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1

Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

2008-01-01

2

Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.  

PubMed

Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34). PMID:8987659

Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

1996-10-01

3

Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate.  

PubMed

Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13)C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). (13)C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, (13)C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [(13)C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [(13)C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A Dean; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Merritt, Matthew E

2014-10-15

4

Biodegradable Plastics Based on Cellulose Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally known that secondary cellulose acetate (with 53 to 56% acetyl groups) is suitable for thermoplastic processing. With appropriate plasticizers a plastic material is obtained which excels in transparency and pleasant texture, and it is therefore often used for tool handles, combs, spectacle frames, and the like. In principle, cellulose acetate with such a degree of substitution is

Alexander Ach

1993-01-01

5

Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. PMID:25488041

Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

2014-12-01

6

Blend miscibility of cellulose propionate with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate).  

PubMed

The blend miscibility of cellulose propionate (CP) with poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) (P(VP-co-MMA)) was investigated. The degree of substitution (DS) of CP used ranged from 1.6 to >2.9, and samples for the vinyl polymer component were prepared in a full range of VP:MMA compositions. Through DSC analysis and solid-state (13)C NMR and FT-IR measurements, we revealed that CPs of DS<2.7 were miscible with P(VP-co-MMA)s of VP?~10mol% on a scale within a few nanometers, in virtue of hydrogen-bonding interactions between CP-hydroxyls and VP-carbonyls. When the DS of CP exceeded 2.7, the miscibility was restricted to the polymer pairs using P(VP-co-MMA)s of VP=ca. 10-40 mol%; the scale of mixing in the blends concerned was somewhat larger (ca. 5-20 nm), however. The appearance of such a "miscibility window" was interpretable as an effect of intramolecular repulsion in the copolymer component. Results of DMA and birefringence measurements indicated that the miscible blending of CP with the vinyl polymer invited synergistic improvements in thermomechanical and optical properties of the respective constituent polymers. Additionally, it was found that the VP:MMA composition range corresponding to the miscibility window was expanded by modification of the CP component into cellulose acetate propionate. PMID:23987378

Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

2013-10-15

7

Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

2001-01-01

8

Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. PMID:24457001

Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

2014-07-01

9

Pathways of Acetate, Propionate, and Butyrate Formation by the Human Fecal Microbial Flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathways of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) formation from glucose were determined for the human fecal microbial communities of two subjects. The pathways were identified by radioisotope analysis of the SCFA and CO2obtained after incubation of fecal suspensions with glucose under 20% CO2 with (1- 14 C)glucose, (3,4- 14 C)glucose, or 14 CO2. Acetate was chemically

TERRY L. MILLER; ANDMEYER J. WOLIN

1996-01-01

10

Effect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass silage  

E-print Network

not retard lactic acid fermentation in the early ensilage phase. #12; exposed to air for 10 days. Ensilage phase. Growth of LAB and lactic acid production were retarded in HDMEffect of formic, acetic and propionic acid on preservation and aerobic deterioration of grass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

11

Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film  

PubMed Central

Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP. PMID:14617380

Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

2003-01-01

12

Characterization of spoilage yeasts isolated from fermented vegetables and Inhibition by lactic, acetic and propionic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Saccharomyces sp. yeasts isolated from spoiled fermented vegetables were identified, and the effects of pH, temperature, initial yeast count and organic acids (lactic, acetic or propionic) on their growth in a vegetable juice medium (VJM) was examined. The VJM was fermented by a mixed lactic acid culture to a pH of 3·74, which represented the fermented VJM (VJM-F). A

Tony Savard; Carole Beaulieu; Nancy J. Gardner; Claude P. Champagne

2002-01-01

13

Continuous cellulose fiber-reinforced cellulose ester composites III. Commercial matrix and fiber options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic composites were prepared using two continuous regenerated cellulose fiber types, rayon and lyocell, and with several different commercially-available thermoplastic cellulose esters as matrix. Matrix options included cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), and several cellulose acetate butyrates (CAB) with different butyryl content, having different molecular weights and different methods of plasticization (adipates and very low molecular weight cellulose ester fractions). Choice

Amara Franko; Kevin C. Seavey; James Gumaer; Wolfgang G. Glasser

2001-01-01

14

Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.  

PubMed

Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

2010-09-01

15

Functionalization of cellulose acetate fibers with engineered cutinases.  

PubMed

In the present work, we describe for the first time the specific role of cutinase on surface modification of cellulose acetate fibers. Cutinase exhibits acetyl esterase activity on diacetate and triacetate of 0.010 U and 0.007 U, respectively. An increase on the hydroxyl groups at the fiber surface of 25% for diacetate and 317% for triacetate, after a 24 h treatment, is estimated by an indirect assay. Aiming at further improvement of cutinase affinity toward cellulose acetate, chimeric cutinases are genetically engineered by fusing the 3'-end coding sequence with a bacterial or a fungal carbohydrate-binding module and varying the linker DNA sequence. A comparative analysis of these genetic constructions is presented showing that, the superficial regeneration of cellulose hydrophilicity and reactivity on highly substituted cellulose acetates is achieved by chimeric cutinases. PMID:20014432

Matamá, Teresa; Araújo, Rita; Gübitz, Georg M; Casal, Margarida; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

2010-01-01

16

Enzymatic production of ethanol from cellulose using soluble cellulose acetate as an intermediate  

SciTech Connect

A two-stage process for the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to ethanol is proposed as an alternative to currently incomplete and relatively slow enzymatic conversion processes employing natural insoluble cellulose. This alternative approach is designed to promote faster and more complete conversion of cellulose to fermentable sugars through the use of a homogeneous enzymatic hydrolysis reaction. Cellulose is chemically dissolved in the first stage to form water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA). The WSCA is then converted to ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification-fermentation with Pestalotiopsis westerdijkii enzymes (containing cellulolytic and acetyl esterase components) and yeast.

Downing, K.M.; Ho, C.S.; Zabriskie, D.W.

1987-01-01

17

Dynamics of Microbial Community Structure of and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal by Aerobic Granules Cultivated on Propionate or Acetate?  

PubMed Central

Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafter, an exponential increase in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity was observed in the propionate granules, but a linear and erratic increase was detected in the acetate ones. Besides Accumulibacter and Competibacter, other bacterial populations found in both granules were associated with Chloroflexus and Acidovorax. The EBPR activity in the propionate granules was high and stable, whereas EBPR in the acetate granules was erratic throughout the study and suffered from a deterioration period that could be readily reversed by inducing hydrolysis of polyphosphate in presumably saturated Accumulibacter cells. Using a new ppk1 gene-based dual terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach revealed that Accumulibacter diversity was highest in the floccular sludge inoculum but that when granules were formed, propionate readily favored the dominance of Accumulibacter type IIA. In contrast, acetate granules exhibited transient shifts between type I and type II before the granules were dominated by Accumulibacter type IIA. However, ppk1 gene sequences from acetate granules clustered separately from those of propionate granules. Our data indicate that the mere presence of Accumulibacter is not enough to have consistently high EBPR but that the type of Accumulibacter determines the robustness of the phosphate removal process. PMID:21926195

Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

2011-01-01

18

Tensile properties of cellulose acetate butyrate composites reinforced with bacterial cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composites of cellulose acetate butyrate reinforced with cellulose sheets synthesised by Gluconacetobacter xylinus were produced by solvent evaporation casting. The composites contained 10% and 32% volume cellulose, and showed a Young’s modulus of 3.2 and 5.8 GPa, and a strength of 52.6 and 128.9 MPa, respectively, in tensile tests. Stress–strain curves showed bi-phasic material characteristics, with an initial linear behaviour,

Wolfgang Gindl; Jozef Keckes

2004-01-01

19

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A method of preparation of commercially useful product, cellulose acetate from discarded byproducts such as rice-straw, wheat hull and corn fiber will be discussed. This work will provide potential new markets and applications for low-value agricultural wastes and co-products. By converting the ce...

20

Conversion of cotton byproducts to mixed cellulose esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton byproducts, such as cotton burr and cottonseed hull, can be used as low-cost feedstock for the production of specialty chemicals. The conversion of these cellulosic byproducts into mixed cellulose esters, e.g., cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), was stud...

21

Preference for Flavored Wheat Straw by Lambs Conditioned with Intraruminal Infusions of Acetate and Propionate1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid are feedback signals that can condition food preferences or aversions in sheep. Three predictions were tested based on this hypothesis: 1 ) low doses of sodium propionate or sodium acetate condition preferences, but high doses condition aver- sions (Exp. 1 and 2); 2 ) preferences are not caused by osmotic load

Juan J. Villalba; Frederick D. Provenza

22

Electrospun cellulose acetate-garnet nanocomposite magnetic fibers for bioseparations.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate fibers with magnetic properties have recently attracted much attention because of their potential novel applications in biomedicine such as for cell and protein separations, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and magnetic filters. In this work, as synthesized yttrium iron garnet and gadolinium substituted yttrium iron garnet nanoparticles have been used to generate magnetic filter paper. Garnet nanoparticles dispersed in cellulose acetate polymer solutions were electrospun as free-standing nonwoven fiber mats as well as on cellulose filter paper substrates resulting in magnetic filter papers. The magnetic fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic property measurements. The resulting magnetic polymer nanocomposites can be easily picked up by an external magnet from a liquid medium. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) was separated from solution by using the magnetic filter paper. PMID:24341636

Munaweera, Imalka; Aliev, Ali; Balkus, Kenneth J

2014-01-01

23

Cellulose production and cellulose synthase gene detection in acetic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The ability of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) to produce cellulose has gained much industrial interest due to the physical and chemical characteristics of bacterial cellulose. The production of cellulose occurs in the presence of oxygen and in a glucose-containing medium, but it can also occur during vinegar elaboration by the traditional method. The vinegar biofilm produced by AAB on the air-liquid interface is primarily composed of cellulose and maintains the cells in close contact with oxygen. In this study, we screened for the ability of AAB to produce cellulose using different carbon sources in the presence or absence of ethanol. The presence of cellulose in biofilms was confirmed using the fluorochrome Calcofluor by microscopy. Moreover, the process of biofilm formation was monitored under epifluorescence microscopy using the Live/Dead BacLight Kit. A total of 77 AAB strains belonging to 35 species of Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter were analysed, and 30 strains were able to produce a cellulose biofilm in at least one condition. This cellulose production was correlated with the PCR amplification of the bcsA gene that encodes cellulose synthase. A total of eight degenerated primers were designed, resulting in one primer pair that was able to detect the presence of this gene in 27 AAB strains, 26 of which formed cellulose. PMID:25381910

Valera, Maria José; Torija, Maria Jesús; Mas, Albert; Mateo, Estibaliz

2015-02-01

24

Enzymatic production of ethanol from cellulose using soluble cellulose acetate as an intermediate.  

PubMed

A two-stage process for the enzymatic conversion of cellulose to ethanol is proposed as an alternative to currently incomplete and relatively slow enzymatic conversion processes employing natural insoluble cellulose. This alternative approach is designed to promote faster and more complete conversion of cellulose to fermentable sugars through the use of a homogeneous enzymatic hydrolysis reaction. Cellulose is chemically dissolved in the first stage to form water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA). The WSCA is then converted to ethanol in a simultaneous saccharification-fermentation with Pestal-otiopsis westerdijkii enzymes (containing cellulolytic and acetyl esterase components) and yeast.Water-soluble cellulose acetate was successfully prepared from purified wood cellulose (Solka Floe) and chemical reagents. Enzyme pretreatment of WSCAto form metabolizable sugars was a necessary step in achieving practical conversion of WSCA to ethanol using yeast. The results showed that WSCA has a low enzyme requirement and a high convertibility to reducing sugars with enzymes from P. westerdijkii fungus. Pestalotiopsis westerdijkii enzymes were found to be superior to enzymes from Trichoderma viride in producing metabolizable glucose from WSCA. The yeast utilized 55-70% of the hydrolyzate sugars that were produced by P. westerrlijkii enzymes on WSCA and produced ethanol. The acetate that was liberated into solution by the action of acetyl esterase enzymes on WSCA was found to have a stimulatory effect on ethanol production in yeast. This is an important feature that can be used to advantage in manipulating the conversion to maximize the production of ethanol. Hence, the simultaneous saccharification-fermentation of WSCA to ethanol using P. westerdijkii enzymes and yeast has features that are highly desirable for developing an economical cellulose conversion process. PMID:18576562

Downing, K M; Ho, C S; Zabriskie, D W

1987-06-01

25

Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.  

PubMed

Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the ?-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06 Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime. PMID:25458277

Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

2015-02-13

26

Structure and Rotational Dynamics of Isoamyl Acetate and Methyl Propionate Studied by Microwave Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microwave spectra of a number of organic aliphatic esters have been recorded for the first time in the 3-26.5 GHz frequency range, using the molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave (MB-FTMW) spectrometer in Aachen, with an instrumental uncertainty of a few kHz for unblended lines. The combined use of ab initio quantum chemical calculations and spectral analysis allowed us to determine the spectroscopic parameters and potential barriers to internal rotation of the methyl groups for the lowest energy conformers. We will compare here the results from ab initio calculations and from two different hamiltonian methods (the XIAM and BELGI codes) for isoamyl acetate H3C-COO-(CH2)2-CH(CH3)2, an one-top internal rotor molecule with a C1 symmetry and for methyl propionate CH3CH2COOCH3 containing two inequivalent methyl tops (C3v), with different barrier heights. This study is part of a larger project which aims at determining the structures of the lowest energy conformers for a serie of organic esters and ketones which are of interest for flavour or perfume applications.

Stahl, W.; Nguyen, H. V. L.; Sutikdja, L. W.; Jelisavac, D.; Mouhib, H.; Kleiner, I.

2012-06-01

27

Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent system  

E-print Network

Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent / Accepted: 7 February 2010 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract The addition of cellulose-DMA interactions. Keywords Cellulose acetate gels Á Gelation Á Viscoelastic behaviour Á Elastic modulus Á Viscous

Khan, Saad A.

28

Acetate and propionate in landfill leachates: Implications for the recognition of microbiological influences on the composition of waters in sedimentary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routine monitoring of landfill leachates provides information concerning aqueous systems in which anaerobic microbiological processes influence water chemistry. Propionate and acetate are substrate and product, respectively, of metabolism by bacteria that have an obligate syntrophic relationship with sulfate-reducing bacteria. The stoichiometry of the bacteriological metabolic reactions indicates a 1:1 molar proportionality for acetate and propionate. This is observed for landfill leachates, consistent with the known biological control on their organic acid anion contents. Similar data for oil-field waters show the same 1:1 molar proportionality for reservoirs where bacterial sulfate reduction is known to take place, at temperatures up to about 95 °C, in contrast to the 3:2 proportionality (acetic acid:propionic acid) observed in higher temperature systems. These observations suggest that 1:1 molar proportionality for acetate and propionate may be characteristic of natural systems where anaerobic bacterial activity occurs, including bacterial sulfate reduction.

Manning, D. A. C.

1997-03-01

29

Effects of electron beam irradiation of cellulose acetate cigarette filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to reduce the molecular weight of cellulose acetate used in cigarette filters by using electron beam irradiation is demonstrated. Radiation levels easily obtained with commercially available electron accelerators result in a decrease in average molecular weight of about six-times with no embrittlement, or significant change in the elastic behavior of the filter. Since a first step in the biodegradation of cigarette filters is reduction in the filter material's molecular weight this invention has the potential to allow the production of significantly faster degrading filters.

Czayka, M.; Fisch, M.

2012-07-01

30

Ion selective permeation through cellulose acetate membranes in forward osmosis.  

PubMed

Solute-solute interactions can have a dramatic impact on the permeation of solutes through dense polymeric membranes. In particular, understanding how solute-solute interactions can affect the design of osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) is critical to the successful development of these emerging water treatment and energy generation processes. In this work, we investigate the influence that solute-solute interactions have on nitrate permeation through an asymmetric cellulose acetate forward osmosis membrane. A series of experiments that included systematic modifications to the cation paired with nitrate, the identity of the draw solute, and the solution pH were conducted. These experiments reveal that in the unique operating geometry of ODMPs, where solute containing solutions are present on both sides of the membrane, nitrate fluxes are significantly higher (>15 times in some cases) than predicted by existing models for solute permeation in ODMPs. The identity of the cation paired with nitrate influences the flux of nitrate; the identity of the cation in the draw solution does not affect the flux of nitrate; however, the identity of the anion in the draw solution has the most significant impact on the flux of nitrate. These results suggest that an ion exchange mechanism, which allows nitrate to switch rapidly with anions from the draw solution, is present when cellulose acetate based membranes are used in ODMPs. PMID:24152190

Irvine, Gavin J; Rajesh, Sahadevan; Georgiadis, Michael; Phillip, William A

2013-12-01

31

Clostridium lentocellum SG6--a potential organism for fermentation of cellulose to acetic acid.  

PubMed

A cellulolytic, acetic acid producing anaerobic bacterial isolate, Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, terminal oval shaped endospore forming bacterium identified as Clostridium lentocellum SG6 based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. It produced acetic acid as a major end product from cellulose fermentation at 37 degrees C and pH 7.2. Acetic acid production was 0.67 g/g cellulose substrate utilized in cellulose mineral salt (CMS) medium. Yeast extract (0.4%) was the best nitrogen source among the various nitrogenous nutrients tested in production medium containing 0.8% cellulose as substrate. No additional vitamins or trace elemental solution were required for acetic acid fermentation. This is the highest acetic acid fermentation yield in monoculture fermentation for direct conversion of cellulose to acetic acid. PMID:11601540

Ravinder, T; Swamy, M V; Seenayya, G; Reddy, G

2001-12-01

32

Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

2012-07-01

33

Dissolution control of Mg by cellulose acetate-polyelectrolyte membranes.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate (CA)-based membranes are used for Mg dissolution control: the permeability of the membrane is adjusted by additions of the polyelectrolyte, poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). Spin-coated films were characterized with FT-IR, and once exposed to an aqueous solution the film distends and starts acting as a membrane which controls the flow of ions and H2 gas. Electrochemical measurements (linear sweep voltammograms, open-circuit potential, and polarization) show that by altering the CA:PDMAEMA ratio the dissolution rate of Mg can be controlled. Such a control over Mg dissolution is crucial if Mg is to be considered as a viable, temporary biomedical implant material. Furthermore, the accumulation of corrosion products between the membrane and the sample diminishes the undesirable effects of high local pH and H2 formation which takes place during the corrosion process. PMID:25426707

Yliniemi, Kirsi; Wilson, Benjamin P; Singer, Ferdinand; Höhn, Sarah; Kontturi, Eero; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

2014-12-24

34

Viscoelastic Behavior of Cellulose Acetate in a Mixed Solvent Collins Appaw, Richard D. Gilbert, and Saad A. Khan*,  

E-print Network

,8 Cellulose acetates are extensively used in filtration/mem- brane13,14 and encapsulation15 applicationsViscoelastic Behavior of Cellulose Acetate in a Mixed Solvent System Collins Appaw, Richard D composition on the rheological and microstructural behavior of a ternary cellulose acetate (CA

Khan, Saad A.

35

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The...base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate film periodically for...

2011-07-01

36

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section...manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The...base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate film periodically for...

2010-07-01

37

Methanogenesis from acetate and propionate by thermophilic down-flow anaerobic packed-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum propionate removal rate was 13.7g\\/L-reactor\\/day at the organic loading rate of 66.4kg-CODcr\\/m3-reactor\\/day (HRT, 4.75h); however, the removal efficiency was very low. Clone library analysis and quantification by real-time PCR using 16S rRNA gene revealed that the population of methanogenic archaea in the biofilm fraction that developed on the packed bed was higher than that in the liquid fraction.

Masahiro Tatara; Takashi Makiuchi; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Masafumi Goto; Koji Sode

2008-01-01

38

The source of inoculum plays a defining role in the development of MEC microbial consortia fed with acetic and propionic acid mixtures.  

PubMed

Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can be used as a downstream process to dark fermentation to further capture electron in volatile fatty acids that remain after fermentation, improving this way the viability of the overall process. Acetic and propionic acid are common products of dark fermentation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the effect of different initial concentrations of a mixture of acetic and propionic acids on MECs microbial ecology and hydrogen production performance. To link microbial structure and function, we characterized the anode respiring biofilm communities using pyrosequencing and quantitative-PCR. The best hydrogen production rates (265mL/d/Lreactor) were obtained in the first block of experiments by MEC fed with 1500mg/L acetic acid and 250mg/L propionic acid. This reactor presents in the anode biofilm an even distribution of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and Arcobacter was the dominant genera. The above fact also correlated to the highest electron load among all the reactors. It was evidenced that although defined acetic and propionic acid concentrations fed affected the structure of the microbial consortia that developed at the anode, the initial inoculum played a major role in the development of MEC microbial consortia. PMID:24798298

Ruiz, Vianey; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Kang, Dae-Wook; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa; Buitrón, Germán

2014-07-20

39

Cellulose acetate electrospun fiber mats for controlled release of silymarin.  

PubMed

In this research, the silymarin-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers were prepared which containing silymarin in various amounts (i.e., 2.5-20 wt.% based on the weight of CA powder). Incorporation of silymarin in the neat CA solution did not affect the morphology of the resulting fibers, as both the neat and the silymarin-loaded CA fibers were smooth. The average diameters of silymarin-loaded CA fiber ranged between 550-900 nm. No presence of the silymarin aggregates of any kind was observed on the surfaces of these fibers, suggesting that the silymarin was encapsulated well within the fibers. These results were confirmed by lowering the glass transition temperature and the melting temperature of the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fibers which is determined by DSC technique. The release characteristic of silymarin from the silymarin-loaded CA fiber mats was investigated by the total immersion in the solution of 1/1 phosphate buffer/methanol medium pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C. The silymarin release from the silymarin-loaded electrospun CA fiber mat is monotonously increased to reach the maximum value at 480 min. The maximum amount of silymarin released from these materials increases with the increasing of initial silymarin loading in the spinning CA solutions. Since no aggregation of silymarin was found on the surface of the silymarin-loaded fibers, the release of the silymarin from fiber mats was mainly by the diffusion. PMID:22524059

Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Phaechamud, Thawatchai

2012-01-01

40

Application of cellulose acetate butyrate-based membrane for osmotic drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release rate of drugs from an OROS is controlled by semipermeable membranes composed typically of cellulose acetate (CA) with various flux enhancers. Cellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CAB) was identified as a viable alternative. The CAB membrane matched the CA membrane in robustness but\\u000a had superior drying properties, offering particular advantages for thermolabile formulations. Studies were conducted to characterize\\u000a CAB membrane

Anant Shanbhag; Brian Barclay; Joanna Koziara; Padmaja Shivanand

2007-01-01

41

Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.

Kang, Kwang-Sun

2014-08-01

42

Water soluble cellulose acetate: a versatile polymer for film coating.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of water soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) as a film coating material for tablets. Aspirin (ASA) tablets were prepared by direct compression and coated with either WSCA or HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) dispersions. Coatings of 1-3%, depending on the intended application, were applied to the model drug (ASA) tablets employing a side-vented coating pan. Free films of WSCA, prepared by cast method, are crystal clear and, depending on the viscosity grade, are flexible, strong and durable. WSCA has the capability of forming free films without plasticizers and the films dry at room temperature. Glass transition temperature, Tg, was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The Tg of WSCA is significantly higher relative to HPMC. Inclusion of plasticizer lowers the Tg of WSCA and effective plasticizers were PEG 400 and glycerin. Low viscosity WSCA was more soluble in water (25-30%) relative to medium viscosity WSCA (10-15%). WSCA solutions exhibited no increase in viscosity with an increase in temperature. Samples of coated (WSCA and HPMC) tablets and uncoated ASA cores were packaged for stability studies at room and elevated temperature storage. Physical stability of ASA tablets coated with 2:1 LV: MV (low viscosity: medium viscosity) WSCA formulations was better when compared to tablets coated with HPMC. Dissolution stability of WSCA coated ASA was similar to the physical stability results. After three months at elevated temperature (35 and 45 degrees C), the WSCA coated tablets complied with USP dissolution requirements for ASA, while the HPMC coated tablets did not. There was no difference in moisture (weight) gain of ASA tablets coated with either WSCA or HPMC. The WSCA coated tablets were not sticky or tacky, while the HPMC coated tablets were tacky and stuck together. PMID:17454061

Wheatley, Thomas A

2007-03-01

43

Ultrafine cellulose fibers produced by Asaia bogorensis, an acetic acid bacterium.  

PubMed

The ability to synthesize cellulose by Asaia bogorensis, a member of the acetic acid bacteria, was studied in two substrains, AJ and JCM. Although both strains have identical 16S rDNA sequence, only the AJ strain formed a solid pellicle at the air-liquid interface in static culture medium, and we analyzed this pellicle using a variety of techniques. In the presence of cellulase, glucose and cellobiose were released from the pellicle suggesting that it is made of cellulose. Field emission electron microscopy allowed the visualization of a 3D knitted structure with ultrafine microfibrils (approximately 5-20 nm in width) in cellulose from A. bogorensis compared with the 40-100 nm wide microfibrils observed in cellulose isolated from Gluconacetobacter xylinus, suggesting differences in the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis or organization of cellulose synthesizing sites in these two related bacterial species. Identifying these differences will lead to a better understanding of cellulose biosynthesis in bacteria. PMID:21650167

Kumagai, Akio; Mizuno, Masahiro; Kato, Naoto; Nozaki, Kouichi; Togawa, Eiji; Yamanaka, Shigeru; Okuda, Kazuo; Saxena, Inder M; Amano, Yoshihiko

2011-07-11

44

Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis  

PubMed Central

TiO2 films may be used to alter the wettability and hemocompatibility of cellulose materials. In this study, pure and stoichiometric TiO2 films were grown using atomic layer deposition on both silicon and cellulose substrates. The films were grown with uniform thicknesses and with a growth rate in agreement with literature results. The TiO2 films were shown to profoundly alter the water contact angle values of cellulose depending upon processing characteristics. Higher rates of protein adsorption were noted on TiO2-coated cellulose acetate than on uncoated cellulose acetate. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an appropriate method for improving the biological properties of hemostatic agents and other blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:21298806

Hyde, G. Kevin; Stewart, S. Michael; Scarel, Giovanna; Parsons, Gregory N.; Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J.

2012-01-01

45

Acidic ionic liquid as "quasi-homogeneous" catalyst for controllable synthesis of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

In this paper, we demonstrated that acidic ionic liquids (ILs) can be used as "quasi-homogeneous" catalysts for the efficient acetylation of cellulose. Unlike existing techniques that use large amount of ILs as solvent to dissolve and acetylate cellulose, a small amount of acidic ILs was used as catalyst in this study to overcome the low efficiency associated with relatively high viscosity and costs of ILs during homogeneous acetylation. Fully substituted cellulose acetate with a conversion of 88.8% was obtained by using only 9 mol% IL 1-vinyl-3-(3-sulfopropyl) imidazolium hydrogen sulfate as catalyst, which is much higher than that of common commercialized solid acid catalysts. The degree of substitution and solubility of the obtained cellulose acetate can be facilely controlled by varying the concentration of ILs and reaction time. The dual function of swelling and catalyzing of acidic ILs for the acetylation of cellulose is responsible for the excellent catalytic performance. PMID:25256462

Tian, Dong; Han, Yangyang; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Yuan, Guiping

2014-11-26

46

Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov., cellulose- and non-cellulose-producing acetic acid bacteria isolated from vinegar.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic position of a cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterium, strain ID13488, isolated from commercially available Colombian homemade fruit vinegar, was investigated. Analyses using nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences, nearly complete 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, as well as concatenated partial sequences of the housekeeping genes dnaK, groEL and rpoB, allocated the micro-organism to the genus Gluconacetobacter, and more precisely to the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. Moreover, the data suggested that the micro-organism belongs to a novel species in this genus, together with LMG 1693(T), a non-cellulose-producing strain isolated from vinegar by Kondo and previously classified as a strain of Gluconacetobacter xylinus. DNA-DNA hybridizations confirmed this finding, revealing a DNA-DNA relatedness value of 81?% between strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T), and values <70?% between strain LMG 1693(T) and the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours. Additionally, the classification of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) into a single novel species was supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and (GTG)5-PCR DNA fingerprinting data, as well as by phenotypic data. Strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) could be differentiated from closely related species of the genus Gluconacetobacter by their ability to produce 2- and 5-keto-d-gluconic acid from d-glucose, their ability to produce acid from sucrose, but not from 1-propanol, and their ability to grow on 3?% ethanol in the absence of acetic acid and on ethanol, d-ribose, d-xylose, sucrose, sorbitol, d-mannitol and d-gluconate as carbon sources. The DNA G+C content of strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) was 58.0 and 60.7 mol%, respectively. The major ubiquinone of LMG 1693(T) was Q-10. Taken together these data indicate that strains ID13488 and LMG 1693(T) represent a novel species of the genus Gluconacetobacter for which the name Gluconacetobacter medellinensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LMG 1693(T) (?=?NBRC 3288(T)?=?Kondo 51(T)). PMID:22729025

Castro, Cristina; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Trcek, Janja; Zuluaga, Robin; De Vos, Paul; Caro, Gloria; Aguirre, Ricardo; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Gañán, Piedad

2013-03-01

47

Oxidized cellulose esters: I. Preparation and characterization of oxidized cellulose acetates--a new class of biodegradable polymers.  

PubMed

Oxidized cellulose acetates (OCA), with a degree of substitution (DS) value ranging between 1.1 and 2.3 and a free carboxylic acid group content of 20% (w/w), have been prepared by reacting oxidized cellulose (OC, COOH content 20% w/w) with a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The DS of OCA, in general, increased with increasing reaction temperature, reaction time, and concentration of acetic anhydride in the reaction mixture. The yield of OCA, in contrast, increased with increasing concentration of acetic anhydride and decreased with increasing reaction time and temperature. The intrinsic viscosity of OCA varied between 0.100 and 0.275, depending on the reaction conditions used during its preparation. In general, an increase in reaction temperature and the use of a prolonged reaction time decreased the intrinsic viscosity of OCA. No correlation was found between DS and intrinsic viscosity of OCA. The apparent pKa of OCA is 3.7-3.9. The new OCA polymers are practically insoluble in water and slowly dissolve in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution. They are, however, soluble in a range of organic solvents (e.g. ethyl acetate, acetone, acetone/water, chloroform/methylene chloride, dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, and/or chloroform/methanol). PMID:12102594

Kumar, V; Yang, D

2002-01-01

48

Preparation of magnetic nickel hollow fibers with a trilobe structure using cellulose acetate fibers as templates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel hollow fibers with trilobe shape in cross section and monolithic nickel structures composed of trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibrous networks were prepared by using cellulose acetate fibers from cigarette filters as the template. Magnetic ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers were then fabricated by using the nickel-based hollow fibers as the support. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers retain the morphology of the cellulose acetate fibers, and the monolithic nickel structures can be prepared by pre-shaping the cellulose acetate fibers. The thickness of the nickel layer can be regulated by controlling the electroless plating times. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of the trilobe shaped nickel hollow fibers and ZSM-5/Ni hollow fibers are 27.78 and 21.59 emu/g and 78 and 61 Oe, respectively.

Zeng, Changfeng; Li, Ping; Zhang, Lixiong

2013-02-01

49

Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE) ~ http://www.zoo.utoronto.ca/able Demystifying Hardy-Weinberg: Using Cellulose Acetate  

E-print Network

Demystifying Hardy-Weinberg: Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis of the Lap Locus to Study Population From: Peroni, P. A. and D. E. McCauley. 1999. Demystifying Hardy-Weinberg: Using cellulose acetate................................................................114 Appendix B: Calculation of Allele and Genotype Frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg Review

50

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section 1237.30 Parks...nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The nitrocellulose base, a...Agencies must handle nitrocellulose-base film (used in the manufacture of sheet...

2014-07-01

51

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section 1237.30 Parks...nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The nitrocellulose base, a...Agencies must handle nitrocellulose-base film (used in the manufacture of sheet...

2013-07-01

52

36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section 1237.30 Parks...nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The nitrocellulose base, a...Agencies must handle nitrocellulose-base film (used in the manufacture of sheet...

2012-07-01

53

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING CELLULOSE ACETATE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural residues such as corn fiber, rice hulls and wheat straw can be used as an abundant low-cost feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol. However, the cost of cellulase enzymes to saccharify cellulose to glucose is a major hindrance. As an alternative, a novel process method was devel...

54

Morphological development of polypropylene in immiscible blends with cellulose acetate butyrate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes were melt blended with cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and then prepared into microspheres or nanofibers following a novel process of producing well dispersed CAB/iPP immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The morp...

55

A simple cellulose acetate membrane-based small lanes technique for protein electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Combining electrophoresis with a cellulose acetate membrane-based technique, we developed a simple and low-cost method, named cellulose acetate membrane-based small lanes (CASL), for protein electrophoresis. A home-made capillary plotter controlled by a 3D moving stage was used to create milli-to-micro channels by printing poly(dimethylsiloxane) on to a hydrophilic cellulose acetate membrane. In the hydrophilic channels, 5 nL protein mixture was separated on the basis of electro-migration under an electric field. Compared with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), CASL resulted in higher protein signal intensity for separation of mixtures containing the same mass of protein. The platform was easily fabricated at low cost (approx. $0.005 for each 1-mm-wide channel), and separation of three protein mixtures was completed in 15 min. Both electrophoresis time and potential affected the separation. Rather than chromatographic separation, this method accomplished application of microchannel techniques for cellulose acetate membrane-based protein electrophoresis. It has potential in proteomic analysis, especially for rapid, low-cost, and low-volume sample analysis in clinical diagnosis. PMID:22752445

Na, Na; Liu, Tingting; Yang, Xiaojun; Sun, Binjie; Ouyang, Jenny; Ouyang, Jin

2012-08-01

56

Chemical modification of cellulose acetate by N-(phenyl amino) maleimides: characterization and properties.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate (CA) was modified using N-(phenyl amino) maleimides (R-APhM) where, RH or 4-NO2. The structure of the modified polymer was characterized by (13)C-NMR. The chemical modification is based on the reaction between the acetyl group of the glucopyranose ring in cellulose acetate and the proton of the amino group in N-(phenyl amino) maleimide molecule. The thermal gravimetry (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal stability of the modified polymeric samples. The modified cellulose acetate by 4-nitro (phenyl amino) maleimide (CA/4-NO2APhM) exhibits the highest thermal stability as compared to the N-(phenyl amino) maleimide (CA/APhM) and the unmodified CA. The crystallinity and morphology of the modified polymeric samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and emission scanning electron microscope (ESEM), respectively. The presence of N-(phenyl amino) maleimide moieties in the cellulose acetate matrix improved its mechanical property. Also, the organic nature of (R-APhM) moieties inside CA matrix reduced its wettability. PMID:24747379

Abdel-Naby, Abir S; Al-Ghamdi, Azza A

2014-07-01

57

Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus

Y. Andelib Aydin; Nuran Deveci Aksoy

2010-01-01

58

Chelation and permeation of heavy metals using affinity membranes from cellulose acetate–chitosan blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affinity membranes have attracted the attention of membrane researchers especially in the field of wastewater treatment specifically in removing heavy metals by chelation from aqueous solutions. In the present work, several membranes are made from either cellulose di-acetate (CA) or CA together with chitosan (CS) solutions, the CS prepared in our lab from shrimp shells or from readymade shrimp or

M. M. Naim; H. E. M. Abdel Razek

2012-01-01

59

Monitoring of cellulose depolymerization in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by shear and elongational rheology.  

PubMed

The thermal stability of cellulose in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim]OAc was investigated. For this purpose, Eucalyptus urugrandis prehydrolysis kraft pulp was first dissolved in [emim]OAc by means of a vertical kneader and then stored at three different temperatures to study the time-depended behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system. Cellulose depolymerization was assessed by characterizing the precipitated cellulose and the rheological behavior of the cellulose-[emim]OAc solutions. The results show decreases in the weight average molecular mass and in the shear viscosity at temperatures exceeding 60 °C, which can be related to progressing degradation of cellulose in the IL upon storage at elevated temperature. The changes in behavior of the solutions under extensional stresses also attest the gradual depolymerization of cellulose. The degradation has been analyzed using appropriate kinetic models. Propyl gallate appeared to be an efficient stabilizer of the cellulose-[emim]OAc system during the dissolution step even though the mechanism has not been fully understood yet. PMID:25498646

Michud, Anne; Hummel, Michael; Haward, Simon; Sixta, Herbert

2015-03-01

60

Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263+-0.02 g cellulose L{sup -1} for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci [Chemical Engineering Department of Istanbul Technical University, Ayazaga, Maslak, Istanbul, 34469 (Turkey)

2010-06-17

61

Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

2010-06-01

62

Studies on the synthesis of acrylamidomethyl cellulose ester and its application in UV curable surface coatings induced by free radical photoinitiator. Part 1: Acrylamidomethyl cellulose acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the development of cellulose derivatives, which can undergo cross linking on exposure to UV radiation. To achieve this, cellulose acetate was reacted with N-methylol-acrylamide (NMA) in homogeneous phase catalyzed by acids. Analysis of computer aided statistically designed experiments showed that the NMA concentration and reaction temperature played a predominant role in the acrylamidomethylation process. FTIR spectroscopy

R. N. Kumar; Pieng Lay Po; H. D. Rozman

2006-01-01

63

Purification and characterization of an esterase involved in cellulose acetate degradation by Neisseria sicca SB.  

PubMed

An esterase catalyzing the hydrolysis of acetyl ester moieties in cellulose acetate was purified 1,110-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from the culture supernatant of Neisseria sicca SB, which can assimilate cellulose acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 40 kDa and the isoelectric point was 5.3. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 8.0-8.5 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of acetyl saccharides, p-nitrophenyl esters of short-chain fatty acids, and was slightly active toward aliphatic and aromatic esters. The K(m) and Vmax for cellulose acetate (degree of substitution, 0.88) and p-nitrophenyl acetate were 0.0162% (716 microM as acetyl content in the polymer) and 36.0 microM, and 66.8 and 39.1 mumol/min/mg, respectively. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate, which indicated that the enzyme was a serine esterase. PMID:10586499

Moriyoshi, K; Ohmoto, T; Ohe, T; Sakai, K

1999-10-01

64

Fermentative conversion of cellulose to acetic acid and cellulolytic enzyme production by a bacterial mixed culture obtained from sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

A simple procedure that uses a cellulose enriched culture started from sewage sludge was developed for producing cellulolytic enzymes and converting cellulose to HOAc rather than CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/. In this procedure, the culture which converts cellulose to CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/ was mixed with a synthetic medium and cellulose and heated to 80 degrees for 15 min before incubation. The end products formed were HOAc, propionic acid, CO/sub 2/, and traces of EtOH and H/sub 2/. Supernatants from 6-10-day-old cultures contained 16-36 mM HOAc. Cellulolytic enzymes in the supernatant were stable at 2 degrees under aerobic conditions for less than or equal to 4 wk and could hydrolyze carboxymethylcellulose, a microcystalline cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, and filter paper to reducing sugars.

Khan, A.W.; Wall, D.; Van den Berg, L.

1981-01-01

65

[Electrophoresis on a cellulose acetate CAE in a study of commercial active alginate dressings].  

PubMed

Hydrogels are cross-linked three-dimensional macromolecular networks that contain a large fraction of water within their structure. One of the most important properties of alginate hydrogels, leading to their broad versatility, is their ability for controlled uptake, release and retention of molecules. This ability, in turn, is due to specific interactions of the macromolecular network with the diffusing or retained molecule, for example ions. In this study, water-soluble sodium alginates contained in active dressings Medisorb A were identified using electrophoresis on cellulose acetate CAE. The presence of guluronic acid (G) and mannuronic acid (M) residues in hydrolysates of alginic acid AA (used as reference substance) and active alginate dressings Medisorb A was also proved. "Egg-box" structures, earlier described in literature, were observed using the same technique and their interpretation was attempted. Electrophoresis on cellulose acetate was found to be a useful method for examining alginate-based biomaterials. PMID:20099737

Pielesz, Anna

2009-01-01

66

Storage of Cellulose Acetate Collections: A Preliminary Survey of Issues and Options  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created two documents. This resource draws upon recent "literature discussing preservation and storage of cellulose acetate based film" to guide librarians and collection managers in choosing storage options (lower temperatures and humidity slow the deterioration process). The report discusses the options and provides guidance for planning and evaluation of each, and an appendix directs one to specific Australian storage facilities. Together, both reports serve as a brief, easily readable introduction to this challenging preservation issue.

2002-01-01

67

Quantitative determination of sulfated glycopeptide by two-dimensional electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane.  

PubMed

Quantitative determination of the sulfated glycoproteins present in tissue and secretion fluid was performed. After digestion of the specimen with pronase in order to convert glycoproteins to glycopeptides, the sulfated glycopeptides were separated from a mixture of acidic glycans (glycosaminoglycans, sialoglycopeptides and sulfated glycopeptides) by two-dimensional electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane [(1986) J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 12, 239-246]. After staining with alcian blue, the spot of sulfated glycopeptide on the cellulose acetate membrane was cut out, and then only the dye bound to the sulfated glycopeptide was extracted with a 5% cetylpyridinium chloride solution at 100 degrees C for 15 min. The extract was then measured by absorbance at 615 nm using an authentic sulfated glycopeptide as a standard. This method facilitated the determination of sulfated glycopeptides, which were separated from other acidic glycans, within the range 0-25 micrograms. PMID:2809069

Muramoto, K; Tanaka, H; Kimura, S; Kubo, K; Yoshihara, S; Yokoyama, M; Yoshida, Y; Endo, M

1989-07-01

68

Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.  

PubMed

In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production. PMID:24891733

Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

2014-09-01

69

Investigation of griseofulvin and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate miscibility in ball milled solid dispersions.  

PubMed

Solid dispersions of varying weight ratios compositions of the nonionic drug, griseofulvin and the hydrophilic, anionic polymer, hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate, have been prepared by ball milling and the resulting samples characterized using a combination of Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The results suggest that griseofulvin forms hydrogen bonds with the hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate polymer when prepared in the form of a solid dispersion but not when prepared in a physical mixture of the same composition. As anticipated, the actual measured glass transition temperature of the solid dispersions displayed a linear relationship between that predicted using the Gordon-Taylor and Fox equations assuming ideal mixing, but interestingly only at griseofulvin contents less than 50 wt%. At griseofulvin concentrations greater than this, the measured glass transition temperature of the solid dispersions was almost constant. Furthermore, the crystalline content of the solid dispersions, as determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction followed a similar trend in that the crystalline content significantly decreased at ratios less than 50 wt% of griseofulvin. When the physical mixtures of griseofulvin and the hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate polymer were analyzed using the Flory-Huggins model, a negative free energy of mixing with an interaction parameter of -0.23 were obtained. Taken together these results suggest that anionic hydrophilic hydroxylpropylmethyl cellulose acetate succinate polymer is a good solvent for crystalline nonionic griseofulvin with the solubility of griseofulvin in the solid dispersion being was estimated to be within the range 40-50 wt%. Below this solubility limit, the amorphous drug exists as amorphous glassy solution while above these values the system is supersaturated and glassy suspension and solution may coexist. PMID:23299082

Al-Obaidi, Hisham; Lawrence, M Jayne; Al-Saden, Noor; Ke, Peng

2013-02-25

70

Ester prodrug-loaded electrospun cellulose acetate fiber mats as transdermal drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose acetate (CA) fibers loaded with the ester prodrugs of naproxen, including methyl ester, ethyl ester and isopropyl\\u000a ester, were prepared through electrospinning using acetone\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAc)\\/ethanol (4:1:1, v\\/v\\/v) as solvent. The chemical and morphological characterizations of the medicated\\u000a fibers were investigated by means of SEM, DSC, XRD and FTIR, as well as the studies of the drug release properties. The results

Xiao-mei Wu; Christopher J. Branford-White; Li-min Zhu; Nichoals P. Chatterton; Deng-guang Yu

2010-01-01

71

Electrophoretic Determination of Vanilmandelic Acid (VMA) in Urine by Direct Application to Cellulose Acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VMA in urine was quantitated electrophoretically by application of urine to cellulose acetate. Separation of several hydrophenolic acids is distinct. VMA is detected at 0.1-i.g. levels. Normal valueson 400 specimenswas 4.0 ± 2.0 mg.\\/24 hr. 'THE VALUE of vanilmandelic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid, 1\\/MA) in urine for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is well recog- nized. The comprehensive review of VMA

Thorne J. Butler

72

The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins  

E-print Network

by cardiac puncture before and after exposure periods and serum was aspirated from the clotted and centrifuged samples. Serum samples were subjected to electrophoresis on cellulose acetate and examined for qualitative and quantitative changes... be of importance in oxygen toxicity studies and in the treatment of newborns with hyaline membrane disease. Although the process of hyalinization is not well understood, work done by Phillips, Wyte, Weeks and Soloway (116) and by Fujikura (63) indicated a...

Barker, Marcia Wagner

1979-01-01

73

Investigation of size effect on film type haptic actuator made with cellulose acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important factor in haptic interaction with hand-held devices is to develop a thin film type actuator which can be easily inserted into the devices and create vibrotactile signals with wide frequency bandwidth. This paper reports a film type vibrotactile actuator which is tiny enough to be embedded into small hand-held devices. The vibration mechanism and experiment results for the suggested vibrotactile actuator are explained. The aim of the actuator is to convey a vibrotactile force greater than a human’s vibrotactile threshold with broad frequency bandwidth to users. To achieve the requirement, we fabricate a film type vibrotactile actuator with cellulose acetate. When an AC voltage is applied to the actuator, the cellulose acetate film gets charged and then generates vibration. The suggested vibrotactile actuator is fabricated in two sizes: 50 mm × 25 mm and 25 mm × 25 mm. For each size of actuator, three kinds of actuator are fabricated with different pillar materials to support the cellulose acetate films. An experiment for measuring vibrational amplitude is conducted over a wide frequency range of actuation voltage. It is known that the proposed film type actuator is feasible for haptic application in the small hand-held devices.

Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Ki-Baek

2014-04-01

74

Conversion of an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat from a super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new approach to convert an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat surface from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic. Super-hydrophilic cellulose acetate nanofibrous mats can be obtained by electrospinning hydrophilic cellulose acetate. The surface properties of the fibrous mats were modified from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic with a simple sol-gel coating of decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The resultant samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-visible measurements. The results of FE-SEM and XPS showed that the sol-gel (I) films were formed on the rough fibrous mats only after immersion in sol-gel. After the sol-gel (I) coating, the cellulose acetate fibrous mats formed in both 8 and 10 wt% cellulose acetate solutions showed the super-hydrophobic surface property. Additionally, the average sol-gel film thickness coated on 10 wt% cellulose acetate fibrous mats was calculated to be 80 nm. The super-hydrophobicity of fibrous mats was attributed to the combined effects of the high surface roughness of the electrospun nanofibrous mats and the hydrophobic DTMS sol-gel coating. Additionally, hydrophobic sol-gel nanofilms were found to be transparent according to UV-visible measurements.

Ding, Bin; Li, Chunrong; Hotta, Yoshio; Kim, Jinho; Kuwaki, Oriha; Shiratori, Seimei

2006-09-01

75

Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation.  

PubMed

Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs. PMID:23987361

Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing

2013-10-15

76

Role of endo-1,4-beta-glucanases from neisseria sicca SB in synergistic degradation of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

An enzyme hydrolyzing beta-1,4 bonds in cellulose acetate was purified 10.5-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from a culture supernatant of Neisseria sicca SB, which assimilate cellulose acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The enzyme was an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, to judge from the substrate specificity and hydrolysis products of cellooligosaccharides, we named it endo-1,4-beta-glucanase I (EG I). Its molecular mass was 50 kDa, 9 kDa larger than EG II from this strain, and its isoelectric point was 5.0. Results of N-terminal and inner-peptide sequences of both enzymes, and a similarity search, suggested that EG I contained a carbohydrate-binding module at the N-terminus and that EG II lacked this module. The pH and temperature optima of EG I were 5.0-6.0 and 45 degrees C. It hydrolyzed water-soluble cellulose acetate (degree of substitution, 0.88) and carboxymethyl cellulose. The Km and Vmax for these compounds were 0.296% and 1.29 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), and 0.448% and 13.6 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Both glucanases and cellulose acetate esterase from this strain degraded water-insoluble cellulose acetate synergistically. PMID:12728982

Moriyoshi, Kunihiko; Ohmoto, Takashi; Ohe, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kiyofumi

2003-02-01

77

Biodegradability and process characterization of nonwovens formed from cotton and cellulose acetate fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible candidate as an environmentally friendly nonwoven fabric is one which can be formed from the thermal calendering of a cotton/cellulose acetate blend. The results presented have focused on biodegradable properties of the fibers, physical properties of the fabric, and process optimization of the thermal calendering. Biodegradation of cellulose has been intensively studied, and cellulose is believed to be readily biodegraded by many microorganisms due to the activity of cellulase enzymes. However, the biodegradability of cellulose acetate (CA) is less than certain. To determine a semi-quantitative measure of the biodegradation of CA fibers, the AATCC test method 30-1988 was selected. After a 12-week soil burial test, evidence of microbial attack on CA fabric was obtained on the basis of 27% strength loss. As a more reliable method, the ASTM test method D5209-91, an aerobic sludge test, was adopted, in which the amount of COsb2 evolved from the decomposition of CA, cotton and fiber blends was measured. The biodegradability of CA fibers was confirmed by showing COsb2 evolution, and the synergistic effects of multi-enzyme systems between cellulase and esterase were suggested based on the increased biodegradation rates in fiber blends. Opening, blending, carding, and thermal calendering processes were used in the fabrication of the nonwovens. Pretreatment with solvent vapors was introduced for modifying the softening temperatures of the cellulose acetate and for lowering the calendering temperatures required otherwise. The success of the solvent-assisted thermal calendering is demonstrated in enhanced tensile strengths of the nonwoven obtained with lower calendering temperatures. For process optimization, the experiment was designed for a 3-way factorial design with the following factors: bonding temperature, blend ratio and solvent treatment time. The effects of the factors on 18 physical properties were determined by analysis of variance, least-square-means comparison, regression and correlation techniques. The results indicated that the physical properties were significantly influenced by the factors. For optimization, four responses were selected for stronger, softer, more extensible and more breathable nonwovens. The optimal processing conditions in a given blend ratio were suggested by a response surface technique based on multivariate-multiresponse analysis, and distance and desirability functions.

Suh, Hageun

78

Whisker growth by means of cellulose acetate membranes: NaCl and KCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NaCl and KCl whiskers were successfully grown from non-concentrated solutions by means of cellulose acetate (CA) membranes. Substantial growth was obtained within several hours on the part of the membrane not submerged in the solution. It is possible to do this with the mother liquor concentration barely affected by the whisker growth. The growth rate is controlled by water evaporation from the membrane. The driving force of the process in the case of NaCl and KCl solutions is the evaporation of water and the membrane affinity for it.

Yellin, N.; Zelingher, N.; Ben-Dor, L.

1985-04-01

79

Bio-composites based on cellulose acetate and kenaf fibers: Processing and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on bio-composites is important because of its positive environmental impact. In this study, bio-composites based on plasticised cellulose acetate and kenaf fibers were prepared by solution casting and compression moulding methods. The fibers were chemically treated to remove lignin, hemicellulose and impurities. Mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of the bio-composites were studied. Introduction of chopped kenaf fibers increased the storage modulus. The flexural storage modulus of the composite was affected with the introduction of moisture. Moisture behaved similar to the effect of plasticiser, it reduced the modulus.

Pang, C.; Shanks, R. A.; Daver, F.

2014-05-01

80

Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate: a review of the preparations, properties, and applications.  

PubMed

Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW) thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg). CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) formulations. PMID:25548679

El-Sakhawy, Mohamed; Kamel, Samir; Salama, Ahmed; Sarhan, Hebat-Allah

2014-01-01

81

Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications  

PubMed Central

Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW) thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg). CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) formulations. PMID:25548679

Kamel, Samir; Salama, Ahmed; Sarhan, Hebat-Allah

2014-01-01

82

Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices.  

PubMed

The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:25280700

Zepon, Karine Modolon; Petronilho, Fabricia; Soldi, Valdir; Salmoria, Gean Vitor; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

2014-11-01

83

The wettability of a cellulose acetate membrane in the presence of bovine serum albumin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of the contact angle for water (W), glycerol (G), formamide (F), ethylene glycol (E) and diiodomethane (D) on a bare cellulose acetate membrane and covered by adsorptive bovine serum albumin (BSA) films were made. The adsorption was performed from solutions in concentration range 0-100 mg/ml. An influence of the membrane porosity on an apparent contact angle was discussed and Cassie and Baxter equation was used for that purpose. It was suggested that some liquids could penetrate in to membrane pores reducing its apparent porosity. To explain such behaviour, the spreading coefficient and the work of adhesion was calculated for the studied liquids. Components and parameters of the surface free energy of a bare cellulose acetate membrane and covered by an adsorptive BSA film were determined for W-G-D, W-F-D and G-F-D three-liquid systems and they were similar for these systems. However, for the hydrated BSA layer those components and parameters for the systems W-G-D, W-F-D were different than those for the system G-F-D. It was stated that after BSA adsorption on that membrane percentage of empty pores decreased, reducing their number almost to 0, at the highest BSA concentrations.

Bia?opiotrowicz, Tomasz; Ja?czuk, Bronis?aw

2002-11-01

84

Sorption and permeation behaviour of metal thiocyanate complexes on cellulose acetate polymers.  

PubMed

Various metal thiocyanate complexes in aqueous solution were sorbed on solid cellulose acetate polymers. The sorption selectivity increased in the order Zn(2+) > Fe(3+) > Cu(2+) > Co(2+) > Ni(2+). The sorption behaviour followed a Langmuir-type adsorption isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 6.1 x 10(-5) mole of complex per g of polymer under optimum conditions. The zinc species sorbed appear to be NH(4)Zn(H(2)O)(SCN)(3) or (NH(4))(2)Zn(SCN)(4) according to analysis of the sorption equilibrium. The ion-association species formed by the complex zinc anion and the ammonium ion was supposed to be sorbed (or "extracted") onto the polymer matrix. As an application of sorption of metal complexes, a new hyperfiltration process was proposed for selective separation of metal ions. Thus, a mixture of metal thiocyanate complexes was hyperfiltered through cellulose acetate membranes. Permeation of certain metal complexes was preferred, and the selectivity was found to be similar to the sorption selectivity. These findings lead to a generalized idea that hyperfiltration separation of ionic species, particularly anionic metal complexes, can be attained by using polymer membranes which selectively adsorb or extract such ionic species as ion-association complexes onto the polymer matrix. PMID:18963867

Hayashita, T; Takagi, M

1985-05-01

85

In vitro methane emission and acetate:propionate ratio are decreased when artificial stimulation of the rumen wall is combined with increasing grain diets in sheep.  

PubMed

The interaction of retention time in the rumen and concentrate diet on methane production in vitro and acetate:propionate ratio was examined. Twenty-four fistulated sheep were used in a complete factorial design with the sheep randomly divided into 4 groups. The sheep had a 5-wk acclimatization period on an oaten chaff diet, followed by two 3-wk diet phases. Two of the 4 groups were maintained on the oaten chaff diet for the duration of the experiment, with pot scrubbers added to the rumen of 1 of the 2 groups. The remaining 2 groups were offered a low-grain diet (35% grain) in the first diet phase followed by a high-grain diet (70% grain) in the second diet phase. Pot scrubbers were also added to the rumen of 1 of these 2 groups of grain-fed sheep. Pot scrubbers in combination with a low-grain diet decreased the amount of methane produced in vitro from 4.25 to 3.71 mmol/mL of digesta when compared with oaten chaff-fed sheep without pot scrubbers (P < 0.05). The acetate:propionate ratio was 1.6 in sheep fed a high-grain diet with pot scrubbers compared with 2.4 in sheep fed a high-grain diet without pot scrubbers in their rumen (P < 0.05). At high levels of grain, when employing a multivariate statistical analysis including all data, sheep given the combined treatment of grain and pot scrubbers were different from all other sheep groups in this experiment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, sheep fed a high-grain diet were different from sheep receiving the oaten chaff diets with and without pot scrubbers (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, pot scrubbers combined with grain alter the rumen fermentation, and introducing pot scrubbers into the rumens of livestock consuming low levels of grain may be a way to lower methane emissions. PMID:18042816

Christophersen, C T; Wright, A-D G; Vercoe, P E

2008-02-01

86

Ionic liquid assisted electrospun cellulose acetate fibers for aqueous removal of triclosan.  

PubMed

The cellulose acetate (CA) membrane prepared via electrospun was innovatively utilized as fiber-adsorbent for the separation of aqueous triclson (TCS). It was found that the presence of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) in the precursor amplified electric force toward the CA-solution, thereby benefiting the formation of CA fibers. The as-spun CA fibers exhibit excellent adsorptive performance toward TCS, with fast adsorption kinetics, and the maximum adsorption capacity achieved to 797.7 mg g(-1), which established much better performance in contrast to conventional adsorbents. We proposed that the adsorption of TCS onto CA fibers was primarily facilitated by the hydrogen bonding between the abundant carbonyl, hydroxyl groups of CA surface, and the hydrogen atoms of phenol functional groups in TCS molecular. PMID:25595432

Zhang, Gong; Sun, Meng; Liu, Yang; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Li, Jinghong

2015-02-10

87

Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride-cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting GPEs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge-discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10-3 S cm-1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Weishan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shengqi; Li, Zhao

2013-03-01

88

Fabrication of transparent and ultraviolet shielding composite films based on graphene oxide and cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

Graphene oxide (GO) has been considered a promising filler material for building polymeric nanocomposites because of its excellent dispersibility and high surface area. In this work, we present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding composite films based on GO and cellulose acetate (CA). GO sheets were found to be well-dispersed throughout the CA matrix, providing smooth and homogeneous composite films. Moreover, the GO sheets were completely embedded within the CA matrix and no presence of this nanomaterial was found at the surface. Nevertheless, CAGO composite films offered an improved high energy light-shielding capacity when compared to pristine CA films. Particularly for UVC irradiation, the CAGO film containing 0.50wt% GO displayed a UV-shielding capacity of 57%, combined with 79% optical transparency under visible light. These CAGO composite films can be potentially applied as transparent UV-protective coatings for packing biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food products. PMID:25843853

de Moraes, Ana Carolina Mazarin; Andrade, Patricia Fernanda; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Simões, Mateus Batista; Salomão, Francisco Carlos Carneiro Soares; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; Gonçalves, Maria do Carmo; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

2015-06-01

89

Comparative analysis of cellulose acetate hemoglobin electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography for quantitative determination of hemoglobin A2  

PubMed Central

Background The present study is designed to evaluate the reliability and cost effectiveness of cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the determination of HbA2 levels. Methods The test population comprised 160 individuals divided into four groups: normal individuals, ?-thalassemia trait (BTT) patients, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) patients, and co-morbid patients (BTT with IDA). HbA2 levels determined using cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis and HPLC were compared. Results HbA2 levels were found to be diagnostic for classical BTT using either method. In co-morbid cases, both techniques failed to diagnose all cases of BTT. The sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's index for detection of the co-morbid condition was 69% and 66% for HPLC and cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis, respectively. Conclusion This study revealed that semi-automated cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis is more suitable for use in ?-thalassemia prevention programs in low-income countries like Pakistan. This technique is easily available, simple and cost effective.

Khosa, Shafi Mohammad; Moinuddin, Moinuddin; Mehmood, Hassan Osman; Qamar, Khansa

2015-01-01

90

Membrane applications to coal conversion processes. Quarterly report, June 5September 4, 1975. [Cellulose acetate butyrate; polysulfone; 14 refs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of coal conversion processes was conducted to determine the appropriate application of membrane gas separation methods. This study included a review of gas stream compositions, pressures, and temperatures, the incorporation of membrane treatment to these gas streams, and other commercial separation processes that may be comparable to membrane separation. Characterization of currently available cellulose acetate membranes constituted a

W. J. Schell; W. M. King; R. W. Lawrence; R. E. Jr. Mann

1975-01-01

91

Role of membrane surface morphology in colloidal fouling of cellulose acetate and composite aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory-scale colloidal fouling tests, comparing the fouling behavior of cellulose acetate and aromatic polyamide thin-film composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, are reported. Fouling of both membranes was studied at identical initial permeation rates so that the effect of the transverse hydrodynamic force (permeation drag) on the fouling of both membranes is comparable. Results showed a significantly higher fouling rate for

Menachem Elimelech; Xiaohua Zhu; Amy E. Childress; Seungkwan Hong

1997-01-01

92

Fabrication of Tunable Submicro- or Nano-structured Polyethylene Materials form Immiscible Blends with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was prepared into micro- or submicro-spheres or nanofibers via melt blending or extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/LDPE immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The sizes of the PE spheres or fibers can be successfully controlled by varyi...

93

Atmospheric air pressure plasma treatment of lignocellulosic fibres: Impact on mechanical properties and adhesion to cellulose acetate butyrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the effect of atmospheric air pressure plasma (AAPP) treatment on the mechanical properties and interfacial behaviour of different lignocellulosic fibres to cellulose–acetate–butyrate (CAB), as an example for a renewable polymer. The impact of the AAPP treatment on the properties of abaca, flax, hemp and sisal fibres was studied by scanning electron microscopy and single fibre tensile tests.

Alexis Baltazar-y-Jimenez; Martina Bistritz; Eckhard Schulz; Alexander Bismarck

2008-01-01

94

Comparison of the biodegradation of poly( ?-caprolactone), cellulose acetate and their blends by the Sturm test and selected cultured fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we compared the biodegradation of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL), cellulose acetate (CA) and their blends using an aerobic biodegradation technique known as the Sturm test, and by their carbon dioxide (CO2) production and susceptibility to attack by a mixture of fungal strains in solid and liquid media in which samples of each blend were the only source of carbon.

M. R. Calil; F. Gaboardi; C. G. F. Guedes; D. S. Rosa

2006-01-01

95

New findings about the lipase acetylation of nanofibrillated cellulose using acetic anhydride as acyl donor.  

PubMed

The acetylation efficiency of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) with acetic anhydride as acetyl donor was studied using lipase from Aspergillus niger in a mixture of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and phosphate buffer solution at ambient conditions and in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The chemical acetylation of NFC with comparable ester content was carried out for comparison. The ATR-FTIR, solid-state CP/MAS (13)C NMR and DSC analyses revealed that, besides the enzyme-catalysed acetylation, predominantly appearing at the C-6 position of cellulose hydroxyls, a strong and stable acyl-enzyme intermediate attachment also occurred on the NFC via Maillard reaction. Enzymatic acetylation via attached acyl-enzyme complex on NFC yielded high hydophobicity (contact angle of 84±9°), whereas the chemical acetylation with comparable ester content resulted in a much lower hydrophobic surface with a contact angle of 33±3°. Finally, the adsorption capacity profiles of lysozyme and BSA proteins on native, chemically and enzymatically acetylated NFC as a function of the pH medium were determined. PMID:25857991

Boži?, Mojca; Vivod, Vera; Kav?i?, Sabina; Leitgeb, Maja; Kokol, Vanja

2015-07-10

96

Purification and characterization of an endo-1,4-beta-glucanase from Neisseria sicca SB that hydrolyzes beta-1,4 linkages in cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

An enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of beta-1,4 bonds in cellulose acetate was purified 18.3-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from a culture supernatant of Neisseria sicca SB, which can assimilate cellulose acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 41 kDa and the isoelectric point was 4.8. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme were 6.0-7.0 and 60 degrees C. The enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of water-soluble cellulose acetate (degree of substitution, 0.88) and carboxymethyl cellulose. The Km and Vmax for water-soluble cellulose acetate and carboxymethyl cellulose were 0.242% and 2.24 micromol/min/mg, and 2.28% and 12.8 micromol/min/mg, respectively. It is estimated that the enzyme is a kind of endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) from the substrate specificity and hydrolysis products of cellooligosaccharides. The enzyme and cellulose acetate esterase from Neisseria sicca SB degraded water-insoluble cellulose acetate by synergistic action. PMID:12005042

Moriyoshi, Kunihiko; Ohmoto, Takashi; Ohe, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kiyofumi

2002-03-01

97

Micellization of AOT in aqueous sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium propionate, and sodium butyrate media: a case of two different concentration regions of counterion binding.  

PubMed

Critical micelle concentrations of AOT in water in the presence of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium propionate, and sodium butyrate were determined at 25 degrees C by the surface tension method. The co-ions do not have any effect on the value of critical micelle concentration. The surface density of AOT at the air-water interface increases in the presence of added electrolyte and attains a maximum value of 2.5+/-0.1 mol m-2 at a particular electrolyte concentration which is different for sodium chloride and the other three electrolytes. From the Corrin-Harkins plot it has been found that for AOT micelles the counterion binding constant has values 0.40 and 0.82 below and above approximately 0.015 mol kg-1 electrolyte concentration (c*), respectively. Measurement of sodium ion activity from the EMF method has confirmed such a shift in the counterion binding constant of AOT at c*. The higher value of the counterion binding constant for AOT has been reported for the first time. From fluorescence spectroscopy it has been found that the aggregation number of AOT is 22 in water and its average aggregation numbers in the presence of electrolytes are about 34 and 136 below and above c*, respectively. The increase by a factor of 2 in the counterion binding constant is shown to be due to a change in the shape of the AOT micelles around c*. The shape of AOT micelles in the electrolyte concentration range c* is inferred to be oblate spheroid and a change from this shape appears to occur above c*. A sudden increase in the polarity of the micelle-solution interface is also observed above c*. PMID:15975587

Umlong, I M; Ismail, K

2005-11-15

98

Cellulose  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article covers nomenclature, sources, preparation, uses, microcrystalline cellulose, structural chemistry, reactions, solvents, and liquid crystals. Cellulose for commercial purposes comes mostly from wood and cotton, whereas cellulose for research comes from bacteria, algae, and ramie (also a...

99

Improved bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug curcumin in cellulose acetate solid dispersion.  

PubMed

Curcumin (Cur), one of the most widely used natural active constituents with a great variety of beneficial biological and pharmacological activities, is a practically water-insoluble substance with a short biologic half-life. The aim of this study was to develop a sustained-release solid dispersion by employing water-insoluble carrier cellulose acetate for solubility enhancement, release control, and oral bioavailability improvement of Cur. Solid dispersions were characterized by solubility, in vitro drug release, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. The in vivo performance was assessed by a pharmacokinetic study. Solid-state characterization techniques revealed the amorphous nature of Cur in solid dispersions. Solubility/dissolution of Cur was enhanced in the formulations in comparison with pure drug. Sustained-release profiles of Cur from the solid dispersions were ideally controlled in vitro up to 12 h. The optimized formulation provided an improved pharmacokinetic parameter (C(max)?= 187.03 ng/ml, t(max)?= 1.95 h) in rats as compared with pure drug (C(max)?= 87.06 ng/ml, t(max)?= 0.66 h). The information from this study suggests that the developed solid dispersions successfully enhanced the solubility and sustained release of poorly water-soluble drug Cur, thus improving its oral bioavailability effectively. PMID:22173375

Wan, Shuxin; Sun, Yingqian; Qi, Xiuxiang; Tan, Fengping

2012-03-01

100

Tuning the morphology of cellulose acetate gels by manipulating the mechanism of phase separation.  

PubMed

The effect of dihydric alcohol (nonsolvent) addition on the rheological and microstructural behavior of cellulose acetate (CA) in a ternary CA, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), nonsolvent system was investigated. Increasing the dihydric alcohol concentration led to enhanced steady shear viscosity and dynamic viscoelastic properties that were dependent on CA concentration. Changing the dihydric alcohol from 1,2-ethanediol to 1,4-butanediol and 1,6-hexanediol increased the moduli and decreased the concentration of nonsolvent at which the sol-gel transition occurred. At 10 wt % CA concentration the modulus and gel morphology of the 1,2-ethanediol and 1,4-butanediol systems were quite similar and distinctly different from that of 1,6-hexanediol. In the former, the gel morphologies were more heterogeneous, evident of more extensive coarsening, and likely obtained via nucleation and growth and spinoidal decomposition of off-critical mixtures. The latter exhibited more uniform dense network morphology, indicative of a spinoidal decomposition of near-critical mixtures. The gels were fractal in nature and exhibited different fractal dimensions in-line with the observed differences in microstructure; D ? 1.87 ± 0.02 (1,2-ethanediol and 1,4-butanediol) and D ? 1.97 ± 0.02 (1,6-hexanediol). However, at 15 wt % CA content, the gels exhibited more similar viscoelastic behavior and gel microstructures; D ? 1.97 ± 0.02 for all three dihydric alcohol systems. PMID:21121674

Kadla, John F; Korehei, Reza

2011-01-10

101

Cyclodextrin-grafted electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers via “Click” reaction for removal of phenanthrene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) functionalized cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers have been successfully prepared by combining electrospinning and “click” reaction. Initially, ?-CD and electrospun CA nanofibers were modified so as to be azide-?-CD and propargyl-terminated CA nanofibers, respectively. Then, “click” reaction was performed between modified CD molecules and CA nanofibers to obtain permanent grafting of CDs onto nanofibers surface. It was observed from the SEM image that, while CA nanofibers have smooth surface, there were some irregularities and roughness at nanofibers morphology after the modification. Yet, the fibrous structure was still protected. ATR-FTIR and XPS revealed that, CD molecules were successfully grafted onto surface of CA nanofibers. The adsorption capacity of ?-CD-functionalized CA (CA-CD) nanofibers was also determined by removing phenanthrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) from its aqueous solution. Our results indicate that CA-CD nanofibers have potential to be used as molecular filters for the purpose of water purification and waste water treatment by integrating the high surface area of nanofibers with inclusion complexation property of CD molecules.

Celebioglu, Asli; Demirci, Serkan; Uyar, Tamer

2014-06-01

102

Cellulose acetate/hydroxyapatite/chitosan coatings for improved corrosion resistance and bioactivity.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers were deposited on stainless steel plates by electrospinning technique. The composite of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and chitosan (CHI) was coated subsequently by dip-coating. The structure and morphology of the obtained coatings were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stability of the coatings in physiological environment was studied using electrochemical polarization and impedance spectroscopy. The CA nanofibers were embedded in the HAP/CHI coating and the resulted composite film was densely packed and uniform on the substrate. The in vitro biomineralization study of the coated samples immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) confirmed the formation ability of bone-like apatite layer on the surface of HAP-containing coatings. Furthermore, the coatings could provide corrosion resistance to the stainless steel substrate in SBF. The electrochemical results suggested that the incorporation of CA nanofibers could improve the corrosion resistance of the HAP/CHI coating. Thus, biocompatible CA/HAP/CHI coated metallic implants could be very useful in the long-term stability of the biomedical applications. PMID:25686946

Zhong, Zhenyu; Qin, Jinli; Ma, Jun

2015-04-01

103

Mode of action on deacetylation of acetylated methyl glycoside by cellulose acetate esterase from Neisseria sicca SB.  

PubMed

The regioselective deacetylation of purified cellulose acetate esterase from Neisseria sicca SB was investigated on methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside. The substrates were used as model compounds of cellulose acetate in order to estimate the mechanism for deacetylation of cellulose acetate by the enzyme. The enzyme rapidly deacetylated at position C-3 of methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside to accumulate 2,4,6-triacetate as the main initial reaction product in about 70% yield. Deacetylation was followed at position C-2, and generated 4,6-diacetate in 50% yield. The enzyme deacetylated the product at positions C-4 and C-6 at slower rates, and generated 4- and 6-monoacetates at a later reaction stage. Finally, it gave a completely deacetylated product. For 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, CA esterase deacetylated at positions C-3 and C-6 to give 2,4,6- and 2,3,4-triacetate. Deacetylation proceeded sequentially at positions C-3 and C-6 to accumulate 2,4-diacetate in 55% yield. The enzyme exhibited regioselectivity for the deacetylation of the acetylglycoside. PMID:16041133

Moriyoshi, Kunihiko; Yamanaka, Hayato; Ohmoto, Takashi; Ohe, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kiyofumi

2005-07-01

104

Poly(vinyl chloride) blend with biodegradable cellulose acetate in presence of N-(phenyl amino) maleimides.  

PubMed

Wider plastic applications of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) has raised serious problem to the environment. Since (PVC) waste products resist biodegradation and persist in the environment for longer time. The object of this study is to blend (PVC) with biodegradable cellulose acetate to thermally support the polymer during the molding process as well as to enhance the biodegradability of (PVC) waste products. Blending of poly(vinyl chloride) and cellulose acetate (CA) in presence of N-(phenyl amino) maleimides (R-PhAM) where (R=H, 4-NO2) led to improvement in the thermal stability of the blend film at high temperatures as shown from the high values of initial decomposition temperature (To) determined from their thermogravimetry (TG) curves. Also, blending (PVC) with (CA) led to improvement in the mechanical properties of the blend films as compared to (PVC). The crystalline regions of cellulose acetate enhanced the elasticity of the blend films as shown from their high Young's modulus values. PMID:24973650

Abdel-Naby, Abir S; Al-Ghamdi, Azza A

2014-09-01

105

The influence of plasticizer on heat-humidity curing of cellulose acetate phthalate coated beads.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study are to investigate the effect of plasticizer type and level on the curing of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) coated beads with and without the presence of humidity. Theophylline beads were coated in a fluidized-bed with CAP dispersion (Aquacoat CPD) plasticized by a water-insoluble plasticizer, diethyl phthalate (DEP), or a water-soluble plasticizer, triethyl citrate (TEC), at various levels. The coated heads were cured at a heat-only condition (50 degrees C for 24 hr) and a heat-humidity condition (50 degrees C/75% RH for 24 hr). Rapid drug release in the acidic media was found for both heat-only and heat-humidity cured beads when plasticizer was not used in the coating dispersion, indicating that the heat-humidity curing is ineffective without the presence of plasticizers. When plasticizer was incorporated in the coating formulations, heat-humidity curing effectively improved the acid resistance of the coated films at all plasticizer levels investigated. The minimum plasticizer level required to obtain enteric release profiles for heat-humidity cured beads coated at an outlet coating temperature of 46 degrees C was 15%. This limit was further decreased when the beads were coated at a lower temperature due to a less plasticizer loss at the lower coating temperature. Between the two plasticizers, less TEC was lost during the coating process, and TEC was more effective compared to DEP with regards to heat-humidity curing at the 10% plasticizer level. The enteric release profiles were reproducible following a 7-day drying period at 40 degrees C for all heat-humidity cured beads that had initially passed the enteric release dissolution test. The rapid leaching of TEC and DEP into the. PMID:11775961

Williams, R O; Liu, J

2001-11-01

106

Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.  

PubMed

Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials. PMID:24345085

Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

2014-01-01

107

Surface and charge transport characterization of polyaniline-cellulose acetate composite membranes.  

PubMed

This study elucidates the charge transport processes of polyaniline (PANI) composite membranes and correlates them to the PANI deposition site and the extent of PANI surface layering on the base microporous membranes. PANI was deposited either as a surface layer or inside the pores of cellulose acetate microporous membranes using various in situ chemical polymerization techniques. The extent of PANI layering at the surface of the base membrane and its oxidation and doping states were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). PANI deposition on the membranes showed a strong dependence on the polymerization technique and polymerization time within a single technique. In XPS, the deconvolution of C 1s and N 1s core-level spectra of the composite membranes was used to quantify the extent of PANI layering at the surface along with its oxidation and doping states. PANI incompletely covered the surface of the base microporous membranes for all the employed techniques. However, the extent of the layering increased with the polymerization time in a particular technique. The charge transport through the bulk membrane and charge transfer at the membrane/electrode interface were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The data were analyzed using the equivalent circuit modeling technique. The modeling parameters revealed that PANI deposition at the surface enhanced the interfacial charge transfer but the process depended on the extent of the surface coverage of the membrane. In addition, the charge transport in the bulk membrane depended on the PANI intercalation level, which varied depending on the polymerization technique employed. In addition, the EIS of electrolyte-soaked membranes was also conducted to evaluate the effects of PANI deposition site on charge transport in the presence of an electrolyte. PANI layering at the pore walls of the base membrane from diaphragmatic polymerization in a two-compartment cell showed that charge transport processes were strongly affected by the interaction of the electrolyte with the PANI layer at the pore surface. This study successfully showed the dependence of charge transport mechanisms of PANI composite membranes on the PANI deposition site and extent of surface layering at the membrane surface. PMID:21287993

Qaiser, Asif A; Hyland, Margaret M; Patterson, Darrell A

2011-02-24

108

Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the spaceflight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed holder must provide water and air to the seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed.

Johnson, Corinne F.; Dreschel, Thomas W.; Brown, Christopher S.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

1994-01-01

109

Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the space flight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed-holder must provide water and air to the seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed.

Johnson, C. F.; Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

1996-01-01

110

Preparation of cellouronic acids and partially acetylated cellouronic acids by TEMPO/NaClO oxidation of water-soluble cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

Water-soluble cellulose acetates with a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.5, prepared by partial deacetylation of cellulose acetate of DS=2.5, were oxidized with catalytic amount of 2,2,6,6,-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy radical (TEMPO), sodium hypochlorite, and sodium bromide to provide useful cellouronic acids. The oxidation was conducted at a constant pH of 10 and at 2 degrees C to avoid the occurrence of side products. Whereas only the primary hydroxyl groups of cellulose acetate were oxidized, a variable degree of oxidation (DO) resulted in a range of 0.33 to 1.0, depending on the concentration in sodium hypochlorite. Thus, polyglucuronic acid as well as partially acetylated cellouronic acid, having a range of DO were obtained. PMID:15003022

Gomez-Bujedo, Silvia; Fleury, Etienne; Vignon, Michel R

2004-01-01

111

Microbial degradation of poly-b-esters: A mechanistic study, cellulose acetate biodegradability. Final report, 1 May 1990-31 July 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this Final Report, work carried out under ARO grant C-DAAL03-G-0111 is described. The investigations performed include the following: (1) isolation, purification and characterization of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase enzyme from Penicillium funiculosum, (2) determination that the depolymerase is a serine esterase, (3) study of the effect of polymer stereochemistry and crystalline order in a semi-crystalline polymer film substrate on enzyme specificity and activity, (3) isolation, purification and characterization of cellulose acetate degrading microorganisms and (4) determination of the biodegradability of cellulose acetate with degrees of substitution up to 2.5 under aerobic thermophilic conditions. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biodegradation, Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase enzyme, Depolymerase from Penicillium funiculosum, Cellulose acetate degrading microorganisms, Composting polymer biodegradable.

Gross, R.A.

1993-08-30

112

Functional analysis of the carbohydrate-binding module of an esterase from Neisseria sicca SB involved in the degradation of cellulose acetate.  

PubMed

An esterase gene from Neisseria sicca SB encoding CaeA, which catalyzes the deacetylation of cellulose acetate, was cloned. CaeA contained a putative catalytic domain of carbohydrate esterase family 1 and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) family 2. We constructed two derivatives, with and without the CBM of CaeA. Binding assay indicated that the CBM of CaeA had an affinity for cellulose. PMID:20834142

Moriyoshi, Kunihiko; Koma, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Hayato; Ohmoto, Takashi; Sakai, Kiyofumi

2010-01-01

113

Dissolution enthalpies of cellulose in ionic liquids.  

PubMed

In this work, interactions between cellulose and ionic liquids were studied calorimetrically and by optical microscopy. Two novel ionic liquids (1,5-Diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium propionate and N-methyl-1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium dimethyl phosphate) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-water mixtures were used as solvents. Optical microscopy served in finding the extent of dissolution and identifying the dissolution pattern of the cellulose sample. Calorimetric studies identified a peak relating to dissolution of cellulose in solvent. The transition did, however, not indicate complete dissolution, but rather dissolution inside fibre or fibrils. This method was used to study differences between four cellulose samples with different pretreatment or origins. PMID:25256460

Parviainen, Helena; Parviainen, Arno; Virtanen, Tommi; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Serimaa, Ritva; Grönqvist, Stina; Maloney, Thaddeus; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa

2014-11-26

114

Burning of solids in oxygen-rich environments in normal and reduced gravity. [combustion of cellulose acetates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program was conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of solids burning in a weightless environment. The combustion characteristics of thin cellulose acetate material were obtained from specimens burned in supercritical as well as in low pressure oxygen atmospheres. Flame spread rates were measured and found to depend on material thickness and pressure in both normal gravity (1-g) and reduced gravity (0-g). A gravity effect on the burning process was also observed; the ratio of 1-g to 0-g flame spread rate becomes larger with increasing material thickness. Qualitative results on the combustion characteristics of metal screens (stainless steel, Inconel, copper, and aluminum) burning in supercritical oxygen and normal gravity are also presented. Stainless steel (300 sq mesh) was successfully ignited in reduced gravity; no apparent difference in the flame spread pattern was observed between 1-g and 0-g.

Andracchio, C. R.; Cochran, T. H.

1974-01-01

115

Demystifying Hardy-Weinberg: Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis of the Lap Locus to Study Population Genetics in White Campion (Silene latifolia)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise could used as an introductory biology lab and/or an upper level course lab, with minor adjustments, covering ecology, evolution, population genetics and physiology. Population genetics is explored using seedlings from several population of the perennial herb white campion, (Silene latifolia), scientific method,cellulose acetate protein electrophoresis and the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Theory.

Patricia A. Peroni (Davidson College; )

1999-01-01

116

Uniaxially aligned electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers for thin layer chromatographic screening of hydroquinone and retinoic acid adulterated in cosmetics.  

PubMed

Uniaxially aligned cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning and applied to use as stationary phase for thin layer chromatography. The control of alignment was achieved by using a drum collector rotating at a high speed of 6000 rpm. Spin time of 6h was used to produce the fiber thickness of about 10 ?m which was adequate for good separation. Without any chemical modification after the electrospinning process, CA nanofibers could be readily devised for screening hydroquinone (HQ) and retinoic acid (RA) adulterated in cosmetics using the mobile phase consisting of 65:35:2.5 methanol/water/acetic acid. It was found that the separation run on the aligned nanofibers over a distance of 5 cm took less than 15 min which was two to three times faster than that on the non-aligned ones. On the aligned nanofibers, the masses of HQ and RA which could be visualized were 10 and 25 ng, respectively, which were two times lower than those on the non-aligned CA fibers and five times lower than those on conventional silica plates due to the appearance of darker and sharper of spots on the aligned nanofibers. Furthermore, the proposed method efficiently resolved HQ from RA and ingredients commonly found in cosmetic creams. Due to the satisfactory analytical performance, facile and inexpensive production process, uniaxially aligned electrospun CA nanofibers are promising alternative media for planar chromatography. PMID:25294296

Tidjarat, Siripran; Winotapun, Weerapath; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak

2014-11-01

117

Mode of action of acetylesterases associated with endoglucanases towards water-soluble and -insoluble cellulose acetates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening of commercial enzyme preparations for the capability ofcellulose acetate (CA) deacetylation revealed that such enzyme activity ismore common than could be anticipated. Enzyme-aided deacetylation of celluloseacetate was clearly a function of the degree of substitution (DS). Celluloseacetates up to a DS of 1.4 were deacetylated by a large number of enzyme mixes.Interestingly, none of the investigated enzyme preparations

Clemens Altaner; Bodo Saake; Jürgen Puls

2001-01-01

118

Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl propionate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406572

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

119

Fragrance material review on benzyl propionate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414642

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

120

Fragrance material review on phenethyl propionate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406565

McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

121

Diffusion of 1-Ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Acetate in Glucose, Cellobiose, and Cellulose Solutions  

PubMed Central

Solutions of glucose, cellobiose and microcrystalline cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C2mim][OAc]) have been examined using pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR. Diffusion coefficients of the cation and anion across the temperature range 20–70 °C have been determined for a range of concentrations (0–15% w/w) of each carbohydrate in [C2mim][OAc]. These systems behave as an “ideal mixture” of free ions and ions that are associated with the carbohydrate molecules. The molar ratio of carbohydrate OH groups to ionic liquid molecules, ?, is the key parameter in determining the diffusion coefficients of the ions. Master curves for the diffusion coefficients of cation, anion and their activation energies are generated upon which all our data collapses when plotted against ?. Diffusion coefficients are found to follow an Arrhenius type behavior and the difference in translational activation energy between free and associated ions is determined to be 9.3 ± 0.9 kJ/mol. PMID:24405090

2014-01-01

122

Facile fouling resistant surface modification of microfiltration cellulose acetate membranes by using amino acid L-DOPA.  

PubMed

A major obstacle in the widespread application of microfiltration membranes in the wet separation processes such as wastewater treatment is the decline of permeates flux as a result of fouling. This study reports on the surface modification of cellulose acetate (CA) microfiltration membrane with amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) to improve fouling resistance of the membrane. The membrane surface was characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Porosity measurement showed a slight decrease in membrane porosity due to coating. Static adsorption experiments revealed an improved resistance of the modified membranes towards the adhesion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model foulant. Dead end membrane filtration tests exhibited that the fouling resistance of the modified membranes was improved. However, the effect of the modification depended on the foulant solution concentration. It is concluded that L-DOPA modification is a convenient and non-destructive approach to enable low-BSA adhesion surface modification of CA microfiltration membranes. Nevertheless, the extent of fouling resistance improvement depends on the foulant concentration. PMID:23985522

Azari, Sara; Zou, Linda; Cornelissen, Emile; Mukai, Yasushito

2013-01-01

123

Fouling propensity and separation efficiency of epoxidated polyethersulfone incorporated cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane in the retention of proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epoxidated polyethersulfone (EPES) incorporated cellulose acetate (CA) ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by diffusion induced precipitation technique in the absence and presence of pore former polyethyleneglycol-600. Effect of blend ratio on the compatibility, thermal stability, mechanical strength, hydrophilicity, morphology, pure water flux, protein adsorption resistance, protein separation efficiency and fouling propensity of the CA/EPES blend membranes was evaluated. Addition of EPES results in the formation of thin separating layer and spongy sub layer in CA/EPES blend membranes. The efficiency of these membranes in the separation of commercially important proteins such as bovine serum albumin, egg albumin, pepsin and trypsin was studied and found to be enhanced as compared to CA membranes. The fouling-resistant capability of the membranes was studied by bovine serum albumin as the model foulant and flux recovery ratio of the membranes were calculated. Attempts have been made to correlate the changes in membrane morphology with pure water flux, hydraulic resistance, thermal and mechanical stability, separation efficiency and antifouling property of the CA/EPES membranes. The optimal combination of CA and EPES, thus allows the preparation of high performance UF membranes which are sufficiently dense to retain proteins and at the same time give economically viable fluxes.

Jayalakshmi, A.; Rajesh, S.; Mohan, D.

2012-10-01

124

Cellulose acetate butyrate microcapsules containing dextran ion-exchange resins as self-propelled drug release system.  

PubMed

Sulfopropylated dextran microspheres (SP-Ms), (Dm = 80 microm) loaded with a water soluble drug (Tetracycline HCl), were included in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microcapsules. Spherical CAB microcapsules were obtained by oil in water (o/w) solvent evaporation method in the presence of an inert solvent as cyclohexane (CyH) or n-hexane (N-Hex), and different excipients (Phospholipon, Tween, Span, Eudragit RS 100). Chloroform was found to be the best solvent for the preparation of the microcapsules. Also, the sphericity as well as the porosity of the microcapsules was controlled by the presence of an inert solvent. The final concentration of the drug in CAB microparticles was up to 25% (w/w). The key factors for the successful preparation were also the viscosity of the polymer, while the wettability of the resulted microcapsules, the temperature of the preparation, and the porosity have modulated the release of the drug. The higher is the amount of encapsulated microspheres the thinner is the CAB wall between the compartments created by their incorporation. When these microspheres come in contact with the release medium, the pressure created by their swelling breaks the polymer film and the drug starts to be released. The more drug is released in phosphate buffer the higher is the swelling degree of the encapsulated ion exchange resins and the force created by their supplementary swelling will break the more resistants walls. In this way a self-propelled drug release is achieved, until almost all drug was eliberated. PMID:15683658

Fundueanu, Gheorghe; Constantin, Marieta; Esposito, Elisabetta; Cortesi, Rita; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Menegatti, Enea

2005-07-01

125

Removal of chromium from aqueous solution using cellulose acetate and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes.  

PubMed

A process for purifying aqueous solutions containing heavy and toxic metals such as chromium has been investigated. Chromium salts are largely used in various industries including leather-manufacturing industry. Ultrafiltration processes are largely being applied for macromolecular and heavy metal ion separation from aqueous streams. Cellulose acetate and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes were prepared by precipitation phase inversion technique in 100/0, 90/10, 80/20 and 70/30% polymer blend compositions and subjected to the rejection of chromium at different concentrations such as 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm with a water-soluble macroligand (polyvinylalcohol). Factors affecting the percentage rejection and permeate flux such as pH, concentration of solute, concentration of PVA, transmembrane pressure and composition of blend membranes were investigated. It was found that percentage rejection improved at a pH 6 and a macroligand concentration of 2 wt.%. The transmembrane pressure and concentration of solute also have an effect on the separation and product rate efficiencies of the blend membranes. PMID:16860465

Arthanareeswaran, G; Thanikaivelan, P; Jaya, N; Mohan, D; Raajenthiren, M

2007-01-01

126

Eudragit-S, Eudragit-L and cellulose acetate phthalate coated polysaccharide tablets for colonic targeted delivery of azathioprine.  

PubMed

The present work deals with the formulation and evaluation of polymer-coated polysaccharide tablets of azathioprine prepared by direct compression method using different ratios of avicel (MCC), inulin and triacetin. The tablets formulations containing 25 mg of azathioprine were prepared and evaluated for thickness, hardness, friability, weight variation, content uniformity and in vitro dissolution test. Hardness and percentage friability were in the range of 7.23-7.43 kg/cm(2) and 0.21-0.41%, respectively, and showed 99-100% uniformity in drug content. The coated tablets exploiting different polymer combinations were evaluated for drug release under different pH conditions. The formulation containing Eudragit-S, Eudragit-L and cellulose acetate phthalate (ES, EL and CAP) (1:1:1) displayed desired release pattern with only 9.75% drug release in first 5 h (lag phase) and satisfactory release in lowered pH conditions. Drug release increased with the plasticizer (triacetin) concentration. Increase in the concentration of inulin and citric acid above 5% w/w increases the drug release. The addition of inulin in the formulation with coating level 28% w/w demonstrated increased drug release in presence of rat cecal content. Thus inulin containing ES, EL and CAP (1:1:1) polymer-coated formulation system can be used for the targeted delivery of azathioprine with desired release pattern. PMID:20236031

Kotagale, Nandkishor; Maniyar, Mithun; Somvanshi, Sachin; Umekar, Milind; Patel, Chirag J

2010-01-01

127

Effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions on the rheological behavior and microstructure of a ternary cellulose acetate system.  

PubMed

The effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions on the rheological and microstructural behavior of cellulose acetate (CA) in a ternary CA, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), nonsolvent (alcohol) system was examined. Increasing nonsolvent concentration increased the viscosity and dynamic viscoelastic properties of the system. At a critical nonsolvent concentration, a sol-gel transition was observed, which was dependent on nonsolvent structure. Increasing the available hydrogen bonding groups within the nonsolvent led to higher modulus (stronger gels) and a sol-gel transition at lower nonsolvent concentration. Likewise, increasing the alkyl chain length (hydrophobicity) of the nonsolvent also enhanced the viscoelastic properties; however, hydrogen bonding, specifically the ability to hydrogen bond donate was critical for gel formation. For all gels studied, the elastic modulus shifts to higher values with increasing hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the nonsolvent and exhibits a power-law behavior with nonsolvent content. All of the gels exhibit similar fractal dimensions; however, confocal images of the different systems reveal distinct differences. Increasing the hydrophilicity of the nonsolvent led to a more uniform denser gel microstructure, whereas increasing the hydrophobicity resulted in a larger more heterogeneous network structure despite the increase in moduli. PMID:20235573

Kadla, John F; Korehei, Reza

2010-04-12

128

A simple fiber-optic humidity sensor based on extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity constructed by cellulose acetate butyrate film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fiber-optic relative humidity sensor with an extrinsic micro Fabry-Perot cavity constructed with a thin layer of cellulose acetate butyrate coated on a fiber end is presented. Its operational principle is based on the relative-humidity-dependent wavelength shift of the interference fringes formed by Fresnel reflections from both interfaces of the thin film. Both the experimental and theoretical analyses are investigated in detail. The experimental data for relative humidity ranging from 8.8% to 88.1% are measured in the both humidification and dehumidification processes, which fits the linear equation very well with a value of R2 = 0.9946. As observed, it shows a high sensitivity of 0.307 nm/%RH with a high resolution of 0.06%. The time-dependent response of the sensor is estimated. The long term stability of the sensor is also addressed with high precision of ±0.03% over 100 min. The proposed relative humidity sensor has a simple, solid, and compact structure.

Xu, Wei; Huang, Wo-Bin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Yu, Chang-yuan

2013-12-01

129

Performance of cellulose acetate - polyethersulphone blend membrane prepared using microwave heating for palm oil mill effluent treatment.  

PubMed

The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of blend cellulose acetate (CA)-polyethersulphone (PES) membranes prepared using microwave heating (MWH) techniques and then compare it with blend CA-PES membranes prepared using conventional heating (CH) methods using bovine serum albumin solution. The superior membranes were then used in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Various blends of CA-PES have been blended with PES in the range of 1-5 wt%. This distinctive series of dope formulations of blend CA/PES and pure CA was prepared using N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The dope solution was prepared by MW heating for 5 min at a high pulse and the membranes were prepared by phase inversion method. The performances of these membranes were evaluated in terms of pure water and permeate flux, percentage removal of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The results indicate that blend membranes prepared using the microwave technique is far more superior compared to that prepared using CH. Blend membranes with 19% CA, 1-3% PES and 80% of DMF solvent were found to be the best membrane formulation. PMID:17978445

Idris, A; Ahmed, I; Jye, H W

2007-01-01

130

Assessment of the elution of charcoal, cellulose acetate, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters.  

PubMed

This experiment was designed to study the release of cellulose acetate fibers, charcoal, and other particles from cigarettes with charcoal and activated charcoal/resin filters. For the first time in such studies, efforts were made to identify the particles that were eluted using other analytical techniques in addition to light microscopy. Other corrective measures were also implemented. During the studies it was found that trimming of larger filters to fit smaller filter housings introduced cellulose acetate-like particles from the fibers of the filter material. Special, custom made-to-fit filters were used instead. Tools such as forceps that were used to retrieve filters from their housings were also found to introduce fragments onto the filters. It is believed that introduction of such debris may have accounted for the very large number of cellulose acetate and charcoal particles that had been reported in the literature. Use of computerized particle-counting microscopes appeared to result in excessive number of particles. This could be because the filter or smoke pads used for such work do not have the flat and level surfaces ideal for computerized particle-counting microscopes. At the high magnifications that the pads were viewed for particles, constant focusing of the microscope would be essential. It was also found that determination of total particles by using extrapolation of particle count by grid population usually gave extremely high particle counts compared to the actual number of particles present. This could be because particle distributions during smoking are not uniform. Lastly, a less complex estimation of the thickness of the particles was adopted. This and the use of a simple mathematical conversion coupled with the Cox equation were utilized to assess the aerodynamic diameters of the particles. Our findings showed that compared to numbers quoted in the literature, only a small amount of charcoal, cellulose acetate shards, and other particles are released. It was also shown that those particles would have a low likelihood of reaching the lung. PMID:16036754

Agyei-Aye, K; Appleton, S; Rogers, R A; Taylor, C R

2004-08-01

131

21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reg. No. 137-40-6) is the sodium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as colorless, transparent crystals or a granular crystalline powder. It is odorless, or has a faint acetic-butyric acid odor, and is deliquescent. It is prepared by...

2010-04-01

132

Extrusion foaming of thermoplastic cellulose acetate from renewable resources using a two-component physical blowing agent system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic cellulose acetate (CA) is a bio-based polymer with optical, mechanical and thermal properties comparable to those of polystyrene (PS). The substitution of the predominant petrol-based PS in applications like foamed food trays can lead to a more sustainable economic practice. However, CA is also suitable for more durable applications as the biodegradability rate can be controlled by adjusting the degree of substitutions. The extrusion foaming of CA still has to overcome certain challenges. CA is highly hydrophilic and can suffer from hydrolytic degradation if not dried properly. Therefore, the influence of residual moisture on the melt viscosity is rather high. Beyond, the surface quality of foam CA sheets is below those of PS due to the particular foaming behaviour. This paper presents results of a recent study on extrusion foamed CA, using a two-component physical blowing agent system compromising HFO 1234ze as blowing agent and organic solvents as co-propellant. Samples with different co-propellants are processed on a laboratory single screw extruder at IKV. Morphology and surface topography are investigated with respect to the blowing agent composition and the die pressure. In addition, relationships between foam density, foam morphology and the propellants are analysed. The choice of the co-propellant has a significant influence on melt-strength, foaming behaviour and the possible blow-up ratio of the sheet. Furthermore, a positive influence of the co-propellant on the surface quality can be observed. In addition, the focus is laid on the effect of external contact cooling of the foamed sheets after the die exit.

Hopmann, Ch.; Windeck, C.; Hendriks, S.; Zepnik, S.; Wodke, T.

2014-05-01

133

Molecular imprinting of cellulose acetate-sulfonated polysulfone blend membranes for Rhodamine B by phase inversion technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional polymer, sulfonated polysulfone (SPS) with a degree of substitution of 0.10, was prepared and then blended with cellulose diacetate (CA) as the matrix polymer for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membranes via phase inversion from a casting solution containing a template. Polyethylene glycol was found to be compatible with these polymers and was subsequently used as

Malaisamy Ramamoorthy; Mathias Ulbricht

2003-01-01

134

Biodegradable Plastics from Cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brief history of the attempts trying to develop biodegradable plastics from cellulose acetates were reviewed in the first part. Then, two kinds of authors' trials were introduced. One of them is a plasticization trial for cellulose acetates (CAs) that is based on the reaction with dibasic acid anhydrides and monoepoxides during melt processing under practical process conditions. This reactive melt-processing

Mariko Yoshioka; Nobuo Shiraishi

2000-01-01

135

Aggregation of larvae of the house cricket,Acheta domesticus (L.), by propionic acid present in the excreta.  

PubMed

Acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids have been identified in extracts of the excreta of the house cricket,Acheta domesticus (L.), by gas-liquid chromatography. Solutions of propionic acid applied to filter paper aggregated 1- to 2-week-old larvae, while solutions of acetic, butyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids were without effect. PMID:24407860

McFarlane, I E; Steeves, E; Alli, I

1983-09-01

136

Aggregation of larvae of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (L.), by propionic acid present in the excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids have been identified in extracts of the excreta of the house cricket,Acheta domesticus (L.), by gas-liquid chromatography. Solutions of propionic acid applied to filter paper aggregated 1- to 2-week-old larvae, while solutions of acetic, butyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids were without effect.

I. E. McFarlane; Elizabeth Steeves; I. Alli

1983-01-01

137

Synthesis of the perdeuterated cellulose solvents N -methylmorpholine N -oxide (NMMO-d 11 and NMMO- 15 Nd 11 ), N,N -dimethylacetamide (DMAcd 9 and DMAc 15 Nd 9 ), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc-d 14 ) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc-d 18 )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The syntheses of several perdeuterated substances—some of them isotopically labeled (15N) in addition—are described, which act as direct solvents of cellulose either on their own, such as N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc), or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc), or in combination\\u000a with auxiliaries, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc—for the cellulose solvent DMAc\\/LiCl). NMMO-d11 (9) was obtained in an eight-step approach from non-labeled

Christian Adelwöhrer; Yuko Yoneda; Toshiyuki Takano; Fumiaki Nakatsubo; Thomas Rosenau

2009-01-01

138

Crystal growth of calcium carbonate on the cellulose acetate/pyrrolidon blend films in the presence of L-aspartic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphogenesis and growth process of calcium carbonate on the cellulose acetate/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (CA/PVP) blend films in the presence of L-aspartic acid was carefully investigated. The results showed that the concentration of L-aspartic acid, the initial pH value of reaction solution and temperature turned out to be important factors for the control of morphologies and polymorphs of calcium carbonate. Complex morphologies of CaCO3 particles, such as cubes, rose-like spheres, twinborn-spheres, cone-like, bouquet-like, etc. could be obtained under the different experimental conditions. The dynamic process of formation of rose-like sphere crystals was analyzed by monitoring the continuous morphological and structural evolution and components of crystals in different crystal stages. This research may provide a promising method to prepare other inorganic materials with complex morphologies.

Zhang, Xiuzhen; Xie, Anjian; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

2014-03-01

139

Effect of cellulose acetate butyrate microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate on the flame retardancy, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of intumescent flame-retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate/polyamide-6 blends.  

PubMed

Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), a widely used intumescent flame retardant, has been microencapsulated by cellulose acetate butyrate with the aim of enhancing the water resistance of APP and the compatibility between the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and APP. The structure of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water contact angle (WCA). The flame retadancy and thermal stability were investigated by a limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, UL-94 test, cone calorimeter, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The WCA results indicated that MCAPP has excellent water resistance and hydrophobicity. The results demonstrated that MCAPP enhanced interfacial adhesion, mechanical, electrical, and thermal stability of the EVA/MCAPP/polyamide-6 (PA-6) system. The microencapsulation not only imparted EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 with a higher LOI value and UL-94 rating but also could significantly improve the fire safety. Furthermore, the microencapsulated EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites can still pass the UL-94 V-0 rating after treatment with water for 3 days at 70 °C, indicating excellent water resistance. This investigation provides a promising formulation for the intumescent flame retardant EVA with excellent properties. PMID:21859130

Wang, Bibo; Tang, Qinbo; Hong, Ningning; Song, Lei; Wang, Lei; Shi, Yongqian; Hu, Yuan

2011-09-01

140

IODINE CATALYZED ESTERIFICATION OF CELLULOSE USING REDUCED LEVELS OF SOLVENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel method for the preparation of cellulose acetate is described herein, involving the concurrent use of iodine and acetic anhydride. The method is simple, rapid, efficient, and solvent-less. With this method, cellulose acetates have been synthesized....

141

Controlled-release cellulose esters matrices for water-soluble diclofenac sodium: compression and dissolution studies.  

PubMed

Matrix tablets comprising of a blend of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) or cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and alpha-lactose monohydrate were prepared by direct compression to control the release of diclofenac sodium. Tablet formulations containing CAP75000 or CAB50-54 exhibited highest extents, but lowest onsets of plastic deformation and lowest release rates in buffer medium, while tablets containing CAP15000 or CAB35-39 exhibited lowest extents, but highest rates of plastic deformation and highest release rates in buffer medium. The DA values obtained from Heckel plots and the DI values obtained from Kawakita plots showed similar trends. A plot of compression pressure or crushing strengths against T50% showed curvilinear relationship for all tablets. Tablets containing 40 % CAB35-39 (formulation F7D) was considered the best formulation in terms of T50%, compressibility and compactability. PMID:24640597

Obeidat, W M; Alzoubi, N M

2014-02-01

142

Propionic Acid Production by a Propionic Acid-Tolerant Strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici in Batch and Semicontinuous Fermentation †  

PubMed Central

A propionic acid-tolerant derivative of Propionibacterium acidipropionici P9 was obtained by serially transferring strain P9 through broth that contained increasing amounts of propionic acid. After 1 year of repeated transfers, a strain (designed P200910) capable of growth at higher propionic acid concentrations than P9 was obtained. An increase in the proportion of cellular straight-chain fatty acids and uncoupling of propionic acid production from growth were observed for strain P200910. Growth rate, sugar utilization, and acid production were monitored during batch and semicontinuous fermentations of semidefined medium and during batch fermentation of whey permeate for both strain P200910 and strain P9. The highest propionic acid concentration (47 g/liter) was produced by P200910 in a semicontinuous fermentation. Strain P200910 produced a higher ratio of propionic acid to acetic acid, utilized sugar more efficiently, and produced more propionic acid per gram of biomass than did its parent in all fermentations. PMID:16348561

Woskow, Steven A.; Glatz, Bonita A.

1991-01-01

143

Dissolution of cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimizodalium carboxylates at room temperature: a structure-property relationship study.  

PubMed

The development of highly efficient cellulose solvents is imperative to the effective utilization of cellulose. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) with the same 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium cation ([Amim](+)) but different carboxylate anions, such as formate ([HCOO](-)), acetate ([CH3COO](-)), propionate ([CH3CH2COO](-)), butyrate ([CH3CH2CH2COO](-)), glycollate ([HOCH2COO](-)), lactate ([CH3CHOHCOO](-)) and benzoate ([C6H5COO](-)) were synthesized, and their thermal properties and viscosities were determined. Then these ILs were used to investigate the effect of anion structure on solubility of cellulose in the ILs. It was shown that the viscosity and cellulose solubility depended strongly on the anion structure of the ILs. For example, at 30 °C solubility of cellulose in [Amim][CH3CH2COO] was as high as 19.0%, whereas cellulose was not soluble in [Amim][HOCH2COO], [Amim][CH3CHOHCOO] and [Amim][C6H5COO]. In addition, solvatochromic UV/vis probe and (13)C NMR measurements were performed to demonstrate dissolution mechanism of cellulose in the ILs. The results suggested that although cations of the ILs have un-negligible contribution to the highly efficient dissolution of cellulose, hydrogen bonding interactions of anions of the ILs with cellulose is predominant. PMID:25498686

Zhang, Yajuan; Xu, Airong; Lu, Benlian; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Jianji

2015-03-01

144

Nano-web structures constructed with a cellulose acetate/lithium chloride/polyethylene oxide hybrid: modeling, fabrication and characterization.  

PubMed

Electrospun nano-web structures (ENWSs) were successfully fabricated from ionized binary solution of cellulose(Mn30)/polyethylene oxide(Mn200) (CA/PEO of 0.5-1.5). Final concentration of polymers was 12% (w/v) in the solution, and lithium chloride was used as ionizing agent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to the optimize fabrication of ENWSs. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the solution properties and ENWSs morphology were strongly influenced by CA/PEO. An increase in PEO amount increased the viscosity which is a function of molecular weight, and as a result raised the entanglement of polymeric solution but decreased the surface tension that all support nanofibers fabrication. The size of nanofibers decreased with reducing PEO and LiCl concentration. Increasing the content of LiCl promoted the electrical conductivity (EC) value; however, junction zones were formed. The overall optimum region was found to be at combined level of 1.5% CA/PEO and 0.49% (w/v) LiCl. PMID:25439959

Broumand, Atefeh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mirzakhanlouei, Sasan; Davoodi, Driush; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

2015-01-22

145

Microbiological quality and other characteristics of refrigerated chicken meat in contact with cellulose acetate-based film incorporated with rosemary essential oil  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial active packaging delays or inhibits microorganism growth in packed products, and it can be used in a variety of food systems. The objective of the present research was to develop packaging incorporated with natural antimicrobial agents (active film). The effects of the active film on the spoilage, pathogenic microorganism counts, pH and color of the refrigerated chicken breast cuts were analyzed. Cellulose acetate-based active films incorporating two concentrations (20% and 50%, v/w) of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil were manufactured and placed in contact with the chicken breast cuts for six days. An analysis of variance and mean comparison tests (Tukey’s test, p<0.05) were performed on the results. The films that contained 20% essential oil and were intercalated with chicken breast samples did not demonstrate significant effects on the control of psychrotrophic or total coliform microorganisms during the storage period; however, the films incorporated with 50% essential oil demonstrated efficacy toward the control of coliforms during the storage of the samples (6 days, 2 ± 2ºC). The pH was related to the psychrotrophic microorganism count and was not influenced by the treatment. The color was not influenced by the time of storage or the treatment. The results demonstrate that active films incorporating 50% rosemary essential oil are effective at controlling certain microorganisms in chicken breast cuts. PMID:24031972

de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; Geraldine, Robson Maia; Silveira, Miriam Fontes Araujo; Torres, Maria Célia Lopes; e Rezende, Cíntia Silva Minafra; Fernandes, Thiago Henrique; de Oliveira, Antonio Nonato

2012-01-01

146

Plasticizer effect and comparative evaluation of cellulose acetate and ethylcellulose-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes for oral osmotic pumps of naproxen sodium.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the performance of cellulose acetate (CA) and ethylcellulose (EC)-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes (SPMs) for osmotic pump tablets (OPTs) of naproxen sodium (NPS) so as to deliver a constant, predetermined amount of drug in solution form over a fixed span of time, independent of external environmental conditions. Osmotic pump tablets were designed with different coating variables and optimized in terms of nature of plasticizer, membrane thickness, and orifice diameter. The effect of insertion of an inner microporous film around the NPS core to minimize deformation of the SPM due to peristaltic movement of the gut was also studied. Osmotic pump tablets composed of membranes with water-soluble plasticizer, propyleneglycol (PG), released drug mainly through diffusion, whereas those designed with CA and EC-HPMC (4:1) coats containing water-insoluble plasticizer, castor oil, released their contents by perfect zero-order kinetics over a prolonged period of time, though the average release rate that could be achieved with the EC-HPMC (4:1) membrane was only about half the rate achieved with the CA membrane for the same membrane thickness. Release rates for both the membranes decreased with increasing membrane thickness and were found to be independent of orifice diameter, agitation intensity, and pH of the dissolution medium. PMID:12056533

Ramakrishna, N; Mishra, B

2002-04-01

147

Estimation of the uptake rate constants for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices and triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membranes.  

PubMed

In this paper we report an extension of our previous work on the triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) as a passive sampling device (PSD) and describe the results from simultaneous exposure of TECAMs and triolein-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to PAHs in lake water for 16 days. The data obtained provided a comparison of the uptake rates of specific PAHs by the two PSDs. Using 16-day accumulation tests, similar PAH distribution patterns in TECAMs and in SPMDs (R2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001) were observed. However, it was noted that TECAMs could take up greater amounts of PAHs than SPMDs (735 ng/g of TECAM vs 630 ng/g of SPMD). Uptake rate constants of TECAMs and SPMDs for 16 priority pollutant (PP) PAHs, corrected for dissolved organic carbon, ranged from 0.28 to 2.94 L d(-1) and from 0.16 to 0.91 L d(-1), respectively. The elimination rate constants of TECAMs were 1.4-6.7 times greater than those observed for SPMDs, thereby indicating that PAHs required shorter times to achieve equilibrium in TECAMs than in SPMDs. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that TECAMs have significant potential as a good monitor to assess the pollution of hydrophobic pollutants in aquatic environments. PMID:16830560

Ke, Runhui; Xu, Yiping; Wang, Zijian; Khan, Shahamat U

2006-06-15

148

Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis  

PubMed Central

We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

2013-01-01

149

Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis.  

PubMed

We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

2013-01-01

150

Synthesis and charge/discharge properties of cellulose derivatives carrying free radicals  

E-print Network

Synthesis and charge/discharge properties of cellulose derivatives carrying free radicals Jinqing February 2008 Abstract Ethyl cellulose derivatives [EC-T and EC-P] and cellulose acetate derivatives [CA group of ethyl cellulose or cellulose acetate. All the free radical-containing cellulose derivatives

Mizoguchi, Kenji

151

Cellulose-based aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

New organic aerogels were prepared using cellulose derivatives as precursors. The elaboration process and the structural characterisations of these porous cellulose-based materials are described in the present study. Series of monolithic gels were synthesised in acetone by crosslinking cellulose acetate with a non-toxic isocyanate via sol–gel route, using tin-based catalyst. Gelation times (ranging from 15 to 150min) were significantly dependent

F. Fischer; A. Rigacci; R. Pirard; S. Berthon-Fabry; P. Achard

2006-01-01

152

Development of Low Cost Membranes (Ta, Nb & Cellulose Acetate) for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} Separation in WGS Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The main aim of this work is to synthesize low temperature bimetallic nanocatalysts for Water Gas Shift reaction (WGS) for hydrogen production from CO and steam mixture; and develop low-cost metal (Nb/Ta)/ceramic membranes for H{sub 2} separation and Cellulose Acetate membranes for CO{sub 2} separation. Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina, Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina granular WGS catalysts incorporating metal oxide nanoparticles into alumina support were prepared using sol-gel/oil-drop methods. The catalysts were characterized by Powder X-ray Diffractometer (PXRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Differential Thermal Analyzer (DTA), Thermal Gravitational Analyzer (TGA), and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) techniques. TGA shows sharp weight loss at approximately 215°C and DTA shows dehydration of metal hydroxides between 200°C and 250°C. The PXRD spectra show an increase in crystallinity as a result of heating to 1000°C, and indicating a fine dispersion of the metal oxide nanoparticles in alumina supports during the sol-gel synthesis and calcination at 450°C. BET analysis indicated a mesoporous structure of the granules with high surface area. A gas-phase dynamic flow reactor is used to optimize the reaction temperatures. A gas-phase batch reactor was used to obtain kinetic data and the parameters for maximum CO conversion. In Cu-Ni-Ce/alumina category, Cu(0%)Ni(10%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best WGS catalyst among six Low Temperature Shift (LTS) catalysts with optimum temperatures between 200-300�°C, while Ni(5%)Cu(5%)Ce(11%) was found to be the best among four High Temperature Shift (HTS) catalysts with optimum temperature between 350-400°C. In the Fe-Ni-Ce/alumina category catalysts, Fe(8%)Ni(0%)Ce(8%)/alumina and Fe(6%)Ni(2%)Ce(8%)/alumina catalysts showed optimum WGS reaction temperature below 150°C. All Ni(8-x%)Fe(x%)Ce(8%) had lower WGS reaction efficiencies compared to Ni(8-x%)Cu(x%)Ce(8%). Metal (Nb or Ta)/ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation from the WGS reaction gas products have been prepared using a) sputtering and b) aluminothermic techniques. A polyvinyl-glass permeability tester was used with a gas chromatograph (GC) for H{sub 2}/CO permeability testing. Nb films showed a higher permeability than Ta at a given disk porosity. The aluminothermically deposited membranes have higher H{sub 2} permeability compared to the sputtered films, and Nb-film coated disks showed lower H{sub 2} permeability than Ta-film. A three-stage prototype stainless steel reactor with integrated housing for 1) WGS reaction catalysts, 2) H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation metal/ceramic or metal/asbestos membranes, and 3) CO/CO{sub 2} separation cellulose acetate /filter-paper membranes has been designed and tested to have capabilities to perform WGS reactions at temperatures up to 400°C and withstand gas pressures up to 15 bars. The cracking of ceramic disks and gas leaks were successfully prevented by replacing ceramic disks with asbestos sheets that can easily withstand 400°C. Kinetic studies of H{sub 2} and CO permeabilities were performed through the single and double layer Nb and Ta membranes. Cellulose acetate (CA) films with 25% triethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticizer were prepared for H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} gas separation with varying thickness of the films by acetone solutions at different concentrations and by dip-coating onto filter papers. The AFM analysis of the CA membrane showed that the uniform coating had fewer and smaller pores as the film thickness increased, and corroborated by gas permeability studies. The CO{sub 2} permeability has decreased faster than CO permeability with the CA/TEC membrane thickness, and findings support that the CA membrane could be used to entrap CO{sub 2}. Several CA/TEC membranes were also staked to increase the separation efficiency. Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) was used to estimate the micro-porosity (pore size and concentration) and fractional free volume changes of CA/TEC films, and used to understand the variations observed in the CO{sub 2}/CO permeabilities.

Naidu Seetala; Upali Siriwardane

2011-06-30

153

Determination of odor release in hydrocolloid model systems containing original or carboxylated cellulose at different pH values using static headspace gas chromatographic (SHS-GC) analysis.  

PubMed

Static headspace gas chromatographic (SHS-GC) analysis was performed to determine the release of 13 odorants in hydrocolloid model systems containing original or regio-selectively carboxylated cellulose at different pH values. The release of most odor compounds was decreased in the hydrocolloid solutions compared to control, with the amounts of 2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanedione released into the headspace being less than those of any other odor compound in the hydrocolloid model systems. However, there was no considerable difference between original cellulose-containing and carboxylated-cellulose containing systems in the release of most compounds, except for relatively long-chain esters such as ethyl caprylate and ethyl nonanoate. The release from the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions controlled to pH 10 was significantly higher than that from solutions adjusted to pH 4 and 7 in the case of some esters (ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, butyl propionate, ethyl caproate) and alcohols (2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol), in particular, ethyl butyrate and 3-methyl-1-butanol. In contrast, the release of 2,3-butanedione from both the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions was increased at pH 4 and 7 compared to that at pH 10 by about 70% and 130%, respectively. Our study demonstrated that the release of some odorants could be changed significantly by addition of both original and carboxylated cellulose in hydrocolloid model systems, but only minor effect was observed in pH of the solution. PMID:23447013

Lee, Sang Mi; Shin, Gil-Ok; Park, Kyung Min; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Kim, Young-Suk

2013-01-01

154

Genetics Home Reference: Propionic acidemia  

MedlinePLUS

... breakdown of proteins. Specifically, it helps process several amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. Propionyl- ... definitions help with understanding propionic acidemia? acids ; aciduria ; amino acid ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; breakdown ; carboxylase ; cell ; cholesterol ; CoA ; ...

155

Application of chemical and thermal analysis methods for studying cellulose ester plastics.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetate, developed about 100 years ago as a versatile, semisynthetic plastic material, is used in a variety of applications and is perhaps best known as the basis of photographic film stock. Objects made wholly or partly from cellulose acetate are an important part of modern and contemporary cultural heritage, particularly in museum collections. Given the potential instability of the material, however, it is imperative to understand the aging mechanisms and deterioration pathways of cellulose ester plastics to mitigate decomposition and formulate guidelines for storage, exhibition, and conservation. One important aspect of this process is the ability to fully characterize the plastic, because variations in composition affect its aging properties and ultimate stability. In this Account, we assess the potential of a range of analytical techniques for plastics made from cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, and cellulose butyrate. Comprehensive characterization of cellulose ester plastics is best achieved by applying several complementary analytical techniques. Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy provide rapid means for basic characterization of plastic objects, which can be useful for quick, noninvasive screening of museum collections with portable instruments. Pyrolysis GC/MS is capable of differentiating the main types of cellulose ester polymers but also permits a richly detailed compositional analysis of additives. Thermal analysis techniques provide a wealth of compositional information and thermal behavior. Thermogravimetry (TG) allows for quantitative analysis of thermally stable volatile additives, and weight-difference curves offer a novel means for assessing oxidative stability. The mechanical response to temperature, such as the glass transition, can be measured with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), but results from other thermal analysis techniques such as TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic load thermomechanical analysis (DLTMA) are often required to more accurately interpret the results. The analytical results from this study form the basis for in-depth studies of works of art fabricated from cellulose acetate. These objects, which are particularly at risk when stored in tightly sealed containers (as is often the case with photographic film), warrant particular attention for conservation given their susceptibility toward sudden onset of deterioration. PMID:20455567

Schilling, Michael; Bouchard, Michel; Khanjian, Herant; Learner, Tom; Phenix, Alan; Rivenc, Rachel

2010-06-15

156

Temperature impacts differentially on the methanogenic food web of cellulose-supplemented peatland soil.  

PubMed

The impact of temperature on the largely unresolved intermediary ecosystem metabolism and associated unknown microbiota that link cellulose degradation and methane production in soils of a moderately acidic (pH 4.5) fen was investigated. Supplemental [(13) C]cellulose stimulated the accumulation of propionate, acetate and carbon dioxide as well as initial methane production in anoxic peat soil slurries at 15°C and 5°C. Accumulation of organic acids at 15°C was twice as fast as that at 5°C. 16S rRNA [(13) C]cellulose stable isotope probing identified novel unclassified Bacteria (79% identity to the next cultured relative Fibrobacter succinogenes), unclassified Bacteroidetes (89% identity to Prolixibacter bellariivorans), Porphyromonadaceae, Acidobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae as main anaerobic degraders of cellulose-derived carbon at both 15°C and 5°C. Holophagaceae and Spirochaetaceae were more abundant at 15°C. Clostridiaceae dominated the degradation of cellulose-derived carbon only at 5°C. Methanosarcina was the dominant methanogenic taxa at both 15°C and 5°C. Relative abundance of Methanocella increased at 15°C whereas that of Methanoregula and Methanosaeta increased at 5°C. Thaumarchaeota closely related to Nitrosotalea (presently not known to grow anaerobically) were abundant at 5°C but absent at 15°C indicating that Nitrosotalea sp. might be capable of anaerobic growth at low temperatures in peat. PMID:24813682

Schmidt, Oliver; Horn, Marcus A; Kolb, Steffen; Drake, Harold L

2015-03-01

157

Alkaliflexus imshenetskii gen. nov. sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic gliding carbohydrate-fermenting bacterium with propionate formation from a soda lake.  

PubMed

Anaerobic saccharolytic bacteria thriving at high pH values were studied in a cellulose-degrading enrichment culture originating from the alkaline lake, Verkhneye Beloye (Central Asia). In situ hybridization of the enrichment culture with 16S rRNA-targeted probes revealed that abundant, long, thin, rod-shaped cells were related to Cytophaga. Bacteria of this type were isolated with cellobiose and five isolates were characterized. Isolates were thin, flexible, gliding rods. They formed a spherical cyst-like structure at one cell end during the late growth phase. The pH range for growth was 7.5-10.2, with an optimum around pH 8.5. Cultures produced a pinkish pigment tentatively identified as a carotenoid. Isolates did not degrade cellulose, indicating that they utilized soluble products formed by so far uncultured hydrolytic cellulose degraders. Besides cellobiose, the isolates utilized other carbohydrates, including xylose, maltose, xylan, starch, and pectin. The main organic fermentation products were propionate, acetate, and succinate. Oxygen, which was not used as electron acceptor, impaired growth. A representative isolate, strain Z-7010, with Marinilabilia salmonicolor as the closest relative, is described as a new genus and species, Alkaliflexus imshenetskii. This is the first cultivated alkaliphilic anaerobic member of the Cytophaga/ Flavobacterium/ Bacteroides phylum. PMID:15340778

Zhilina, Tatyana N; Appel, Ramona; Probian, Christina; Brossa, Enrique Llobet; Harder, Jens; Widdel, Friedrich; Zavarzin, Georgii A

2004-10-01

158

Propionic acid production by cofermentation of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans in sourdough.  

PubMed

Cooperative metabolism of lactobacilli in silage fermentation converts lactate to propionate. This study aimed to determine whether propionate production by Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus diolivorans can be applied for bread preservation. Propionate formation was observed in cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans in modified MRS broth as well as sourdough with low, medium and high ash contents. 48 mM of propionate was formed in sourdough with medium ash content, but only 9 and 28 mM propionate were formed in sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour or whole wheat flour, respectively. Acetate levels were comparable in all three sourdoughs and ranged from 160 to 175 mM. Sourdough fermented with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans was used in breadmaking and its effect on fungal spoilage was compared to traditional sourdough or propionate addition to straight doughs. Bread slices were inoculated with Aspergillus clavatus, Cladosporium spp., Mortierella spp. or Penicillium roquefortii. The use of 20% experimental sourdough inhibited growth of three of the four moulds for more than 12 days. The use of 10% experimental sourdough deferred growth of two moulds by one day. Bread from traditional sourdough with added acetate had less effect in inhibiting mould growth. In conclusion, cofermentation with L. buchneri and L. diolivorans represents a process to increase antifungal capacities of bread. PMID:20227604

Zhang, Chonggang; Brandt, Markus J; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

2010-05-01

159

21 CFR 184.1221 - Calcium propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... H10 CaO4 , CAS Reg. No. 4075-81-4) is the calcium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as white crystals or a crystalline solid, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with...

2010-04-01

160

Bioavailability of Clobetasol Propionate in Different Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topical clobetasol propionate is widely used for the treatment of psoriasis. One formulation of clobetasol propionate, Skin Cap, was thought by some practitioners and patients to be more effective than other formulations. Differences in corticosteroid bioavailability could account for differences in efficacy. The purpose of this study is to compare the relative bioavailability of clobetasol propionate from Skin Cap to

T. J. Franz; P. A. Lehman; S. R. Feldman; M. C. Spellman

2003-01-01

161

An on-line technique for monitoring propionic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

An on-line technique, based on measuring the increase in pressure due to CO(2) release in a closed air-tight reactor, was used to evaluate the fermentation of lactate by propionibacteria. The method was applied to batch cultures of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in yeast extract/sodium lactate medium containing lactate as a carbon source under micro-aerophilic conditions. Gas pressure evolution was compared both with substrate consumption and metabolites production and with acidification and growth. Linear relationships were found between gas pressure variation, lactate consumption and propionate and acetate production. The technique also enabled the evaluation of total CO(2) produced, by taking account of pressure, oxygen and pH measurements. These results tend to show that this simple and rapid method could be useful to monitor propionic acid bacteria growth. PMID:15682290

Benjelloun, Houda; Rochex, Alice; Lecouturier, Didier; Dechemi, Siham; Lebeault, Jean-Michel

2005-08-01

162

Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams  

SciTech Connect

Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

2014-05-15

163

Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

2014-05-01

164

Microstructure of Celluloses Studied by Positron Annihilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) measurements have been performed on Avicel and Whatman celluloses and their ball-milled derivatives as well as cellulose acetates. Correlations between crystallinity and fractional microsctructures found. Combined studies using PAL and FTIR on deuterated celluloses and moisture sorptions will be presented.

Cao, Huimin; Lou, Yongming; Jean, Renwu; Pekarovicova, Y. C.; Venditti, Alexandra

1997-03-01

165

Propionate Oxidation by and Methanol Inhibition of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial pathway and a cost-effective way to remove ammonium from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have been described as obligate chemolithoautotrophs. However, many chemolithoautotrophs (i.e., nitrifiers) can use organic compounds as a supplementary carbon source. In this study, the effect of organic compounds on anammox bacteria was investigated. It was shown that alcohols inhibited anammox bacteria, while organic acids were converted by them. Methanol was the most potent inhibitor, leading to complete and irreversible loss of activity at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM. Of the organic acids acetate and propionate, propionate was consumed at a higher rate (0.8 nmol min?1 mg of protein?1) by Percoll-purified anammox cells. Glucose, formate, and alanine had no effect on the anammox process. It was shown that propionate was oxidized mainly to CO2, with nitrate and/or nitrite as the electron acceptor. The anammox bacteria carried out propionate oxidation simultaneously with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. In an anammox enrichment culture fed with propionate for 150 days, the relative amounts of anammox cells and denitrifiers did not change significantly over time, indicating that anammox bacteria could compete successfully with heterotrophic denitrifiers for propionate. In conclusion, this study shows that anammox bacteria have a more versatile metabolism than previously assumed. PMID:15691967

Güven, Didem; Dapena, Ana; Kartal, Boran; Schmid, Markus C.; Maas, Bart; van de Pas-Schoonen, Katinka; Sozen, Seval; Mendez, Ramon; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Strous, Marc; Schmidt, Ingo

2005-01-01

166

21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section...522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors ...mg) estradiol benzoate and 200 mg testosterone propionate (one implant...

2012-04-01

167

21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section...522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. ...mg) estradiol benzoate and 200 mg testosterone propionate (one implant...

2014-04-01

168

21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. 522.842 Section...522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors ...mg) estradiol benzoate and 200 mg testosterone propionate (one implant...

2013-04-01

169

40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

2014-07-01

170

40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

2010-07-01

171

40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

2013-07-01

172

40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

2012-07-01

173

40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

2011-07-01

174

A sensitive high-throughput HPLC assay for simultaneous determination of everolimus and clobetasol propionate.  

PubMed

A novel sensitive high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography assay is developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of everolimus and clobetasol propionate in pharmaceutical formulations. The chromatographic separation is achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 reversed-phase column using a gradient elution, with solvent A: ammonium acetate (pH 6.8; 0.01 M) and solvent B: acetonitrile. The mean recovery ranges from 95.1% to 100.0% for clobetasol propionate and from 97.9% to 103.7% for everolimus. The limit of quantitation for each analyte is 0.02 microg/mL. The percent relative standard deviations are less than 3% for intra- and inter-day analyses. The proposed method can be used for the routine quality control of everolimus and clobetasol propionate in complex pharmaceutical formulations, especially the drug-delivery systems with a low total drug-load. PMID:18218184

Kamberi, Marika; Fu, Katherine; Lu, Jianmin; Chemaly, G Mike; Feder, Debra

2008-01-01

175

Mechanical behavior of a cellulose-reinforced scaffold in vascular tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Scaffolds constitute an essential structural component in tissue engineering of a vascular substitute for small grafts by playing a significant role in integrating the overall tissue constructs. The microstructure and mechanical properties of such scaffolds are important parameters to promote further cellular activities and neo-tissue development. Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs), an abundant, biocompatible material, could potentially constitute an acceptable candidate in scaffolding of a tissue-engineered vessel. Inspired by the advantages of cellulose and its derivatives, we have designed a biomaterial comprising CNWs embedded in a matrix of cellulose acetate propionate to fabricate a fully bio-based scaffold. To ensure uniform distribution, CNWs were delicately extracted from a multi-stage process and dispersed in an acetone suspension prior to the composite fabrication. Comparable to carbon nanotubes or kevlar, CNWs impart significant strength and directional rigidity even at 0.2 wt% and almost double that at only 3.0 wt%. To ensure the accuracy of our experimental data and to predict the unusual reinforcing effect of CNWs in a cellulose-based composite, homogenization schemes such as the mean field approach and the percolation technique were also investigated. Based on these comparisons, the tendency of CNWs to interconnect with one another through strong hydrogen bonding confirmed the formation of a three-dimensional rigid percolating network, fact which imparted an excellent mechanical stability to the entire structure at such low filler contents. Hence, our fibrous porous microstructure with improved mechanical properties could introduce a potential scaffold to withstand the physiological pressure and to mimic the profile features of native extracellular matrix in a human vessel. We believe that our nanohybrid design not only could expand the biomedical applications of renewable cellulose-based materials but also could provide a potential scaffold candidate in tissue engineering of small diameter grafts. PMID:22340684

Pooyan, Parisa; Tannenbaum, Rina; Garmestani, Hamid

2012-03-01

176

HPTLC-densitometric method for simultaneous determination of salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate in dry powder inhalers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for determination of two anti-asthmatic drugs, salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate in co-formulations. Study was performed on pre-coated silica gel HPTLC plates using n-hexane:ethyl acetate:acetic acid (5:10:0.2) as a mobile phase. A TLC scanner set at 250nm was used for direct evaluation of the chromatograms in reflectance\\/absorbance mode.

Lantider Kasaye; Ariaya Hymete; Abdel-Maaboud I. Mohamed

2010-01-01

177

CHROMATOGRAPHIC ISOLATION OF SOME CELLULOSE OLIGOSACCHARIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of cellotriose and cellotetraose from cellulose is described. The compounds were obtained as the pure a acetates by column chromatographic separation of the methanol soluble portion of a partial acetolyzate of cellulose. Application of 15 grams of the acetolyzate to a 6.5- by 50-centimeter silica gel column, followed by elution with benzene-ethyl acetate (1:1) gave 2.1 grams of

MILTON S. FEATHER

178

Propionic acid fermentation of glycerol and glucose by Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study was carried out in anaerobic batch cultures on 20?g\\/l of either glycerol or glucose using two propionibacteria\\u000a strains, Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii. In all cases, fermentation end-products were the same and consisted of propionic acid as the major product, acetic acid\\u000a as the main by-product and two minor metabolites, n-propanol and succinic acid. Evidence

E. H. Himmi; A. Bories; A. Boussaid; L. Hassani

2000-01-01

179

Iodine catalyzed esterification of cellulose using reduced levels of solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel process for esterification of cellulose with acetic anhydride in the presence of a catalytic amount of iodine to produce cellulose triacetate. At room temperature, 12h was required for complete esterification which was reduced to 10min when the reaction was conducted at 100°C. The production of cellulose triacetate and the degree of substitution was confirmed by

Atanu Biswas; Gordon Selling; Michael Appell; Kristen K. Woods; J. L. Willett; Charles M. Buchanan

2007-01-01

180

Metabolism of propionate by sheep liver  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted with aged nuclear-free homogenate of sheep liver and aged mitochondria in an attempt to measure both the extent of oxidation of propionate and the distribution of label from [2-14C]propionate in the products. With nuclear-free homogenate, propionate was 44% oxidized with the accumulation of succinate, fumarate, malate and some citrate. Recovery of 14C in these intermediates and respiratory carbon dioxide was only 33%, but additional label was detected in endogenous glutamate and aspartate. With washed mitochondria 30% oxidation of metabolized propionate occurred, and proportionately more citrate and malate accumulated. Recovery of 14C in dicarboxylic acids, citrate, ?-oxoglutarate, glutamate, aspartate and respiratory carbon dioxide was 91%. The specific activities of the products and the distribution of label in the carbon atoms of the dicarboxylic acids were consistent with the operation solely of the methylmalonate pathway together with limited oxidation of the succinate formed by the tricarboxylic acid cycle via pyruvate. In a final experiment with mitochondria the label consumed from [2-14C]propionate was entirely recovered in the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glutamate, aspartate, methylmalonate and respiratory carbon dioxide. PMID:6048786

Smith, R. M.; Osborne-White, W. S.; Russell, G. R.

1967-01-01

181

Cellulose Digestion and Metabolism Induced Biocatalytic Transitions in Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion of highly polymerized biomass by microbial communities present in diverse microbial ecosystems is an indispensable metabolic process for biogeochemical cycling in nature and for industrial activities required to maintain a sustainable society. Therefore, the evaluation of the complicated microbial metabolomics presents a significant challenge. We here describe a comprehensive strategy for characterizing the degradation of highly crystallized bacterial cellulose (BC) that is accompanied by metabolite production for identifying the responsible biocatalysts, including microorganisms and their metabolic functions. To this end, we employed two-dimensional solid- and one-dimensional solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profiling combined with a metagenomic approach using stable isotope labeling. The key components of biocatalytic reactions determined using a metagenomic approach were correlated with cellulose degradation and metabolic products. The results indicate that BC degradation was mediated by cellulases that contain carbohydrate-binding modules and that belong to structural type A. The degradation reactions induced the metabolic dynamics of the microbial community and produced organic compounds, such as acetic acid and propionic acid, mainly metabolized by clostridial species. This combinatorial, functional and structural metagenomic approach is useful for the comprehensive characterization of biomass degradation, metabolic dynamics and their key components in diverse ecosystems. PMID:24958386

Yamazawa, Akira; Iikura, Tomohiro; Morioka, Yusuke; Shino, Amiu; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

2013-01-01

182

Fragrance material review on cyclotene propionate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of cyclotene propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Cyclotene propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group ketones cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones. The common characteristic structural element of the group members is a cyclopentanone or cyclopentenone ring with a straight or branched chain alkane or alkene substituent. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for cyclotene propionate were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire Ketones cyclopentanones and cyclopentenones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Ketones Cyclopentanones and Cyclopentenones in fragrances. PMID:22449539

Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-10-01

183

Preparation of cellulose nanofibers with hydrophobic surface characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop cellulose nanofibers with hydrophobic surface characteristics using chemical modification.\\u000a Kenaf fibers were modified using acetic anhydride and cellulose nanofibers were isolated from the acetylated kenaf using mechanical\\u000a isolation methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated acetylation of the hydroxyl groups of cellulose.\\u000a The study of the dispersion demonstrated that acetylated cellulose nanofibers

Mehdi Jonoobi; Jalaluddin Harun; Aji P. Mathew; Mohd Zobir B. Hussein; Kristiina Oksman

2010-01-01

184

21 CFR 177.1200 - Cellophane.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...consists of a base sheet made from regenerated cellulose to which have been added certain optional...percent. Castor oil, sulfonated, sodium salt Cellulose acetate butyrate Cellulose acetate propionate Cetyl alcohol Clay,...

2011-04-01

185

ATTACHMENT 6 Crosslinkingof CelluloseAcetate with  

E-print Network

-92 (1987) 0 1987John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CCC 1360-6384/87/030089-04$04.00 #12;90 BIERMANN AND NARAYAN gel was translucent. The results of the elemental analysis (Table I) show that the carbon and hydrogen contents

Narayan, Ramani

186

40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester (generic...721.8660 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 721.8660 Propionic acid methyl ester...

2011-07-01

187

Mesoxalaldehyde acetals  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

1987-11-10

188

Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

189

The effect of intravenous l-carnitine on propionic acid excretion in acute propionic acidaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-week-old female infant presented in a severe metabolic crisis from propionic acidaemia. The condition was aggravated by pneumonia and heart insufficiency. In addition to the general supportive measures and caloric intake exclusively from glucose, intravenous l-carnitine treatment (2 g l-carnitine\\/24 h) was started to enhance propionic acid excretion as a carnitine conjugate. Despite the therapeutic efforts the patient died

H. Böhles; W. Lehnert

1984-01-01

190

Comparison of physical properties of regenerated cellulose films fabricated with different cellulose feedstocks in ionic liquid.  

PubMed

With the serious "white pollution" resulted from the non-biodegradable plastic films, considerable attention has been directed toward the development of renewable and biodegradable cellulose-based film materials as substitutes of petroleum-derived materials. In this study, environmentally friendly cellulose films were successfully prepared using different celluloses (pine, cotton, bamboo, MCC) as raw materials and ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate as a solvent. The SEM and AFM indicated that all cellulose films displayed a homogeneous and smooth surface. In addition, the FT-IR and XRD analysis showed the transition from cellulose I to II was occurred after the dissolution and regeneration process. Furthermore, the cellulose films prepared by cotton linters and pine possessed the most excellent thermal stability and mechanical properties, which were suggested by the highest onset temperature (285°C) and tensile stress (120MPa), respectively. Their excellent properties of regenerated cellulose films are promising for applications in food packaging and medical materials. PMID:25659673

Pang, JinHui; Wu, Miao; Zhang, QiaoHui; Tan, Xin; Xu, Feng; Zhang, XueMing; Sun, RunCang

2015-05-01

191

Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate  

SciTech Connect

Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate.

Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

1988-11-01

192

[The effect of methanol extracts of sawdust on the digestion of cellulose, hay and wheat bran in vitro].  

PubMed

An experiment was treated to investigate the effects of an extract of conditioned beech sawdust (80% methanol extraction) on the in vitro digestion of cellulose and on the digestion of hay and wheat bran diet (80 to 20%) in a artificial rumen (Rusitec). The addition of 10, 25, 50, 75 mg of extract to 0.25 g cellulose reduced significantly its digestibility from 94.5 to 92.9%; 90.4; 85.2; 82.1 and 80.1%, respectively. The addition of 0.6, 1.5 and 3.0 g of extract to 14 g diet DM in Rusitec decreased the digestibility from 49.6 to 41.8%. Gas (CO2, H2, CH4) production increased as well as the production of total volatile fatty acids: acetic, propionic, n-butyric and isobutyric, glucose utilization and ATP production were also better. The addition of extracts did not influence significantly the effectiveness of microbial proteosynthesis (YATP). The methanol extract of conditioned beech sawdust contained reducing sugars (saccharides), besides the phenolic substances (syringaldehyde and vanillin); these sugars influenced diet fermentation in Rusitec. PMID:2087799

Jalc, D; Zelenák, I; Bucko, J; Vendrák, T; Siroka, P

1990-07-01

193

Multicomponent solvents for cellulose triacetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a The effect of dipolar aprotic substances (urea or acetone) and also of protogenic molecules (acetic acid) or of the protophylic\\u000a acetate ion on the optical and rheological properties of cellulose triacetate spinning solutions has been examined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a It has been established that protolytes and dipolar aprotic substances in definite quantities aid in deaggregation of the\\u000a microgel particles and

G. P. Denisova; S. E. Artemenko; T. P. Ustinova; N. N. Chervonnaya

1992-01-01

194

Direct enzymatic acylation of cellulose pretreated in BMIMCl ionic liquid.  

PubMed

Cellulose esters are an important class of functional biopolymers with great interest in the chemical industry. In this work the enzymatic acylation of Avicel cellulose with vinyl propionate, vinyl laurate and vinyl stearate, has been performed successfully in a solvent free reaction system. At first cellulose was putted into the ionic liquid BMIMCl (1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) in order to facilitate the unwrap of the structure of the polysaccharide molecule and make it accessible to the enzyme. Thus, after this pretreatment the enzymatic esterification reaction was performed using various hydrolases. The enzymes capable of catalyzing the acylation of cellulose were found to be the immobilized esterase from hog liver and the immobilized cutinase from Fusarium solani, while the lipases used did not show any catalytic activity. Cellulose esters of propionate, laurate and stearate were synthesized with a degree of esterification of 1.9%, 1.3% and 1.0%, respectively. It is the first successful direct enzymatic acylation of cellulose with long chain fatty acids. PMID:20888759

Gremos, Stavros; Zarafeta, Dimitra; Kekos, Dimitris; Kolisis, Fragiskos

2011-01-01

195

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions  

E-print Network

In this study, we characterize the shear and extensional rheology of dilute to semidilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow, the semidilute solutions ...

Haward, Simon J.

196

N-carbamylglutamate augments ureagenesis and reduces ammonia and glutamine levels in patients with propionic acidemia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether N-carbamylglutamate reduces plasma levels of ammonia and glutamine and increases ureagenesis rate in patients with propionic acidemia Patients and Methods Identical four-hour studies were performed before and immediately after a 3-day trial of oral N-carbamylglutamate in 7 patients with propionic acidemia. An oral bolus of [13C]-sodium acetate was administered at the start of each study, and sequential blood samples were obtained to measure [13C]-urea, ammonia, urea and amino acids. Results With longitudinal mixed effects linear regression, peak [13C]urea increased following treatment with N-carbamylglutamate (from 2.2 ?M to 3.8 ?M; p < 0.0005). There were concomitant decreases in mean plasma ammonia (59 to 43 ?M, p <0.0005)) and glutamine (552 to 331 ?M, p <0.0005). Conclusion N-carbamylglutamate augments ureagenesis and decreases plasma ammonia and glutamine in patients with propionic acidemia. The drug may serve as an important therapeutic adjunct in the treatment of acute hyperammonemia in this disorder. PMID:20566609

Mew, Nicholas Ah; McCarter, Robert; Daikhin, Yevgeny; Nissim, Itzhak; Yudkoff, Marc; Tuchman, Mendel

2012-01-01

197

Bioconversion of cellulose into electrical energy in microbial fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In microbial fuel cells (MFCs), bacteria generate electricity by mediating the oxidation of organic compounds and transferring the resulting electrons to an anode electrode. The first objective of this study was to test the possibility of generating electricity with rumen microorganisms as biocatalysts and cellulose as the electron donor in two-compartment MFCs. Maximum power density reached 55 mW/m2 (1.5 mA, 313 mV) with cellulose as the electron donor. Cellulose hydrolysis and electrode reduction were shown to support the production of current. The electrical current was sustained for over two months with periodic cellulose addition. Clarified rumen fluid and a soluble carbohydrate mixture, serving as the electron donors, could also sustain power output. The second objective was to analyze the composition of the bacterial communities enriched in the cellulose-fed MFCs. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA genes revealed that the microbial communities differed when different substrates were used in the MFCs. The anode-attached and the suspended consortia were shown to be different within the same MFC. Cloning and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the most predominant bacteria in the anode-attached consortia were related to Clostridium spp., while Comamonas spp. was abundant in the suspended consortia. The external resistance affects the characteristic outputs of MFCs by controlling the flow of electrons from the anode to the cathode. The third objective of this study was to determine the effect of various external resistances on power output and coulombic efficiency of cellulose-fed MFCs. Four external resistances (20, 249, 480, and 1000 ohms) were tested with a systematic approach of operating parallel MFCs independently at constant circuit loads for three months. A maximum power density of 66 mWm-2 was achieved by MFCs with 20 ohms circuit load, while MFCs with 249, 480 and1000 ohms external resistances produced 57.5, 53 and 47 mWm-2, respectively. The anode potential varied under the different circuit loads employed. Higher coulombic efficiencies were achieved in MFCs with lower external resistance. The effect of different external resistances on the bacterial diversity and metabolism in cellulose-fed MFCs was investigated as the fourth objective. DGGE analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes showed clear differences between the planktonic and the anode-attached populations at various external resistances. Cellulose degradation was complete (< 0.1% residual), and there were no discernible differences among the MFCs. HPLC analysis of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) revealed that anaerobic degradation of cellulose was accompanied by production of acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, and lactic acids, with acetic acid being predominant. The profile of metabolites was different among the MFCs. The concentrations of SCFA were higher in MFCs with larger external resistance. High levels of SCFA indicated that fermentative metabolism dominated over anaerobic respiration, resulting in relatively low coulombic efficiencies. The accumulation of SCFA at higher circuit resistances corresponded to lower power outputs. Methanogenesis shifts the flow of electrons available from the substrate away from electricity generation in MFCs. The fifth objective of this research was to assess the influence of methane formation on the performance of cellulose-fed MFCs under long-term operation. A maximum volumetric power density of 3.5 W m-3 was achieved in R20O MFCs, which was three times greater than that obtained with R100O MFCs (1.03 W m-3). The diversity of methanogens in cellulose-fed MFCs was also characterized. It was shown that the suppression of methanogenesis was accompanied by a decrease in the diversity of methanogens and changes in the concentration of SCFA, as revealed by DGGE analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes and HPLC analysis, respectively. Analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene Sequences indicated that the most predominant methanogens were related to the fam

Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid

198

Iodine-Catalyzed Synthesis of Mixed Cellulose Esters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel method for the preparation of cellulose mixed acetate is described herein, involving the concurrent use of iodine and mixed anhydride. The method is simple, rapid, efficient, and solvent-less. With this method, cellulose mixed esters has been synthesized. ...

199

Acs is essential for propionate utilization in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Bacteria like Escherichia coli can use propionate as sole carbon and energy source. All pathways for degradation of propionate start with propionyl-CoA. However, pathways of propionyl-CoA synthesis from propionate and their regulation mechanisms have not been carefully examined in E. coli. In this study, roles of the acetyl-CoA synthetase encoding gene acs and the NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase encoding gene cobB on propionate utilization in E. coli were investigated. Results from biochemical analysis showed that, reversible acetylation also modulates the propionyl-CoA synthetase activity of Acs. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed that, deletion of acs in E. coli results in blockage of propionate utilization, suggesting that acs is essential for propionate utilization in E. coli. Besides, deletion of cobB in E. coli also results in growth defect, but only under lower concentrations of propionate (5mM and 10mM propionate), suggesting the existence of other propionyl-CoA synthesis pathways. In combination with previous observations, our data implies that, for propionate utilization in E. coli, a primary amount of propionyl-CoA seems to be required, which is synthesized by Acs. PMID:24835953

Liu, Fengying; Gu, Jing; Wang, Xude; Zhang, Xian-En; Deng, Jiaoyu

2014-07-01

200

Alpacas fed calcium propionate seem to moderate their energy intake.  

PubMed

Alpacas have evolved digestive and metabolic adaptations that enable them to survive in environments where the available feed varies in nutritional quality. Alpacas are thought to derive glucose from the deamination of amino acids in the liver, rather than via the conversion of propionate like true ruminants. Because fibre growth is dependent on the availability of absorbed amino acids, alpacas using amino acids as a source of energy should leave less amino acids available for fibre growth. If alpacas were to obtain glucose from a source of propionate, such as calcium propionate, the dependence on amino acids would be reduced leaving more available for fibre growth. Calcium propionate was added to the ration fed to 32 alpaca wethers, and fibre production was measured to monitor important fibre attributes in response to calcium propionate. Although the diets supplemented with calcium propionate should have provided more energy than the diets without calcium propionate, the metabolisable energy intake of all animals was similar (p = 0.278). It seems that rather than sparing amino acids, the alpacas regulated their energy intake and refused to consume the additional energy offered as calcium propionate. Consequently, they produced less fibre, and the diameter of their fibre was smaller than those alpacas that were not fed calcium propionate. It seems that alpacas rely on their digestive and metabolic adaptations to efficiently obtain and conserve energy for their survival. PMID:24621322

Lund, K E; Milton, J T B; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

2014-12-01

201

Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions Simon J. Haward1*  

E-print Network

1 Shear and Extensional Rheology of Cellulose/Ionic Liquid Solutions Simon J. Haward1* , Vivek-dilute solutions of cellulose in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc). In steady shear flow extensional viscosities of the semi-dilute cellulose solutions in a uniaxial extensional flow that mimics

202

Shift of propionate-oxidizing bacteria with HRT decrease in an UASB reactor containing propionate as a sole carbon source.  

PubMed

Propionate is a main intermediate product, and its degradation is crucial for maintaining the efficiency and stability of an anaerobic reactor. However, there was little information about the effects of ecological factor on propionate-oxidizing bacteria. In current research, microbial community composition and quantitative analysis of some identified propionate-oxidizing bacteria with hydraulic retention time (HRT) decrease in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor containing propionate as sole carbon source was investigated. The results showed that propionate-oxidizing bacteria from Syntrophobacter, Pelotomaculum, and Smithella were major functional bacteria in this UASB system. Most propionate-oxidizing bacteria in composition have not changed with HRT decrease. However, the number of previously identified propionate-oxidizing bacteria from these three genera exhibited significant shift. Under HRT 10 h condition, Pelotomaculum schinkii was dominant and its quantity was 1.2?×?10(4) 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies/ng DNA, occupying 56.2 % in total detectable propionate-oxidizing bacteria. HRT decrease from 10 h to 8 and 6 h stepwise resulted in P. schinkii, Syntrophobacter sulfatireducens and Smithella propionica becoming the main population. HRT decrease from 6 to 4 h did not markedly change the amount of propionate-oxidizing bacteria, but S. propionica dominated in the reactor. PMID:25261998

Ban, Qiaoying; Zhang, Liguo; Li, Jianzheng

2015-01-01

203

Synthesis of cellulose methylcarbonate in ionic liquids using dimethylcarbonate.  

PubMed

Dialkylcarbonates are viewed as low-cost, low-toxicity reagents, finding application in many areas of green chemistry. Homogeneous alkoxycarbonylation of cellulose was accomplished by applying dialkycarbonates (dimethyl and diethyl carbonate) in the ionic liquid-electrolyte trioctylphosphonium acetate ([P8881 ][OAc])/DMSO or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][OAc]). Cellulose dialkylcarbonates with a moderate degree of substitution (DS?1) are accessible via this procedure and cellulose methylcarbonate was thoroughly characterized for its chemical and physical properties after regeneration. This included HSQC & HMBC?NMR, ATR-IR, molecular weight distribution, morphology, thermal properties, and barrier properties after film formation. PMID:25378289

Labafzadeh, Sara R; Helminen, K Juhani; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; King, Alistair W T

2015-01-01

204

Electrospun fullerenol-cellulose biocompatible actuators.  

PubMed

Though there are many stimuli-responsive polymer actuators based on synthetic polymers, electroactive natural biopolymer actuators are very rare. We developed an electrospun fullernol-cellulose biocompatible actuator with much lower power consumption and larger electromechanical displacement in comparison with a pure cellulose acetate actuator. Morphology of the electrospun membranes resembles the nanoporous structure of extracellular matrix in natural muscles. Presence of minute concentrations of fullerenol leads to sharp increase in the degree of crystallinity and substantial increase in tensile strength of membranes. Chemical interactions between cellulose acetate and fullerenols are confirmed by three shifts in carboxylate, carboxy, and carbonyl linkages from the Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. Much larger tip displacement, nearly 3-fold even at 0.5 wt % fullerenol content, was observed with much lower power consumption under both alternating and direct current conditions. PMID:21517072

Li, Jia; Vadahanambi, Sridhar; Kee, Chang-Doo; Oh, Il-Kwon

2011-06-13

205

Dissolution of cellulose with a novel solvent and formation of regenerated cellulose fiber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cellulose solution was prepared by a new cellulose solvent, tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A new kind of regenerated cellulose fibers was spun successfully for the first time from the cellulose solution by a wet spinning system. The dissolving process of cellulose in TBAA/DMSO was observed by confocal laser scanning microscope. The rheological of the cellulose dopes was determined by rotated rheometer, and the results showed that the cellulose/TBAA/DMSO solution was a typical shear-thinning fluid. In addition, the morphology, chemical structure and mechanical properties of the prepared cellulose fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), 13C CP/MAS NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electronic tensile tester, respectively. The SEM patterns showed that the regenerated fibers possessed a smooth surface and circular cross section. The results from 13C NMR and XRD patterns indicated that the novel fibers mainly exhibited amorphous cellulose. Meanwhile, the novel fibers have good mechanical properties.

Sun, Haibo; Miao, Jiaojiao; Yu, Yongqi; Zhang, Liping

2015-01-01

206

Biologically Active Cellulose Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review deals with the synthesis and applications of biologically active cellulose derivatives. The synthesis of cellulose derivatives with antimicrobial and haemostatic (arresting blood flow) properties, the possible fields of application of antimicrobial and haemostatic cellulose materials, the synthesis of graft copolymers of cellulose and biologically active proteins (enzymes and antigens), and medical applications of cellulose derivatives containing ionogenic or

A D Virnik

1973-01-01

207

Preparation of sulfoacetate derivatives of cellulose by direct esterification.  

PubMed

A new and efficient method for the preparation in one step of water-soluble cellulose acetate sulfate derivatives (CAS) is reported. Acetylation and sulfation were carried out simultaneously, using a mixture of acetic anhydride and sulfuric acid in glacial acetic acid. The reaction time and the amount of acetic anhydride were optimized and the method provided water-soluble esters, with a degree of acetylation in the range 1.6 and 2.4 and a degree of sulfation of 0.3. This method has been successfully applied to pure cellulose and to cellulose-enriched materials obtained from agricultural by-products. The product exhibited a high viscosity in aqueous solution suggesting interesting rheological properties. PMID:12668094

Chauvelon, Gaëlle; Buléon, Alain; Thibault, Jean-François; Saulnier, Luc

2003-04-01

208

Rheological properties of sulfoacetate derivatives of cellulose.  

PubMed

Water-soluble cellulose acetate sulfate derivatives (CAS) have been prepared through chemical reaction involving sulfuric acid as a catalyst. These CAS have been obtained from cellulosic materials of different origins (pure cellulose, wheat bran, maize bran) and their rheological behavior in salt-free aqueous solution has been estimated in dilute and semi-dilute regime using dynamic viscoelastic and viscosity measurements. Influence of concentration, temperature of solubilization and temperature of measurement has been investigated. Weak gel-like properties were exhibited at elevated concentration (typically above 7-8 g/L). These systems also exhibited thixotropic properties: the structure was partly broken down upon shearing and recovered at rest. They also displayed thermoreversibility with large hysteresis, the melting temperature being approximately 15 degrees C higher than the temperature at which gelation took place. These overall observations clearly indicate that these distinctive properties arise from intermolecular association of the macromolecular chains of the cellulose derivative. PMID:12668095

Chauvelon, Gaëlle; Doublier, Jean-Louis; Buléon, Alain; Thibault, Jean-François; Saulnier, Luc

2003-04-01

209

Electrospun nanofibrous cellulose scaffolds with controlled microarchitecture.  

PubMed

Introducing porosity in electrospun scaffolds is critical to improve cell penetration and nutrient diffusion for tissue engineering. Nanofibrous cellulose scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning cellulose acetate (CA) followed by saponification to regenerate cellulose. Using a computer-assisted design approach, scaffolds underwent laser ablation resulting in pores with diameters between 50 and 300 ?m without damaging or modifying the surrounding scaffold area. A new mineralization method was employed in conjunction with microablation using commercial phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to soak carboxymethylcellulose surface-modified electrospun scaffolds. The resulting crystals within the scaffold on the interior of the pore had a calcium to phosphate ratio of 1.56, similar to hydroxyapatite. It was observed that porosity of the cellulose scaffolds enhanced osteoblast cell attachment at the edge of the pores, while mineralization enhanced overall cell density. PMID:24188848

Rodríguez, Katia; Sundberg, Johan; Gatenholm, Paul; Renneckar, Scott

2014-01-16

210

Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1990-07-01

211

Cellulose Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fire retardant cellulose insulation is produced by shredding old newspapers and treating them with a combination of chemicals. Insulating material is blown into walls and attics to form a fiber layer which blocks the flow of air. All-Weather Insulation's founders asked NASA/UK-TAP to help. They wanted to know what chemicals added to newspaper would produce an insulating material capable of meeting federal specifications. TAP researched the query and furnished extensive information. The information contributed to successful development of the product and helped launch a small business enterprise which is now growing rapidly.

1980-01-01

212

Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

213

Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

214

Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445840

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

215

Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

216

Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22421639

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

217

International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences V1(2)2010 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYVINYL ACETATE (KOLLIDON ® SR) MICROSPHERES CONTAINING DICLOFENAC SODIUM: EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CELLULOSIC AND ACRYLIC POLYMERS.  

E-print Network

Emulsion-solvent evaporation technique was used to prepare Diclofenac sodium (DS) loaded Kollidon ® SR (KSR) microspheres. Cellulosic polymers (HPMC 6 cps, 15 cps) and polymethacrylic polymers (Eudragit E100, Eudragit RL PO, and Eudragit RS PO) were added with KSR at 10 % wt/wt of KSR. The effect of these polymers on drug content, particle size, surface morphology and DS release rate was evaluated. The DS encapsulation efficiency (%) varied from 66 % to 77%. The mean particle diameter varied from 420 to 1280 µm. In vitro release study for 8 hours was conducted in 0.2 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2). DS release was 94 % from KSR microspheres containing no coating polymer. As the coating polymers were added, DS release was found to be retarded considerably from all the formulations. Eudragit E100 retarded the DS release most and it was 71.2%. The release data were also evaluated statistically and a significant correlation was found within the release data.

Md. Saiful Islam; Reza-ul Jalil

218

Liver transplantation for propionic acidemia in children.  

PubMed

Propionic acidemia (PA) is a rare inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism; despite improvements in conventional medical management, the long-term outcome remains disappointing. Liver transplantation (LT) has been proposed to minimize the risk of further metabolic decompensations and to improve the quality of life. We performed a retrospective review of all children with PA who underwent LT between 1987 and 2008. Five children were identified with a median age of 1.2 years (range = 0.7-4.1 years) at referral. Four of the children presented clinically at 3 weeks of age or less, and 1 child was diagnosed prenatally. All had metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia. Two had seizures and required intensive care; this care included inotropic support and continuous venovenous hemofiltration in 1 child. The children were considered for elective LT for the following reasons: frequent metabolic decompensations (2), previous sibling death (2), and elective management (1). One child underwent auxiliary LT, and 4 children received orthotopic grafts (1 living related graft). The median age at LT was 1.5 years (range = 0.8-7.0 years). There was 1 retransplant 3 months after LT due to hepatic artery thrombosis. One year after LT, 1 patient suffered a metabolic stroke with minimal residual neurology. After a median follow-up of 7.3 years (range = 2.2-15.0 years), all the children had normal graft function and a good quality of life with a protein-unrestricted diet and no further metabolic decompensations. In conclusion, LT has a role in the management of PA: it reduces the risk of metabolic decompensation and improves the quality of life. The potential for the development of metabolic sequelae is not completely eliminated. PMID:21618686

Vara, Roshni; Turner, Charles; Mundy, Helen; Heaton, Nigel D; Rela, Mohammed; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Champion, Mike; Hadzic, Nedim

2011-06-01

219

Np(v) complexation with propionate in 0.5-4 M NaCl solutions at 20-85 °C.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight organics (LMWO; e.g. acetate, propionate, lactate) can significantly impact the speciation and mobility of radionuclides in aqueous media. Natural clay rock formation, considered as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal, can contain a significant amount of organic matter. There are less thermodynamic data reported for the complexation of pentavalent actinides with LMWO, especially under elevated temperature conditions, relevant for assessing the long-term safety of disposal options for heat-producing high-level nuclear waste. In the present study, the complexation of Np(v) with propionate is studied using spectroscopic techniques in 0.5-4 M NaCl solutions by systematic variation of the ligand concentration and temperature. Slope analysis shows the formation of the 1?:?1 NpO2-propionate complex (NpO2Prop). The local structure of the NpO2-propionate complex is determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the results of which suggest that propionate binds to Np(v) in a bidentate mode. Using the specific ion interaction theory (SIT), the stability constant at zero ionic strength and 25 °C is determined as log??°1,1 = 1.26 ± 0.03. The stability constants increase continuously with increasing temperature between 20 and 85 °C. The log??0 values are linearly correlated with the reciprocal temperature, indicating ?rH = const. and ?rC = 0, allowing the calculation of ?rH and ?rS for the formation of the NpO2-propionate complex using the integrated van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamic evaluation indicates that the reaction is endothermic and entropy driven. PMID:25611787

Vasiliev, Aleksandr N; Banik, Nidhu L; Marsac, Rémi; Froehlich, Daniel R; Rothe, Jörg; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Marquardt, Christian M

2015-02-10

220

Utilization of biocatalysts in cellulose waste minimization  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the principal component of biomass and, therefore, a major source of waste that is either buried or burned. Examples of biomass waste include agricultural crop residues, forestry products, and municipal wastes. Recycling of this waste is important for energy conservation as well as waste minimization and there is some probability that in the future biomass could become a major energy source and replace fossil fuels that are currently used for fuels and chemicals production. It has been estimated that in the United States, between 100-450 million dry tons of agricultural waste are produced annually, approximately 6 million dry tons of animal waste, and of the 190 million tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated annually, approximately two-thirds is cellulosic in nature and over one-third is paper waste. Interestingly, more than 70% of MSW is landfilled or burned, however landfill space is becoming increasingly scarce. On a smaller scale, important cellulosic products such as cellulose acetate also present waste problems; an estimated 43 thousand tons of cellulose ester waste are generated annually in the United States. Biocatalysts could be used in cellulose waste minimization and this chapter describes their characteristics and potential in bioconversion and bioremediation processes.

Woodward, J.; Evans, B.R.

1996-09-01

221

CCMR: Cellulose Fiber Spinning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The environmentally friendly production of cellulose fibers is the ultimate goal of this project, other factors need to be researched before they can be made, including the effects of different coagulants and molecular weight celluloses on cellulose recrystallization. With this, this project focused on studying the effects of 2 coagulants, methanol and ethanol, as well as the effects of a lower molecular weight and a higher molecular weight cellulose, Cellulose CC41 and Weyerhauser Flint River Lyocell August Trial wood pulp respectively, on cellulose recrystallization.

Carranco, Kristen

2004-08-17

222

The hygroscopic power of amorphous cellulose: a modeling study.  

PubMed

The relationship between cellulose and water was studied by building dense amorphous cellulose models and subjecting them to increasing moisture contents. When starting from completely dry cellulose, the first diffused water molecules were essentially individualized and hydrogen bonded exclusively to the O6 and O2 hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Upon continued hydration increase, the hydroxyl at O3 and then the acetal oxygens of cellulose also started to attract the upcoming water molecules, which were no longer isolated. They progressively became aggregated, first into clusters and then at high hydration content, into continuous capillary channels. A benefit of this study was to allow predicting a number of physical parameters of amorphous cellulose and their variation under hydration. With some parameters, the calculated values matched rather well the experimental literature determinations. This was the case for the hydration dependence of Tg, the stereoselectivity of the cellulose oxygen atoms for water molecules, together with the diffusion coefficients of water into cellulose. An estimate of the hygro-expansion of amorphous cellulose was provided. PMID:25498674

Mazeau, Karim

2015-03-01

223

Infectious complications of propionic acidemia in Saudia Arabia.  

PubMed

A retrospective study of 38 patients with propionic acidemia indicates a high frequency of infections; affecting 80% of such patients. The Saudi Arabian population studied is a product of consanguineous marriages, and presents with a severe phenotype. Most microorganisms implicated are unusual, which suggests an underlying immune deficiency. These frequent infections occur despite aggressive treatment with appropriate diets, carnitine and during acute episodes of the disease with metronidazole, which suggests a global effect of the disease on T and B lymphocytes as well as on the bone marrow cells. Any patient with propionic acidemia should be closely followed up for an intercurrent infection in association with acute metabolic decompensation. PMID:9727749

Al Essa, M; Rahbeeni, Z; Jumaah, S; Joshi, S; Al Jishi, E; Rashed, M S; Al Amoudi, M; Ozand, P T

1998-07-01

224

Cellulose\\/chitosan hybrid nanofibers from electrospinning of their ester derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facile approach has been established to generate cellulose\\/chitosan hybrid nanofibers with full range of compositions by\\u000a electrospinning of their ester derivatives, cellulose acetate (CA) and dibutyryl chitin (DBC), followed by alkaline hydrolysis\\u000a to cellulose (Cell) and chitosan (CS). DBC was synthesized by acid-catalyzed acylation of chitin (CHI) with butyric anhydride\\u000a and the newly formed butyl groups on C3 and

Jian Du; You-Lo Hsieh

2009-01-01

225

Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

226

Metagenomics detects functional shifts in the bovine rumen microbiota in response to propionate intake  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optimizing rumen microbial ecosystem output is essential towards improved ruminant agriculture. Ruminal infusion or intake of propionate, one of the predominant volatile fatty acids, has important implications for host physiology. However, how the rumen microbiota responds to propionate administrat...

227

ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

2010-06-01

228

Rumen Propionate and Blood Glucose Kinetics in Growing Cattle Fed Isoenergetic Diets1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between rumen propionate production and blood glucose kinetics was examined in four rumen-fistulated Holstein steers fed isoenergetic amounts of 80\\/20 ( G ) and 30\\/70 ( R ) grain\\/chopped alfalfa hay diets at 2-hour intervals. Single-injection rumen propionate and blood glucose kinetics were determined in consecutive 4-hour periods by using (6-3H)glucose intravenously then (1-14C)propionate intraruminally. Rumen propionate specific

JOSEPH H. HERBEIN; RANDALL W. VAN MAANEN; A. DARE McGILLIARD ANDJERRY; W. YOUNG

2009-01-01

229

Propionic-Acid-Terminated Silicon Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Optical Characterization  

E-print Network

Sato, and Mark T. Swihart*, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, UniVersity at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, New York 14260-4200, and Graduate School of Material Science, UniVersity of Hyogo, 3 producing water-dispersible, propionic-acid-terminated particles. From transmission electron microscope (TEM

Swihart, Mark T.

230

A Brief Review on Propionic Acid: A Renewal Energy Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 3 decades, there has been a resurgence of interest in large-scale production of fermentation chemicals due to the sharp increase in petroleum cost. So the potential role of a new energy efficient fermentation technology is receiving growing attention. Carboxylic acids like as propionic, lactic, citric, tartaric acid etc. have been used as the most efficient fermentation chemicals.

Sushil Kumar; B. V. Babu

231

75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion...decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate...pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea...

2010-12-15

232

75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8840-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration...decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, and urea sulfate and opens...decisions. The active ingredient propionic acid is a fungicide and bactericide that...

2010-08-18

233

Population dynamics of propionate-oxidizing bacteria under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions in anaerobic granular sludge.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge-bed reactors were inoculated with industrial granular sludge and fed with either propionate or propionate and sulfate. The population dynamics of the propionate-oxidizing bacteria Desulfobulbus sp. and the syntrophically growing strain SYN7 were studied in reactors by dot blot and in situ hybridization with 16S rRNA-based oligonucleotide probes. PMID:8787413

Harmsen, H J; Akkermans, A D; Stams, A J; de Vos, W M

1996-01-01

234

Highly efficient propionylation and butyralation of cellulose in an ionic liquid catalyzed by 4-dimethylminopyridine.  

PubMed

Using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as the catalyst, highly efficient propionylation and butyralation of cellulose were successfully carried out in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) under mild conditions. Cellulose propionate (CP) and cellulose butyrate (CB) with a degree of substitution (DS) in the range from 0.89 to 2.89 were synthesized within only 30 min at 30 °C. The DS values of the products could be well controlled just by molar ratio of acid anhydride/anhydroglucose unit (AGU). More interestingly, the conversions of acid anhydrides in both propionylation and butyralation were as high as above 90%, even 96%. Therefore, this work provides a facile and highly efficient way for the synthesis of cellulose esters CP and CB. PMID:23218299

Luan, Yihao; Zhang, Jinming; Zhan, Maosheng; Wu, Jin; Zhang, Jun; He, Jiasong

2013-01-30

235

Electrically conductive cellulose composite  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

2010-05-04

236

Cellulosic waste degradation by rumen-enhanced anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic material is carried out effectively in many natural microbial ecosystems including the rumen. A rumen-enhanced anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to investigate cellulose degradation to give analysis of overall process stoichiometry and rates of hydrolysis. The reactor achieved VFA production rates of 207-236 mg COD/L/h at a loading rate of 10 g/L/d. Overloading of the reactor resulted in elevated production of propionic acid, and on occasion, the presence of succinic acid. With improvements in mixing and solids wasting, the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system could enable full-scale application of the process for treatment of cellulosic waste material. PMID:14531434

Barnes, S P; Keller, J

2003-01-01

237

Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate  

PubMed Central

The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

2013-01-01

238

Cellulose-silica aerogels.  

PubMed

Aerogels based on interpenetrated cellulose-silica networks were prepared and characterised. Wet coagulated cellulose was impregnated with silica phase, polyethoxydisiloxane, using two methods: (i) molecular diffusion and (ii) forced flow induced by pressure difference. The latter allowed an enormous decrease in the impregnation times, by almost three orders of magnitude, for a sample with the same geometry. In both cases, nanostructured silica gel was in situ formed inside cellulose matrix. Nitrogen adsorption analysis revealed an almost threefold increase in pores specific surface area, from cellulose aerogel alone to organic-inorganic composite. Morphology, thermal conductivity and mechanical properties under uniaxial compression were investigated. Thermal conductivity of composite aerogels was lower than that of cellulose aerogel due to the formation of superinsulating mesoporous silica inside cellulose pores. Furthermore, composite aerogels were stiffer than each of reference aerogels. PMID:25817671

Demilecamps, Arnaud; Beauger, Christian; Hildenbrand, Claudia; Rigacci, Arnaud; Budtova, Tatiana

2015-05-20

239

Regulation and Evolution of Malonate and Propionate Catabolism in Proteobacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacteria catabolize malonate via two pathways, encoded by the mdc and mat genes. In various bacteria, transcription of these genes is controlled by the GntR family transcription factors (TFs) MatR/MdcY and/or the LysR family transcription factor MdcR. Propionate is metabolized via the methylcitrate pathway, comprising enzymes encoded by the prp and acn genes. PrpR, the Fis family sigma 54-dependent transcription factor, is known to be a transcriptional activator of the prp genes. Here, we report a detailed comparative genomic analysis of malonate and propionate metabolism and its regulation in proteobacteria. We characterize genomic loci and gene regulation and identify binding motifs for four new TFs and also new regulon members, in particular, tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transporters. We describe restructuring of the genomic loci and regulatory interactions during the evolution of proteobacteria. PMID:22505679

Suvorova, I. A.; Ravcheev, D. A.

2012-01-01

240

Xyloglucan in cellulose modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xyloglucans are the principal polysaccharides coating and crosslinking cellulose microfibrills in the majority of land plants.\\u000a This review summarizes current knowledge of xyloglucan structures, solution properties, and the mechanism of interaction of\\u000a xyloglucans with cellulose. This knowledge base forms the platform for new biomimetic methods of cellulose surface modification\\u000a with applications within the fields of textile manufacture, papermaking, and materials

Qi Zhou; Mark W. Rutland; Tuula T. Teeri; Harry Brumer

2007-01-01

241

Essential fatty acids in clinically stable children with propionic acidaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances of fatty acid metabolism with accumulation of odd-chain fatty acids have been reported in propionic acidaemia (PA). It is not known whether the synthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) is also affected. In five clinically stable children with PA (median age 8 years, range 3.5-9.5 years; median percentage fibroblast propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity 0.8, range 0.8-1.5), we determined the

T. Decsi; W. Sperl; B. Koletzko

1997-01-01

242

Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

Zhao, Hua [Savannah State University; Jones, Cecil L [Savannah State University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Xia, Shuqian [Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Olubajo, Olarongbe [Savannah State University; Person, Vernecia [Savannah State University

2009-01-01

243

Surface esterification of cellulose nanofibers by a simple organocatalytic methodology.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose nanofibers were esterified with two short carboxylic acids by means of a simple and novel organic acid-catalyzed route. The methodology proposed relayed on the use of a non-toxic biobased ?-hydroxycarboxylic acid as catalyst, and proceeded under moderate reaction conditions in solventless medium. By varying the esterification interval, acetylated and propionized bacterial cellulose nanofibers with degree of substitution (DS) in the 0.02-0.45 range could be obtained. Esterified bacterial cellulose samples were characterized by means of Solid-State CP/MAS (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (CP/MAS (13)C NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and chosen hydrophobicity test assays. TGA results showed that the esterified nanofibers had increased thermal stability, whereas XRD data evidenced that the organocatalytic esterification protocol did not alter their crystallinity. The analysis of the ensuing modified nanofibers by NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA demonstrated that esterification occurred essentially at the surface of bacterial cellulose microfibrils, something highly desirable for changing their surface hydrophilicity while not affecting their ultrastructure. PMID:25263909

Avila Ramírez, Jhon Alejandro; Suriano, Camila Juan; Cerrutti, Patricia; Foresti, María Laura

2014-12-19

244

SYNTHESIS OF CELLULOSE BY ACETOBACTER XYLINUM VI.  

PubMed Central

Gromet-Elhanan, Zippora (The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel) and Shlomo Hestrin. Synthesis of cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum. VI. Growth on citric acid-cycle intermediates. J. Bacteriol. 85:284–292. 1963.—Acetobacter xylinum could be made to grow on ethanol, acetate, succinate, or l-malate. The growth was accompanied by formation of opaque leathery pellicles on the surface of the growth medium. These pellicles were identified as cellulose on the basis of their chemical properties, solubility behavior, and infrared absorption spectra. Washed-cell suspensions prepared from cultures grown on ethanol or the organic acids, in contrast to washed sugar-grown cells, were able to transform citric-cycle intermediates into cellulose. The variations in the substrate spectrum of cellulose synthesis between sugar-grown cells and organic acids-grown cells were found to be correlated with differences in the oxidative capacity of the cells. The significance of the findings that A. xylinum could be made to grow on ethanol on complex as well as synthetic media is discussed from the viewpoint of the whole pattern of Acetobacter classification. PMID:13950665

Gromet-Elhanan, Zippora; Hestrin, Shlomo

1963-01-01

245

Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a ? of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

2008-08-01

246

Design and Evaluation of Ethyl Cellulose Based Matrix Tablets of Ibuprofen with pH Modulated Release Kinetics  

PubMed Central

Controlled release preparations have been reported to reduce the gastro irritant and ulcerogenic effects of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. In the present study, an attempt was made to develop matrix tablet-based controlled release formulations of ibuprofen, using ethyl cellulose as the rate-controlling polymer. In order to prevent initial release of the drug in the acidic environment of the stomach, cellulose acetate phthalate was incorporated in the matrix in varying amounts. It was found that with increasing the proportion of ethyl cellulose in the matrix, the drug release was extended for 14-16 h. Incorporation of cellulose acetate phthalate in ethyl cellulose matrix provided very low initial release of the drug in the first 2-3 h followed by enhanced release rate in alkaline medium owing to the high solubility of cellulose acetate phthalate at basic pH which led to creation of a porous matrix. It was concluded that combination of cellulose acetate phthalate with ethyl cellulose in the matrix base can be an effective means of developing a controlled release formulation of ibuprofen with very low initial release followed with controlled release up to 14-16 h. PMID:21394255

Chandran, S.; Asghar, Laila F. A.; Mantha, Neelima

2008-01-01

247

Ionic liquids as reaction medium in cellulose functionalization.  

PubMed

The application of different ionic liquids (IL), namely 1-N-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim](+)Cl(-)), 3-methyl-N-butyl-pyridinium chloride and benzyldimethyl(tetradecyl)ammonium chloride were investigated as solvents for cellulose. The ILs used have the ability to dissolve cellulose with a degree of polymerization in the range from 290 to 1 200 to a very high concentration. Using [C(4)mim](+)Cl(-), no degradation of the polymer appears. By (13)C NMR measurement it was confirmed that this IL is a so-called non-derivatizing solvent. [C(4)mim](+)Cl(-) can be applied as a reaction medium for the synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate. Without using any catalyst, cellulose derivatives with high degree of substitution could be prepared.(13)C NMR spectrum of cellulose dissolved in the IL [C(4)mim](+)Cl(-) (top). The (13)C NMR spectrum of cellulose dissolved in DMSO/tetrabutylammonium fluoride trihydrate is shown for comparison (bottom). PMID:15948229

Heinze, Thomas; Schwikal, Katrin; Barthel, Susann

2005-06-24

248

Microbial production of propionic acid from propionibacteria: current state, challenges and perspectives.  

PubMed

Propionic acid (PA) is an important building block chemical and finds a variety of applications in organic synthesis, food, feeding stuffs, perfume, paint and pharmaceutical industries. Presently, PA is mainly produced by petrochemical route. With the continuous increase in oil prices, public concern about environmental pollution, and the consumers' desire for bio-based natural and green ingredients in foods and pharmaceuticals, PA production from propionibacteria has attracted considerable attention, and substantial progresses have been made on microbial PA production. However, production of PA by propionibacteria is facing challenges such as severe inhibition of end-products during cell growth and the formation of by-products (acetic acid and succinic acid). The integration of reverse metabolic engineering and systematic metabolic engineering provides an opportunity to significantly improve the acid tolerance of propionibacteria and reduce the formation of by-products, and makes it feasible to strengthen the commercial competition of biotechnological PA production from propionibacteria to be comparable to the petrochemical route. PMID:22299651

Liu, Long; Zhu, Yunfeng; Li, Jianghua; Wang, Miao; Lee, Pengsoon; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2012-12-01

249

Cellulose binding domain proteins  

SciTech Connect

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

1998-11-17

250

Nanofibrillar cellulose aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly porous aerogels consisting of cellulose nanofibrils were prepared by dissolution\\/regeneration of cellulose in aq. calcium thiocyanate followed by regeneration and carefully controlled drying. The influence of drying method (regular freeze drying, rapid freeze drying, and solvent exchange drying) on resulting porosity was studied by electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption. While regular freeze drying caused significant coalescence of microfibrillar units,

Hao Jin; Yoshiharu Nishiyama; Masahisa Wada; Shigenori Kuga

2004-01-01

251

Cellulose binding domain proteins  

DOEpatents

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy (Davis, CA)

1998-01-01

252

Enzymology of cellulose degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years there has been a considerable improvement in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the microbial degradation of cellulose, but there are still many uncertainties. As presently understood, it would appear that different mechanisms may operate in the various types of microorganism. Thus degradation of crystalline cellulose is effected by anaerobic bacteria by large Ca-dependent

Thomas M. Wood; Vicenta Garcia-Campayo

1990-01-01

253

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

1998-01-01

254

Preparation of vinyl acetate  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

1998-03-24

255

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

256

Cellulose in Cyanobacteria. Origin of Vascular Plant Cellulose Synthase?  

E-print Network

Cellulose in Cyanobacteria. Origin of Vascular Plant Cellulose Synthase? David R. Nobles, Dwight K of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 Although cellulose biosynthesis among the cyanobacteria has been suggested previously, we present the first conclusive evidence, to our knowledge, of the presence of cellulose

Brown Jr., R. Malcolm

257

Cellulose and psyllium supplementation in 10 females: the effect on food intake and in vitro fermentation variables  

E-print Network

Fermentation of Dietary Fiber . . . 3 Effect on Fecal Bulk . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Effect on pH 9 Effect on Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Effect on Short Chain Fatty Acids 11 Effect of Fiber Supplementation on Food Intake... Butyrate Production Propionate:Butyrate Production Total Short Chain Fatty Acid Production The Ratio of Total Short Chain Page 22 22 24 26 29 31 33 35 Fatty Acids From Psyllium:Cellulose Substrates 37 Effect of Fiber Supplementation on Food...

Haynes, Susan Renee

1988-01-01

258

Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the importance and implications of regulating carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis, the characteristics of cells that serve as major sinks for cellulose deposition, and enzymes that participate in the conversion of supplied carbon to cellulose. Cotton fibers, which deposit almost pure cellulose into their secondary cell walls, are referred to as a primary model system. For sucrose

Candace H. Haigler; Milka Ivanova-Datcheva; Patrick S. Hogan; Vadim V. Salnikov; Sangjoon Hwang; Kirt Martin; Deborah P. Delmer

2001-01-01

259

Growth and characterization of organic NLO material: Clobetasol propionate.  

PubMed

Single crystals of clobetasol propionate (CP) have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique using mixed solvent of methanol-acetone. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm their lattice parameter and space group. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the grown CP has been indexed. Thermal analysis was performed to study the thermal stability of the grown crystals. Photoluminescence spectrum shows broad emission peak observed at 421nm. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out for the grown crystal and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found in the crystal. PMID:25791879

Purusothaman, R; Rajesh, P; Ramasamy, P

2015-06-15

260

Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

261

Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

262

Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

263

Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

264

Effects of volatile fatty acids on propionate metabolism and gluconeogenesis in caprine hepatocytes  

SciTech Connect

Isolated caprine hepatocytes were incubated with fatty acids of various chain lengths. Short-chain fatty acids effects on rates of gluconeogenesis and oxidation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate were determined. Additions of glucose (2.5 mM) had no effect on hepatic (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate metabolism in the presence and absence of amino acids. A complete mixture of amino acids increased label incorporation from (2-/sup 14/C) propionate into (/sup 14/C) glucose by 22%. Butyrate inhibited (2-/sup 14/C) propionate metabolism and increased the apparent Michaelis constant for (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into (/sup 14/C) glucose from 2.4 +/- 1.5 to 5.6 +/- .9 mM. Butyrate's effects on propionate were similar in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (1 mM). Isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate, and valerate (1.25 mM) had no effect on (/sup 14/C) glucose production but decreased /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production to 57, 61, and 54% of the control (2-/sup 14/C) propionate (1.25 mM). This inhibition on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was not competitive. Isovalerate had no effect on either (2-/sup 14/C) propionate incorporation into glucose of CO/sub 2/. An increase in ratio of (/sup 14/C) glucose to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (2-/sup 14/C)-propionate demonstrated that short-chain fatty acids other than butyrate do not inhibit gluconeogenesis from propionate. In addition, fatty acids that generate a net synthesis of intracellular oxaloacetate may partition propionate carbons toward gluconeogenic rather than oxidative pathways in goat hepatocytes.

Aiello, R.J.; Armentano, L.E.

1987-12-01

265

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of thiol reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, E.A.; Demain, A.L.; Madia, A.

1983-05-13

266

Method of saccharifying cellulose  

DOEpatents

A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

1985-09-10

267

Mercerized linters cellulose: characterization and acetylation in N, N-dimethylacetamide\\/lithium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linters cellulose was subjected to different treatments (mercerization and ionized air) before acetylation with acetic anhydride, in homogeneous medium, using DMAc\\/LiCl as solvent system. Before derivatization, the treated fibres were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, alpha-cellulose content, Inverse Gas Chromatography and viscosimetry. It was shown that except a decrease in the dispersive surface energy, the treatments induced small

Beatriz A. P. Ass; Mohamed N. Belgacem; Elisabete Frollini

2006-01-01

268

Effective cellulose production by a coculture of Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Lactobacillus mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial colony that contained a marked amount of cellulose was isolated from vineyard soil. The colony was formed by the associated growth of two bacterial strains: a cellulose-producing acetic acid bacterium (st-60-12) and a lactic acid bacterium (st-20). The 16S rDNA-based taxonomy indicated that st-60-12 belonged to Gluconacetobacter xylinus and st-20 was closely related to Lactobacillus mali. Cocultivation of

Akira Seto; Yu Saito; Mayumi Matsushige; Hiroki Kobayashi; Yasuyuki Sasaki; Naoto Tonouchi; Takayasu Tsuchida; Fumihiro Yoshinaga; Kenji Ueda; Teruhiko Beppu

2006-01-01

269

Measures of de novo synthesis of milk components from propionate in lactating goats  

SciTech Connect

Possible direct contributions of propionate to de novo synthesis of milk components by the mammary gland of lactating goats fed a concentrate-roughage diet have been studied in vivo by primed constant infusion of (1-carbon-14)propionate into the right mammary artery. Specific radioactivities of milk galactose, fatty acids, and protein were higher in the infused than in the uninfused half of the mammary gland, suggesting de novo synthesis of these compounds in the udder. Specific radioactivities of milk glucose in both udder halves were identical, ruling out any possibility of mammary gland-derived glucose from propionate of blood plasma under the experimental conditions. Of milk galactose, .8% was derived from propionate of blood plasma, and of milk glucose, 98% was derived from glucose of blood plasma. After intraruminal infusion of unlabeled propionic acid at 11 g/h, concentration of propionate in blood plasma was doubled, its contribution to milk galactose was increased to 1.5%, and proportions of milk odd-numbered fatty acids were increased. Propionate was incorporated largely into milk odd-numbered fatty acids. The authors conclude that small amounts of propionate can be incorporated into principal components of milk in the mammary gland of lactating goats.

Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

1985-02-01

270

Salmeterol and Fluticasone Propionate and Survival in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing salmeterol at a dose of 50 ?g plus fluticasone propionate at a dose of 500 ?g twice daily (combination regi- men), administered with a single inhaler, with placebo, salmeterol alone, or fluticasone propionate alone for a period of 3 years. The primary outcome was death from any cause for the comparison between the

Peter M. A. Calverley; Julie A. Anderson; Bartolome Celli; Gary T. Ferguson; Christine Jenkins; Paul W. Jones; Julie C. Yates; Jørgen Vestbo

2007-01-01

271

Comparison of asthma costs in patients starting fluticasone propionate compared to patients starting montelukast  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observational study using pharmacy and medical claims was used to determine whether there are differences in asthma care cost between patients that are newly started on montelukast and low-dose fluticasone propionate. Patients were identified who had at least one ICD-9 (493.XX) claim for asthma and were newly prescribed inhaled fluticasone propionate 44 ? g (FP) or montelukast 5 or

D. A. STEMPEL; J. MAUSKOPF; T. MCLAUGHLIN; C. YAZDANI; R. H. STANFORD

2001-01-01

272

Effect of Propionic Acid on Ketogenesis in Lactating Sheep Fed Restricted Rations or Deprived of Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propionic acid was used as a possible preventive agent against ketogenesis. A total of 12 Suffolk lactating sheep were allocated to groups of 4 and fed isocaloric isonitrogenous rations containing 0, 5, and 10% propionic acid for 2 wk at 1,25 kg twice daily, followed by 4 days of food restriction to .5 kg\\/day and 2 days of food deprivation

Bijan Emmanuel; John J. Kennelly

1984-01-01

273

Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers  

SciTech Connect

({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-05-01

274

[Advances in functional genomics studies underlying acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].  

PubMed

Industrial microorganisms are subject to various stress conditions, including products and substrates inhibitions. Therefore, improvement of stress tolerance is of great importance for industrial microbial production. Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in the cellulosic hydrolysates, which affects seriously on cell growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive response and tolerance of acetic acid of S. cerevisiae benefit breeding of robust strains of industrial yeast for more efficient production. In recent years, more insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying acetic acid tolerance have been revealed through analysis of global gene expression and metabolomics analysis, as well as phenomics analysis by single gene deletion libraries. Novel genes related to response to acetic acid and improvement of acetic acid tolerance have been identified, and novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance were constructed by modifying key genes. Metal ions including potassium and zinc play important roles in acetic acid tolerance in S. cerevisiae, and the effect of zinc was first discovered in our previous studies on flocculating yeast. Genes involved in cell wall remodeling, membrane transport, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and transport, as well as global transcription regulation were discussed. Exploration and modification of the molecular mechanisms of yeast acetic acid tolerance will be done further on levels such as post-translational modifications and synthetic biology and engineering; and the knowledge obtained will pave the way for breeding robust strains for more efficient bioconversion of cellulosic materials to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. PMID:25007573

Zhao, Xinqing; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Guihong; Xu, Jianren; Bai, Fengwu

2014-03-01

275

Surface only modification of bacterial cellulose nanofibres with organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibres were modified only on their surface using an esterification reaction with acetic acid,\\u000a hexanoic acid or dodecanoic acid. This reaction rendered the extremely hydrophilic surfaces of BC nanofibres hydrophobic.\\u000a The hydrophobicity of BC increased with increasing carbon chain length of the organic acids used for the esterification reaction.\\u000a Streaming (zeta-) potential measurements showed a slight shift

Koon-Yang Lee; Franck Quero; Jonny J. Blaker; Callum A. S. Hill; Stephen J. Eichhorn; Alexander Bismarck

2011-01-01

276

Combined effect of acetic acid, pH and ethanol on intracellular pH of fermenting yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The internal pH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC 3507 III (a respiratory-deficient mutant) was measured by the distribution of [14C]propionic acid, when the yeast was fermenting glucose at pH 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 in the presence of several concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol. Good correlation was obtained between fermentation rates and internal pH. For all external pH values tested, the

M. E. Pampulha; M. C. Loureiro-Dias

1989-01-01

277

Characterization of Two Tetrachloroethene-Reducing, Acetate-Oxidizing Anaerobic Bacteria and Their Description as Desulfuromonas michiganensis sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

dechlorinated at rates of at least 139 nmol min1 mg of protein1 at pH values between 7.0 and 7.5 and temperatures between 25 and 30°C. Dechlorination also occurred at 10°C. The electron donors that supported dechlorination included acetate, lactate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and fumarate but not hydrogen, formate, ethanol, propionate, or sulfide. Growth occurred with malate or fumarate alone, whereas

Youlboong Sung; Kirsti M. Ritalahti; Robert A. Sanford; John W. Urbance; Shannon J. Flynn; James M. Tiedje; Frank E. Loffler

2003-01-01

278

[Fluticasone propionate in children and infants with asthma].  

PubMed

The known efficacy of fluticasone propionate in adults, comparable at half-dosage of corticosteroids has been validated by the market authorization (MA) and by the national and international guidelines for beclomethasone. This could be partly explained by its pharmacological properties, affinity for glucocorticosteroid receptors, lung deposition and lipophilicity. The limited systemic adverse events is due to its low bioavailability, optimal hepatic clearance, high plasma protein binding. The efficacy in asthmatic children has been confirmed in clinical studies showing a "plateau" efficacy between 100 and 200 microg/d for the majority of children. Most children are controlled by such dosages: the added value of increasing posology on asthma control exists but is small. A high off-label posology does not allow more quickly asthma control and therefore is not justified. A twice daily dosing is more efficient, particularly for initiation of maintenance therapy, than a once daily dosing. A literature survey confirms that, at MA recommended daily doses in children (100-200 microg), fluticasone propionate has no clinically significant effect either on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (basal function or stimulation tests), bone or growth velocity. However, high daily doses (higher to 500 microg/day) for long periods expose to systemic adverse effects with measurable consequences on growth rate, bone density (decreasing biochemical makers of bone formation) and HPA function. Several cases of adrenal insufficiency that may have led to acute adrenal crisis have been reported in 4- to 10-year-old children receiving fluticasone propionate in doses between 500 to 2000 microg daily. In case of surgery or infection, a preventive treatment of adrenal insufficiency with hydrocortisone should be proposed for children treated for more than 6 months with such high daily doses. Such children need definitely an advice from paediatricians specialized in chest diseases as well as in endocrinology. It is important to recall that the clinical benefit of daily doses of inhaled corticosteroids higher than recommended is low and that the good use of inhaled corticosteroids particularly in children lays on the careful search of the minimal efficient daily doses. PMID:17289359

Marchac, V; Foussier, V; Devillier, P; Le Bourgeois, M; Polak, M

2007-04-01

279

Syntrophic Oxidation of Propionate in Rice Field Soil at 15 and 30°C under Methanogenic Conditions  

PubMed Central

Propionate is one of the major intermediary products in the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in wetlands and paddy fields. Under methanogenic conditions, propionate is decomposed through syntrophic interaction between proton-reducing and propionate-oxidizing bacteria and H2-consuming methanogens. Temperature is an important environmental regulator; yet its effect on syntrophic propionate oxidation has been poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the syntrophic oxidation of propionate in a rice field soil at 15°C and 30°C. [U-13C]propionate (99 atom%) was applied to anoxic soil slurries, and the bacteria and archaea assimilating 13C were traced by DNA-based stable isotope probing. Syntrophobacter spp., Pelotomaculum spp., and Smithella spp. were found significantly incorporating 13C into their nucleic acids after [13C]propionate incubation at 30°C. The activity of Smithella spp. increased in the later stage, and concurrently that of Syntrophomonas spp. increased. Aceticlastic Methanosaetaceae and hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales and Methanocellales acted as methanogenic partners at 30°C. Syntrophic oxidation of propionate also occurred actively at 15°C. Syntrophobacter spp. were significantly labeled with 13C, whereas Pelotomaculum spp. were less active at this temperature. In addition, Methanomicrobiales, Methanocellales, and Methanosarcinaceae dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanosaetaceae decreased. Collectively, temperature markedly influenced the activity and community structure of syntrophic guilds degrading propionate in the rice field soil. Interestingly, Geobacter spp. and some other anaerobic organisms like Rhodocyclaceae, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Thermomicrobia probably also assimilated propionate-derived 13C. The mechanisms for the involvement of these organisms remain unclear. PMID:22582054

Gan, Yanlu; Qiu, Qiongfen; Liu, Pengfei; Rui, Junpeng

2012-01-01

280

Contribution of heme-propionate side chains to structure and function of myoglobin: chemical approach by artificially created prosthetic groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horse heart myoglobin was reconstituted with mesohemin derivatives methylated at the 6- or 7-position to evaluate the role of the heme-6-propionate or heme-7-propionate side chain in the protein. The association and dissociation of the O2 binding for the deoxymyoglobin with 6-methyl-7-propionate mesoheme are clearly accelerated. Furthermore, the myoglobin with 6-methyl-7-propionate mesoheme shows fast autoxidation from oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin compared to

Takashi Hayashi; Takashi Matsuo; Yutaka Hitomi; Kazufumi Okawa; Akihiro Suzuki; Yoshitsugu Shiro; Tetsutaro Iizuka; Yoshio Hisaeda; Hisanobu Ogoshi

2002-01-01

281

Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation  

SciTech Connect

Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

Eriksson, L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

1996-10-01

282

Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose, amino-benzyl cellulose and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose were carried out. Cellulose derivatives were synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide homogeneous solution. Nitrobenzylation was effec...

283

Bacterial cellulose scaffolds and cellulose nanowhiskers for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

As the principle structural polysaccharide in plants, cellulose has been extensively characterized over many decades. In recent years, however, exciting new cellulosic materials have been developed with nanoscale fibrillar structures that have particularly promising applications in the growing field of tissue engineering. The majority of recent studies on cellulose nanomaterials for tissue engineering have employed bacterial cellulose, a material with a profile of properties unique among biomaterials commonly used in tissue engineering scaffolds. In addition, a number of recent studies have explored the biomedical applications of discrete colloidal nanocellulose fibrils known as cellulose nanowhiskers or cellulose nanocrystals. The literature on bacterial cellulose scaffolds for tissue engineering is reviewed, and studies on the biocompatibility of cellulose nanowhiskers and their potential for tissue engineering are discussed. Challenges for future development of these materials and potential future advances are also considered. PMID:23394157

Dugan, James M; Gough, Julie E; Eichhorn, Stephen J

2013-02-01

284

Effect on adrenal function of topically applied clobetasol propionate (Dermovate).  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine patients (15 outpatients and 24 inpatients) with a variety of skin diseases affecting variable areas of the body surface were treated with clobetasol propionate ointment (Dermovate). Before and after treatment the adrenal response to an intramuscular injection of tetracosactrin was rested and additional 9 am plasma cortisol levels were measured at intervals during treatment. A satisfactory initial therapeutic response was achieved in almost all cases during the trial period. When more than 50 g of ointment a week was used a significant number of patients developed adrenal suppression. WHen less than 50 g per week was used any suppression tended to be transtion. These cysts may be the cause of this condition, producing abnormal amounts of ovarian steroids which modify the pituitary response. Futher studies are needed, however, to determine this possibility. PMID:1203701

Allenby, C F; Main, R A; Marsden, R A; Sparkes, C G

1975-01-01

285

Preparation and characterization of regenerated cellulose from ionic liquid using different methods.  

PubMed

In this study, regenerated cellulose was prepared from ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim]Ac) solution using anti-solvent compressed CO2 of different pressures. And other anti-solvents like water, ethanol and acetonitrile were also employed to regenerate cellulose to provide comparisons. The two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR), namely heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond coherence (HMBC), and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) indicated that carboxylate zwitterions [Bmim(+)-COO(-)] formed through the chemical reactions between CO2 and [Bmim]Ac. Besides, FTIR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to provided structure characterization of native and regenerated cellulose using different anti-solvents. The results show that the crystallinity of cellulose decreases during the dissolution and regeneration process. And a crystal transformation of cellulose I to cellulose II was verified. The stability of the regenerated cellulose is lower than that of native cellulose. A higher compressed CO2 pressure results in a smoother surface, a thicker shape and a more homogeneous texture of regenerated cellulose. PMID:25498614

Liu, Zhenghui; Sun, Xiaofu; Hao, Mingyang; Huang, Chengyi; Xue, Zhimin; Mu, Tiancheng

2015-03-01

286

Characterization of propionate CoA-transferase from Ralstonia eutropha H16.  

PubMed

In this study, a propionate CoA-transferase (H16_A2718; EC 2.8.3.1) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 (Pct(Re)) was characterized in detail. Glu342 was identified as catalytically active amino acid residue via site-directed mutagenesis. Activity of Pct(Re) was irreversibly lost after the treatment with NaBH? in the presence of acetyl-CoA as it is shown for all CoA-transferases from class I, thereby confirming the formation of the covalent enzyme-CoA intermediate by Pct(Re). In addition to already known CoA acceptors for Pct Re such as 3-hydroxypropionate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acrylate, succinate, lactate, butyrate, crotonate and 4-hydroxybutyrate, it was found that glycolate, chloropropionate, acetoacetate, valerate, trans-2,3-pentenoate, isovalerate, hexanoate, octanoate and trans-2,3-octenoate formed also corresponding CoA-thioesters after incubation with acetyl-CoA and Pct(Re). Isobutyrate was found to be preferentially used as CoA acceptor amongst other carboxylates tested in this study. In contrast, no products were detected with acetyl-CoA and formiate, bromopropionate, glycine, pyruvate, 2-hydroxybutyrate, malonate, fumarate, itaconate, ?-alanine, ?-aminobutyrate, levulate, glutarate or adipate as potential CoA acceptor. Amongst CoA donors, butyryl-CoA, crotonyl-CoA, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA and valeryl-CoA apart from already known propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA could also donate CoA to acetate. The highest rate of the reaction was observed with 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (2.5 ?mol mg?¹ min?¹). K(m) values for propionyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA, acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were 0.3, 0.6, 4.5 and 4.3 mM, respectively. The rather broad substrate range might be a good starting point for enzyme engineering approaches and for the application of Pct(Re) in biotechnological polyester production. PMID:24057402

Volodina, Elena; Schürmann, Marc; Lindenkamp, Nicole; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-04-01

287

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

Salazar, H.

1980-12-01

288

The cellulose resource matrix.  

PubMed

The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the feedstock and the performance in the end-application. The cellulose resource matrix should become a practical tool for stakeholders to make choices regarding raw materials, process or market. Although there is a vast amount of scientific and economic information available on cellulose and lignocellulosic resources, the accessibility for the interested layman or entrepreneur is very difficult and the relevance of the numerous details in the larger context is limited. Translation of science to practical accessible information with modern data management and data integration tools is a challenge. Therefore, a detailed matrix structure was composed in which the different elements or entries of the matrix were identified and a tentative rough set up was made. The inventory includes current commodities and new cellulose containing and raw materials as well as exotic sources and specialties. Important chemical and physical properties of the different raw materials were identified for the use in processes and products. When available, the market data such as price and availability were recorded. Established and innovative cellulose extraction and refining processes were reviewed. The demands on the raw material for suitable processing were collected. Processing parameters known to affect the cellulose properties were listed. Current and expected emerging markets were surveyed as well as their different demands on cellulose raw materials and processes. The setting up of the cellulose matrix as a practical tool requires two steps. Firstly, the reduction of the needed data by clustering of the characteristics of raw materials, processes and markets and secondly, the building of a database that can provide the answers to the questions from stakeholders with an indicative character. This paper describes the steps taken to achieve the defined clusters of most relevant and characteristic properties. These data can be expanded where required. More detailed specification can be obtained from the background literature and handbooks. Where gaps of information are ident

Keijsers, Edwin R P; Y?lmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

2013-03-01

289

Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation.

Blanton

1993-01-01

290

[beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (IV. In Vitro Assembly of the Cellulose I Allomorph).  

PubMed Central

In vitro assembly of cellulose from plasma membrane extracts of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber was enriched by a combination of 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid extraction buffer and two independent digitonin solubilization steps consisting of 0.05% digitonin (SE1) followed by 1% digitonin (SE2). Glucan synthase activity assays revealed that, although the SE2 fraction possessed higher activity, only 8.6% of the in vitro product survived acetic/nitric acid treatment. On the other hand, the SE1 fraction was less active, but 32.1% of the total glucan in vitro product was resistant to acetic/nitric acid. In vitro products synthesized from the SE1 fraction contained [beta]-1,3-glucan and fibrillar cellulose I, whereas the SE2 fraction produced [beta]-1,3-glucan and cellulose II. Both celluloses assembled in vitro were labeled with cellobiohydrolase I-gold complex, and the electron diffraction patterns of both products from SE1 and SE2 revealed cellulose I and cellulose II, respectively. Contamination of native cellulose was ruled out by extensive evidence from autoradiography of the ethanol-insoluble and acetic/nitric acid-insoluble materials, including three different controls. PMID:12228346

Kudlicka, K.; Brown, R. M.; Li, L.; Lee, J. H.; Shin, H.; Kuga, S.

1995-01-01

291

Solvent infusion processing of all-cellulose composite materials.  

PubMed

Continuous fibre-reinforced all-cellulose composite (ACC) laminates were produced in the form of a dimensionally thick (>1 mm) laminate using an easy-to-use processing pathway termed solvent infusion processing (SIP) from a rayon (Cordenka™) textile using the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. SIP facilitates the infusion of a solvent through a dry cellulose fibre preform with the aim of partially dissolving the outer surface of the cellulose fibres. The dissolved cellulose is then regenerated by solvent exchange to form a matrix phase in situ that acts to bond together the undissolved portion of the fibres. SIP is capable of producing thick, dimensionally stable ACC laminates with high volume fractions of continuous fibres (>70 vol.%) due to the combination of two factors: (i) homogeneous and controlled partial dissolution of the fibres and (ii) the application of pressure during regeneration and drying that provides a high level of fibre compaction, thereby overcoming void formation associated with material shrinkage. The effect of inlet and outlet positioning, and applied pressure on the macro- and microstructure of all-cellulose composites is examined. Finally, SIP expands the applications for ACCs by enabling the production of thick ACC laminates to overcome the limitations of conventional thin-film ACCs. PMID:24751100

Huber, Tim; Bickerton, Simon; Müssig, Jörg; Pang, Shusheng; Staiger, Mark P

2012-09-01

292

Competition between acetate and oleate for the formation of malonyl-CoA and mitochondrial acetyl-CoA in the perfused rat heart  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that in the perfused rat heart, the capacity of n-fatty acids to generate mitochondrial acetyl-CoA decreases as their chain length increases. In the present study, we investigated whether the oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid, oleate, is inhibited by short-chain fatty acids, acetate or propionate (which do and do not generate mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, respectively). We perfused rat hearts with buffer containing 4 mM glucose, 0.2 mM pyruvate, 1 mM lactate, and various concentrations of either (i) [U-13C]acetate, (ii) [U-13C]acetate plus [1-13C]oleate, or (iii) unlabeled propionate plus [1-13C]oleate. Using mass isotopomer analysis, we determined the contributions of the labeled substrates to the acetyl moiety of citrate (a probe of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA) and to malonyl-CoA. We found that acetate, even at low concentration, markedly inhibits the oxidation of [1-13C]oleate in the heart, without change in malonyl-CoA concentration. We also found that propionate, at a concentration higher than 1 mM, decreases (i) the contribution of [1-13C]oleate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, and (ii) malonyl-CoA concentration. The inhibition by acetate or propionate of acetyl-CoA production from oleate probably results from a competition for mitochondrial CoA between the CoA-utilizing enzymes. PMID:17020764

Bian, Fang; Kasumov, Takhar; Jobbins, Kathryn A.; Minkler, Paul E.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L.; Brunengraber, Henri

2007-01-01

293

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book reviews the theory and application of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass; with implications for genetic engineering techniques. State of the art and potential industrial processes are detailed, including high productivity fermentation systems for the production of ethanol. Contents: Theory of Enzymatic Hydrolysis; Production of Cellulase and Xylanase; Hydrolysis of Agricultural Residues; Enzymatic Hydrolysis Processes; High Productivity Ethanol Fermentation;

1983-01-01

294

Bioenergy- Cellulosic Biofuels Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation from James D. McMillan on cellulosic biofuels. The workshop is intended for high school and community college energy technology instructors. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

McMillan, James Douglas

295

Nanofiltration of model acetate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes were screened for separating acetic acid from model solutions. Flux increased with pressure and temperature and decreased with pH and concentration of acetate. Rejection increased with pH, probably depending on the degree of dissociation of the acetate. At higher pH, acetate rejection could be correlated with NaCl rejection. Of all the membranes screened, the

I. S. Han; M. Cheryan

1995-01-01

296

The effects of buffered propionic acid-based additives alone or combined with microbial inoculation on the fermentation of high moisture corn and whole-crop barley.  

PubMed

Buffered propionic acid-based additives (BP) alone or in combination with a microbial inoculant containing lactic acid bacteria (MI) were mixed with ground, high moisture corn or whole-crop barley and ensiled in triplicate laboratory silos to investigate their effects on silage fermentation and aerobic stability. The inoculant and chemicals were applied separately for treatments that included both additives. The addition of MI alone had no effect on DM recovery, fermentation end products, or aerobic stability of high moisture corn. However, treatments with 0.1 and 0.2% BP (alone and the combination) had more than 10- and 100-fold fewer yeasts, respectively, and they also had greater concentrations of propionic acid than did untreated corn. Corn treated with only 0.1 (161 h) and 0.2% (218 h) BP tended to be more stable when exposed to air than untreated corn (122 h). Treatment with MI + 0.2% BP markedly improved the aerobic stability (>400 h) of high moisture corn. With whole-crop barley, the addition of MI alone, BP alone, and combinations of MI and BP prevented the production of butyric acid that was found in untreated silage (0.48%). All barley silages that had MI in their treatments underwent a more efficient fermentation than treatments without MI, as evident by a greater ratio of lactic:acetic acid and more DM recovery than in untreated silage. Increasing levels (0.1 to 0.2%) of BP added together with MI improved the aerobic stability of barley (190 and 429 h) over the addition of MI alone (50 h). These data show that buffered propionic acid-based products are compatible with microbial inoculants and, in some circumstances when used together, they can improve the fermentation and aerobic stability of silages. PMID:15290978

Kung, L; Myers, C L; Neylon, J M; Taylor, C C; Lazartic, J; Mills, J A; Whiter, A G

2004-05-01

297

Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.  

PubMed

Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2?mutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. PMID:24761971

An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

2015-03-01

298

Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation  

PubMed Central

Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer synthesized on land, is made of linear chains of ß (1–4) linked D-glucose. As a major structural component of the cell wall, cellulose is important not only for industrial use but also for plant growth and development. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered by other cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized rosette cellulose synthase complexes. Despite the recent advances using a combination of molecular genetics, live cell imaging, and spectroscopic tools, many aspects of the cellulose synthesis remain a mystery. In this chapter, we highlight recent research progress towards understanding the mechanism of cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:24465174

Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

2014-01-01

299

Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ?90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate. PMID:22568731

Croxtall, Jamie D

2012-05-28

300

Effect of different concentrations of acetic, citric, and propionic acid dipping solutions on bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial contamination of raw, processed poultry may include spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens. We evaluated different combinations of organic acid (OA) wash solutions for their ability to reduce bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin and to inhibit growth of spoilage bacteria and path...

301

Acetate dependence of tumors.  

PubMed

Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

2014-12-18

302

Cellulose-based hydrogels: Present status and application prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses recent progress in cellulose-based hydrogels design and fabrication. Firstly, hydrogels fabricated directly from native cellulose (including bacterial cellulose) via cellulose dissolution are introduced. Secondly, cellulose hydrogels based on its derivatives, including methyl cellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), obtained by physical as well as chemical cross-linking strategies are considered. Thirdly, composite

Chunyu Chang; Lina Zhang

2011-01-01

303

Unexpected Clobetasol Propionate Profile in Human Stratum Corneum After Topical Application in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The validity of using drug amount-depth profiles in stratum corneum to predict uptake of clobetasol propionate into stratum corneum and its transport into deeper skin layers was investigated.

Beat Mueller; Yuri G. Anissimov; Michael S. Roberts

2003-01-01

304

Facile cellulose dissolution without heating in [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMF solvent.  

PubMed

Novel cellulose solvents, [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMF, were designed by adding an aprotic polar solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][CH3COO]). The solubilities of cellulose in [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMF solvents were determined at 25°C. The effects of molar ratio of DMF to [C4mim][CH3COO] on cellulose solubility and the possible dissolution mechanism of cellulose in [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMF solvent have been studied. Moreover, the regenerated cellulose from [C4mim][CH3COO]/DMF solvent were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the degree of polymerization (DP) of regenerated cellulose was determined. The findings reveal that the facile dissolution of cellulose in such solvents is mainly attributed to the increased "free" [CH3COO](-) anions and [C4mim](+) cations which result from the dissociation of [C4mim][CH3COO] by DMF. Moreover, the macromolecular chain of the cellulose is hardly broken during the dissolution and precipitation processes. PMID:25857981

Xu, Airong; Cao, Lili; Wang, Bingjun

2015-07-10

305

Phase diagram, solubility limit and hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in binary solvents with ionic liquid.  

PubMed

Cellulose solubility phase diagrams in two binary solvents based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) mixed with water and with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were built. The minimal amount of EmimAc molecules needed to dissolve cellulose is 2.5-3moles per anhydroglucose unit. This proportion allows calculation of the maximal cellulose concentration soluble in EmimAc-DMSO at any composition; in EmimAc it is around 25-27wt%. Water forms hydrogen bonds with EmimAc and thus competes with cellulose for ionic liquid; the solubility of cellulose in EmimAc-water is much lower than that in EmimAc-DMSO. Hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in two solvent systems were compared. In EmimAc-DMSO cellulose intrinsic viscosity practically does not depend on DMSO content as predicted by the phase diagram. The intrinsic viscosity in EmimAc-water first increases with water content due to cellulose self-aggregation and then abruptly decreases due to coagulation. PMID:24708976

Le, Kim Anh; Rudaz, Cyrielle; Budtova, Tatiana

2014-05-25

306

Cellulose in Cyanobacteria. Origin of Vascular Plant Cellulose Synthase?  

PubMed Central

Although cellulose biosynthesis among the cyanobacteria has been suggested previously, we present the first conclusive evidence, to our knowledge, of the presence of cellulose in these organisms. Based on the results of x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy of microfibrils, and cellobiohydrolase I-gold labeling, we report the occurrence of cellulose biosynthesis in nine species representing three of the five sections of cyanobacteria. Sequence analysis of the genomes of four cyanobacteria revealed the presence of multiple amino acid sequences bearing the DDD35QXXRW motif conserved in all cellulose synthases. Pairwise alignments demonstrated that CesAs from plants were more similar to putative cellulose synthases from Anabaena sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme American Type Culture Collection 29133 than any other cellulose synthases in the database. Multiple alignments of putative cellulose synthases from Anabaena sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 7120 and N. punctiforme American Type Culture Collection 29133 with the cellulose synthases of other prokaryotes, Arabidopsis, Gossypium hirsutum, Populus alba × Populus tremula, corn (Zea mays), and Dictyostelium discoideum showed that cyanobacteria share an insertion between conserved regions U1 and U2 found previously only in eukaryotic sequences. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the cyanobacterial cellulose synthases share a common branch with CesAs of vascular plants in a manner similar to the relationship observed with cyanobacterial and chloroplast 16s rRNAs, implying endosymbiotic transfer of CesA from cyanobacteria to plants and an ancient origin for cellulose synthase in eukaryotes. PMID:11598227

Nobles, David R.; Romanovicz, Dwight K.; Brown, R. Malcolm

2001-01-01

307

Adrenal suppression from high-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate in children with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adrenal suppression from high-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate in children with asthma. D. Sim, A. Griffiths, D. Armstrong, C. Clarke, C. Rodda, N. Freezer. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the prevalence of adrenocortical suppression in children with asthma treated with high-dose inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP). Children and adolescents (n=50) with asthma, treated with inhaled

D. Sim; A. Griffiths; D. Armstrong; C. Clarke; C. Rodda; N. Freezer

2003-01-01

308

High cell density propionic acid fermentation with an acid tolerant strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.  

PubMed

Propionic acid is an important chemical with wide applications and its production via fermentation is of great interest. However, economic production of bio-based propionic acid requires high product titer, yield, and productivity in the fermentation. A highly efficient and stable high cell density (HCD) fermentation process with cell recycle by centrifugation was developed for propionic acid production from glucose using an acid-tolerant strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici, which had a higher specific growth rate, productivity, and acid tolerance compared to the wild type ATCC 4875. The sequential batch HCD fermentation at pH 6.5 produced propionic acid at a high titer of ?40?g/L and productivity of 2.98?g/L?h, with a yield of ?0.44?g/g. The product yield increased to 0.53-0.62?g/g at a lower pH of 5.0-5.5, which, however, decreased the productivity to 1.28?g/L?h. A higher final propionic acid titer of >55?g/L with a productivity of 2.23?g/L?h was obtained in fed-batch HCD fermentation at pH 6.5. A 3-stage simulated fed-batch process in serum bottles produced 49.2?g/L propionic acid with a yield of 0.53?g/g and productivity of 0.66?g/L?h. These productivities, yields and propionic acid titers were among the highest ever obtained in free-cell propionic acid fermentation. PMID:25257628

Wang, Zhongqiang; Jin, Ying; Yang, Shang-Tian

2015-03-01

309

Unusual Presentation of Propionic Acidemia as Isolated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Summary Propionic acidemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive disease that results from deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). In virtually all reported cases of PA, the phenotype includes metabolic acidosis and/or neurological deficits. We report on a 14-year-old Asian male with PA who presented with isolated cardiomyopathy without any episodes of metabolic acidosis or evidence of any neurocognitive deficits. On routine metabolic screening, the patient was found to have urine organic acids suggestive of PA. Biochemical and genetic characterization confirmed a PCC deficiency with two novel mutations in PCCB: IVS7+2 T>G (c.763+2 T>G) and p.R410Q (c.1229 G>A). Residual enzyme activity likely explains our patient’s mild phenotype. Splicing mutations tend to result in a milder phenotype as these mutations may still produce small amounts of normal enzyme. In addition, the similar p.R410W mutation has been shown to have partial residual activity. Moreover, this case illustrates the important but under-recognized manifestation of isolated cardiomyopathy as the sole clinical presentation in PA. A thorough metabolic evaluation should be performed in all pediatric patients with cardiomyopathy. Such an evaluation has important implications for clinical management and genetic counseling. PMID:19238581

Lee, T. M.; Addonizio, L. J.; Barshop, B. A.; Chung, W. K.

2013-01-01

310

Clobetasol propionate versus fluocinonide creams in psoriasis and eczema.  

PubMed

A double-blind, parallel comparison was made of the short-term efficacy and safety of three times daily regimens of 0.05% clobetasol propionate cream and 0.05% fluocinonide cream in 114 adolescent and adult patients with psoriasis and 113 with eczema. After 2 weeks of topical applications, patients were assessed according to (1) investigators' overall judgment of clinical response, (2) degree of severity of specific signs and symptoms, and (3) patients' evaluation of improvement. In all three response categories in psoriasis, and in two of three in eczema, clobetasol was statistically significantly superior to fluocinonide (p less than 0.05-p less than 0.001). Healing commenced more rapidly with clobetasol and there was no indication of tachyphylaxis. In contrast, the healing rate with fluocinonide slowed noticeably after the first week, and there was a greater tendency to relapse following fluocinonide treatment. Both regimens were safe: drug-related side effects were generally mild and occurred most commonly with fluocinonide therapy in eczema patients. Overall, drug-related effects occurred in 4% of patients receiving clobetasol and 12% receiving fluocinonide (p less than 0.05). Transient morning plasma cortisol reductions below 5 micrograms/dl occurred in 6% of clobetasol-treated patients, reverting to normal within 1 week of the end of treatment. PMID:3902682

Jegasothy, B; Jacobson, C; Levine, N; Millikan, L; Olsen, E; Pinnell, S; Cole, G; Weinstein, G; Porter, M

1985-09-01

311

Proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis following propionate adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella Enteritidis is a highly prevalent and persistent foodborne pathogen and is therefore a leading cause of nontyphoidal gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A variety of stresses are endured throughout its infection cycle, including high concentrations of propionate (PA) within food processing systems and within the gut of infected hosts. Prolonged PA exposure experienced in such milieus may have a drastic effect on the proteome of Salmonella Enteritidis subjected to this stress. Results In this study, we used 2 D gel electrophoresis to examine the proteomes of PA adapted and unadapted S. Enteritidis and have identified five proteins that are upregulated in PA adapted cultures using standard peptide mass fingerprinting by MALDI-TOF-MS and sequencing by MALDI LIFT-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Of these five, two significant stress-related proteins (Dps and CpxR) were shown (via qRT-PCR analysis) to be upregulated at the transcriptional level as well. Unlike the wild type when adapted to PA (which demonstrates significant acid resistance), PA adapted S. Enteritidis ?dps and S. Enteritidis ?cpxR were at a clear disadvantage when challenged to a highly acidic environment. However, we found the acid resistance to be fully restorable after genetic complementation. Conclusions This work reveals a significant difference in the proteomes of PA adapted and unadapted S. Enteritidis and affirms the contribution of Dps and CpxR in PA induced acid resistance. PMID:20920181

2010-01-01

312

Putative ABC Transporter Responsible for Acetic Acid Resistance in Acetobacter aceti  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid. PMID:16391084

Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

2006-01-01

313

13C and 1H NMR study of cellulose metabolism by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85.  

PubMed

Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, a cellulolytic rumen bacterium, is very efficient in degrading lignocellulosic substrates and could be used to develop a biotechnological process for the treatment of wastes. In this work, the metabolism of cellulose by F. succinogenes S85 was investigated using in vivo 13C NMR and 13C-filtered spin-echo difference 1H NMR spectroscopy. The degradation of unlabelled cellulose synthesised by Acetobacter xylinum was studied indirectly, in the presence of [1-13C]glucose, by estimating the isotopic dilution of the final bacterial fermentation products (glycogen, succinate, acetate). During the pre-incubation period of F. succinogenes cells with cellulose fibres, some cells ('non-adherent') did not attach to the solid material. Results for 'adherent' cells showed that about one fourth of the glucose units entering F. succinogenes metabolism originated from cellulose degradation. A huge reversal of succinate metabolism pathway and production of large amounts of unlabelled acetate which was observed during incubation with glucose only, was found to be much decreased in the presence of solid substrate. The synthesis of glucose 6-phophate was slightly increased in the presence of cellulose. Results clearly showed that 'non-adherent' cells were able to metabolise glucose very efficiently; consequently the metabolic state of these cells was not responsible for their 'non-adherence' to cellulose fibre. PMID:10674213

Bibollet, X; Bosc, N; Matulova, M; Delort, A M; Gaudet, G; Forano, E

2000-01-28

314

Per-O-acetylation of cellulose in dimethyl sulfoxide with catalyzed transesterification.  

PubMed

Cellulose acetylation was investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with isopropenyl acetate (IPA) as acetylating reagent and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as catalyst at 70-130 °C for 3-12 h. The degree of substitution (DS) of acetylated cellulose was comparatively determined by titration and ¹H NMR and confirmed by FT-IR analysis. The results indicated that per-O-acetylation was achieved at >90 °C for a relatively long duration. The three well-resolved peaks of carbonyl carbons in ¹³C NMR spectra also provided evidence of per-O-acetylation. The solubility of cellulose acetates in common organic solvents was examined, and the result showed that chloroform can be an alternative choice as a solvent for fully acetylated cellulose formed in this study besides DMSO. The intrinsic viscosity of acetylated cellulose solution implied almost no degradation of cellulose during acetylation in DMSO except at higher temperature (130 °C) for a long time. PMID:24678805

Chen, Chao-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Sun, Run-Cang

2014-04-16

315

Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age) equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C), 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1), 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2) and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3) of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05) by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration. PMID:25557815

Oh, Y. K.; Eun, J. S.; Lee, S. C.; Chu, G. M.; Lee, Sung S.; Moon, Y. H.

2015-01-01

316

Responses of blood glucose, insulin, glucagon, and Fatty acids to intraruminal infusion of propionate in hanwoo.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age) equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C), 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1), 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2) and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3) of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05) by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration. PMID:25557815

Oh, Y K; Eun, J S; Lee, S C; Chu, G M; Lee, Sung S; Moon, Y H

2015-02-01

317

Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose pretreated with ionic liquids and N-methyl Morpholine N-Oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of N-methyl Morpholine N-Oxide (NMMO), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([Emim]Ac) and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emim]DEP) on pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of dissolving pulp was studied. X-ray diffraction measurements of regenerated cellulose from these solvents showed that solvent pretreatment reduces the crystallinity of cellulose. However, crystallinity might not be a major factor affecting the in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in these solvents. Although regenerated cellulose from [Emim]DEP showed the lowest crystallinity index (˜15%), in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose dissolved in NMMO showed the highest cellulose conversion (68% compared to 65% for [Emim]Ac and 37% for [Emim]DEP at enzyme loading of 122 FPU/g). Moreover, results showed that enzymes could tolerate up to NMMO concentration of 100 g/L and still yield full conversion of cellulose. Since it is not necessary to remove all the NMMO, less amount of water will be required for the washing step and thus the process will be more economical. The HCH-1 model was used in an attempt to model the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in NMMO. With the incorporation of NMMO inhibition and a factor to account for unreacted cellulose, the model was able to correlate the experimental data of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (6.68 g/L) at various NMMO concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 and 250 g/L). However, the experimental results also suggest that NMMO might be deactivating the enzymes rather than inhibiting them. More studies need to be done at varying cellulose, NMMO and enzyme concentrations to find the exact nature of this deactivation of NMMO.

Yau Li, Elizabeth

318

CELLULOSE CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY Cellulose Chem. Technol., 44 (7-8), 217-221 (2010)  

E-print Network

is based on the treatment of cellulose fibres from wood or cotton with sodium hydroxide and carbon in the cellulose crystal structure (transformation of cellulose I into cellulose II). Among the many key chemical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2010-01-01

319

Contribution of heme-propionate side chains to structure and function of myoglobin: chemical approach by artificially created prosthetic groups.  

PubMed

Horse heart myoglobin was reconstituted with mesohemin derivatives methylated at the 6- or 7-position to evaluate the role of the heme-6-propionate or heme-7-propionate side chain in the protein. The association and dissociation of the O(2) binding for the deoxymyoglobin with 6-methyl-7-propionate mesoheme are clearly accelerated. Furthermore, the myoglobin with 6-methyl-7-propionate mesoheme shows fast autoxidation from oxymyoglobin to metmyoglobin compared to the myoglobin with 6-propionate-7-methyl heme and the reference protein. These results indicate the 6-propionate plays an important physiological role in the stabilization of oxymyoglobin because of the formation of a salt-bridge with the Lys45. The acceleration of CO binding rate is observed for the myoglobin with 6-propionate-7-methyl mesoheme, suggesting that the replacement of the 7-propionate with a methyl group has an influence on the His93-heme iron coordination. The structural perturbation of His93 imidazole was also supported by 1H NMR spectra of cyanide and deoxy forms of the myoglobin with 6-propionate-7-methyl mesoheme. Thus, it is found that the 7-propionate regulates the hydrogen-bonding network and His93-heme iron coordination in the proximal site. PMID:12121766

Hayashi, Takashi; Matsuo, Takashi; Hitomi, Yutaka; Okawa, Kazufumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Iizuka, Tetsutaro; Hisaeda, Yoshio; Ogoshi, Hisanobu

2002-07-25

320

Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis.  

PubMed

This article discusses the importance and implications of regulating carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis, the characteristics of cells that serve as major sinks for cellulose deposition, and enzymes that participate in the conversion of supplied carbon to cellulose. Cotton fibers, which deposit almost pure cellulose into their secondary cell walls, are referred to as a primary model system. For sucrose synthase, we discuss its proposed role in channeling UDP-Glc to cellulose synthase during secondary wall deposition, its gene family, its manipulation in transgenic plants, and mechanisms that may regulate its association with sites of polysaccharide synthesis. For cellulose synthase, we discuss the organization of the gene family and how protein diversity could relate to control of carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis. Other enzymes emphasized include UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase and sucrose phosphate synthase. New data are included on phosphorylation of cotton fiber sucrose synthase, possible regulation by Ca2+ of sucrose synthase localization, electron microscopic immunolocalization of sucrose synthase in cotton fibers, and phylogenetic relationships between cellulose synthase proteins, including three new ones identified in differentiating tracheary elements of Zinnia elegans. We develop a model for metabolism related to cellulose synthesis that implicates the changing intracellular localization of sucrose synthase as a molecular switch between survival metabolism and growth and/or differentiation processes involving cellulose synthesis. PMID:11554477

Haigler, C H; Ivanova-Datcheva, M; Hogan, P S; Salnikov, V V; Hwang, S; Martin, K; Delmer, D P

2001-09-01

321

Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate. PMID:24638105

Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

2014-01-01

322

Reinforcement of bacterial cellulose aerogels with biocompatible polymers.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC) aerogels, which are fragile, ultra-lightweight, open-porous and transversally isotropic materials, have been reinforced with the biocompatible polymers polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), cellulose acetate (CA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively, at varying BC/polymer ratios. Supercritical carbon dioxide anti-solvent precipitation and simultaneous extraction of the anti-solvent using scCO2 have been used as core techniques for incorporating the secondary polymer into the BC matrix and to convert the formed composite organogels into aerogels. Uniaxial compression tests revealed a considerable enhancement of the mechanical properties as compared to BC aerogels. Nitrogen sorption experiments at 77K and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the preservation (or even enhancement) of the surface-area-to-volume ratio for most of the samples. The formation of an open-porous, interpenetrating network of the second polymer has been demonstrated by treatment of BC/PMMA hybrid aerogels with EMIM acetate, which exclusively extracted cellulose, leaving behind self-supporting organogels. PMID:25037381

Pircher, N; Veigel, S; Aigner, N; Nedelec, J M; Rosenau, T; Liebner, F

2014-10-13

323

Reinforcement of bacterial cellulose aerogels with biocompatible polymers  

PubMed Central

Bacterial cellulose (BC) aerogels, which are fragile, ultra-lightweight, open-porous and transversally isotropic materials, have been reinforced with the biocompatible polymers polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), cellulose acetate (CA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively, at varying BC/polymer ratios. Supercritical carbon dioxide anti-solvent precipitation and simultaneous extraction of the anti-solvent using scCO2 have been used as core techniques for incorporating the secondary polymer into the BC matrix and to convert the formed composite organogels into aerogels. Uniaxial compression tests revealed a considerable enhancement of the mechanical properties as compared to BC aerogels. Nitrogen sorption experiments at 77 K and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the preservation (or even enhancement) of the surface-area-to-volume ratio for most of the samples. The formation of an open-porous, interpenetrating network of the second polymer has been demonstrated by treatment of BC/PMMA hybrid aerogels with EMIM acetate, which exclusively extracted cellulose, leaving behind self-supporting organogels. PMID:25037381

Pircher, N.; Veigel, S.; Aigner, N.; Nedelec, J.M.; Rosenau, T.; Liebner, F.

2014-01-01

324

Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Investigations into the biochemistry and physiology of the four major groups of microorganisms (primary, ancillary, secondary and methane bacteria) involved in the anaerobic conversion of cellulose to methane and carbon dioxide are presented. The investigations of the ancillary bacteria emphasize the isolation of new strains and increasing ethanol production with T. ethanolicus. These studies involve genetic modifications, enzymological studies on the regulation of appropriate enzymes and a study of the effect of inorganic pyrophosphate on growth and fermentation patterns. The acetogenic bacteria forming acetate from carbon dioxide were studied from the aspects of the enzymology of acetate from the standpoint from one carbon compound, bioenergetics emphasizing hydrogen metabolism and energy coupling H/sub 2/ cycling and the structure and function of electron transfer components. Research on secondary bacteria emphasizes the sulfate reducing bacteria from the aspects of H/sub 2/ cycling, specificities of electron transfer proteins and enzymes, the mechanism of bisulfite reductase and the enzymology and physiology of new genera of sulfate reducing bacteria. The biochemistry and physiology of both H/sub 2/-utilizing and acetate utilizing methanogenic are reported. The studies with H/sub 2/-utilizing methanogens stress the hydrogenase and the effect of inorganic pyrophosphate on growth. The research on the acetate-utilizing methanogens involve the bioenergetics of sulfite reduction and the mechanism of acetate formation induced by pyrophosphate. 143 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

Peck, H.D. Jr.; Ljungdahl, L.G.

1986-01-01

325

Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.  

PubMed

Propionic acid (PA) is a short-chain fatty acid with wide industrial application including uses in pharmaceuticals, herbicides, cosmetics, and food preservatives. As a three-carbon building block, PA also has potential as a precursor for high-volume commodity chemicals such as propylene. Currently, most PA is manufactured through petrochemical routes, which can be tied to increasing prices and volatility due to difficulty in demand forecasting and feedstock availability. Herein described are research advancements to develop an industrially feasible, renewable route to PA. Seventeen Propionibacterium strains were screened using glucose and sucrose as the carbon source to identify the best platform strain. Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was selected as the platform strain and subsequent fermentation optimization studies were performed to maximize productivity and yield. Fermentation productivity was improved three-fold to exceed 2 g/l/h by densifying the inoculum source. Byproduct levels, particularly lactic and succinic acid, were reduced by optimizing fermentor headspace pressure and shear. Following achievement of commercially viable productivities, the lab-grade medium components were replaced with industrial counterparts to further reduce fermentation costs. A pure enzymatically treated corn mash (ECM) medium improved the apparent PA yield to 0.6 g/g (PA produced/glucose consumed), but it came at the cost of reduced productivity. Supplementation of ECM with cyanocobalamin restored productivity to near lab-grade media levels. The optimized ECM recipe achieved a productivity of 0.5 g/l/h with an apparent PA yield of 0.60 g/g corresponding to a media cost <1 USD/kg of PA. These improvements significantly narrow the gap between the fermentation and incumbent petrochemical processes, which is estimated to have a manufacturing cost of 0.82 USD/kg in 2017. PMID:24627047

Stowers, Chris C; Cox, Brad M; Rodriguez, Brandon A

2014-05-01

326

Processes for treating cellulosic material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed are processes for pretreating cellulosic materials in liquid water by heating the materials in liquid water at a temperature at or above their glass transition temperature but not substantially exceeding 220.degree. C., while maintaining the pH of the reaction medium in a range that avoids substantial autohydrolysis of the cellulosic materials. Such pretreatments minimize chemical changes to the cellulose while leading to physical changes which substantially increase susceptibility to hydrolysis in the presence of cellulase.

Ladisch, Michael R. (Inventor); Kohlman, Karen L. (Inventor); Westgate, Paul L. (Inventor); Weil, Joseph R. (Inventor); Yang, Yiqi (Inventor)

1998-01-01

327

Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum  

SciTech Connect

Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

Blanton, R.L.

1993-12-31

328

21 CFR 172.870 - Hydroxypropyl cellulose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Hydroxypropyl cellulose. 172.870 Section 172.870 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.870 Hydroxypropyl cellulose. The food additive hydroxypropyl cellulose may be safely used in food, except...

2011-04-01

329

21 CFR 172.870 - Hydroxypropyl cellulose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Hydroxypropyl cellulose. 172.870 Section 172.870 Food...Multipurpose Additives § 172.870 Hydroxypropyl cellulose. The food additive hydroxypropyl cellulose may be safely used in food, except...

2010-04-01

330

Supercapacitance from Cellulose and Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Fibers  

PubMed Central

Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/cellulose composite nanofibers have been prepared by electrospinning a MWNT/cellulose acetate blend solution followed by deacetylation. These composite nanofibers were then used as precursors for carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The effect of nanotubes on the stabilization of the precursor and microstructure of the resultant CNFs were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the incorporated MWNTs reduce the activation energy of the oxidative stabilization of cellulose nanofibers from ?230 to ?180 kJ mol–1. They also increase the crystallite size, structural order, and electrical conductivity of the activated CNFs (ACNFs). The surface area of the ACNFs increased upon addition of nanotubes which protrude from the fiber leading to a rougher surface. The ACNFs were used as the electrodes of a supercapacitor. The electrochemical capacitance of the ACNF derived from pure cellulose nanofibers is demonstrated to be 105 F g–1 at a current density of 10 A g–1, which increases to 145 F g–1 upon the addition of 6% of MWNTs. PMID:24070254

2013-01-01

331

Sequential changes in propionate metabolism during the development of cobalt\\/vitamin B 12 deficiency in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in propionate metabolism that accompany cobalt deficiency in sheep are described. Two groups of sheep, fed either\\u000a a cobalt sufficient or deficient diet, were given an iv propionate load at intervals during a 14 w experiment. There was a\\u000a tendency towards increased propionate half-life as the animals became cobalt deficient. However, significant changes in the\\u000a area under the

D. Glenn Kennedy; Finbarr P. M. O'Harte; W. John Blanchflower; Desmond A. Rice

1991-01-01

332

Adsorption of cationic polyacrylamide at the cellulose-liquid interface: A neutron reflectometry study.  

PubMed

The layer thickness and density of high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) adsorbed at the cellulose-water interface was quantified by neutron reflectometry. The thickness of a full monolayer of CPAM of constant molecular weight (13MD) but different charge densities, adsorbed with or without NaCl (10(-3)M), was studied. Thin cellulose films (40±7Å) of roughness <10Å were produced by spin coating a cellulose acetate-acetone solution and regenerating by alkaline hydrolysis. Film smoothness was greatly improved by controlling the concentration of cellulose acetate (0.13wt%) and the hydrolysis time in sodium methoxide. The adsorption thickness of CPAM (40% charge 13MD) at the solid-D2O interface was 43±4Å on cellulose and 13±2Å on silicon, an order of magnitude smaller than the CPAM radius of gyration. At constant molecular weight, the thickness of the CPAM layer adsorbed on cellulose increases with polymer charge density (10±1Å at 5%). Addition of 10(-3)M NaCl decreased the thickness of CPAM layer already adsorbed on cellulose. However, the adsorption layer on cellulose of a CPAM solution equilibrated in 10(-3)M NaCl is much thicker (89±11Å for 40% CPAM). For high molecular weight CPAMs adsorbed from solution under constant conditions, the adsorption layer can be varied by 1 order of magnitude via control of the variables affecting electrostatic intra- and inter-polymer chain interactions. PMID:25723785

Su, Jielong; Garvey, Christopher J; Holt, Stephen; Tabor, Rico F; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Batchelor, Warren; Garnier, Gil

2015-06-15

333

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to yield glucose  

DOEpatents

A process to yield glucose from cellulose through acid hydrolysis. Cellulose is recovered from cellulosic materials, preferably by pretreating the cellulosic materials by dissolving the cellulosic materials in Cadoxen or a chelating metal caustic swelling solvent and then precipitating the cellulose therefrom. Hydrolysis is accomplished using an acid, preferably dilute sulfuric acid, and the glucose is yielded substantially without side products. Lignin may be removed either before or after hydrolysis.

Tsao, George T. (West Lafayette, IN); Ladisch, Michael R. (West Lafayette, IN); Bose, Arindam (West Lafayette, IN)

1979-01-01

334

Graft Copolymerization of Vinyl Monomers onto Cellulose and Cellulosic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graft copolymerization is a novel method which has wide application in synthesizing new forms of polymeric materials and also in modifying the properties of natural polymers [1,2]. Much research has been done on grafting polymeric molecules on to cellulose to produce materials of new properties intermediate between those of cellulose and those of synthetics. A variety of property changes can

Munmaya K. Mishra

1982-01-01

335

The role of the cation in the solvation of cellulose by imidazolium-based ionic liquids.  

PubMed

We present a systematic molecular dynamics study examining the roles of the individual ions of different alkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids in the solvation of cellulose. We examine combinations of chloride, acetate, and dimethylphosphate anions paired with cations of increasing tail length to elucidate the precise role of the cation in solvating cellulose. In all cases we find that the cation interacts with the nonpolar domains of cellulose through dispersion interactions, while interacting electrostatically with the anions bound at the polar domains of cellulose. Furthermore, the structure and dimensions of the imidazolium head facilitate the formation of large chains and networks of alternating cations and anions that form a patchwork, satisfying both the polar and nonpolar domains of cellulose. A subtle implication of increasing tail length is the dilution of the anion concentration in the bulk and at the cellulose surface. We show how this decreased concentration of anions in the bulk affects hydrogen bond formation with cellulose and how rearrangements from single hydrogen bonds to multiple shared hydrogen bonds can moderate the loss in overall hydrogen bond numbers. Additionally, for the tail lengths examined in this study we observe only a very minor effect of tail length on the solvation structure and overall interaction energies. PMID:24446709

Rabideau, Brooks D; Agarwal, Animesh; Ismail, Ahmed E

2014-02-13

336

Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus, we hypothesize that in hemeproteins with similar electrostatic environment the flexibility of the heme-6-propionate promotes a hydrogen bonding network loop between the 6-propionate, the heme ligand and nearby amino acids, tailoring in this way the electron density in the heme-ligand moiety.

Ramos-Santana, Brenda J., E-mail: brenda.ramos@upr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico); Lopez-Garriga, Juan, E-mail: juan.lopez16@upr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico)

2012-08-10

337

PROCESS DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CELLULOSE HYDROLYSIS  

E-print Network

lignin, amorphous and crystalline cellulose, and possible synergistic enzymelignin, amorphous and crystalline cellulose, and other materials, depending on the substrate, which interfere with the enzyme

Lindsey, R.R.

2011-01-01

338

A note concerning acetate activation of peroxidative activity of catalases using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid as a substrate.  

PubMed

Beef liver catalases showed peroxidative activity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid as the electron donor and hydrogen peroxide as the acceptor at a pH of 5. This activity was not observed at pH 7. The reaction depended on acetate concentration, although succinate and propionate could partly replace the acetate as a catalyst. Other haem proteins also catalyzed a peroxidative effect. The reaction using syringaldazine or the coupling between dimethylaminobenzoic acid and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone was less effective and less sensitive. Evidence is presented that the reaction is associated with a conformational change of the catalase. PMID:15932252

Baker, Warren L; Key, Christopher; Lonergan, Greg T

2005-01-01

339

Sustainable and efficient biohydrogen production via electrohydrogenesis  

E-print Network

by using glucose, several volatile acids (acetic, butyric, lactic, propionic, and valeric), and cellulose/mol (50­99% of the theoretical maxi- mum) at applied voltages of 0.2 to 0.8 V using acetic acid, a typical dead-end product of glucose or cellulose fermentation. At an applied voltage of 0.6 V, the overall

340

Propionic acid side chain hydrogen bonding in the malaria pigment beta-hematin.  

PubMed

Malaria pigment, or beta-hematin, the insoluble heme detoxification product resulting from the intraerythrocitic digestion of hemoglobin by young malaria trophozoites has been structurally characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and shown to contain chains of propionic acid linked dimers. Although there is considerable spectroscopic evidence for a monodentate propionate-iron interaction in this crystalline material, the spectroscopic characterization of the propionic acid dimer is limited. Herein we demonstrate the presence of the propionic acid dimer unit by H/D isotope substitution in carboxylic acid dimer. In the Raman spectrum of the deuterium substituted compound there is a circa 12 cm(-1) shift, H: 1629 cm(-1) vs. D: 1617 cm(-1) in the symmetric ring breathing mode for the propionic acid dimer. On the other hand, the IR active asymmetric stretch has a very small shift, <3 cm(-1), upon deuteration. These, and other vibrational data, are consistent with the presence of a planar carboxylic acid dimer in the structure of beta-hematin. PMID:12054752

Bohle, D Scott; Kosar, Andrew D; Madsen, Sara K

2002-05-31

341

[Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].  

PubMed

Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

Lello, S

2009-10-01

342

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

SciTech Connect

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

1998-01-01

343

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

SciTech Connect

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

1998-02-17

344

TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3-4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios >100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed on each cellulose microfibril surface by TEMPO-mediated oxidation without any changes to the original crystallinity (~74%) or crystal width of wood celluloses. Electrostatic repulsion and/or osmotic effects working between anionically-charged cellulose microfibrils, the ?-potentials of which are approximately -75 mV in water, cause the formation of completely individualized TOCN dispersed in water by gentle mechanical disintegration treatment of TEMPO-oxidized wood cellulose fibers. Self-standing TOCN films are transparent and flexible, with high tensile strengths of 200-300 MPa and elastic moduli of 6-7 GPa. Moreover, TOCN-coated poly(lactic acid) films have extremely low oxygen permeability. The new cellulose-based nanofibers formed by size reduction process of native cellulose fibers by TEMPO-mediated oxidation have potential application as environmentally friendly and new bio-based nanomaterials in high-tech fields.

Isogai, Akira; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Fukuzumi, Hayaka

2011-01-01

345

Iodine-containing cellulose mixed esters as radiopaque polymers for direct embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

The present study deals with the synthesis and characterization of radiopaque polymers which could, when solubilized in an appropriate water-miscible solvent, be useful embolic materials for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. For this purpose cellulose (both microcrystalline and powdered) and partially substituted cellulose acetate (two different viscosity grades) were selected as starting materials to prepare iodine-containing polymers through various synthetic routes. The materials obtained were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy, molecular weight, iodine content, radiopacity and solubility in selected injectable organic solvents. The embolic liquids were evaluated for their precipitation behavior in a phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) mimicking physiological conditions using an in vitro aneurysm model. A sheep model was also used to assess in vivo the radiopacity and precipitation properties of a highly concentrated solution of a cellulose acetate 2,3,4-triiodobenzoate mixed ester. All materials with 4-iodo- and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoyl groups gave sufficient radiopacity to be regarded as possible embolization materials, whereas iododeoxycellulose and iododeoxycellulose acetate were not radiopaque because of their low iodine content. Esters synthesized using cellulose as starting material were not soluble in the selected organic solvents due to the presence of many residual hydroxyl groups, but could be used for other biomedical applications where insoluble radiopaque materials are used. In contrast, solubility of the materials as well as satisfactory precipitation properties were ensured using cellulose acetate as the starting material. In conclusion, cellulose acetate iodobenzoate mixed esters dissolved in diglyme or dimethyl isosorbide (dimethyl sulfoxide is probably less appropriate because of its toxicity and hemolytic properties) could be useful embolic liquids for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. PMID:11762830

Mottu, F; Rüfenacht, D A; Laurent, A; Doelker, E

2002-01-01

346

Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

SciTech Connect

We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one preliminary experiment of this type and have successfully complemented an A. tumefaciens CelC mutant with the homologous gene (yhjM) from E. coli.

Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

2004-07-31

347

Thermophilic microbial cellulose decomposition and methanogenesis pathways recharacterized by metatranscriptomic and metagenomic analysis.  

PubMed

The metatranscriptomic recharacterization in the present study captured microbial enzymes at the unprecedented scale of 40,000 active genes belonged to 2,269 KEGG functions were identified. The novel information obtained herein revealed interesting patterns and provides an initial transcriptional insight into the thermophilic cellulose methanization process. Synergistic beta-sugar consumption by Thermotogales is crucial for cellulose hydrolysis in the thermophilic cellulose-degrading consortium because the primary cellulose degraders Clostridiales showed metabolic incompetence in subsequent beta-sugar pathways. Additionally, comparable transcription of putative Sus-like polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) was observed in an unclassified order of Bacteroidetes suggesting the importance of PULs mechanism for polysaccharides breakdown in thermophilic systems. Despite the abundance of acetate as a fermentation product, the acetate-utilizing Methanosarcinales were less prevalent by 60% than the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales. Whereas the aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway was markedly more active in terms of transcriptional activities in key genes, indicating that the less dominant Methanosarcinales are more active than their hydrogenotrophic counterparts in methane metabolism. These findings suggest that the minority of aceticlastic methanogens are not necessarily associated with repressed metabolism, in a pattern that was commonly observed in the cellulose-based methanization consortium, and thus challenge the causal likelihood proposed by previous studies. PMID:25330991

Xia, Yu; Wang, Yubo; Fang, Herbert H P; Jin, Tao; Zhong, Huanzi; Zhang, Tong

2014-01-01

348

Thermophilic microbial cellulose decomposition and methanogenesis pathways recharacterized by metatranscriptomic and metagenomic analysis  

PubMed Central

The metatranscriptomic recharacterization in the present study captured microbial enzymes at the unprecedented scale of 40,000 active genes belonged to 2,269 KEGG functions were identified. The novel information obtained herein revealed interesting patterns and provides an initial transcriptional insight into the thermophilic cellulose methanization process. Synergistic beta-sugar consumption by Thermotogales is crucial for cellulose hydrolysis in the thermophilic cellulose-degrading consortium because the primary cellulose degraders Clostridiales showed metabolic incompetence in subsequent beta-sugar pathways. Additionally, comparable transcription of putative Sus-like polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) was observed in an unclassified order of Bacteroidetes suggesting the importance of PULs mechanism for polysaccharides breakdown in thermophilic systems. Despite the abundance of acetate as a fermentation product, the acetate-utilizing Methanosarcinales were less prevalent by 60% than the hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales. Whereas the aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway was markedly more active in terms of transcriptional activities in key genes, indicating that the less dominant Methanosarcinales are more active than their hydrogenotrophic counterparts in methane metabolism. These findings suggest that the minority of aceticlastic methanogens are not necessarily associated with repressed metabolism, in a pattern that was commonly observed in the cellulose-based methanization consortium, and thus challenge the causal likelihood proposed by previous studies. PMID:25330991

Xia, Yu; Wang, Yubo; Fang, Herbert H. P.; Jin, Tao; Zhong, Huanzi; Zhang, Tong

2014-01-01

349

Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

2004-11-10

350

Early onset of effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Combined treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long acting ß2 agonists is approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but little is known about the onset of effect of the combination. Methods: Data were used from 1465 patients with COPD entered into a large 1 year double blind trial with daily measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and symptom scores. Results: PEF was significantly higher after 1 day in patients treated with salmeterol 50 µg twice daily or the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination 50/500 µg twice daily than placebo. In patients treated with fluticasone propionate 500 µg twice daily alone, PEF differed from placebo after 2 days. The differences after 2 weeks compared with placebo were 16 l/min (95% confidence interval (CI) 11 to 21), 11 l/min (95% CI 6 to 16), and 27 l/min (95% CI 22 to 33) for salmeterol, fluticasone propionate, and the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination, respectively. For all treatments the effect on PEF after 2 weeks was comparable to that seen at the end of the study. The difference between the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination and placebo after 2 weeks as a percentage of baseline was similar for PEF and clinic forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Differences in breathlessness scores were statistically significant after 1 day for the group treated with salmeterol alone and after 2 days for the combination group. The 2 week change in FEV1 was only partly indicative of a long term response in individual patients. Conclusions: The effects of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate, alone or in combination, on PEF and breathlessness are seen within days and most of the obtainable effect on these parameters is reached within 2 weeks. PMID:15790985

Vestbo, J; Pauwels, R; Anderson, J; Jones, P; Calverley, P; on, b

2005-01-01

351

Enrichment of Thermophilic Propionate-Oxidizing Bacteria in Syntrophy with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum or Methanobacterium thermoformicicum  

PubMed Central

Thermophilic propionate-oxidizing, proton-reducing bacteria were enriched from the granular methanogenic sludge of a bench-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operated at 55°C with a mixture of volatile fatty acids as feed. Thermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogens had a high decay rate. Therefore, stable, thermophilic propionate-oxidizing cultures could not be obtained by using the usual enrichment procedures. Stable and reproducible cultivation was possible by enrichment in hydrogen-pregrown cultures of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum ?H which were embedded in precipitates of FeS, achieved by addition of FeCl2 to the media. The propionate-oxidizing bacteria formed spores which resisted pasteurization for 30 min at 90°C or 10 min at 100°C. Highly purified cultures were obtained with either M. thermoautotrophicum ?H or Methanobacterium thermoformicicum Z245 as the syntrophic partner organism. The optimum temperature for the two cultures was 55°C. Maximum specific growth rates of cultures with M. thermoautotrophicum ?H were somewhat lower than those of cultures with M. thermoformicicum Z245 (0.15 and 0.19 day-1, respectively). Growth rates were even higher (0.32 day-1) when aceticlastic methanogens were present as well. M. thermoautotrophicum ?H is an obligately hydrogen-utilizing methanogen, showing that interspecies hydrogen transfer is the mechanism by which reducing equivalents are channelled from the acetogens to this methanogen. Boundaries of hydrogen partial pressures at which propionate oxidation occurred were between 6 and 34 Pa. Formate had a strong inhibitory effect on propionate oxidation in cultures with M. thermoautotrophicum. Inhibition by formate was neutralized by addition of the formate-utilizing methanogen or by addition of fumarate. Results indicate that formate inhibited succinate oxidation to fumarate, an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway of propionate oxidation. PMID:16348632

Stams, Alfons J. M.; Grolle, Katja C. F.; Frijters, Carla T. M.; Van Lier, Jules B.

1992-01-01

352

Infrared spectra and chemical abundance of methyl propionate in icy astrochemical conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out an experiment in order to obtain the infrared (IR) spectra of methyl propionate (CH3CH2COOCH3) in astrochemical conditions and present the IR spectra for future identification of this molecule in the interstellar medium (ISM). The experimental IR spectrum is compared with the theoretical spectrum, and an attempt was made to assign the observed peak positions to their corresponding molecular vibrations in condensed phase. Moreover, our calculations suggest that methyl propionate must be synthesized efficiently within the complex chemical network of the ISM and therefore be present in cold dust grains, awaiting identification.

Sivaraman, B.; Radhika, N.; Das, A.; Gopakumar, G.; Majumdar, L.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Subramanian, K. P.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Hada, M.

2015-04-01

353

Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation of Mn12(Propionate) thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single molecule magnets are of great interest due to a multitude of potential applications for some of which thin films are required. Traditional physical vapor deposition techniques are not suitable for the deposition of these fragile materials with low decomposition temperatures. Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique has been employed for the growth of thin films of the single molecule magnet Mn12(Propionate) on Si and glass substrates. In this paper we report on the appropriate growth conditions and also the morphology, chemical composition and magnetic behavior of the films. Continuous Mn12(Propionate) films with properties similar to bulk materials have been obtained.

Pervolaraki, M.; Sima, F.; Socol, G.; Teodorescu, C. M.; Gheorghe, N. G.; Socol, M.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Moushi, E. E.; Tasiopoulos, A. J.; Athanasopoulos, G. I.; Viskadourakis, Z.; Giapintzakis, J.

2012-09-01

354

Inhaled fluticasone propionate does not influence salivary cortisol when measured with tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) may potentially lead to adrenal insufficiency in children with asthma. A sufficient adrenal response can be tested using protocols involving salivary cortisol measurements. In this study, we investigated in healthy volunteers whether inhalation of fluticasone propionate, a frequently prescribed ICS, interferes with salivary cortisol measurement (with tandem mass spectrometry as well as an immuno-assay). We found that inhalation of fluticasone propionate immediately before saliva collection does not interfere with the salivary cortisol measurement when measured by mass spectrometry. These results suggest that patients with asthma using ICS can be included in research protocols based on salivary cortisol mass spectrometry measurements. PMID:23329775

van der Veen, Betty S; Appelhof, Maaike; de Vries, Tjalling W

2012-01-01

355

Propionic acid and its esterified derivative suppress the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that Propionibacterium acnes, a human skin commensal bacterium, ferments glycerol into short-chain fatty acids, including propionic acid. Propionic acid suppressed the growth of Staphylococcus aureus USA300, a community-acquired methicillin-resistant bacterium, in vitro and in vivo. In this study, it is demonstrated that the anti-USA300 activity of propionic acid persisted after buffering the acid with 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1- piperazineethanesulfonic acid. This suggests that the growth suppression of USA300 mainly resulted from the antimicrobial activity of propionic acid per se and not from the acidity of the medium. In addition, proprionic acid significantly reduced the intracellular pH of USA300 and exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. P. acnes showed a higher tolerance to propionic acid. Next, an esterified derivative of propionic acid was synthesised. Propionic acid and the esterified derivative were equivalent in their efficacy to suppress the growth of USA300 in vitro. The esterified derivative thus provides an alternative to propionic acid as an antimicrobial agent against S. aureus. PMID:24686580

Wang, Y; Dai, A; Huang, S; Kuo, S; Shu, M; Tapia, C P; Yu, J; Two, A; Zhang, H; Gallo, R L; Huang, C-M

2014-06-01

356

Quantitative analysis of previously identified propionate-oxidizing bacteria and methanogens at different temperatures in an UASB reactor containing propionate as a sole carbon source.  

PubMed

Propionate degradation is crucial for maintaining the efficiency and stability of an anaerobic reactor. However, there was little information about the effects of ecological factor on propionate-oxidizing bacteria (POB). In current research, quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of some identified POB and methanogens with a decrease in temperature in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor containing propionate as sole carbon source was investigated. The results showed that there were at least four identified POB, including Pelotomaculum schinkii, Pelotomaculum propionicum, Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans, and Syntrophobacter sulfatireducens, observed in this UASB reactor. Among them, P. schinkii was dominated during the whole operational period. Its quantity was 1.2 × 10(4) 16S rRNA gene copies per nanogram of DNA at 35 °C. A decrease in temperature from 35 to 30 °C led to P. schinkii to be increased by 1.8 times and then it was gradually reduced with a decrease in temperature from 30 to 25, 20, and 18 °C stepwise. A decrease in temperature from 35 to 20 °C did not make the amount of methanogens markedly changed, but hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanospirillum) and acetotrophic methanogens (Methanosaeta) at 18 °C were increased by an order of magnitude and 1.0 time, respectively, compared with other experimental conditions. PMID:24026412

Ban, Qiaoying; Li, Jianzheng; Zhang, Liguo; Jha, Ajay Kumar; Zhang, Yupeng

2013-12-01

357

Cellulose Derivatives for Water Repellent Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this poster presentation, we will discuss the synthesis and structural characterizations of nitro-benzyl cellulose (1), amino-benzyl cellulose (2) and pentafluoro –benzyl cellulose (3). All cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide h...

358

Microbial Cellulose: Fermentative Production and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacterial cellulose, an exopolysaccharide produced by some bacteria, has unique struc- tural and mechanical properties and is highly pure as compared to plant cellulose. This ar- ticle presents a critical review of the available information on the bacterial cellulose with special emphasis on its fermentative production and applications. Information on the bio- synthetic pathway of bacterial cellulose, enzymes and

Prashant R. Chawla; Ishwar B. Bajaj; Shrikant A. Survase; Rekha S. Singhal

2009-01-01

359

Factors Affecting the Stability of Cellulose Peroxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the stability of three kinds of cellulose peroxides prepared by reactions of aldehyde cellulose, carboxy-methyl cellulose, and unmodified cellulose with hydrogen peroxide, Peroxides A, B, and C, respectively, were investigated. The relative stability of the peroxides was in the order Peroxide A > B > C, which was greatly improved by applying ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as the chelating reagent

Yoshitaka Ogiwara; Kaoru Torikoshi; Kazuo Takahashi; Hitoshi Kubota

1982-01-01

360

Radiation degradation of cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20 % up to about 80 %. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given.

Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Hübert, S.

361

Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception.  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate is a progesterone receptor modulator. As an emergency contraceptive, a 30-mg micronized formulation is effective for use up to 120 h from unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate acts as an antagonist of the progesterone receptor at the transcriptional level and a competitive antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor function. In contrast to other contraceptives, it has little effect on sex hormone-binding globulin. Although a single small study demonstrated some potential endometrial effects after ulipristal acetate administration, the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. The incidence of adverse events in clinical trials for emergency contraception has typically been minimal, with one study showing a higher than expected incidence of nausea upon ulipristal acetate use. Ulipristal acetate, like other emergency contraceptive products, can lengthen the time to the next expected menstruation. Ulipristal acetate may have several advantages over currently approved emergency contraceptives. When compared to levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate maintains its efficacy for a full 120 h, whereas levonorgestrel formulations have declining efficacy over that time frame. Moreover, although the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is highly effective as an emergency contraceptive, accessibility is an issue since the IUD requires a skilled provider for insertion. PMID:20967297

Russo, J A; Creinin, M D

2010-09-01

362

Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures  

DOEpatents

Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

1986-09-16

363

Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures  

DOEpatents

Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

1986-09-16

364

Facile transformation of hydrophilic cellulose into superhydrophobic cellulose.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic cellulose-based materials coupled with transparent, stable and nanoscale polymethylsiloxane coating have been successfully achieved by a simple process via chemical vapor deposition, followed by hydrolyzation and polymerization. PMID:18361348

Li, Shenghai; Xie, Haibo; Zhang, Suobo; Wang, Xianhong

2007-12-14

365

Cellulose and cellulose derivatives: Recent advances in physical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews a recent progress on the physical chemistry of cellulose and cellulose derivatives (CD) and their applications to some industrial fields. Average degree of substitution for each hydroxyl groups attached to carbon 2, 3, and 6 in a pyranose ring «f\\u000a\\u000ak\\u000a» (k=2, 3, 6) could be estimated by 1H-and 13C-NMR methods and distribution of total degree

Kenji Kamide; Masatoshi Saito

366

Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process.  

PubMed

To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing. PMID:24508905

Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Huijgen, Wouter J J; de Wild, Paul J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Gerritsma, Jort; Courtin, Christophe M

2014-03-01

367

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

368

Ulipristal acetate: contraceptive or contragestive?  

PubMed

Ulipristal acetate is the first selective progesterone receptor modulator approved for postcoital contraception in the US. It appears to be significantly more effective in inhibition of ovulation than other forms of emergency contraception. However, ulipristal acetate is structurally similar to mifepristone, and several lines of evidence suggest that a postfertilization mechanism of action is also operative. This mechanism of action is considered to be contragestive versus contraceptive. Ulipristal acetate administration is contraindicated in a known or suspected pregnancy; however, it could quite possibly be used as an effective abortifacient. Health-care providers should inform patients of the possibility of both mechanisms of action with use of this drug. PMID:21666088

Keenan, Jeffrey A

2011-06-01

369

Fragrance material review on 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22402309

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

370

Fragrance material review on 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,1-Dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an Aryl Alkyl Alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; mucous membrane (eye) irritation; skin sensitization; elicitation; and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22445843

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

371

Fragrance material review on 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate.  

PubMed

A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,3-Dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406562

McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

2012-09-01

372

Multilayers of cellulose derivatives and chitosan on nanofibrillated cellulose.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the effect of solution conditions and polysaccharide structure on their Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition on nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). Multilayer build-up of cellulose derivatives and chitosan on NFC model surfaces was studied using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Colloidal Probe Microscopy (CPM). The type of cationic polysaccharide was found to significantly affect the multilayer build-up and surface interactions. Cationic cellulose derivative quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose ethoxylate (HECE) formed highly water-swollen layers with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and the build-up was markedly influenced by both the ionic strength and pH. The ionic strength did not significantly influence the multilayer build-up of chitosan-CMC system, and adsorbed chitosan layers decreased the viscoelasticity of the system. Based on the results, it was also confirmed that electrostatic interaction is not the only driving force in case of the build-up of polysaccharide multilayers on nanofibrillated cellulose. PMID:24751244

Junka, Karoliina; Sundman, Ola; Salmi, Jani; Osterberg, Monika; Laine, Janne

2014-08-01

373

Integration of cellulases into bacterial cellulose: Toward bioabsorbable cellulose composites.  

PubMed

Cellulose biodegradation resulting from enzymolysis generally occurs in nature rather than in the human body because of the absence of cellulose degrading enzymes. In order to achieve in-vivo degradation in human body for in-vivo tissue regeneration applications, we developed a bioaborbable bacterial cellulose (BBC) material, which integrates one or more cellulose degrading enzymes (cellulases), and demonstrated its degradability in vitro using buffers with pH values relevant to wound environments. We introduced a double lyophilizing process to retain the microstructure of the bacterial cellulose as well as the activity of embedded enzymes allowing for long-term storage of the material, which only requires hydration before use. Enzymes and their combinations have been examined to optimize the in-vitro degradation of the BBC material. In-vitro studies revealed that acidic cellulases from Trichoderma viride showed reasonable activity for pH values ranging from 4.5 to 6.0. A commercial cellulase (cellulase-5000) did not show good activity at pH 7.4, but its degrading ability increased when used in conjunction with a ?-glucosidase from Bacillus subtilis or a ?-glucosidase from Trichoderma sp. Given the harmless glucose product of the enzymatic degradation of cellulose, the BBC material may be ideal for many wound care and tissue engineering applications for the bioabsorbable purpose. PMID:21290589

Hu, Yang; Catchmark, Jeffrey M

2011-04-01

374

Bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes improves methane production from corn straw.  

PubMed

The effect of bioaugmentation with an acetate-type fermentation bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes on the anaerobic digestion of corn straw was evaluated by batch experiments. Acetobacteroides hydrogenigenes is a promising strain for bioaugmentation with relatively high growth rate, hydrogen yields and acetate tolerance, which ferments a broad spectrum of pentoses, hexoses and polyoses mainly into acetate and hydrogen. During corn straw digestion, bioaugmentation with A. hydrogenigenes led to 19-23% increase of the methane yield, with maximum of 258.1 mL/g-corn straw achieved by 10% inoculation (control, 209.3 mL/g-corn straw). Analysis of lignocellulosic composition indicated that A. hydrogenigenes could increase removal rates of cellulose and hemicelluloses in corn straw residue by 12% and 5%, respectively. Further experiment verified that the addition of A. hydrogenigenes could improve the methane yields of methyl cellulose and xylan (models for cellulose and hemicelluloses, respectively) by 16.8% and 7.0%. PMID:25549904

Zhang, Jie; Guo, Rong-Bo; Qiu, Yan-Ling; Qiao, Jiang-Tao; Yuan, Xian-Zheng; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Wang, Chuan-Shui

2015-03-01

375

Phosphorus limitation strategy to increase propionic acid flux towards 3-hydroxyvaleric acid monomers in Cupriavidus necator.  

PubMed

Properties of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (P(3HB-co-3HV)) depend on their 3HV content. 3HV can be produced by Cupriavidus necator from propionic acid. Few studies explored carbon distribution and dynamics of 3HV and 3HB monomers production, and none of them have been done with phosphorus as limiting nutrient. In this study, fed-batch cultures of C. necator with propionic acid, as sole carbon source or mixed with butyric acid, were performed. Phosphorus deficiency allowed sustaining 3HV production rate and decreasing 3HB production rate, leading to an instant production of up to 100% of 3HV. When a residual growth is sustained by a phosphorus feeding, the maximum 3HV percentage produced from propionic acid is limited to 33% (Mole.Mole(-1)). The association of a second carbon source like butyric acid lead to higher conversion of propionic acid into 3HV. This study showed the importance of the limiting nutrient and of the culture strategy to get the appropriate product. PMID:24365742

Grousseau, Estelle; Blanchet, Elise; Déléris, Stéphane; Albuquerque, Maria G E; Paul, Etienne; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis

2014-02-01

376

Le Lait, 1988, 68 (1), 103-107 Presence of plasmids in propionic acid bacteria  

E-print Network

, soit 6,5 Kbases. Introduction Technological performances of lactic acid bacteria routinely used screening of plasmids of lactic acid bacteria (BIRNBOIM and DOLY, 1979 ; KLAENHAMMER,1984 ; Yu et al., 1982 to propionic acid fermentation (HETTINGA et al., 1974) and to growth of these bacteria during cheese maturation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Monitoring Amyelois transitella Males and Females with Phenyl Propionate Traps in Almonds and Pistachios  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Attractants that lure both sexes and both mated and unmated females have been used to monitor the effect of mating disruption on the mating status and relative abundance of lepidopteran females. For the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), phenyl propionate attra...

378

ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE  

EPA Science Inventory

ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE Cynthia Wolf1,2 , Joe Ostby1, Jonathan Furr 1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1 1 US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2 Departmen...

379

Enrichment of 3-nitro-1-propionic acid-metabolizing bacteria in avian feces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Denitrobacterium detoxificans is a Gram-positive anaerobe that conserves energy for growth exclusively via anaerobic respiration, oxidizing H2, formate or lactate for the reduction of nitrate, trimethylamine oxide, dimethyl sulfoxide or nitroalkanes such as 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA). At presen...

380

Propionic acidemia: clinical course and outcome in 55 pediatric and adolescent patients  

PubMed Central

Background Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder caused by deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. Although it is one of the most frequent organic acidurias, information on the outcome of affected individuals is still limited. Study design/methods Clinical and outcome data of 55 patients with propionic acidemia from 16 European metabolic centers were evaluated retrospectively. 35 patients were diagnosed by selective metabolic screening while 20 patients were identified by newborn screening. Endocrine parameters and bone age were evaluated. In addition, IQ testing was performed and the patients’ and their families’ quality of life was assessed. Results The vast majority of patients (>85%) presented with metabolic decompensation in the neonatal period. Asymptomatic individuals were the exception. About three quarters of the study population was mentally retarded, median IQ was 55. Apart from neurologic symptoms, complications comprised hematologic abnormalities, cardiac diseases, feeding problems and impaired growth. Most patients considered their quality of life high. However, according to the parents’ point of view psychic problems were four times more common in propionic acidemia patients than in healthy controls. Conclusion Our data show that the outcome of propionic acidemia is still unfavourable, in spite of improved clinical management. Many patients develop long-term complications affecting different organ systems. Impairment of neurocognitive development is of special concern. Nevertheless, self-assessment of quality of life of the patients and their parents yielded rather positive results. PMID:23305374

2013-01-01

381

EFFECT OF TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE ON PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF HEIFERS AND COWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of testosterone on growth and composition of cattle. In the first experiment, crossbred yearling heifers (n = 48) were assigned to four treatments: 1) control (no implant), 2) Synovex-H implants on d 1 and 84, 3) one testosterone propionate implant administered on d 1 and a second on d 84 and 4)

D. B. Faulkner; F. K. McKeith; L. L. Berger; D. J. Kesler; D. F. Parrett

2010-01-01

382

Fabrication of cellulose self-assemblies and high-strength ordered cellulose films.  

PubMed

Based on the formation of cellulose hydrogels in NaOH/urea aqueous solvent media, cellulose self-assembly precursor is acquired. It is proved that the water uptake capability of the cellulose hydrogels depends highly on the cross-link degree (CLD) of cellulose. With varying CLD and concentration of cellulose, a variety of morphologies of cellulose self-assemblies, including sheets with perfect morphology, high-aspect-ratio fibers, and disorganized segments and network, are formed through evaporation. Furthermore, cellulose films are fabricated by diecasting and evaporating the cellulose hydrogels, resulting in a 3D-ordered structure of closely stacking of cellulose sheets. The mechanical test indicates both tensile strength and flexibility of the cellulose films are greatly improved, which is attributed to the formation of the orderly stacking of cellulose sheets. The study is expected to lay an important foundation on the preparation of ordered and high-strength cellulose materials. PMID:25498654

Yuan, Zaiwu; Zhang, Jingjing; Jiang, Anning; Lv, Wenting; Wang, Yuewen; Geng, Hongjuan; Wang, Jin; Qin, Menghua

2015-03-01

383

Cellulose pretreatments of lignocellulosic substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose in inedible plant materials, forestry residues, and municipal wastes must be pretreated to disrupt its physical structure, thereby making its hydrolysis to glucose practical. Developments since 1991 are summarized.

Weil, J.; Westgate, P.; Kohlmann, K.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

384

Polyol mediated synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles templated by bacterial cellulose.  

PubMed

Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized through a facile polyol method using bacterial cellulose (BC) as a template. BC membrane was used as a host matrix to introduce quantitatively Zn(2+) ions and then as nanoreactors to fabricate ZnO nanoparticles by hydrolysis of zinc acetate in a polyol medium. The influence of the concentration of zinc acetate and hydrolytic time on the morphologies and size of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated. The results indicated that the uniform spherical ZnO nanoparticles were incorporated into BC fibers. The resulting nanocomposites show good mechanical properties and high photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange. PMID:23399243

Chen, Shiyan; Zhou, Bihui; Hu, Weili; Zhang, Wen; Yin, Na; Wang, Huaping

2013-02-15

385

Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The untreated waters were generally cool, low in content of calcium and magnesium, and very low in iron and manganese. At many plants, water was obtained from more than one source, and thus had different quality characteristics. Dissolved solids in all the untreated waters analyzed ranged between 14 and 747 ppm (parts per million) but in those waters used in processing the dissolved solids content was less than 200 ppm. The cooling water used by the industry is also generally of very high quality, principally because the requirements for a high-quality process water necessitate location of the plants in areas where such water is available.

Mussey, Orville Durey

1957-01-01

386

TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native wood celluloses can be converted to individual nanofibers 3-4 nm wide that are at least several microns in length, i.e. with aspect ratios >100, by TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and successive mild disintegration in water. Preparation methods and fundamental characteristics of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCN) are reviewed in this paper. Significant amounts of C6 carboxylate groups are selectively formed

Akira Isogai; Tsuguyuki Saito; Hayaka Fukuzumi

2011-01-01

387

Molecular Structure of Acetic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

2003-06-02

388

Degradation of cellulosic biomass and its subsequent utilization for the production of chemical feedstocks. Progress report, March 1-August 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in this coordinated research program to effect the microbiological degradation of cellulosic biomass by anaerobic microorganisms possessing cellulolytic enzymes. Three main areas of research are discussed: increasing enzyme levels through genetics, mutations, and genetic manipulation; the direct conversion of cellulosic biomass to liquid fuel (ethanol); and the production of chemical feedstocks from biomass (acrylic acid, acetone/butanol, and acetic acid). (DMC)

Wang, D. I.C.

1980-09-01

389

Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques. PMID:24937092

Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

2014-07-21

390

Batch- and continuous propionic acid production from glycerol using free and immobilized cells of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.  

PubMed

Propionic acid production from glycerol was studied using Propionibacterium acidipropionici DSM 4900 cells immobilized on polyethylenimine-treated Poraver (PEI-Poraver) and Luffa (PEI-Luffa), respectively. Using PEI-Luffa, the average productivity, yield and concentration of propionic acid from 40 g L(-1) glycerol were 0.29 g L(-1) h(-1), 0.74 mol(PA) mol(Gly)(-1) and 20 g L(-1), respectively, after four consecutive recycle-batches. PEI-Poraver supported attachment of 31 times higher amounts of cells than PEI-Luffa and produced 20, 28 and 35 g L(-1) propionic acid from 40, 65 and 85 g L(-1) glycerol, respectively (0.61 mol(PA) mol(Gly)(-1)). The corresponding production rates were 0.86, 0.43 and 0.35 g L(-1) h(-1), which are the highest reported from glycerol via batch or fed-batch fermentations for equivalent propionic acid concentrations. Using a continuous mode of operation at a dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1), cell washout was observed in the bioreactor with free cells; however, propionic acid productivity, yield and concentration were 1.40 g L(-1) h(-1), 0.86 mol(PA) mol(Gly)(-1), and 15 g L(-1), respectively, using immobilized cells in the PEI-Poraver bioreactor. The choice of the immobilization matrix can thus significantly influence the fermentation efficiency and profile. The bioreactor using cells immobilized on PEI-Poraver allowed the fermentation of higher glycerol concentrations and provided stable and higher fermentation rates than that using free cells or the cells immobilized on PEI-Luffa. PMID:22728152

Dishisha, Tarek; Alvarez, Maria Teresa; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

2012-08-01

391

Topical monotherapy with clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% in the COBRA trial.  

PubMed

The Clobex Spray Community-Based Research Assessment (COBRA) trial, a large, 4-week, open-label, observational trial, evaluated the use of twice-daily clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% in subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis affecting 3% to 20% body surface area (BSA). The study was designed to augment existing phase 3 clinical trial data. In this trial, 1254 subjects in the effectiveness-evaluable (EE) population were treated with clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% as monotherapy. Clinical effectiveness was evaluated at weeks 2 and 4 using a 6-point target plaque severity (TPS) scale and 7-point investigators' global assessment of improvement (GAI) scale. Psoriasis TPS at week 0 (baseline) was rated as moderate to severe in more than 90% of subjects. After 2 weeks of clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% monotherapy, statistically significant improvement in TPS was seen at weeks 2 and 4 (P < .001). In addition, statistically significant improvement was seen at week 4 versus week 2 (P < .001) using the GAI scale. Clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% monotherapy was well-tolerated as assessed by erythema, peeling/scaling, dryness, stinging/burning, telangiectasia, skin atrophy, pruritus, and folliculitis. Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders as well as general disorders and application-site conditions defined as possibly or probably related to therapy occurred in 1.0% and less than 1.0% of subjects, respectively. In addition, more than 90% of subjects were reported by investigators as being very satisfied or somewhat satisfied with their treatment at week 4. Based on these data, clobetasol propionate spray 0.05% is an effective and convenient topical monotherapy for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. PMID:18154219

Menter, Alan

2007-11-01

392

A synthetic auxin (NAA) suppresses secondary wall cellulose synthesis and enhances elongation in cultured cotton fiber.  

PubMed

Use of a synthetic auxin (naphthalene-1-acetic acid, NAA) to start (Gossypium hirsutum) ovule/fiber cultures hindered fiber secondary wall cellulose synthesis compared with natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA). In contrast, NAA promoted fiber elongation and ovule weight gain, which resulted in larger ovule/fiber units. To reach these conclusions, fiber and ovule growth parameters were measured and cell wall characteristics were examined microscopically. The differences in fiber from NAA and IAA culture were underpinned by changes in the expression patterns of marker genes for three fiber developmental stages (elongation, the transition stage, and secondary wall deposition), and these gene expression patterns were also analyzed quantitatively in plant-grown fiber. The results demonstrate that secondary wall cellulose synthesis: (1) is under strong transcriptional control that is influenced by auxin; and (2) must be specifically characterized in the cotton ovule/fiber culture system given the many protocol variables employed in different laboratories. PMID:19479259

Singh, Bir; Cheek, Hannah D; Haigler, Candace H

2009-07-01

393

Self-assembled micelles based on hydrophobically modified quaternized cellulose for drug delivery.  

PubMed

Novel amphiphilic cationic cellulose (HMQC) derivatives carrying long chain alkyl groups as hydrophobic moieties and quaternary ammonium groups as hydrophilic moieties were synthesized. Structure and properties of the amphiphilic cellulose derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, ?-potential measurement, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results revealed that HMQCs can be self-assembled into cationic micelles in distilled water with the average hydrodynamic radius of 320-430 nm. The cytotoxicity study showed that the HMQC exhibited low cytotoxicity. Prednisone acetate, a water insoluble anti-inflammation drug, was chosen as a model drug to investigate the utilization of self-assembled HMQC micelles as a delivery carrier for poorly water-soluble drugs. The study indicated that the prednisone acetate could be incorporated effectively in the self-assembled HMQC micelles and be controlled released. PMID:21190813

Song, Yongbo; Zhang, Lingzhi; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jinping; Zhang, Lina

2011-04-01

394

Bacterial cellulose membrane as flexible substrate for organic light emitting devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes produced by gram-negative, acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter xylinus), were used as flexible substrates for the fabrication of Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). In order to achieve the necessary conductive properties indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto the membrane at room temperature using radio frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering with an r.f. power of 30 W,

C. Legnani; C. Vilani; V. L. Calil; H. S. Barud; W. G. Quirino; C. A. Achete; S. J. L. Ribeiro; M. Cremona

2008-01-01

395

Solvent Influence on Cellulose 1,4-?-Glycosidic Bond Cleavage: A Molecular Dynamics and Metadynamics Study.  

PubMed

We explore the influence of two solvents, namely water and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc), on the conformations of two cellulose models (cellobiose and a chain of 40 glucose units) and the solvent impact on glycosidic bond cleavage by acid hydrolysis by using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. We investigate the rotation around the glycosidic bond and ring puckering, as well as the anomeric effect and hydrogen bonds, in order to gauge the effect on the hydrolysis mechanism. We find that EmimAc eases hydrolysis through stronger solvent-cellulose interactions, which break structural and electronic barriers to hydrolysis. Our results indicate that hydrolysis in cellulose chains should start from the ends and not in the centre of the chain, which is less accessible to solvent. PMID:25689773

Loerbroks, Claudia; Boulanger, Eliot; Thiel, Walter

2015-03-27

396

Co-electrospun poly(?-caprolactone)/cellulose nanofibers-fabrication and characterization.  

PubMed

We report fabrication of poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL)/cellulose (CEL) nanofiber blends via co-electrospinning for the possible use as biofilters and biosensor strips. Five different ratios of PCL to CEL were fabricated to investigate the wicking behavior. The cellulose acetate (CA) was taken as precursor to make cellulose nanofibers. Double nozzles were employed for jetting constituent polymers toward collector drum independently and resultant nanofibers webs were deacetylated in aqueous alkaline solution to convert CA into CEL as confirmed by FTIR spectra. FTIR further revealed that there is no effect of deacetylation on PCL nanofiber. The morphology of each blend webs under SEM showed uniform and bead-free nanofibers. Wicking behavior for five different ratios of PCL/CEL suggested that increasing CEL ratio in the blend enhanced the wicking front height; however, X-ray diffraction patterns of PCL/CEL showed a slight decrease in crystallinity. PMID:25439909

Ahmed, Farooq; Saleemi, Sidra; Khatri, Zeeshan; Abro, Muhammad Ishaque; Kim, Ick-Soo

2015-01-22

397

Symbiotic Relationship of Bacteroides cellulosolvens and Clostridium saccharolyticum in Cellulose Fermentation†  

PubMed Central

In coculture, Bacteroides cellulosolvens and Clostridium saccharolyticum fermented 33% more cellulose than did B. cellulosolvens alone. Also, cellulose digestion continued at a maximum rate 48 h longer in coculture. B. cellulosolvens hydrolyzes cellulose and supplies C. saccharolyticum with sugars and a growth factor replaceable by yeast extract. Alone, B. cellulosolvens exhibited an early cessation of growth which was not due to nutrient depletion, low pH, or toxic accumulation of acetic acid, ethanol, lactic acid, H2, CO2, cellobiose, glucose, or xylose. However, a 1-h incubation of B. cellulosolvens spent-culture medium with C. saacharolyticum cells starved for growth factor allowed a resumption of B. cellulosolvens growth. The symbiotic relationship of this naturally occurring coculture is one of mutualism, in which the cellulolytic microbe supplies the saccharolytic microbe with nutrients, and in turn the saccharolytic microbe removes a secondary metabolite toxic to the primary microbe. Images PMID:16347034

Murray, William D.

1986-01-01

398

Symbiotic relationship of Bacteroides cellulosolvens and Clostridium saccharolyticum in cellulose fermentation  

SciTech Connect

In coculture, Bacteroides cellulosolvens and Clostridium saccharolyticum fermented 33% more cellulose than did B. cellulosolvens alone. Also, cellulose digestion continued at a maximum rate 48 h longer in coculture. B. cellulosolvens hydrolyzes cellulose and supplies C. saccharolyticum with sugars and a growth factor replaceable by yeast extract. Alone, B. cellulosovens exhibited an early cessation of growth which was not due to nutrient depletion, low pH, or toxic accumulation of acetic acid, ethanol, lactic acid, H/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, cellobiose, glucose, or xylose. However, a 1-h incubation of B. cellulosolvens spent-culture medium with C. saacharolyticum cells starved for growth factor allowed a resumption of B. cellulosolvens growth. The symbiotic relationship of this naturally occurring coculture is one of mutualism, in which the cellulolytic microbe supplies the saccharolytic microbe with nutrients, and in turn the saccharolytic microbe removes a secondary metabolite toxic to the primary microbe.

Murray, W.D.

1986-04-01

399

Separation and characterization of cellulose fibers from cypress wood treated with ionic liquid prior to laccase treatment.  

PubMed

Separation of cellulose fibers (CFs) from woody biomass with minimal structural alteration using a "green" and efficient method was achieved by treatment with the ionic liquid (IL), [emim][OAc] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) at 80 °C for 1h. The IL was recovered by rinsing with water-acetone mixture prior to treatment of the wood with Trametes sp. laccase in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole as a mediator. IL pretreatment did not significantly change the chemical composition of the wood, but did alter its structure and rendered its surface more accessible to the enzyme. Treated and untreated samples were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, TGA, and chemical methods. The cellulose content of the produced fibers was approximately 73.1% and the lignin content was 9.8%, much lower than the lignin content of 29.3% of the untreated wood. The cellulose fibers exhibited higher cellulose crystallinity and better thermal stability compared to untreated wood materials. PMID:23131633

Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Ono, Tsutomu

2013-01-01

400

Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project studies the biochemistry and physiology of four major groups (primary, secondary, ancillary and methane bacteria) of anaerobic bacteria, that are involved in the conversion of cellulose to methane or chemical feedstocks. The primary bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, has a cellulolytic enzyme system capable of hydrolyzing crystalline cellulose and consists of polypeptide complexes attached to the substrate cellulose with the aid of a low molecular yellow affinity substance (YAS) produced by the bacterium in the presence of cellulose. Properties of the complexes and YAS are studied. Aspects of metabolism are being studied which appear to be relevant for the interactions on consortia and their bioenergetics, particularly related to hydrogen, formate, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The roles of metals in the activation of H{sub 2} are being investigated, and genes for the hydrogenases cloned and sequenced to established structural relationships among the hydrogenases. The goals are to understand the roles and regulation of hydrogenases in interspecies H{sub 2} transfer, H{sub 2} cycling and the generation of a proton gradient. The structures of the metal clusters and their role in the metabolism of formate will be investigated with the goal of understanding the function of formate in the total synthesis of acetate from CO{sub 2} and its role in the bioenergetics of these microorganisms. Additionally, the enzyme studies will be performed using thermophiles and also the isolation of some new pertinent species. The project will also include research on the mechanism of extreme thermophily (growth over 70{degrees}) in bacteria that grow over a temperature span of 40{degrees}C or more. These bacteria exhibit a biphasic growth response to temperature and preliminary evidence suggests that the phenomenon is due to the expression of a new set of enzymes. These initial observations will be extended employing techniques of molecular biology.

Peck, H.D. Jr.; Ljungdahl, L.G.; Mortenson, L.E.; Wiegel, J.K.W.

1994-11-01

401

Synthesis and characterization of a trifunctional aminoamide cellulose derivative.  

PubMed

As part of an effort to synthesize a dendronized cellulose, we have synthesized a trifunctional aminoamide derivative, which is the first generation of a dendron substituent. We anticipate that a dendronized cellulose would have applications in complexing metals and could be employed as an adjuvant for drugs. The trifunctional aminoamide substituent was introduced by coupling di-tert-butyl 4-[2-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)ethyl]-4-aminoheptanedicarboxylate, BA, directly to a (carboxymethyl)cellulose (CMC) backbone and converting the tert-butyl ester peripheral groups to aminoamide substituents by use of N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine. Confirmation of the proposed chemical structure of the intermediates as well as the water-soluble aminoamide derivative (CMCBADMPDA) was obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and NMR spectroscopy. The degree of substitution (DS) was determined to be 0.40 +/- 0.01 by thermogravimetric analysis. Typical weight average molecular weight (M(w)), molecular weight distribution (MWD), and molecular size of the dendronized polymers were found to be 97,000, 1.7, and 17.4 nm for derivatives of a CMC with corresponding M(w), MWD, and root-mean-square radius (RMS) of 230 000, 3.2, and 24 nm. A differential refractive index (dn/dc) for the aminoamide derivative measured in aqueous 0.40 N ammonium acetate-0.01 N NaOH was found to be 0.1473. The intrinsic viscosity of the dendronized cellulose decreased significantly when compared with that of CMC, that is, 0.40 dL/g relative to 5.60 dL/g. The hydrophobicity of the CMCBADMPDA microenvironment in aqueous solution was probed by evaluating the relative fluorescence intensities of the I(373)/I(384) pyrene bands; a slightly more hydrophobic environment was observed. PMID:16398508

Zhang, Changde; Price, Loren M; Daly, William H

2006-01-01

402

Location of sulfate groups on sulfoacetate derivatives of cellulose.  

PubMed

A water-soluble cellulose acetate sulfate (CAS) with a degree of acetylation (DS(Ac)) 2.4 and a degree of sulfation (DS(Sulf)) of 0.3 was obtained by direct acetylation of cellulose using sulfuric acid as catalyst. Using methylation analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, sulfate groups have been located on primary alcohol function of glucose residues. The distribution of the sulfate groups along the cellulose chain has been investigated using enzymatic hydrolysis. CAS was first de-acetylated under mild hydrolysis conditions (NaOH 0.25 mol/L at room temperature), and then cellulose sulfate was hydrolyzed by a cellulolytic complex (Celluclast 1.5L). Reaction products were separated by ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE Sepharose CL6B column into five fractions F(1), F(2), F(3), F(4) and F(5), which were analyzed for their chemical composition. F(1) was glucose and represented the main product of reaction (approximately 50% of the initial glucose), F(2) was a dimer (approximately 30%) with a ratio Sulfates-Glucose of 0.41 (about one sulfate group for two glucose units), F(3) a trimer (approximately 10%) with a ratio Sulfates-Glucose of 0.62 (about two sulfate groups for three glucose units), and F(4) a tetramer (approximately 5%) with a ratio Sulfates-Glucose of 0.69. The structure of the oligomers was established using 1H and 13C NMR. The observed proportion of the different blocks of sulfate groups was in good agreement with computed random distribution. PMID:12668096

Thomas, Maud; Chauvelon, Gaëlle; Lahaye, Marc; Saulnier, Luc

2003-04-01

403

Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility  

SciTech Connect

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared by subjecting dilute slurries of cellulose fibers to repeated high-pressure homogenizing action. A highly microfibrillated product will have a gel-like appearance at 2% concentration in water. Such gels have pseudoplastic viscosity properties and are very fluid when stirred at high shear rate. The relative viscosity of 2% MFC dispersions may be used as a measure of the degree of homogenization or microfibrillation of a given wood cellulose pulp. The water retention value of an MFC product can also be used as an indicator for degree of homogenization. Structurally, MFC appears to be a web of interconnected fibrils and microfibrils, the latter having diameters in the range 10-100 nm as observed in scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Chemical studies have revealed that MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC toward chemical reagents is greatly increased. Higher reactivity was demonstrated in dilute cupriethylenediamine solubility, triphenylmethylation, acetylation, periodate oxidation, and mineral acid and cellulase enzyme hydrolysis rates. 16 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

Herrick, F.W.; Casebier, R.L.; Hamilton, J.K.; Sandberg, K.R.

1983-01-01

404

Cellulose Peroxides with Structures of Peracid and ?-Hydroxyhydroperoxide Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose peroxides derived from various cellulose derivatives with hydrogen peroxide were investigated. Fibrous carboxy-methyl cellulose, periodic acid-oxidized cellulose, and methyl vinyl ketone-treated cellulose were employed as cellulose derivatives. Carboxyl and carbonyl groups in the cellulose derivatives were believed to react with hydrogen peroxide to form peroxides with structures of peracid and ?-hydroxyhydroperoxide types, respectively. The decomposition of the cellulose peroxides

Hitoshi Kubota; Yoshitaka Ogiwara

1981-01-01

405

Inactivation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Degradation and Removal of Cellulose from STEC Surfaces by Using Selected Enzymatic and Chemical Treatments?  

PubMed Central

Some Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains produce extracellular cellulose, a long polymer of glucose with ?-1-4 glycosidic bonds. This study evaluated the efficacies of selected enzymatic and chemical treatments in inactivating STEC and degrading/removing the cellulose on STEC surfaces. Six cellulose-producing STEC strains were treated with cellulase (0.51 to 3.83 U/15 ml), acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%), as well as an acidic and alkaline sanitizer (manufacturers' recommended concentrations) under appropriate conditions. Following each treatment, residual amounts of cellulose and surviving populations of STEC were determined. Treatments with acetic and lactic acids significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the populations of STEC, and those with lactic acid also significantly decreased the amounts of cellulose on STEC. The residual amounts of cellulose on STEC positively correlated to the surviving populations of STEC after the treatments with the organic acids (r = 0.64 to 0.94), and the significance of the correlations ranged from 83 to 99%. Treatments with cellulase and the sanitizers both degraded cellulose. However, treatments with cellulase had no influence on the fate of STEC, and those with the sanitizers reduced STEC cell populations to undetectable levels. Thus, the correlations between the residual amounts of cellulose and the surviving populations of STEC caused by these two treatments were not observed. The results suggest that the selected enzymatic and chemical agents degraded and removed the cellulose on STEC surfaces, and the treatments with organic acids and sanitizers also inactivated STEC cells. The amounts of cellulose produced by STEC strains appear to affect their susceptibilities to certain sanitizing treatments. PMID:22003030

Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

2011-01-01

406

Cellulose Modifications and Their Future Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this poster, we will describe the synthesis and structural characterizations of a benzyl-, nitrobenzyl-, and aminobenzyl celluloses. Nitrobenzyl- and aminobenzyl cellulose derivatives are synthesized by etherification process in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide homogeneous solution. Nitrobe...

407

Crystalline Structure of Microbial Cellulose Compared with Native and Regenerated Cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial cellulose is a chemically pure form of plant cellulose with an ultrafine reticulated structure. In this study, microbial cellulose was biosynthesized in a static condition by acetobacter xylinium (Gluconacetobacter xylinus) of three different mono- and disaccharides, and its crystallinity structure was investigated and compared with each other and also with the crystalline structure of cellulose existing in cotton and

Ramin Khajavi; Ebrahim Jahangirian Esfahani; Morteza Sattari

2011-01-01

408

Surface area and porosity of acid hydrolyzed cellulose nanowhiskers and cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical parameters of cellulose such as surface area and porosity are important in the development of cellulose composites which may contain valuable additives which bind to cellulose. In this area, the use of acid hydrolyzed nano-dimensional cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) has attracted significant interest, yet the surface area and porosity of these materials have not been explored experimentally. The objective

Jing Guo; Jeffrey M. Catchmark

409

Development of nonflammable cellulosic foams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a moldable cellulosic foam for use in Skylab instrument storage cushions is considered. Requirements include density of 10 lb cu ft or less, minimal friability with normal handling, and nonflammability in an atmosphere of 70 percent oxygen and 30 percent nitrogen at 6.2 psia. A study of halogenated foam components was made, including more highly chlorinated binders, halogen-containing additives, and halogenation of the cellulose. The immediate objective was to reduce the density of the foam through reduction in inorganic phosphate without sacrificing flame-retarding properties of the foams. The use of frothing techniques was investigated, with particular emphasis on a urea-formaldehyde foam. Halogen-containing flame retardants were deemphasized in favor of inorganic salts and the preparation of phosphate and sulphate esters of cellulose. Utilization of foam products for civilian applications was also considered.

Luttinger, M.

1972-01-01

410

Microbial Cellulose Assembly in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on evidence indicating a possible correlation between hypo-gravity conditions and alteration of cellulose production by the gram negative bacterium, Acetobacter xylinum, a ground-based study for a possible long term Space Shuttle flight has been conducted. The proposed experiment for A. xylinum aboard the Shuttle is the BRIC (Biological Research in a Canister), a metal container containing spaces for nine Petri plates. Using a common experimental design, the cellulose production capability as well as the survivability of the A. xylinum strains NQ5 and AY201 have been described. It should now be possible to use the BRIC for the first long term microgravity experiments involving the biosynthesis of cellulose.

Brown, R. Malcolm, Jr.

1998-01-01

411

(S)-Alanine–(S)-2-phen­oxy­propionic acid (1/1)  

PubMed Central

In the title co-crystal, C3H7NO2·C9H10O3, the (S)-alanine mol­ecule exists in the zwitterionic form stabilized by two pairs of N+—H?O? hydrogen bonds and an electrostatic inter­action between the ammonium center and the carboxyl­ate anion, forming a sheet along the ab plane. The carboxyl group of the (S)-2-phen­oxy­propionic acid mol­ecule is connected to the top and bottom of the sheet via N+—H?O=C and O—H?O? [R 2 2(7) graph set] hydrogen bonds, giving an (S,S)-homochiral layer, in which both methyl groups of (S)-alanine and the phenyl rings of (S)-2-phen­oxy­propionic acid are oriented in the same direction along the b axis. PMID:22719509

Amimoto, Kiichi; Nishioka, Yuma

2012-01-01

412

Overview of bio nanofabric from bacterial cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanofibers and bio-nonwoven fabrics of pure cellulose can be made from some bacteria such as Acetobacter xylinum. Bacterial cellulose fibers are very pure, 10?nm in diameter and about 0.5?micron long. The molecular formula of bacterial cellulose is similar to that of plant cellulose. Its fibers are very stiff and it has high tensile strength, high porosity, and nanofibrillar structure. They

Ali Ashjaran; Mohammad Esmail Yazdanshenas; Abosaeed Rashidi; Ramin Khajavi; Abbas Rezaee

2012-01-01

413

On the degradation evolution equations of cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose degradation is usually characterized in terms of either the chain scission number or the scission fraction of cellulose\\u000a unit as a function of degree of polymerisation (DP) and cellulose degradation evolution equation is most commonly described\\u000a by the well known Ekenstam equations. In this paper we show that cellulose degradation can be best characterized either in\\u000a terms of the

H.-Z. Ding; Z. D. Wang

2008-01-01

414

Structural characterization of cellulose with enzymatic treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different cellulosic materials were treated with different extraceller microbial enzymes. Changes in structure and properties of the cellulose caused by enzymatic treatment depend on the composition, the type of enzyme and the type of cellulosic materials. Both endoglucanase and crude cellulase have pronounced effects on the degree of polymerization and the structure of cellulose. The variation of supramolecular structure was found to wide variations in conformation caused by the change of the hydrogen bonding energy.

Cao, Yu; Tan, Huimin

2004-11-01

415

Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition of a novel Zirconium Acetato-Propionate cluster: [Zr12  

E-print Network

: propionates, chemical solution deposition, La2Zr2O7, Zirconium cluster, MOD, 1. Introduction Metal superconducting tapes of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) [2,3,4], where La2Zr2O7 (LZO) is often used as an efficient buffer layer with great benefit [5,6,7]. La2Zr2O7 concerns many other fields of applications: radiation tolerance, ionic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Phylogenetic and functional diversity of propionate-oxidizing bacteria in an anaerobic digester sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic and functional diversity of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria (POB) present in an anaerobic digester\\u000a was investigated by microautoradiography combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (MAR–FISH) that can directly link\\u000a 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. The syntrophic POB community in the anaerobic digester sludge consisted\\u000a of at least four phylogenetic groups: Syntrophobacter, uncultured short rod Smithella (Smithella

Herto Dwi Ariesyady; Tsukasa Ito; Kazumi Yoshiguchi; Satoshi Okabe

2007-01-01

417

Gut microbiota-derived propionate reduces cancer cell proliferation in the liver  

PubMed Central

Background: Metabolites released by the gut microbiota may influence host metabolism and immunity. We have tested the hypothesis that inulin-type fructans (ITF), by promoting microbial production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), influence cancer cell proliferation outside the gut. Methods: Mice transplanted with Bcr-Abl-transfected BaF3 cells, received ITF in their drinking water. Gut microbiota was analysed by 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and qPCR. Serum Short-chain fatty acids were quantified by UHPLC-MS. Cell proliferation was evaluated in vivo, by molecular biology and histology, and in vitro. Results: Inulin-type fructans treatment reduces hepatic BaF3 cell infiltration, lessens inflammation and increases portal propionate concentration. In vitro, propionate reduces BaF3 cell growth through a cAMP level-dependent pathway. Furthermore, the activation of free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2), a Gi/Gq-protein-coupled receptor also known as GPR43 and that binds propionate, lessens the proliferation of BaF3 and other human cancer cell lines. Conclusion: We show for the first time that the fermentation of nutrients such as ITF into propionate can counteract malignant cell proliferation in the liver tissue. Our results support the interest of FFA2 activation as a new strategy for cancer therapeutics. This study highlights the importance of research focusing on gut microbes–host interactions for managing systemic and severe diseases such as leukaemia. PMID:22976799

Bindels, L B; Porporato, P; Dewulf, E M; Verrax, J; Neyrinck, A M; Martin, J C; Scott, K P; Buc Calderon, P; Feron, O; Muccioli, G G; Sonveaux, P; Cani, P D; Delzenne, N M

2012-01-01

418

Inhaled fluticasone propionate and adrenal effects in adult asthma: systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose-response relationship of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) for adrenal suppression in adults with asthma is not clear. The current authors carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled randomised dose-response studies of o4 weeks' duration, which assessed the adrenal effects of FP by cosyntropin stimulation tests in adult asthma. The main outcome measure was the proportion of subjects

M. Masoli; M. Weatherall; S. Holt; P. Shirtcliffe; R. Beasley

2006-01-01

419

The Plant Growth-Regulating Activity of Dextro and Laevo alpha -(2-naphthoxy) Propionic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

(±)-alpha -(2-naphthoxy)propionic acid, an active plant growth-regulating substance, has been resolved into its dextro and laevo rotatory enantiomorphs by fractional crystallization of its (+)-cinchonine salts. The pure stereoisomers have been examined for their effect in inducing a range of growth responses, depending upon cell division, cell enlargement, or both. For these purposes, the Went pea test and the Avena cylinder

M. S. Smith; R. L. Wain

1951-01-01

420

Metabolism of propionic acid to a novel acyl-coenzyme A thioester by mammalian cell lines and platelets.  

PubMed

Metabolism of propionate involves the activated acyl-thioester propionyl-CoA intermediate. We employed LC-MS/MS, LC-selected reaction monitoring/MS, and LC-high-resolution MS to investigate metabolism of propionate to acyl-CoA intermediates. We discovered that propionyl-CoA can serve as a precursor to the direct formation of a new six-carbon mono-unsaturated acyl-CoA. Time course and dose-response studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells demonstrated that the six-carbon mono-unsaturated acyl-CoA was propionate-dependent and underwent further metabolism over time. Studies utilizing [(13)C1]propionate and [(13)C3]propionate suggested a mechanism of fatty acid synthesis, which maintained all six-carbon atoms from two propionate molecules. Metabolism of 2,2-[(2)H2]propionate to the new six-carbon mono-unsaturated acyl-CoA resulted in the complete loss of two deuterium atoms, indicating modification at C2 of the propionyl moiety. Coelution experiments and isotopic tracer studies confirmed that the new acyl-CoA was trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA. Acyl-CoA profiles following treatment of HepG2 cells with mono-unsaturated six-carbon fatty acids also supported this conclusion. Similar results were obtained with human platelets, mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1c1c7 cells, human bronchoalveolar carcinoma H358 cells, and human colon adenocarcinoma LoVo cells. Interestingly, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA corresponds to a previously described acylcarnitine tentatively described in patients with propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. We have proposed a mechanism for this metabolic route consistent with all of the above findings. PMID:25424005

Snyder, Nathaniel W; Basu, Sankha S; Worth, Andrew J; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A

2015-01-01

421

Improved efficacy in the treatment of contact dermatitis in rats by a dermatological nanomedicine containing clobetasol propionate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a dermatological nanomedicine containing clobetasol propionate-loaded nanocapsules and evaluated its efficacy in a model of contact dermatitis after topical administration in rats. Hydrogels containing clobetasol propionate-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules or nanoemulsion (HG-CP-NC and HG-CP-NE, respectively) were prepared to evaluate the influence of the polymeric wall. They presented adequate pH values (5.50–6.50) and drug content (0.5mgg?1) and their rheograms exhibited

M. C. Fontana; J. F. P. Rezer; K. Coradini; D. B. R. Leal; R. C. R. Beck

2011-01-01

422

The short chain fatty acid propionate stimulates GLP-1 and PYY secretion via free fatty acid receptor 2 in rodents  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) acutely suppress appetite. The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptor, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is present on colonic enteroendocrine L cells, and a role has been suggested for SCFAs in appetite regulation. Here, we characterise the in vitro and in vivo effects of colonic propionate on PYY and GLP-1 release in rodents, and investigate the role of FFA2 in mediating these effects using FFA2 knockout mice. Methods: We used Wistar rats, C57BL6 mice and free fatty acid receptor 2 knockout (FFA?/?) mice on a C57BL6 background to explore the impact of the SCFA propionate on PYY and GLP-1 release. Isolated colonic crypt cultures were used to assess the effects of propionate on gut hormone release in vitro. We subsequently developed an in vivo technique to assess gut hormone release into the portal vein following colonic infusion of propionate. Results: Propionate stimulated the secretion of both PYY and GLP-1 from wild-type primary murine colonic crypt cultures. This effect was significantly attenuated in cultures from FFA2?/? mice. Intra-colonic infusion of propionate elevated PYY and GLP-1 levels in jugular vein plasma in rats and in portal vein plasma in both rats and mice. However, propionate did not significantly stimulate gut hormone release in FFA2?/? mice. Conclusions: Intra-colonic administration of propionate stimulates the concurrent release of both GLP-1 and PYY in rats and mice. These data demonstrate that FFA2 deficiency impairs SCFA-induced gut hormone secretion both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25109781

Psichas, A; Sleeth, M L; Murphy, K G; Brooks, L; Bewick, G A; Hanyaloglu, A C; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Frost, G

2015-01-01

423

Effects of sodium lactate and sodium propionate on the sensory, microbial, and chemical characteristics of fresh aerobically stored ground beef  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH AEROBICALLY STORED GROUND BEEF A Thesis by LAURA ANNE ECKERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1995 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM PROPIONATE ON THE SENSORY, MICROBIAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FRESH...

Eckert, Laura Anne

1995-01-01

424

Effect of Chain Length of Alcohol on the Lipase-Catalyzed Esterification of Propionic Acid in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The esterification of propionic acid was investigated using three different alcohols, namely, isopropyl alcohol, isobutyl\\u000a alcohol, and isoamyl alcohol. The variation of conversion with time for the synthesis of isoamyl propionate was investigated\\u000a in the presence of five enzymes. Novozym 435 showed the highest activity, and this was used as the enzyme for investigating\\u000a the various parameters that influence the

Mahesh N. Varma; Giridhar Madras

2010-01-01

425

Geobacter sulfurreducens sp. nov., a hydrogen- and acetate-oxidizing dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganism.  

PubMed Central

A dissimilatory metal- and sulfur-reducing microorganism was isolated from surface sediments of a hydrocarbon-contaminated ditch in Norman, Okla. The isolate, which was designated strain PCA, was an obligately anaerobic, nonfermentative nonmotile, gram-negative rod. PCA grew in a defined medium with acetate as an electron donor and ferric PPi, ferric oxyhydroxide, ferric citrate, elemental sulfur, Co(III)-EDTA, fumarate, or malate as the sole electron acceptor. PCA also coupled the oxidation of hydrogen to the reduction of Fe(III) but did not reduce Fe(III) with sulfur, glucose, lactate, fumarate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, succinate, yeast extract, phenol, benzoate, ethanol, propanol, or butanol as an electron donor. PCA did not reduce oxygen, Mn(IV), U(VI), nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate with acetate as the electron donor. Cell suspensions of PCA exhibited dithionite-reduced minus air-oxidized difference spectra which were characteristic of c-type cytochromes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence placed PCA in the delta subgroup of the proteobacteria. Its closest known relative is Geobacter metallireducens. The ability to utilize either hydrogen or acetate as the sole electron donor for Fe(III) reduction makes strain PCA a unique addition to the relatively small group of respiratory metal-reducing microorganisms available in pure culture. A new species name, Geobacter sulfurreducens, is proposed. Images PMID:7527204

Caccavo, F; Lonergan, D J; Lovley, D R; Davis, M; Stolz, J F; McInerney, M J

1994-01-01

426

Negative association of acetate with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels  

PubMed Central

Background The composition of gut flora has been proposed as a cause of obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess whether serum short chain fatty acids, a major by-product of fermentation in gut flora, are associated with obesity and/or diabetes-related traits (insulin sensitivity and secretion). Methods The association of serum short chain fatty acids levels with measures of obesity was assessed using body mass index, computerized tomography scan, and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were both determined from an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was also determined from a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Results In this population of young, obese women, acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue determined by computerized tomography scan and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan, but not body mass index. The level of the short chain fatty acids acetate, but not propionate or butyrate, was also negatively associated with fasting serum insulin and 2 hour insulin levels in the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions In this population, serum acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels. Future studies need to verify these findings and expand on these observations in larger cohorts of subjects. PMID:22419881

Layden, Brian T; Yalamanchi, Sudha K; Wolever, Thomas MS; Dunaif, Andrea; Lowe, William L

2012-01-01

427

Acetic Acid, the Active Component of Vinegar, Is an Effective Tuberculocidal Disinfectant  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Effective and economical mycobactericidal disinfectants are needed to kill both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-M. tuberculosis mycobacteria. We found that acetic acid (vinegar) efficiently kills M. tuberculosis after 30 min of exposure to a 6% acetic acid solution. The activity is not due to pH alone, and propionic acid also appears to be bactericidal. M. bolletii and M. massiliense nontuberculous mycobacteria were more resistant, although a 30-min exposure to 10% acetic acid resulted in at least a 6-log10 reduction of viable bacteria. Acetic acid (vinegar) is an effective mycobactericidal disinfectant that should also be active against most other bacteria. These findings are consistent with and extend the results of studies performed in the early and mid-20th century on the disinfectant capacity of organic acids. IMPORTANCE  Mycobacteria are best known for causing tuberculosis and leprosy, but infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria are an increasing problem after surgical or cosmetic procedures or in the lungs of cystic fibrosis and immunosuppressed patients. Killing mycobacteria is important because Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains can be multidrug resistant and therefore potentially fatal biohazards, and environmental mycobacteria must be thoroughly eliminated from surgical implements and respiratory equipment. Currently used mycobactericidal disinfectants can be toxic, unstable, and expensive. We fortuitously found that acetic acid kills mycobacteria and then showed that it is an effective mycobactericidal agent, even against the very resistant, clinically important Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Vinegar has been used for thousands of years as a common disinfectant, and if it can kill mycobacteria, the most disinfectant-resistant bacteria, it may prove to be a broadly effective, economical biocide with potential usefulness in health care settings and laboratories, especially in resource-poor countries. PMID:24570366

Cortesia, Claudia; Vilchèze, Catherine; Bernut, Audrey; Contreras, Whendy; Gómez, Keyla; de Waard, Jacobus; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent; Takiff, Howard

2014-01-01

428

Acetic Acid, the active component of vinegar, is an effective tuberculocidal disinfectant.  

PubMed

Effective and economical mycobactericidal disinfectants are needed to kill both Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-M. tuberculosis mycobacteria. We found that acetic acid (vinegar) efficiently kills M. tuberculosis after 30 min of exposure to a 6% acetic acid solution. The activity is not due to pH alone, and propionic acid also appears to be bactericidal. M. bolletii and M. massiliense nontuberculous mycobacteria were more resistant, although a 30-min exposure to 10% acetic acid resulted in at least a 6-log10 reduction of viable bacteria. Acetic acid (vinegar) is an effective mycobactericidal disinfectant that should also be active against most other bacteria. These findings are consistent with and extend the results of studies performed in the early and mid-20th century on the disinfectant capacity of organic acids. IMPORTANCE Mycobacteria are best known for causing tuberculosis and leprosy, but infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria are an increasing problem after surgical or cosmetic procedures or in the lungs of cystic fibrosis and immunosuppressed patients. Killing mycobacteria is important because Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains can be multidrug resistant and therefore potentially fatal biohazards, and environmental mycobacteria must be thoroughly eliminated from surgical implements and respiratory equipment. Currently used mycobactericidal disinfectants can be toxic, unstable, and expensive. We fortuitously found that acetic acid kills mycobacteria and then showed that it is an effective mycobactericidal agent, even against the very resistant, clinically important Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Vinegar has been used for thousands of years as a common disinfectant, and if it can kill mycobacteria, the most disinfectant-resistant bacteria, it may prove to be a broadly effective, economical biocide with potential usefulness in health care settings and laboratories, especially in resource-poor countries. PMID:24570366

Cortesia, Claudia; Vilchèze, Catherine; Bernut, Audrey; Contreras, Whendy; Gómez, Keyla; de Waard, Jacobus; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent; Takiff, Howard

2014-01-01

429

Mascoma Announces Major Cellulosic Biofuel Technology Breakthrough  

E-print Network

Mascoma Announces Major Cellulosic Biofuel Technology Breakthrough Lebanon, NH - May 7, 2009 bioprocessing, or CBP, a low-cost processing strategy for production of biofuels from cellulosic biomass. CBP much, much closer to billions of gallons of low cost cellulosic biofuels," said Michigan State

430

Facile synthesis of spherical cellulose nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical procedure for synthesizing cellulose nanospheres with sizes ranging from 60 to over 570nm was developed. This methodology provides a near linear relationship between cellulose nanoparticle size and treatment time. The hydrolyzed nanocelluloses are predominantly cellulose II polymorphic crystalline structure and relatively uniform in particle size.

Jianguo Zhang; Thomas J. Elder; Yunqiao Pu; Arthur J. Ragauskas

2007-01-01

431

Microbial Cellulose Utilization: Fundamentals and Biotechnology  

PubMed Central

Fundamental features of microbial cellulose utilization are examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of cellulolytic microorganisms, ecological aspects of cellulase-degrading communities, and rate-limiting factors in nature. The methodological basis for studying microbial cellulose utilization is considered relative to quantification of cells and enzymes in the presence of solid substrates as well as apparatus and analysis for cellulose-grown continuous cultures. Quantitative description of cellulose hydrolysis is addressed with respect to adsorption of cellulase enzymes, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis, bioenergetics of microbial cellulose utilization, kinetics of microbial cellulose utilization, and contrasting features compared to soluble substrate kinetics. A biological perspective on processing cellulosic biomass is presented, including features of pretreated substrates and alternative process configurations. Organism development is considered for “consolidated bioprocessing” (CBP), in which the production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation of resulting sugars to desired products occur in one step. Two organism development strategies for CBP are examined: (i) improve product yield and tolerance in microorganisms able to utilize cellulose, or (ii) express a heterologous system for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization in microorganisms that exhibit high product yield and tolerance. A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts. PMID:12209002

Lynd, Lee R.; Weimer, Paul J.; van Zyl, Willem H.; Pretorius, Isak S.

2002-01-01

432

Cellulose Graft Copolymers for Potential Adhesive Applications  

E-print Network

Chapter 24 Cellulose Graft Copolymers for Potential Adhesive Applications Bonding of Plastics. New, well-defined, tailored cellulose- polystyrene graft copolymers have recently been prepared using in the presence of hydrophobic plastic material [polystyrene (PS)] using well-defined and tailored cellulose

Narayan, Ramani

433

21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and...Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in...

2010-04-01

434

21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and...Food Additive Listing § 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed in...

2011-04-01

435

21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance...

2011-04-01

436

21 CFR 172.868 - Ethyl cellulose.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl cellulose. 172.868 Section 172.868 Food and...Multipurpose Additives § 172.868 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance...

2010-04-01

437

Characterization of (R/S)-mecoprop [2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid]-degrading Alcaligenes sp.CS1 and Ralstonia sp. CS2 isolated from agricultural soils.  

PubMed

The herbicide mecoprop [2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) propionic acid] is widely applied to corn fields in order to control broad-leaved weeds. However, it is often detected in groundwater where it can be a persistent contaminant. Two mecoprop-degrading bacterial strains were isolated from agricultural soils through their capability to degrade (R/S)-mecoprop rapidly. 16S rDNA sequencing of the isolates demonstrated that one was closely related to the genera Alcaligenes sp. (designated CS1) and the other to Ralstonia sp. (designated CS2). Additionally, these isolates demonstrated ability to grow on other related herbicides, including 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), MCPA [4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy acetic acid] and (R/S)-2,4-DP [2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid] as sole carbon sources. tfdABC gene-specific probes derived from the 2,4-D-degrading Variovorax paradoxus TV1 were used in hybridization analyses to establish whether tfd-like genes are present in mecoprop-degrading bacteria. Hybridization analysis demonstrated that both Alcaligenes sp. CS1 and Ralstonia sp. CS2 harboured tfdA, tfdB and tfdC genes on plasmids that have approximately > 60% sequence similarity to the tfdA, tfdB and tfdC genes of V. paradoxus. It is therefore likely that tfd-like genes may be involved in the degradation of mecoprop, and we are currently investigating this further. PMID:11359515

Smejkal, C W; Vallaeys, T; Seymour, F A; Burton, S K; Lappin-Scott, H M

2001-04-01

438

Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials  

PubMed Central

Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

2014-01-01

439

Effects of ruminal protozoa on cellulose degradation and the growth of an anaerobic ruminal fungus, Piromyces sp. strain OTS1, in vitro.  

PubMed Central

An anaerobic rumen fungus, Piromyces sp. strain OTS1, was incubated in the presence or absence of a mixed, A-type, protozoal population obtained from a goat, in a medium containing filter paper cellulose as energy source and antibiotics to suppress bacterial growth. Fermentation end products, cellulose degradation, and chitin as an indicator of fungal biomass were examined. In the presence of protozoa, total volatile fatty acids, notably propionate and butyrate, increased, and lactate decreased. In fungus-protozoan coincubations, formate was not detected at the end of the experiment and the amount of reducing sugars remained low throughout the incubation period. The fungal growth in the coincubations was negatively affected. While protozoal predation on zoospores was one mechanism of inhibition, mature fungal cells were also affected. Total cellulose degradation was greater in fungal monocultures, but the amount of cellulose degraded per unit of fungal biomass was 25% larger in the coincubations. The negative effects that the protozoal predatory activity had on the fungal growth and subsequently on the amount of cellulose degraded by Piromyces sp. strain OTS1 were partially attenuated by the protozoal fibrolytic activity or by an enhanced fungal activity due to a more favorable environment. PMID:7986044

Morgavi, D P; Sakurada, M; Mizokami, M; Tomita, Y; Onodera, R

1994-01-01

440

Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.  

PubMed

An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

2014-12-01

441

Biliverdin amides reveal roles for propionate side chains in bilin reductase recognition and in holophytochrome assembly and photoconversion†  

PubMed Central

Linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) perform important antioxidant and light harvesting functions in cells from bacteria to humans. To explore the role of the propionate moieties in bilin metabolism, we report the semisynthesis of mono- and di-amides of biliverdin IX? and those of its non-natural XIII? isomer. Initially, these were examined as substrates of two types of NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductase, BVR and BvdR, and of the representative ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase, phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA). Our studies indicate that the NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductases are less accommodating to amida