osteoclast Adhesion to Cortical Bone Surfaces: A Correlative Microscopy Approach for Concomitant Imaging of Cellular Dynamics and Surface Modifications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bone remodeling relies on the coordinated functioning of osteoblasts, bone-forming cells, and osteoclasts, bone-resorbing cells. The effects of specific chemical and physical bone features on the osteoclast adhesive apparatus, the sealing zone ring, and their relation to resorption functionality are still not well-understood. We designed and implemented a correlative imaging method that enables monitoring of the same area of bone surface by time-lapse light microscopy, electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy before, during, and after exposure to osteoclasts. We show that sealing zone rings preferentially develop around surface protrusions, with lateral dimensions of several micrometers, and ∼1 μm height. Direct overlay of sealing zone rings onto resorption pits on the bone surface shows that the rings adapt to pit morphology. The correlative procedure presented here is noninvasive and performed under ambient conditions, without the need for sample labeling. It can potentially be applied to study various aspects of cell-matrix interactions. PMID:26682493

  20. Bio-activated titanium surface utilizable for mimetic bone implantation in dentistry—Part III: Surface characteristics and bone implant contact formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strnad, Jakub; Strnad, Zdeněk; Šesták, Jaroslav; Urban, Karel; Povýšil, Ctibor

    2007-05-01

    This study was carried out to quantify the effect of an alkali-modified surface on the bone implant interface formation during healing using an animal model. A total of 24 screw-shaped, self-tapping, (c.p.) titanium dental implants, divided into test group B—implants with alkali-modified surface (Bio surface) and control group M—implants with turned, machined surface, were inserted without pre-tapping in the tibiae of three beagle dogs. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 5 and 12 weeks and the bone implant contact (BIC%) was evaluated histometrically. The surface characteristics that differed between the implant surfaces, i.e. specific surface area, contact angle, may represent factors that influence the rate of osseointegration and the secondary implant stability. The alkali-treated surface enhances the BIC formation during the first 2 5 weeks of healing compared to the turned, machined surface.

  1. Quantitative reconstruction of thermal and dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkii, Alexander; Kovtunov, Dmitry; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Tsepelev, Igor; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    We study a model of lava flow to determine its thermal and dynamic characteristics from thermal measurements of the lava at its surface. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. We develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem in the case of steady-state flow. Assuming that the temperature and the heat flow are prescribed at the upper surface of the model domain, we determine the flow characteristics in the entire model domain using a variational (adjoint) method. We have performed computations of model examples and showed that in the case of smooth input data the lava temperature and the flow velocity can be reconstructed with a high accuracy. As expected, a noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. Also we analyse the influence of optimization methods on the solution convergence rate. The proposed method for reconstruction of physical parameters of lava flows can also be applied to other problems in geophysical fluid flows.

  2. Influence of surface defects in ZnO thin films on its biosensing response characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Shibu; Gupta, Vinay

    2011-09-15

    Highly c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films deposited by rf magnetron sputtering under varying processing pressure (20-50 mT) in a reactive gas mixture of argon and oxygen were studied for biosensing application. The as-deposited ZnO thin films were in a state of compressive stress having defects related to interstitial Zn and antisite oxygen. Glucose oxidase has been chosen as the model enzyme in the present study and was immobilized on the surface of ZnO thin films deposited on indium tin oxide coated Corning Glass substrate. The studies reveal a correlation between the biosensing characteristic and the presence of defects in the ZnO films. The ZnO films deposited under high pressure (50 mT) are found to be more sensitive for biosensing application due to availability of more surface area for effective immobilization of biomolecules and exhibits a suitable microenvironment with good electron transfer characteristic. The obtained results highlight the importance of desired microstate besides availability of suitable native defects in the ZnO thin film for exhibiting enhanced biosensing response.

  3. Determination of thermal/dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander; Tsepelev, Igor; Kovtunov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    Rapid development of ground based thermal cameras, drones and satellite data allows getting repeated thermal images of the surface of the lava flow. Available instrumentation allows getting a large amount of data during a single lava flow eruption. These data require development of appropriate quantitative techniques to link subsurface dynamics with observations. We present a new approach to assimilation of thermal measurements at lava's surface to the bottom of the lava flow to determine lava's thermal and dynamic characteristics. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. Using an adjoint method we develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem based on the determination of the missing boundary condition and lava flow characteristics. Numerical results show that in the case of smooth input data lava temperature and velocity can be determined with a high accuracy. A noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. The proposed approach to assimilate measured data brings an opportunity to estimate thermal budget of the lava flow.

  4. Spatial distribution characteristics of surface tidal currents in the southwest of Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhiben; Wu, Xiongbin; Lin, Hang; Chen, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xing'an; Li, Lun

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted on the spatial distribution characteristics of surface tidal currents in the southwestern Taiwan Strait based on the quasi-harmonic analysis of current data obtained by two high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) systems. The analysis shows that the tidal current pattern in the southwestern Taiwan Strait is primarily semi-diurnal and influenced significantly by shallow water constituents. The spatial distribution of tidal current ellipses of M2 is probably affected by the interaction between two different systems of tide wave, one from the northern mouth of Taiwan Strait and the other from the Bashi Channel. The directions of the major axes of M2 tidal current ellipses coincide roughly with the axis of the Taiwan Strait. The spatial distribution of the magnitudes of the probable maximum current velocity (PMCS) shows gradual increase of the velocity from northeast to southwest, which is in accordance with the spatial distribution of the measured maximum current velocity (MMCS). The directions of the residual currents are in accordance with the direction of the prevailing monsoon wind at the Taiwan Strait and the direction of the Taiwan warm current during summer. The bathymetry also shows a significant effect on the spatial distribution characteristics of tidal currents.

  5. Relationships Between Abrasive Wear, Hardness, and Surface Grinding Characteristics of Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; Jolly, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the development of grinding models for titanium metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by investigating possible relationships between their indentation hardness, low-stress belt abrasion, high-stress belt abrasion, and the surface grinding characteristics. Three Ti-based particulate composites were tested and compared with the popular titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The three composites were a Ti-6Al-4V-based MMC with 5% TiB{sub 2} particles, a Ti-6Al-4V MMC with 10% TiC particles, and a Ti-6Al-4V/Ti-7.5%W binary alloy matrix that contained 7.5% TiC particles. Two types of belt abrasion tests were used: (a) a modified ASTM G164 low-stress loop abrasion test, and (b) a higher-stress test developed to quantify the grindability of ceramics. Results were correlated with G-ratios (ratio of stock removed to abrasives consumed) obtained from an instrumented surface grinder. Brinell hardness correlated better with abrasion characteristics than microindentation or scratch hardness. Wear volumes from low-stress and high-stress abrasive belt tests were related by a second-degree polynomial. Grindability numbers correlated with hard particle content but were also matrix-dependent.

  6. Quantitative reconstruction of thermal and dynamic characteristics of lava flow from surface thermal measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkii, Alexander; Kovtunov, Dmitry; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Tsepelev, Igor; Melnik, Oleg

    2016-06-01

    We study a model of lava flow to determine its thermal and dynamic characteristics from thermal measurements of the lava at its surface. Mathematically this problem is reduced to solving an inverse boundary problem. Namely, using known conditions at one part of the model boundary we determine the missing condition at the remaining part of the boundary. We develop a numerical approach to the mathematical problem in the case of steady-state flow. Assuming that the temperature and the heat flow are prescribed at the upper surface of the model domain, we determine the flow characteristics in the entire model domain using a variational (adjoint) method. We have performed computations of model examples and showed that in the case of smooth input data the lava temperature and the flow velocity can be reconstructed with a high accuracy. As expected, a noise imposed on the smooth input data results in a less accurate solution, but still acceptable below some noise level. Also we analyse the influence of optimization methods on the solution convergence rate. The proposed method for reconstruction of physical parameters of lava flows can also be applied to other problems in geophysical fluid flows.

  7. Electrophysical characteristics of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 during interaction with antibodies to various cell surface epitopes.

    PubMed

    Guliy, Olga I; Matora, Larisa Y; Burygin, Gennady L; Dykman, Lev A; Ostudin, Nikolai A; Bunin, Viktor D; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Ignatov, Oleg V

    2007-11-15

    This work was undertaken to examine the electrooptical characteristics of cells of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 during their interaction with antibodies developed to various cell surface epitopes. We used the dependences of the cell suspension optical density changes induced by electroorientation on the orienting field frequency (740, 1000, 1450, 2000, and 2800kHz). Cell interactions with homologous strain-specific antibodies to the A. brasilense Sp245 O antigen and with homologous antibodies to whole bacterial cells brought about considerable changes in the electrooptical properties of the bacterial suspension. When genus-specific antibodies to the flagellin of the Azospirillum sheathed flagellum and antibodies to the serologically distinct O antigen of A. brasilense Sp7 were included in the A. brasilense Sp245 suspension, the changes caused in the electrooptical signal were slight and had values close to those for the above changes. These findings agree well with the immunochemical characteristics of the Azospirillum O antigens and with the data on the topographical distribution of the Azospirillum major cell surface antigens. The obtained results can serve as a basis for the development of a rapid test for the intraspecies detection of microorganisms. PMID:17723223

  8. Employing Ti nano-powder dielectric to enhance surface characteristics in electrical discharge machining of AISI D2 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marashi, Houriyeh; Sarhan, Ahmed A. D.; Hamdi, Mohd

    2015-12-01

    Manufacturing components with superior surface characteristics is challenging when electrical discharge machining (EDM) is employed for mass production. The aim of this research is to enhance the characteristics of AISI D2 steel surface machined with EDM through adding Ti nano-powder to dielectric under various machining parameters, including discharge duration (Ton) and peak current (I). Surface roughness profilometer, FESEM and AFM analysis were utilized to reveal the machined surface characteristics in terms of surface roughness, surface morphology and surface micro-defects. Moreover, EDX analysis was performed in order to evaluate the atomic deposition of Ti nano-powder on the surface. The concentration of Ti nano-powder in dielectric was also examined using ESEM and EDX. According to the results, the addition of Ti nano-powder to dielectric notably enhanced the surface morphology and surface roughness at all machining parameters except Ton = 340 μs. Of these parameters, maximum enhancement was observed at Ton = 210 μs, where the material removal rate and average surface roughness improved by ∼69 and ∼35% for peak current of 6 and 12 A, respectively. Elemental analysis signified negligible Ti deposition on the machined surface while the atomic concentration of Ti was increased around the crack areas.

  9. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  10. Degradation Characteristics of MgO Based Magnetic Tunnel Junction Caused by Surface Roughness of Ta/Ru Buffer Layers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Min; Choi, Chul Min; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Lee, Jeong Yong; Mitani, Seiji; Song, Yun-Heub

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how surface roughness of a Ta/Ru buffer layer affects the degradation characteristics on MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). MTJs with worse surface roughness on the buffer layer showed increased resistance drift and degraded time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) characteristics. We suggest that this resulted from reduced MgO thickness on the MTJ with worse surface roughness on the buffer layer, which was estimated by the TDDB and analytic approach. As a result, surface roughness of the buffer layer is a critical factors that impacts the reliability of MTJs, and it should be controlled to have the smallest roughness value as possible. PMID:27398503

  11. Dynamical characteristics of surface EMG signals of hand grasps via recurrence plot.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Zhu, Xiangyang; Ju, Zhaojie; Liu, Honghai

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing human hand grasp movements through surface electromyogram (sEMG) is a challenging task. In this paper, we investigated nonlinear measures based on recurrence plot, as a tool to evaluate the hidden dynamical characteristics of sEMG during four different hand movements. A series of experimental tests in this study show that the dynamical characteristics of sEMG data with recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) can distinguish different hand grasp movements. Meanwhile, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is applied to evaluate the performance of the aforementioned measures to identify the grasp movements. The experimental results show that the recognition rate (99.1%) based on the combination of linear and nonlinear measures is much higher than those with only linear measures (93.4%) or nonlinear measures (88.1%). These results suggest that the RQA measures might be a potential tool to reveal the sEMG hidden characteristics of hand grasp movements and an effective supplement for the traditional linear grasp recognition methods. PMID:24403424

  12. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone characteristics to the radial distribution of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Deepika; Pattnaik, S.; Rajesh, P. V.

    2016-06-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is crucial for the development and maintenance of a tropical cyclone (TC) particularly below the storm core region. However, storm data below the core region is the most difficult to obtain, hence it is not clear yet that how sensitive the radial distribution of the SST impact the storm characteristic features such as its inner-core structures, translational speed, track, rainfall and intensity particularly over the Bay of Bengal. To explore the effects of radial SST distribution on the TC characteristics, a series of numerical experiments were carried out by modifying the SST at different radial extents using two-way interactive, triply-nested, nonhydrostatic Advanced Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model. It is found that not only the SST under the eyewall (core region) contribute significantly to modulate storm track, translational speed and intensity, but also those outside the eyewall region (i.e., 2-2.5 times the radius of maximum wind (RMW)) play a vital role in defining the storm's characteristics and structure. Out of all the simulated experiments, storm where the positive radial change of SST inducted within the 75 km of the storm core (i.e., P75) produced the strongest storm. In addition, N300 (negative radial changes at 300 km) produced the weakest storm. Further, it is found that SST, stronger within 2-2.5 times of the RMW for P75 experiment, plays a dominant role in maintaining 10 m wind speed (WS 10), surface entropy flux (SEF) and upward vertical velocity ( w) within the eyewall with warmer air temperature (T) and equivalent potential temperature ( 𝜃 e) within the storm's eye compared to other experiments.

  13. Sensitivity of tropical cyclone characteristics to the radial distribution of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Deepika; Pattnaik, S.; Rajesh, P. V.

    2016-06-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is crucial for the development and maintenance of a tropical cyclone (TC) particularly below the storm core region. However, storm data below the core region is the most difficult to obtain, hence it is not clear yet that how sensitive the radial distribution of the SST impact the storm characteristic features such as its inner-core structures, translational speed, track, rainfall and intensity particularly over the Bay of Bengal. To explore the effects of radial SST distribution on the TC characteristics, a series of numerical experiments were carried out by modifying the SST at different radial extents using two-way interactive, triply-nested, nonhydrostatic Advanced Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model. It is found that not only the SST under the eyewall (core region) contribute significantly to modulate storm track, translational speed and intensity, but also those outside the eyewall region (i.e., 2-2.5 times the radius of maximum wind (RMW)) play a vital role in defining the storm's characteristics and structure. Out of all the simulated experiments, storm where the positive radial change of SST inducted within the 75 km of the storm core (i.e., P75) produced the strongest storm. In addition, N300 (negative radial changes at 300 km) produced the weakest storm. Further, it is found that SST, stronger within 2-2.5 times of the RMW for P75 experiment, plays a dominant role in maintaining 10 m wind speed (WS 10), surface entropy flux (SEF) and upward vertical velocity (w) within the eyewall with warmer air temperature (T) and equivalent potential temperature (𝜃 e) within the storm's eye compared to other experiments.

  14. Using Runoff Collectors to Understand Surface Runoff Characteristics in Remote Nevada Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, K. E.; Saito, L.; Fenstermaker, L.; Devitt, D.; Strachan, S.; Morris, C.; Weltz, M.

    2012-12-01

    other two runoff collectors were installed near Smith Creek Ranch at Porter Canyon in the Desatoya Mountains as a part of a USDA ARS research project on pinyon and juniper fuels reduction. Data from the 16 runoff collectors and 9 rainfall simulation experiments will be used to describe the storm characteristics that promote hillslope surface runoff in remote Nevada catchments, and how climate change may affect the likelihood of surface runoff.

  15. Effects of Elevator Nose Shape, Gap, Balance, and Tabs on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Horizontal Tail Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goett, Harry J; Reeder, J P

    1939-01-01

    Results are presented showing the effects of gap, elevator, nose shape, balance, cut-out, and tabs on the aerodynamic characteristics of a horizontal tail surface tested in the NACA full-scale tunnel.

  16. Deformation characteristics of the near-surface layers of zirconia ceramics implanted with aluminum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghyngazov, S. A.; Vasiliev, I. P.; Frangulyan, T. S.; Chernyavski, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of ion treatment on the phase composition and mechanical properties of the near-surface layers of zirconium ceramic composition 97 ZrO2-3Y2O3 (mol%) was studied. Irradiation of the samples was carried out by accelerated ions of aluminum with using vacuum-arc source Mevva 5-Ru. Ion beam had the following parameters: the energy of the accelerated ions E = 78 keV, the pulse current density Ji = 4mA / cm2, current pulse duration equal τ = 250 mcs, pulse repetition frequency f = 5 Hz. Exposure doses (fluence) were 1016 и 1017 ion/cm2. The depth distribution implanted ions was studied by SIMS method. It is shown that the maximum projected range of the implanted ions is equal to 250 nm. Near-surface layers were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at fixed glancing incidence angle. It is shown that implantation of aluminum ions into the ceramics does not lead to a change in the phase composition of the near-surface layer. The influence of implanted ions on mechanical properties of ceramic near-surface layers was studied by the method of dynamic nanoindentation using small loads on the indenter P=300 mN. It is shown that in ion- implanted ceramic layer the processes of material recovery in the deformed region in the unloading mode proceeds with higher efficiency as compared with the initial material state. The deformation characteristics of samples before and after ion treatment have been determined from interpretation of the resulting P-h curves within the loading and unloading sections by the technique proposed by Oliver and Pharr. It was found that implantation of aluminum ions in the near-surface layer of zirconia ceramics increases nanohardness and reduces the Young's modulus.

  17. The stress relaxation characteristics of composite matrices etched to produce nanoscale surface features.

    PubMed

    Mirani, Rahul D; Pratt, Jonathan; Iyer, Pooja; Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2009-02-01

    Many synthetic and xenogenic natural matrices have been explored in tissue regeneration, however, they lack either mechanical strength or cell colonization characteristics found in natural tissue. Moreover natural matrices such as small intestinal submucosa (SIS) lack sample to sample homogeneity, leading to unpredictable clinical outcomes. This work explored a novel fabrication technique by blending together the useful characteristics of synthetic and natural polymers to form a composite structure by using a NaOH etching process that produces nanoscale surface features. The composite scaffold was formed by sandwiching a thin layer of PLGA between porous layers of gelatin-chitosan. The etching process increased the surface roughness of PLGA membrane, allowing easy spreading of the hydrophilic gelatin-chitosan solution on its hydrophobic surface and reducing the scaffold thickness by nearly 50% than otherwise. The viscoelastic properties of the scaffold, an area of mechanical analysis which remains largely unexplored in tissue regeneration was assessed. Stress relaxation experiments of the "ramp and hold" type performed at variable ranges of temperature (25 degrees C and 37 degrees C), loading rates (3.125% s(-1) and 12.5% s(-1)) and relaxation times (60 s, 100 s and 200 s) found stress relaxation to be sensitive to temperature and the loading rate but less dependent on the relaxation time. Stress relaxation behavior of the composite matrix was compared with SIS structures at 25 degrees C (hydrated), 3.125% s(-1) loading rate and 100 s relaxation time which showed that the synthetic matrix was found to be strain softening as compared to the strain hardening behavior exhibited by SIS. Popularly used quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model to describe biomechanics of soft tissues was utilized. The QLV model predicted the loading behavior with an average error of 3%. The parameters of the QLV model predicted using nonlinear regression analysis appear to be in concurrence

  18. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist.

  19. Variations in surface characteristics and corrosion behaviour of metal brackets and wires in different electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the surface characteristics and to compare the corrosion potential of metal brackets and wires in environments containing different media. Four brands of metal brackets and two types of orthodontic wires [stainless steel and nickel-titanium (NiTi)] were investigated. An electrochemical assay was used to compare the corrosion potential (V) of the brackets and wires in different electrolyte media at 37°C. The test media were acidulated sodium fluoride (NaF) and pH 4 and pH 6 artificial saliva solutions. The data were analysed using analysis of variance with a predetermined significance level of α = 0.05. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe surface defects and corrosion. The results of the potentiodynamic curve showed that most brands of metal brackets were easily corroded in the NaF and pH 4 environments, while the NiTi and stainless steel wires were easily corroded in the pH 4 artificial saliva. SEM observations showed that defects or pitting corrosion occurred on the surfaces of the brackets and wires in all tested media. PMID:20139132

  20. Influence of surface charge, binding site residues and glycosylation on Thielavia terrestris cutinase biochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shirke, Abhijit N; Basore, Danielle; Holton, Samantha; Su, An; Baugh, Evan; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Makhatadze, George; Bystroff, Christopher; Gross, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Cutinases are esterases of industrial importance for applications in recycling and surface modification of polyesters. The cutinase from Thielavia terrestris (TtC) is distinct in terms of its ability to retain its stability and activity in acidic pH. Stability and activity in acidic pHs are desirable for esterases as the pH of the reaction tends to go down with the generation of acid. The pH stability and activity are governed by the charged state of the residues involved in catalysis or in substrate binding. In this study, we performed the detailed structural and biochemical characterization of TtC coupled with surface charge analysis to understand its acidic tolerance. The stability of TtC in acidic pH was rationalized by evaluating the contribution of charge interactions to the Gibbs free energy of unfolding at varying pHs. The activity of TtC was found to be limited by substrate binding affinity, which is a function of the surface charge. Additionally, the presence of glycosylation affects the biochemical characteristics of TtC owing to steric interactions with residues involved in substrate binding. PMID:26758295

  1. Calculation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown wing-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Spangler, S. B.

    1978-01-01

    An engineering method for predicting the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with upper surface blowing (USB) was developed. Potential flow models were incorporated into the prediction method: a wing and flap lifting surface model and a jet wake model. The wing-flap model used a vortex-lattice to represent the wing and flaps. The wing had an arbitrary planform and camber and twist, and the flap system was made up of a Coanda flap and other flap segments of arbitrary size. The jet wake model consisted of a series of closely spaced rectangular vortex rings. The wake was positioned such that it was tangent to the upper surface of the wing and flap between the exhaust nozzle and the flap trailing edge. It was specified such that the mass, momentum, and spreading rates were similar to actual USB jet wakes. Comparisons of measured and predicted pressure distributions, span load distributions, and total lift and pitching-moment coefficients on swept and unswept USB configurations are included. A wide range of thrust coefficients and flap deflection angles were considered at angles of attack up to the onset of stall.

  2. Discharge Characteristics of Series Surface/Packed-Bed Discharge Reactor Diven by Bipolar Pulsed Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian; Jiang, Nan; Li, Jie; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Wu, Yan; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-03-01

    The discharge characteristics of the series surface/packed-bed discharge (SSPBD) reactor driven by bipolar pulse power were systemically investigated in this study. In order to evaluate the advantages of the SSPBD reactor, it was compared with traditional surface discharge (SD) reactor and packed-bed discharge (PBD) reactor in terms of the discharge voltage, discharge current, and ozone formation. The SSPBD reactor exhibited a faster rising time and lower tail voltage than the SD and PBD reactors. The distribution of the active species generated in different discharge regions of the SSPBD reactor was analyzed by optical emission spectra and ozone analysis. It was found that the packed-bed discharge region (3.5 mg/L), rather than the surface discharge region (1.3 mg/L) in the SSPBD reactor played a more important role in ozone generation. The optical emission spectroscopy analysis indicated that more intense peaks of the active species (e.g. N2 and OI) in the optical emission spectra were observed in the packed-bed region. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51177007), the Joint Funds of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1462105), and Dalian University of Technology Fundamental Research Fund of China (No. DUT15RC(3)030)

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale hybrid upper surface blown flap model having four engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carros, R. J.; Boissevain, A. G.; Aoyagi, K.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of large-scale wind tunnel aircraft model that utilized a hybrid-upper surface blown flap to augment lift. The hybrid concept of this investigation used a portion of the turbofan exhaust air for blowing over the trailing edge flap to provide boundary layer control. The model, tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel, had a 27.5 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 8 and 4 turbofan engines mounted on the upper surface of the wing. The lift of the model was augmented by turbofan exhaust impingement on the wind upper-surface and flap system. Results were obtained for three flap deflections, for some variation of engine nozzle configuration and for jet thrust coefficients from 0 to 3.0. Six-component longitudinal and lateral data are presented with four engine operation and with the critical engine out. In addition, a limited number of cross-plots of the data are presented. All of the tests were made with a downwash rake installed instead of a horizontal tail. Some of these downwash data are also presented.

  4. The role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry part I: Review of titanium alloys, surface characteristics and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Asatourian, Armen; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays an important role in osseointegration process by contributing to inflammatory and regenerative phases of surrounding alveolar bone. The present review evaluated the effect of titanium alloys and their surface characteristics including: surface topography (macro, micro, and nano), surface wettability/energy, surface hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, surface charge, and surface treatments of dental implants on angiogenesis events, which occur during osseointegration period. Material and Methods An electronic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases via OVID using the keywords mentioned in the PubMed and MeSH headings regarding the role of angiogenesis in implant dentistry from January 2000-April 2014. Results Of the 2,691 articles identified in our initial search results, only 30 met the inclusion criteria set for this review. The hydrophilicity and topography of dental implants are the most important and effective surface characteristics in angiogenesis and osteogenesis processes. The surface treatments or modifications of dental implants are mainly directed through the enhancement of biological activity and functionalization in order to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis, and accelerate the osseointegration procedure. Conclusions Angiogenesis is of great importance in implant dentistry in a manner that most of the surface characteristics and treatments of dental implants are directed toward creating a more pro-angiogenic surface on dental implants. A number of studies discussed the effect of titanium alloys, dental implant surface characteristic and treatments on agiogenesis process. However, clinical trials and in-vivo studies delineating the mechanisms of dental implants, and their surface characteristics or treatments, action in angiogenesis processes are lagging. Key words:Angiogenesis, dental implant, osseointergration. PMID:27031073

  5. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods

    PubMed Central

    Souza, E.L.; Oliveira, C.E.V.; Stamford, T.L.M.; Conceição, M.L.; Neto, N.J. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the phenolic compounds carvacrol (CAR) and thymol (THY) on some physiological characteristics and on the modulation of the secretion of some staphylococcal virulence factors, that is, coagulase and enterotoxin. This study also investigated possible mechanisms for the establishment of the anti-staphylococcal activity of these compounds. Sublethal concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 μL/mL) of CAR and THY inhibited the activity of the enzymes coagulase and lipase and led to a decrease in salt tolerance. At the tested sublethal concentrations, both CAR and THY led to a total suppression of enterotoxin production. The loss of a 260-nm-absorbing material and an efflux of potassium ions occurred immediately after the addition of CAR and THY at 0.6 and 1.2 μL/mL and increased up to 120 min of exposure. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to CAR and THY (0.6 μL/mL) revealed that individual cells appeared to be deformed, with projections of cellular material. The observations of leakage of cellular material and an altered cell surface suggest that gross damage to a cell’s cytoplasmic membrane, which results in a disruption in protein secretion, could be responsible for the anti-staphylococcal properties of CAR and THY. PMID:24159280

  6. Effect of the plate surface characteristics and gap height on yield stresses of a magnetorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonkkari, I.; Kostamo, E.; Kostamo, J.; Syrjala, S.; Pietola, M.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of the plate material, surface roughness and measuring gap height on static and dynamic yield stresses of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid were investigated with a commercial plate-plate magnetorheometer. Magnetic and non-magnetic plates with smooth (Ra ˜ 0.3 μm) and rough (Ra ˜ 10 μm) surface finishes were used. It was shown by Hall probe measurements and finite element simulations that the use of magnetic plates or higher gap heights increases the level of magnetic flux density and changes the shape of the radial flux density profile. The yield stress increase caused by these factors was determined and subtracted from the measured values in order to examine only the effect of the wall characteristics or the gap height. Roughening of the surfaces offered a significant increase in the yield stresses for non-magnetic plates. With magnetic plates the yield stresses were higher to start with, but roughening did not increase them further. A significant part of the difference in measured stresses between rough non-magnetic and magnetic plates was caused by changes in magnetic flux density rather than by better contact of the particles to the plate surfaces. In a similar manner, an increase in gap height from 0.25 to 1.00 mm can lead to over 20% increase in measured stresses due to changes in the flux density profile. When these changes were compensated the dynamic yield stresses generally remained independent of the gap height, even in the cases where it was obvious that the wall slip was present. This suggests that with MR fluids the wall slip cannot be reliably detected by comparison of flow curves measured at different gap heights.

  7. The influence of surface characteristics on lapse rates and temperature profiles in areas of complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, N. C.; Pike, G.; Fower, D.; Schaefer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Temperatures near the ground are often decoupled from free-air equivalents, particularly in areas of complex relief and at high latitudes where cold air drainage occurs particularly when radiation balances become negative. This means that it is hard to predict spatial patterns of surface temperature in such regions. In this study several years of intensive field measurements in complex terrain in northern Finland (Kevo) and Sweden (Abisko) allow detailed examination of the interaction between land surface characteristics (including cryosphere), vegetation, and local/micro-climate in mountain basins. Temperature and vapour pressure were measured every 30 minutes for 5 years (2007-2012) at 60 sites at Kevo and for a winter season (September-June) at 52 sites in Abisko, ranging over 300/600 metres of elevation respectively. In Finland lapse rates vary considerably both seasonally and diurnally, the relative importance of seasonal and diurnal forcing changing throughout the year. The results show intense (up to +80 °C/km) and persistent inversion events during the winter months (NDJ) which are broken up by mechanical effects since there is no diurnal cycle. In the transition from winter into spring (FMA) these inversions still occur but increasing radiation imposes a diurnal pattern on their formation and destruction. As snow cover peaks in spring the interaction between surface albedo, land cover and radiation serves to amplify the diurnal cycle in lapse rates. Daytime lapse rates peak in spring because of an increase in albedo with elevation as dark trees give way to reflective snow. At night inversions rapidly reform. Summer lapse rates are modified (usually weakened) by the presence of open water at low elevations. In Abisko similar processes are shown to be at work, although since the valley system is more open and at a larger spatial scale, the range of lapse rate variability is slightly less and the influence of surface characteristics more subdued. Taken

  8. Observations of Brine Pool Surface Characteristics and Internal Structure Through Remote Acoustic and Structured Light Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Michel, A.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the surface characteristics and internal structure of deep-sea brine pools are currently limited to discrete in-situ observations. Complementary acoustic and structured light imaging sensors mounted on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) have demonstrated the ability systematically detect variations in surface characteristics of a brine pool, reveal internal stratification and detect areas of active hydrocarbon activity. The presented visual and acoustic sensors combined with a stereo camera pair are mounted on the 4000m rated ROV Hercules (Ocean Exploration Trust). These three independent sensors operate simultaneously from a typical 3m altitude resulting in visual and bathymetric maps with sub-centimeter resolution. Applying this imaging technology to 2014 and 2015 brine pool surveys in the Gulf of Mexico revealed acoustic and visual anomalies due to the density changes inherent in the brine. Such distinct changes in acoustic impedance allowed the high frequency 1350KHz multibeam sonar to detect multiple interfaces. For instance, distinct acoustic reflections were observed at 3m and 5.5m below the vehicle. Subsequent verification using a CDT and lead line indicated the acoustic return from the brine surface was the signal at 3m, while a thicker muddy and more saline interface occurred at 5.5m, the bottom of the brine pool was not located but is assumed to be deeper than 15m. The multibeam is also capable of remotely detecting emitted gas bubbles within the brine pool, indicative of active hydrocarbon seeps. Bubbles associated with these seeps were not consistently visible above the brine while using the HD camera on the ROV. Additionally, while imaging the surface of brine pool the structured light sheet laser became diffuse, refracting across the main interface. Analysis of this refraction combined with varying acoustic returns allow for systematic and remote detection of the density, stratification and activity levels within and

  9. High-Content Imaging and Gene Expression Approaches To Unravel the Effect of Surface Functionality on Cellular Interactions of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Manshian, Bella B; Pfeiffer, Christian; Pelaz, Beatriz; Heimerl, Thomas; Gallego, Marta; Möller, Marco; del Pino, Pablo; Himmelreich, Uwe; Parak, Wolfgang J; Soenen, Stefaan J

    2015-10-27

    The toxic effects of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) remain an issue of debate, where the respective contribution of the NPs themselves and of free Ag(+) ions present in the NP stock suspensions and after intracellular NP corrosion are not fully understood. Here, we employ a recently set up methodology based on high-content (HC) imaging combined with high-content gene expression studies to examine the interaction of three types of Ag NPs with identical core sizes, but coated with either mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), dodecylamine-modified poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PMA), or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated PMA with two types of cultured cells (primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and murine C17.2 neural progenitor cells). As a control, cells were also exposed to free Ag(+) ions at the same concentration as present in the respective Ag NP stock suspensions. The data reveal clear effects of the NP surface properties on cellular interactions. PEGylation of the NPs significantly reduces their cellular uptake efficiency, whereas MUA-NPs are more prone to agglomeration in complex tissue culture media. PEG-NPs display the lowest levels of toxicity, which is in line with their reduced cell uptake. MUA-NPs display the highest levels of toxicity, caused by autophagy, cell membrane damage, mitochondrial damage, and cytoskeletal deformations. At similar intracellular NP levels, PEG-NPs induce the highest levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but do not affect the cell cytoskeleton, in contrast to MUA- and PMA-NPs. Gene expression studies support the findings above, defining autophagy and cell membrane damage-related necrosis as main toxicity pathways. Additionally, immunotoxicity, DNA damage responses, and hypoxia-like toxicity were observed for PMA- and especially MUA-NPs. Together, these data reveal that Ag(+) ions do contribute to Ag NP-associated toxicity, particularly upon intracellular degradation. The different surface properties of the

  10. Are memberships in race, ethnicity, and gender categories merely surface characteristics?

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Chin, Jean Lau

    2010-12-01

    Comments on Deep-level diversity and leadership (see record 2010-24768-017) by Kristen M. Klein and Mo Wang. In the special issue on Diversity and Leadership (April 2010), the authors made a strong case for the importance of diversity in workplace leadership, rejected premature declarations that workplace discrimination is obsolete, and called for leadership theories that acknowledge and promote the value of diversity. We suggest that researchers could better predict and increase leader effectiveness by explicitly addressing deep-level characteristics in theory and practice. By promoting surface-level diversity in leadership opportunities and deep-level similarities in leadership training, it is conceivable that organizations could counter adverse impact in leader selection while also improving organizational outcomes. PMID:21133528

  11. Solar absorption characteristics of several coatings and surface finishes. [for solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Solar absorption characteristics are established for several films potentially favorable for use as receiving surfaces in solar energy collectors. Included in the investigation were chemically produced black films, black electrodeposits, and anodized coatings. It was found that black nickel exhibited the best combination of selective optical properties of any of the coatings studied. A serious drawback to black nickel was its high susceptibility to degradation in the presence of high moisture environments. Electroplated black chrome generally exhibited high solar absorptivities, but the emissivity varied considerably and was also relatively high under some conditions. The black chrome had the greatest moisture resistance of any of the coatings tested. Black oxide coatings on copper and steel substrates showed the best combination of selective optical properties of any of the chemical conversion films studied.

  12. Decay Characteristics of Surface Mounds with Contrasting Interlayer Mass Transport Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Maozhi; Wendelken, J. F.; Liu, Bang-Gui; Wang, E. G.; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2001-03-12

    The decay characteristics of three-dimensional (3D) islands formed on surfaces are investigated theoretically considering two types of interlayer mass transport mechanisms. If an adatom on a given layer can easily descend from any site along the periphery of the layer, an optimal island slope and a constant terrace width will be selected during the decay. In contrast, if the adatom can descend primarily through selective (such as kinked) sites, the decay will be accompanied by a gradual increase in the island slope. These generic conclusions provide the basis for a microscopic understanding of the decay of nanostructures in fcc(111) and fcc(100) metal homoepitaxy and are applicable to other systems as well.

  13. Sensitivity of surface characteristics on the simulation of wind-blown-dust source in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. H.; Gong, S. L.; Gong, W.; Makar, P. A.; Moran, M. D.; Stroud, C. A.; Zhang, J.

    Recently, a wind-blown-dust-emission module has been built based on a state-of-the-art wind erosion theory and evaluated in a regional air-quality model to simulate a North American dust storm episode in April 2001 (see Park, S.H., Gong, S.L., Zhao, T.L., Vet, R.J., Bouchet, V.S., Gong, W., Makar, P.A., Moran, M.D., Stroud, C., Zhang, J. 2007. Simulation of entrainment and transport of dust particles within North America in April 2001 ("Red Dust episode"). J. Geophys. Res. 112, D20209, doi:10.1029/2007JD008443). A satisfactorily detailed assessment of that module, however, was not possible because of a lack of information on some module inputs, especially soil moisture content. In this paper, the wind-blown-dust emission was evaluated for two additional dust storms using improved soil moisture inputs. The surface characteristics of the wind-blown-dust source areas in southwestern North America were also investigated, focusing on their implications for wind-blown-dust emissions. The improved soil moisture inputs enabled the sensitivity of other important surface characteristics, the soil grain size distribution and the land-cover, to dust emission to be investigated with more confidence. Simulations of the two 2003 dust storm episodes suggested that wind-blown-dust emissions from the desert areas in southwestern North America are dominated by emissions from dry playas covered with accumulated alluvial deposits whose particle size is much smaller than usual desert sands. As well, the source areas in the northwestern Texas region were indicated to be not desert but rather agricultural lands that were "activated" as a wind-blown-dust sources after harvest. This finding calls for revisions to the current wind-blown-dust-emission module, in which "desert" is designated to be the only land-cover category that can emit wind-blown dust.

  14. Characteristics, seasonal distribution and surface degradation features of microplastic pellets along the Goa coast, India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Saha, Mahua; Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Rodrigues, Andrea Carmelita; Bhattacharyya, Sourav; Naik, B G

    2016-09-01

    Microplastic pellets (MPPs) are ubiquitous contaminants, recognised as a serious threat to the biota in coastal, estuarine and marine environment. The distribution, abundance, weathering and chemical characteristics of MPPs on the beaches of Goa, and their transport to the coast during the southwest (SW) monsoon are discussed in this paper. MPP samples collected from six sandy beaches were categorised based on colour and polymer types using Stereoscope microscope and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. White colour MPPs were the most abundant, and Polyethylene (PE) and Polypropylene (PP) were the dominant polymer types of MPPs deposited on all the beaches. Carbonyl index values showed that MPPs collected in June 2015 (representing SW monsoon) were 'new', whereas the MPPs collected in January 2015 were 'aged', showing that MPPs are arriving at Goa coast only during SW monsoon due to conducive hydrodynamic conditions. Characteristics of MPPs suggest that they could be originated primarily from ocean-based sources. The winds and surface currents during SW monsoon are the driving forces for the transportation and deposition of MPPs on the Goa beaches. The results of this study will be useful to the National 'Clean India' program for effective plastic debris removal management. PMID:27341153

  15. Optical characteristics of the filamentary and diffuse modes in surface dielectric barrier discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Jie; Jiang, Nan; Shang, Ke-Feng; Lu, Na; Wu, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas generally exhibits filamentary and diffuse discharges at atmospheric air. The focus of this investigation is on the different optical characteristics and quantitative research about morphological features of two discharge modes. The temporally and spatially resolved characteristics of discharge phenomenon together with the gas temperature are presented with microsecond time scale. Discharge area is estimated by the sum of pixels that equal to "1" in MATLAB software. The formation of diffuse plasma mainly depends on an increase of the ionization coefficient and a creation of sufficient seed electrons by the Penning effect at low electric fields. Accordingly, experimental measurements show that diffuse discharge during the negative half cycle has good uniformity and stability compared with filamentary discharge during the positive half cycle. The rotational temperatures of plasma are determined by comparing the experimental spectra with the simulated spectra that have been investigated. The plasma gas temperature keeps almost constant in the filamentary discharge phase and subsequently increased by about 115K during the diffuse discharge. In addition, it is shown to be nearly identical in the axial direction. Non-uniform temperature distribution can be observed in the radial direction with large fluctuations. The plasma length is demonstrated almost the same between two discharge modes. PMID:27294552

  16. Electron reflection and secondary emission characteristics of sputter-textured pyrolytic graphite surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, E. G.; Curren, A. N.; Sovey, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements are presented of secondary electron emission and reflected primary electron characteristics of sputter-textured pyrolitic graphite surfaces with microstructures of various sizes and densities, made with an Auger cylindrical mirror analyzer in a high-vacuum chamber at pressures below 1.33 x 10 to the -7th N/sq m (10 to the -9th torr). A dense, tall, thin, spire-like microstructure, obtained at ion energies of 1000 eV and ion current densities of 5 mA/sq cm, is the most effective. The secondary electron emission from such a surface is lower than that of soot, whose secondary emission is among the lowest of any material. At a primary electron energy of 1000 eV, the secondary electron emission yield of smooth CU is about 350% greater than the lowest value obtained for sputter-textured pyrolitic graphite. The reflected primary electron index of smooth Cu is a factor of 80 greater. If the secondary electron emission yield is reduced to 0.3, which is possible with sputter-textured pyrolitic graphite, the traveling wave tube collector efficiency could be improved by as much as 4% over that for smooth copper.

  17. Abundance and Distribution Characteristics of Microplastics in Surface Seawaters of the Incheon/Kyeonggi Coastal Region.

    PubMed

    Chae, Doo-Hyeon; Kim, In-Sung; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Song, Young Kyoung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics in marine environments are of emerging concern due to their widespread distribution, their ingestion by various marine organisms, and their roles as a source and transfer vector of toxic chemicals. However, our understanding of their abundance and distribution characteristics in surface seawater (SSW) remains limited. We investigated microplastics in the surface microlayer (SML) and the SSW at 12 stations near-shore and offshore of the Korean west coast, Incheon/Kyeonggi region. Variation between stations, sampling media, and sampling methods were compared based on abundances, size distribution, and composition profiles of microsized synthetic polymer particles. The abundance of microplastics was greater in the SML (152,688 ± 92,384 particles/m(3)) than in SSW and showed a significant difference based on the sampling method for SSWs collected using a hand net (1602 ± 1274 particles/m(3)) and a zooplankton trawl net (0.19 ± 0.14 particles/m(3)). Ship paint particles (mostly alkyd resin polymer) accounted for the majority of microplastics detected in both SML and SSWs, and increased levels were observed around the voyage routes of large vessels. This indicates that polymers with marine-based origins become an important contributor to microplastics in coastal SSWs of this coastal region. PMID:26135299

  18. Characteristics of the near-surface atmosphere over the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, John J.; Nigro, Melissa A.; Lazzara, Matthew A.

    2016-04-01

    Two years of data from a 30 m instrumented tower are used to characterize the near-surface atmospheric state over the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Stable stratification dominates the surface layer at this site, occurring 83% of the time. The strongest inversions occur for wind speeds less than 4 m s-1 and the inversion strength decreases rapidly as wind speed increases above 4 m s-1. In summer unstable stratification occurs 50% of the time and unstable conditions are observed in every season. A novel aspect of this work is the use of an artificial neural network pattern identification technique, known as self-organizing maps, to objectively identify characteristic potential temperature profiles that span the range of profiles present in the 2 year study period. The self-organizing map clustering technique allows the more than 100,000 observed potential temperature profiles to be represented by just 30 patterns. The pattern-averaged winds show distinct and physically consistent relationships with the potential temperature profiles. The strongest winds occur for the nearly well mixed but slightly stable patterns and the weakest winds occur for the strongest inversion patterns. The weakest wind shear over the depth of the tower occurs for slightly unstable profiles and the largest wind shear occurs for moderately strong inversions. Pattern-averaged log wind profiles are consistent with theoretical expectations. The log wind profiles exhibit a kinked profile for the strongest inversion cases indicative of decoupling of the winds between the bottom and top of the tower.

  19. Formation and characteristics of biomimetic mineralo-organic particles in natural surface water

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Young, David; Liu, Chien-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Young, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles exist in environmental water but the formation, characteristics and fate of such particles remain incompletely understood. We show here that surface water obtained from various sources (ocean, hot springs, and soil) produces mineralo-organic particles that gradually increase in size and number during incubation. Seawater produces mineralo-organic particles following several cycles of filtration and incubation, indicating that this water possesses high particle-seeding potential. Electron microscopy observations reveal round, bacteria-like mineral particles with diameters of 20 to 800 nm, which may coalesce and aggregate to form mineralized biofilm-like structures. Chemical analysis of the particles shows the presence of a wide range of chemical elements that form mixed mineral phases dominated by calcium and iron sulfates, silicon and aluminum oxides, sodium carbonate, and iron sulfide. Proteomic analysis indicates that the particles bind to proteins of bacterial, plant and animal origins. When observed under dark-field microscopy, mineral particles derived from soil-water show biomimetic morphologies, including large, round structures similar to cells undergoing division. These findings have important implications not only for the recognition of biosignatures and fossils of small microorganisms in the environment but also for the geochemical cycling of elements, ions and organic matter in surface water. PMID:27350595

  20. Formation and characteristics of biomimetic mineralo-organic particles in natural surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Young, David; Liu, Chien-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Young, John D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles exist in environmental water but the formation, characteristics and fate of such particles remain incompletely understood. We show here that surface water obtained from various sources (ocean, hot springs, and soil) produces mineralo-organic particles that gradually increase in size and number during incubation. Seawater produces mineralo-organic particles following several cycles of filtration and incubation, indicating that this water possesses high particle-seeding potential. Electron microscopy observations reveal round, bacteria-like mineral particles with diameters of 20 to 800 nm, which may coalesce and aggregate to form mineralized biofilm-like structures. Chemical analysis of the particles shows the presence of a wide range of chemical elements that form mixed mineral phases dominated by calcium and iron sulfates, silicon and aluminum oxides, sodium carbonate, and iron sulfide. Proteomic analysis indicates that the particles bind to proteins of bacterial, plant and animal origins. When observed under dark-field microscopy, mineral particles derived from soil-water show biomimetic morphologies, including large, round structures similar to cells undergoing division. These findings have important implications not only for the recognition of biosignatures and fossils of small microorganisms in the environment but also for the geochemical cycling of elements, ions and organic matter in surface water.

  1. Residues and Characteristics of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Water in the Suburb of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Jiawei; LIU, Chen; YANG, Zhongfang; WANG, Jiyuan

    Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs), such as DDT and HCH, have stable chemical properties and less biodegradability. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, they have high risk to the environment and human health. Although DDT and HCH have been prohibited in China since 1983, they are still found in some soil and water nowadays. Water resource is very important in natural environment and essential for agriculture. The existence of OCPs in some surface water in Beijing has been detected with different levels according to previous investigations. In recent years, many measures have been taken to control the pollution and to monitor the environment, and more attention has been paid to the status of surface water today. In this study, the water samples were collected from the Wenyu, Beiyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Changping, and Shunyi Rivers in the suburb of Beijing, and the residues and characteristics of DDT and HCH were studied. The results showed that the contents of DDTs and HCHs were ND-13.98 ng/L and 3.87-146.42 ng/L, respectively. According to the indicators of the ratio values of (DDD+DDE)/DDT and α-HCH/γ-HCH, the source of pollution and its potential risk are also discussed in this article.

  2. Formation and characteristics of biomimetic mineralo-organic particles in natural surface water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Yeu; Martel, Jan; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Young, David; Liu, Chien-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Young, John D

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles exist in environmental water but the formation, characteristics and fate of such particles remain incompletely understood. We show here that surface water obtained from various sources (ocean, hot springs, and soil) produces mineralo-organic particles that gradually increase in size and number during incubation. Seawater produces mineralo-organic particles following several cycles of filtration and incubation, indicating that this water possesses high particle-seeding potential. Electron microscopy observations reveal round, bacteria-like mineral particles with diameters of 20 to 800 nm, which may coalesce and aggregate to form mineralized biofilm-like structures. Chemical analysis of the particles shows the presence of a wide range of chemical elements that form mixed mineral phases dominated by calcium and iron sulfates, silicon and aluminum oxides, sodium carbonate, and iron sulfide. Proteomic analysis indicates that the particles bind to proteins of bacterial, plant and animal origins. When observed under dark-field microscopy, mineral particles derived from soil-water show biomimetic morphologies, including large, round structures similar to cells undergoing division. These findings have important implications not only for the recognition of biosignatures and fossils of small microorganisms in the environment but also for the geochemical cycling of elements, ions and organic matter in surface water. PMID:27350595

  3. A spider's biological vibration filter: micromechanical characteristics of a biomaterial surface.

    PubMed

    Young, Seth L; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Erko, Maxim; Barth, Friedrich G; Fratzl, Peter; Zlotnikov, Igor; Politi, Yael; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2014-11-01

    A strain-sensing lyriform organ (HS-10) found on all of the legs of a Central American wandering spider (Cupiennius salei) detects courtship, prey and predator vibrations transmitted by the plant on which it sits. It has been suggested that the viscoelastic properties of a cuticular pad directly adjacent to the sensory organ contribute to the organ's pronounced high-pass characteristics. Here, we investigate the micromechanical properties of the cuticular pad biomaterial in search of a deeper understanding of its impact on the function of the vibration sensor. These properties are considered to be an effective adaptation for the selective detection of signals for frequencies >40 Hz. Using surface force spectroscopy mapping we determine the elastic modulus of the pad surface over a temperature range of 15-40 °C at various loading frequencies. In the glassy state, the elastic modulus was ~100 MPa, while in the rubbery state the elastic modulus decreased to 20 MPa. These data are analyzed according to the principle of time-temperature superposition to construct a master curve that relates mechanical properties, temperature and stimulus frequencies. By estimating the loss and storage moduli vs. temperature and frequency it was possible to make a direct comparison with electrophysiology experiments, and it was found that the dissipation of energy occurs within a frequency window whose position is controlled by environmental temperatures. PMID:25065547

  4. The Effects of Urban Land-Surface Processes on Thunderstorm Characteristics in the Indianapolis Urban Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, P.; Niyogi, D.; Arya, P.; Wolfe, B.; Shepherd, M.

    2005-12-01

    An urban storm climatology was examined for the time period of 2000-05 for the Indianapolis, IN (IND) urban area. The hypothesis of this study is urban regions alter the intensity and composition/structure of approaching thunderstorms due to the heterogeneity of the surface characteristics. The analysis was focused on the summer months of May through August. Over fifty thunderstorm cases that produced severe weather reports in and/or near the Indianapolis, Marion County area, were examined. Rural storms were also investigated during this time period on identical days of the urban storm reports. Storm characteristics were examined in the four rural counties of Miami (North), Jackson (South), Wayne (East), and Vigo (West) that lie in an approximate seventy-five mile radius of Indianapolis. Statistical analysis using a Chi-square statistical test supports the hypothesis of the study that urban regions alter the composition of the thunderstorms more than the rural areas. A more detailed table was created to classify the events under various synoptic situations of a cold front, pre-frontal warm sector, stationary front, upper level shortwave or vorticity max and direction of propagation. Further analysis will be performed to study if a link exists between synoptic conditions and storm composition change. Select cases will be further investigated in the synoptic conditions as well as land use sensitivity tests within the Mesoscale Model 5 (MM5). A case that will be tested first is an event on 13 June 2005. This event was a single cell thunderstorm that formed due to daytime heating and moderate shear of near 30kts ahead of an approaching cold front. As the cell moved northeastward across the downtown Indianapolis urban region, it split and intensified in base reflectivity and Vertically Integrated Liquid (VIL) producing nearly one inch of rainfall (Doppler estimated) on the northeast (downwind) region of the Indianapolis urban region. Sensitivity tests will include

  5. Cellular resilience.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Lena; Harris, Georgina; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cellular resilience describes the ability of a cell to cope with environmental changes such as toxicant exposure. If cellular metabolism does not collapse directly after the hit or end in programmed cell death, the ensuing stress responses promote a new homeostasis under stress. The processes of reverting "back to normal" and reversal of apoptosis ("anastasis") have been studied little at the cellular level. Cell types show astonishingly similar vulnerability to most toxicants, except for those that require a very specific target, metabolism or mechanism present only in specific cell types. The majority of chemicals triggers "general cytotoxicity" in any cell at similar concentrations. We hypothesize that cells differ less in their vulnerability to a given toxicant than in their resilience (coping with the "hit"). In many cases, cells do not return to the naive state after a toxic insult. The phenomena of "pre-conditioning", "tolerance" and "hormesis" describe this for low-dose exposures to toxicants that render the cell more resistant to subsequent hits. The defense and resilience programs include epigenetic changes that leave a "memory/scar" - an alteration as a consequence of the stress the cell has experienced. These memories might have long-term consequences, both positive (resistance) and negative, that contribute to chronic and delayed manifestations of hazard and, ultimately, disease. This article calls for more systematic analyses of how cells cope with toxic perturbations in the long-term after stressor withdrawal. A technical prerequisite for these are stable (organotypic) cultures and a characterization of stress response molecular networks. PMID:26536287

  6. Characteristics of surface wind structure of tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, M.; Sharma, Monica

    2015-10-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC) wind field monitoring and forecast are important for mariners, ships on sea and modelling group for creation of synthetic vortex, and storm surge and coastal inundation forecasting. Among others, a multi-platform satellite surface wind analysis developed by Co-operative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA), USA for the TCs are referred by India Meteorological Department for surface wind field monitoring of TC. Hence, a study has been undertaken to analyze the characteristics of surface wind distribution and hence the structure of TC based on the real time data available from CIRA during 2007-2013. The study includes 19 TCs over the Bay of Bengal (BOB) and six over Arabian Sea (AS). The maximum radial extent of winds reaching threshold values of 34(17), 50(26) and 64(33) knot (ms-1) in each of the four geographical quadrants has been segregated with respect to season of formation, basin of formation and intensity of TC for analysis. The objective is to develop a reference surface wind structure of TC and examine its validity with respect to physical processes. The size of outer core (34(17) knot (ms-1) wind radial extension) as well as inner core (50(26) and 64(33) knot (ms-1) wind radial extension) increases significantly with increase in intensification of TC over BOB during both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and over AS during pre-monsoon season. The outer core of winds in TCs over the BOB is asymmetric in both pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and for all categories of intensity of TCs. On the other hand, the asymmetry in inner core winds is significantly less. There is also no asymmetry in radial wind extension over the AS during both the seasons, except in case of outer core wind radial extension of VSCS during pre-monsoon season. The low level environment like enhanced cross equatorial flow, lower/middle level relative humidity, vertical wind shear and proximity of TC to the land surface are the determining factors

  7. Large-eddy simulations of surface roughness parameter sensitivity to canopy-structure characteristics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maurer, K. D.; Bohrer, G.; Kenny, W. T.; Ivanov, V. Y.

    2015-04-30

    Surface roughness parameters, namely the roughness length and displacement height, are an integral input used to model surface fluxes. However, most models assume these parameters to be a fixed property of plant functional type and disregard the governing structural heterogeneity and dynamics. In this study, we use large-eddy simulations to explore, in silico, the effects of canopy-structure characteristics on surface roughness parameters. We performed a virtual experiment to test the sensitivity of resolved surface roughness to four axes of canopy structure: (1) leaf area index, (2) the vertical profile of leaf density, (3) canopy height, and (4) canopy gap fraction.more » We found roughness parameters to be highly variable, but uncovered positive relationships between displacement height and maximum canopy height, aerodynamic canopy height and maximum canopy height and leaf area index, and eddy-penetration depth and gap fraction. We also found negative relationships between aerodynamic canopy height and gap fraction, as well as between eddy-penetration depth and maximum canopy height and leaf area index. We generalized our model results into a virtual "biometric" parameterization that relates roughness length and displacement height to canopy height, leaf area index, and gap fraction. Using a decade of wind and canopy-structure observations in a site in Michigan, we tested the effectiveness of our model-driven biometric parameterization approach in predicting the friction velocity over heterogeneous and disturbed canopies. We compared the accuracy of these predictions with the friction-velocity predictions obtained from the common simple approximation related to canopy height, the values calculated with large-eddy simulations of the explicit canopy structure as measured by airborne and ground-based lidar, two other parameterization approaches that utilize varying canopy-structure inputs, and the annual and decadal means of the surface roughness parameters at

  8. Uncertainty in the Specification of Surface Characteristics, Part ii: Hierarchy of Interaction-Explicit Statistical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, Devdutta S.; Raman, Sethu; Alapaty, Kiran

    The uncertainty in the specification of surface characteristics in soil-vegetation- atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) schemes within planetary boundary-layer (PBL) or mesoscale models is addressed. The hypothesis to be tested is whether the errors in the specification of the individual parameters are accumulative or whether they tend to balance each other in the overall sense for the system. A hierarchy of statistical applications is developed: classical one-at-a-time (OAT) approach, level 1; linear analysis of variance (ANOVA), level 1.5; fractional factorial (FF), or level 2; two-factor interaction (TFI) technique, or level 2.5; and a non-linear response surface methodology (RSM), or level 3. Using the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) observations for June 6, 1987 as the initial condition for a SVAT scheme dynamically coupled to a PBL model, the interactions between uncertainty errors are analyzed. A secondary objective addresses the temporal changes in the uncertainty pattern using data for morning, afternoon, and evening conditions.It is found that the outcome from the level 1 OAT-like studies can be considered as the limiting uncertainty values for the majority of mesoscale cases. From the higher-level analyses, it is concluded that for most of the moderate surface scenarios, the effective uncertainty from the individual parameters is balanced and thus lowered. However, for the extreme cases, such as near wilting or saturation soil moisture, the uncertainties add up synergistically and these effects can be even greater than those from the outcomes of the OAT-like studies. Thus, parameter uncertainty cannot be simply related to its deviation alone, but is also dependent on other parameter settings. Also, from the temporal changes in the interaction pattern studies, it is found that, for the morning case soil texture is the important parameter, for afternoon vegetation parameters are crucial, while for the evening case soil moisture is capable of propagating

  9. Titanium containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon films (a-C: H/Ti): surface analysis and evaluation of cellular reactions using bone marrow cell cultures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, A; Francz, G; Bruinink, A; Hauert, R; Mayer, J; Wintermantel, E

    2000-03-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C : H) coatings, also called diamond-like carbon (DLC), have many properties required for a protective coating material in biomedical applications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new surface coating for bone-related implants by combining the hardness and inertness of a-C : H films with the biological acceptance of titanium. For this purpose, different amounts of titanium were incorporated into a-C : H films by a combined radio frequency (rf) and magnetron sputtering set-up. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of air-exposed a-C : H/titanium (a-C : H/Ti) films revealed that the films were composed of TiO2 and TiC embedded in and connected to an a-C : H matrix. Cell culture tests using primary adult rat bone marrow cell cultures (BMC) were performed to determine effects on cell number and on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. By adding titanium to the carbon matrix, cellular reactions such as increased proliferation and reduced osteoclast-like cell activity could be obtained, while these reactions were not seen on pure a-C : H films and on glass control samples. In summary, a-C : H/Ti could be a valuable coating for bone implants, by supporting bone cell proliferation while reducing osteoclast-like cell activation. PMID:10674809

  10. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. PMID:26385990

  11. Semiautomated hybrid algorithm for estimation of three-dimensional liver surface in CT using dynamic cellular automata and level-sets

    PubMed Central

    Dakua, Sarada Prasad; Abinahed, Julien; Al-Ansari, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Liver segmentation continues to remain a major challenge, largely due to its intense complexity with surrounding anatomical structures (stomach, kidney, and heart), high noise level and lack of contrast in pathological computed tomography (CT) data. We present an approach to reconstructing the liver surface in low contrast CT. The main contributions are: (1) a stochastic resonance-based methodology in discrete cosine transform domain is developed to enhance the contrast of pathological liver images, (2) a new formulation is proposed to prevent the object boundary, resulting from the cellular automata method, from leaking into the surrounding areas of similar intensity, and (3) a level-set method is suggested to generate intermediate segmentation contours from two segmented slices distantly located in a subject sequence. We have tested the algorithm on real datasets obtained from two sources, Hamad General Hospital and medical image computing and computer-assisted interventions grand challenge workshop. Various parameters in the algorithm, such as w, Δt, z, α, μ, α1, and α2, play imperative roles, thus their values are precisely selected. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation performed on liver data show promising segmentation accuracy when compared with ground truth data reflecting the potential of the proposed method. PMID:26158101

  12. Influence of surface characteristics of modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of surface characteristics (surface roughness and specific surface area) of surface-modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization, and thus, the in vitro respirable fraction often referred to as fine particle fraction (FPF). By processing glass beads in a ball mill with different grinding materials (quartz and tungsten carbide) and varying grinding time (4 h and 8 h), and by plasma etching for 1 min, glass beads with different shades of surface roughness and increased surface area were prepared. Compared with untreated glass beads, the surface-modified rough glass beads show increased FPFs. The drug detachment from the modified glass beads is also more reproducible than from untreated glass beads indicated by lower standard deviations for the FPFs of the modified glass beads. Moreover, the FPF of the modified glass beads correlates with their surface characteristics. The higher the surface roughness and the higher the specific surface area of the glass beads the higher is the FPF. Thus, surface-modified glass beads make an ideal carrier for tailoring the performance of DPIs in the therapy of asthma and chronically obstructive pulmonary diseases. PMID:25632978

  13. Microbial dissolution of hematite and associated cellular fossilization by reduced iron phases: a study of ancient microbe-mineral surface interactions.

    PubMed

    Kolo, Kamal; Konhauser, Kurt; Krumbein, Wolfgang Elisabeth; Ingelgem, Yves Van; Hubin, Annick; Claeys, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    We report here on magnetite- and wustite-encrusted and geometrically oriented microbial-like structures (MLS) attached to the surfaces of hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) crystals in a banded iron formation. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging showed a 3-D network of MLS arranged in 1 microm x approximately 20 microm coccoidal-like chains (CLC) of various geometrical shapes: dichotomous and budding-like protrusions, parallel, intersecting, triangular, or sinusoidal. Individual spheroidal forms ( approximately 1 mum in diameter), some displaying what appears to be division, were also abundant. In addition to their size, morphology, and preferred orientations, a microbial origin of these chains and single spheroidal forms is inferred by the presence of material that resembles extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extending from the base of the chains along the mineral surface: the attachment sites show circular dissolution pits of about 100 nm diameter. Other thin structures protruding from the CLC are reminiscent of bacterial "nanowires." We were, however, unable to find any extant cells, organic carbon, or even recover DNA from the MLS, which suggests that they, if microbial, are possibly mineralogically replaced casts or mineral encrustations of cells. It is further speculated that, given the nature of the substrate upon which the forms are attached and their preferential orientations, it seems plausible that the "original cells" may have been Fe(III)-reducing bacteria that exploited structural imperfections in the crystal lattice. Importantly, the preservation of the ancient microbial shapes in mineral casts of magnetite, wustite, or both may be an overlooked means by which cellular features in the rock record are retained. PMID:19845448

  14. Preliminary study of the effect of the turbulent flow field around complex surfaces on their acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fundamental theories for noise generated by flow over surfaces exist for only a few simple configurations. The role of turbulence in noise generation by complex surfaces should be essentially the same as for simple configurations. Examination of simple-surface theories indicates that the spatial distributions of the mean velocity and turbulence properties are sufficient to define the noise emission. Measurements of these flow properties were made for a number of simple and complex surfaces. The configurations were selected because of their acoustic characteristics are quite different. The spatial distribution of the turbulent flow properties around the complex surfaces and approximate theory are used to locate and describe the noise sources, and to qualitatively explain the varied acoustic characteristics.

  15. Wing surface-jet interaction characteristics of an upper-surface blown model with rectangular exhaust nozzles and a radius flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, A. M.; Hohlweg, W. C.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The wing surface jet interaction characteristics of an upper surface blown transport configuration were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Velocity profiles at the inboard engine center line were measured for several chordwise locations, and chordwise pressure distributions on the flap were obtained. The model represented a four engine arrangement having relatively high aspect ratio rectangular spread, exhaust nozzles and a simple trailing edge radius flap.

  16. Propellant surface temperature and plume characteristics of micro-pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonsen, Erik Lawrence

    The micro-Pulsed Plasma Thruster is a device capable of supplying discrete impulses for propulsive maneuvering of small satellites. These devices suffer from low propellant utilization related to late-time propellant ablation, causing a drop in specific impulse and thruster efficiency. The exhaust of these thrusters can also contaminate critical spacecraft surfaces. In this work, the microPPT is investigated to experimentally characterize both the ablation physics and plume characteristics. The defining parameter for propellant ablation is the surface temperature of the solid Teflon(TM) propellant. All downstream plasma and neutral properties are dependent on this parameter. Infrared photovoltaic detectors using a p-n junction are used to measure the surface temperature of the Teflon propellant in real time. The detector material is Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe), chosen because the maximum detector response occurs in wavelengths where a Carbon-Fluorine stretching mode in the solid propellant emits strongly in the infrared. This paper outlines the design, calibration and construction of the infrared thermographic diagnostic. A theoretical treatment of the expected detector output is proposed and validated allowing an estimate of the wavelength dependent emissivity of Teflon in the IR. This diagnostic is applied to an operating microPPT and real-time surface temperature measurements are made after the current pulse ends. This allows analysis of the expected vapor pressure and therefore performance parameters such as thrust, mass loss, and exhaust velocity associated with late-time vaporization. The microPPT plume is characterized using two-color interferometry to simultaneously measure electron and neutral densities during the discharge. As the microPPT operates, the solid propellant recesses into the outer electrode tube, possibly changing thruster performance. Recession shape and depths are measured and electron density measurements as a function of recession

  17. Impact of polymer surface characteristics on the microrheological measurement quality of protein solutions - A tracer particle screening.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katharina Christin; Schermeyer, Marie-Therese; Seidel, Jonathan; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2016-05-30

    Microrheological measurements prove to be suitable to identify rheological parameters of biopharmaceutical solutions. These give information about the flow characteristics but also about the interactions and network structures in protein solutions. For the microrheological measurement tracer particles are required. Due to their specific surface characteristic not all are suitable for reliable measurement results in biopharmaceutical systems. In the present work a screening of melamine, PMMA, polystyrene and surface modified polystyrene as tracer particles were investigated at various protein solution conditions. The surface characteristics of the screened tracer particles were evaluated by zeta potential measurements. Furthermore each tracer particle was used to determine the dynamic viscosity of lysozyme solutions by microrheology and compared to a standard. The results indicate that the selection of the tracer particle had a strong impact on the quality of the microrheological measurement dependent on pH and additive type. Surface modified polystyrene was the only tracer particle that yielded good microrheological results for all tested conditions. The study indicated that the electrostatic surface charge of the tracer particle had a minor impact than its hydrophobicity. This characteristic was the crucial surface property that needs to be considered for the selection of a suitable tracer particle to achieve high measurement accuracy. PMID:27025292

  18. Geochemically structural characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash particles and mineralogical surface conversions by chelate treatment.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Hiroki; Sawada, Takaya; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Takahashi, Fumitake

    2016-01-01

    Leaching behaviors of heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash have been studied well. However, micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles are still uncertain and might be non-negligible to describe their leaching behaviors. Therefore, this study investigated micro-characteristics of MSWI fly ash particles, especially their structural properties and impacts of chelate treatment on surface characteristics. According to SEM observations, raw fly ash particles could be categorized into four types based on their shapes. Because chelate treatment changed the surface of fly ash particles dramatically owing to secondary mineral formations like ettringite, two more types could be categorized for chelate-treated fly ash particles. Acid extraction experiments suggest that fly ash particles, tested in this study, consist of Si-base insoluble core structure, Al/Ca/Si-base semi-soluble matrices inside the body, and KCl/NaCl-base soluble aggregates on the surface. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the same fly ash particles during twice moistening treatments showed that KCl/NaCl moved under wet condition and concentrated at different places on the particle surface. However, element mobility depended on secondary mineral formations. When insoluble mineral like gypsum was generated and covered the particle surface, it inhibited element transfer under wet condition. Surface characteristics including secondary mineral formation of MSWI fly ash particles are likely non-negligible to describe trace element leaching behaviors. PMID:26336844

  19. Effects of Ion Beam on Nanoindentation Characteristics of Glassy Polymeric Carbon Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, M. G.; Da Cruz, N. C.; Rangel, E. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Ila, Dr. Daryush; Poker, David B; Hensley, Dale K

    2005-01-01

    Glassy polymeric carbon (GPC) is a useful material for medical applications due to its chemical inertness and biocompatible characteristics. Mitral and aortic and hydrocephalic valves are examples of GPC prosthetic devices that have been fabricated and commercialized in Brazil. In this work, ion beam was used to improve the mechanical characteristics of GPC surface and therefore to avoid the propagation of microcracks where the cardiac valves are more fragile. A control group of phenolic resin samples heat-treated at 300, 400, 700, 1000, 1500, and 2500 C was characterized by measuring their hardness and Young's reduced elastic modulus with the depth of indentation. The control group was compared to results obtained with samples heat-treated at 700, 1000, and 1500 C and bombarded with energetic ions of silicon, carbon, oxygen, and gold at energies of 5, 6, 8, and 10 MeV, respectively, with fluences between 1.0 x 10{sup 13} and 1.0 x 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. GPC nonbombarded samples showed that hardness depends on the heat treatment temperature (HTT), with a maximum hardness for heat treatment at 1000 C. The comparison between the control group and bombarded group also showed that hardness, after bombardment, had a greater increase for samples prepared at 700 C than for samples prepared at higher temperatures. The Young's elastic modulus presents an exponential relationship with depth. The parameters obtained by fitting depend on the HTT and on the ion used in the bombardment more than on energy and fluence. The hardness results show clearly that bombardment can promote carbonization, increase the linkage between the chains of the polymeric material, and promote recombination of broken bonds in lateral groups that are more numerous for samples heat-treated at 700 C.

  20. The role of cellular environment in dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ran; Jeong, Kwan; Turek, John; Nolte, David

    2011-03-01

    We have developed motility contrast imaging (MCI) as a coherence-domain volumetric imaging approach that uses subcellular dynamics as an endogenous imaging contrast agent of living tissue. Fluctuation spectroscopy analysis of dynamic light scattering (DLS) from 3-D tissue has identified functional frequency bands related to organelle transport, membrane undulations and cell shape change. In this paper, we track the behavior of dynamic light scattering as we bridge the gap between the two extremes of 2-D cell culture on the one hand, and 3-D tissue spheroids on the other. In a light backscattering geometry, we capture speckle from 2-D cell culture consisting of isolated cells or planar rafts of cells on cell-culture surfaces. DLS from that cell culture shows differences and lower sensitivity to intra-cellular dynamics compared with the 3-D tissue. The motility contrast is weak in this limit. As the cellular density increases to cover the surface, the motility contrast increases. As environmental perturbations or pharmaceuticals are applied, the fluctuation spectral response becomes more dramatic as the dimensionality of the cellular aggregations increases. We show that changing optical thickness of the cellular-to-tissue targets usually causes characteristic frequency shifts in the spectrograms, while changing cellular dimensionality causes characteristic frequencies to be enhanced or suppressed.

  1. The effect of surface characteristics of reduced graphene oxide on the performance of a pseudocapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, M. S.; Kim, T.; Kang, J. H.; Park, J.; Park, C. R.

    2015-03-01

    In this research, we have analyzed the electrochemical characteristics of the different rGO/Co3O4 composites prepared by controlling the rGO surface characteristics and its relationship between the growth of Co3O4 nanoparticles and the performance of the pseudocapacitor. Reduced graphene oxide/cobalt oxide (rGO/Co3O4) nanocomposites of different morphologies were prepared through the simple hydrothermal method. First, different kinds of graphite precursors, crumpled and planar with different properties, were used to determine the most suitable substrate to grow Co3O4 nanoparticles. As a result, rGO/Co3O4 composite synthesized from planar graphite shows a higher specific capacitance of 207.2, 170.1, and 141.5 Fg-1 at 1, 2, and 5 Ag-1 than the one prepared from crumpled graphite. In the second part, planar graphite, confirmed to be the most suitable substrate from the previous part, was oxidized under various oxidation conditions to increase the oxygen functional groups attached on the GO surfaces and observed to see how it affects the growth of Co3O4 nanoparticles and its influence on the electrochemical performance of the rGO/Co3O4 pseudocapacitor. As a result, the one with the largest amount of functional groups had the Co3O4 nanoparticles well dispersed and grown on the rGO substrate in small nanoparticle sizes, as small as 5.9 nm, leading to an improved electrochemical performance. Thus, the specific capacitance with the least amount of oxygen functional groups are 207.2, 170.1, and 141.5 Fg-1 and for the largest amount of functional groups are 411.5, 371.4, and 292.7 Fg-1, at 1, 2, and 5 Ag-1 respectively. This approach could become a guideline for the ideal fabrication of rGO/metal oxide composite for further research involving rGO based pseudocapacitors.

  2. Effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in the Australian North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin; Lowe, Ryan; Péquignet, Christine; Ivey, Greg; Jones, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern Australian coastline is subject to frequent extreme wave forcing resulting from tropical cyclones (TCs) during the summer months on Australia's North West Shelf (NWS). Compared to the northern hemisphere, knowledge about the wave climate, and TC generated waves in particular on the NWS is limited. TCs on the NWS show considerable variability in paths: some move predominantly parallel to the coastline, while others propagate in a coast-normal direction. It has been suggested that surface wave fields generated by coast-parallel moving TCs are different compared to TCs moving in a coast-normal direction across the shelf. In particular, wave heights generated by coast-parallel storms may be limited in size due to both refraction and bottom friction effects. First, this study evaluates the performance of a numerical wave model (SWAN) to hindcast the surface wave fields under different TC conditions forced by a parametric TC wind model of the region. Hindcast simulations were run for 4 case studies: the coast-parallel TCs Nicholas (2008) and Bianca (2011), and the coast-normal TCs Lua (2012) and Christine (2013). Model output was compared both temporally and spatially by in situ wave buoy data and satellite altimeter data and generally showed a good agreement for throughout the history of these TCs. However, for the more intense and larger system TC Lua, the model was found to overestimate the significant wave heights, especially in the left front quadrant of the storm. A modified SWAN model using adjusted wave energy dissipation terms was found to improve model output under these conditions. Second, output from the numerical simulations is used to analyse the mechanisms behind the generation and dissipation of the wave field and to relate them to tropical cyclone characteristics including the radius of maximum winds and the storm translation speed and direction.

  3. Effects of Surface and Crystalline Defects on Reverse Characteristics of 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuno, Takashi; Watanabe, Yukihiko; Fujiwara, Hirokazu; Konishi, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takeo; Endo, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    To clarify the relationship between the dispersed reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC junction barrier Schottky (JBS) diodes and defects, we investigated the sensitivity of the reverse characteristics to surface and crystalline defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers. Strong correlations were obtained between the reverse characteristics of 4H-SiC JBS diodes and surface defects. Micropipes or particles reduced blocking voltage and carrot defects increased leakage current. Furthermore, the leakage current of 4H-SiC JBS diodes depends on the etch pit density of threading dislocations (TDs). Etch pits formed from TDs increased leakage current by about 10-9 A in samples without surface defects. In addition, hexagonal etch pits formed from unusual crystalline defects were observed; they also increased leakage current.

  4. The prediction of ilmenite-containing regions on the lunar surface from the color and spectrometric characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busarev, V. V.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    1989-06-01

    Four reflectance spectra of lunar mare regions with a higher concentration of titanium are obtained. An interpretation is given of the characteristic spectral features produced by titanium and by ilmenite. The results of the photometric processing of 'Zond-6' photographs with an effective wavelength of 0.65 microns and the color characteristics of the lunar surface in Oceanus Procellarum are used to predict the areas with a higher ilmenite content.

  5. Bone Response to Surface-Modified Titanium Implants: Studies on the Early Tissue Response to Implants with Different Surface Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Larsson Wexell, C.; Thomsen, P.; Aronsson, B.-O.; Tengvall, P.; Rodahl, M.; Lausmaa, J.; Kasemo, B.; Ericson, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of experimental studies, the bone formation around systematically modified titanium implants is analyzed. In the present study, three different surface modifications were prepared and evaluated. Glow-discharge cleaning and oxidizing resulted in a highly stoichiometric TiO2 surface, while a glow-discharge treatment in nitrogen gas resulted in implants with essentially a surface of titanium nitride, covered with a very thin titanium oxide. Finally, hydrogen peroxide treatment of implants resulted in an almost stoichiometric TiO2, rich in hydroxyl groups on the surface. Machined commercially pure titanium implants served as controls. Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy revealed no significant differences in oxide thickness or surface roughness parameters, but differences in the surface chemical composition and apparent topography were observed. After surface preparation, the implants were inserted in cortical bone of rabbits and evaluated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Light microscopic evaluation of the tissue response showed that all implants were in contact with bone and had a large proportion of newly formed bone within the threads after 6 weeks. There were no morphological differences between the four groups. Our study shows that a high degree of bone contact and bone formation can be achieved with titanium implants of different surface composition and topography. PMID:24174936

  6. [Pollution Characteristics of Surface Runoff of Typical Town in Chongqing City].

    PubMed

    Wang, Long-tao; Duan, Bing-zheng; Zhao, Jian-wei; Hua, Yu-mei; Zhu, Duan-wei

    2015-08-01

    Six kinds of impermeable underlying surface, cement tile roof, asbestos roof, cement flat roof, residential concrete pavement, asphalt pavement of restaurants, asphalt pavement of oil depot, and a combined sewer overflow canal in the Jiansheng town of Dadukou district in Chongqing city were chosen as sample plots to study the characteristics of nutritional pollutants and heavy metals in town runoff. The research showed that the average mass concentrations of TSS, COD, TN, TP in road runoff were (1681.2 +/- 677.2), (1154.7 +/- 415.5), (12.07 +/- 2.72), (3.32 +/- 1.15) mgL(-1), respectively. These pollutants were higher than those in roof runoff which were (13.3 +/- 6.5), (100.4 +/- 24.8), (3.58 +/- 0.70), (0.10 +/- 0.02) mg x L(-1), respectively. TDN accounted for 62.60% +/- 34.38% of TN, and TDP accounted for 42.22% +/- 33.94% of TP in the runoff of impermeable underlying surface. Compared with the central urban runoff, town runoff in our study had higher mass concentrations of these pollutants. The mass concentrations of TSS, COD, TDN, TN, TDP and TP in the combined sewer overflow were (281.57 +/- 308.38), (231.21 +/- 42.95), (8.16 +/- 2.78), (10.60 +/- 3.94), (0.38 +/- 0.23) and (1.51 +/- 0.75) mg x L(-1), respectively. The average levels of heavy metals in this kind of runoff did not exceed the class VI level of the surface water environmental quality standard. Most pollutants in the combined sewer overflow had first flush. However, this phenomenon was very rare for TSS. There was a significant positive correlation between TSS and COD, TP in the combined sewer overflow. And this correlation was significant between NH4+ -N and TP, TDP, TN, TDP. However, a negative correlation existed between NO3- -N and all other indicators. PMID:26592007

  7. Optical emission characteristics of surface nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yun; Li Yinghong; Jia Min; Song Huimin; Liang Hua

    2013-01-21

    This paper reports an experimental study of the optical emission characteristics of the surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulsed voltage. N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational and vibrational temperatures are almost the same with upper electrode powered with positive polarity and lower electrode grounded or upper electrode grounded and lower electrode powered with positive polarity. While the electron temperature is 12% higher with upper electrode powered with positive polarity and lower electrode grounded. When the frequency is below 2000 Hz, there is almost no influence of applied voltage amplitude and frequency on N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational, vibrational temperature and electron temperature. As the pressure decreases from 760 Torr to 5 Torr, N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}{Pi}{sub u}) rotational temperature remains almost unchanged, while its vibrational temperature decreases initially and then increases. The discharge mode changes from a filamentary type to a glow type around 80 Torr. In the filamentary mode, the electron temperature remains almost unchanged. In the glow mode, the electron temperature increases while the pressure decreases.

  8. Electrical and optical characteristics of the radio frequency surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei-Long, Wang; Hui-Min, Song; Jun, Li; Min, Jia; Yun, Wu; Di, Jin

    2016-04-01

    Electrical characteristics and optical emission spectrum of the radio frequency (RF) surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuation are investigated experimentally in this paper. Influences of operating pressure, duty cycle and load power on the discharge are analyzed. When the operating pressure reaches 30 kPa, the discharge energy calculated from the Charge–Voltage (Q–V) Lissajous figure increases significantly, while the effective capacitance decreases remarkably. As the duty cycle of the applied voltage increases, the voltage–current waveforms, the area of Q–V loop and the capacity show no distinct changes. Below 40 W, effective capacitance increases with the increase of load power, but it almost remains unchanged when load power is between 40 W and 95 W. The relative intensity changes little as the operating pressure varies from 4 kPa to 100 kPa, while it rises evidently with the pressure below 4 kPa, which indicates that the RF discharge mode shifts from filamentary discharge to glow discharge at around 4 kPa. With the increase of load power, the relative intensity rises evidently. Additionally, the relative intensity is insensitive to the pressure, the duty cycle, and the load power. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472306, 51276197, and 51336011).

  9. Trace metals in surface sediments of the Taiwan Strait: geochemical characteristics and environmental indication.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Lui, Hon-Kit; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhuang, Wen

    2016-06-01

    The concentration and geochemical fractionation of six trace metals related with environmental quality assessment, namely Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, in 30 surface sediments from both inshore and offshore areas of the Taiwan Strait were measured to investigate their distribution characteristics, evaluate their potential mobility, and assess their pollution status. The geoaccumulation index results indicated that, on average, the studied metals presented an order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cu > Cr and were practically in uncontaminated status except Cd. The results of the sequential extraction analysis indicated that, on average, the studied metals were mostly accumulated in residual fraction except Cd whose concentration was the highest in the acid soluble fraction presenting a high risk to the environment, and their mobility decreased in the sequence of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr. Based on the mean probable effect level quotients, the combination of the studied metals had an 8 % probability of being toxic at two sampling sites and had a 21 % probability of being toxic at the rest of sites. The spatial distribution of the studied metals in total concentrations and different geochemical fractions corroborated the previous findings about the possible sediment transportation routes in and around the Taiwan Strait. PMID:26514571

  10. Relationships between surface sediment diatom assemblages and lakewater characteristics in Adirondack Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Charles, D.F.

    1985-06-01

    Relationships between surface sediment diatom assemblages and lakewater characteristics were studied in 38 lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of northern New York. Most of the lakes are dilute, poorly buffered, and oligotrophic to mesotrophic. The diatom flora typical for circumneutral to acidic lakes. The purposes of this study were to identify the environmental factors most strongly related to the distributions of diatom taxa and the overall composition of diatom assemblages, and to derive equations to infer lakewater pH from diatom assemblage data. Relationships between diatom assemblages and environmental gradients were analyzed using reciprocal averaging ordination (RA). Correlations between Ra axis 1 and pH-related factors were strong. Correlations were weaker (but still statistically significant) with elevation, epilimnion temperature, and concentrations of SO/sub 4/, Cl, and Si. Total P, chlorophyll a, water color, and mean depth were not important in explaining differences among assemblages. Predictive equations were derived for inferring lakewater pH from diatom assemblage data. Agreement between predicted and measured pH was very good. These predictive relationships can be used to interpret stratigraphic diatom assemblages to reconstruct lake pH histories.

  11. Growth Characteristics of Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Microbacterium, and Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from Surface-Ripened Cheese▿

    PubMed Central

    Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C.; O'Connor, Paula M.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Cogan, Timothy M.

    2007-01-01

    The growth characteristics of five bacteria, Brevibacterium aurantiacum 1-16-58, Corynebacterium casei DPC 5298T, Corynebacterium variabile DPC 5310, Microbacterium gubbeenense DPC 5286T, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus 4E61, all of which were isolated from the surface of smear cheese, were studied in complex and chemically defined media. All of the coryneforms, except M. gubbeenense, grew in 12% salt, while B. aurantiacum and S. saprophyticus grew in 15% salt. All five bacteria assimilated lactate in a semisynthetic medium, and none of the coryneform bacteria assimilated lactose. Glucose assimilation was poor, except by S. saprophyticus and C. casei. Five to seven amino acids were assimilated by the coryneforms and 12 by S. saprophyticus. Glutamate, phenylalanine, and proline were utilized by all five bacteria, whereas utilization of serine, threonine, aspartate, histidine, alanine, arginine, leucine, isoleucine, and glycine depended on the organism. Growth of C. casei restarted after addition of glutamate, proline, serine, and lactate at the end of the exponential phase, indicating that these amino acids and lactate can be used as energy sources. Pantothenic acid was essential for the growth of C. casei and M. gubbeenense. Omission of biotin reduced the growth of B. aurantiacum, C. casei, and M. gubbeenense. All of the bacteria contained lactate dehydrogenase activity (with both pyruvate and lactate as substrates) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activity but not urease activity. PMID:17921266

  12. The Characteristic Precipitation and Land Surface Conditions that Lead to Flooding over Different Basin Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Troy, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding occurs across a range of basin sizes, from small catchments to the Mississippi River, and across a range of temporal scales, from flash floods on the order of hours to several weeks. Previous research has primarily focused on scaling of flood peaks, flood processes in catchments, and diagnosis of major events. This research seeks to fill in the gaps between the different studies, by understanding flooding mechanisms across a range of drainage basin size, accounting for precipitation patterns, antecedent soil moisture, and snow. In this study, we use over 250 sub-basins in the Ohio River basin with 60 years of observed precipitation and streamflow and simulated soil moisture and snow with a land surface model. We find that large basins sizes typically have stronger correlation with longer precipitation durations rather than shorter, and vice versa. Soil moisture plays a significant role in determining flooding, but snowmelt also influences the flood generation. Finally, we identify if characteristic precipitation and antecedent moisture conditions lead to floods over different basins sizes. These results have the potential to increase our understanding of flood generation across a range of basin scales, which can then be used to better inform flood predictions under climate change.

  13. Sorption Characteristics of Sorption Material Coated on Heat Transfer surface of a Heat Exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Komatsu, Fujio; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Machida, Akito

    This paper describes sorption characteristics of organic sorbent coated on heat transfer surface of a plate-fin-tube heat exchanger. The organic sorbent is a bridged complex of soldium polyacrylate. This bridged complex containing the carboxyl group as water vapor adsorption site has a larger adsorption abilities as compared with silica gel. The experiments in which the moist air was passed into the heat exchanger coated with sorption material were conducted under various conditions of air flow rate and the temperature of brine that was the heat transfer fluid to cool the air flow in the dehumidifying process. It is found that the sorption rate of vapor is affected by the air flow rate and the brine temperature. Meanwhile, the attempt of clarifying the sorption mechanism is also conducted. Finally the average mass transfer coefficient of the organic sorbent was non-dimensionalized as a function of Reynolds number and non-dimensional temperature. In addition, it was observed that the factor which affects the sorption rate in the water vapor sorption process of the organic sorbent coated on the heat exchanger shifts from the “adsorption step” to the “sorption step”.

  14. Study on Transmission Torque Characteristics of a Surface-Permanent-Magnet-Type Magnetic Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niguchi, Noboru; Hirata, Katsuhiro; Hayakawa, Yuichi

    Magnetic gears have some advantages such as low mechanical loss and maintenance-free operation that are not observed in conventional mechanical gears. In addition, magnetic gears have inherent overload protection. Therefore, magnetic gears are expected to be used in special applications; for example, they can be used in a joint of a humanoid robot. Recently, various types of new magnetic gears have been proposed. Among these new gears, a surface-permanent-magnet-type (SPM-type) magnetic gear employing harmonic magnetic flux has gained attention because of its high transmission torque density, though it has a complex structure with multipole magnets. Some studies on an SPM-type magnetic gear have been carried out, but there are few papers on cogging torque. This paper describes the transmission torque characteristics of an SPM-type magnetic gear. The operating principle and the transmission torque under synchronous operation are formulated in accordance with the gear ratio. High orders of the cogging torque are computed by employing the 3-D finite element method, and the validity of the analysis is verified by carrying out measurements on a prototype. Furthermore, a method for reducing the cogging torque is discussed.

  15. [Spatial-temporal characteristics of land surface temperature in Tianshan Mountains area based on MODIS data].

    PubMed

    Guan, Yan-long; Wang, Rang-hui; Li, Cheng; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jian-ping

    2015-03-01

    Based on the MODIS/MOD11A2 data from 2001 to 2013, this paper researched the characteristics of land surface temperature (LST) of Tianshan Mountains area. The results indicated that the average of LST in the study area was 1.73 °C , and LST was much higher in the east than in the west. The inter-annual variation range of LST in the northwest was significantly large than in other regions, with the largest above 0.55 °C in some areas. The LST tended to slowly increase with time, and the increase rate was 0.147 °C . a-1. It showed a significant seasonal difference, and the fluctuation of winter was significantly larger than in other seasons with the coefficient of variation reaching 12.7%. The LST difference of day time was greater than that at night, and that in summer was greater than in other seasons. The LST differed with land use types, and the fitted results were inconsistent between the LST and NDVI. With the increase of NDVI of woodland and grassland, the LST decreased dramatically. The LST of construction land and cropland under the influence of human activities had higher sensitivity with NDVI than other land types. PMID:26211048

  16. Prediction for human intelligence using morphometric characteristics of cortical surface: partial least square analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, J-J; Yoon, U; Yun, H J; Im, K; Choi, Y Y; Lee, K H; Park, H; Hough, M G; Lee, J-M

    2013-08-29

    A number of imaging studies have reported neuroanatomical correlates of human intelligence with various morphological characteristics of the cerebral cortex. However, it is not yet clear whether these morphological properties of the cerebral cortex account for human intelligence. We assumed that the complex structure of the cerebral cortex could be explained effectively considering cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth and absolute mean curvature together. In 78 young healthy adults (age range: 17-27, male/female: 39/39), we used the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and the cortical measurements calculated in native space from each subject to determine how much combining various cortical measures explained human intelligence. Since each cortical measure is thought to be not independent but highly inter-related, we applied partial least square (PLS) regression, which is one of the most promising multivariate analysis approaches, to overcome multicollinearity among cortical measures. Our results showed that 30% of FSIQ was explained by the first latent variable extracted from PLS regression analysis. Although it is difficult to relate the first derived latent variable with specific anatomy, we found that cortical thickness measures had a substantial impact on the PLS model supporting the most significant factor accounting for FSIQ. Our results presented here strongly suggest that the new predictor combining different morphometric properties of complex cortical structure is well suited for predicting human intelligence. PMID:23643979

  17. Microbial cell surface characteristics: Elucidating attachment/detachment using hydrophobicity and electrokinetic measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface properties of microorganisms play an important role in their behavior within the environment. Electrophoretic mobility and cell surface hydrophobicity of bacterial cells influence their initial interaction with surfaces and mediate their stability within an aqueous su...

  18. Preliminary study of the effect of the turbulent flow field around complex surfaces on their acoustic characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.

    1978-01-01

    Fairly extensive measurements have been conducted of the turbulent flow around various surfaces as a basis for a study of the acoustic characteristics involved. In the experiments the flow from a nozzle was directed upon various two-dimensional surface configurations such as the three-flap model. A turbulent flow field description is given and an estimate of the acoustic characteristics is provided. The developed equations are based upon fundamental theories for simple configurations having simple flows. Qualitative estimates are obtained regarding the radiation pattern and the velocity power law. The effect of geometry and turbulent flow distribution on the acoustic emission from simple configurations are discussed.

  19. Determination of biofilm production by Candida tropicalis isolated from hospitalized patients and its relation to cellular surface hydrophobicity, plastic adherence and filamentation ability.

    PubMed

    Galán-Ladero, M A; Blanco-Blanco, M T; Hurtado, C; Pérez-Giraldo, C; Blanco, M T; Gómez-García, A C

    2013-09-01

    Candida tropicalis is an emerging virulent species. The aim of this study is to determine the biofilm-forming ability of 29 strains of C. tropicalis isolated from inpatients, and to examine its relation with other virulence factors such as cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH), immediate (15 min, IA) and late (24 h, LA) plastic adherence and filamentation ability. The study was performed in parallel using two incubation temperatures - 37 and 22 °C - to determine the effect of growth temperature variations on these pathogenic attributes of C. tropicalis. Biofilm formation (BF) was measured by optical density (OD) and by XTT reduction (XTT); Slime index (SI), which includes growth as a correction factor in BF, was calculated in both methods. All strains were hydrophobic and adherent - at 15 min and 24 h - at both temperatures, with higher values for 22 °C; the adhered basal yeast layer appears to be necessary to achieve subsequent development of biofilm. Filamentation ability varied from 76.2% of strains at 37 °C to 26.6% at 22 °C. All C. tropicalis strains were biofilm producers, with similar results obtained using OD determination and XTT measurement to evaluation methods; SI is useful when good growth is not presented. BF at 37 °C was similar at 24 h and 96 h incubation; conversely, at 22 °C, the highest number of biofilm-producing strains was detected at 96 h. CSH is an important pathogenic factor which is involved in adherence, is influenced by the filamentation of yeast, and plays a critical role in BF. PMID:23775541

  20. Resonant characteristics and sensitivity dependency on the contact surface in QCM-micropillar-based system of coupled resonator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashan, M. A. M.; Kalavally, V.; Lee, H. W.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2016-05-01

    We report the characteristics and sensitivity dependence over the contact surface in coupled resonating sensors (CRSs) made of high aspect ratio resonant micropillars attached to a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Through experiments and simulation, we observed that when the pillars of resonant heights were placed in maximum displacement regions the resonance frequency of the QCM increased following the coupled resonance characteristics, as the pillar offered elastic loading to the QCM surface. However, the same pillars when placed in relatively lower displacement regions, in spite of their resonant dimension, offered inertial loading and resulted in a decrease in QCM resonance frequency, as the displacement amplitude was insufficient to couple the vibrations from the QCM to the pillars. Accordingly, we discovered that the coupled resonance characteristics not only depend on the resonant structure dimensions but also on the contact regions in the acoustic device. Further analysis revealed that acoustic pressure at the contact surface also influences the resonance frequency characteristics and sensitivity of the CRS. To demonstrate the significance of the present finding for sensing applications, humidity sensing is considered as the example measurand. When a sensing medium made of resonant SU-8 pillars was placed in a maximum displacement region on a QCM surface, the sensitivity increased by 14 times in comparison to a resonant sensing medium placed in a lower displacement region of a QCM surface.

  1. The transport characteristics of passing fast ions produced by nonlocal overlapping of drift island surfaces and magnetic island surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinjia; Gong, Xueyu; Xiang, Dong; Huang, Qianhong; Yu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The structure of the drift-island surface of passing fast ions (PFIs) is investigated in the presence of the resonant interaction with a magnetic island. Two overlapping regions of the drift-island surface and the magnetic island surface are found, one corresponding to local overlapping region and the other to non-local one. Here, the word "nonlocal" denotes that the resonances in the core plasma can have effects on the PFIs near the plasma boundary, while the "local" represents that the PFIs just near the resonant location are influenced. The nonlocal overlapping constructs a transport path along which the PFIs can become losses. There are three kinds of drift-island surfaces to join in forming the transport paths. A pitch angle region, which is called pitch angle gap, is found near the plasma boundary, where the drift-island surface cannot be formed and few PFIs are lost. The pitch-angle selective features of PFI losses are obtained by analyzing the three kinds of drift-island surfaces. The coupling between the crowd drift island surfaces and the collision can induce the prompt losses of PFIs and rapidly slowing down of PFI energy. The time of the prompt losses and the slowing down rate are calculated. Qualitatively, the theoretical results are in well agreement with the experimental observations in ASDEX Upgrade [M. García-Muñoz et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, L10 (2007)].

  2. Surface modification of montmorillonite on surface Acid-base characteristics of clay and thermal stability of epoxy/clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Seo, Dong-Il; Lee, Jae-Rock

    2002-07-01

    In this work, the effect of surface treatments on smectitic clay was investigated in surface energetics and thermal behaviors of epoxy/clay nanocomposites. The pH values, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze the effect of cation exchange on clay surface and the exfoliation phenomenon of clay interlayer. The surface energetics of clay and thermal properties of epoxy/clay nanocomposites were investigated in contact angles and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. From the experimental results, the surface modification of clay by dodecylammonium chloride led to the increases in both distance between silicate layers of about 8 A and surface acid values, as well as in the electron acceptor component (gamma(+)(s)) of surface free energy, resulting in improved interfacial adhesion between basic (or electron donor) epoxy resins and acidic (electron acceptor) clay interlayers. Also, the thermal stability of nanocomposites was highly superior to pure epoxy resin due to the presence of the well-dispersed clay nanolayer, which has a barrier property in a composite system. PMID:16290714

  3. Concentrations and characteristics of organic carbon in surface water in Arizona: Influence of urbanization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westerhoff, P.; Anning, D.

    2000-01-01

    DOC concentration (p<0.05) and exhibited less variability in concentration than inflows to the reservoirs. Specific ultraviolet absorbance values at 254 nm were typically less than 2 m-1(milligram DOC per liter)-1 and lower than values found in most temperate-region rivers, but specific ultraviolet absorbance values increased during runoff events. Fluorescence measurements indicated that DOC in desert streams typically exhibit characteristics of autochthonous sources; however, DOC in unregulated upland rivers and desert streams experienced sudden shifts from autochthonous to allochthonous sources during runoff events. The urban water system (reservoir systems and wastewater-treatment plants) was found to affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.The influence of urbanization, becoming increasingly common in arid regions, on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in surface water resources was studied. DOC concentration and composition, seasonal watershed runoff events, streamflow variations, water management practices, and urban infrastructure in several Arizona watersheds were monitored. Ephemeral sites had the highest DOC levels, and unregulated perennial sites and lower concentrations than unregulated intermittent sites, regulated sites, and sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. Reservoir outflows and wastewater treatment plant effluent had higher and less variable DOC concentrations than inflows to reservoirs. UV absorbance values, fluorescence measurements, and other indicators suggest that urban water systems (reservoirs and wastewater treatment plants) affect temporal variability in DOC concentration and composition.

  4. Effect of surface waves on the characteristics of a linear phased array in the presence of a dielectric layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniazev, S. T.; Panchenko, B. A.

    A Green-function approach is taken to the determination of the surface-wave spectrum for a phased array with a dielectric layer, taking into account the relationship between bulk and surface waves. Numerical results are presented on the radiation characteristics of a linear phased array consisting of strip dipoles. Dipole input admittance and bulk-wave admittance are determined as a function of phasing angle.

  5. Structural and chemical characteristics of atomically smooth GaN surfaces prepared by abrasive-free polishing with Pt catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Junji; Sadakuni, Shun; Okamoto, Takeshi; Hattori, Azusa N.; Yagi, Keita; Sano, Yasuhisa; Arima, Kenta; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the structural and chemical characteristics of atomically flat gallium nitride (GaN) surfaces prepared by abrasive-free polishing with platinum (Pt) catalyst. Atomic force microscopy revealed regularly alternating wide and narrow terraces with a step height equivalent to that of a single bilayer on the flattened GaN surfaces, which originate from the differences in etching rate of two neighboring terraces. The material removal characteristics of the method for GaN surfaces were investigated in detail. We confirmed that an atomically smooth GaN surface with an extremely small number of surface defects, including pits and scratches, can be achieved, regardless of the growth method, surface polarity, and doping concentration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the flattening method produces clean GaN surfaces with only trace impurities such as Ga oxide and metallic Ga. Contamination with the Pt catalyst was also evaluated using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis. A wet cleaning method with aqua regia is proposed, which markedly eliminates this Pt contamination without affecting the surface morphology.

  6. Characteristics of the molar surface after removal of cervical enamel projections: comparison of three different rotating instruments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare tooth surface characteristics in extracted human molars after cervical enamel projections (CEPs) were removed with the use of three rotating instruments. Methods We classified 60 extracted molars due to periodontal lesion with CEPs into grade I, II, or III, according to the Masters and Hoskins’ criteria. Each group contained 20 specimens. Three rotating instruments were used to remove the CEPs: a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler, a periodontal bur, and a diamond bur. Tooth surface characteristics before and after removal of the projections were then evaluated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We analyzed the characteristics of the tooth surfaces with respect to roughness and whether the enamel projections had been completely removed. Results In SEM images, surfaces treated with the diamond bur were smoothest, but this instrument caused considerable harm to tooth structures near the CEPs. The piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler group produced the roughest surface but caused less harm to the tooth structure near the furcation. In general, the surfaces treated with the periodontal bur were smoother than those treated with the ultrasonic scaler, and the periodontal bur did not invade adjacent tooth structures. Conclusions For removal of grade II CEPs, the most effective instrument was the diamond bur. However, in removing grade III projections, the diamond bur can destroy both adjacent tooth structures and the periodontal apparatus. In such cases, careful use of the periodontal bur may be an appropriate substitute. PMID:27127691

  7. Characteristics of TiO2 Thin Film Surfaces Treated by Helium and Air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Retsuo; Niibe, Masahito; Takeichi, Atsushi; Mori, Yuta; Konishi, Masashi; Kotaka, Takuya; Matsunaga, Fumihiko; Takasaki, Toshihide; Kitano, Takanori; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Inaoka, Takeshi; Tominaga, Kikuo

    2012-08-01

    The characteristics of TiO2 thin film surfaces treated with He and air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasmas at different gas pressures are investigated. There is a difference between the two DBD plasma characteristics: for He-DBD, which is an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD), the breakdown voltage and discharge current hardly change with increasing gas pressure, whereas for air-DBD, which is basically a filamentary discharge, they increase with increasing gas pressure. There is also a difference between the characteristics of TiO2 surfaces treated with the two DBDs. The surface roughness for He-DBD is lower than the roughness of the as-grown surface, whereas that for air-DBD is higher. The surface hydrophilicity for He-DBD is more enhanced than the hydrophilicity of the as-grown surface regardless of UV irradiation. The hydrophilicity for air-DBD is dependent on UV irradiation. It is more enhanced with UV irradiation; it is not improved adequately without UV irradiation.

  8. [Heavy metals distribution characteristics and ecological risk evaluation in surface sediments of dammed Jinshan lake].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Long-Mei; Chen, Xi; Chen, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jin-Ping; Li, Yi-Min; Liu, Biao

    2014-11-01

    In order to reveal the pollution loading of heavy metals in Dammed Jinshan lake, six heavy metals (As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr) from 18 sediment samples were analyzed using ICP, and the distribution characteristics of heavy metals in the sediment were comprehensively evaluated through concentration coefficient, geo-acumulation indexes, potential ecological risk evaluation and traceability analysis. The results showed that (1) the average contents of As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd were 23.22, 26.20, 24.42, 143.12, 245.30 and 0.67 mg x kg(-1), respectively, in the surface sediments of dammed Jinshan Lake. The average contents of Pb and Cu were lower than the primary standard and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of Zn and Cr were lower than the primary standard and higher than the secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. The average contents of As and Cd were higher than the primary and secondary standards of soil environmental quality standards. From the spatial distribution, the contents of Pb and Zn were the highest at sampling site No. 1, which was located at the Beigushan Square. The contents of As,Cu, Cr, Cd were the highest at sampling sites Nos. 12, 3, 14, and 7, respectively; (2) The order of concentration coefficient was As > Cr > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu, which indicated that the enrichment amount of As was the highest and that of Cu was the lowest; (3) Based on the geo-acumulation indexes, the Cu is clean and Pb, Zn, Cd is the light pollution and As, Cr moderate pollution; (4) The order of Potential ecological risk coefficient was Cd > As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn were of light ecological risk and As, Cd were of medium ecological risk. From the spatial distribution, the sampling sites Nos. 1, 6, 7 and 12 had medium potential ecological risk, and the rest sample points had slight potential ecological risk; (5) The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the main reason for the differences

  9. [Characteristics of nitrogen pollution and the potential mineralization in surface sediments of Dianchi Lake].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ya-Yuan; Wang, Sheng-Rui; Jiao, Li-Xin; Liu, Wen-Bin; Xiao, Yan-Bo; Zu, Wei-Mei; Xu, Tian-Min; Ding, Shuai; Zhou, Tong

    2015-02-01

    The nitrogen content, its different forms and their spatial distribution were studied by using the 53 sediment samples from different sites in Dianchi Lake. Thereafter, the potential nitrogen mineralization ability of the sediments and their pollution characteristics were also explored to understand the influencing factors of nitrogen pollution and its release risk from the sediment surface to the overlying water of Dianchi. The results showed: (1) the average total nitrogen content of surface sediment in Dianchi Lake was 3 515. 60 mg x kg(-1), which was at a high level from the inlets in Caohai Northeast thinning digging area, Panlong River and the Haikou into Dianchi Lake, but relatively low in Baoxiang River Estuary dredging area. The total organic nitrogen (TON) content, accounting for 85.86% of TN, was at a high level; on the other hand, the dissolved inorganic nitrogen ( DIN) content was lower, which accounted for 14.10% of TN. The spatial distribution of TON and TN kept the same trend, but not the DIN. Compared with other Lakes of China, the nitrogen content of sediment in Dianci was at a high level, and the extent of pollution was just below the serious polluted City Lakes. (2) The average potential mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) content of Lake Dianchi was 1 154.76 mg x kg(-1), accounting for 32.90% of TN, which raised the potential risk of its release into the overlying water. Higher PMN was found in the Caohai Lake area and the inlet of Panlong River in the North, the inlet of Luolong Rive in the Middle Lake, the inlet of Baiyukou Lake and Liangwang River in the South. Nowadays, the pH value of Dianchi Lake was favorable for its sediment nitrogen mineralization, and its nitrogen mineralization was affected by the release of NH4(+) -N from organic matter. In the heavy polluted area, the concentration of the overlying water nitrogen was seriously affected by nitrogen mineralization of sediment from Dianchi, while the light polluted area was less affected

  10. Theoretical studies of positron states and annihilation characteristics at the oxidized Cu(100) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Fazleev, N. G.; Weiss, A. H.

    2013-04-19

    In this work we present the results of theoretical studies of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons at the oxidized Cu(100) surface under conditions of high oxygen coverage. An ab-initio study of the electronic properties of the Cu(100) missing row reconstructed surface at various on surface and sub-surface oxygen coverages has been performed on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT) using the Dmol3 code and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Surface structures in calculations have been constructed by adding oxygen atoms to various surface hollow and sub-surface octahedral sites of the 0.5 monolayer (ML) missing row reconstructed phase of the Cu(100) surface with oxygen coverages ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 ML. The charge redistribution at the surface and variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers associated with oxidation and surface reconstruction have been found to affect the spatial extent and localization of the positron surface state wave function and annihilation probabilities of surface trapped positrons with relevant core electrons. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data obtained from studies of oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES). It has been shown that positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3s and 3p core electrons decrease when total (on-surface and sub-surface) oxygen coverage of the Cu(100) surface increases up to 1 ML. The calculations show that for high oxygen coverage when total oxygen coverage is 1. 5 ML the positron is not bound to the surface.

  11. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the phytoplankton biomarkers in the surface water in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Liu, J.; Wang, H.; Dong, L.; He, J.

    2011-12-01

    Organic biomarkers were used to investigate the modern distribution of the phytoplanktons in the South China Sea: Brassicasterol, Dinosterol, C37-Alkenone, and 1,15-C30 alkyl-Diol, which correspond to diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, and yellow green algae, respectively. The distribution for the phytoplankton biomarks exhibit typical spatial and temporal characteristic: in summer, high biomass was found in the Pearl River Estuary and east of Hainan Island, while in spring, besides Pearl River Estuary, higher biomass was found also in Luzon strait and western Luzon Island. The decreasing tendency for the offshore sites and deep basin sites was exhibited in both seasons. The results indicated that the distribution of phytoplankton biomarkers in surface water of SCS is impacted and constrained by the hydrology condition and nutrients supply. Seasonal upwelling caused by the seasonal reversal eastern Asian monsoon in the SCS and continental riverine supply is the dominant reason for the nutrient supply, which resulted the typical features of regional distribution and seasonal variation. The community structure revealed by the lipids biomarkers indicated that diatom is the dominant species of phytoplankton in the studied area, and exhibit a decreasing trend form the near shore to the deep basin, while coccoliphore show a reverse feature with high value in the deep basin and Luzon strait, illustrating the different nutrient requirement by different marine organisms. The similar distribution of the alga and the corresponding biomarkers enhanced the feasibility of biomarker lipids in reconstructing the phytoplanktons community structure, which can be used in both the modern and past ecology study to improve our knowledge in the relationship between the marine ecology with the climate and environment change.

  12. Expression and immunological characteristics of the surface-localized pyruvate kinase in Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    PubMed

    He, Suibin; Qi, Jingjing; Yu, Shengqing; Yin, Yuncong; Tan, Lei; Bao, Shijun; Qiu, Xvsheng; Wang, Xiaolan; Fei, Rongmei; Ding, Chan

    2015-12-01

    The widespread avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a causative agent of respiratory disease. The wall-less prokaryotes lack some tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, therefore, the glycolysis metabolic pathway is of great importance to these organisms. Pyruvate kinase (PK) is one of the key enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and its immunological characteristics in Mycoplasma are not well known. In this study, the M. gallisepticum pyruvate kinase fusion protein (PykF) was expressed in a pET system. The full-length of the gene was subcloned into the expression vector pET28a(+) to construct the pET28a-rMGPykF plasmid, which was then transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) cells. The expression of the 62 kDa recombinant protein of rMGPykF in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3) was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Coomassie blue staining. Purified rMGPykF exhibited PK catalytic activity, which could reflect the conversion of NADH to NAD(+). Mouse anti-PykF antibodies were generated by immunization of mice with rMGPykF. Immunoblot and immunoelectron microscopy assays identified PykF as an immunogenic protein expressed on the surface of M. gallisepticum cells. Bactericidal assay showed that anti-rMGPykF antiserum killed 70.55% of M. gallisepticum cells, suggesting the protective potential of PykF. Adherence inhibition assay on immortalized chicken fibroblasts (DF-1) cells revealed more than 39.31% inhibition of adhesion in the presence of anti-rMGPykF antiserum, suggesting that PykF of M. gallisepticum participates in bacterial adhesion to DF-1 cells. PMID:26456557

  13. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas. PMID:27011984

  14. Dosimetric characteristics of the Leipzig surface applicators used in the high dose rate brachy radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Hongquan; Hsi, Wen C.; Chu, James C.H.; Kirk, Michael C.; Kouwenhoven, Erik

    2004-12-01

    The nucletron Leipzig applicator is designed for (HDR) {sup 192}Ir brachy radiotherapy of surface lesions. The dosimetric characteristics of this applicator were investigated using simulation method based on Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code and phantom measurements. The simulation method was validated by comparing calculated dose rate distributions of nucletron microSelectron HDR {sup 192}Ir source against published data. Radiochromic films and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) detectors were used for phantom measurements. The double exposure technique, correcting the nonuniform film sensitivity, was applied in the film dosimetry. The linear fit of multiple readings with different irradiation times performed for each MOSFET detector measurement was used to obtain the dose rate of each measurement and to correct the source transit-time error. The film and MOSFET measurements have uncertainties of 3%-7% and 3%-5%, respectively. The dose rate distributions of the Leipzig applicator with 30 mm opening calculated by the validated MC method were verified by measurements of film and MOSFET detectors. Calculated two-dimensional planar dose rate distributions show similar patterns as the film measurement. MC calculated dose rate at a reference point defined at depth 5 mm on the applicator's central axis is 7% lower than the film and 3% higher than the MOSFET measurements. The dose rate of a Leipzig applicator with 30 mm opening at reference point is 0.241{+-}3% cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1}. The MC calculated depth dose rates and profiles were tabulated for clinic use.

  15. Sulfur and nitrogen mustards induce characteristic poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation responses in HaCaT keratinocytes with distinctive cellular consequences.

    PubMed

    Mangerich, Aswin; Debiak, Malgorzata; Birtel, Matthias; Ponath, Viviane; Balszuweit, Frank; Lex, Kirsten; Martello, Rita; Burckhardt-Boer, Waltraud; Strobelt, Romano; Siegert, Markus; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Bürkle, Alexander

    2016-02-26

    Mustard agents are potent DNA alkylating agents with mutagenic, cytotoxic and vesicant properties. They include bi-functional agents, such as sulfur mustard (SM) or nitrogen mustard (mustine, HN2), as well as mono-functional agents, such as "half mustard" (CEES). Whereas SM has been used as a chemical warfare agent, several nitrogen mustard derivatives, such as chlorambucil and cyclophosphamide, are being used as established chemotherapeutics. Upon induction of specific forms of genotoxic stimuli, several poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize the nucleic acid-like biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by using NAD(+) as a substrate. Previously, it was shown that SM triggers cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation), but so far this phenomenon is poorly characterized. In view of the protective effects of PARP inhibitors, the latter have been proposed as a treatment option of SM-exposed victims. In an accompanying article (Debiak et al., 2016), we have provided an optimized protocol for the analysis of the CEES-induced PARylation response in HaCaT keratinocytes, which forms an experimental basis to further analyze mustard-induced PARylation and its functional consequences, in general. Thus, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the PARylation response in HaCaT cells after treatment with four different mustard agents, i.e., SM, CEES, HN2, and chlorambucil, on a qualitative, quantitative and functional level. In particular, we recorded substance-specific as well as dose- and time-dependent PARylation responses using independent bioanalytical methods based on single-cell immuno-fluorescence microscopy and quantitative isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we analyzed if and how PARylation contributes to mustard-induced toxicity by treating HaCaT cells with CEES, SM, and HN2 in combination with the clinically relevant PARP inhibitor ABT888. As evaluated by a novel immunofluorescence-based protocol for the detection of

  16. The Use of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbons (BATH) Assay in Evaluation of the Hydrophobic Surface Characteristics of Potential Water Pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons, BATH, is a method for determining the hydrophobic surface characteristics of bacterial cells. The strain’s affinity for water is evaluated by thoroughly mixing a culture and hydrocarbon suspension and then evaluating the decrease in optical de...

  17. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Surface Characteristics on the Greenland Ice Sheet as Derived from Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark; Rowe, Clinton; Kuivinen, Karl; Mote, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The primary goals of this research were to identify and begin to comprehend the spatial and temporal variations in surface characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet using passive microwave observations, physically-based models of the snowpack and field observations of snowpack and firn properties.

  18. Effects of near soil surface characteristics on soil detachment by overland flow in a natural succession grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation restoration probably has great effects on the process of soil detachment. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of near soil surface characteristics on soil detachment by overland flow in a 7-year naturally restored grassland. Four treatments were designed to characterize th...

  19. Mapping of the concentration of carbonaceous gases and fluorescent characteristics in the surface water of Southern Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestunov, Dmitrii A.; Shamrin, Artem M.; Shmargunov, Vladimir P.; Domysheva, Valentina M.; Sakirko, Maria V.; Panchenko, Mikhail V.

    2015-11-01

    All our many-year studies of the gas-exchange processes were carried out at one observation site (BALO) in the littoral of Southern Baikal. Thus, the question about applicability of conclusions and estimates based on these data to the entire littoral zone inevitably arises. In 2014, we succeeded for the first time in organizing the combined research campaign for detailed mapping of the spatial variability of water characteristics in general for the littoral of southern Baikal. The spatial partial distribution of biogenic elements and the pressure of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmospheric surface layer and the surface water layer were studied in August 5-11 of 2014 from onboard of I.D. Papanin Research Vessel (RV). These studies covered, in section, the entire water area of the southern Baikal. The fluorescent characteristics, concentration of biogenic elements, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and methane in the surface water layer and the atmospheric surface layer were determined there. The continuous measurements of carbon dioxide and methane in the surface water and in the atmosphere in the course of the vessel were conducted by a mobile shipborne system, which was complemented with the flow-through fluorimeter. It has been found that the main features of fluxes and the value of dPg, as well as fluorescent characteristics are in a good agreement with the results of many-year measurements obtained in the BALO Observatory for the summer period.

  20. Comparative surface and nano-tribological characteristics of nanocomposite diamond-like carbon thin films doped by silver

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han-Shen; Endrino, Jose L.; Anders, Andre

    2008-07-10

    In this study we have deposited silver-containing hydrogenated and hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite thin films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition methods. The surface and nano-tribological characteristics were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-scratching experiments. The silver doping was found to have no measurable effect on sp2-sp3 hybridization of the hydrogenated DLC matrix and only a slight effect on the hydrogen-free DLC matrix. The surface topography was analyzed by surface imaging. High- and low-order roughness determined by AFM characterization was correlated to the DLC growth mechanism and revealed the smoothing effect of silver. The nano-tribological characteristics were explained in terms of friction mechanisms and mechanical properties in correlation to the surface characteristics. It was discovered that the adhesion friction was the dominant friction mechanism; the adhesion force between the scratching tip and DLC surface was decreased by hydrogenation and increased by silver doping.

  1. A Toll-like receptor-1 variant and its characteristic cellular phenotype is associated with severe malaria in Papua New Guinean children.

    PubMed

    Manning, L; Cutts, J; Stanisic, D I; Laman, M; Carmagnac, A; Allen, S; O'Donnell, A; Karunajeewa, H; Rosanas-Urgell, A; Siba, P; Davis, T M E; Michon, P; Schofield, L; Rockett, K; Kwiatkowski, D; Mueller, I

    2016-01-01

    Genetic factors are likely to contribute to low severe malaria case fatality rates in Melanesian populations, but association studies can be underpowered and may not provide plausible mechanistic explanations if significant associations are detected. In preparation for a genome-wide association study, 29 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequencies >5% were examined in a case-control study of 504 Papua New Guinean children with severe malaria. In parallel, an immunological substudy was performed on convalescent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cases and controls. Following stimulation with a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1/2 agonist, effector cytokines and chemokines were assayed. The only significant genetic association observed involved a nonsynonymous SNP (TLR1rs4833095) in the TLR1 gene. A recessive (TT) genotype was associated with reduced odds of severe malaria of 0.52 (95% confidence interval (0.29-0.90), P=0.006). Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor α were significantly higher in severe malaria cases compared with healthy controls, but lower in children with the protective recessive (TT) genotype. A genetic variant in TLR1 may contribute to the low severe malaria case fatality rates in this region through a reduced pro-inflammatory cellular phenotype. PMID:26633000

  2. Self-consistent many-electron theory of electron work functions and surface potential characteristics for selected metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Electron work functions, surface potentials, and electron number density distributions and electric fields in the surface region of 26 metals were calculated from first principles within the free electron model. Calculation proceeded from an expression of the total energy as a functional of the electron number density, including exchange and correlation energies, as well as a first inhomogeneity term. The self-consistent solution was obtained via a variational procedure. Surface barriers were due principally to many-body effects; dipole barriers were small only for some alkali metals, becoming quite large for the transition metals. Surface energies were inadequately described by this model, which neglects atomistic effects. Reasonable results were obtained for electron work functions and surface potential characteristics, maximum electron densities varying by a factor of over 60.

  3. Investigation of surface characteristics evolution and laser damage performance of fused silica during ion-beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingjin; Dai, Yifan; Zhou, Lin; Shi, Feng; Wan, Wen; Xie, Xuhui; Sui, Tingting

    2016-08-01

    Surface characteristics have great influence on the optical properties especially the laser radiation resistivity of optics. In this paper, the surface characteristics evolutions of fused silica during ion-beam sputtering and their effects on the laser damage performance were investigated. The results show that roughness change is strongly removal depth dependent and a super-smooth surface (0.25 nm RMS) can be obtained by the ion-induced smoothing effect. The concentration of metal impurities (especially Ce element) in subsurface can be effectively decreased after the removal of polishing re-deposition layer. During ion-beam sputtering process, the plastic scratches can be removed while the brittle cracks can be broadened and passivated without increase in the depth direction. Laser damage threshold of fused silica improved by 36% after ion-beam sputtering treatment. Research results have a guiding significance for ion-beam sputtering process technology of fused silica optics.

  4. Foulant Characteristics Comparison in Recycling Cooling Water System Makeup by Municipal Reclaimed Water and Surface Water in Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  5. Measurement of fog and haze extinction characteristics and availability evaluation of free space optical link under the sea surface environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Hongxing; Song, Bo

    2015-02-10

    Fog and haze can lead to changes in extinction characteristics. Therefore, the performance of the free space optical link is highly influenced by severe weather conditions. Considering the influential behavior of weather conditions, a state-of-the-art solution for the observation of fog and haze over the sea surface is presented in this paper. A Mie scattering laser radar, with a wavelength of 532 nm, is used to observe the weather conditions of the sea surface environment. The horizontal extinction coefficients and visibilities are obtained from the observation data, and the results are presented in the paper. The changes in the characteristics of extinction coefficients and visibilities are analyzed based on both the short-term (6 days) severe weather data and long-term (6 months) data. Finally, the availability performance of the free space optical communication link is evaluated under the sea surface environment. PMID:25968016

  6. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Daijiro E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de; Kunstmann, Jens; Zörgiebel, Felix; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  7. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water. PMID:25893132

  8. A Facile Method to Modify the Characteristics and Corrosion Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel by Surface Nanostructuring toward Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Thangaraj, Balusamy; Nellaiappan, Sankara Narayanan T S; Kulandaivelu, Ravichandran; Lee, Min Ho; Nishimura, Toshiyasu

    2015-08-19

    The study addresses how surface nanostructuring of AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) influences its characteristic properties and corrosion behavior in Ringer's solution. SMAT of 304 SS induced plastic deformation, enabled surface nanocrystallization, refined the grain size, transformed the austenite phase to strain induced α'-martensite phase, increased the surface roughness, induced defects/dislocations, imparted compressive residual stresses at the surface, decreased the contact angle, and increased surface energy. The change in properties of 304 SS following treatment using 5 and 8 mm ⌀ balls for 15, 30, 45, and 60 min has caused a deleterious influence on its corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution, while an improvement in corrosion behavior is observed for those treated using 2 mm ⌀ balls. The increase in surface roughness, transformation of the austenite to α'-martensite phase, a higher extent of deformation, and the presence of larger number of defects/dislocations are main factors responsible for the lower corrosion resistance observed for 304 SS treated using 5 and 8 mm ⌀ balls in Ringer's solution. In spite of having these attributes with a relatively lower extent, 304 SS treated using 2 mm ⌀ balls offered a better corrosion resistance and exhibits a better passivity. For those treated using 2 mm ⌀ balls, the ability of the nanocrystalline surface to promote passivation outweighs the deleterious influences caused by the limited amount of deformation and defects/dislocations. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommend that SMAT of 304 SS using 2 mm ⌀ balls for 15-30 min is the optimum condition to achieve the suitable surface profile, surface characteristics with better corrosion resistance. PMID:26196218

  9. Surface Characteristics and Adhesion Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7: Role of Extracellular Macromolecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface macromolecule cleavage experiments were conducted on enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells to investigate the influence of these macromolecules on cell surface properties. Electrophoretic mobility, hydrophobicity, and titration experiments were carried out on proteinase K treate...

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Frictional Properties, Load Deflection Rate and Surface Characteristics of Different Coloured TMA Archwires - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Aloysius, Arul Pradeep; Deepika; Soundararajan, Nagachandran Kandasamy; Manohar, Vijaykumar Neelam; Khan, Nayeemullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction During tooth movement the success of sliding mechanics is dependent upon various factors which include frictional resistance at bracket-archwire interface, surface roughness of archwire materials and elastic properties of archwires. Ion implantation techniques reduce the frictional force and allow better tooth movement clinically. Aim The main objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the frictional properties, load deflection rate and surface characteristics of Honey dew and Purple coloured (Ion implanted) TMA wires with uncoated TMA wires. Materials and Methods Fifteen archwire samples were divided into three groups comprising of five samples in each group namely, Group I – Uncoated TMA wires (Control), Group II – Purple coloured TMA wires and Group III- Honey dew TMA wires. Friction and load deflection rate testing were performed with the Instron Universal testing machine and the surface characteristics of the wires were evaluated before and after sliding using Scanning Electron Microscope. Results The mean frictional characteristics and surface roughness for Honey dew TMA wires was lesser than Purple coloured TMA wires which was statistically significant. Both the coloured TMA wires showed low frictional characteristics and less surface roughness than uncoated TMA wires (the control). The mean load deflection rate was low for both coloured ion implanted TMA wires when compared to uncoated TMA wires which was statistically significant. Conclusion Coloured ion implanted TMA wires, especially Honey dew TMA wires have low friction, low load deflection rate and improved surface finish. Hence they can be used in frictionless as well as sliding mechanics, where uncoated TMA wires are inefficient. PMID:26816988

  11. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Effect of Tab Balance on Tab and Control-Surface Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, Jack D; Queijo, M J

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to furnish data on the effect of tab balance on tab and control-surface characteristics. The airfoil tested had a modified NACA 65(1)-012 contour with a plain flap having a chord equal to 25 percent of the wing chord and with a tab having a chord equal to 25 percent of the flap chord and having several nose shapes and overhang lengths. The results of the investigation indicated that, in general, tab balance affected tab hinge-moment characteristics in much the same manner that flap balance affects flap hinge-moment characteristics. A moderate amount of tab balance did not seem to have any adverse effect on flap hinge-moment characteristics.

  12. Seasonal changes of ice surface characteristics and productivity in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, D. M.; Alcock, J. D.; Wadham, J. L.; Mackie, S. L.; Telling, J.

    2015-03-01

    Field and remote sensing observations in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet have revealed a diverse range of ice surface characteristics, primarily reflecting the variable distribution of fine debris (cryoconite). This debris reduces the surface albedo and is therefore an important control on melt rates and ice sheet mass balance. Meanwhile, studies of ice sheet surface biological processes have found active microbial communities associated with the cryoconite debris, which may themselves modify the cryoconite distribution. Due to the considerable difficulties involved with collecting ground-based observations of the ice surface, our knowledge of the physical and biological surface processes, and their links, remains very limited. Here we present data collected at a field camp established in the ice sheet ablation zone at 67° N, occupied for almost the entire melt season (26 May-10 August 2012), with the aim of gaining a much more detailed understanding of the physical and biological processes occurring on the ice surface. These data sets include quadrat surveys of surface type, measurements of ice surface ablation, and in situ biological oxygen demand incubations to quantify microbial activity. In addition, albedo at the site was retrieved from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) remote sensing data. Observations of the areal coverage of different surface types revealed a rapid change from complete snow cover to the "summer" (summer study period) ice surface of patchy debris ("dirty ice") and cryoconite holes. There was significant correlation between surface albedo, cryoconite hole coverage and surface productivity during the melt season, but microbial activity in "dirty ice" was not correlated with albedo and varied widely throughout the season. While this link suggests the potential for a remote-sensing approach to monitoring cryoconite hole biological processes, very wide seasonal and spatial variability in net surface productivity

  13. Vibration characteristics of aluminum surface subjected to ultrasonic waves and their effect on wetting behavior of solder droplets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Xu, Zhiwu; Zheng, Kun; Yan, Jiuchun; Yang, Shiqin

    2014-03-01

    The vibration characteristics of an aluminum surface subjected to ultrasonic waves were investigated with a combination of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The wetting behavior of solder droplets on the vibrating aluminum surface was also examined. The results show that the vibration pattern of the aluminum surface is inhomogeneous. The amplitude of the aluminum surface exceeds the excitation amplitude in some zones, while the amplitude decreases nearly to zero in other zones. The distribution of the zero-amplitude zones is much less dependent on the strength of the vibration than on the location of the vibration source. The surface of the liquid solder vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency that is higher than the vibration source, and the amplitude of the liquid solder is almost twice that of the aluminum surface. The vibration of the surface of the base metal (liquid solder) correlates with the oxide film removal effect. Significant removal of the oxide film can be achieved within 2s when the amplitude of the aluminum surface is higher than 5.4 μm or when the amplitude of the liquid solder surface is higher than 10.2 μm. PMID:24295911

  14. Identification and prioritization of candidate genes for symptom variability in breast cancer survivors based on disease characteristics at the cellular level

    PubMed Central

    Koleck, Theresa A; Conley, Yvette P

    2016-01-01

    Research is beginning to suggest that the presence and/or severity of symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors may be associated with disease-related factors of cancer. In this article, we present a novel approach to the identification and prioritization of biologically plausible candidate genes to investigate relationships between genomic variation and symptom variability in breast cancer survivors. Cognitive dysfunction is utilized as a representative breast cancer survivor symptom to elucidate the conceptualization of and justification for our cellular, disease-based approach to address symptom variability in cancer survivors. Initial candidate gene identification was based on genes evaluated as part of multigene expression profiles for breast cancer, which are commonly used in the clinical setting to characterize the biology of cancer cells for the purpose of describing overall tumor aggressiveness, prognostication, and individualization of therapy. A list of genes evaluated within five multigene expression profiles for breast cancer was compiled. In order to prioritize candidate genes for investigation, genes used in each profile were compared for duplication. Twenty-one genes (BAG1, BCL2, BIRC5, CCNB1, CENPA, CMC2, DIAPH3, ERBB2, ESR1, GRB7, MELK, MKI67, MMP11, MYBL2, NDC80, ORC6, PGR, RACGAP1, RFC4, RRM2, and SCUBE2) are utilized in two or more profiles, including five genes (CCNB1, CENPA, MELK, MYBL2, and ORC6) used in three profiles. To ensure that the parsimonious 21 gene set is representative of the more global biological hallmarks of cancer, an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was conducted. Evaluation of genes known to impact pathways involved with cancer development and progression provide a means to evaluate the overlap between the biological underpinnings of cancer and symptom development within the context of cancer. PMID:27022301

  15. Identification and prioritization of candidate genes for symptom variability in breast cancer survivors based on disease characteristics at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Koleck, Theresa A; Conley, Yvette P

    2016-01-01

    Research is beginning to suggest that the presence and/or severity of symptoms reported by breast cancer survivors may be associated with disease-related factors of cancer. In this article, we present a novel approach to the identification and prioritization of biologically plausible candidate genes to investigate relationships between genomic variation and symptom variability in breast cancer survivors. Cognitive dysfunction is utilized as a representative breast cancer survivor symptom to elucidate the conceptualization of and justification for our cellular, disease-based approach to address symptom variability in cancer survivors. Initial candidate gene identification was based on genes evaluated as part of multigene expression profiles for breast cancer, which are commonly used in the clinical setting to characterize the biology of cancer cells for the purpose of describing overall tumor aggressiveness, prognostication, and individualization of therapy. A list of genes evaluated within five multigene expression profiles for breast cancer was compiled. In order to prioritize candidate genes for investigation, genes used in each profile were compared for duplication. Twenty-one genes (BAG1, BCL2, BIRC5, CCNB1, CENPA, CMC2, DIAPH3, ERBB2, ESR1, GRB7, MELK, MKI67, MMP11, MYBL2, NDC80, ORC6, PGR, RACGAP1, RFC4, RRM2, and SCUBE2) are utilized in two or more profiles, including five genes (CCNB1, CENPA, MELK, MYBL2, and ORC6) used in three profiles. To ensure that the parsimonious 21 gene set is representative of the more global biological hallmarks of cancer, an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was conducted. Evaluation of genes known to impact pathways involved with cancer development and progression provide a means to evaluate the overlap between the biological underpinnings of cancer and symptom development within the context of cancer. PMID:27022301

  16. Effects of physical and chemical characteristics of surface sediments in the formation of shallow lake algae-induced black bloom.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiushi; Liu, Cheng; Zhou, Qilin; Shang, Jingge; Zhang, Lei; Fan, ChengXin

    2013-12-01

    Surface sediments are closely related to lake black blooms. The dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution and its penetration depth in surface sediments as well as the migration and transformation of redox sensitive elements such as Fe and S at the sediment-water interface are important factors that could influence the formation of the black bloom. In this study, dredged and undredged sediment cores with different surface properties were used to simulate black blooms in the laboratory. The Micro Profiling System was employed to explore features of the DO and sigmaH2S distribution at the sediment-water interface. Physical and chemical characteristics in sediments and pore waters were also analyzed. The results showed that sediment dredging effectively suppressed the black blooms. In the undredged treatment, DO penetration depth was only 50 microm. Fe(2+) concentrations, sigmaH2S concentrations, and sigmaH2S production rates were remarkably higher in surface sediments and pore waters compared to control and dredged treatments. Furthermore, depletion of DO and accumulation of Fe(2+) and sigmaH2S in surface sediments and pore waters provided favorable redox environments and necessary material sources for the blooms. The study results proved that physical and chemical characteristics in surface sediments are important factors in the formation of the black bloom, and could provide scientific guidance for emergency treatment and long-term pre-control of black blooms. PMID:24649664

  17. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: the influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A

    2014-06-15

    In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity. PMID:24794812

  18. [INVITED] Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti-alloy: Analysis of surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.; Karatas, C.

    2016-04-01

    Laser gas assisted treatment of Ti6Al4V alloy surface is carried out and nitrogen/oxygen mixture with partial pressure of PO2/PN2=1/3 is introduced during the surface treatment process. Analytical tools are used to characterize the laser treated surfaces. The fracture toughness at the surface and the residual stress in the surface region of the laser treated layer are measured. Scratch tests are carried out to determine the friction coefficient of the treated surface. It is found that closely spaced regular laser scanning tracks generates a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer while lowering the stress levels in the treated region. Introducing high pressure gas mixture impingement at the surface results in formation of oxide and nitride species including, TiO, TiO2, TiN and TiOxNy in the surface region. A dense layer consisting of fine size grains are formed in the surface region of the laser treated layer, which enhances the microhardness at the surface. The fracture toughness reduces after the laser treatment process because of the microhardness enhancement at the surface. The residual stress formed is comprehensive, which is in the order of -350 MPa.

  19. Surface characteristics of Venus derived from Pioneer Venus altimetry, roughness, and reflectivity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III; Peterfreund, A. R.; Garvin, J. B.; Zisk, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    Pioneer Venus data sets for global topography, surface roughness, and reflectivity are analyzed, and the geological significance of some of the distinctive surface types is locally calibrated by examining high-resolution images from the Venera lander spacecraft and the Arecibo Observatory. Regional rock and bedrock surfaces are found to cover the majority of the planet. The relatively smooth rock and bedrock surfaces probably represent lava flows. Porous and unconsolidated fine materials cover less than about 27 percent of the surface. The distribution of soil surfaces indicate that they are the result of local weathering and small amounts of lateral transport. Several hypotheses for the origin of the high-dielectric materials which cover a small portion of the surface are discussed.

  20. Surface damage characteristics of CFC and tungsten with repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Nishijima, D.; Nakatsuka, M.; Ando, K.; Higashi, T.; Ueno, Y.; Ishihara, M.; Shoda, K.; Nagata, M.; Kawai, T.; Ueda, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Doerner, R. P.

    2011-08-01

    Surface damage of carbon fiber composite (CFC) and tungsten (W) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. CX2002U CFC and stress-relieved W samples were exposed to repetitive pulsed deuterium plasmas with duration of ˜0.5 ms, incident ion energy of ˜30 eV, and surface absorbed energy density of ˜0.3-0.7 MJ/m2. Bright spots on a CFC surface during pulsed plasma exposures were clearly observed with a high-speed camera, indicating a local surface heating. No melting of a W surface was observed under a single plasma pulse exposure at energy density of ˜0.7 MJ/m2, although cracks were formed. Cracking of the W surface grew with repetitive pulsed plasma exposures. Subsequently, the surface melted due to localized heat absorption.

  1. Seasonal changes of ice surface characteristics and productivity in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, D. M.; Alcock, J. D.; Wadham, J. L.; Mackie, S. L.; Telling, J.

    2014-02-01

    Field and remote sensing observations in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet have revealed a diverse range of ice surface characteristics, primarily reflecting the variable distribution of fine debris (cryoconite). This debris reduces the surface albedo and is therefore an important control on melt rates and ice sheet mass balance. Meanwhile, studies of ice sheet surface biological processes have found active microbial communities associated with the cryoconite debris, which may themselves modify the cryoconite distribution. Due to the considerable difficulties involved with collecting ground-based observations of the ice surface, our knowledge of the physical and biological surface processes, and their links, remains very limited. Here we present data collected at a field camp established in the ice sheet ablation zone at 67° N, occupied for almost the entire melt season (26 May-10 August 2012), with the aim of gaining a much more detailed understanding of the physical and biological processes occurring on the ice surface. These data sets include quadrat surveys of surface type, measurements of ice surface ablation, and in-situ biological oxygen demand incubations to quantify microbial activity. In addition, albedo at the site was retrieved from AVHRR remote sensing data. Observations of the areal coverage of different surface types revealed a rapid change from complete snow cover to the "summer" ice surface of patchy debris ("dirty ice") and cryoconite holes. There was significant correlation between surface albedo, cryoconite hole coverage and cryoconite hole productivity during the main melt season, but microbial activity in "dirty ice" was not correlated with albedo and varied widely throughout the season. While this link suggests the potential for a remote-sensing approach to monitoring cryoconite hole biological processes, very wide seasonal and spatial variability in net surface productivity demonstrates the need for caution when extrapolating

  2. Analysis and evaluation of surface characteristics of titanium coating on diamond using combined method of wavelet and fractal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wenhao; Yang, Wenmao; Sun, Tao; Wang, Baorui

    2010-10-01

    Nature diamond cutters are important tools to manufacture high precision optics glasses, and it is a normal method to make such cutter that soldering diamond grain with titanium coating on tool base. However, surface characteristics of titanium coating determine how much force that diamond grain joined with tool base. This paper introduces the research of surface characteristics of titanium coating on diamond grain based on AFM which uses its contacting mode to get measuring data of surface topography. Firstly, the measuring data are analyzed using 2D power spectrum algorithm to obtain spectrum energy distribution about spatial frequency. Fractal dimension is then calculated from the radius spectrum, and surface characteristics of titanium coating are evaluated using stationary wavelet transform where feature separation thresholds takes as an important role based on the fractal dimension. Coating experiments show that such method can reveal quality information of titanium coating on diamond grain comprehensively and thoroughly, thus it can offer good experimental reference to optimizing titanium coating parameters.

  3. Research on pinching characteristics of electron beams emitted from different cathode surfaces of a rod-pinch diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yi; Qiu, Aici; Zhang, Zhong; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhiguo; Yang, Hailiang

    2010-07-01

    The particle-in-cell code UNIPIC is used to simulate the working process of a rod-pinch diode and investigate the pinching characteristics of electron beams emitted from different cathode surfaces. The simulation results indicate that the electron beam emitted from the upstream surface pinches better than from other surfaces when all the three surfaces emit electrons. The charge-density deposition on the anode surface peaks at the rod tip while the deposited charge density is approximately uniform over the first 15 mm of the rod before rapidly increasing over the last 3 mm, indicating a large axial extent of electron deposition. For the case of single-surface emission, the pinching quality of the electron beam emitted from the downstream surface is better than those from other surfaces. The charge-density deposition peaks at the rod tip and decreases rapidly off the tip. Based on the relationship of Larmor radius, beam's self-magnetic field, and the spatial current distribution, the above simulation results are analyzed theoretically. The experiments are performed on the inductive voltage adder to examine the simulations. By comparing the axial distribution of the radiation on the anode rod measured with the pinhole camera and the on-axis forward x-ray dose measured with the LiF thermoluminescent detectors, the simulation results are verified. The electron emission suppression method and the impedance change for each case are investigated or discussed in this paper.

  4. Optical characteristics of a wind-roughened water surface: a two-dimensional theory.

    PubMed

    Yoshimori, K; Itoh, K; Ichioka, Y

    1995-09-20

    We present a two-dimensional theory of thermal emission and light scattering from an anisotropic wind-roughened water surface that is described by the Gaussian-Joint North Sea Wave Project model. The theory is developed through the use of the first-order geometrical-optics approxmation modified with shadowing effects, and it is valid when the average slopes of the surface are smaller than unity. The theory allows us to evaluate the effective emissivity and the effective bistatic reflectivity of a full-gravity-capillary wave surface at large viewing angles, for any direction relative to the average propagation direction of the surface wave. We also present an application of the theory to the recently proposed method for obtaining thermal imagery of a wind-roughened water surface from low altitudes, which is called statistically corrected ocean thermography. Corrected thermal images of the ocean surface, obtained by our field experiment, are shown. PMID:21060466

  5. Facilitated biological reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by reduced graphene oxide and the role of its surface characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Yi-Xuan; Zhao, Han-Qing; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Gong, Li; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-01-01

    How reduced graphene oxide (RGO) mediates the reductive transformation of nitroaromatic pollutants by mixed cultures and the role of its surface characteristics were evaluated in this study. Different electron donors were applied to investigate the interaction between RGO and anaerobic microbes. Moreover, the influence of the surface properties of RGO on biological nitroaromatic removal was further elucidated. The results show that RGO could achieve an approximate one-fold rate increase of nitrobenzene reduction by mixed culture with glucose as an electron donor. Selective elimination of oxygen moieties on the RGO surface, such as quinone groups, decreased the nitrobenzene transformation rate, whereas doping nitrogen into the RGO framework exhibited a positive effect. The study indicates that graphene-based carbon nanomaterials have the potential to accelerate the biological transformation of nitroaromatic compounds and that the functionalization of these carbon nanomaterials, especially through surface modification, would further enhance the conversion efficiency of contaminants. PMID:27439321

  6. Facilitated biological reduction of nitroaromatic compounds by reduced graphene oxide and the role of its surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Yi-Xuan; Zhao, Han-Qing; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Gong, Li; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-01-01

    How reduced graphene oxide (RGO) mediates the reductive transformation of nitroaromatic pollutants by mixed cultures and the role of its surface characteristics were evaluated in this study. Different electron donors were applied to investigate the interaction between RGO and anaerobic microbes. Moreover, the influence of the surface properties of RGO on biological nitroaromatic removal was further elucidated. The results show that RGO could achieve an approximate one-fold rate increase of nitrobenzene reduction by mixed culture with glucose as an electron donor. Selective elimination of oxygen moieties on the RGO surface, such as quinone groups, decreased the nitrobenzene transformation rate, whereas doping nitrogen into the RGO framework exhibited a positive effect. The study indicates that graphene-based carbon nanomaterials have the potential to accelerate the biological transformation of nitroaromatic compounds and that the functionalization of these carbon nanomaterials, especially through surface modification, would further enhance the conversion efficiency of contaminants. PMID:27439321

  7. The effect of the transverse nonisothermality of a heat-exchange surface on its thermal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manushin, E. A.; Dorokhov, A. M.

    1982-10-01

    Nusselt numbers have been obtained experimentally for heat-exchange surfaces with straight ducts of triangular cross section for the case of laminar flow of the heat transfer agent. It is found that the experimentally determined thermal performance of a surface having high heat conductivity is 25-45% better than that of a low-conductivity surface. It is concluded that the transverse heat conductivity of materials must be taken into account when designing plate-type and finned heat exchangers.

  8. Nitride chemical passivation of a GaAs (100) Surface: Effect on the electrical characteristics of Au/GaAs surface-barrier structures

    SciTech Connect

    Berkovits, V. L. L'vova, T. V.; Ulin, V. P.

    2011-12-15

    The effect of chemical nitridation of GaAs substrates in a hydrazine-sulfide solution on the electrical characteristics of Au/GaAs Schottky structures has been studied. In nitridation of this kind, a solid passivating gallium nitride film with a monolayer thickness is formed on the surface of GaAs, providing almost direct contact between the semiconductor and the metal deposited on its surface. Au/GaAs structures fabricated on nitride substrates have ideality factors close to unity and are characterized by a narrow scatter of potential barrier heights. Prolonged heating of these structures at 350 Degree-Sign C does not change these parameters. The data obtained show that the nitride monolayer formed on the GaAs surface upon treatment in hydrazidesulfide solutions effectively hinders atomic migration across the metal-semiconductor phase boundary.

  9. Using Minority Carrier Lifetime Measurement to Determine Saw Damage Characteristics on Si Wafer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, Bhushan; Devayajanam, Srinivas; Basnyat, Prakash

    2015-06-14

    The damage on the Si wafer surfaces, caused by ingot cutting, is determined from measurement of minority carrier lifetime (..tau..eff). Samples are sequentially etched to remove thin layers from each surface and lifetime is measured after each etch step. The thickness-removed at which the lifetime reaches a peak value corresponds to the damage depth. This technique also allows the depth distribution of the damage to be quantified in terms of surface recombination velocity (SRV). An accurate measurement of ..tau..eff requires corrections to optical reflection, and transmission to account for changes in the surface morphology and in the wafer thickness.

  10. Microwave capillary torch as a means for modifying the electrophysical characteristics of metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artem'ev, K. V.; Davydov, A. M.; Ivanov, V. A.; Kossyi, I. A.; Luk'yanchikov, G. S.; Moryakov, I. V.

    2016-07-01

    An experiment layout based on a pulsed capillary microwave torch and making it possible to excite an explosive emission microplasma on a metal surface in open air is implemented for the first time. It is shown that a microrelief in the form of micron-size microcraters forms on the initially smooth surface under the action of microsparks. As a result, the maximum secondary electron emission yield σmax decreases from ˜2 for the untreated surface to ˜0.4 for the rough treated surface and remains low for a long time when exposed to atmospheric air.

  11. [Characteristic wavelengths analysis for remote sensing reflectance on water surface in Taihu Lake].

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jun-sheng; Wu, Yuan-feng; Wu, Di; Song, Yang; Zhang, Fang-fang; Wang, Gan-lin

    2011-07-01

    The research on characteristic wavelengths analysis of reflectance spectrum is a very important and basic task for remote sensing of inland-water color. The present paper analyzed remote sensing reflectances of 312 samples measured in Taihu Lake between 2006 and 2009, and these reflectances were separated into three classes by chlorophyll-a concentrations. The reflectance spectra smoothed by Savitzky-Golay algorithm were calculated by first- and second-order derivatives. Then, zero values were located in the derivatives and counted at all wavelengths. Thus the frequency distribution of zeros at each wavelength was got. At which wavelength a local maximum of the frequencies appears a characteristic wavelength will most likely be there. These characteristic wavelengths are corresponding to maximum, minimum, from-concave-to-convex inflection point and from-convex-to-concave inflection point of a spectrum curve. At last the paper provided the characteristic wavelengths for Taihu Lake water at the spectral coverage from 350 to 900 nm, which are 359, 440, 464, 472, 552, 566, 583, 628, 636, 645, 660, 676, 689, 706, 728, 791, 806, and 825 nm. In addition, these wavelengths we found were explained by absorption of phytoplankton pigments and components of water in Taihu Lake. Being able to distinguish overlaps between peaks and vales at the same wavelength in different measurements, the method to analyze characteristic wavelengths is universally applicable to various spectrum curves. The characteristic wavelengths chosen by the paper are helpful to improving some algorithms of retrieval of water quality parameters. PMID:21942046

  12. Tailoring the photoluminescence characteristics of p-type GaSb: The role of surface chemical passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Wei, Zhipeng; Li, Mei; Liu, Guojun; Zou, Yonggang; Xing, Guozhong; Tan, Thiam Teck; Li, Sean; Chu, Xueying; Fang, Fang; Fang, Xuan; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Xiaohua; Ma, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    We report a systematic study on modulating optical properties in gallium antimonide (GaSb) with the sulfur surface passivation. Compared with the pristine sample, the intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) emission from the passivated GaSb was dramatically enhanced about 15 times at room temperature. The temperature-dependent surface states were further investigated via the low temperature PL spectroscopy. The bound-edge-related transition emission (BE4) at 795 meV and the residual acceptor associated emission located at 777 meV were identified clearly at 10 K. The observed passivation effects on the photoluminescence characteristics evolution of GaSb are discussed in detail.

  13. Surface Composition, Work Function, and Electrochemical Characteristics of Gallium-Doped Zinc Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, E. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Macech, M. R.; Nebesny, K.; Lee, P. A.; Ginley, D. S.; Armstrong, N. R.; Berry, J. J.

    2012-06-30

    Gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) possesses the electric conductivity, thermal stability, and earth abundance to be a promising transparent conductive oxide replacement for indium tin oxide electrodes in a number of molecular electronic devices, including organic solar cells and organic light emitting diodes. The surface chemistry of GZO is complex and dominated by the hydrolysis chemistry of ZnO, which influences the work function via charge transfer and band bending caused by adsorbates. A comprehensive characterization of the surface chemical composition and electrochemical properties of GZO electrodes is presented, using both solution and surface adsorbed redox probe molecules. The GZO surface is characterized using monochromatic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy after the following pretreatments: (i) hydriodic acid etch, (ii) potassium hydroxide etch, (iii) RF oxygen plasma etching, and (iv) high-vacuum argon-ion sputtering. The O 1s spectra for the GZO electrodes have contributions from the stoichiometric oxide lattice, defects within the lattice, hydroxylated species, and carbonaceous impurities, with relative near-surface compositions varying with pretreatment. Solution etching procedures result in an increase of the work function and ionization potential of the GZO electrode, but yield different near surface Zn:Ga atomic ratios, which significantly influence charge transfer rates for a chemisorbed probe molecule. The near surface chemical composition is shown to be the dominant factor in controlling surface work function and significantly influences the rate of electron transfer to both solution and tethered probe molecules.

  14. The effects of crushing surface roughness on the crushing characteristics of composite tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.; Wolterman, Richard L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of crushing-surface roughness on the energy-absorption capability of graphite and glass-epoxy composite tubes were investigated. Fifty different combinations of fiber, matrix, and specimen ply orientation were evaluated. Two different crushing surface roughnesses were used in this investigation. Crushing surface significantly influences the energy-absorption capability only of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode; tubes that crush in other modes are not influenced because their lamina bundles do not slide against the crushing surface. Those tubes that crush in the lamina bending mode can achieve higher, lower, or no change in energy-absorption capability as crushing surface roughness increases. If the fiber failure strain of tubes that crush in the lamina bending crushing mode exceeds the matrix failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness increases. However, if the matrix failure strain exceeds the fiber failure strain then the energy-absorption capability increases as crushing surface roughness decreases. Energy-absorption capability is uninfluenced by crushing surface roughness for tubes that have equal fiber and matrix failure strains.

  15. Evaluation of Surface and Near-Surface Melt Characteristics on the Greenland Ice Sheet using MODIS and QuikSCAT Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.

    2009-01-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet has been the focus of much attention recently because of increasing melt in response to regional climate warming. To improve our ability to measure surface melt, we use remote-sensing data products to study surface and near-surface melt characteristics of the Greenland Ice Sheet for the 2007 melt season when record melt extent and runoff occurred. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily land-surface temperature (LST), MODIS daily snow albedo, and a special diurnal melt product derived from QuikSCAT (QS) scatterometer data, are all effective in measuring the evolution of melt on the ice sheet. These daily products, produced from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, are sensitive to different geophysical features, though QS- and MODIS-derived melt generally show excellent correspondence when surface melt is present on the ice sheet. Values derived from the daily MODIS snow albedo product drop in response to melt, and change with apparent grain-size changes. For the 2007 melt season, the QS and MODIS LST products detect 862,769 square kilometers and 766,184 square kilometers of melt, respectively. The QS product detects about 11% greater melt extent than is detected by the MODIS LST product probably because QS is more sensitive to surface melt, and can detect subsurface melt. The consistency of the response of the different products demonstrates unequivocally that physically-meaningful melt/freeze boundaries can be detected. We have demonstrated that these products, used together, can improve the precision in mapping surface and near-surface melt extent on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  16. Systematic Study of the Surface Plasmon Resonance Signals Generated by Cells for Sensors with Different Characteristic Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Méjard, Régis; Thierry, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish an in-depth understanding of the signals induced by mammalian cells in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing. To this end, two plasmonic structures with different propagation and penetration distances were used: conventional surface plasmon resonance and long-range surface plasmon resonance. Long-range SPR showed a lesser sensitivity to the absolute number of round cells but a greater resolution due to its very narrow spectral dip. The effect of cell spreading was also investigated and the resonance angle of long-range SPR was mostly insensitive unlike in the conventional SPR counterpart. Experimental data was compared with suitable models used in the SPR literature. Although these simple averaging models could be used to describe some of the experimental data, important deviations were observed which could be related to the fact that they do not take into consideration critical parameters such as plasmon scattering losses, which is particularly crucial in the case of long-range SPR structures. The comparison between conventional and long-range SPR for cellular schemes revealed important fundamental differences in their responses to the presence of cells, opening new horizons for SPR-based cell assays. From this study, long-range SPR is expected to be more sensitive towards both the detection of intracellular events resulting from biological stimulation and the detection of microorganisms captured from complex biological samples. PMID:25340583

  17. Fractal and multifractal characteristics of swift heavy ion induced self-affine nanostructured BaF2 thin film surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R P; Kumar, Manvendra; Mittal, A K; Pandey, A C

    2015-08-01

    Fractal and multifractal characteristics of self-affine surfaces of BaF2 thin films, deposited on crystalline Si ⟨1 1 1⟩ substrate at room temperature, were studied. Self-affine surfaces were prepared by irradiation of 120 MeV Ag(9+) ions which modified the surface morphology at nanometer scale. The surface morphology of virgin thin film and those irradiated with different ion fluences are characterized by atomic force microscopy technique. The surface roughness (interface width) shows monotonic decrease with ion fluences, while the other parameters, such as lateral correlation length, roughness exponent, and fractal dimension, did not show either monotonic decrease or increase in nature. The self-affine nature of the films is further confirmed by autocorrelation function. The power spectral density of thin films surfaces exhibits inverse power law variation with spatial frequency, suggesting the existence of fractal component in surface morphology. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis based on the partition function approach is also performed on virgin and irradiated thin films. It is found that the partition function exhibits the power law behavior with the segment size. Moreover, it is also seen that the scaling exponents vary nonlinearly with the moment, thereby exhibiting the multifractal nature. PMID:26328566

  18. Wetting characteristics and stability of Langmuir-Blodgett carboxylate monolayers at the surfaces of calcite and fluorite

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, W.H.; Drelich, J.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Although surface chemistry fundamentals of semisoluble minerals have been studied by many researchers, detailed understanding of these systems is still incomplete. In situ Fourier transform infrared internal reflection spectroscopy (FT-IR/IRS) techniques have recently been used to successfully describe the adsorption of carboxylates at semisoluble mineral surfaces. The wetting characteristics of these adsorbed films, however, require further consideration. In this regard, the hydrophobicity and stability of transferred Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers of fatty acids at fluorite and calcite surfaces have been studied by contact angle measurements with water and diiodomethane. Generally, it was found that the transferred LB monolayers of fatty acids at a calcite surface are unstable whereas such monolayers transferred onto a fluorite surface are stable, as revealed from advancing and receding contact angle measurements. These results are believed to be due to incomplete reaction of the fatty acid monolayer at the calcite surface. In addition it was found that a closely packed well-ordered stearate monolayer similar to that of a transferred LB monolayer can be formed at fluorite surfaces by spontaneous adsorption and self-assembly from aqueous solutions. 41 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Investigations on particle surface characteristics vs. dispersion behaviour of L-leucine coated carrier-free inhalable powders.

    PubMed

    Raula, Janne; Thielmann, Frank; Naderi, Majid; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2010-01-29

    Aerosol microparticles of salbutamol sulphate are gas-phase coated with an amino acid L-leucine. Depending of the saturated state of L-leucine, the coating is formed by the surface diffusion of L-leucine molecules within a droplet or by the physical vapour deposition (PVD) of L-leucine or by the combination thereof. The PVD coated particles showed excellent aerosolization characteristics in a carrier-free powder delivery from an inhaler. The aerosolization of the fine powders is compared with surface energy parameters analysed by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The dispersion testing is conducted by a Inhalation Simulator using a fast inhalation profile with inhalation flow rate of 67 l min(-1). It is found that the powder emission is affected by the morphology, surface roughness (asperity size and density) of the particles and acidity of particle surface. The latter affects the dispersion and dose repeatability of fine powder in a case if L-leucine content is high enough. However, there is no direct correlation between dispersive surface energies and aerosolization performances of the powders. Crucial factors for the improved aerosolization rely weakly on surface acid-base properties but strongly on particle morphology and fine-scale surface roughness. PMID:19879344

  20. Cellular Automata and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Ernest

    1994-01-01

    The use of cellular automata to analyze several pre-Socratic hypotheses about the evolution of the physical world is discussed. These hypotheses combine characteristics of both rigorous and metaphoric language. Since the computer demands explicit instructions for each step in the evolution of the automaton, such models can reveal conceptual…

  1. Influence of Gate Dielectric and Its Surface Treatment on Electrical Characteristics of Solution-Processed ZnO Transistors.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Zhang, Xue; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon

    2016-02-01

    We report how interface treatments affect electrical performance, including subthreshold characteristics, in solution-processed transparent metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) with SiO2 and SiNx gate dielectrics. Ultra-violet (UV) ozone treatment and O2 plasma treatment are carried out as a surface treatment of the interface between a spin-coated zinc oxide (ZnO) layer and a gate dielectric. With the SiO2 dielectric, UV ozone treatment dominantly affects subthreshold characteristics, while O2 plasma treatment produces enhanced mobility and lower threshold voltage shift. With the SiNx dielectric, every electrical parameter including mobility, threshold voltage shift, and subthreshold characteristics is enhanced by 02 plasma treatment. Our experimental results demonstrate that interface engineering treatments variously influence the electrical performance in solution-processed ZnO TFTs. PMID:27433685

  2. Evaluation of surface water characteristics of novel daily disposable contact lens materials, using refractive index shifts after wear

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Jeffery; Steffen, Robert; Reindel, William; Chinn, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Contact lens wearers today spend much time using digital display devices. Contact lens manufacturers are challenged to develop products that account for longer periods of time where blink rate is reduced and tear-film evaporation rate is increased, affecting both visual acuity and comfort. Two manufacturers recently introduced novel daily disposable contact lenses with high surface water content. The objective of the present study was to compare surface water characteristics before and after initial wear of recently introduced nesofilcon A and delefilcon A high surface water lenses with those of etafilcon A lenses. Patients and methods Twenty healthy subjects wore each of the three lens types studied in a randomly determined order for 15 minutes. After each wearing, lenses were removed and the surface refractive index (RI) of each lens was immediately measured. Results The mean RI of the unworn delefilcon A lens was 1.34, consistent with water content in excess of 80%. After 15 minutes of wear, the surface RI shifted to 1.43, consistent with its reported 33% bulk water content. In contrast, the mean surface RI of the nesofilcon A lens was 1.38, both initially and after 15 minutes of wear, and that of the etafilcon A lens was 1.41 initially and 1.42 after 15 minutes of wear. Conclusion The surface of the delefilcon A lens behaves like a high water hydrogel upon insertion but quickly dehydrates to behave like its low-water silicone-hydrogel bulk material with respect to surface water content during wear, while both nesofilcon A and etafilcon A lenses maintain their water content during initial wear. The nesofilcon A lens appears unique among high water lenses in maintaining high surface and bulk water content during wear. This is important because changes in surface RI due to dehydration are reported to lead to visual aberration affecting user experience. PMID:26543349

  3. Effect of pore structure on surface characteristics of zirconium phosphate-modified silica.

    PubMed

    El Shafei, Gamal M S

    2002-06-15

    Three samples of silica of different pore structure-predominantly microporous, S1; mesoporous, S2; and nonporous, S3-were modified with zirconium phosphate and examined. Pore structure analysis showed that modification had taken place in wider pores of S1 leaving a totally microporous sample, and in large pores of S2 giving a mesoporous sample of narrower pore size distribution. The modification of the nonporous sample decreased the surface area and pore volume to a lower extent than in the other two samples, but resulted in a surface of lower energy toward N2. The different distribution of surface silanol groups on the surfaces of different porosity may result in variable pictures on the modified surfaces as reflected in the differences observed in Brønsted acidity of modified surfaces. The use of these modified silica samples for amino acid adsorption (L-glutamic acid and L-alanine) indicated that both the isoelectric point of the amino acid and the distribution of surface groups on modified solids are controlling the adsorption process. PMID:16290676

  4. Surface energy balance and turbulence characteristics observed at the SHEBA Ice Camp during FIRE III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duynkerke, Peter G.; de Roode, Stephan R.

    2001-07-01

    The Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU) participated in the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE III) in May 1998. In this paper we describe surface layer measurements performed on the sea ice at the Surface Heat and Energy Balance of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) camp and compare these with measurements collected above a grass-covered surface in Cabauw, the Netherlands. The observations consist of both high-frequency turbulence measurements and mean-profile measurements of wind, temperature, and humidity. In addition, we measured the upward and downward components of both the longwave and the shortwave radiation, and the snow and ice temperatures in the upper 40 cm. The observations give a detailed picture of all components of the energy balance of the Arctic sea-ice surface. The turbulence measurements are used to study the surface layer scaling of the turbulence variables in the stable boundary layer. More specifically, we showed that the integral length scale of the vertical velocity fluctuations serves as the relevant turbulence length scale. The monthly averaged energy balance of the Arctic sea-ice was dominated by radiative fluxes, whereas the sensible and latent heat flux and the energy flux into the surface were rather small. A detailed inspection of the diurnal variations in the turbulent fluxes, however, indicates that although the monthly averaged values are small, the hourly averaged values for these fluxes are significant in the surface energy balance.

  5. Surface Characteristics of Quasicrystal Thin Films of AlCuFe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symko, Orest G.; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab; Emmi, Matthew; Zudova, Snezhana

    2000-03-01

    We have investigated the surface energy and surface structure of thin films of i-AlCuFe. Such films are important for applications and in particular for coatings. The films investigated ranged in thickness from 10 nm to 300 nm; they were deposited on various substrates such as sapphire, silicon, stainless steel, and others. The surface energy was determined by contact angle measurements using the drop method. Results show contact angles comparable to Teflon. Studies were extended to the surface structure using an Atomic Force Microscope at ambient conditions. Images show extremely smooth surfaces which at certain locations provide evidence for the icosahedral symmetries of the quasicrystal. Such images were enhanced by auto-correlation techniques thus revealing more clearly the symmetries at the surface of the films. Other techniques such as x-ray diffraction, TEM, XPS and ToF-SIMS were used to determine the quality of the quasicrystal films and the nature of the surface. This characterization is essential for biomedical applications of our QC coatings.

  6. Surface water and groundwater characteristics in the wetlands of the Ajó River (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carol, E. S.; Dragani, W. C.; Kruse, E. E.; Pousa, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    Intertidal wetlands are complex hydrological environments in which surface water and groundwater interact periodically with tidal flows. This work analyzes how the tidal flow determines the hydrodynamics and salinity of surface water and groundwater at different depths in the intertidal wetland located in the marsh of the Ajó River. Water level and salinity measurements were obtained from the Ajó River, the channels discharging into the river and the phreatic aquifer. The results in the natural marsh indicate the presence of saline stratification and that the surface water-groundwater relationship varies with the tide. At low tide, the water table discharges into the surface watercourses, and when the high tide rises above the regional groundwater discharge level, the tidal flow contributes to the water table, which causes an increase in salinity in surface water and groundwater. When the high tide does not rise above the discharge level, the tidal flow only enters the groundwater at the mouth section and the salinity of the surface water and groundwater decreases from low tide to high tide. In the marsh areas excluded from the tidal cycle due to the presence of floodgates, the water table always discharges into the canals, and in the surface water and groundwater there is no presence of saline stratification. The results obtained make it possible to generate a conceptual model of hydrological behaviour which shows the hydrodynamic and hydrochemical complexity of intertidal wetlands.

  7. A comparative study of the cellular uptake, localization and phototoxicity of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl) chlorin encapsulated in surface-modified submicronic oil/water carriers in HT29 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, O; Mosqueira, V; Legrand, P; Blais, J

    2000-01-01

    The poor selectivity of photosensitizers for tumor tissue remains a drawback in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and could be improved by adapted formulations. The cellular uptake, localization and phototoxicity of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) encapsulated in submicronic colloidal carriers have been studied in macrophage-like J774 cells and HT 29 human adenocarcinoma cells. Nanocapsules with an external layer made of poly(D,L lactic acid) (PLA NCs), PLA grafted with polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG NCs), PLA coated with poloxamer 188 (polox PLA NCs) and oil/water nanoemulsion (NE) have been examined. The cellular uptake by J774, as determined by microspectroflorimetry, is reduced with mTHPC encapsulated into surface-modified NCs--PLA-PEG and polox PLA--compared with naked PLA, indicating a possible limitation of the clearance of such carriers by the reticuloendothelial system. Encapsulation also modifies the interaction between mTHPC and HT29 cells. Compared with the manufacturer's solution (PEG, ethanol, water), the cellular uptake is strongly reduced. However, the HT29 phototoxicity is much less affected and a protecting effect against plasma proteins is observed. Fluorescence microscopy reveals a specific punctate fluorescence pattern with PLA-PEG and polox PLA NCs in contrast to a more diffuse distribution with NE and solution, indicating that photodamage targeting could be different. These findings suggest that photosensitizers encapsulated into surface-modified nanocapsules could be a promising approach for improving PDT efficacy and this has to be confirmed in vivo. PMID:10942081

  8. Measurements of erosion characteristics for metal and polymer surfaces using profilometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Ligia C.; Gregory, John C.; Peters, Palmer N.

    1991-01-01

    The surfaces of many materials exposed in low earth orbit are modified due to interaction with atomic oxygen. Chemical changes and surface roughening effects can occur which alter optical and other properties. The experiment A0114 contained 128 solid surface samples, half of which were exposed on the front and half on the rear of Long Duration Exposure Facility. Each sample was subjected to many analyses, but only the methods and techniques are described which were used to measure the changes in roughness, erosion depths, and material growth using profilometry.

  9. Wear, corrosion, and cavitation erosion characteristics of laser-surface-alloyed gray cast iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bransden, Antony S.; Tomlinson, W. J.

    1990-10-01

    There is significant industrial interest in methods to improve the surface properties of cast iron. This paper describes investigations of laser treatments to enhance cast iron surfaces by alloying with the elements chromium, nickel or cobalt, or a cobalt/chromium mixture. The coatings achieved are of high integrity, low porosity and uniform in composition, microstructure and hardness. Alloyed surfaces have been subjected to corrosion testing in a range of acids and to wear and cavitation erosion in distilled and salt waters. The data show substantial improvements over those obtained from unalloyed material. Results are presented and discussed including the response of the microstructure to the testing environments.

  10. Highly roughened polycaprolactone surfaces using oxygen plasma-etching and in vitro mineralization for bone tissue regeneration: fabrication, characterization, and cellular activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, YongBok; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-01-01

    Herein, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) surfaces were treated to form various roughness values (R(a)=290-445 nm) and polar functional groups on the surfaces using a plasma-etching process, followed by immersion into simulated body fluid (SBF) for apatite formation. The surface morphology, chemical composition, and mean roughness of the plasma-etched PCL surfaces were measured, and various physical and morphological properties (water contact angles, protein absorption ability, and crystallite size of the apatite layer) of the in vitro mineralized PCL surfaces were evaluated. The roughened PCL surface P-3, which was treated with a sufficient plasma exposure time (4 h), achieved homogeneously distributed apatite formation after soaking in SBF for 7 days, as compared with other surfaces that were untreated or plasma-treated for 30 min or 2 h. Furthermore, to demonstrate their feasibility as a biomimetic surface, pre-osteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were cultured on the mineralized PCL surfaces, and cell viability, DAPI-phalloidin fluorescence assay, and alizarin red-staining of the P-3 surface were highly improved compared to the P-1 surface treated with a 30-min plasma exposure time; compared to untreated mineralized PCL surface (N-P), P-3 showed even greater improvements in cell viability and DAPI-phalloidin fluorescence assay. Based on these results, we found that the mineralized PCL surface supplemented with the appropriate plasma treatment can be implicitly helpful to achieve rapid hard tissue regeneration. PMID:25486326

  11. Characteristics of 13.9 GHz radar scattering from oil films on the sea surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. W.; Croswell, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft microwave scatterometer measurements are presented, which were made in 1979 as part of a project to study the response of a number of active and passive microwave and optical remote sensors to an oil-covered sea surface conducted by NASA Langley Research Center. A 13.9-GHz Doppler scatterometer with a fan beam antenna and coherent detection was used to measure radar backscatter as a function of incidence angle. The radar scattering signature of the clear surface and signatures of the surface covered with various crude oil films are compared. Reductions in Ku band microwave backscatter up to 14 dB are observed for both treated and untreated LaRosa and Murban crude oil films deposited on the sea surface. Maximum Ku band sensitivity to the effects of the oil in terms of differential scatter is observed in the 25-35 deg incidence angle region.

  12. Electrospinnability of bionanocomposites with high nanocrystal loadings: The effect of nanocrystal surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Narges; Mathew, Aji P; Oksman, Kristiina

    2016-08-20

    This paper deals with the effect of solution properties and nanoparticle surface chemistry on the spinnability of a chitosan/polyethylene oxide (PEO) with high concentration (50wt%) of chitin and cellulose nanocrystals and the properties of the resultant nanocomposite fibers/fiber mats. Electrospinning dispersions with cellulose nanocrystals having sulphate surface groups showed poor spinnability compared to chitin nanocrystals with amide and amino groups. Chitin nanocrystal based dispersions showed good spinnability and continuous fiber formation whereas cellulose nanocrystal system showed discontinuous fibers and branching. The viscosity and surface tension are shown to impact this behavior, but conductivity did not. Poor spinnability observed for cellulose nanocrystal based fibers was attributed to the coagulation of negatively charged cellulose nanocrystals and positively charged chitosan. The study showed that the nanocrystal surface charge and interactions with the chitosan/PEO matrix have a significant impact on the spinnability of bionanocomposites. PMID:27178953

  13. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND INTRINSIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SURFACE FRESHWATERS ON VIRUS STABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple linear regression analysis was used to statistically model the influence of natural chemical, bacteriological, and physical environmental water parameters upon the survival of human enteroviruses in surface freshwaters. odel development was based upon experimental data y...

  14. Solubility and Surface Adsorption Characteristics of Metal Oxides to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Wesolowski; M.L. Machesky; S.E. Ziemniak; C. Xiao; D.A. Palmer; L.M. Anovitz; P. Benezeth

    2001-05-04

    The interaction of high temperature aqueous solutions with mineral surfaces plays a key role in many aspects of fossil, geothermal and nuclear energy production. This is an area of study in which the subsurface geochemical processes that determine brine composition, porosity and permeability changes, reservoir integrity, and fluid flow rates overlap with the industrial processes associated with corrosion of metal parts and deposition of solids in pipes and on heat exchanger surfaces. The sorption of ions on mineral surfaces is also of great interest in both the subsurface and ''above ground'' regimes of power production, playing a key role in subsurface migration of contaminants (nuclear waste disposal, geothermal brine re-injection, etc.) and in plant operations (corrosion mitigation, migration of radioactive metals from reactor core to heat exchanger, etc.). In this paper, results of the solubility and surface chemistry of metal oxides relevant to both regimes are summarized.

  15. [Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Lake Taihu Surface Albedo and Its Impact Factors].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Li, Xu-hui; Zhang, Mi; Liu, Shou-dong; Xiao, Wei; Xiao, Qi-tao; Xu, Jia-ping

    2015-10-01

    Lake surface albedo determines energy balance of water-atmospheric interface and water physical environment. Solar elevation angle, cloudiness, wind speed, water quality and other factors can affect lake surface albedo. Using solar radiation, wind speed, and water quality data (turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration) which were observed in four eddy covariance sites (Meiliangwan, Dapukou, Bifenggang and Xiaoleishan i. e. MLW, DPK, BFG and XLS) in Lake Taihu and clearness index (k(t)), the influence of these factors on Lake Taihu surface albedo and the reasons that led to its spatial difference were investigated. The results showed that solar elevation angle played a leading role in the diurnal and seasonal change of lake surface albedo; lake surface albedo reached two peaks in 0 < k(t) < 0.1 and 0.4 < k(t) < 0.6 respectively, when solar elevation angle was below 35 degrees. The surface albedo increased with the increasing wind speed, turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration. However, wind could indirectly affect surface albedo through leading to the changes in sediment resuspension and chlorophyll-a distribution. The sequence of albedo in the four sites was XLS > BFG > DPK > MLW. XLS and BFG belonged to the higher albedo group, while DPK and MLW belonged to the lower albedo group. The different biological environments caused by aquatic macrophytes and algae resulting in the spatial variation of Lake Taihu surface albedo. The relationship between albedo and chlorophyll-a concentration was not a very sensitive factor for indicating the outbreak of algae. This study can provide theoretical reference for lake albedo parameterization. PMID:26841592

  16. Surface recession characteristics of a cryogenic insulation subjected to arc-tunnel heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, C. M.; Brown, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Specimens of a cryogenic insulation, proposed for use on the space shuttle external tank, were tested in an arc tunnel over a range of heating rates, pressures, and enthalpies corresponding to the shuttle ascent environment. A regression analysis was used to correlate the test data. Correlation equations involving surface recession rate as a function of heating rate, pressure, and enthalpy were developed. These equations can be used to make total surface recession predictions for shuttle ascent flight environments.

  17. The surface characteristics produced by various oral hygiene instruments and materials on titanium implant abutments.

    PubMed

    Rapley, J W; Swan, R H; Hallmon, W W; Mills, M P

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the comparative surface roughness produced by various oral hygiene instruments and materials on titanium implant abutments. Ten Brånemark titanium abutment cylinders were used, with one serving as an untreated control. One abutment was used to evaluate each of nine oral hygiene instrumentation methods used for specified lengths of time or instrument strokes. Each abutment was sonically cleaned, air dried, and viewed with a scanning electron microscope. Polaroid photomicrographs were made of abutment surfaces at predetermined magnifications. They were analyzed by three investigators, who compared individual test parameters in terms of time application or stroke number. The resulting abutment surface roughness was also evaluated. The rubber cup with flour of pumice created a smoother surface than the control; the interdental brush, soft nylon toothbrush, plastic scaler, Eva plastic tip, rubber cup, and Cavi-jet left a surface comparable to the control; the metal scalers and the Cavitron created a severely roughened surface. PMID:2202669

  18. Surface Tension Characteristics of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solution with Alcoholic Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Ogawa, Kiyoshi

    At present, the combination of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr) solution as an absorbent and water as a refrigerant have widely been used as the working fluid for absorption refrigerating machines. In order to obtain absorption enhancement of water vapor into the LiBr solution by Marangoni convection, an alcoholic surfactant is being added in the LiBr solution. In that case, the surface tension of the LiBr solution with the surfactant plays an important role for the vapor absorption. In this study, the surface tensions of the LiBr solution with several alcoholic surfactants such as 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 2-ethyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol, 1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were measured by Wilhelmy plate method. As a result, the surface tensions of 50 wt% LiBr solution with several surfactants were obtained over the LiBr solution temperature range from 298 K to 318 K and the surfactant concentration range from 0 to 104 ppm by mass. The measured surface tension has decreased with the increasing number of carbons included in the surfactant at constant concentration, and the surface tension has increased with the increasing temperature of 50 wt% LiBr solution. The surface tension increase of 1-octanol became greater than any other surfactant used in this work. The effective carbon number of the surfactant for the absorption enhancement was in the range from 7 to 8.

  19. Distribution and characteristics of methylmercury in surface sediment in Minamata Bay.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Akito; Yano, Shinichiro; Hisano, Akihiro; Kindaichi, Michiaki; Sonoda, Ikuko; Tada, Akihide; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2016-08-15

    This study was carried out to evaluate the present-day chemical properties of methylmercury in surface sediment in Minamata Bay where a dredging project was completed 28years ago. Present-day sediment from Minamata Bay consists of sandy silt, and the average loss-on-ignition in surface sediment was 7.0±2.3%. The average methylmercury concentrations in the upper sediment layers were significantly higher than those in the lower sediment layers. Currently, the concentrations in sediments in Minamata Bay do not exceed the Japanese regulatory standard value for mercury. The average concentration of methylmercury in Minamata Bay surface sediment was 1.74±1.0ng/g on a dry weight basis (n=107). The methylmercury concentration in Minamata Bay surface sediment was almost 16 times higher than that in surface sediment from Isahaya Bay surface sediment, which was 0.11±0.045ng/g on a dry weight basis (n=5). PMID:27237039

  20. Thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface under controlled parametric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Santosh Kumar; Mishra, Purna Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Experimental results on the thermal characteristics of air-water spray impingement cooling of hot metallic surface are presented and discussed in this paper. The controlling input parameters investigated were the combined air and water pressures, plate thickness, water flow rate, nozzle height from the target surface and initial temperature of the hot surface. The effects of these input parameters on the important thermal characteristics such as heat transfer rate, heat transfer coefficient and wetting front movement were measured and examined. Hot flat plate samples of mild steel with dimension 120 mm in length, 120 mm breadth and thickness of 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm respectively were tested. The air assisted water spray was found to be an effective cooling media and method to achieve very high heat transfer rate from the surface. Higher heat transfer rate and heat transfer coefficients were obtained for the lesser i.e, 4 mm thick plates. Increase in the nozzle height reduced the heat transfer efficiency of spray cooling. At an inlet water pressure of 4 bar and air pressure of 3 bar, maximum cooling rates 670°C/s and average cooling rate of 305.23°C/s were achieved for a temperature of 850°C of the steel plate.

  1. A comparative study of surface plasmon polariton propagation characteristics of various metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Monisha; Porsezian, K.

    2016-05-01

    Here we theoretically study the SPP behaviors of Cu, Ag, Au, Al, Ti, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ni, In, Sn, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs metals, which are known to show plasmonic behavior. We consider vacuum as the dielectric medium. The SPP characteristic length scales such as propagation length, penetration depth, SPP wavelength are theoretically evaluated and compared for different metals.

  2. Derivation of martian surface slope characteristics from directional thermal infrared radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandfield, Joshua L.; Edwards, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Directional thermal infrared measurements of the martian surface is one of a variety of methods that may be used to characterize surface roughness and slopes at scales smaller than can be obtained by orbital imagery. Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) emission phase function (EPF) observations show distinct apparent temperature variations with azimuth and emission angle that are consistent with the presence of warm, sunlit and cool, shaded slopes at typically ˜0.1 m scales. A surface model of a Gaussian distribution of azimuth independent slopes (described by θ-bar) is combined with a thermal model to predict surface temperature from each viewing angle and azimuth of the TES EPF observation. The models can be used to predict surface slopes using the difference in measured apparent temperature from 2 separate 60-70° emission angle observations taken ˜180° in azimuth relative to each other. Most martian surfaces are consistent with low to moderate slope distributions. The slope distributions display distinct correlations with latitude, longitude, and albedo. Exceptionally smooth surfaces are located at lower latitudes in both the southern highlands as well as in high albedo dusty terrains. High slopes are associated with southern high-latitude patterned ground and north polar sand dunes. There is little apparent correlation between high resolution imagery and the derived θ-bar, with exceptions such as duneforms. This method can be used to characterize potential landing sites by assuming fractal scaling behavior to meter scales. More precisely targeted thermal infrared observations from other spacecraft instruments are capable of significantly reducing uncertainty as well as reducing measurement spot size from 10s of kilometers to sub-kilometer scales.

  3. Effects of Leucin-Enkephalins on Surface Characteristics and Morphology of Model Membranes Composed of Raft-Forming Lipids.

    PubMed

    Tsanova, Asya; Jordanova, A; Lalchev, Z

    2016-06-01

    During the last decades opioid peptides, like enkephalins (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met/Leu) are subject to extensive studies due to their antinociceptive action in organism. According to the membrane catalysis theory, in order to adopt a proper conformation for binding to their receptors, opioid peptides interact with the lipid phase of the membrane receptor surrounding. With this regard, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of synthetic leucine-enkephalin and leucine-enkephalinamide on surface characteristics and morphology of lipid monolayers, composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol alone and with their mixtures. The lipids were chosen to represent a model of a membrane raft, since it is known that G-protein-coupled receptors, including opioid receptors, are located preferably in membrane rafts. By using Langmuir's monolayer method, the change in surface pressure of the model membranes before and after the addition of the synthetic enkephalins was studied, and the compressional moduli of the lipids and lipid-peptides monolayers were determined. In addition, by Brewster angle microscopy, the surface morphology of the lipid monolayers alone and after the injection of both enkephalins was monitored. Our results showed that both leucine-enkephalins affected the lipid monolayers surface characteristics, and led to an increase in surface density of the mixed surface lipids/enkephalins films at loose lipid packing. This effect was more pronounced for the enkephalinamide, suggesting a different mechanism of interaction for the amidated enkephalin with the lipid phase, as compared to leucine-enkephalin. PMID:26661722

  4. Material removal characteristics of orthogonal velocity polishing tool for efficient fabrication of CVD SiC mirror surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyunju; Han, Jeong-Yeol; Kim, Sug-Whan; Seong, Sehyun; Yoon, Siyoung; Lee, Kyungmook; Lee, Haengbok

    2015-09-01

    Today, CVD SiC mirrors are readily available in the market. However, it is well known to the community that the key surface fabrication processes and, in particular, the material removal characteristics of the CVD SiC mirror surface varies sensitively depending on the shop floor polishing and figuring variables. We investigated the material removal characteristics of CVD SiC mirror surfaces using a new and patented polishing tool called orthogonal velocity tool (OVT) that employs two orthogonal velocity fields generated simultaneously during polishing and figuring machine runs. We built an in-house OVT machine and its operating principle allows for generation of pseudo Gaussian shapes of material removal from the target surface. The shapes are very similar to the tool influence functions (TIFs) of other polishing machine such as IRP series polishing machines from Zeeko. Using two CVD SiC mirrors of 150 mm in diameter and flat surface, we ran trial material removal experiments over the machine run parameter ranges from 12.901 to 25.867 psi in pressure, 0.086 m/sec to 0.147 m/sec in tool linear velocity, and 5 to 15 sec in dwell time. An in-house developed data analysis program was used to obtain a number of Gaussian shaped TIFs and the resulting material removal coefficient varies from 3.35 to 9.46 um/psi hour m/sec with the mean value to 5.90 ± 1.26(standard deviation). We report the technical details of the new OVT machine, of the data analysis program, of the experiments and the results together with the implications to the future development of the OVT machine and process for large CVD SiC mirror surfaces.

  5. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Control-Surface Characteristics XX : Plain and Balanced Flaps on an NACA 0009 Rectangular Semispan Tail Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Elizabeth I.

    1944-01-01

    Correlation is established between aerodynamic characteristics of control surfaces in two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow. Slope of lift curve was affected little by overhang and balance-nose shape, but increased by sealing flap-nose gap. Effectiveness of balancing tab was same for sealed plain flap and unsealed overhang flap. Changes in hinge-moment coefficient were diminished by sealing gap. Values measured by three-dimensional flow disagreed with two-dimensional flow values until aspect ratio corrections were made.

  6. Characteristics of the surface plasma wave in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma slab

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2015-11-15

    The dispersion properties of surface dust ion-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma slab are investigated. The dispersion relation is derived by using the low-frequency magnetized dusty dielectric function and the surface wave dispersion integral for the slab geometry. We find that the self-gravitating effect suppresses the frequency of surface dust ion-acoustic wave for the symmetric mode in the long wavelength regime, whereas it hardly changes the frequency for the anti-symmetric mode. As the slab thickness and the wave number increase, the surface wave frequency slowly decreases for the symmetric mode but increases significantly for the anti-symmetric mode. The influence of external magnetic field is also investigated in the case of symmetric mode. We find that the strength of the magnetic field enhances the frequency of the symmetric-mode of the surface plasma wave. The increase of magnetic field reduces the self-gravitational effect and thus the self-gravitating collapse may be suppressed and the stability of dusty objects in space is enhanced.

  7. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1995-05-31

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. Work during the nineteenth quarter has concluded studies of the surface functional groups produced on coal by severe thermal and chemical oxidation, and on investigating the partition of metal ions between such strongly oxidized coal samples and aqueous solutions. This partitioning behavior was being followed to obtain further information on the chemistry of the coal surfaces after different oxidation treatments. Adsorption isotherms for the uptake of Cd{sup 2+} on coal oxidized by different methods were obtained, and these and the Cu{sup 2+} adsorption isotherms reported in the last report have been scrutinized, and interpreted more exhaustively. The apparent discrepancies noted in the last report for the analysis of surface functional groups have been investigated further. The adsorption behavior has been related to the surface chemistry of Upper Freeport coal oxidized by different methods.

  8. Electrical and optical characteristics of surface treated ZnO nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjusha, R.; Sreeja, R.; Mini, P.A.; Subramanian, K.R.V.; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Balakrishnan, Avinash

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanotubes were formed onto an ITO glass and were surface treated. ► Photoluminescence and fluorescence imaging for ZnO nanotubes showed blue emission. ► Surface treated samples that showed green emissions. ► Lifetime measurements showed higher excitonic times in surface treated samples. ► Conductance measurements showed significant improvement for the treated samples. -- Abstract: Vertical ZnO nanotubes were electrochemically deposited onto an indium doped tin oxide glass substrate. These nanotubes were surface treated with zinc acetate and annealed at 450 °C, resulting in a nanotubes/nanoparticles composite layer. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface treated samples showed nanoparticles been dispersed uniformly along the ZnO tubular matrix, which was confirmed by X-ray diffractrometry. Photoluminescence and fluorescence microscopy showed untreated ZnO nanotubes exhibiting blue emission, while the treated samples exhibited green emissions. Ultra-violet spectroscopy of treated samples revealed lower band gap values compare to their untreated counterparts. Lifetime measurements showed higher excitonic lifetimes in treated samples. Conductance studies using atomic force microscopy showed significant improvement in the conductance values for the treated samples. A significant increase in photocurrent was observed in treated samples when used as photo-anodes in dye sensitized solar cells.

  9. High-Performance Simulations of the Diffusion Characteristics of a Pentacene Derivative on Gold Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan; Larson, Amanda; Pohl, Karsten

    Pentacene serves as a backbone for several molecules that provide attractive qualities for organic photovoltaic devices. One of these pentacene derivatives is 5 6,7-trithiapentacene-13-one (TTPO), which is unique in that it achieves its lowest energy configuration on Au(1 1 1) surfaces with the thiol group angled down towards the surface, allowing many molecules to pack closely together and form molecular nanowires. However, TTPO diffuses on flat surfaces, making it difficult for the self-assembly process to be initiated. With the help of the low-energy sites in surface defects and Au(7 8 8) step edges, TTPO molecules can be anchored in place on surfaces, allowing for chain formation to begin. By using high-performance Density Functional Theory based molecular dynamics calculations, the molecules can be shown to stay localized to these bonding sites and serve as a basis for chain formation. In addition, by simulating various temperatures with a Nose-Hoover thermostat, we can analyze how temperature affects anchoring ability and diffusion properties.

  10. High-Temperature Galling Characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V with and without Surface Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian; ERDMAN III, DONALD L; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Jolly, Brian C

    2011-01-01

    Galling is a severe form of surface damage in metals and alloys that typically arises under relatively high normal force, low-sliding speed, and in the absence of effective lubrication. It can lead to macroscopic surface roughening and seizure. The occurrence of galling can be especially problematic in high-temperature applications like diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system components and adjustable turbocharger vanes, because suitable lubricants may not be available, moisture desorption promotes increased adhesion, and the yield strength of metals decreases with temperature. Oxidation can counteract these effects to some extent by forming lubricative oxide films. Two methods to improve the galling resistance of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were investigated: (a) applying an oxygen diffusion treatment, and (b) creating a metal-matrix composite with TiB2 using a high-intensity infrared heating source. A new, oscillating three-pin-on-flat, high-temperature test method was developed and used to characterize galling behavior relative to a cobalt-based alloy (Stellite 6B ). The magnitude of the oscillating torque, the surface roughness, and observations of surface damage were used as measures of galling resistance. Owing to the formation of lubricative oxide films, the galling resistance of the Ti-alloy at 485o C, even non-treated, was considerably better than it was at room temperature. The IR-formed composite displayed reduced surface damage and lower torque than the substrate titanium alloy.

  11. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  12. Linking PFC surface characteristics and plasma performance in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, M.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Boyle, D. P.; Jaworski, M. A.; Schmitt, J. C.; Bedoya, F.; Allain, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) is a spherical torus magnetic confinement device designed to accommodate lithium as the primary plasma-facing component (PFC). Results are presented from the implementation on LTX of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP), a compact in vacuo surface science diagnostic. With MAPP, in situ surface analysis techniques of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectroscopy are used to study evolution of the PFC surface chemistry in LTX as a function of varied lithium coating, hydrogen plasma exposure, and PFC surface temperature (20 - 300°C). Surface analysis results are then correlated with various measures of LTX plasma performance, including toroidal plasma current, line-integrated plasma density, and density-normalized impurity emission. Lithium coatings are observed to convert within hours to Li2O by gettering oxygen from both the residual vacuum and the PFC substrate. However, plasma performance remains elevated even with discharges operating against Li2O -coated PFCs. Hydrogen is retained by these Li2O coatings during a discharge, but it is almost completely desorbed as outgassed H2 in the minutes following the discharge; no persistent LiH formation is observed. This work was supported by U.S. DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-AC52-07NA27344, and DE-SC0010717, as well as by an NSF GRFP fellowship under grant DGE-0646086.

  13. LIMEX '87 ice surface characteristics - Implications for C-band SAR backscatter signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1989-01-01

    Ice surface characterization data collected in 1987, during the Labrador Sea Ice Margin Experiment, are analyzed to estimate the changes in snow and ice properties at the onset of melt. Surface measurements were made from an ice research vessel on several days (some of which had coincident remote-sensing flights) at a number of locations in the marginal ice zone. These data are used as input parameters in a simple scattering model to simulate the effects of variations in material properties upon C-band scattering signatures. Snow moisture and large-scale surface roughness are demonstrated to have the largest effect upon HH polarization scattering cross-section sigma(HH)(O) and large differences are predicted between undeformed floe surfaces and deformed or undulating rough ice surfaces. Using a parametric approach, an approximate picture of rough and smooth ice signatures and their relative contrast are provided. The models reproduce a trend observed in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of increasing backscatter contrast between deformed and underformed ice over an early period of warning: such observations are consistent with the results of analysis of SAR images to date. The model also reproduces a calibrated SAR-derived signature with a reasonable degree of accuracy.

  14. Spreading and Fragmenting Characteristics of Impacting Droplet on Micro/ Nanostructured Water-Repellent Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Lee, Chan; Kim, Moo Hwan; Kim, Joonwon

    2012-11-01

    After impact on a solid surface a droplet spreads, but in different ways such as deposition, rebound, and fragmentation. Because fragmentation occurs when the kinetic energy beat the surface energy during impact, Weber number is the most important dimensionless number in the rebound/fragmentation criteria. This also can be dramatically changed by the micro/nano-scale surface structures. Different micro/nanostructured surfaces were fabricated using silicon wet etching, black silicon formation, or the combination of these methods. Then, spreading and fragmenting events were analyzed with supporting experimental results. On the surfaces, the microstructures form obstacles to drop spreading and retracting, the nanostructures give extreme water-repellency, and the hybrid micro/nanostructures facilitate droplet fragmentation. Especially, the Cassie-Baxter's fraction factor of the microstructures can change rebound/fragmentation criteria. From this work, we finally investigate how the micro/nanostructures can change spreading and fragmenting dynamics during droplet impact. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-0030075).

  15. Gait characteristics of individuals with transtibial amputations walking on a destabilizing rock surface

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Deanna H.; Dingwell, Jonathan B.; Scott, Shawn J.; Sinitski, Emily H.; Wilken, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with transtibial amputation (TTA) have a high incidence of falls during walking. Environmental factors, such as uneven ground, often play a contributing role in these falls. The purpose of this study was to quantify the adaptations TTA made when walking on a destabilizing loose rock surface. In this study, 13 young TTA walked over a rock surface and level ground level ground at four controlled speeds. Subjects successfully traversed the rock surface by adopting a conservative gait characterized by shorter and wider steps. They also took shorter steps with their prosthetic limbs and exhibited greater variability in foot placement when stepping onto their intact limb. Between-limb differences in step length and width variability increased at faster walking speeds. TTA increased hip and knee flexion during initial stance, which contributed lowering the whole-body center of mass. TTA also increased hip and knee flexion during swing, enabling them to significantly increase their toe clearance on the rock surface compared to level ground. Toe clearance on the prosthetic side was aided by increased ipsilateral hip flexion. The results suggest that TTA were able to adapt their gait to overcome the challenge imposed by the rock surface. These adaptations were asymmetric and initiated proximally. PMID:22469772

  16. Surface characteristics and photoactivity of silver-modified palygorskite clays coated with nanosized titanium dioxide particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Difang . E-mail: zdf6910@163.com; Zhou Jie; Liu Ning

    2007-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a study in which nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) crystal particles were coated onto the surface of palygorskite fibrous clay which had been modified by silver ions using titanium tetrachloride as a precursor. Coated TiO{sub 2} particles with the anatase structure were formed after calcining at 400 deg. C for 2 h in air. Various analytical techniques were used to characterize the surface properties of titanium dioxide particles on the palygorskite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that TiO{sub 2} particles were supported on the surface of the palygorskite clays and their size was in the range of 3-6 nm. The titanium oxide coatings were found to be very active for the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue.

  17. Surface and corrosion characteristics of carbon plasma implanted and deposited nickel-titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, R.W.Y.; Liu, X.Y.; Chung, C.Y.; Chu, P.K.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Lu, W.W.; Cheung, K.M.C.

    2005-05-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys (NiTi) are potentially useful in orthopedic implants on account of their super-elastic and shape memory properties. However, the materials are prone to surface corrosion and the most common problem is out-diffusion of harmful Ni ions from the substrate into body tissues and fluids. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and related surface properties, we used the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition to deposit an amorphous hydrogenated carbon coating onto NiTi and implant carbon into NiTi. Both the deposited amorphous carbon film and carbon plasma implanted samples exhibit much improved corrosion resistances and surface mechanical properties and possible mechanisms are suggested.

  18. Surface characteristics and catalytic activity of binary oxides of alumina-yttria

    SciTech Connect

    Jayasree, J.; Narayanan, C.S. )

    1994-06-01

    A series of different compositions of Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation with aqueous ammonia. The structure, thermal stability and surface properties of the catalysts were determined using XRD, TGA, SEM and MAS [sup 27]Al NMR. Acidity and basicity of catalysts were determined using Hammet indicators and surface area by BET method. Surface area and Bronsted acidity of the catalysts decreased with increasing amount of Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]. No basic sites were observed over catalyst samples with higher Y[sub 2]O[sub 3] content. (+)-Limonene oxide isomerization was carried out at 110 C over the catalysts. The activity and selectivity of catalysts varied with composition. Catalysts with high alumina content yielded more diol while less alumina containing samples produced more ketones.

  19. Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken; Ogata, Masayoshi

    2011-01-17

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

  20. Surface characteristics modeling and performance evaluation of urban building materials using LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolu; Liang, Yu

    2015-05-20

    Analysis of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) intensity data to extract surface features is of great interest in remote sensing research. One potential application of LiDAR intensity data is target classification. A new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model is derived for target characterization of rough and smooth surfaces. Based on the geometry of our coaxial full-waveform LiDAR system, the integration method is improved through coordinate transformation to establish the relationship between the BRDF model and intensity data of LiDAR. A series of experiments using typical urban building materials are implemented to validate the proposed BRDF model and integration method. The fitting results show that three parameters extracted from the proposed BRDF model can distinguish the urban building materials from perspectives of roughness, specular reflectance, and diffuse reflectance. A comprehensive analysis of these parameters will help characterize surface features in a physically rigorous manner. PMID:26192511

  1. Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken; Ogata, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si3N4 in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

  2. Effect of passivation and surface modification on the dissolution behavior and nano-surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V in Hank/EDTA solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, T M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of passivation treatment (34% nitric acid passivation, 400 ( composite function)C heated in air, and aged in 100 ( composite function)C de-ionized water) and surface modification (2 hr and 8 hr vacuum-brazed treatments) on the ion dissolution and nano-surface characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V exposed in Hank's solution with 8.0 mM ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) at 37 ( composite function)C. The results indicated that the original nano-surface characteristics and microstructure would influence the ion dissolution but not change the capability of the Ca and P adsorption upon immersion. Of the thr