Sample records for cellulose acetate propionate

  1. Permeation performance of Cellulose acetate propionate\\/polyvinylidine fluoride blend membranes by phase inversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Liang Chuang; Ming-Chi Hsieh; Yun-Chieh Su; Hui-Hsin Tseng; Li-Luen Huang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were selected to prepare porous-blend membrane by wet phase inversion method. The effect of the CAP and PVDF concentration of the casting solution on membrane morphology structure and thermal stability was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetry\\/differential scanning calorimetry (TGA\\/DSC). The pure water flux by the

  2. Characteristics of thin cellulose ester films spin-coated from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Amim Jr; P. M. Kosaka; D. F. S. Petri

    2008-01-01

    Spin-coated films of cellulose acetate (CA), cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and carboxymethylcellulose\\u000a acetate butyrate (CMCAB) have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements.\\u000a The films were spin-coated onto silicon wafers, a polar surface. Mean thickness values were determined by means of ellipsometry\\u000a and AFM as a function of polymer concentration in

  3. The assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfi

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, D.; Callely, A. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. The tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles are of major importance in the assimilation of acetate and propionate by Prototheca zopfii. The pattern of assimilation of [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]propionate by whole cells growing with their respective substrates is similar except that, with propionate, ?-hydroxypropionate is the first labelled intermediate detected. 2. Carbon dioxide fixation is of little quantitative importance for the growth of this organism with propionate. 3. The yield of cells obtained/mole of acetate is similar to that obtained/mole of propionate and about half that obtained/mole of n-butyrate, these substrates acting as sole sources of carbon and energy. PMID:16749100

  4. Assessment Guidelines for Managing Cellulose Acetate Collections

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created this document. It provides assistance in identification of cellulose acetate (vs. other similar materials) and establishes criteria to assess condition, cultural importance, and use within the library or storage context. The document guides readers through the first step in a strategy for preserving these collections.

  5. Mechanical and optical characterization of cellulose acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Ishikawa; S. Tadano

    1988-01-01

    To obtain the basic relations for photo-viscoelastoplastic stress analysis using cellulose acetate, the effect of strain rate\\u000a as well as room temperature on mechanical and optical properties was precisely investigated by the uniaxial tension test.\\u000a As a result, the nonlinear stress-strain, the non-linear-stress-fringe order and the nonlinear-fringe-order strain relations\\u000a were uniquely reoresented in their nondimensional forms regardless of strain rate

  6. Reversible acetylation regulates acetate and propionate metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Jennifer D.; Brown, Lanisha R.; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Perkowski, Ellen F.; Chen, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Carbon metabolic pathways are important to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, extremely little is known about metabolic regulation in mycobacteria. There is growing evidence for lysine acetylation being a mechanism of regulating bacterial metabolism. Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification in which an acetyl group is covalently attached to the side chain of a lysine residue. This modification is mediated by acetyltransferases, which add acetyl groups, and deacetylases, which remove the acetyl groups. Here we set out to test whether lysine acetylation and deacetylation impact acetate metabolism in the model mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis, which possesses 25 candidate acetyltransferases and 3 putative lysine deacetylases. Using mutants lacking predicted acetyltransferases and deacetylases we showed that acetate metabolism in M. smegmatis is regulated by reversible acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Ms-Acs) through the action of a single pair of enzymes: the acetyltransferase Ms-PatA and the sirtuin deacetylase Ms-SrtN. We also confirmed that the role of Ms-PatA in regulating Ms-Acs regulation depends on cAMP binding. We additionally demonstrated a role for Ms-Acs, Ms-PatA and Ms-SrtN in regulating the metabolism of propionate in M. smegmatis. Finally, along with Ms-Acs, we identified a candidate propionyl-CoA synthetase, Ms5404, as acetylated in whole-cell lysates. This work lays the foundation for studying the regulatory circuit of acetylation and deacetylation in the cellular context of mycobacteria. PMID:23813678

  7. Fermentative Conversion of Cellulose to Acetic Acid and Cellulolytic Enzyme Production by a Bacterial Mixed Culture Obtained from Sewage Sludge †

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A. W.; Wall, Duncan; van den Berg, L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple procedure that uses a cellulose-enriched culture started from sewage sludge was developed for producing cellulolytic enzymes and converting cellulose to acetic acid rather than CH4 and CO2. In this procedure, the culture which converts cellulose to CH4 and CO2 was mixed with a synthetic medium and cellulose and heated to 80°C for 15 min before incubation. The end products formed were acetic acid, propionic acid, CO2, and traces of ethanol and H2. Supernatants from 6- to 10-day-old cultures contained 16 to 36 mM acetic acid. Cellulolytic enzymes in the supernatant were stable at 2°C under aerobic conditions for up to 4 weeks and had the ability to hydrolyze carboxymethyl cellulose, a microcystalline cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, and filter paper to reducing sugars. PMID:16345772

  8. Pathway identification combining metabolic flux and functional genomics analyses: acetate and propionate activation by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Veit, Andrea; Rittmann, Doris; Georgi, Tobias; Youn, Jung-Won; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wendisch, Volker F

    2009-03-10

    Corynebacterium glutamicum can utilize acetic acid and propionic acid for growth and amino acid production. Growth on acetate as sole carbon source requires acetate activation by acetate kinase (AK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA), encoded in the pta-ack operon. Genetic and enzymatic studies showed that these enzymes also catalyze propionate activation and were required for growth on propionate as sole carbon source. However, when glucose was present as a co-substrate strain lacking the AK-PTA pathway was still able to utilize acetate or propionate for growth indicating that an alternative activation pathway exists. As shown by (13)C-labelling experiments, the carbon skeleton of acetate is conserved during activation to acetyl-CoA in this pathway. Metabolic flux analysis during growth on an acetate-glucose mixture revealed that in the absence of the AK-PTA pathway carbon fluxes in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and anaplerosis via PEP carboxylase and/or pyruvate carboxylase were increased, while the glyoxylate cycle flux was decreased. DNA microarray experiments identified cg2840 as a constitutively and highly expressed gene putatively encoding a CoA transferase. Purified His-tagged Cg2840 protein was active as CoA transferase interconverting acetyl-, propionyl- and succinyl-moieties as CoA acceptors and donors. Strains lacking both the CoA transferase and the AK-PTA pathway could neither activate acetate nor propionate in the presence or absence of glucose. Thus, when these short-chain fatty acids are co-metabolized with other carbon sources, CoA transferase and the AK-PTA pathway constitute a redundant system for activation of acetate and propionate. PMID:19162097

  9. Counterflow immunoisotachophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes.

    PubMed

    Abelev, G I; Karamova, E R

    1984-11-01

    Discontinuous electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes with the use of 0.06 M Tris-HCl (pH 6.7) as the leading electrolyte and 0.012 M Tris-beta-alanine (pH 8.6) as the terminating one results in concentration of the proteins present in the system on the Cl-/beta-alanine- boundary. If the antigen solution is placed in a "pocket" ahead of the moving boundary, a counterflow to the cathode arises due to electroendosmosis. At constant voltage the migration rate of the boundary drops and that of electroendosmosis does not change until they become equal. In such a stationary position, the antigen-containing solution is passing through the Cl-/beta-alanine- boundary to the cathode, while all the proteins are completely "absorbed" on the boundary as highly concentrated bands. Addition of ampholytes to the antigen solution contributes to the isotachophoretic separation of a protein mixture on the strip. The concentrated and separated antigens can be revealed by immunofixation, immunodiffusion, or crossed immunoelectrophoresis in gel. The technique is approximately 100 times more sensitive compared to the usual immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis methods on cellulose acetate membranes, and is applicable to the detection of trace amounts of antigens in the urine, liquor, amniotic fluid, tears, and other biological fluids with low protein contents. PMID:6528978

  10. Biodegradable Blends of Cellulose Acetate and Starch: Production and Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean M. Mayer; Glenn R. Elion; Charles M. Buchanan; Barbara K. Sullivan; Sheldon D. Pratt; David L. Kaplan

    1995-01-01

    Blends of cellulose acetate (2.5 degree of substitution) and starch were melt processed and evaluated for mechanical properties, biodegradability during composting, and marine and soil toxicity. Formulations containing, on a weight basis, 57% cellulose acetate (CA), 25% corn starch (St) and 19% propylene glycol (PG) had mechanical properties similar to polystyrene. Increasing plasticizer or starch content lowered tensile strength. Simulated

  11. Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate produced from recycled newspaper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Douglas Santos Monteiro; Carla da Silva Meireles; Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assunção; Daniel Alves Cerqueira; Hernane Silva Barud; Sidney J. L. Ribeiro; Younes Messadeq

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the viability of recycling newspaper for producing cellulose acetate was tested. Newspaper recycling is extremely important not only for the environment preservation, but also from the economical point of view of aggregating value to this residue. Cellulose acetate was produced from a homogeneous acetylation, and then characterized by FTIR, DSC and TGA. Acetylation times were 48h for

  12. Effect of sulfate on anaerobic reduction of nitrobenzene with acetate or propionate as an electron donor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingang; Wen, Yue; Ding, Ning; Xu, Yue; Zhou, Qi

    2012-09-15

    Sulfate is frequently found in wastewaters that contain nitrobenzene. To reveal the effect of sulfate on the reductive transformation of nitrobenzene to aniline--with acetate or propionate as potential electron donors in anaerobic systems--an acetate series (R1-R5) and a propionate series (R6-R10) were set up. Each of these was comprised of five laboratory-scale sequence batch reactors. The two series were amended with the same amount of nitrobenzene and electron donor electron equivalents, whereas with increasing sulfate concentrations. Results indicated that the presence of sulfate could depress nitrobenzene reduction. Such depression is linked to the inhibition of nitroreductase activity and/or the shift of electron flow. In the acetate series, although sulfate did not strongly compete with nitrobenzene for electron donors, noncompetitive inhibition of specific nitrobenzene reduction rates by sulfate was observed, with an inhibition constant of 0.40 mM. Propionate, which can produce intermediate H? as preferred reducing equivalent, is a more effective primary electron donor for nitrobenzene reduction as compared to acetate. In the propionate series, sulfate was found to be a preferential electron acceptor as compared to nitrobenzene, resulting in a quick depletion of propionate and then a likely termination of H?-releasing under higher sulfate concentrations (R9 and R10). In such a situation, nitrobenzene reduction slowed down, occurring two-stage zero-order kinetics. PMID:22704132

  13. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

    2003-01-01

    Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ?50 to ?65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ?100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not have to be removed following application and use. In addition to their potential as topical microbicides, the films have promise for mucosal delivery of pharmaceuticals other than CAP. PMID:14617380

  14. Miscibility studies on blends of cellulose acetate and nylon 6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M Shashidhara; K. H Guruprasad; A Varadarajulu

    2002-01-01

    Miscibility studies on cellulose secondary acetate(CA)\\/Nylon 6(N6) blends have been carried out in this work. Dilute solution viscometry for the blend solutions using formic acid as the common solvent shows the existence of miscibility window.

  15. Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

  16. DNA microarray analyses of the long-term adaptive response of Escherichia coli to acetate and propionate.

    PubMed

    Polen, T; Rittmann, D; Wendisch, V F; Sahm, H

    2003-03-01

    In its natural environment, Escherichia coli is exposed to short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid or propionic acid, which can be utilized as carbon sources but which inhibit growth at higher concentrations. DNA microarray experiments revealed expression changes during exponential growth on complex medium due to the presence of sodium acetate or sodium propionate at a neutral external pH. The adaptive responses to acetate and propionate were similar and involved genes in three categories. First, the RNA levels for chemotaxis and flagellum genes increased. Accordingly, the expression of chromosomal fliC'-'lacZ and flhDC'-'lacZ fusions and swimming motility increased after adaptation to acetate or propionate. Second, the expression of many genes that are involved in the uptake and utilization of carbon sources decreased, indicating some kind of catabolite repression by acetate and propionate. Third, the expression of some genes of the general stress response increased, but the increases were more pronounced after short-term exposure for this response than for the adaptive response. Adaptation to propionate but not to acetate involved increased expression of threonine and isoleucine biosynthetic genes. The gene expression changes after adaptation to acetate or propionate were not caused solely by uncoupling or osmotic effects but represented specific characteristics of the long-term response of E. coli to either compound. PMID:12620868

  17. Rochelle-Salt-Type Spontaneous Polarization in Acetate-Substituted Dicalcium Strontium Propionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashige, Masaaki; Shimizu, Fuminao; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Sawada, Shozo

    1990-10-01

    The dielectric constant and spontaneous polarization of the acetate-substituted systems of ferroelectric dicalcium strontium propionate Ca2Sr(C2H5CO2)6(1-x)(CH3CO2)6x have been measured as a function of temperature. It is found that the samples with x{=}0.07 and 0.10 show a para-ferro-paraelectric phase transition sequence like that of Rochelle salt.

  18. Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent system

    E-print Network

    Khan, Saad A.

    Phase separation and heat-induced gelation characteristics of cellulose acetate in a mixed solvent-DMA interactions. Keywords Cellulose acetate gels Á Gelation Á Viscoelastic behaviour Á Elastic modulus Á Viscous

  19. On the Structure of Cellulose Acetate Molecules in Acetone Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seymour J. Singer; Herman Mark

    1948-01-01

    Data obtained from sedimentation velocity and viscosity measurements on a series of cellulose acetate fractions in acetone are interpreted in terms of two models, the impenetrable ellipsoid of rotation and the uniform density random coil. The lack of agreement using the former model is shown to be a real effect, rather than one determined by experimental inaccuracy. As other investigations

  20. Application Studies of Cellulose Acetate and Polymethylmethacrylate Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Vidya; D. Mohan

    2010-01-01

    The preparation of novel membranes based on cellulose acetate and polymethylmethacrylate blends in the absence and presence of the pore former by solution blending and ultrafiltration set up was carried out. The effect of compaction time on pure water flux at higher transmembrane pressure for various polymer compositions of the above blends both in the presence and absence of the

  1. Cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping voltametry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph. Wang; Lori D. Hutchins-Kumar

    1986-01-01

    The response characteristics and analytical advantages of cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping measurements of trace metals are described. The coating provides an effective barrier of the mercury surface, thus eliminating the effects of various organic surfactants. For example, up to at least 100 ppm gelatin does not alter the response. The diagnostic power of rotating disk

  2. Effects of acetate and propionate on the performance of a photosynthetic biofilm reactor for sulfide removal.

    PubMed

    Hurse, T J; Keller, J

    2005-01-20

    The effects of acetate and propionate on the performance of a recently proposed and characterized photosynthetic biological sulfide removal system have been investigated with a view to predicting this concept's suitability for removing sulfide from wastewater undergoing or having undergone anaerobic treatment. The concept relies on substratum-irradiated biofilms dominated by green sulfur bacteria (GSB), which are supplied with radiant energy in the band 720-780 nm. A model reactor was fed for 7 months with a synthetic wastewater free of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), after which time intermittent dosing of the wastewater with acetate or propionate was begun. Such dosing suppressed the areal net sulfide removal rate by approximately 50%, and caused the principal net product of sulfide removal to switch from sulfate to elemental-S. Similarly suppressed values of this rate were observed when the wastewater was dosed continuously with acetate, and this rate was not significantly affected by changes in the concentration of ammonia-N in the feed. The main net product of sulfide removal was again elemental-S, which was scarcely released into the liquid, however. Sulfate reduction and sulfur reduction were observed when the light supply was interrupted and were inferred to be occurring within the irradiated biofilm. A preexisting conceptual model of the biofilm was augmented with both of these reductive processes, and this augmented model was shown to account for most of the observed effects of VFA dosing. The implications of these findings for the practicality of the technology are considered. PMID:15584053

  3. Dynamics of Microbial Community Structure of and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal by Aerobic Granules Cultivated on Propionate or Acetate?

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Holliger, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic granules are dense microbial aggregates with the potential to replace floccular sludge for the treatment of wastewaters. In bubble-column sequencing batch reactors, distinct microbial populations dominated propionate- and acetate-cultivated aerobic granules after 50 days of reactor operation when only carbon removal was detected. Propionate granules were dominated by Zoogloea (40%), Acidovorax, and Thiothrix, whereas acetate granules were mainly dominated by Thiothrix (60%). Thereafter, an exponential increase in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity was observed in the propionate granules, but a linear and erratic increase was detected in the acetate ones. Besides Accumulibacter and Competibacter, other bacterial populations found in both granules were associated with Chloroflexus and Acidovorax. The EBPR activity in the propionate granules was high and stable, whereas EBPR in the acetate granules was erratic throughout the study and suffered from a deterioration period that could be readily reversed by inducing hydrolysis of polyphosphate in presumably saturated Accumulibacter cells. Using a new ppk1 gene-based dual terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) approach revealed that Accumulibacter diversity was highest in the floccular sludge inoculum but that when granules were formed, propionate readily favored the dominance of Accumulibacter type IIA. In contrast, acetate granules exhibited transient shifts between type I and type II before the granules were dominated by Accumulibacter type IIA. However, ppk1 gene sequences from acetate granules clustered separately from those of propionate granules. Our data indicate that the mere presence of Accumulibacter is not enough to have consistently high EBPR but that the type of Accumulibacter determines the robustness of the phosphate removal process. PMID:21926195

  4. Transport properties of polyaniline-cellulose-acetate blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Planès; Andreas Wolter; Yasmina Cheguettine; Adam Pron; Françoise Genoud; Maxime Nechtschein

    1998-01-01

    Transport properties of polyaniline (PANI)-cellulose acetate (CA) conducting blends have been investigated at various length scales and temperatures. We report on the results of dc and ac conductivity measurements, magnetoresistance and electron-spin resonance (ESR) performed on composite films with PANI weight fraction p ranging from the percolation threshold-pc~=0.1%-to a few percent. Three different PANI doping agents have been tested, namely,

  5. Rapid electrophoresis and quantitation of haemoglobins on cellulose acetate

    PubMed Central

    Marengo-Rowe, A. J.

    1965-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible electrophoretic method for the separation and quantitation of haemoglobins on cellulose acetate is described. The accuracy of the method and its possible sources of error are discussed. The normal range for haemoglobin A2 by this method is 1% to 3% of the total haemoglobin concentration. Blood samples from 32 thalassaemic patients showed haemoglobin A2 values of 3·5% to 7%. Images PMID:5844210

  6. Miscibility and dynamical properties of cellulose acetate/plasticizer systems.

    PubMed

    Bao, Cong Yu; Long, Didier R; Vergelati, Caroll

    2015-02-13

    Due to its biodegradability and renewability, a great interest has been devoted to investigating cellulose acetate in order to expand its potential applications. In addition, secondary cellulose acetate (CDA) could also be considered as a model system for strongly polar polymer system. The dynamical behavior of CDA is supposed to be governed by H-bonding and dipolar interaction network. Due to their high glass transition temperature, cellulose acetate-based systems are processed when blended with plasticizers. It is thus of utmost importance to study the miscibility and plasticizing effects of various molecules. We prepared CDA films via solvent casting method with diethyl phthalate as the plasticizer. Miscibility diagrams were established by calorimetry and thermo-mechanical (DMTA) experiments. Dynamical properties were analyzed by DMTA and broadband dielectric spectroscopy. We could identify the ?-relaxation of these CDA-plasticizer systems in the frequency range from 0.06 Hz to 10(6)Hz, which allowed for describing the dynamics in the so-called Williams-Landel-Ferry/Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann regime. PMID:25458277

  7. Release of doxycycline through cellulose acetate symmetric and asymmetric membranes produced from recycled agroindustrial residue: Sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guimes Rodrigues Filho; Sabrina Dias Ribeiro; Carla da Silva Meireles; Leandro Gustavo da Silva; Reinaldo Ruggiero; Moacir Fernandes Ferreira; Daniel Alves Cerqueira; Rosana Maria Nascimento de Assunção; Mara Zeni; Patricia Polleto

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose acetate is one of the components employed in drug controlled-release systems in the form of membranes. The aim of this study was to examine the controlled-release of doxycycline employing cellulose acetate symmetric and asymmetric membranes as matrices. The cellulose triacetate was produced from sugarcane bagasse through a homogeneous acetylation reaction, using acetic acid as the solvent, acetic anhydride as

  8. Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

  9. Phase-inversion cellulose acetate membranes for suppression of protein interferences in anodic stripping voltammetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boy Hoyer; Nina Jensen

    1995-01-01

    The phase-inversion (PI) method was used to cast permselective cellulose acetate membranes on glassy carbon electrodes with the aim of suppressing protein interferences in anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). By using cadmium and lead as test analytes and differential pulse ASV as detection method, it was found that the modification of the electrode greatly reduces the interference from albumin. Cellulose acetate

  10. Effects of crystal orientation on cellulose nanocrystals-cellulose acetate nanocomposite fibers prepared by dry spinning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Schueneman, Greg; Pipes, R Byron; Youngblood, Jeffrey; Moon, Robert J

    2014-10-13

    This work presents the development of dry spun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as reinforcements. Increasing amounts of CNCs were dispersed into CA fibers in efforts to improve the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the fiber. A systematic characterization of dispersion of CNCs in the polymer fiber and their effect on the nanocomposites' mechanical properties is described. The birefringence, thermal properties, and degree of CNC orientation of the fibers are discussed. 2D X-ray diffraction was used to quantify the degree of CNC alignment within the fibers. It is shown that the CNC alignment directly correlates to the mechanical properties of the composite. Maximum improvements of 137% in tensile strength and 637% in elastic modulus were achieved. Empirical micromechanical models Halpin-Tsai equation and an orientation modified Cox model were used to predict the fiber performance and compared with experimental results. PMID:25226382

  11. Transport properties of polyaniline-cellulose-acetate blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planès, Jérôme; Wolter, Andreas; Cheguettine, Yasmina; Pro?, Adam; Genoud, Françoise; Nechtschein, Maxime

    1998-09-01

    Transport properties of polyaniline (PANI)-cellulose acetate (CA) conducting blends have been investigated at various length scales and temperatures. We report on the results of dc and ac conductivity measurements, magnetoresistance and electron-spin resonance (ESR) performed on composite films with PANI weight fraction p ranging from the percolation threshold-pc~=0.1%-to a few percent. Three different PANI doping agents have been tested, namely, camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), di(i-octyl phosphate) (DiOP) and phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA). The percolative behavior of ?dc resembles that of published results on PANI/PMMA blends. The onset frequency ?? of the dispersion in ?ac appears to follow the scaling law: ??~?zdc with z~=1. The temperature dependence is of the form of ln?(T)~-(T0/T)? the exponent decreasing from 0.75 to 0.5 with increasing p. The microscopic metallic character of transport is found in ESR and microwave measurements. Spin-dependent conductivity is inferred from the (B/T)2 universal behavior of magnetoresistance. Those results are discussed in conjunction with the ongoing debate on the nature of disorder in conducting polymers-homogeneous versus heterogeneous.

  12. Cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping voltametry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Hutchins-Kumar, L.D.

    1986-02-01

    The response characteristics and analytical advantages of cellulose acetate coated mercury film electrodes for anodic stripping measurements of trace metals are described. The coating provides an effective barrier of the mercury surface, thus eliminating the effects of various organic surfactants. For example, up to at least 100 ppm gelatin does not alter the response. The diagnostic power of rotating disk measurements is used to evaluate the transport toward the mercury surface. The response is limited by the permeability of the film, thus allowing stripping measurements in systems with poorly controlled mass transport. Base hydrolysis of the film is used to manipulate the permeability. Scanning electron micrographs show the microstructures of the films following different hydrolysis times. The discriminative properties of these coatings can be used also to improve the resolution between two adjacent stripping peaks. The response of the modified electrode is directly proportional to the analyte concentration and is reproducible. With a 10-min deposition time, detection limits are 7 x 10 M lead and 1.3 x 10 Z M cadmium. Various metal ions and organic surfactants are tested. The performance of this novel electrode system is compared to that of a conventional mercury film electrode. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Effect of cellulose whisker content on the properties of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/cellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Elanthikkal, Silviya; Gopalakrishnapanicker, Unnikrishnan; Varghese, Soney; Guthrie, James T; Francis, Tania

    2013-06-20

    The reinforcing effect of cellulose whiskers, produced from banana waste fibres, has been investigated using poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) [EVA]/cellulose whisker composites. Cellulose whiskers, approximately 300 nm long and 30 nm wide, were obtained via a sulphuric acid hydrolysis method. The effects of the cellulose whisker loading on the thermal properties, mechanical properties and on the morphological features of the composites have been investigated. EVA copolymer with a vinyl acetate segment content of 40% has been used for composite fabrication. The developed composites showed superior thermal and mechanical properties relative to that of the EVA copolymer alone. Three theoretical models, namely the Halpin-Tsai model, the Kerner model and the Nicolais-Narkis model have been employed to provide a basis for the comparison of the results with the observations from the tensile investigations. PMID:23648041

  14. Influence of solvent on the structure and performance of cellulose acetate membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhansheng Li; Jizhong Ren; Anthony G. Fane; Dong Fei Li; Fook-Sin Wong

    2006-01-01

    The liquid–liquid demixing process of cellulose acetate (CA) in two nonvolatile solvents N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and ?-butyrolactone (GBL) coagulating in water was investigated. Due to the relatively “poor” solvency of GBL for cellulose acetate and the higher interaction parameter between GBL and water, the CA\\/GBL\\/H2O system exhibits a delayed liquid–liquid demixing, while the CA\\/NMP\\/H2O has an instantaneous one. The solvent quality

  15. Cobalt (II) chloride promoted formation of honeycomb patterned cellulose acetate films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Naboka; Anke Sanz-Velasco; Per Lundgren; Peter Enoksson; Paul Gatenholm

    CoCl2 containing honeycomb patterned films were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA)\\/CoCl2\\/acetone solutions by the breath figure method in a wide range of humidities. Size and pore regularity depend on the CA\\/CoCl2 molar ratio and humidity. When replacing CoCl2 with Co(NO3)2 or CoBr2, no formation of ordered porosity in the cellulose acetate films is observed. According to data from scanning electron

  16. The influence of degree of substitution on blend miscibility and biodegradation of cellulose acetate blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Buchanan; Debra Dorschel; Robert M. Gardner; Ron J. Komarek; Andrew J. Matosky; Alan W. White; Matthew D. Wood

    1996-01-01

    In this account, we report our findings on blends of cellulose acetate having a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.49 (CA2.5) with a cellulose acetate having a DS of 2.06 (CA2.0). This blend system was examined over the composition range of 0–100% CA2.0 employing both solvent casting of films (no plasticizer) and thermal processing (melt-compressed films and injection molding) using

  17. Photoluminescence of cellulose acetate and silica sphere composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kwang-Sun

    2014-08-01

    Strong blue and green light emission has been observed from the cellulose acetate (CA) and silica sphere composite. Two different amounts of silica spheres were mixed in the CA solution to fabricate large area super-hydrophobic films. The silica spheres and CA solution ratios were 0.07:4.0 (SSCA-A) and 0.14:4.0 (SSCA-B). The milky color solution of SSCA-A and SSCA-B slowly turned to light yellow and red, respectively, with the time passed. The colors became intense yellow and red for the SSCA-A and SSCA-B, respectively, after 38 days. FTIR spectra show more absorption at 3478 cm-1 corresponding sbnd OH stretching vibration, at 2963 cm-1 caused by sbnd CH stretching vibration, at 1746 and 1713 cm-1 representing the Cdbnd O stretching vibration, and at 1100 cm-1 corresponding sbnd Rsbnd OH and Sisbnd Osbnd Si stretching vibration for CA and silica. Therefore, aged SSCA-A and SSCA-B have more sbnd OH, sbnd CH, sbnd Cdbnd O, and Sisbnd Osbnd Si groups than pure CA. UV-visible spectra show the absorption peaks at 410 nm for both SSCA-A and SSCA-B. Photoluminescence (PL) peaks were shifted toward longer wavelength with the increase of the excitation wavelength and became maximum at approximately 470 nm with excitation wavelength at 400 nm for the SSCA-A. There were two maximum luminescence peaks at 470 and 530 nm with the excitation wavelength at 400 and 470 nm, respectively, for the SSCA-B. The luminescence peak shift was due to the multiple emission center proved by the different excitation energy.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, G. Kevin; Stewart, S. Michael; Scarel, Giovanna; Parsons, Gregory N.; Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 films may be used to alter the wettability and hemocompatibility of cellulose materials. In this study, pure and stoichiometric TiO2 films were grown using atomic layer deposition on both silicon and cellulose substrates. The films were grown with uniform thicknesses and with a growth rate in agreement with literature results. The TiO2 films were shown to profoundly alter the water contact angle values of cellulose depending upon processing characteristics. Higher rates of protein adsorption were noted on TiO2-coated cellulose acetate than on uncoated cellulose acetate. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an appropriate method for improving the biological properties of hemostatic agents and other blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:21298806

  19. Highly Porous Regenerated Cellulose Fiber Mats via the Co-Forcespinning of Cellulose Acetate for Separator Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, Alejandro; Mao, Yuanbing

    2015-03-01

    Improvements in battery technology are necessary for the transition away from a fossil fuel based economy. An important bottle-neck in battery efficiency is the quality of the separator, which separates the cathode and anode to prevent a short-circuit while still allowing the ions in solution to flow as close to unabated as possible. In this work solutions of cellulose acetate, polyvinyldiflourine (pvdf), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (pvp) dissolved in a 2:1 v/v acetone/dimethylacetamide solvent mixture were Forcespun to create nonwoven fiber mats of nanoscale diameter. These mats were then soaked in a NaOH solution so as to both strip the pvp from the fiber as well as regenerate cellulose from its acetate derivative for the purpose of creating high surface area, nanoporous, hydrophilic, and ioniclly conductive cellulose/pvdf nonwoven mats for the purposes of testing their suitability as battery separators

  20. Conversion of an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat from a super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Ding; Chunrong Li; Yoshio Hotta; Jinho Kim; Oriha Kuwaki; Seimei Shiratori

    2006-01-01

    We report a new approach to convert an electrospun nanofibrous cellulose acetate mat surface from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic. Super-hydrophilic cellulose acetate nanofibrous mats can be obtained by electrospinning hydrophilic cellulose acetate. The surface properties of the fibrous mats were modified from super-hydrophilic to super-hydrophobic with a simple sol-gel coating of decyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The resultant samples were

  1. Electronic spectroscopy of tryptophan analogs in supersonic jets: 3Indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyl tryptophan ethyl ester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young D. Park; Thomas R. Rizzo; Linda A. Peteanu; Donald H. Levy

    1986-01-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of four different tryptophan analogs, 3-indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyltryptophan ethyl ester (NATE) has been studied in a supersonic molecular beam using laser-induced fluorescence and resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization. The electronic transition to the lowest excited singlet state occurs at 35 039, 34 965, 34 918, and 34 881±2 cm?1 for 3-indole acetic

  2. Transparent and flexible haptic array actuator made with cellulose acetate for tactile sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Md; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports an array type film haptic actuator based on cellulose acetate. Suggested actuator can vibrate with faster response time and various frequencies to give a range of haptic feedbacks to users which can be used in touch screen devices. Fabrication process, performance evaluation and electrostatic behavior of haptic actuator are reported for tactile sensation. Cellulose acetate film is suitable for haptic actuator for its transparency, flexibility and high dielectric constant. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate film with patterned adhesive tape spacer, then haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to embed in haptic devices. Experiment to measure vibration acceleration is carried out on wide range of actuation frequency and voltage for single actuator to evaluate 3x3 array actuator.

  3. Plasticizing effect of ionic liquid on cellulose acetate obtained by melt processing.

    PubMed

    Bendaoud, Amine; Chalamet, Yvan

    2014-08-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) plasticized by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and with diethylphtalate (DEP) was obtained by melt processing at 150°C. The effect and the interaction of ionic liquid with the cellulose acetate and their influence on structural, thermo-mechanical, rheological and tensile properties of CA materials were investigated. Ionic liquid (BMIMCl) has shown a good plasticization and more efficient destruction of the crystalline structure of cellulose acetate than the DEP plasticized CA. BMIMCl interacts intensively with CA molecules due to the pronounced van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic nature of ionic liquid. The tensile test and the low Young's modulus for plasticized CA suggest a strong reduction of the interaction between the CA chains due to the presence of the ionic liquid. PMID:24751249

  4. Impact of ionic liquid pretreatment conditions on cellulose crystalline structure using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Varanasi, Patanjali; Arora, Rohit; Stavila, Vitalie; Simmons, Blake A; Kent, Michael S; Singh, Seema

    2012-08-23

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been shown to affect cellulose crystalline structure in lignocellulosic biomass during pretreatment. A systematic investigation of the swelling and dissolution processes associated with IL pretreatment is needed to better understand cellulose structural transformation. In this work, 3-20 wt % microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) solutions were treated with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)mim][OAc]) and a mixture of [C(2)mim][OAc] with the nonsolvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different temperatures. The dissolution process was slowed by decreasing the temperature and increasing cellulose loading, and was further retarded by addition of DMSO, enabling in-depth examination of the intermediate stages of dissolution. Results show that the cellulose I lattice expands and distorts prior to full dissolution in [C(2)mim][OAc] and that upon precipitation the former structure leads to a less ordered intermediate structure, whereas fully dissolved cellulose leads to a mixture of cellulose II and amorphous cellulose. Enzymatic hydrolysis was more rapid for the intermediate structure (crystallinity = 0.34) than for cellulose II (crystallinity = 0.54). PMID:22823503

  5. [Aminomethyl derivatives of (benzisothiazolin-3-one-2-yl)acetic acid amides and 2-(1,2-benzisothiazoline-3-one-2-yl)propionic acid amides].

    PubMed

    S?awik, T

    1991-11-01

    In the search for pharmacological active new derivatives of 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-on amides of (3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl)acetic acid and 3-(3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl)propionic acid were obtained. In the reaction of these amides with formaldehyde and various second aryl amines the title compounds are formed. Morpholinmethylamide of (3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl)acetic acid showed activity against Trichomonas vaginalis. In the reaction of ethyl esters of (3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazolin-2-yl) acetic- and -propionic acids with hydrazine hydrate products of ring-opening of isothiazole-2,2'-dithio-bis [N- (ethoxycarbonylmethyl)benzamide] and 2,2'-dithio-bis[N-(ethoxycarbonylethyl)benzamide are formed. PMID:1811228

  6. Identification and characterization of a bacterial transport system for the uptake of pyruvate, propionate, and acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Jolkver, Elena; Emer, Denise; Ballan, Stefan; Krämer, Reinhard; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Marin, Kay

    2009-02-01

    The metabolism of monocarboxylic acids is of central importance for bacteria in their natural habitat as well as during biotechnological production. Although biosynthesis and degradation are well understood, the transport of such compounds is still a matter of discussion. Here we present the identification and characterization of a new transport system in Corynebacterium glutamicum with high affinity for acetate and propionate and with lower affinity for pyruvate. Biochemical analysis of this monocarboxylic acid transporter (MctC) revealed for the first time a quantitative discrimination of passive diffusion and active transport of acetate by bacterial cells. MctC is a secondary transporter and belongs to the class of sodium solute symporters, but it is driven by the electrochemical proton potential. The mctC gene is preceded by and cotranscribed with cg0952, a locus encoding a small membrane protein, and the transcription of the cg0952-mctC operon is under the control of the transcriptional regulators RamA and RamB. Both of these proteins directly bind to the promoter region of the operon; RamA is essential for expression and RamB exerts a slightly negative control on expression of the cg0952-mctC operon. mctC expression is induced in the presence of pyruvate and beneficial under substrate-limiting conditions for C. glutamicum. PMID:19028892

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Bacterial Transport System for the Uptake of Pyruvate, Propionate, and Acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum?

    PubMed Central

    Jolkver, Elena; Emer, Denise; Ballan, Stefan; Krämer, Reinhard; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Marin, Kay

    2009-01-01

    The metabolism of monocarboxylic acids is of central importance for bacteria in their natural habitat as well as during biotechnological production. Although biosynthesis and degradation are well understood, the transport of such compounds is still a matter of discussion. Here we present the identification and characterization of a new transport system in Corynebacterium glutamicum with high affinity for acetate and propionate and with lower affinity for pyruvate. Biochemical analysis of this monocarboxylic acid transporter (MctC) revealed for the first time a quantitative discrimination of passive diffusion and active transport of acetate by bacterial cells. MctC is a secondary transporter and belongs to the class of sodium solute symporters, but it is driven by the electrochemical proton potential. The mctC gene is preceded by and cotranscribed with cg0952, a locus encoding a small membrane protein, and the transcription of the cg0952-mctC operon is under the control of the transcriptional regulators RamA and RamB. Both of these proteins directly bind to the promoter region of the operon; RamA is essential for expression and RamB exerts a slightly negative control on expression of the cg0952-mctC operon. mctC expression is induced in the presence of pyruvate and beneficial under substrate-limiting conditions for C. glutamicum. PMID:19028892

  8. Retention characteristics of aliphatic compounds on cellulose acetates as a stationary phase with an aqueous mobile phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Kiso; T. Kitao; Ge Yong-Sheng; K. Jinno

    1989-01-01

    Cellulose and cellulose mono-, di-, and triacetate were used as stationary phases for liquid chromatography with water as a mobile phase, and the retention behavior of alcohols, ethers, ketones, and chlorides was examined. For cellulose acetate columns, the logarithm of the specific retention volume, (logV

  9. Cellulose Acetate and Polyetherimide Blend Ultrafiltration Membranes, I: Preparation, Characterization, and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nagendran; D. Lawrence Arockiasamy; D. Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) techniques have particular advantages for simultaneous purification, concentration, and fractionation of macromolecules. In this study, polymeric blend ultrafiltration membranes based on cellulose acetate and polyetherimide were prepared by phase inversion technique and characterized in terms of compaction time, pure water flux (PWF), water content, membrane hydraulic resistance, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The blend membranes prepared were subjected

  10. Electrospun phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol\\/cellulose acetate blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changzhong Chen; Linge Wang; Yong Huang

    2011-01-01

    Ultrafine phase change fibers based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)\\/cellulose acetate (CA) blends in which PEG acts as a model phase change material (PCM) and CA acts as a supporting material, were successfully prepared via electrospinning. The effect of PEG content on the morphology, crystalline properties, phase change behaviors and tensile properties of the composite fibers was studied systematically by field-emission

  11. Morphological development of polypropylene in immiscible blends with cellulose acetate butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes were melt blended with cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and then prepared into microspheres or nanofibers following a novel process of producing well dispersed CAB/iPP immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The morp...

  12. Cellulose Acetate Fibers with Fluorescing Nanoparticles for Anti-counterfeiting and pH-sensing Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Hendrick; Margaret Frey; Erik Herz; Ulrich Wiesner

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent silica nanoparticles, Cornell dots (C dots), were incorporated into electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers. Two types of C dots were used in this study. The first type was comprised of a fluorescent dye-containing silica core surrounded by a silica shell. These nanoparticles fluoresce at 572 nm when exposed to 541 nm light. Increasing C dot loading in the spinning

  13. Temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity of acetic acid, propionic acid and their methyl esters: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Riniker, Sereina; Horta, Bruno A C; Thijssen, Bram; Gupta, Saumya; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Hünenberger, Philippe H

    2012-04-10

    For most liquids, the static relative dielectric permittivity is a decreasing function of temperature, because enhanced thermal motion reduces the ability of the molecular dipoles to orient under the effect of an external electric field. Monocarboxylic fatty acids ranging from acetic to octanoic acid represent an exception to this general rule. Close to room temperature, their dielectric permittivity increases slightly with increasing temperature. Herein, the causes for this anomaly are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations of acetic and propionic acids at different temperatures in the interval 283-363 K, using the GROMOS 53A6(OXY) force field. The corresponding methyl esters are also considered for comparison. The dielectric permittivity is calculated using either the box-dipole fluctuation (BDF) or the external electric field (EEF) methods. The normal and anomalous temperature dependences of the permittivity for the esters and acids, respectively, are reproduced. Furthermore, in the EEF approach, the response of the acids to an applied field of increasing strength is found to present two successive linear regimes before reaching saturation. The low-field permittivity ?, comparable to that obtained using the BDF approach, increases with increasing temperature. The higher-field permittivity ?' is slightly larger, and decreases with increasing temperature. Further analyses of the simulations in terms of radial distribution functions, hydrogen-bonded structures, and diffusion properties suggest that increasing the temperature or the applied field strength both promote a relative population shift from cyclic (mainly dimeric) to extended (chain-like) hydrogen-bonded structures. The lower effective dipole moment associated with the former structures compared to the latter ones provides an explanation for the peculiar dielectric properties of the two acids compared to their methyl esters. PMID:22383366

  14. Simulation and experimental verification of flexible cellulose acetate haptic array actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akther, Asma; Mohiuddin, Md; Min, Seung-Ki; Kim, Sang Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the experiment and finite element (FEM) simulation of an array type film haptic actuator. Haptic actuator was made of cellulose acetate films and adhesive tape separator between two films. For preparing 3×3 array haptic device, nine identical actuators were joined together. The purpose of an actuator is to create vibration feedback resulting from applied potential. Cellulose acetate based film actuator is suitable for transparent haptic devices because of its high dielectric constant, flexibility and transparency. The focus of this paper is to use a finite element model to simulate and analysis haptic actuator and verify that result with experiment. The reason of preferring ANSYS simulation is for the flexibility of modeling, time saving, post processing criteria and result accuracy.

  15. Storage of Cellulose Acetate Collections: A Preliminary Survey of Issues and Options

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Photographic negatives, motion picture film, microfilm, and sound recordings produced from the 1930s into the 1950s often used cellulose acetate as the transparent plastic carrier. As anyone who has ever come in contact with it well knows, its strong vinegar-like scent is hard to miss. Unfortunately, over time, the material is prone to deterioration, which eventually renders it unusable. In an effort to help guide libraries in Australia with this problem, the National Library of Australia has created two documents. This resource draws upon recent "literature discussing preservation and storage of cellulose acetate based film" to guide librarians and collection managers in choosing storage options (lower temperatures and humidity slow the deterioration process). The report discusses the options and provides guidance for planning and evaluation of each, and an appendix directs one to specific Australian storage facilities. Together, both reports serve as a brief, easily readable introduction to this challenging preservation issue.

  16. Degradation and mineralization of cellulose acetate in simulated thermophilic compost environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Dong Gu; D. Eberiel; S. P. McCarthy; R. A. Gross

    1993-01-01

    Residual cellulose acetate (CA) films with initial degree of substitution (DS) values of 1.7 and 2.5 (CA DS-1.7 and DS-2.5) were recovered from a simulated thermophilic compost exposure and characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine changes in polymer molecular weight and DS and to study microbial colonization

  17. Composite biomaterials from fibre wastes: Characterization of wool–cellulose acetate blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aluigi; C. Vineis; A. Ceria; C. Tonin

    2008-01-01

    Histological components from wool fibre wastes were extracted by an enzyme-ultrasonic treatment, characterised by SDS-PAGE and successively included, in different proportions, in a cellulose acetate matrix to make composite film-forming blends, suitable for film casting and filament spinning. Chemical, thermal and mechanical properties were characterised by FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC, TGA and tensile tests; surface and internal morphology were investigated by

  18. Miscibility of poly(methylmethacrelate) and cellulose acetate butyrate blends in dimethyl formamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Selvakumar; D Krishna Bhat

    The miscibility of poly(methylmethacrelate) (PMMA) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) blends in dimethyl formamide (DMF) have been investigated by viscosity, density, refractive index and ultrasonic velocity studies. The polymer-solvent and blend-solvent interaction parameters and heat of mixing have been calculated using the viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity data. The results indicated the existence of positive interactions in the blend polymer

  19. Glucose oxidase immobilization on a novel cellulose acetate–polymethylmethacrylate membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rauf; A. Ihsan; K. Akhtar; M. A. Ghauri; M. Rahman; M. A. Anwar; A. M. Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on cellulose acetate–polymethylmethacrylate (CA–PMMA) membrane. The immobilized GOD showed better performance as compared to the free enzyme in terms of thermal stability retaining 46% of the original activity at 70°C where the original activity corresponded to that obtained at 20°C. FT-IR and SEM were employed to study the membrane morphology and structure after treatment at

  20. Study of cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate(CAP)-poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) blends by thermogravimetric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Vijayalakshmi Rao; P. V Ashokan; M. H Shridhar

    2000-01-01

    Thermal degradation of cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate (CAP) and its blends with poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) has been investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. TG\\/DTG curves show two decomposition stages for pure CAP. Decomposition behaviour is changed with addition of PMMA. For 90\\/10 CAP\\/PMMA and 70\\/30 CAP\\/PMMA blends, there are three decomposition stages. With further addition of PMMA, the decomposition behaviour shifts

  1. Investigation of size effect on film type haptic actuator made with cellulose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Ki-Baek

    2014-04-01

    The most important factor in haptic interaction with hand-held devices is to develop a thin film type actuator which can be easily inserted into the devices and create vibrotactile signals with wide frequency bandwidth. This paper reports a film type vibrotactile actuator which is tiny enough to be embedded into small hand-held devices. The vibration mechanism and experiment results for the suggested vibrotactile actuator are explained. The aim of the actuator is to convey a vibrotactile force greater than a human’s vibrotactile threshold with broad frequency bandwidth to users. To achieve the requirement, we fabricate a film type vibrotactile actuator with cellulose acetate. When an AC voltage is applied to the actuator, the cellulose acetate film gets charged and then generates vibration. The suggested vibrotactile actuator is fabricated in two sizes: 50 mm × 25 mm and 25 mm × 25 mm. For each size of actuator, three kinds of actuator are fabricated with different pillar materials to support the cellulose acetate films. An experiment for measuring vibrational amplitude is conducted over a wide frequency range of actuation voltage. It is known that the proposed film type actuator is feasible for haptic application in the small hand-held devices.

  2. Electronic spectroscopy of tryptophan analogs in supersonic jets: 3-Indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyl tryptophan ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young D.; Rizzo, Thomas R.; Peteanu, Linda A.; Levy, Donald H.

    1986-06-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of four different tryptophan analogs, 3-indole acetic acid, 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, and N-acetyltryptophan ethyl ester (NATE) has been studied in a supersonic molecular beam using laser-induced fluorescence and resonantly enhanced two-photon ionization. The electronic transition to the lowest excited singlet state occurs at 35 039, 34 965, 34 918, and 34 881±2 cm-1 for 3-indole acetic acid, 3-propionic acid, tryptamine, and NATE, respectively. The relatively small differences in the electronic origin transition frequencies suggests that the lowest excited singlet state for all of these moelcules is the 1Lb state. The spectra reveal that each of these molecules have stable conformers in the gas phase, analogous to our previously reported studies of tryptophan. A low frequency vibrational mode has been observed in 3-indole propionic acid, tryptamine, NATE, and tryptophan which involves motion of the side chain against the indole ring. We have observed that forming a van der Waals complex between tryptamine and a single methanol molecule causes the spectral features due to different conformers of the free molecule to collapse to a single line, suggesting that one particular conformer becomes the most stable species. This emphasizes the importance of including solvent interactions in any attempt to model the behavior of these molecules in solution.

  3. Tailoring the properties of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes by gas plasma etching.

    PubMed

    Olde Riekerink, M B; Engbers, G H M; Wessling, M; Feijen, J

    2002-01-15

    Cellulose triacetate (CTA) ultrafilters and cellulose acetate blend (CAB) desalination membranes were treated with a radiofrequency gas plasma (tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)) or carbon dioxide (CO(2)), 47-49 W, 0.04-0.08 mbar). Treatment times were varied between 15 s and 120 min. The plasma-treated top layer of the membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements to obtain information about surface structure, chemistry, and wettability, respectively. The membrane properties (e.g., permeability, selectivity, fouling) were studied by waterflux measurements, molecular weight cutoff measurements, and fouling experiments with bovine serum albumin. CO(2) plasma treatment resulted in gradual etching of the membrane's dense top layer. Permeation and selectivity changed significantly for treatment times of 0-15 min for CTA and 5-60 min for CAB membranes. Moreover, CTA membranes were hydrophilized during CO(2) plasma treatment whereas CF(4) plasma treatment led to hydrophobic surfaces due to strong fluorination of the top layer. This study shows that gas plasma etching can tailor the properties of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes by simultaneously modifying the chemistry and structure of the top layer. The low fouling properties of CTA membranes were thereby largely maintained. PMID:16290368

  4. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetates prepared by one-step homogeneous acetylation of cornhusk cellulose in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Cao; Jin Wu; Tao Meng; Jun Zhang; Jiasong He; Huiquan Li; Yi Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose samples extracted from cornhusk have been successfully acetylated in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl). Without using any catalyst, cornhusk cellulose acetates (CCAs) with the degree of substitution (DS) in a range from 2.16 to 2.63 were prepared in one-step. Under the homogeneous state, the DS value of CCAs was easily controlled by the acetylation time. The obtained CCAs

  5. Cellulose acetate\\/poly(methyl methacrylate) interpenetrating networks: synthesis and estimation of thermal and mechanical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Aoki; Yoshikuni Teramoto; Yoshiyuki Nishio

    IPN-type composites consisting of cellulose acetate (CA) and poly(methyl methacrylate; PMMA) were successfully synthesized\\u000a in film form. In this synthesis, a mercapto group (SH)-containing CA, CA-MA, was prepared in advance by esterification of\\u000a CA with mercaptoacetic acid, and then intercomponent cross-linking between CA-MA and PMMA was attained by thiol–ene polymerization\\u000a of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto the CA-MA substrate. For comparison,

  6. Dispersibility and emulsion-stabilizing effect of cellulose nanowhiskers esterified by vinyl acetate and vinyl cinnamate.

    PubMed

    Sèbe, Gilles; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Pecastaings, Gilles

    2013-08-12

    The surface of cotton cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW's) was esterified by vinyl acetate (VAc) and vinyl cinnamate (VCin), in the presence of potassium carbonate as catalyst. Reactions were performed under microwave activation and monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The supramolecular structure of CNW's before and after modification was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Distinctively from the acetylation treatment, an increase in particles dimensions was noted after esterification with VCin, which was assigned to ?-? stacking interactions that may exist between cinnamoyl moieties. The dispersibility and emulsion stabilizing effect of acylated CNW's was examined in ethyl acetate, toluene, and cyclohexane, three organic solvents of medium to low polarity. The acylated nanoparticles could never be dispersed in toluene nor cyclohexane, but they formed stable dispersions in ethyl acetate while remaining dispersible in water. Stable ethyl acetate-in-water, toluene-in-water, and cyclohexane-in-water emulsions were successfully prepared with CNW's grafted with acetyl moieties, whereas the VCin-treated particles could stabilize only the cyclohexane-in-water emulsions. The impact of esterification treatment on emulsion stability and droplets size was particularly discussed. PMID:23883187

  7. Cobalt (II) chloride promoted formation of honeycomb patterned cellulose acetate films.

    PubMed

    Naboka, Olga; Sanz-Velasco, Anke; Lundgren, Per; Enoksson, Peter; Gatenholm, Paul

    2012-02-01

    CoCl(2) containing honeycomb patterned films were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA)/CoCl(2)/acetone solutions by the breath figure method in a wide range of humidities. Size and pore regularity depend on the CA/CoCl(2) molar ratio and humidity. When replacing CoCl(2) with Co(NO(3))(2) or CoBr(2), no formation of ordered porosity in the cellulose acetate films is observed. According to data from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the key role in the formation of honeycomb structures can be attributed to the physical and chemical properties of CoCl(2) - hygroscopicity, low interaction with CA, and extraction from CA/CoCl(2)/acetone solution by water droplets condensed on the surface of the CA/CoCl(2) solution. Obtained films are prospective for using in catalysis, hydrogen fuel cells, and optical sensing materials. PMID:22074692

  8. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices.

    PubMed

    Zepon, Karine Modolon; Petronilho, Fabricia; Soldi, Valdir; Salmoria, Gean Vitor; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. PMID:25280700

  9. Fermentation of pectin and cellulose to short chain fatty acids: a comparative study with humans, baboons, pigs, and rats 

    E-print Network

    Villalba, Leonilde Nonita

    1989-01-01

    of propionate production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3. Interspecies differences of butyrate production. 30 4. Interspecies differences of total short chain fatty acids. 32 5. Acetate production from the fermentation of cellulose... in the present study. EFFECT ON SHORT CHAIN FATTY ACIDS The major products derived from microbial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon are SCFA. The SCFA that are produced in the largest amounts are acetate, propionate, and butyrate (8). McNeil et al...

  10. Studies on the compatibility and specific interaction in cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate (CAP) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Rao; P. V Ashokan; M. H Shridhar

    1999-01-01

    Compatibility of cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate (CAP) and poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) has been investigated by solution viscometric, ultrasonic and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) methods. From viscosity measurements, Krigbaum and Wall polymer–polymer interaction parameter is evaluated. Ultrasonic velocity and adiabatic compressibilites versus blend composition are plotted, and found to be linear. Tg values are calculated using Gordon–Taylor and Fox equations.

  11. Effect of Poly(ethylene glycol) on Separations by Cellulose Acetate\\/poly(ether imide) Blend Membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nagendran; D. Lawrence Arockiasamy; D. Mohan

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafiltration membranes are largely being applied for macromolecular and heavy metal ion separations from aqueous streams. In this study, cellulose acetate (CA) and polyetherimide (PEI) based ultrafiltration blend membranes prepared in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) 600 (PEG 600) in various compositions were subjected to the separation of macromolecular proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), egg albumin

  12. Role of membrane surface morphology in colloidal fouling of cellulose acetate and composite aromatic polyamide reverse osmosis membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Menachem Elimelech; Xiaohua Zhu; Amy E. Childress; Seungkwan Hong

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory-scale colloidal fouling tests, comparing the fouling behavior of cellulose acetate and aromatic polyamide thin-film composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, are reported. Fouling of both membranes was studied at identical initial permeation rates so that the effect of the transverse hydrodynamic force (permeation drag) on the fouling of both membranes is comparable. Results showed a significantly higher fouling rate for

  13. Fabrication of Tunable Submicro- or Nano-structured Polyethylene Materials form Immiscible Blends with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was prepared into micro- or submicro-spheres or nanofibers via melt blending or extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/LDPE immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The sizes of the PE spheres or fibers can be successfully controlled by varyi...

  14. Electrospun antibacterial polyurethane-cellulose acetate-zein composite mats for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Gnanasekaran, Gopalsamy; Sathishkumar, Yesupatham; Lee, Yang Soo; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an antibacterial electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds with diameters around 400-700 nm were prepared by physically blending polyurethane (PU) with two biopolymers such as cellulose acetate (CA) and zein. Here, PU was used as the foundation polymer, was blended with CA and zein to achieve desirable properties such as better hydrophilicity, excellent cell attachment, proliferation and blood clotting ability. To prevent common clinical infections, an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulfate was incorporated into the electrospun fibers and its antimicrobial ability against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria were examined. The interaction between fibroblasts and the PU-CA and PU-CA-zein-drug scaffolds such as viability, proliferation, and attachment were characterized. PU-CA-zein-drug composite nanoscaffold showed enhanced blood clotting ability in comparison with pristine PU nanofibers. The presence of CA and zein in the nanofiber membrane improved its hydrophilicity, bioactivity and created a moist environment for the wound, which can accelerate wound recovery. PMID:24507360

  15. Fabrication of transparent and ultraviolet shielding composite films based on graphene oxide and cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Ana Carolina Mazarin; Andrade, Patricia Fernanda; de Faria, Andreia Fonseca; Simões, Mateus Batista; Salomão, Francisco Carlos Carneiro Soares; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; Gonçalves, Maria do Carmo; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2015-06-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been considered a promising filler material for building polymeric nanocomposites because of its excellent dispersibility and high surface area. In this work, we present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding composite films based on GO and cellulose acetate (CA). GO sheets were found to be well-dispersed throughout the CA matrix, providing smooth and homogeneous composite films. Moreover, the GO sheets were completely embedded within the CA matrix and no presence of this nanomaterial was found at the surface. Nevertheless, CAGO composite films offered an improved high energy light-shielding capacity when compared to pristine CA films. Particularly for UVC irradiation, the CAGO film containing 0.50wt% GO displayed a UV-shielding capacity of 57%, combined with 79% optical transparency under visible light. These CAGO composite films can be potentially applied as transparent UV-protective coatings for packing biomedical, pharmaceutical, and food products. PMID:25843853

  16. Characterization of cellulose acetates according to DS and molar mass using two-dimensional chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Hewa Othman; Radke, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    A two-dimensional liquid chromatographic method (2D LC) was developed to analyze the heterogeneities of cellulose acetates (CA) in the DS-range DS=1.5-2.9 with respect to both, molar mass and degree of substitution (DS). The method uses gradient liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the first dimension in order to separate by DS followed by separation of the different fractions by size (SEC) in the second dimension. The 2D experiments revealed different correlations between gradient and SEC elution volume. These correlations might arise from differences in the synthetic conditions. The newly developed 2D LC separation therefore provides new insights into the heterogeneity of CAs. PMID:24053824

  17. Cellulose Acetate-Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-Based Functional Surfaces with Temperature-Triggered Switchable Wettability.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, V Anand; Ranganath, Anupama Sargur; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Raut, Hemant Kumar; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Sahay, Rahul; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Baji, Avinash

    2015-07-01

    Temperature-triggered switchable nanofibrous membranes are successfully fabricated from a mixture of cellulose acetate (CA) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) by employing a single-step direct electrospinning process. These hybrid CA-PNIPAM membranes demonstrate the ability to switch between two wetting states viz. superhydrophilic to highly hydrophobic states upon increasing the temperature. At room temperature (23 °C) CA-PNIPAM nanofibrous membranes exhibit superhydrophilicity, while at elevated temperature (40 °C) the membranes demonstrate hydrophobicity with a static water contact angle greater than 130°. Furthermore, the results here demonstrate that the degree of hydrophobicity of the membranes can be controlled by adjusting the ratio of PNIPAM in the CA-PNIPAM mixture. PMID:25965973

  18. Electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers: the present status and gamut of biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Karak, Niranjan; Misra, Manjusri

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) has been a material of choice for spectrum of utilities across different domains ranging from high absorbing diapers to membrane filters. Electrospinning has conferred a whole new perspective to polymeric materials including CA in the context of multifarious applications across myriad of niches. In the present review, we try to bring out the recent trend (focused over last five years' progress) of research on electrospun CA fibers of nanoscale regime in the context of developmental strategies of their blends and nanocomposites for advanced applications. In the realm of biotechnology, electrospun CA fibers have found applications in biomolecule immobilization, tissue engineering, bio-sensing, nutraceutical delivery, bioseparation, crop protection, bioremediation and in the development of anti-counterfeiting and pH sensitive material, photocatalytic self-cleaning textile, temperature-adaptable fabric, and antimicrobial mats, amongst others. The present review discusses these diverse applications of electrospun CA nanofibers. PMID:23318668

  19. Identification and Characterization of a Bacterial Transport System for the Uptake of Pyruvate, Propionate, and Acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Jolkver; Denise Emer; Stefan Ballan; Reinhard Kramer; Bernhard J. Eikmanns; Kay Marin

    2009-01-01

    The metabolism of monocarboxylic acids is of central importance for bacteria in their natural habitat as well as during biotechnological production. Although biosynthesis and degradation are well understood, the trans- port of such compounds is still a matter of discussion. Here we present the identification and characterization of a new transport system in Corynebacterium glutamicum with high affinity for acetate

  20. Studies of dielectric relaxation and a.c. conductivity in cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate–poly(methyl methacrylate) blends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijayalakshmi Rao; P. V Ashokan; M. H Shridhar

    2000-01-01

    Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and a.c. conductivity of polyblends of cellulose acetate hydrogen phthalate(CAP) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of different compositions have been measured in the temperature range 300–430 K and in the frequency range 50–100 kHz. Variations in dielectric constant with temperature of the blends exhibit unique behavior, different from the component polymers. In the blends, the dielectric loss

  1. Improved bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug curcumin in cellulose acetate solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shuxin; Sun, Yingqian; Qi, Xiuxiang; Tan, Fengping

    2012-03-01

    Curcumin (Cur), one of the most widely used natural active constituents with a great variety of beneficial biological and pharmacological activities, is a practically water-insoluble substance with a short biologic half-life. The aim of this study was to develop a sustained-release solid dispersion by employing water-insoluble carrier cellulose acetate for solubility enhancement, release control, and oral bioavailability improvement of Cur. Solid dispersions were characterized by solubility, in vitro drug release, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. The in vivo performance was assessed by a pharmacokinetic study. Solid-state characterization techniques revealed the amorphous nature of Cur in solid dispersions. Solubility/dissolution of Cur was enhanced in the formulations in comparison with pure drug. Sustained-release profiles of Cur from the solid dispersions were ideally controlled in vitro up to 12 h. The optimized formulation provided an improved pharmacokinetic parameter (C(max)?= 187.03 ng/ml, t(max)?= 1.95 h) in rats as compared with pure drug (C(max)?= 87.06 ng/ml, t(max)?= 0.66 h). The information from this study suggests that the developed solid dispersions successfully enhanced the solubility and sustained release of poorly water-soluble drug Cur, thus improving its oral bioavailability effectively. PMID:22173375

  2. Revealing the Hierarchical Mechanical Strength of Single Cellulose Acetate Electrospun Filaments through Ultrasonic Breakage.

    PubMed

    Avó, João; Fernandes, Susete N; Godinho, Maria H

    2015-06-01

    The tensile strength of single cellulose acetate electrospun fibers is determined through sonication-induced fragmentation in water using a model previously developed by Terentjev and co-workers. The fragmentation of the electrospun fibers results in a gradual shortening of their length until a constant modal length is achieved. A single electrospun CA fiber tensile strength of ?150 MPa (55-280 MPa) is determined based on fracture statistics. It is also observed that the fragmented fibers show bunches of nanofilaments at their ends with similar diameters to those of round structures observed in the cross-section of the initial electrospun fibers (?38 nm). The sonication of these nanofilaments gives rise to spherical particles with similar diameter dimensions, which allows the estimation of a value of the tensile strength of the order of 2 MPa for these nanostructures. The aggregation and the alignment of the nano filaments inside the electrospun fiber should be the source of its higher strength value. PMID:25923710

  3. Characterization of conducting cellulose acetate based polymer electrolytes doped with "green" ionic mixture.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, S; Shanti, R; Morris, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electrolytes were developed by solution casting technique utilizing the materials of cellulose acetate (CA), lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and deep eutectic solvent (DES). The DES is synthesized from the mixture of choline chloride and urea of 1:2 ratios. The increasing DES content well plasticizes the CA:LiTFSI:DES matrix and gradually improves the ionic conductivity and chemical integrity. The highest conducting sample was identified for the composition of CA:LiTFSI:DES (28 wt.%:12 wt.%:60 wt.%), which has the greatest ability to retain the room temperature ionic conductivity over the entire 30 days of storage time. The changes in FTIR cage peaks upon varying the DES content in CA:LiTFSI:DES prove the complexation. This complexation results in the collapse of CA matrix crystallinity, observed from the reduced intensity of XRD diffraction peaks. The DES-plasticized sample is found to be more heat-stable compared to pure CA. Nevertheless, the addition of DES diminishes the CA:LiTFSI matrix's heat-resistivity but at the minimum addition the thermal stability is enhanced. PMID:23044100

  4. Glucose oxidase immobilization on a novel cellulose acetate-polymethylmethacrylate membrane.

    PubMed

    Rauf, S; Ihsan, A; Akhtar, K; Ghauri, M A; Rahman, M; Anwar, M A; Khalid, A M

    2006-02-10

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) was immobilized on cellulose acetate-polymethylmethacrylate (CA-PMMA) membrane. The immobilized GOD showed better performance as compared to the free enzyme in terms of thermal stability retaining 46% of the original activity at 70 degrees C where the original activity corresponded to that obtained at 20 degrees C. FT-IR and SEM were employed to study the membrane morphology and structure after treatment at 70 degrees C. The pH profile of the immobilized and the free enzyme was found to be similar. A 2.4-fold increase in Km value was observed after immobilization whereas Vmax value was lower for the immobilized GOD. Immobilized glucose oxidase showed improved operational stability by maintaining 33% of the initial activity after 35 cycles of repeated use and was found to retain 94% of activity after 1 month storage period. Improved resistance against urea denaturation was achieved and the immobilized glucose oxidase retained 50% of the activity without urea in the presence of 5M urea whereas free enzyme retained only 8% activity. PMID:16242200

  5. Alginate fouling reduction of functionalized carbon nanotube blended cellulose acetate membrane in forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Gyu; Son, Moon; Yoon, SangHyeon; Celik, Evrim; Kang, Seoktae; Park, Hosik; Park, Chul Hwi; Choi, Heechul

    2015-10-01

    Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube blended cellulose acetate (fCNT-CA) membranes were synthesized for forward osmosis (FO) through phase inversion. The membranes were characterized through SEM, FTIR, and water contact angle measurement. AFM was utilized to investigate alginate fouling mechanism on the membrane. It reveals that the fCNT contributes to advance alginate fouling resistance in FO (57% less normalized water flux decline for 1% fCNT-CA membrane was observed than that for bare CA membrane), due to enhanced electrostatic repulsion between the membrane and the alginate foulant. Furthermore, it was found that the fCNT-CA membranes became more hydrophilic due to carboxylic groups in functionalized carbon nanotube, resulting in approximately 50% higher water-permeated flux than bare CA membrane. This study presents not only the fabrication of fCNT-CA membrane and its application to FO, but also the quantification of the beneficial role of fCNT with respect to alginate fouling in FO. PMID:26022283

  6. Comparative evaluation of Chitosan, Cellulose Acetate, and Polyethersulfone Nanofiber Scaffolds for Neural Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jian; Tan, Elaine; Kim, Hyo Jun; Zhang, Allen; Bhattacharya, Rahul; Yarema, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    Based on accumulating evidence that the 3D topography and the chemical features of a growth surface influence neuronal differentiation, we combined these two features by evaluating the cytotoxicity, proliferation, and differentiation of the rat PC12 line and human neural stem cells (hNSCs) on chitosan (CS), cellulose acetate (CA), and polyethersulfone (PES)-derived electrospun nanofibers that had similar diameters, centered in the 200 to 500 nm range. None of the nanofibrous materials were cytotoxic compared to 2D (e.g., flat surface) controls; however, proliferation generally was inhibited on the nanofibrous scaffolds although to a lesser extent on the polysaccharide-derived materials compared to PES. In an exception to the trend towards slower growth on the 3D substrates, hNSCs differentiated on the CS nanofibers proliferated faster than the 2D controls and both cell types showed enhanced indication of neuronal differentiation on the CS scaffolds. Together, these results demonstrate beneficial attributes of CS for neural tissue engineering when this polysaccharide is used in the context of the defined 3D topography found in electrospun nanofibers. PMID:24274534

  7. Antimicrobial electrospun nanofibers of cellulose acetate and polyester urethane composite for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Lin, Tong; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Zhiguang; Huang, Chen; Yao, Gang; Jiang, Linlin; Tang, Yanwei; Wang, Xungai

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a series of nanofibrous membranes were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA) and polyester urethane (PEU) using coelectrospinning or blend-electrospinning. The drug release, in vitro antimicrobial activity and in vivo wound healing performance of the nanofiber membranes were evaluated for use as wound dressings. To prevent common clinical infections, an antimicrobial agent, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) was incorporated into the electrospun fibers. The presence of CA in the nanofiber membrane improved its hydrophilicity and permeability to air and moisture. CA fibers became slightly swollen upon contacting with liquid phase. CA not only increased the liquid uptake but also created a moist environment for the wound, which accelerated wound recovery. PHMB release dynamics of the membranes was controlled by the structure and component ratios of the membranes. The lower ratio of CA: PEU helped to preserve the physical and thermal properties of the membranes, and also reduced the burst release effectively and slowed down diffusion of PHMB during in vitro tests. The controlled-diffusion membranes exerted long-term antimicrobial effect for wound healing. PMID:22692845

  8. Biocompatibility and characteristics of chitosan/cellulose acetate microspheres for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hui-Yun; Zhou, Dong-Ju; Zhang, Wei-Fen; Jiang, Ling-Juan; Li, Jun-Bo; Chen, Xi-Guang

    2011-12-01

    In this work, chitosan/cellulose acetate microspheres (CCAM) were prepared by the method of W/O/W emulsion with no toxic reagents. The microspheres were spherical, free flowing, and non-aggregated, which had a narrow size distribution. More than 90% of the microspheres had the diameter ranging from 200 to 280 ?m. The hemolytic analysis indicated that CCAM was safe and had no hemolytic effect. The implanted CCAM did not produce any significant changes in the hematology of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, such as white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet, and the volume of hemoglobin. In addition, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine had no obvious changes in SD rats implanted with CCAM, surger thread, or normal SD rats without any implantation. Thus, the CCAM had good blood compatibility and had no hepatotoxicity or renal toxicity to SD rats. Furthermore, CCAM with or without the model drug had good tissue compatibility with respect to the inflammatory reaction in SD rats and showed no significant difference from that of SD rats implanted with surgery thread. CCAM shows promise as a long-acting delivery system, which had good biocompatibility and biodegradability.

  9. Enzymatic activation of cellulose acetate membrane for reducing of protein fouling.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu-Imer, Derya Y; Dizge, Nadir; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the surface of cellulose acetate (CA) ultrafiltration membrane was activated with serine protease (Savinase) enzyme to reduce protein fouling. Enzyme molecules were covalently immobilized with glutaraldehyde (cross-linking agent) onto the surface of CA membranes. The membrane activation was verified using filtration experiments and morphological analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the activated membrane when compared with raw membrane were confirmed that the enzyme was immobilized onto the membrane surface. The immobilization efficiencies changed from 13.2 to 41.2% according to the enzyme ratios from 2.5 to 10.0 mg/mL. However, the permeability values decreased from 232±6 to 121±4 L/m(2) h bar with increasing enzyme concentration from 2.5 to 10.0 mg/mL. In fouling experiments, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the protein model solution and activated sludge was used as the model biological sludge. Enzyme-activated membranes exhibited good filtration performances and protein rejection efficiencies were compared with raw CA membrane. Also the relative flux reduction (RFR) ratios of membranes were calculated as 97% and 88% for raw CA and enzyme-activated membranes (5 mg/mL savinase), respectively. The membrane activated with Savinase enzyme could be proposed as a surface treatment method before filtration to mitigate protein fouling. PMID:22218336

  10. Cyclodextrin-grafted electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers via “Click” reaction for removal of phenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebioglu, Asli; Demirci, Serkan; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-06-01

    Beta-cyclodextrin (?-CD) functionalized cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibers have been successfully prepared by combining electrospinning and “click” reaction. Initially, ?-CD and electrospun CA nanofibers were modified so as to be azide-?-CD and propargyl-terminated CA nanofibers, respectively. Then, “click” reaction was performed between modified CD molecules and CA nanofibers to obtain permanent grafting of CDs onto nanofibers surface. It was observed from the SEM image that, while CA nanofibers have smooth surface, there were some irregularities and roughness at nanofibers morphology after the modification. Yet, the fibrous structure was still protected. ATR-FTIR and XPS revealed that, CD molecules were successfully grafted onto surface of CA nanofibers. The adsorption capacity of ?-CD-functionalized CA (CA-CD) nanofibers was also determined by removing phenanthrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) from its aqueous solution. Our results indicate that CA-CD nanofibers have potential to be used as molecular filters for the purpose of water purification and waste water treatment by integrating the high surface area of nanofibers with inclusion complexation property of CD molecules.

  11. Comparison of Capillary Electrophoresis with Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis for the Screening of Hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Bo-Ram; Woo, Kwang-Sook; Kim, Jeong-Man; Park, Joo-In

    2011-01-01

    Background ?-thalassemia is primarily found in individuals of Mediterranean and Southeast Asian ancestry. With rapid growth in the Southeast Asian segments of the Korean population, the geographic distribution of hemoglobinopathies is expected to become significantly different from what it is today. In this study, Hb fractions were measured in patients with hypochromic microcytosis to detect thalassemia and Hb variants. To evaluate the feasibility of replacing cellulose acetate electrophoresis (CA) with capillary electrophoresis (CE) in a clinical laboratory, both techniques were performed and the outcomes were compared. Methods To evaluate hemoglobinopathies, complete blood cell counts (CBC), CA, and CE were carried out on samples from healthy and microcytic hypochromic groups. The microcytic hypochromic group consisted of 103 patients whose mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was less than 75 fL and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) was less than 24 pg. Quantitative analysis of Hb fractions was performed on 143 whole blood samples. Results There was a good correlation for measurements of HbA (r=0.9370, P<0.0001), HbA2 (r=0.8973 P<0.0001), and HbF (r= 0.8010, P=0.0304) between the two methods. In the microcytic hypochromic group, there were 29 cases (28.2%) with decreased HbA2, 2 cases (1.9%) with increased HbA2, 3 cases (2.9%) with increased HbF, and 2 cases (1.9%) with increased HbA2 and HbF. Conclusions CE is comparable to CA for reliable measurement of Hb fractions. It is suitable for screening of hemoglobinopathies in many clinical laboratories. PMID:22016676

  12. Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials. PMID:24345085

  13. Cellulose and psyllium supplementation in 10 females: the effect on food intake and in vitro fermentation variables 

    E-print Network

    Haynes, Susan Renee

    1988-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Determination of pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Short Chain Fatty Acid Analysis . 20 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 CHAPTER IV RESULTS Percent Recovery of Fibers Final pH Acetate Production Propionate Production... Butyrate Production Propionate:Butyrate Production Total Short Chain Fatty Acid Production The Ratio of Total Short Chain Page 22 22 24 26 29 31 33 35 Fatty Acids From Psyllium:Cellulose Substrates 37 Effect of Fiber Supplementation on Food...

  14. Optimization of moisture content for wheat seedling germination in a cellulose acetate medium for a space flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. F.; Dreschel, T. W.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS), a hydrophilic, microporous ceramic tube hydroponic system designed for microgravity, will be tested in a middeck locker of the Space Shuttle. The flight experiment will focus on hardware operation and assess its ability to support seed germination and early seedling growth in microgravity. The water controlling system of the PTPNDS hardware has been successfully tested during the parabolic flight of the KC-135. One challenge to the development of the space flight experiment was to devise a method of holding seeds to the cylindrical porous tube. The seed-holder must provide water and air to the seed, absorb water from the porous tube, withstand sterilization, provide a clear path for shoots and roots to emerge, and be composed of flight qualified materials. In preparation for the flight experiment, a wheat seed-holder has been designed that utilizes a cellulose acetate plug to facilitate imbibition and to hold the wheat seeds in contact with the porous tube in the correct orientation during the vibration of launch and the microgravity environment of orbit. Germination and growth studies with wheat at a range of temperatures showed that optimal moisture was 78% (by weight) in the cellulose acetate seed holders. These and other design considerations are discussed.

  15. Metabolic activity of fatty acid-oxidizing bacteria and the contribution of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and CO/sub 2/ to methanogenesis in cattle waste at 40 and 60/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Mackie, R.I.; Bryant, M.P.

    1981-06-01

    The quantitative contribution of fatty acids and CO/sub 2/ to methanogenesis was studied by using stirred, 3-liter bench-top digestors fed on a semicontinuous basis with cattle waste. The fermentations were carried out at 40 and 60/sup 0/C under identical loading conditions. In the thermophilic digestor, acetate turnover increased from a prefeeding level of 16 ..mu..M/min to a peak (49 ..mu..M/min. Acetate turnover in the mesophilic digester increased fron 15 to 40 ..mu..M/min. Propionate turnover ranged from 2 to 5.2 and 1.5 to 4.5 ..mu..M/min in the thermophilic and mesophilic digestors, respectively. Butyrate turnover (0.7 to 1.2 ..mu..M/min) was similar in both digestors. The proportion of CH/sub 4/ produced via the methyl group of acetate varied with time after feeding and ranged from 72 to 75% in the mesophilic digestor and 75 to 86% in the thermophilic digestor. The contribution from CO/sub 2/ reduction was 24 to 19% and 19 to 27%, respectively. Propionate and butyrate turnover accounted for 20% of the total CH/sub 4/ produced. Counts of fatty acid-degrading bacteria were related to their turnover activity.

  16. Dissolution enthalpies of cellulose in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Parviainen, Helena; Parviainen, Arno; Virtanen, Tommi; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Serimaa, Ritva; Grönqvist, Stina; Maloney, Thaddeus; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa

    2014-11-26

    In this work, interactions between cellulose and ionic liquids were studied calorimetrically and by optical microscopy. Two novel ionic liquids (1,5-Diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium propionate and N-methyl-1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium dimethyl phosphate) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate-water mixtures were used as solvents. Optical microscopy served in finding the extent of dissolution and identifying the dissolution pattern of the cellulose sample. Calorimetric studies identified a peak relating to dissolution of cellulose in solvent. The transition did, however, not indicate complete dissolution, but rather dissolution inside fibre or fibrils. This method was used to study differences between four cellulose samples with different pretreatment or origins. PMID:25256460

  17. Effects of poly(ethylene oxide) and ZnO nanoparticles on the morphology, tensile and thermal properties of cellulose acetate nanocomposite fibrous film

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chonticha Pittarate; Tipaporn Yoovidhya; Walaiporn Srichumpuang; Narupol Intasanta; Saowakon Wongsasulak

    2011-01-01

    A bio-based fibrous film intended to be used as a food-packaging component was electrospun from blend solutions of cellulose acetate (CA) in neat acetic acid and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in 90% ethanol. The CA\\/PEO blend ratios were varied to determine the effects of PEO on the morphology, moisture-adsorption and tensile properties of the blended fibrous films. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO

  18. EVIDENCE FOR PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CELLULOSE ACETATE IN UV EXCLUSION STUDIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose diacetate (CA) has been widely used in UV-B enhancement and UV-B exclusion studies. In recent UV exclusion studies conducted at Beltsville, MD under field conditions, cucumber plants were found to develop marginal chlorosis under CA filters. To test the hypothesis that CA was responsible...

  19. Inhibition of respiration of Aspergillus oryzae by adsorption of the mycelium on cellulose acetate fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Meyrath; A. F. McIntosh

    1964-01-01

    Résumé L'intensité de respiration d'Aspergillus oryzae est fortement diminuée par adsorption du mycélium à un filtre d'acétate de cellulose soigneusement nettoyé. Cet effet suggère que certaines substances d'une importance capitale dans le métabolisme sont éliminées de la surface des hyphes.

  20. Metabolic Activity of Fatty Acid-Oxidizing Bacteria and the Contribution of Acetate, Propionate, Butyrate, and CO(2) to Methanogenesis in Cattle Waste at 40 and 60 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Mackie, R I; Bryant, M P

    1981-06-01

    The quantitative contribution of fatty acids and CO(2) to methanogenesis was studied by using stirred, 3-liter bench-top digestors fed on a semicontinuous basis with cattle waste. The fermentations were carried out at 40 and 60 degrees C under identical loading conditions (6 g of volatile solids per liter of reactor volume per day, 10-day retention time). In the thermophilic digestor, acetate turnover increased from a prefeeding level of 16 muM/min to a peak (49 muM/min) 1 h after feeding and then gradually decreased. Acetate turnover in the mesophilic digestor increased from 15 to 40 muM/min. Propionate turnover ranged from 2 to 5.2 and 1.5 to 4.5 muM/min in the thermophilic and mesophilic digestors, respectively. Butyrate turnover (0.7 to 1.2 muM/min) was similar in both digestors. The proportion of CH(4) produced via the methyl group of acetate varied with time after feeding and ranged from 72 to 75% in the mesophilic digestor and 75 to 86% in the thermophilic digestor. The contribution from CO(2) reduction was 24 to 29% and 19 to 27%, respectively. Propionate and butyrate turnover accounted for 20% of the total CH(4) produced. Acetate synthesis from CO(2) was greatest shortly after feeding and was higher in the thermophilic digestor (0.5 to 2.4 muM/min) than the mesophilic digestor (0.3 to 0.5 muM/min). Counts of fatty acid-degrading bacteria were related to their turnover activity. PMID:16345789

  1. Demystifying Hardy-Weinberg: Using Cellulose Acetate Electrophoresis of the Lap Locus to Study Population Genetics in White Campion (Silene latifolia)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patricia A. Peroni (Davidson College; )

    1999-01-01

    This laboratory exercise could used as an introductory biology lab and/or an upper level course lab, with minor adjustments, covering ecology, evolution, population genetics and physiology. Population genetics is explored using seedlings from several population of the perennial herb white campion, (Silene latifolia), scientific method,cellulose acetate protein electrophoresis and the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Theory.

  2. Burning of solids in oxygen-rich environments in normal and reduced gravity. [combustion of cellulose acetates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andracchio, C. R.; Cochran, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of solids burning in a weightless environment. The combustion characteristics of thin cellulose acetate material were obtained from specimens burned in supercritical as well as in low pressure oxygen atmospheres. Flame spread rates were measured and found to depend on material thickness and pressure in both normal gravity (1-g) and reduced gravity (0-g). A gravity effect on the burning process was also observed; the ratio of 1-g to 0-g flame spread rate becomes larger with increasing material thickness. Qualitative results on the combustion characteristics of metal screens (stainless steel, Inconel, copper, and aluminum) burning in supercritical oxygen and normal gravity are also presented. Stainless steel (300 sq mesh) was successfully ignited in reduced gravity; no apparent difference in the flame spread pattern was observed between 1-g and 0-g.

  3. Cellulose acetate-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide solid polymer electrolyte: ATR-FTIR and ionic conductivity behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Razalli, Siti Masyitah; Sheikh Mohd Saaid, Siti Irma Yuana; Marwan Ali, Ab Malik; Hassan, Oskar Hasdinor; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on cellulose acetate (CA) doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt are prepared by solution cast technique. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the polymer salt complexes are recorded in the frequency range between 400 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1. The shifting of carbonyl band (C=O) at 1737 cm-1 to a lower wavenumber confirms the occurrence of complexation between the polymer and the salt. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis discovered that the film with 25 wt.% of salt shows the highest ionic conductivity at room temperature. The change in real dielectric permittivity (?r) as a function of frequency at different salt concentrations which exhibits a dispersive behavior at low frequencies and decays at higher frequencies, shows the electrode polarization and space charge effect. The real modulus formalism (Mr) analysis shows that the polymer electrolytes in this work are ionic conductors.

  4. Study the biocatalyzing effect and mechanism of cellulose acetate immobilized redox mediators technology (CE-RM) on nitrite denitrification.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Guo, Jianbo; Lian, Jing; Xi, Zhenhua; Zhao, Lijun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Chenxiao; Yang, Jingliang

    2014-06-01

    The biocatalyzing effect of a novel cellulose acetate immobilized redox mediators technology (CE-RM) on nitrite denitrification process was studied with anthraquinone, 1,8-dichloroanthraquinone, 1,5-dichloroanthraquinone and 1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthraquinone. The results showed that the immobilized 1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthraquinone presented the best biocatalyzed effect which increased nitrite denitrification rate to 2.3-fold with 12 mmol/L 1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthraquinone. The unequal biocatalyzing effect was due to the quantity and position of -Cl substituent in anthraquinone-structure. Moreover, the nitrite denitrification rate was increased with the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) values becoming more negative during the biocatalyzing process. The stabilized ORP value with 12 mmol/L immobilized 1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthraquinone were 81 mV lower than the control. At the same time, the more OH(-) was produced with the higher nitrite removal rate achieved in the nitrite denitrification process. In addition, a positive linear correlation was found between the nitrite removal reaction constants k [gNO2(-)-N/(gVSS d)] and immobilized 1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthraquinone concentration (C1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthraquinone), which was k = 1.8443 C1,4,5,8-tetrachloroanthraquinone + 33.75(R(2) = 0.9411). The initial nitrite concentration of 179 mgNO2(-)-N/L resulted in the maximum nitrite removal rate, which was 6.526[gNO2(-)-N/(gVSS d)]. These results show that the application of cellulose acetate immobilized redox mediators (CE-RM) can be valuable for increasing nitrite denitrification rate. PMID:24179089

  5. Investigation of unique interactions between cellulose acetate and ionic liquid [EMIM]SCN, and their influences on hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Yu Xing; Na Peng; Tai-Shung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the molecular interactions between ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN) and cellulose acetate (CA), employing not only experimental characterizations including FTIR and rheological tests, but also molecular dynamics simulations. Due to the electrostatic nature of ionic liquids, [EMIM]SCN interacts intensely with CA molecules through pronounced hydrogen bonding, Coulombic forces and van der Waals interactions, which play an important

  6. Probing the dependence of the properties of cellulose acetates and their films on the degree of biopolymer substitution: use of solvatochromic indicators and thermal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludmila C. Fidale; Constance Ißbrücker; Priscilla L. Silva; Camila M. Lucheti; Thomas Heinze; Omar A. El Seoud

    2010-01-01

    Although cellulose acetates, CAs, are extensively employed there is scant information about the systematic dependence of their properties on their degree of substitution, DS; this is the subject of the present work. Nine CAs samples, DS from\\u000a 0.83 to 3.0 were synthesized; their films were prepared. The following solvatochromic probes have been employed in order to\\u000a determine the empirical polarity,

  7. A submerged nanofiltration membrane bioreactor for domestic wastewater treatment: the performance of cellulose acetate nanofiltration membranes for long-term operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Hoon Choi; Kensuke Fukushi; Kazuo Yamamoto

    2007-01-01

    A submerged nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF MBR) using cellulose acetate membranes was operated for 240 days to examine the performance of the NF membrane in domestic wastewater treatment. For the first 130 days, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the permeates ranged from 0.5 to 2.0mg\\/L. The rejection rates of monovalent and divalent ions by the NF membranes varied between

  8. Electrochemical Determination of Chlorpyrifos on a Nano-TiO2/Cellulose Acetate Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode.

    PubMed

    Kumaravel, Ammasai; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai

    2015-07-15

    A rapid and simple method of determination of chlorpyrifos is important in environmental monitoring and quality control. Electrochemical methods for the determination of pesticides are fast, sensitive, reproducible, and cost-effective. The key factor in electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. The electrode materials should have good stability, reproducibility, more sensitivity, and easy method of preparation. Mercury-based electrodes have been widely used for the determination of chlorpyrifos. From an environmental point of view mercury cannot be used. In this study a biocompatible nano-TiO2/cellulose acetate modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by a simple method and used for the electrochemical sensing of chlorpyrifos in aqueous methanolic solution. Electroanalytical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and amperometry were used in this work. This electrode showed very good stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. A well-defined peak was obtained for the reduction of chlorpyrifos in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A smooth noise-free current response was obtained in amperometric analysis. The peak current obtained was proportional to the concentration of chlorpyrifos and was used to determine the unknown concentration of chlorpyrifos in the samples. Analytical parameters such as LOD, LOQ, and linear range were estimated. Analysis of real samples was also carried out. The results were validated through HPLC. This composite electrode can be used as an alternative to mercury electrodes reported in the literature. PMID:26075585

  9. Mechanical and thermal properties of eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate)/cellulose acetate butyrate blends.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chenyang; Wang, Hengti; Hu, Qiaoqiao; Xu, Fenfen; Cao, Xiaojun; You, Jichun; Li, Yongjin

    2013-02-15

    The eco-friendly poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC)/cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) blends were prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer for the first time. PPC and CAB were partially miscible because of the drastically shifted glass transition temperatures of both PPC and CAB, which originated from the specific interactions between carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups. The incorporation of CAB into PPC matrix enhanced not only tensile strength and modulus of PPC dramatically, but also improved heat resistance and thermal stability of PPC significantly. The tensile strength and the modulus of PPC/CAB=50/50 blend are 27.7 MPa and 1.24 GPa, which are 21 times and 28 times higher than those of the unmodified PPC, respectively. Moreover, the elongation at break of PPC/CAB=50/50 blend is as high as 117%. In addition, the obtained blends exhibited good transparency, which is very important for the package materials. The results in this work pave new possibility for the massive application of eco-friendly polymer materials. PMID:23399238

  10. Removal of aqueous Hg(II) and Cr(VI) using phytic acid doped polyaniline/cellulose acetate composite membrane.

    PubMed

    Li, Renjie; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2014-09-15

    Conductive composite membrane-phytic acid (PA) doped polyaniline (PANI)/cellulose acetate (CA) (PANI-PA/CA) was prepared in a simple and environmental-friendly method, in which aniline was blended with CA/PA solution and polymerized before the phase conversion. The resultant composite membranes were characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR-ATR, BET and electrical resistance measurements. When used as adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) ions, the prepared composite membrane exhibits excellent adsorption capability. The adsorption of Hg(II) and Cr(VI) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and best fits the Langmuir isotherm model, with the maximum adsorption capacity reaching 280.11 and 94.34 mg g(-1), respectively. The heavy metal loaded composite membrane can be regenerated and reused after treatment with acid or alkali solution, making it a promising and practical adsorbent for Hg(II) and Cr(VI) removal. Tests with river water were also carried out, indicating good performance and application. PMID:25127386

  11. Thermal and mechanical characterization of cellulose acetate phthalate films for pharmaceutical tablet coating: effect of humidity during measurements.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, A; Singh, S K

    1998-09-01

    Films from a polymer used in pharmaceutical coating (cellulose acetate phthalate) were analyzed by thermomechanical techniques including dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and tensile tests. Emphasis was placed on relative humidity (RH) at the measurement site (as opposed to storage or conditioning RH). The films were plasticized with either triethyl citrate or diethyl phthalate. The results show that the films respond rapidly to changes in the environmental humidity. This in turn influences the data obtained from DMTA and tensile testing; thus, good control of the humidity is essential. Absorption isotherms have been obtained for the two types of films, and the results were interpreted in terms of the equilibrium moisture content which is determined by the polar nature of the plasticizer. This factor must be considered when formulating a film composition because moisture can, apart from its influence on mechanical properties, also speed the chemical degradation processes. When the stability of a film composition during storage is studied, the actual measurements on the films should preferably be done at 0% RH, irrespective of the storage RH. At 0% RH, the mechanical testing results will reflect the chemical stability correctly, without interference from plasticizing effect of absorbed water. A functionality test for films has been suggested: DMTA under isothermal conditions using either step or continuous humidity scans. Isothermal dynamic humidity scans on the DMTA were performed for the first time, and the utility of these measurements is discussed. PMID:9876533

  12. Facile fouling resistant surface modification of microfiltration cellulose acetate membranes by using amino acid L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Azari, Sara; Zou, Linda; Cornelissen, Emile; Mukai, Yasushito

    2013-01-01

    A major obstacle in the widespread application of microfiltration membranes in the wet separation processes such as wastewater treatment is the decline of permeates flux as a result of fouling. This study reports on the surface modification of cellulose acetate (CA) microfiltration membrane with amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (L-DOPA) to improve fouling resistance of the membrane. The membrane surface was characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle and zeta potential measurement. Porosity measurement showed a slight decrease in membrane porosity due to coating. Static adsorption experiments revealed an improved resistance of the modified membranes towards the adhesion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model foulant. Dead end membrane filtration tests exhibited that the fouling resistance of the modified membranes was improved. However, the effect of the modification depended on the foulant solution concentration. It is concluded that L-DOPA modification is a convenient and non-destructive approach to enable low-BSA adhesion surface modification of CA microfiltration membranes. Nevertheless, the extent of fouling resistance improvement depends on the foulant concentration. PMID:23985522

  13. Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on the Phase Transitions in Acetate-Substituted Dicalcium Strontium Propionate, Ca2Sr[(C2H5COO)1-x(CH3COO)x]6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesi, Kazuo; Takashige, Masaaki

    1992-06-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on phase transitions has been studied by dielectric measurements for acetate-substituted dicalcium strontium propionate, Ca2Sr[(C2H5COO)1-x(CH3COO)x]6 with x{=}0.045, 0.10, 0.14. The I-II and II-III transition temperatures of x{=}0.045 crystal (256 K and 120 K at 0 MPa, respectively) increase linearly with increasing pressure. The ferroelectric II phase of x{=}0.10 crystal narrows with application of pressure and disappears at 110 MPa. In the x{=}0.14 crystal, which does not show ferroelectricity, the temperature at which the dielectric constant shows a broad maximum increases with increasing pressure. The pressure dependence of the peak value \\varepsilonmax is expressed by \\varepsilonmax{=}\\varepsilon0+C/(p-pc) where C{=}225 MPa and pc{=}-27 MPa. There is a parallelism between the effects of hydrostatic pressure and acetate-substitution on the phase transitions.

  14. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP): an 'inactive' pharmaceutical excipient with antiviral activity in the mouse model of genital herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Gyotoku, T; Aurelian, L; Neurath, A R

    1999-11-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has continued unabated. At least 20% of the United States population has been infected with HSV-2 and there is a high probability of further virus transmission by asymptomatic carriers. Given the absence of effective vaccines, this indicates the need to develop prophylactic measures such as topical microbicides that have antiviral activity. Recent studies indicate that cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), an inactive pharmaceutical excipient commonly used in the production of enteric tablets and capsules, is a broad specificity microbicide against diverse sexually transmitted pathogens. When appropriately formulated in micronized form, it inactivates various viruses, including HSV-2, in vitro. Here we show that CAP inhibits HSV-2 infection in the mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection. Pretreatment with micronized CAP formulated in a glycerol-based cream with colloidal silicone dioxide significantly reduced the proportion of HSV-2-infected mice (10% virus shedding, 0-5% lesion development and 0% fatality for CAP as compared to 84% shedding, 63% lesion development and 63% fatality in saline-treated mice). These differences were significant (P < or = 0.0002 by the test of equality of two proportions). Virus titres in the minority of mice that developed infection were similar to those in untreated mice. HSV-2 infection was not inhibited by treatment with CAP formulated with other inactive ingredients (for example povidone plus crosprovidone) instead of silicone dioxide, presumably reflecting CAP complexation/inactivation. These data suggest that properly formulated, CAP may be an efficacious agent for preventing vaginal transmission of genital herpesvirus infections. PMID:10628808

  15. Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl propionate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406572

  16. Fragrance material review on benzyl propionate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl propionate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl propionate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl propionate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414642

  17. Synthesis of the perdeuterated cellulose solvents N -methylmorpholine N -oxide (NMMO-d 11 and NMMO- 15 Nd 11 ), N,N -dimethylacetamide (DMAcd 9 and DMAc 15 Nd 9 ), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc-d 14 ) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc-d 18 )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Adelwöhrer; Yuko Yoneda; Toshiyuki Takano; Fumiaki Nakatsubo; Thomas Rosenau

    2009-01-01

    The syntheses of several perdeuterated substances—some of them isotopically labeled (15N) in addition—are described, which act as direct solvents of cellulose either on their own, such as N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIM-OAc), or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM-OAc), or in combination\\u000a with auxiliaries, such as N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc—for the cellulose solvent DMAc\\/LiCl). NMMO-d11 (9) was obtained in an eight-step approach from non-labeled

  18. Effect of cellulose acetate butyrate microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate on the flame retardancy, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of intumescent flame-retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate/polyamide-6 blends.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bibo; Tang, Qinbo; Hong, Ningning; Song, Lei; Wang, Lei; Shi, Yongqian; Hu, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), a widely used intumescent flame retardant, has been microencapsulated by cellulose acetate butyrate with the aim of enhancing the water resistance of APP and the compatibility between the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and APP. The structure of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water contact angle (WCA). The flame retadancy and thermal stability were investigated by a limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, UL-94 test, cone calorimeter, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The WCA results indicated that MCAPP has excellent water resistance and hydrophobicity. The results demonstrated that MCAPP enhanced interfacial adhesion, mechanical, electrical, and thermal stability of the EVA/MCAPP/polyamide-6 (PA-6) system. The microencapsulation not only imparted EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 with a higher LOI value and UL-94 rating but also could significantly improve the fire safety. Furthermore, the microencapsulated EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites can still pass the UL-94 V-0 rating after treatment with water for 3 days at 70 °C, indicating excellent water resistance. This investigation provides a promising formulation for the intumescent flame retardant EVA with excellent properties. PMID:21859130

  19. Chromophores in lignin-free cellulosic materials belong to three compound classes. Chromophores in cellulosics, XII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CRI (chromophore release and identification) method isolates well-defined chromophoric substances from different cellulosic matrices, such as highly bleached pulps, cotton linters, bacterial cellulose, viscose or lyocell fibers, and cellulose acetates. The chromophores are present only in extrem...

  20. Timecourse analysis of photosynthetic microbial communities that degrade cellulose and fix nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, A.; van der Heyde, R.; Sheets, M.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Y.; Liu, X.; Slikas, B.; Amaral-Zettler, L. A.; Huang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cellulose is an abundant polymer derived from plant matter and it is also a nitrogen poor resource. Nutrient cycling is carried out by microbial communities in nature, and bacteria that degrade cellulose must be able to obtain a source of fixed nitrogen for growth. We used light wavelength selection to enrich for a series of anoxygenic photosynthetic microbial communities from marine and freshwater environments that degrade cellulose and fix nitrogen. This research examines how the communities carry out these processes. We compare community composition and metabolite production measured using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography over time of growth of the communities. A freshwater community grown at 590nm showed the highest metabolic rates. Acetate and propionate reached maximum concentration at around day 4 and hydrogen concentrations peaked at 5uM on day 6 at stationary phase. There was no methane production by this culture suggesting methanogens were not present or inactive. In contrast, methanogenesis was very active in another freshwater community grown at 760/940nm. This culture showed acetate and propionate accumulation and hydrogen gas concentrations that decreased over time as well suggesting that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was occurring. A similar trend was observed in a marine community grown at 470nm. This work can enable determination of factors important for efficient community nutrient cycling and understanding of community dynamics. Future work will be done to determine the roles of the individual species of bacteria within the communities and to investigate the potential of these communities in biofuel production.

  1. Nano-web structures constructed with a cellulose acetate/lithium chloride/polyethylene oxide hybrid: modeling, fabrication and characterization.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Atefeh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Mirzakhanlouei, Sasan; Davoodi, Driush; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2015-01-22

    Electrospun nano-web structures (ENWSs) were successfully fabricated from ionized binary solution of cellulose(Mn30)/polyethylene oxide(Mn200) (CA/PEO of 0.5-1.5). Final concentration of polymers was 12% (w/v) in the solution, and lithium chloride was used as ionizing agent. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to the optimize fabrication of ENWSs. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the solution properties and ENWSs morphology were strongly influenced by CA/PEO. An increase in PEO amount increased the viscosity which is a function of molecular weight, and as a result raised the entanglement of polymeric solution but decreased the surface tension that all support nanofibers fabrication. The size of nanofibers decreased with reducing PEO and LiCl concentration. Increasing the content of LiCl promoted the electrical conductivity (EC) value; however, junction zones were formed. The overall optimum region was found to be at combined level of 1.5% CA/PEO and 0.49% (w/v) LiCl. PMID:25439959

  2. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

  3. Electricity generation coupled with wastewater treatment using a microbial fuel cell composed of a modified cathode with a ceramic membrane and cellulose acetate film.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ha Na; Lee, Woo Jin; Hwang, Tae Sik; Park, Doo Hyun

    2009-09-01

    A noncompartmented microbial fuel cell (NCMFC) composed of a Mn(IV)-carbon plate and a Fe(III)-carbon plate was used for electricity generation from organic wastewater without consumption of external energy. The Fe(III)-carbon plate, coated with a porous ceramic membrane and a semipermeable cellulose acetate film, was used as a cathode, which substituted for the catholyte and cathode. The Mn(IV)-carbon plate was used as an anode without a membrane or film coating. A solar cell connected to the NCMFC activated electricity generation and bacterial consumption of organic matter contained in the wastewater. More than 99 degrees of the organic matter was biochemically oxidized during wastewater flow through the four NCMFC units. A predominant bacterium isolated from the anode surface in both the conventional and the solar cell-linked NCMFC was found to be more than 99 degrees similar to a Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium and Burkeholderia sp., based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolate reacted electrochemically with the Mn(IV)-modified anode and produced electricity in the NCMFC. After 90 days of incubation, a bacterial species that was enriched on the Mn(IV)-modified anode surface in all of the NCMFC units was found to be very similar to the initially isolated predominant species by comparing 16S rDNA sequences. PMID:19809261

  4. Using linoleic Acid embedded cellulose acetate membranes to in situ monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lakes and predict their bioavailability to submerged macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuqiang; Xue, Bin; Yao, Shuchun

    2015-05-19

    To date no passive sampler has been used to predict bioavailability of contaminants to macrophytes. Here a novel passive sampler, linoleic acid embedded cellulose acetate membrane (LAECAM), was developed and used to in situ measure the freely dissolved concentrations of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediment porewaters and the water columns of two lakes in both winter and summer and predict their bioavailability to the shoots of resident submerged macrophytes (Potamogeton malainus, Myriophyllum spicata, Najas minor All., and Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara). PAH sampling by LAECAMs could reach equilibrium within 21 days. The influence of temperature on LAECAM-water partition coefficients was 0.0008-0.0116 log units/°C. The method of LAECAM was comparable with the active sampling methods of liquid-liquid extraction combined with fDOC adjustment, centrifugation/solid-phase extraction (SPE), and filtration/SPE but had several advantages. After lipid normalization, concentrations of the PAHs in LAECAMs were not significantly different from those in the macrophytes. In contrast, concentrations of the PAHs in the triolein containing passive sampler (TECAM) deployed simultaneously with LAECAM were much higher. The results suggest that linoleic acid is more suitable than triolein as the model lipid for passive samplers to predict bioavailability of PAHs to submerged macrophytes. PMID:25877046

  5. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si Cong; Su, Jincai; Fu, Feng-Jiang; Mi, Baoxia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-01-01

    We have examined the gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42° ± 14.85° after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 °C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. PMID:24957062

  6. Preparation of a novel PAN/cellulose acetate-Ag based activated carbon nanofiber and its adsorption performance for low-concentration SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan-bo; Bi, Jun; Lou, Ting; Song, Tie-ben; Yu, Hong-quan

    2015-04-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN), PAN/cellulose acetate (CA), and PAN/CA-Ag based activated carbon nanofiber (ACNF) were prepared using electrostatic spinning and further heat treatment. Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis indicated that the addition of CA or Ag did not have a significant impact on the thermal decomposition of PAN materials but the yields of fibers could be improved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the micromorphologies of produced fibers were greatly influenced by the viscosity and conductivity of precursor solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis proved that a cyclized or trapezoidal structure could form and the carbon scaffold composed of C=C bonds appeared in the PAN-based ACNFs. The characteristic diffraction peaks in X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra were the evidence of a turbostratic structure and silver existed in the PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF. Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed that the doping of CA and Ag increased surface area and micropore volume of fibers; particularly, PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF exhibited the best porosity feature. Furthermore, SO2 adsorption experiments indicated that all the three fibers had good adsorption effects on lower concentrations of SO2 at room temperature; especially, the PAN/CA-Ag based ACNF showed the best adsorption performance, and it may be one of the most promising adsorbents used in the fields of chemical industry and environment protection.

  7. Plasticizer effect and comparative evaluation of cellulose acetate and ethylcellulose-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes for oral osmotic pumps of naproxen sodium.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, N; Mishra, B

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performance of cellulose acetate (CA) and ethylcellulose (EC)-HPMC combination coatings as semipermeable membranes (SPMs) for osmotic pump tablets (OPTs) of naproxen sodium (NPS) so as to deliver a constant, predetermined amount of drug in solution form over a fixed span of time, independent of external environmental conditions. Osmotic pump tablets were designed with different coating variables and optimized in terms of nature of plasticizer, membrane thickness, and orifice diameter. The effect of insertion of an inner microporous film around the NPS core to minimize deformation of the SPM due to peristaltic movement of the gut was also studied. Osmotic pump tablets composed of membranes with water-soluble plasticizer, propyleneglycol (PG), released drug mainly through diffusion, whereas those designed with CA and EC-HPMC (4:1) coats containing water-insoluble plasticizer, castor oil, released their contents by perfect zero-order kinetics over a prolonged period of time, though the average release rate that could be achieved with the EC-HPMC (4:1) membrane was only about half the rate achieved with the CA membrane for the same membrane thickness. Release rates for both the membranes decreased with increasing membrane thickness and were found to be independent of orifice diameter, agitation intensity, and pH of the dissolution medium. PMID:12056533

  8. Microbiological quality and other characteristics of refrigerated chicken meat in contact with cellulose acetate-based film incorporated with rosemary essential oil

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Adriane Alexandre Machado; Geraldine, Robson Maia; Silveira, Miriam Fontes Araujo; Torres, Maria Célia Lopes; e Rezende, Cíntia Silva Minafra; Fernandes, Thiago Henrique; de Oliveira, Antonio Nonato

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial active packaging delays or inhibits microorganism growth in packed products, and it can be used in a variety of food systems. The objective of the present research was to develop packaging incorporated with natural antimicrobial agents (active film). The effects of the active film on the spoilage, pathogenic microorganism counts, pH and color of the refrigerated chicken breast cuts were analyzed. Cellulose acetate-based active films incorporating two concentrations (20% and 50%, v/w) of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil were manufactured and placed in contact with the chicken breast cuts for six days. An analysis of variance and mean comparison tests (Tukey’s test, p<0.05) were performed on the results. The films that contained 20% essential oil and were intercalated with chicken breast samples did not demonstrate significant effects on the control of psychrotrophic or total coliform microorganisms during the storage period; however, the films incorporated with 50% essential oil demonstrated efficacy toward the control of coliforms during the storage of the samples (6 days, 2 ± 2ºC). The pH was related to the psychrotrophic microorganism count and was not influenced by the treatment. The color was not influenced by the time of storage or the treatment. The results demonstrate that active films incorporating 50% rosemary essential oil are effective at controlling certain microorganisms in chicken breast cuts. PMID:24031972

  9. Start-up and operation of a propionate-degrading fluidized-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Heppner; Gerhard Zellner; Hans Diekmann

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor was inoculated with a syntrophically propionate-degrading co-culture. After 24 days of batch operation with propionate and acetate in the medium, the reactor was operated for 8 months with propionate as the sole substrate. The loading rate was 8.5 kg chemical oxygen demand\\/m3 ·day, yielding a maximal gas production of 4.5 l\\/l·day at a removal efficiency of

  10. Cellulose acetate butyrate-pH/thermosensitive polymer microcapsules containing aminated poly(vinyl alcohol) microspheres for oral administration of DNA.

    PubMed

    Fundueanu, Gheorghe; Constantin, Marieta; Bortolotti, Fabrizio; Cortesi, Rita; Ascenzi, Paolo; Menegatti, Enea

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to safely transport bioadhesive microspheres loaded with DNA to intestine and to test their bioadhesive properties. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microspheres were prepared by dispersion reticulation with glutaraldehyde and further aminated. These microspheres were firstly loaded with plasmid DNA by electrostatic interactions and then entrapped in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microcapsules for gastric protection. The entrapped PVA microspheres do not have enough force by swelling to produce the rupture of CAB shell, therefore the resistance of microcapsules was weakened by incorporating different amount of the pH/thermosensitive polymer (SP) based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (NIPAAm-co-MM-co-MA). This polymer is insoluble in gastric juice at pH 1.2 and 37 degrees C, but quickly solubilized in intestinal fluids (pH 6.8 and pH 7.4). Therefore, DNA loaded PVA microspheres were not expelled in acidic media but were almost entirely discharged in small intestine or colon. The integrity of DNA after entrapment was tested by agarose gel electrophoresis indicating that no DNA degradation occurs during encapsulation. The percentage of adhered microspheres on the mucus surface of everted intestinal tissue was 65+/-18% for aminated PVA microspheres without DNA and almost 50+/-15% for those loaded with DNA. Non-aminated PVA microspheres display the lowest adhesive properties (33+/-12%). In conclusion DNA loaded microspheres were progressively discharged in intestine. The integrity of DNA was not modified after entrapment and release, as proved by agarose gel electrophoresis. Both loaded and un-loaded aminated microspheres display good bioadhesive properties. PMID:17085025

  11. Metabolic activity of fatty acid-oxidizing bacteria and the contribution of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and COâ to methanogenesis in cattle waste at 40 and 60°C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. Mackie; M. P. Bryant

    1981-01-01

    The quantitative contribution of fatty acids and COâ to methanogenesis was studied by using stirred, 3-liter bench-top digestors fed on a semicontinuous basis with cattle waste. The fermentations were carried out at 40 and 60°C under identical loading conditions. In the thermophilic digestor, acetate turnover increased from a prefeeding level of 16 ..mu..M\\/min to a peak (49 ..mu..M\\/min. Acetate turnover

  12. Determination of odor release in hydrocolloid model systems containing original or carboxylated cellulose at different pH values using static headspace gas chromatographic (SHS-GC) analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Mi; Shin, Gil-Ok; Park, Kyung Min; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Kim, Young-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Static headspace gas chromatographic (SHS-GC) analysis was performed to determine the release of 13 odorants in hydrocolloid model systems containing original or regio-selectively carboxylated cellulose at different pH values. The release of most odor compounds was decreased in the hydrocolloid solutions compared to control, with the amounts of 2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanedione released into the headspace being less than those of any other odor compound in the hydrocolloid model systems. However, there was no considerable difference between original cellulose-containing and carboxylated-cellulose containing systems in the release of most compounds, except for relatively long-chain esters such as ethyl caprylate and ethyl nonanoate. The release from the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions controlled to pH 10 was significantly higher than that from solutions adjusted to pH 4 and 7 in the case of some esters (ethyl acetate, methyl propionate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate, butyl propionate, ethyl caproate) and alcohols (2-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol), in particular, ethyl butyrate and 3-methyl-1-butanol. In contrast, the release of 2,3-butanedione from both the original and carboxylated cellulose solutions was increased at pH 4 and 7 compared to that at pH 10 by about 70% and 130%, respectively. Our study demonstrated that the release of some odorants could be changed significantly by addition of both original and carboxylated cellulose in hydrocolloid model systems, but only minor effect was observed in pH of the solution. PMID:23447013

  13. Application of chemical and thermal analysis methods for studying cellulose ester plastics.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Michael; Bouchard, Michel; Khanjian, Herant; Learner, Tom; Phenix, Alan; Rivenc, Rachel

    2010-06-15

    Cellulose acetate, developed about 100 years ago as a versatile, semisynthetic plastic material, is used in a variety of applications and is perhaps best known as the basis of photographic film stock. Objects made wholly or partly from cellulose acetate are an important part of modern and contemporary cultural heritage, particularly in museum collections. Given the potential instability of the material, however, it is imperative to understand the aging mechanisms and deterioration pathways of cellulose ester plastics to mitigate decomposition and formulate guidelines for storage, exhibition, and conservation. One important aspect of this process is the ability to fully characterize the plastic, because variations in composition affect its aging properties and ultimate stability. In this Account, we assess the potential of a range of analytical techniques for plastics made from cellulose acetate, cellulose propionate, and cellulose butyrate. Comprehensive characterization of cellulose ester plastics is best achieved by applying several complementary analytical techniques. Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy provide rapid means for basic characterization of plastic objects, which can be useful for quick, noninvasive screening of museum collections with portable instruments. Pyrolysis GC/MS is capable of differentiating the main types of cellulose ester polymers but also permits a richly detailed compositional analysis of additives. Thermal analysis techniques provide a wealth of compositional information and thermal behavior. Thermogravimetry (TG) allows for quantitative analysis of thermally stable volatile additives, and weight-difference curves offer a novel means for assessing oxidative stability. The mechanical response to temperature, such as the glass transition, can be measured with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), but results from other thermal analysis techniques such as TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic load thermomechanical analysis (DLTMA) are often required to more accurately interpret the results. The analytical results from this study form the basis for in-depth studies of works of art fabricated from cellulose acetate. These objects, which are particularly at risk when stored in tightly sealed containers (as is often the case with photographic film), warrant particular attention for conservation given their susceptibility toward sudden onset of deterioration. PMID:20455567

  14. Propionate exchange reactions in methanogenic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Boone, D R

    1984-10-01

    Propionate degradation was measured with [1-C]- and [2-C]propionate in an anaerobic digestor. When [1-C]propionate was used, label disappeared more rapidly from the propionate pool than when [2-C]propionate was used. This indicated that an exchange reaction involving the carboxyl group of propionate occurred. Labeled propionate added to digestor samples which were equilibrated with H(2) lost label from the carboxyl group but not from the methylene group. PMID:16346651

  15. Applicability of non-halogenated methyl propionate to microencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jukyung; Sah, Edel; Sah, Hongkee

    2014-01-01

    Applicability of methyl propionate to microencapsulation was evaluated with regard to volatility, capability of forming emulsions, and their quality. An emulsion-based technique was then developed to encapsulate progesterone into poly-d,l-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres. Their characteristics were compared with those prepared using ethyl acetate. Our results demonstrated that methyl propionate had greater evaporative tendency and less water miscibility than ethyl acetate did. The former allowed us to prepare good microspheres. Their average volume mean diameter was 68.3?±?1.7??m with a span index of 0.91?±?0.13. Progesterone did not undergo polymorphic transition during microencapsulation, and its encapsulation efficiency ranged from 41.80?±?1.83 to 85.64?±?1.95%. Residual methyl propionate in various microspheres was found to be 0.97?±?0.03 to 1.54?±?0.07%. Such microsphere characteristics were quite similar to those prepared by the ethyl acetate-based microencapsulation process. Overall, our findings reflect that methyl propionate has a potential to become an invaluable solvent for microencapsulation. PMID:24175715

  16. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section...Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. Propionate analogues of zearalenone bind to Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Ugele, Markus; Sasse, Florenz; Knapp, Stefan; Fedorov, Oleg; Zubriene, Asta; Matulis, Daumantas; Maier, Martin E

    2009-09-01

    By replacement of an acetate with propionate through organic synthesis a range of zearalenone analogues were prepared. As key steps in the synthesis of the analogues we used the Noyori hydrogenation of methyl acetoacetate followed by Frater alkylation of the enantiomeric 3-hydroxybutyrates. This converted the second acetate to a propionate. Through the derived alkyne, chain extension led to 3-methylundec-10-en-2-ol derivatives. These were condensed with 2,4-dimethoxy-6-vinylbenzoic acid. Ring-closing metathesis of the obtained esters led to macrolactones, which were deproteced to give the zearalenone analogues. Several of the analogues showed cytotoxicity against the L929 mouse fibroblast cell line comparable to zearalenone (9 microM) itself. In the thermal-shift assay, two analogues 35 and ent-35 displayed stronger binding than the natural product geldanamycin to the chaperone Hsp90. PMID:19637143

  18. A morpholinium ionic liquid for cellulose dissolution.

    PubMed

    Raut, Dilip G; Sundman, Ola; Su, Weiqing; Virtanen, Pasi; Sugano, Yasuhito; Kordas, Krisztian; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2015-10-01

    A series of substituted morpholinium ionic salts and allyl ammonium acetates were prepared. Amongst those, N-allyl-N-methylmorpholinium acetate ([AMMorp][OAc]) was found to dissolve cellulose readily without any pre-processing of native cellulose. At 120°C, [AMMorp][OAc] could dissolve 30wt%, 28wt% and 25wt% of cellulose with degree of polymerization (DPn) - 789, 1644 and 2082 respectively, in 20min. Importantly, SEC analysis indicated that no discernible changes occurred in terms of the degree of polymerization of the different celluloses after regeneration. Furthermore, when comparing the cellulose dissolution capability of these newly synthesized ionic liquids, it is evident that the combination of all three constituents - the morpholinium cation, the existence of an allyl group and choosing the acetate anion are essential for efficient cellulose dissolution. The structure and morphology of the regenerated cellulosic materials were characterized by SEM, XRD, TGA, CP/MAS (13)C NMR and FTIR, respectively. PMID:26076596

  19. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  20. Propionate exchange reactions in methanogenic ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Propionate degradation was measured with (1-/sup 14/C)- and (2-/sup 14/C)propionate in an anaerobic digestor. When (1-/sup 14/C)propionate was used, label disappeared more rapidly from the propionate pool than when (2-/sup 14/C)propionate was used. This indicated that an exchange reaction involving the carboxyl group of propionate occurred. Labeled propionate added to digestor samples which were equilibrated with H/sub 2/ lost label from the carboxyl group but not from the methylene group. 9 references 2 figures.

  1. Biodegradation of Cellulose Esters: Composting of Cellulose Ester-Diluent Mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles M. Buchanan; Debra D. Dorschel; Robert M. Gardner; Ron J. Komarek; Alan W. White

    1995-01-01

    A number of polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), Matter-Bi, cellulose acetate (CA) with different degrees of substitution (DS), and cellulose ester–diluent mixtures have been evaluated in a static, bench-scale simulated municipal compost environment. Of the polymers evaluated, cellulose acetate (DS > 2.2), poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV), and PCL exhibited the fastest composting rates, completely disappearing after 14

  2. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of sodium propionate, calcium propionate and potassium propionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?ifa Türko?lu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different treatments with food preservatives, sodium propionate (SP), calcium propionate (CP) and potassium propionate (PP), on the cytology and DNA content of Allium cepa were investigated. Five concentrations of these additives – 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000ppm – were applied for 24, 48, and 72h. All concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell

  3. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3081 Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3081 Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3221 Calcium propionate. (a) Product. Calcium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3081 Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3081 - Propionic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 582.3081 Propionic acid. (a) Product. Propionic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. Propionic Acid and Calcium Propionate in Diets for Egg-Type Layers and Broiler Chicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Oruwari

    1993-01-01

    Oruwari, B.M. 1993. Propionic acid and calcium propionate in diets for egg-type layers and broiler chicks. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 3:73–81.Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of low levels of supplemental propionic acid or calcium propionate on performance when these nutrients were included in diets for laying hens and broiler chickens. A supplementation of 1g calcium propionate\\/kg significantly

  16. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of mixtures of styrene and acrylamide onto cellulose acetate. IV. Studies on some physical properties and structural characterization by means of scanning electron microscopy. [Gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.N.; Maldas, D.

    1984-05-01

    Binary mixtures of monomers, e.g., styrene and acrylamide in 1:1 methanol:water solution, were grafted onto cellulose acetate film by taking recourse to preirradiation grafting procedure. The surface modification of the films due to grafting was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties, e.g., tensile strength elongation at break, and elasticity as well as water vapor permeability of the grafted films, were investigated. In the case of ungrafted films or when acrylamide was grafted to a low extent, the film surfaces were smooth and hence were not modified to any significant extent. But when acrylamide was grated appreciably, or when styrene was grafted singly or in binary mixture with acrylamide, the surfaces were found to be covered with fibrils. The pattern of the surface modification also changes with the increase of the extent of grafting. The observed properties of the grafted films were explained on the basis of the electron microscopic results. 18 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Mechanical behavior of a cellulose-reinforced scaffold in vascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pooyan, Parisa; Tannenbaum, Rina; Garmestani, Hamid

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds constitute an essential structural component in tissue engineering of a vascular substitute for small grafts by playing a significant role in integrating the overall tissue constructs. The microstructure and mechanical properties of such scaffolds are important parameters to promote further cellular activities and neo-tissue development. Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs), an abundant, biocompatible material, could potentially constitute an acceptable candidate in scaffolding of a tissue-engineered vessel. Inspired by the advantages of cellulose and its derivatives, we have designed a biomaterial comprising CNWs embedded in a matrix of cellulose acetate propionate to fabricate a fully bio-based scaffold. To ensure uniform distribution, CNWs were delicately extracted from a multi-stage process and dispersed in an acetone suspension prior to the composite fabrication. Comparable to carbon nanotubes or kevlar, CNWs impart significant strength and directional rigidity even at 0.2 wt% and almost double that at only 3.0 wt%. To ensure the accuracy of our experimental data and to predict the unusual reinforcing effect of CNWs in a cellulose-based composite, homogenization schemes such as the mean field approach and the percolation technique were also investigated. Based on these comparisons, the tendency of CNWs to interconnect with one another through strong hydrogen bonding confirmed the formation of a three-dimensional rigid percolating network, fact which imparted an excellent mechanical stability to the entire structure at such low filler contents. Hence, our fibrous porous microstructure with improved mechanical properties could introduce a potential scaffold to withstand the physiological pressure and to mimic the profile features of native extracellular matrix in a human vessel. We believe that our nanohybrid design not only could expand the biomedical applications of renewable cellulose-based materials but also could provide a potential scaffold candidate in tissue engineering of small diameter grafts. PMID:22340684

  18. Fluticasone propionate in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    de Kaski, M C; Peters, A M; Lavender, J P; Hodgson, H J

    1991-01-01

    Fluticasone propionate, a topically active corticosteroid of low systemic bioavailability after oral administration, has been used in a pilot study for the treatment of mild and moderately active Crohn's disease. Twelve patients received oral fluticasone propionate for three weeks, and the effects were monitored using the Crohn's disease activity index and by 111In granulocyte scanning, assessing inflammation from scan appearances, four day faecal excretion of radioactivity, and whole body excretion of radioactivity. All patients completed the trial. No serious side effects were reported. There was a significant fall in Crohn's disease activity index values over the three week treatment period (193 (84) v 122 (51), p less than 0.01). 111In leucocyte scan images were improved (seven patients) or unchanged (five patients). There was a significant fall in excretion of injected radioactivity calculated from whole body data (28 (21)% v 14 (0.7)%, p less than 0.05). There were no changes in plasma cortisol values, either basal or synacthen stimulated. Fluticasone propionate is a promising therapeutic agent for Crohn's disease that offers the possibility of controlling inflammation without inducing systemic corticosteroid side effects and which merits evaluation in a double blind trial versus conventional corticosteroids. PMID:2060874

  19. Functional cardiac cell constructs on cellulose-based scaffolding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Entcheva; Harold Bien; Lihong Yin; Chiung-Yin Chung; Melissa Farrell; Yordan Kostov

    2004-01-01

    Cellulose and its derivatives have been successfully employed as biomaterials in various applications, including dialysis membranes, diffusion-limiting membranes in biosensors, in vitro hollow fibers perfusion systems, surfaces for cell expansion, etc. In this study, we tested the potential of cellulose acetate (CA) and regenerated cellulose (RC) scaffolds for growing functional cardiac cell constructs in culture. Specifically, we demonstrate that CA

  20. Removing UV-A and UV-C radiation from UV-B fluorescent lamp emissions. Differences in the inhibition of photosynthesis in the marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta using chromate versus cellulose acetate-polyester filters.

    PubMed

    White, Andrea L; Jahnke, Leland S

    2004-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280-320 nm)-emitting lamps unavoidably emit ultraviolet-A (UV-A; 320-400 nm) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C; <280 nm) radiation. Short-wavelength-blocking filters are generally used to limit the wave bands of UV under investigation. The widespread use of such filters means that all exposures to UV-B radiation will have a significant UV-A component. Therefore, the physiological effects unique to UV-B exposure are difficult to clearly isolate. This study presents a method to remove the UV-A and UV-C "contamination" using a liquid potassium chromate (K(2)CrO(4)) filter, thus allowing more direct assessment of the effects of UV-B exposure. Cultures of the green marine alga Dunaliella tertiolecta were grown in the absence of UV radiation. Sunlamps supplied the UV radiation for a 24 h exposure (solar radiation was not used in this study). The UV radiation was filtered either by the standard method (i.e. cellulose acetate (CA) with polyester = Mylar controls) or by a liquid filter of potassium chromate. Photosynthetic responses were compared. Major decreases in the ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence in dark-adapted cells and photosynthetic capacity were observed in CA-filtered cultures, whereas no change was observed in cells exposed to the same UV-B flux with the UV-A removed by K(2)CrO(4). The use of a CA filter with a Mylar control does not link results unequivocally to UV-B radiation. Such results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:15264957

  1. Enhancing the cellulose-degrading activity of cellulolytic bacteria CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) by co-culture with non-cellulolytic bacteria W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.).

    PubMed

    Lü, Yucai; Li, Ning; Yuan, Xufeng; Hua, Binbin; Wang, Jungang; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Cui, Zongjun

    2013-12-01

    The effect of a non-cellulolytic bacterium W2-10 (Geobacillus sp.) on the cellulose-degrading activity of a cellulolytic bacterium CTL-6 (Clostridium thermocellum) was determined using cellulose materials (paper and straw) in peptone cellulose solution (PCS) medium under aerobic conditions. The results indicated that in the co-culture, addition of W2-10 resulted in a balanced medium pH, and may provide the required anaerobic environment for CTL-6. Overall, addition of W2-10 was beneficial to CTL-6 growth in the adverse environment of the PCS medium. In co-culture with W2-10, the CTL-6 cellulose degradation efficiency of filter paper and alkaline-treated wheat straw significantly increased up to 72.45 and 37.79 %, respectively. The CMCase activity and biomass of CTL-6 also increased from 0.23 U ml(-1) and 45.1 ?g ml(-1) (DNA content) up to 0.47 U ml(-1) and 112.2 ?g ml(-1), respectively. In addition, co-culture resulted in accumulation of acetate and propionate up to 4.26 and 2.76 mg ml(-1). This was a respective increase of 2.58 and 4.45 times, in comparison to the monoculture with CTL-6. PMID:23975281

  2. Characterization of the anaerobic propionate-degrading syntrophs Smithella propionica gen. nov., sp. nov. and Syntrophobacter wolinii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Balkwill, D L; Aldrich, H C; Drake, G R; Boone, D R

    1999-04-01

    A strain of anaerobic, syntrophic, propionate-oxidizing bacteria, strain LYPT (= OCM 661T; T = type strain), was isolated and proposed as representative of a new genus and new species, Smithella propionica gen. nov., sp. nov. The strain was enriched from an anaerobic digestor and isolated. Initial isolation was as a monoxenic propionate-degrading co-culture containing Methanospirillum hungateii JF-1T as an H2- and formate-using partner. Later, an axenic culture was obtained by using crotonate as the catabolic substrate. The previously described propionate-degrading syntrophs of the genus Syntrophobacter also grow in co-culture with methanogens such as Methanospirillum hungateii, forming acetate, CO2 and methane from propionate. However, Smithella propionica differs by producing less methane and more acetate; in addition, it forms small amounts of butyrate. Smithella propionica and Syntrophobacter wolinii grew within similar ranges of pH, temperature and salinity, but they differed significantly in substrate ranges and catabolic products. Unlike Syntrophobacter wolinii, Smithella propionica grew axenically on crotonate, although very slowly. Co-cultures of Smithella propionica grew on propionate, and grew slowly on crotonate or butyrate. Syntrophobacter wolinii and Syntrophobacter pfennigii grow on propionate plus sulfate, whereas Smithella propionica did not. Comparisons of 16S rDNA genes indicated that Smithella propionica is most closely related to Syntrophus, and is more distantly related to Syntrophobacter. PMID:10319475

  3. Preparation of cellulose nanofibers with hydrophobic surface characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehdi Jonoobi; Jalaluddin Harun; Aji P. Mathew; Mohd Zobir B. Hussein; Kristiina Oksman

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop cellulose nanofibers with hydrophobic surface characteristics using chemical modification.\\u000a Kenaf fibers were modified using acetic anhydride and cellulose nanofibers were isolated from the acetylated kenaf using mechanical\\u000a isolation methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated acetylation of the hydroxyl groups of cellulose.\\u000a The study of the dispersion demonstrated that acetylated cellulose nanofibers

  4. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8657 - Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8657 Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate complexes...The chemical substance identified as Cerium, hydroxy oleate propionate...

  9. Cellulose Digestion and Metabolism Induced Biocatalytic Transitions in Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Yamazawa, Akira; Iikura, Tomohiro; Morioka, Yusuke; Shino, Amiu; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of highly polymerized biomass by microbial communities present in diverse microbial ecosystems is an indispensable metabolic process for biogeochemical cycling in nature and for industrial activities required to maintain a sustainable society. Therefore, the evaluation of the complicated microbial metabolomics presents a significant challenge. We here describe a comprehensive strategy for characterizing the degradation of highly crystallized bacterial cellulose (BC) that is accompanied by metabolite production for identifying the responsible biocatalysts, including microorganisms and their metabolic functions. To this end, we employed two-dimensional solid- and one-dimensional solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profiling combined with a metagenomic approach using stable isotope labeling. The key components of biocatalytic reactions determined using a metagenomic approach were correlated with cellulose degradation and metabolic products. The results indicate that BC degradation was mediated by cellulases that contain carbohydrate-binding modules and that belong to structural type A. The degradation reactions induced the metabolic dynamics of the microbial community and produced organic compounds, such as acetic acid and propionic acid, mainly metabolized by clostridial species. This combinatorial, functional and structural metagenomic approach is useful for the comprehensive characterization of biomass degradation, metabolic dynamics and their key components in diverse ecosystems. PMID:24958386

  10. Propionate-Degrading Bacterium, Syntrophobacter wolinii sp. nov. gen. nov., from Methanogenic Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Boone, D R; Bryant, M P

    1980-09-01

    A new genus and species of a nonmotile gram-negative rod, Syntrophobacter wolinii, is the first bacterium described which degrades propionate only in coculture with an H(2)-using organism and in the absence of light or exogenous electron acceptors such as O(2), sulfate, or nitrate. It was isolated from methanogenic enrichments from an anaerobic municipal sewage digestor, using anaerobic roll tubes containing a medium with propionate as the energy source in association with an H(2)-using, sulfate-reducing Desulfovibrio sp. which cannot utilize fatty acids other than formate. S. wolinii produced acetate and, presumably, CO(2) and H(2) (or formate) from propionate. In media without sulfate and with Methanospirillum hungatei, a methanogen that uses only H(2)-CO(2) or formate as an energy source, acetate, methane, and, presumably, CO(2) were produced from propionate and only small amounts of Desulfovibrio sp. were present. Isolation in coculture with the methanogen was not successful. S. wolinii does not use other saturated fatty acids as energy sources. PMID:16345640

  11. Cellulosic biofuels.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Andrew; Somerville, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The development of sustainable, low-carbon, liquid fuels from cellulosic biomass will require advances in many areas of science and engineering. This review describes the major topics of enquiry concerning cellulosic biofuels with an emphasis on those areas of research and development that include research problems of interest to plant biologists. PMID:19014348

  12. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414643

  13. The feeding value of water and acetic acid reconstituted sorghum grain for lactating dairy cows 

    E-print Network

    Bade, David Heinie

    1972-01-01

    (both molar percent and concentrat1on); not in an increase in ruminal propionic acid. This study ind1cates that the addition of 1. 5, 2. 0 and 2. 5X acetic acid to reconstituted grain results in a rumi nal acetic:propi oni c acid ratio similar... in total volatile fatty acid production from reconstitution have been reported in vitro (12) and 1n vivo (12, 31, 34). A more narrow acetic:propionic acid ratio was reported by Helm (12) in vitro and in vi vo from reconstituted sorghum gra1n compared...

  14. Eslicarbazepine acetate.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L; Robinson, Dean M

    2009-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate, a prodrug of eslicarbazepine (S-licarbazepine), is a novel, voltage-gated sodium channel antagonist under development for the adjunctive treatment of adult patients experiencing treatment-refractory partial-onset seizures. * In phase III trials, eslicarbazepine acetate 800 and 1200 mg once daily significantly reduced seizure frequency compared with placebo over 12 weeks of maintenance treatment in adults experiencing partial-onset seizures who were taking 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs. * During long-term, open-label treatment for up to 1 year, eslicarbazepine acetate at a median dosage of 800 mg once daily produced sustained reductions from baseline in seizure frequency. * Long-term treatment with eslicarbazepine acetate significantly improved from baseline health-related quality of life as assessed by the Quality-of-Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 instrument. Similarly, eslicarbazepine acetate significantly reduced depressive symptoms assessed by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. * Eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in clinical trials. The majority of treatment-emergent adverse events were of mild to moderate severity and most occurred early in treatment. PMID:19062776

  15. Biodegradability of PMMA Blends with Some Cellulose Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Krishna Bhat; M. Selva Kumar

    2006-01-01

    High polymer blends of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with cellulose acetate (CA) and Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) of varying blend compositions have been prepared to study their biodegradation behavior and blend miscibility. Films of PMMA–CA, and PMMA–CAP blends have been prepared by solution casting using Acetone and Dimethyl formamide(DMF) as solvents respectively. Biodegradability of these blends has been studied by four

  16. Iodine-Catalyzed Synthesis of Mixed Cellulose Esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel method for the preparation of cellulose mixed acetate is described herein, involving the concurrent use of iodine and mixed anhydride. The method is simple, rapid, efficient, and solvent-less. With this method, cellulose mixed esters has been synthesized. ...

  17. Esterification of cellulose with acyl-1 H -benzotriazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matilde C. V. Nagel; Thomas Heinze

    2010-01-01

    For the first time, the acylation of cellulose was realized by activation of carboxylic acid with 1H-benzotriazole. The reaction could be carried out under mild conditions. The acyl-1H-benzotriazole reacts with cellulose leading to cellulose acetate, butyrate, caproate, benzoate, myristate, and stearate with\\u000a DS values between 1.07 and 1.89. The reaction proceeds completely homogeneously in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)\\/TBAF × 3H2O (tetrabutylammonium fluoride trihydrate)

  18. Fermentation of cellulose and fatty acids with enrichments from sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef U. Winter; Charles L. Cooney

    1980-01-01

    A mixed culture enriched from sewage sludge and anaerobic digestor effluent was able to degrade cellulose and acetate rapidly and quantitatively to methane and carbon dioxide. The maximum specific rate of gas production was 87 ml\\/gm cell-h, corresponding to a rate of cellulose utilization of 0.1 g\\/g cells-h. Acetate, an intermediate in cellulose degradation, was fermented much more rapidly than

  19. Enhancement of propionic acid fraction in volatile fatty acids produced from sludge fermentation by the use of food waste and Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinguang; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Xiong; Wang, Dongbo

    2013-02-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) can be used as the additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR), and the increase of propionic acid percentage in VFA has been reported to facilitate the performance of BNR. In this study a new method for significantly improving the propionic acid fraction in VFA derived from waste activated sludge was reported, which included (1) mixing food waste with sludge and pre-fermenting the mixture (first stage), and (2) separating the mixture, sterilizing the pre-fermentation liquid and fermenting it after inoculating Propionibacterium acidipropionici (second stage). By optimizing the first stage with response surface methodology, a propionic acid content of 68.4% with propionic acid concentration of 7.13 g COD/L could be reached in the second stage, which was much higher than that reported previously. Lactic acid was found to be the most abundant product of the first stage and it served as the substrate for propionic acid production in the second stage. Further investigation showed that during the first stage the addition of food waste to the pre-fermentation system of sludge significantly increased the generation of lactic acid due to the synergistic effect, which resulted in the improvement of propionic acid production in the second stage. Finally, the use of propionic acid-enriched VFA as a superior carbon source of BNR was tested, and its performance was observed to be much better than using acetic acid-enriched VFA derived from sludge by the previously documented method. PMID:23219005

  20. Electrical conductivity and stimulated thermocurrent studies of the dicalcium strontium propionate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhusudan, V.; Sathyanarayan, S. G.; Sivarama Sastry, G.

    1982-11-01

    Electrical conductivity and stimulated thermocurrent studies of dicalcium strontium propionate (DSP) in pure, Fe 3+ and acetate-doped single crystals have been performed in the temperature range 303-503 K. Conductivity measurements of pure and doped crystals indicate that propionate anions are responsible for the transition occurring at 400 K. Thermoelectric power measurements in the range 340-500 K of DSP (pure indicate that the transport charge carriers are electrons. A model for the conduction mechanism is proposed on the basis of ? or resonating electrons of the carboxyl groups moving via tunnelling involving metal ions (Sr 2+ and Ca 2+). From activation energies estimated from conductivity and STC measurements the STC peak in DSP (Fe 3+) occurring at 511 K is attributed to an impurity-vacancy jump mechanism.

  1. Solution crystal growth of dicalcium strontium propionate and dicalcium lead propionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacco, J. C.; Kostecky, G.; Loiacono, G. M.

    1981-03-01

    Large, high optical quality single crystals of Ca 2Sr(C 2H 5CO 2) 6 and Ca 2Pb(C 2H 5CO 2) 6 have been grown from aqueou s solution. The solubility curves (25-45°C) of these compounds in a water-propionic acid solvent system have been determined and both exhibit retrograde solubility. The relative supersaturation required for the initial growth of dicalcium strontium propionate has been found to be about one order of magnitude larger than that of dicalcium lead propionate.

  2. Synthesis of cellulose methylcarbonate in ionic liquids using dimethylcarbonate.

    PubMed

    Labafzadeh, Sara R; Helminen, K Juhani; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; King, Alistair W T

    2015-01-01

    Dialkylcarbonates are viewed as low-cost, low-toxicity reagents, finding application in many areas of green chemistry. Homogeneous alkoxycarbonylation of cellulose was accomplished by applying dialkycarbonates (dimethyl and diethyl carbonate) in the ionic liquid-electrolyte trioctylphosphonium acetate ([P8881 ][OAc])/DMSO or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim][OAc]). Cellulose dialkylcarbonates with a moderate degree of substitution (DS?1) are accessible via this procedure and cellulose methylcarbonate was thoroughly characterized for its chemical and physical properties after regeneration. This included HSQC & HMBC?NMR, ATR-IR, molecular weight distribution, morphology, thermal properties, and barrier properties after film formation. PMID:25378289

  3. Determination of rate constants for the reactions of H, OH and eaq with indole-3-acetic acid and other plant hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Shetiya; K. N. Rao; J. Shankar

    1972-01-01

    In the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of indole, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-propionic acid, 1-naphthylacetic acid and phenylacetic acid, the absolute rate constants of their reactions with H and OH have been determined by competition kinetics using 2-propanol as the competitor. Hydrated electron reaction rate constants have been determined for indoie, indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-propionic acid at pH = 11 using the

  4. Induction of tissue transglutaminase expression by propionate and n-butyrate in colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K

    1999-07-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been demonstrated to induce differentiation and/or apoptosis in colon cancer cells. A close correlation between tissue transglutaminase (tTG) expression and differentiation and/or apoptosis has been suggested in many cell lineages. However, the effects of SCFAs on tTG expression in colon cancer cells have not yet been reported. In this report, the relationship between cytosolic tTG levels and differentiation state was investigated in six human colon cancer cell lines. Effects of four kinds of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, and isobutyrate) on the expression of tTG then were investigated in association with their effects on apoptosis induction. High expression of tTG protein and mRNA were found in SW480 and WiDr cell lines, which exhibited well differentiated phenotypes. tTG expression was hardly detectable in the less differentiated cell lines COLO201, COLO320DM, and CW-2. However, n-butyrate and propionate significantly increased cytosolic tTG levels at concentrations above 0.5 mM in these less differentiated colon cancer cells. n-Butyrate and propionate induced growth suppression and apoptosis in these cell lines at concentrations that can induce tTG expression. Acetate and isobutyrate did not induce tTG expression or growth suppression at concentrations up to 8 mM. In conclusion, tTG induction by propionate and n-butyrate was suggested to be closely linked to their differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing effects in colon cancer cells. These findings may explain the mechanisms by which dietary fiber show preventive effects against colon carcinogenesis. PMID:15539315

  5. Reductive carboxylation of propionate to butyrate in methanogenic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Tholozan, J L; Samain, E; Grivet, J P; Moletta, R; Dubourguier, H C; Albagnac, G

    1988-02-01

    During the batch degradation of sodium propionate by the anaerobic sludge from an industrial digestor, we observed a significant amount of butyrate formation. Varying the initial propionate concentrations did not alter the ratio of maximal butyrate accumulation to initial propionate concentration within a large range. By measuring the decrease in the radioactivity of [1-C]butyrate during propionate degradation, we estimated that about 20% of the propionate was converted to butyrate. Labeled butyrate was formed from [1-C]propionate with the same specific radioactivity, suggesting a possible direct pathway from propionate to butyrate. We confirmed this hypothesis by nuclear magnetic resonance studies with [C]propionate. The results showed that [1-C]-, [2-C]-, and [3-C]propionate were converted to [2-C]-, [3-C]-, and [4-C]butyrate, respectively, demonstrating the direct carboxylation on the carboxyl group of propionate without randomization of the other two carbons. In addition, we observed an exchange reaction between C-2 and C-3 of the propionate, indicating that acetogensis may proceed through a randomizing pathway. The physiological significance and importance of various metabolic pathways involved in propionate degradation are discussed, and an unusual pathway of butyrate synthesis is proposed. PMID:16347557

  6. Propionic Acid, Sodium Propionate and Calcium Propionate as Inhibitors of Mold Growth. II. Studies Pertaining to the Active Agent Responsible for the Inhibitory Effect of the Propionates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Olson Jr.; H. Macy

    1946-01-01

    Recent studies (4, 9, 11) have shown that aqueous solutions of sodium or calcium propionate, when used in treating parchment paper for wrapping prints of butter, were effective in restraining the growth of mold on the butter surface. Investigators in several branches of biology have been interested in the action of organic acids and their ~alts on microorganisms and many.

  7. Propionicicella superfundia gen. nov., sp. nov., a chlorosolvent-tolerant propionate-forming, facultative anaerobic bacterium isolated from contaminated groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee-Sung Bae; William M. Moe; Jun Yan; Igor Tiago; Milton S. da Costa; Fred A. Rainey

    2006-01-01

    A novel strain, designated as BL-10T, was characterized using a polyphasic approach after isolation from groundwater contaminated by a mixture of chlorosolvents that included 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and vinyl chloride. Stain BL-10T is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium able to ferment glucose to form propionate, acetate, formate, lactate, and succinate. Fermentation occurred in the presence of 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,1,2-trichloroethane at concentrations to

  8. Electrospun nanofibrous cellulose scaffolds with controlled microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Katia; Sundberg, Johan; Gatenholm, Paul; Renneckar, Scott

    2014-01-16

    Introducing porosity in electrospun scaffolds is critical to improve cell penetration and nutrient diffusion for tissue engineering. Nanofibrous cellulose scaffolds were prepared by electrospinning cellulose acetate (CA) followed by saponification to regenerate cellulose. Using a computer-assisted design approach, scaffolds underwent laser ablation resulting in pores with diameters between 50 and 300 ?m without damaging or modifying the surrounding scaffold area. A new mineralization method was employed in conjunction with microablation using commercial phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to soak carboxymethylcellulose surface-modified electrospun scaffolds. The resulting crystals within the scaffold on the interior of the pore had a calcium to phosphate ratio of 1.56, similar to hydroxyapatite. It was observed that porosity of the cellulose scaffolds enhanced osteoblast cell attachment at the edge of the pores, while mineralization enhanced overall cell density. PMID:24188848

  9. Bacterial production of short-chain organic acids and trehalose from levulinic acid: a potential cellulose-derived building block as a feedstock for microbial production.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-02-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) is a platform chemical derived from cellulosic biomass, and the expansion of LA utilization as a feedstock is important for production of a wide variety of chemicals. To investigate the potential of LA as a substrate for microbial conversion to chemicals, we isolated and identified LA-utilizing bacteria. Among the six isolated strains, Pseudomonas sp. LA18T and Rhodococcus hoagie LA6W degraded up to 70 g/L LA in a high-cell-density system. The maximal accumulation of acetic acid by strain LA18T and propionic acid by strain LA6W was 13.6 g/L and 9.1 g/L, respectively, after a 4-day incubation. Another isolate, Burkholderia stabilis LA20W, produced trehalose extracellularly in the presence of 40 g/L LA to approximately 2 g/L. These abilities to produce useful compounds supported the potential of microbial LA conversion for future development and cellulosic biomass utilization. PMID:25479689

  10. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Kinetics of sulfate reduction and sulfide toxicity in anaerobic systems fed propionate

    SciTech Connect

    Maillacheruvu, K.Y.

    1993-01-01

    Kinetics of substrate utilization for different groups of bacteria in an anaerobic system fed propionate (HPr) and sulfate (SO[sub 4]) were determined using batch experiments. Six major COD flow pathways were identified based on thermodynamics: incomplete oxidation of propionate by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), propionate fermentation to acetate (HAc) and hydrogen (H[sub 2]), HAc utilization by SRB, aceticlastic methanogenesis, H[sub 2] utilization by SRB, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Yield coefficients (mg VSS/mg COD) were determined to be 0.032, 0.042, 0.024, 0.039, 0.042 and 0.050, respectively. Specific substrate utilization rates (mg COD/mg VSS-day) were found to be 3.3, 3.5, 4.6, 3.6, 4.4 and 3.7, respectively. The half saturation constant, K[sub s], was found to be 41, 27, 50 and 29 (mg COD/L), respectively, for the acid-utilizing bacteria, and 16 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] atm and 1.9 [times] 10[sup [minus]4] atm for hydrogen utilizing SRB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, respectively. Kinetics of sulfate reduction and toxicity due to dissolved sulfide (DS) and hydrogen sulfide (H[sub 2]S) were studied using serum bottles. Uncompetitive inhibition appeared to best describe the inhibition due to sulfide. Values of inhibition coefficients (K[sub i] in mg S/L) for DS for the six groups listed above were: 681, 53, 35, 222, 422 and 1430, respectively. Acetate-utilizing SRB and propionate fermenters were found to be the most sensitive to sulfide toxicity. A model was developed for a completely mixed reactor (CSTR) and kinetic parameters determined in this research were used to compare against results from chemostat studies. Under stressed conditions, propionate oxidation by SRB and aceticlastic methanogenesis were the major pathways of COD utilization. Upflow anaerobic filters fed HPr and SO[sub 4], and HAc and SO[sub 4] were also used in this research to compare attached-growth and complete-mix systems.

  12. Preparation of regenerated cellulose fiber via carbonation. I. Carbonation and dissolution in an aqueous NaOH solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Youn Oh; Dong Il Yoo; Younsook Shin; Wha Seop Lee; Seong Mu Jo

    2002-01-01

    Cellulose carbonate was prepared by the reaction of cellulose pulp and CO2 with treatment reagents, such as aqueous ZnCl2 (20–40 wt%) solution, acetone or ethyl acetate, at ?5–0°C and 30–40 bar (CO2) for 2 hr. Among the treatment reagents, ethyl acetate was the most effective. Cellulose carbonate was dissolved in 10% sodium\\u000a hydroxide solution containing zinc oxide up to 3

  13. Engineering Escherichia coli for high-level production of propionate.

    PubMed

    Akawi, Lamees; Srirangan, Kajan; Liu, Xuejia; Moo-Young, Murray; Perry Chou, C

    2015-07-01

    Mounting environmental concerns associated with the use of petroleum-based chemical manufacturing practices has generated significant interest in the development of biological alternatives for the production of propionate. However, biological platforms for propionate production have been limited to strict anaerobes, such as Propionibacteria and select Clostridia. In this work, we demonstrated high-level heterologous production of propionate under microaerobic conditions in engineered Escherichia coli. Activation of the native Sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon not only transformed E. coli to be propionogenic (i.e., propionate-producing) but also introduced an intracellular "flux competition" between the traditional C2-fermentative pathway and the novel C3-fermentative pathway. Dissimilation of the major carbon source of glycerol was identified to critically affect such "flux competition" and, therefore, propionate synthesis. As a result, the propionogenic E. coli was further engineered by inactivation or overexpression of various genes involved in the glycerol dissimilation pathways and their individual genetic effects on propionate production were investigated. Generally, knocking out genes involved in glycerol dissimilation (except glpA) can minimize levels of solventogenesis and shift more dissimilated carbon flux toward the C3-fermentative pathway. For optimal propionate production with high C3:C2-fermentative product ratios, glycerol dissimilation should be channeled through the respiratory pathway and, upon suppressed solventogenesis with minimal production of highly reduced alcohols, the alternative NADH-consuming route associated with propionate synthesis can be critical for more flexible redox balancing. With the implementation of various biochemical and genetic strategies, high propionate titers of more than 11 g/L with high yields up to 0.4 g-propionate/g-glycerol (accounting for ~50 % of dissimilated glycerol) were achieved, demonstrating the potential for industrial application. To our knowledge, this represents the most effective engineered microbial system for propionate production with titers and yields comparable to those achieved by anaerobic batch cultivation of various native propionate-producing strains of Propionibacteria. PMID:25948049

  14. Alpacas fed calcium propionate seem to moderate their energy intake.

    PubMed

    Lund, K E; Milton, J T B; Maloney, S K; Blache, D

    2014-12-01

    Alpacas have evolved digestive and metabolic adaptations that enable them to survive in environments where the available feed varies in nutritional quality. Alpacas are thought to derive glucose from the deamination of amino acids in the liver, rather than via the conversion of propionate like true ruminants. Because fibre growth is dependent on the availability of absorbed amino acids, alpacas using amino acids as a source of energy should leave less amino acids available for fibre growth. If alpacas were to obtain glucose from a source of propionate, such as calcium propionate, the dependence on amino acids would be reduced leaving more available for fibre growth. Calcium propionate was added to the ration fed to 32 alpaca wethers, and fibre production was measured to monitor important fibre attributes in response to calcium propionate. Although the diets supplemented with calcium propionate should have provided more energy than the diets without calcium propionate, the metabolisable energy intake of all animals was similar (p = 0.278). It seems that rather than sparing amino acids, the alpacas regulated their energy intake and refused to consume the additional energy offered as calcium propionate. Consequently, they produced less fibre, and the diameter of their fibre was smaller than those alpacas that were not fed calcium propionate. It seems that alpacas rely on their digestive and metabolic adaptations to efficiently obtain and conserve energy for their survival. PMID:24621322

  15. Acetylation of cellulose in LiCl- N,N -dimethylacetamide: first report on the correlation between the reaction efficiency and the aggregation number of dissolved cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludmila A. Ramos; Daniella L. Morgado; Omar A. El Seoud; Valdinéia C. da Silva; Elisabete Frollini

    2011-01-01

    The acylation of three cellulose samples by acetic anhydride, Ac2O, in the solvent system LiCl\\/N,N-dimethylacetamide, DMAc (4 h, 110 °C), has been revisited in order to investigate the dependence of the reaction efficiency\\u000a on the structural characteristics of cellulose, and its aggregation in solution. The cellulose samples employed included microcrystalline,\\u000a MCC; mercerized cotton linters, M-cotton, and mercerized sisal, M-sisal. The reaction efficiency

  16. ESR of Copper Doped Calcium Propionate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Kripal; Sanjay Misra

    2001-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) of Cu2+ doped calcium propionate has been studied at room temperature. Spin Hamiltonian parameters are calculated from the ESR absorption spectra which are gx=2.1285±0.002, gy=2.1868±0.002, gz=2.2205±0.002, Ax=(121±2)×10-4 cm-1, Ay=(140±2)×10-4 cm-1 and Az=(142±2)×10-4 cm-1. It is found that Cu2+ enters the lattice interstitially. The ESR results indicate that the copper complex possesses rhombic symmetry. The ground state

  17. Fragrance material review on ?-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ?-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. ?-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ?-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406576

  18. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22387848

  19. Cellulose- and Xylan-Degrading Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria from Biocompost ? †

    PubMed Central

    Sizova, M. V.; Izquierdo, J. A.; Panikov, N. S.; Lynd, L. R.

    2011-01-01

    Nine thermophilic cellulolytic clostridial isolates and four other noncellulolytic bacterial isolates were isolated from self-heated biocompost via preliminary enrichment culture on microcrystalline cellulose. All cellulolytic isolates grew vigorously on cellulose, with the formation of either ethanol and acetate or acetate and formate as principal fermentation products as well as lactate and glycerol as minor products. In addition, two out of nine cellulolytic strains were able to utilize xylan and pretreated wood with roughly the same efficiency as for cellulose. The major products of xylan fermentation were acetate and formate, with minor contributions of lactate and ethanol. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GH48) gene sequences revealed that two xylan-utilizing isolates were related to a Clostridium clariflavum strain and represent a distinct novel branch within the GH48 family. Both isolates possessed high cellulase and xylanase activity induced independently by either cellulose or xylan. Enzymatic activity decayed after growth cessation, with more-rapid disappearance of cellulase activity than of xylanase activity. A mixture of xylan and cellulose was utilized simultaneously, with a significant synergistic effect observed as a reduction of lag phase in cellulose degradation. PMID:21317267

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of low substituted carboxymethyl cellulose 

    E-print Network

    Chanona Dominquez, Guadalupe

    1984-01-01

    by liquid chromatography. Some of the hydrolyzates were subjected to fermentation by Saccharomyces spp. , and ethanol yields were determined by gas chromatography. Subjecting acetate grade cellulose pulp to mild carboxymethyl derivatization conditions.... . for their suggestions and help in the liquid chromatography experiments. All Agriculture Engineering and Forest Science Laboratory faculty at Texas AgrM University for their encouragement and personal friendship. Special thanks are extended to Janet Scott...

  1. Synthesis of cellulose triacetate from cotton cellulose by using NIS as a catalyst under mild reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    El Nemr, Ahmed; Ragab, Safaa; El Sikaily, Amany; Khaled, Azza

    2015-10-01

    This research discusses the acetylation of cotton cellulose with acetic anhydride without solvents. The acetylation was done in the presence of different amounts of N-Iodosuccinimide (NIS) as a catalyst; this took place under mild reaction conditions. The extent of acetylation was measured by the weight percent gain (WPG) that varied from 24.71 to 71.83%. Cotton cellulose acetates, with the degree of substitution (DS) that ranged from 0.89 to 2.84, were prepared in one step. The cellulose triacetate, with a degree of substitution (DS) 2.84, was obtained. The WPG and DS were easily controlled by changing the reaction duration (1-5h), and the concentration of the catalyst (0.05g, 0.075g and 0.10g for 1g of cellulose) in 25ml of acetic anhydride. NIS was recognized as a novel and more successful catalyst for the acetylation of hydroxyl groups in cotton cellulose. Formation of the acetates and the calculation of the degree of substitution were performed by FT-IR, Raman, and (1)H NMR. PMID:26076599

  2. Original article The effect of supplemental propionate on insulin

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article The effect of supplemental propionate on insulin responsiveness to glucose and tissue responsiveness to insulin in relation to feeding in sheep Hiroaki Sano Yoshiaki Terashima* Faculty of feeding to investigate the effect of dietary propionate supplementation on insulin respon- siveness

  3. n-Propanol conversion to propionic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juraj Švitel; Ernest Šturdík

    1995-01-01

    n-Propanol was converted to propionic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans CCM 1783 (ATCC 621). Gluconobacter oxydans cannot grow on propanol as a sole carbon source, but is able to convert it to propionic acid. Glycerol was used as an assimilatable cosubstrate. For the purposes of optimizing the conditions for conversion, various influences were examined by oxygen consumption evaluation: the influence of

  4. CCMR: Cellulose Fiber Spinning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carranco, Kristen

    2004-08-17

    The environmentally friendly production of cellulose fibers is the ultimate goal of this project, other factors need to be researched before they can be made, including the effects of different coagulants and molecular weight celluloses on cellulose recrystallization. With this, this project focused on studying the effects of 2 coagulants, methanol and ethanol, as well as the effects of a lower molecular weight and a higher molecular weight cellulose, Cellulose CC41 and Weyerhauser Flint River Lyocell August Trial wood pulp respectively, on cellulose recrystallization.

  5. Labile products of interaction of cellulose with nitrogen oxide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gert, Evgenii V.

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the conditions and kinetics of the formation, the methods for identification and isolation, the chemical and physical properties, and the crystal structure of cellulose trinitrite are presented. The conditions governing the formation of Knecht' sorption compound and other unstable crystalline products in the cellulose-N2O4 system are also discussed. The primary role of labile derivatives in the manifestation of polymorphism by cellulose on its regeneration from these compounds is demonstrated. The causes of the amorphisation of cellulose, which may occur in these systems, are examined. Examples of a rational combination of several functions of the reaction medium and of the labile nitrogen-containing compound present in it in the preparation of other materials of practical importance from polysaccharides (sulfate and acetate esters and structurally and chemically modified powdered forms of cellulose) are presented. The bibliography includes 160 references.

  6. The hygroscopic power of amorphous cellulose: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Mazeau, Karim

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between cellulose and water was studied by building dense amorphous cellulose models and subjecting them to increasing moisture contents. When starting from completely dry cellulose, the first diffused water molecules were essentially individualized and hydrogen bonded exclusively to the O6 and O2 hydroxyl groups of cellulose. Upon continued hydration increase, the hydroxyl at O3 and then the acetal oxygens of cellulose also started to attract the upcoming water molecules, which were no longer isolated. They progressively became aggregated, first into clusters and then at high hydration content, into continuous capillary channels. A benefit of this study was to allow predicting a number of physical parameters of amorphous cellulose and their variation under hydration. With some parameters, the calculated values matched rather well the experimental literature determinations. This was the case for the hydration dependence of Tg, the stereoselectivity of the cellulose oxygen atoms for water molecules, together with the diffusion coefficients of water into cellulose. An estimate of the hygro-expansion of amorphous cellulose was provided. PMID:25498674

  7. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  8. Stabilizing effect of acetate salts and HCO-3 in digestors receiving high levels of glucose.

    PubMed

    Robbins, J E; Armold, M T; Weiel, J E; Runquist, E A

    1983-10-01

    Anaerobic digestors were fed daily with dairy cattle manure (5% total solids) augmented with 0-20 mM glucose and were monitored daily for gas volume and composition and volatile acid content. Propionate accumulated in digestors that were fed glucose at initial digestor concentrations of 10 mM or more. Digestors that received 14-20 mM glucose failed, but identical digestors that received 20 mM glucose plus 10 mM acetate or HCO-3 did not fail. The sparing effect of HCO-3 was primarily buffering and the similar behavior of digestors that received acetate suggest that acetate metabolism perhaps provided additional HCO-3 for buffering. Analyses of H2 and volatile acid concentrations during a 6-8-h period following feeding in digestors fed glucose or glucose plus acetate showed that propionate and H2 accumulated simultaneously and that H2 concentrations were 3 microM or less. Monitoring 13C-labeled glucose metabolism via 13C nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that glucose was primarily converted to lactate and that the major product from lactate was propionate in both glucose and glucose plus acetate fermentations. PMID:6661702

  9. ESR of Copper Doped Calcium Propionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kripal, Ram; Misra, Sanjay

    2001-07-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) of Cu2+ doped calcium propionate has been studied at room temperature. Spin Hamiltonian parameters are calculated from the ESR absorption spectra which are gx=2.1285±0.002, gy=2.1868±0.002, gz=2.2205±0.002, Ax=(121±2)×10-4 cm-1, Ay=(140±2)×10-4 cm-1 and Az=(142±2)×10-4 cm-1. It is found that Cu2+ enters the lattice interstitially. The ESR results indicate that the copper complex possesses rhombic symmetry. The ground state wave function of Cu2+ ion in this lattice is also determined from the spin-Hamiltonian constants obtained from ESR results. It is found that the ground state is predominantly |x2-y2>.

  10. Room Temperature Phosphorescence Characteristics of Indole3Propionic Acid, DL-Indole3Lactic Acid, and Indole3Glycolic Acid on Low-Background Paper Substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Deribamar; A. D. Campiglia

    1995-01-01

    Room temperature phosphorescence characteristics of indole-3-propionic acid, DL-indole-3-lactic acid, and indole-3-glycolic acid were studied on a low-background paper substrate. The influence of potassium iodide, thallium (I) nitrate, silver (I) nitrate, and lead (II) acetate on the intensities of the analyte signals was evaluated. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate and pH conditions were studied as well. The analytical figures of

  11. Oral fluticasone propionate in active distal ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Angus, P; Snook, J A; Reid, M; Jewell, D P

    1992-01-01

    Fluticasone propionate is a new corticosteroid with low systemic bioavailability. This study reports the outcome of a double blind clinical trial comparing oral fluticasone propionate (5 mg four times daily) with placebo for the treatment of active distal ulcerative colitis. Sixty patients were treated for four weeks, with assessments at two and four weeks. One patient was withdrawn when she was found to have amoebiasis. Thus, results are presented for 29 patients who received placebo and 30 who received fluticasone propionate. The two groups were well matched for age, sex, length of history, and extent of disease. After four weeks of therapy the clinical, sigmoidoscopic, and histological responses were similar in the two groups. It is concluded that fluticasone propionate (5 mg four times daily) is not effective treatment for active distal ulcerative colitis. PMID:1612492

  12. Propionate induces the release of granules from bovine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Carretta, M D; Conejeros, I; Hidalgo, M A; Burgos, R A

    2013-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced by bacterial fermentation in the rumen of cattle and are the primary energy source in ruminants. Propionate is one of the main SCFA and it can exert multiple effects on the inflammatory process and neutrophil function via calcium (Ca(2+)) release, reactive oxygen species, and intracellular pH changes. However, currently no evidence has shown whether propionate can induce granule release from bovine neutrophils. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of propionate on granule release and to evaluate the expression of two G-protein coupled receptors-GPR41 and GPR43-that are activated by propionate. Neutrophil degranulation was assessed by quantifying the release of the neutrophil enzymes myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactoferrin, and matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) as markers of azurophil, specific granules, and gelatinase granules, respectively. Isolated bovine neutrophils were treated with millimolar concentrations of propionate (0.3, 3 and 30mM), and the cell-free supernatants were recovered. The stimulation of neutrophils with 0.3mM propionate induced the release of lactoferrin and MMP-9 as revealed by ELISA and gelatin zymography, respectively. Propionate at 30mM induced the release of MPO as demonstrated using an enzymatic assay. The role of intracellular Ca(2+) influx and the signaling pathways that may regulate the propionate effect on granules release were also determined. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and real-time PCR were performed to analyze the expression of GPR41 and GPR43 mRNA in bovine neutrophils. Both mRNA were detected, whereas the expression of GPR43 was higher than that of GPR41, and the synthetic agonists for this receptor, phenylacetamides 1 and 2, caused an increase in intracellular Ca(2+), lactoferrin, and MMP-9 release. These results support that propionate-induced granule release is mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) influx and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK 1/2. We also propose a potential role of GPR43 in propionate-induced granule release from bovine neutrophils that may be involved in regulatory effects of propionate in the innate immune response in cattle. PMID:23403200

  13. Pea Xyloglucan and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Marsden, Margery P. F.; Delmer, Deborah P.

    1987-01-01

    Since xyloglucan is believed to bind to cellulose microfibrils in the primary cell walls of higher plants and, when isolated from the walls, can also bind to cellulose in vitro, the binding mechanism of xyloglucan to cellulose was further investigated using radioiodinated pea xyloglucan. A time course for the binding showed that the radioiodinated xyloglucan continued to be bound for at least 4 hours at 40°C. Binding was inhibited above pH 6. Binding capacity was shown to vary for celluloses of different origin and was directly related to the relative surface area of the microfibrils. The binding of xyloglucan to cellulose was very specific and was not affected by the presence of a 10-fold excess of (1?2)-?-glucan, (1?3)-?-glucan, (1?6)-?-glucan, (1?3, 1?4)-?-glucan, arabinogalactan, or pectin. When xyloglucan (0.1%) was added to a cellulose-forming culture of Acetobacter xylinum, cellulose ribbon structure was partially disrupted indicating an association of xyloglucan with cellulose at the time of synthesis. Such a result suggests that the small size of primary wall microfibrils in higher plants may well be due to the binding of xyloglucan to cellulose during synthesis which prevents fasciation of small fibrils into larger bundles. Fluorescent xyloglucan was used to stain pea cell wall ghosts prepared to contain only the native xyloglucan:cellulose network or only cellulose. Ghosts containing only cellulose showed strong fluorescence when prepared before or after elongation; as predicted, the presence of native xyloglucan in the ghosts repressed binding of added fluorescent xyloglucan. Such ghosts, prepared after elongation when the ratio of native xyloglucan:cellulose is substantially reduced, still showed only faint fluorescence, indicating that microfibrils continue to be coated with xyloglucan throughout the growth period. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665254

  14. Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

  15. Np(v) complexation with propionate in 0.5-4 M NaCl solutions at 20-85 °C.

    PubMed

    Vasiliev, Aleksandr N; Banik, Nidhu L; Marsac, Rémi; Froehlich, Daniel R; Rothe, Jörg; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Marquardt, Christian M

    2015-02-28

    Low molecular weight organics (LMWO; e.g. acetate, propionate, lactate) can significantly impact the speciation and mobility of radionuclides in aqueous media. Natural clay rock formation, considered as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal, can contain a significant amount of organic matter. There are less thermodynamic data reported for the complexation of pentavalent actinides with LMWO, especially under elevated temperature conditions, relevant for assessing the long-term safety of disposal options for heat-producing high-level nuclear waste. In the present study, the complexation of Np(v) with propionate is studied using spectroscopic techniques in 0.5-4 M NaCl solutions by systematic variation of the ligand concentration and temperature. Slope analysis shows the formation of the 1?:?1 NpO2-propionate complex (NpO2Prop). The local structure of the NpO2-propionate complex is determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, the results of which suggest that propionate binds to Np(v) in a bidentate mode. Using the specific ion interaction theory (SIT), the stability constant at zero ionic strength and 25 °C is determined as log??°1,1 = 1.26 ± 0.03. The stability constants increase continuously with increasing temperature between 20 and 85 °C. The log??0 values are linearly correlated with the reciprocal temperature, indicating ?rH = const. and ?rC = 0, allowing the calculation of ?rH and ?rS for the formation of the NpO2-propionate complex using the integrated van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamic evaluation indicates that the reaction is endothermic and entropy driven. PMID:25611787

  16. Regenerating cellulose from ionic liquids for an accelerated enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Hua [Savannah State University; Jones, Cecil L [Savannah State University; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Xia, Shuqian [Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; Olubajo, Olarongbe [Savannah State University; Person, Vernecia [Savannah State University

    2009-01-01

    The efficient conversion of lignocellulosic materials into fuel ethanol has become a research priority in producing affordable and renewable energy. The pretreatment of lignocelluloses is known to be key to the fast enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Recently, certain ionic liquids (ILs)were found capable of dissolving more than 10 wt% cellulose. Preliminary investigations [Dadi, A.P., Varanasi, S., Schall, C.A., 2006. Enhancement of cellulose saccharification kinetics using an ionic liquid pretreatment step. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 904 910; Liu, L., Chen, H., 2006. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose materials treated with ionic liquid [BMIM]Cl. Chin. Sci. Bull. 51, 2432 2436; Dadi, A.P., Schall, C.A., Varanasi, S., 2007. Mitigation of cellulose recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis by ionic liquid pretreatment. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 137 140, 407 421] suggest that celluloses regenerated from IL solutions are subject to faster saccharification than untreated substrates. These encouraging results offer the possibility of using ILs as alternative and nonvolatile solvents for cellulose pretreatment. However, these studies are limited to two chloride-based ILs: (a) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl), which is a corrosive, toxic and extremely hygroscopic solid (m.p. 70 C), and (b) 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl), which is viscous and has a reactive side-chain. Therefore, more in-depth research involving other ILs is much needed to explore this promising pretreatment route. For this reason, we studied a number of chloride- and acetate-based ILs for cellulose regeneration, including several ILs newly developed in our laboratory. This will enable us to select inexpensive, efficient and environmentally benign solvents for processing cellulosic biomass. Our data confirm that all regenerated celluloses are less crystalline (58 75% lower) and more accessible to cellulase (>2 times) than untreated substrates. As a result, regenerated Avicel cellulose, filter paper and cottonwere hydrolyzed 2 10 times faster than the respective untreated celluloses. A complete hydrolysis of Avicel cellulose could be achieved in 6 h given the Trichoderma reesei cellulase/substrate ratio (w/w) of 3:20 at 50 C. In addition,we observed that cellulase is more thermally stable (up to 60 C) in the presence of regenerated cellulose. Furthermore, our systematic studies suggest that the presence of various ILs during the hydrolysis induced different degrees of cellulase inactivation. Therefore, a thorough removal of IL residues after cellulose regeneration is highly recommended, and a systematic investigation on this subject is much needed.

  17. Cross-linking chitosan into UV-irradiated cellulose fibers for the preparation of antimicrobial-finished textiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Alonso; Miquel Gimeno; Roberto Olayo; Humberto Vázquez-Torres; José D. Sepúlveda-Sánchez; Keiko Shirai

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan cross-linked cellulose fibers were prepared using non-toxic procedures in order to confer antimicrobial properties to cellulose fibers. Citric acid was used as the cross-linker and NaH2PO4 as catalyst in previously UV-irradiated cellulose fibers. Further heat dried-cure process and washing with detergent, water and acetic acid (0.1M) gave a maximum incorporation of chitosan of 27mgpergram of functionalized textile. The thermogravimetric

  18. Dissolving process of a cellulose bunch in ionic liquids: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Liu, Xiaomin; Zhang, Suojiang; Yao, Yingying; Yao, Xiaoqian; Xu, Junli; Lu, Xingmei

    2015-07-21

    In recent years, a variety of ionic liquids (ILs) were found to be capable of dissolving cellulose and mechanistic studies were also reported. However, there is still a lack of detailed information at the molecular level. Here, long time molecular dynamics simulations of cellulose bunch in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EmimCl), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl) and water were performed to analyze the inherent interaction and dissolving mechanism. Complete dissolution of the cellulose bunch was observed in EmimAc, while little change took place in EmimCl and BmimCl, and nothing significant happened in water. The deconstruction of the hydrogen bond (H-bond) network in cellulose was found and analyzed quantitatively. The synergistic effect of cations and anions was revealed by analyzing the whole dissolving process. Initially, cations bind to the side face of the cellulose bunch and anions insert into the cellulose strands to form H-bonds with hydroxyl groups. Then cations start to intercalate into cellulose chains due to their strong electrostatic interaction with the entered anions. The H-bonds formed by Cl(-) cannot effectively separate the cellulose chain and that is the reason why EmimCl and BmimCl dissolve cellulose more slowly. These findings deepen people's understanding on how ILs dissolve cellulose and would be helpful for designing new efficient ILs to dissolve cellulose. PMID:26095890

  19. Structural basis for cellobiose dehydrogenase action during oxidative cellulose degradation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Tien-Chye; Kracher, Daniel; Gandini, Rosaria; Sygmund, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Haltrich, Dietmar; Hällberg, B. Martin; Ludwig, Roland; Divne, Christina

    2015-01-01

    A new paradigm for cellulose depolymerization by fungi focuses on an oxidative mechanism involving cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDH) and copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO); however, mechanistic studies have been hampered by the lack of structural information regarding CDH. CDH contains a haem-binding cytochrome (CYT) connected via a flexible linker to a flavin-dependent dehydrogenase (DH). Electrons are generated from cellobiose oxidation catalysed by DH and shuttled via CYT to LPMO. Here we present structural analyses that provide a comprehensive picture of CDH conformers, which govern the electron transfer between redox centres. Using structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, rapid kinetics analysis and molecular docking, we demonstrate that flavin-to-haem interdomain electron transfer (IET) is enabled by a haem propionate group and that rapid IET requires a closed CDH state in which the propionate is tightly enfolded by DH. Following haem reduction, CYT reduces LPMO to initiate oxygen activation at the copper centre and subsequent cellulose depolymerization. PMID:26151670

  20. Enzymology of cellulose degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Wood; Vicenta Garcia-Campayo

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years there has been a considerable improvement in the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the microbial degradation of cellulose, but there are still many uncertainties. As presently understood, it would appear that different mechanisms may operate in the various types of microorganism. Thus degradation of crystalline cellulose is effected by anaerobic bacteria by large Ca-dependent

  1. Fractionation of Cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Eckelt; Sergej Stryuk; Bernhard A. Wolf

    2003-01-01

    Cellulose samples with molecular weight distributions that are considerably narrower than those of the natural products can be obtained by at least three fundamentally different routes. (i) Synthesis of easily soluble derivatives, fractionation by means of well-established methods and subsequent regeneration, (ii) selective extraction of short chains from activated cellulose, using solvents of suitable marginal quality, and (iii) partition of

  2. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  3. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.; Doi, R.

    1998-11-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  4. Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Tomaši?; Branimir Bertoša; Sanja Tomi?; Milan Šoški?; Volker Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded

  5. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  6. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles (Kingsport, TN); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN); Depew, Leslie Sharon (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  7. Metagenomics detects functional shifts in the bovine rumen microbiota in response to propionate intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimizing rumen microbial ecosystem output is essential towards improved ruminant agriculture. Ruminal infusion or intake of propionate, one of the predominant volatile fatty acids, has important implications for host physiology. However, how the rumen microbiota responds to propionate administrat...

  8. Effect of Nickelous and Other Metal Ions on the Inhibition of Rumen Bacterial Metabolism by 3-(3?-Isocyanocyclopent-2-Enylidene)Propionic Acid and Related Isocyanides †

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, D.; Calder, F. W.; Jones, G. A.; Tanguay, D.; Taylor, A.

    1986-01-01

    3-(3?-Isocyanocyclopent-2-enylidene)propionic acid at a concentration of 2 to 5 ?g ml?1 inhibited cellulose digestion by a mixed culture of rumen microorganisms and in other experiments inhibited the degradation of timothy hay (Phleum pratense) in a digestibility test. At isocyanide concentrations of 12 ?g ml?1 the fermentation activity of rumen fluid, measured by its dehydrogenase activity, was inhibited but not abolished. All of these isocyanide effects were reversed by the incorporation of nickelous ion into the solutions of the systems under study. The activity of 1 mol of isocyanide is reversed by about 1 mol of Ni2+ and, in the case of the cellulose digestion test, by about 1 mol of Co2+. Of some 15 other ions tested only Pd2+ and possibly chromium reversed the effect of the isocyanide. PMID:16346963

  9. Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition of a novel Zirconium Acetato-Propionate cluster: [Zr12

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Synthesis and Thermal Decomposition of a novel Zirconium Acetato-Propionate cluster: [Zr12] Sarah: +33 4 76 88 90 35 Abstract This work reports a novel Zirconium acetato-propionate complex herein called [Zr12] obtained by reaction of zirconium acetylacetonate Zr(acac)4 with propionic acid

  10. Design parameters of boric acid production process from colemanite ore in the presence of propionic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Kuskay; A. N. Bulutcu

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three different boric acid production process alternatives which can be performed in the presence of propionic acid and\\/or calcium propionate were evaluated. The process in which calcium propionate is the recycling component was selected as the best alternative and modeled. Some of the design parameters were determined for the selected process. These parameters are solubility change of

  11. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion...decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate...pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea...

  12. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8840-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration...decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, and urea sulfate and opens...decisions. The active ingredient propionic acid is a fungicide and bactericide that...

  13. Experimental study on nitric oxide reduction through calcium propionate reburning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengli Niu; Kuihua Han; Jianli Zhao; Chunmei Lu

    2011-01-01

    Performances of calcium propionate (CP) on nitric oxide (NO) reduction are experimentally investigated on a drop tube furnace system from basic reburning (BR), Thermal De-NOx and advanced reburning (AR) and it is demonstrated to be feasible of using CP as reburning fuel. BR could supply about 80% efficiency with reburning fuel fraction (Rff) and residence time (?) kept 20–25% and

  14. Interactions of ionic liquids with polysaccharides 9. Hydroxyalkylation of cellulose without additional inorganic bases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Köhler; Tim Liebert; Thomas Heinze; Antje Vollmer; Petra Mischnick; Eugen Möllmann; Winfried Becker

    2010-01-01

    Water-soluble hydroxyalkyl cellulose with a molar degree of substitution of up to 2.79 was prepared under completely homogeneous\\u000a reaction conditions in various ionic liquids without addition of inorganic bases. In acetate containing solvents the IL acts\\u000a as a catalyst. The substitution patterns of the cellulose ethers were analyzed by 13C NMR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy after peracetylation and GLC\\/MS after

  15. Method of saccharifying cellulose

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Eric A. (Brookline, MA); Demain, Arnold L. (Wellesley, MA); Madia, Ashwin (Decatur, IL)

    1985-09-10

    A method of saccharifying cellulose by incubation with the cellulase of Clostridium thermocellum in a broth containing an efficacious amount of a reducing agent. Other incubation parameters which may be advantageously controlled to stimulate saccharification include the concentration of alkaline earth salts, pH, temperature, and duration. By the method of the invention, even native crystalline cellulose such as that found in cotton may be completely saccharified.

  16. Gel permeation chromatography of crystalline cellulose from the secondary wall of intact cotton fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenblatt, G.A.; Kohel, R.J.; Benedict, C.R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (USA))

    1990-05-01

    ({sup 14}C)glucose or UDP-({sup 14}C)-glucose incorporation into polysaccharides in cotton fiber during secondary wall formation predominantly labels {beta} 1,3- and {beta} 1,4-glucan. The amount of radioactivity in the individual {beta}-glucans was determined by analyzing the partially methylated alditol acetates from the ({sup 14}C) glucans before and after treatment with Updegraff's acetic-nitric reagent. Hot acetic-nitric hydrolyzes {beta} 1,3-glucan leaving resistant crystalline cellulose. In this research we have determined the mol wt characteristics of the crystalline cellulose polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C) glucose in intact cotton fibers. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose in the secondary wall was isolated using the acetic-nitric reagent, dissolved in a non-degrading solvent of lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide and separated on columns of Ultrastyragel by gel permeation chromatography. The ({sup 14}C)-crystalline cellulose separates into individual cellulose chains with mol wts of 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 4}. The weight average mol wt (Mw) of the polymer is 710,000. The distribution of the chains within the polymer approximates a normal distribution with 95% of the chains distributed with {plus minus} 2 std dev of the mean typical of other biopolymers.

  17. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414641

  18. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406560

  19. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  20. RAPID EXPANSION OF NEAR AND SUPERCRITICAL SOLUTIONS CONTAINING CELLULOSE TRIACETATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Blasig; Mark C. Thies

    RESS experiments were performed on cellulose triacetate (CTA) (Mw = 146,000, PDI = 2.07), a semicrystalline polymer that is typically dry-spun into continuous fibers from a solution consisting primarily of methylene chloride. Phase-behavior measurements for solutions of CTA with ethanol and ethyl acetate indicate that both solvents, when used as compressed liquids, can completely dissolve solid CTA (m.p. ~300 °C)

  1. Norethisterone and norethisterone acetate.

    PubMed

    1979-12-01

    This monograph on norethisterone and its acetate (NOR) includes chemical and physical data (synonyms and trade names), structural and molecular formulae and molecular weight of NOR, chemical and physical properties of NOR, and the production, use, occurrence, and analysis of NOR. Production of NOR and its acetate, both of which are not known to occur naturally, occurs via conversion of estrone to its methyl ester which is reduced to estradiol 3-methyl ether with lithium aluminum hydride; NOR acetate is synthesized by acetylating NOR with acetic anhydride in pyridine. NOR has been used for human medicine in a variety of ways: 1) to treat amenorrhea, 2) to treat dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and 3) for treating endometriosis. It has also been used to treat premenstrual tension and dysmenorrhea. Medicinal use of NOR acetate is similar to that for NOR. Analytical procedures for determining NOR as a bulk chemical are presented tabularly. Biological data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans are presented briefly. With experimental animals, when administered alone NOR and/or its acetate increased the incidence of benign liver tumors in male mice and of pituitary tumors in females; females also suffered granulosa-cell ovarian tumors. NOR in combination with an estrogen increased incidence of pituitary tumors in mice of both sexes. NOR is embryolethal in some species and produces virilization in female fetuses. It is concluded that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of NOR and its acetate in animals. Human studies are not available, but NOR is implicated causally as a progestogenic element in side effects of combined oral contraceptive usage. PMID:120838

  2. Acoustic and dielectric properties of propionic acid + amine mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, K.; Gli?ski, J.; Kaatze, U.

    2005-10-01

    Acoustical attenuation measurements between 100?kHz and 2?GHz, complex (dielectric) permittivity measurements between 1 MHz and 40 GHz, as well as various auxiliary measurements (density, viscosity, heat of mixing, optical refractive index) of propionic acid mixtures with amines are reported. The data reveal a complex coupled reaction scheme, involving a variety of hydrogen bonded structures, of proton transfer complexes, and of completely dissociated species. The combined consideration of the data indicates the complexation of an acid molecule with another one or with a propionic acid-amine complex to be likely reflected by a high frequency relaxation term in the acoustical spectra of the mixtures. The additionally existing low frequency acoustical relaxation term is assigned to the formation of a complex from a molecule of base and an acid dimer.

  3. Effects of acetic acid\\/acetic anhydride ratios on the properties of corn starch acetates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherif Ibrahima Khalil Diop; Hai Long Li; Bi Jun Xie; John Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corn starch was pre-treated with acetic acid and then acetylated by acetic anhydride under microwave irradiation. The effects of molar ratios of these two reagents on the acetylation of starch were investigated. Starch acetate with a high degree of substitution (DS, 2.93) was obtained at a molar ratio (acetic acid\\/acetic anhydride) of 1:1. However, the DS should tend to decrease

  4. Topical testosterone propionate in the therapy of vulvar dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, A; Becagli, L; Scrimin, F; De Salvia, D; Resta, P; Gambato, M

    1984-01-01

    187 patients with atrophic, hypertrophic and mixed vulvar dystrophy were treated with 2% testosterone propionate ointment from 18 months to 7 years. Symptoms, macroscopic, and histologic picture were evaluated before and during treatment. About 75% of the patients achieved good and excellent symptom relief. Treatment efficacy differentiates according to the type of dystrophy, and in relation to the lesion's extension and the duration of symptoms, which consist mostly of pruritus. Side effects from therapy were negligible. PMID:6698055

  5. Formation of methyl methacrylate from methyl propionate and methanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Ai

    2006-01-01

    The formation of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was studied in a vapor-phase reaction between methyl propionate (MP) and methanol without using any sources of formaldehyde. Silica-supported CsOH doped with a small amount of silver Ag was found to be the best catalyst. The optimum Ag\\/Cs\\/Si atomic ratio was 4–10\\/20–25\\/1000. When the reaction was performed in the absence of oxygen in the

  6. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blanton

    1993-01-01

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation.

  7. Solvent infusion processing of all-cellulose composite materials.

    PubMed

    Huber, Tim; Bickerton, Simon; Müssig, Jörg; Pang, Shusheng; Staiger, Mark P

    2012-09-01

    Continuous fibre-reinforced all-cellulose composite (ACC) laminates were produced in the form of a dimensionally thick (>1 mm) laminate using an easy-to-use processing pathway termed solvent infusion processing (SIP) from a rayon (Cordenka™) textile using the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. SIP facilitates the infusion of a solvent through a dry cellulose fibre preform with the aim of partially dissolving the outer surface of the cellulose fibres. The dissolved cellulose is then regenerated by solvent exchange to form a matrix phase in situ that acts to bond together the undissolved portion of the fibres. SIP is capable of producing thick, dimensionally stable ACC laminates with high volume fractions of continuous fibres (>70 vol.%) due to the combination of two factors: (i) homogeneous and controlled partial dissolution of the fibres and (ii) the application of pressure during regeneration and drying that provides a high level of fibre compaction, thereby overcoming void formation associated with material shrinkage. The effect of inlet and outlet positioning, and applied pressure on the macro- and microstructure of all-cellulose composites is examined. Finally, SIP expands the applications for ACCs by enabling the production of thick ACC laminates to overcome the limitations of conventional thin-film ACCs. PMID:24751100

  8. Combined effect of acetic acid, pH and ethanol on intracellular pH of fermenting yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Pampulha; M. C. Loureiro-Dias

    1989-01-01

    The internal pH of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC 3507 III (a respiratory-deficient mutant) was measured by the distribution of [14C]propionic acid, when the yeast was fermenting glucose at pH 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5 in the presence of several concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol. Good correlation was obtained between fermentation rates and internal pH. For all external pH values tested, the

  9. Bioenergy- Cellulosic Biofuels Overview

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    McMillan, James Douglas

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation from James D. McMillan on cellulosic biofuels. The workshop is intended for high school and community college energy technology instructors. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  10. Modeling of cellulose crystals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton fibers are single cells, and the substance of the fiber is the secondary cell wall that is nearly pure, microcrystalline cellulose. Normally there is about 5% moisture in cotton fiber, but variations of a few percent make differences as large as 40% in the strength, with more water resulting ...

  11. Phase diagram, solubility limit and hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in binary solvents with ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Le, Kim Anh; Rudaz, Cyrielle; Budtova, Tatiana

    2014-05-25

    Cellulose solubility phase diagrams in two binary solvents based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) mixed with water and with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) were built. The minimal amount of EmimAc molecules needed to dissolve cellulose is 2.5-3moles per anhydroglucose unit. This proportion allows calculation of the maximal cellulose concentration soluble in EmimAc-DMSO at any composition; in EmimAc it is around 25-27wt%. Water forms hydrogen bonds with EmimAc and thus competes with cellulose for ionic liquid; the solubility of cellulose in EmimAc-water is much lower than that in EmimAc-DMSO. Hydrodynamic properties of cellulose in two solvent systems were compared. In EmimAc-DMSO cellulose intrinsic viscosity practically does not depend on DMSO content as predicted by the phase diagram. The intrinsic viscosity in EmimAc-water first increases with water content due to cellulose self-aggregation and then abruptly decreases due to coagulation. PMID:24708976

  12. Proton magnetic resonance studies of the chemical shifts occurring in propionic acid-dioxane solutions 

    E-print Network

    Oldham, William J. Bryan

    1958-01-01

    LIB' OF FIQUHRB PIGUBRB 1, Observers ohemi, cal shiftsoccurring in aqueous solutions of propiolLic acid o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 23 2 ~ Chemical shifts occurring in propionic acyl-diarane solull iona...~ted values of the equilibr1um constant for the dimermonomer dissociation in propionic acid&ioxsne solut ious o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 32 4, Calculated values of the shifx occurring 'u propionic acid&hexane solutions at 73 C...

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose pretreated with ionic liquids and N-methyl Morpholine N-Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau Li, Elizabeth

    The effect of N-methyl Morpholine N-Oxide (NMMO), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate ([Emim]Ac) and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium diethyl phosphate ([Emim]DEP) on pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of dissolving pulp was studied. X-ray diffraction measurements of regenerated cellulose from these solvents showed that solvent pretreatment reduces the crystallinity of cellulose. However, crystallinity might not be a major factor affecting the in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in these solvents. Although regenerated cellulose from [Emim]DEP showed the lowest crystallinity index (˜15%), in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose dissolved in NMMO showed the highest cellulose conversion (68% compared to 65% for [Emim]Ac and 37% for [Emim]DEP at enzyme loading of 122 FPU/g). Moreover, results showed that enzymes could tolerate up to NMMO concentration of 100 g/L and still yield full conversion of cellulose. Since it is not necessary to remove all the NMMO, less amount of water will be required for the washing step and thus the process will be more economical. The HCH-1 model was used in an attempt to model the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in NMMO. With the incorporation of NMMO inhibition and a factor to account for unreacted cellulose, the model was able to correlate the experimental data of the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (6.68 g/L) at various NMMO concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 and 250 g/L). However, the experimental results also suggest that NMMO might be deactivating the enzymes rather than inhibiting them. More studies need to be done at varying cellulose, NMMO and enzyme concentrations to find the exact nature of this deactivation of NMMO.

  14. Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2012-05-28

    Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ?90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate. PMID:22568731

  15. Effects of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on fatty acid and glucose oxidation in the isolated rat diaphragm using 14C-labelled substrates. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VIII.

    PubMed

    Binder, L; Oellerich, M; Haeckel, R; Beneking, M

    1988-12-01

    The influence of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on the utilization of various substrates in isolated rat hemidiaphragms was investigated in comparison with other hypoglycaemic compounds. The effect of 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate was concentration-dependent. At a concentration of 0.5 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, glucose utilization increased from 0.276 +/- 0.043 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.894 +/- 0.303 mumol.g-1.l-1 (p less than 0.05). Pyruvate and lactate utilization were stimulated to a lesser extent, while acetate utilization remained nearly constant. At a concentration of 2 mmol/l 2-(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate, the oxidation of palmitate decreased from 0.214 +/- 0.017 mumol.g-1.l-1 to 0.060 +/- 0.005 mumol.g-1.l-1, while the oxidation of octanoate was not decreased. These findings point to a stimulation of the glycolytic flux by inhibition of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. PMID:3069950

  16. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82?, ato2?, and ssa3?) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance. PMID:26062532

  17. Reinforcement of bacterial cellulose aerogels with biocompatible polymers

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, N.; Veigel, S.; Aigner, N.; Nedelec, J.M.; Rosenau, T.; Liebner, F.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) aerogels, which are fragile, ultra-lightweight, open-porous and transversally isotropic materials, have been reinforced with the biocompatible polymers polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), cellulose acetate (CA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively, at varying BC/polymer ratios. Supercritical carbon dioxide anti-solvent precipitation and simultaneous extraction of the anti-solvent using scCO2 have been used as core techniques for incorporating the secondary polymer into the BC matrix and to convert the formed composite organogels into aerogels. Uniaxial compression tests revealed a considerable enhancement of the mechanical properties as compared to BC aerogels. Nitrogen sorption experiments at 77 K and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the preservation (or even enhancement) of the surface-area-to-volume ratio for most of the samples. The formation of an open-porous, interpenetrating network of the second polymer has been demonstrated by treatment of BC/PMMA hybrid aerogels with EMIM acetate, which exclusively extracted cellulose, leaving behind self-supporting organogels. PMID:25037381

  18. Reinforcement of bacterial cellulose aerogels with biocompatible polymers.

    PubMed

    Pircher, N; Veigel, S; Aigner, N; Nedelec, J M; Rosenau, T; Liebner, F

    2014-10-13

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) aerogels, which are fragile, ultra-lightweight, open-porous and transversally isotropic materials, have been reinforced with the biocompatible polymers polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), cellulose acetate (CA), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), respectively, at varying BC/polymer ratios. Supercritical carbon dioxide anti-solvent precipitation and simultaneous extraction of the anti-solvent using scCO2 have been used as core techniques for incorporating the secondary polymer into the BC matrix and to convert the formed composite organogels into aerogels. Uniaxial compression tests revealed a considerable enhancement of the mechanical properties as compared to BC aerogels. Nitrogen sorption experiments at 77K and scanning electron micrographs confirmed the preservation (or even enhancement) of the surface-area-to-volume ratio for most of the samples. The formation of an open-porous, interpenetrating network of the second polymer has been demonstrated by treatment of BC/PMMA hybrid aerogels with EMIM acetate, which exclusively extracted cellulose, leaving behind self-supporting organogels. PMID:25037381

  19. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in microgels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Aiping; Wu, Qingshi; Xu, Wenting; Xie, Jianda; Wu, Weitai

    2015-06-16

    A cellulose-based microgel, where an individual microgel contains approximately one cellulose chain on average, is synthesized via free radical polymerization of a difunctional small-molecule N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in cellulose solution. This microgelation leads to a low-ordered cellulose, favoring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to generate glucose. PMID:26035077

  20. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2?mutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. PMID:24761971

  1. Growth and characterization of organic NLO material: Clobetasol propionate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purusothaman, R.; Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of clobetasol propionate (CP) have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique using mixed solvent of methanol-acetone. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm their lattice parameter and space group. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the grown CP has been indexed. Thermal analysis was performed to study the thermal stability of the grown crystals. Photoluminescence spectrum shows broad emission peak observed at 421 nm. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out for the grown crystal and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found in the crystal.

  2. Processes for treating cellulosic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladisch, Michael R. (Inventor); Kohlman, Karen L. (Inventor); Westgate, Paul L. (Inventor); Weil, Joseph R. (Inventor); Yang, Yiqi (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed are processes for pretreating cellulosic materials in liquid water by heating the materials in liquid water at a temperature at or above their glass transition temperature but not substantially exceeding 220.degree. C., while maintaining the pH of the reaction medium in a range that avoids substantial autohydrolysis of the cellulosic materials. Such pretreatments minimize chemical changes to the cellulose while leading to physical changes which substantially increase susceptibility to hydrolysis in the presence of cellulase.

  3. Cellulose biogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Organisms that synthesize cellulose can be found amongst the bacteria, protistans, fungi, and animals, but it is in plants that the importance of cellulose in function (as the major structural constituent of plant cell walls) and economic use (as wood and fiber) can be best appreciated. The structure of cellulose and its biosynthesis have been the subjects of intense investigation. One of the most important insights gained from these studies is that the synthesis of cellulose by living organisms involves much more than simply the polymerization of glucose into a (1{r_arrow}4)-{beta}-linked polymer. The number of glucoses in a polymer (the degree of polymerization), the crystalline form assumed by the glucan chains when they crystallize to form a microfibril, and the dimensions and orientation of the microfibrils are all subject to cellular control. Instead of cellulose biosynthesis, a more appropriate term might be cellulose biogenesis, to emphasize the involvement of cellular structures and mechanisms in controlling polymerization and directing crystallization and deposition. Dictyostelium discoideum is uniquely suitable for the study of cellulose biogenesis because of its amenability to experimental study and manipulation and the extent of our knowledge of its basic cellular mechanisms (as will be evident from the rest of this volume). In this chapter, I will summarize what is known about cellulose biogenesis in D. discoideum, emphasizing its potential to illuminate our understanding both of D. discoideum development and plant cellulose biogenesis.

  4. Propionic acidemia: unusual course with late onset and fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Lücke, Thomas; Pérez-Cerdá, Celia; Baumgartner, Matthias; Fowler, Brian; Sander, Stefanie; Sasse, Michael; Scholl, Sabine; Ugarte, Magdalena; Das, Anibh Martin

    2004-06-01

    A 4 1/2-year-old girl with a so far unremarkable medical history became comatose during a simple infection. She showed severe metabolic acidosis without elevation of lactate. In blood the branched-chain amino acids were increased. In urine ketone-bodies, increased 3-OH-isovaleric and 3-OH propionic acid excretion were detected, while methylmalonate was not found. The profile of acylcarnitines revealed increased propionylcarnitine. Despite restriction of protein supply, high-caloric nutrition, correction of acidosis, and supplementation of biotin and carnitine, the girl died 2 days after admission due to arrhythmia of the heart. In skin fibroblasts the activity of propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (PCC) was markedly decreased. Mutation analysis confirmed the diagnosis of propionic acidemia (PA) with compound heterozygosity for 2 new missense mutations L417W/Q293E in the PCCA gene, with the mother carrying the Q293E and the father the L417W mutation. Late-onset PA should be included in the differential diagnosis of unclear coma. Determination of the acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry as well as organic acids in urine is recommended. PMID:15164333

  5. Binding behavior of amino acid conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid to immobilized human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomasi?, Ana; Bertosa, Branimir; Tomi?, Sanja; Soski?, Milan; Magnus, Volker

    2007-06-22

    The affinity of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-butyric acid and 24 of their amino acid conjugates to immobilized human serum albumin, as expressed by the retention factor k (determined by HPLC), was dependent on (1) lipophilicity, (2) chirality and (3) functional groups in the amino acid moiety; in some cases conformation plays an additional role. Two lipophilicity-related parameters afforded quantitative correlations with k: retention on a C18 reversed-phase column (experimental approach) and the distance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic poles of the molecules (in silico approach). Most compounds examined are possible metabolic precursors of IAA, an experimental tumor therapeutic. PMID:17459401

  6. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2010-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, C(6)H(13)N(2)O(+)·C(2)H(3)O(2) (-)·H(2)O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water mol-ecules [graph set R(4) (2)(8)], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide-amide associations [R(4) (4)(12)] and larger R(4) (4)(20) associations involving the water mol-ecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:21589458

  7. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D.

    2010-01-01

    In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2 ?·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water mol­ecules [graph set R 4 2(8)], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R 4 4(12)] and larger R 4 4(20) associations involving the water mol­ecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure. PMID:21589458

  8. High density culture of Propionibacterium freudenreichii coupled with propionic acid removal system with activated charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunori Nakano; Hiroshi Kataoka; Masatoshi Matsumura

    1996-01-01

    A perfusion culture of Propionibacterium freudenreichii was coupled with a propionic acid removal system to realize high density cultivation at a low dilution rate. The propionic acid removal system consisted of a rotating ceramic membrane and a packed column of activated charcoal. The culture broth of P. freudenreichii was fed into the rotating ceramic membrane and then the resulting effluent

  9. [Double-blind-study on treatment with clobetasol-17-propionate and other topical corticoids (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Beck, M; Berger, C; Filipp, N; Hundertmark, U; Loewel, R

    1981-08-15

    90 patients suffering from chronic skin diseases-mainly psoriasis vulgaris-were treated in a double-blind-study for two weeks with topical Clobetasol-17-propionate compared with other topical corticoids. In 81% was seen a better therapeutical effect on the Clobetasol-17-propionate treated skin area. PMID:7027655

  10. Propionate induces cell swelling and K+ accumulation in shark rectal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, G.M.; Ziyadeh, F.N.; Mills, J.W.; Booz, G.W.; Kleinzeller, A. (Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Small organic anions have been reported to induce cell solute accumulation and swelling. To investigate the mechanism of swelling, we utilized preparations of rectal gland cells from Squalus acanthias incubated in medium containing propionate. Propionate causes cells to swell by diffusing across membranes in its nonionic form, acidifying cell contents, and activating the Na+-H+ antiporter. The Na+-H+ exchange process tends to correct intracellular pH (pHi), and thus it maintains a favorable gradient for propionic acid diffusion and allows propionate to accumulate. Activation of the Na+-H+ antiport also facilitates Na+ entry into the cell and Nai accumulation. At the same time Na+-K+-ATPase activity, unaffected by propionate, replaces Nai with Ki, whereas the K+ leak rate, decreased by propionate, allows Ki to accumulate. As judged by {sup 86}Rb+ efflux, the reduction in K+ leak was not due to propionate-induced cell acidification or reduction in Cli concentration. Despite inducing cell swelling, propionate did not disrupt cell structural elements and F actin distribution along cell membranes.

  11. Ganglioside Alterations in the Central Nervous System of Rats Chronically Injected with Methylmalonic and Propionic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. T. Trindade; A. M. Brusque; J. R. Raasch; L. F. Pettenuzzo; H. P. Rocha; C. M. D. Wannmacher; M. Wajner

    2002-01-01

    Neurological dysfunction and structural cerebral abnormalities are commonly found in patients with methylmalonic and propionic acidemia. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of these disorders are poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that methylmalonic and propionic acids induce a significant reduction of ganglioside N-acetylneuraminic acid in the brain of rats subjected to chronic administration of these metabolites. In the present

  12. Salmeterol and Fluticasone Propionate and Survival in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. A. Calverley; Julie A. Anderson; Bartolome Celli; Gary T. Ferguson; Christine Jenkins; Paul W. Jones; Julie C. Yates; Jørgen Vestbo

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing salmeterol at a dose of 50 ?g plus fluticasone propionate at a dose of 500 ?g twice daily (combination regi- men), administered with a single inhaler, with placebo, salmeterol alone, or fluticasone propionate alone for a period of 3 years. The primary outcome was death from any cause for the comparison between the

  13. Measures of de novo synthesis of milk components from propionate in lactating goats

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    Possible direct contributions of propionate to de novo synthesis of milk components by the mammary gland of lactating goats fed a concentrate-roughage diet have been studied in vivo by primed constant infusion of (1-carbon-14)propionate into the right mammary artery. Specific radioactivities of milk galactose, fatty acids, and protein were higher in the infused than in the uninfused half of the mammary gland, suggesting de novo synthesis of these compounds in the udder. Specific radioactivities of milk glucose in both udder halves were identical, ruling out any possibility of mammary gland-derived glucose from propionate of blood plasma under the experimental conditions. Of milk galactose, .8% was derived from propionate of blood plasma, and of milk glucose, 98% was derived from glucose of blood plasma. After intraruminal infusion of unlabeled propionic acid at 11 g/h, concentration of propionate in blood plasma was doubled, its contribution to milk galactose was increased to 1.5%, and proportions of milk odd-numbered fatty acids were increased. Propionate was incorporated largely into milk odd-numbered fatty acids. The authors conclude that small amounts of propionate can be incorporated into principal components of milk in the mammary gland of lactating goats.

  14. Recycling of cellulose enzyme complex after cellulose hydrolysis. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clesceri

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low-cost process for the recycling of enzymes used in cellulose hydrolysis. The enzymes can be used in an advanced technology to convert cellulose, a component of wood and paper, to sugar for the production of fuel ethanol. The market for fuel ethanol, used as an octane booster in gasoline, is growing. New York

  15. Metabolic engineering of Propionibacterium freudenreichii: effect of expressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase on propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Ehab Mohamed; Jin, Ying; Wang, Zhongqiang; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-09-01

    Propionic acid is currently produced mainly via petrochemicals, but there is increasing interest in its fermentative production from renewable biomass. However, the current propionic acid fermentation process suffers from low product yield and productivity. In this work, the gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) was cloned from Escherichia coli and expressed in Propionibacterium freudenreichii. PPC catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate with the fixation of one CO2. Its expression in P. freudenreichii showed profound effects on propionic acid fermentation. Compared to the wild type, the mutant expressing the ppc gene grew significantly faster, consumed more glycerol, and produced propionate to a higher final titer at a faster rate. The mutant also produced significantly more propionate from glucose under elevated CO2 partial pressure. These effects could be attributed to increased CO2 fixation and resulting changes in the flux distributions in the dicarboxylic acid pathway. PMID:24878752

  16. Permeability of bacterial cellulose membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam M. Sokolnicki; Robert J. Fisher; Timothy P. Harrah; David L. Kaplan

    2006-01-01

    Mass transfer experiments were conducted to determine the transport and interaction parameters of selected molecules in hydrated bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes. The objective was to determine physiochemical characteristics and elucidate the mechanisms governing transport in relation to the membrane structure. Pore and sorption models developed previously for the analysis of transport in hydrogel membranes were relevant to the cellulose membrane

  17. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  18. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  19. Load distribution in native cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hinterstoisser, Barbara; Akerholm, Margaretha; Salmén, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    The properties of cellulose materials are dependent on interactions between and within the cellulose chains. To investigate the deformation behavior of cellulose and its relation to molecular straining, sheets with fibers oriented preferably in one direction were studied by dynamic FT-IR spectroscopy. Celluloses with different origins (spruce pulp, Cladophora cellulose, cotton linters) were used. The sheets were stretched sinusoidally at low strains and small amplitudes while being irradiated with polarized infrared radiation. The cellulose fibers showed mainly an elastic response. The cellulose fibers showed mainly an elastic response. The glucose rings and the C-O-C bridges connecting adjacent rings, as well as the O(3)H.O(5) intramolecular hydrogen bonds are the components mainly deformed under stress, whereas the O(2)H.O(6) intramolecular hydrogen bonds play a minor role. The load distribution was also found to be different in the different allomorphic forms of cellulose I, namely, I(alpha) and I(beta). PMID:12959588

  20. Characterization of propionate CoA-transferase from Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Volodina, Elena; Schürmann, Marc; Lindenkamp, Nicole; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a propionate CoA-transferase (H16_A2718; EC 2.8.3.1) from Ralstonia eutropha H16 (Pct(Re)) was characterized in detail. Glu342 was identified as catalytically active amino acid residue via site-directed mutagenesis. Activity of Pct(Re) was irreversibly lost after the treatment with NaBH? in the presence of acetyl-CoA as it is shown for all CoA-transferases from class I, thereby confirming the formation of the covalent enzyme-CoA intermediate by Pct(Re). In addition to already known CoA acceptors for Pct Re such as 3-hydroxypropionate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, acrylate, succinate, lactate, butyrate, crotonate and 4-hydroxybutyrate, it was found that glycolate, chloropropionate, acetoacetate, valerate, trans-2,3-pentenoate, isovalerate, hexanoate, octanoate and trans-2,3-octenoate formed also corresponding CoA-thioesters after incubation with acetyl-CoA and Pct(Re). Isobutyrate was found to be preferentially used as CoA acceptor amongst other carboxylates tested in this study. In contrast, no products were detected with acetyl-CoA and formiate, bromopropionate, glycine, pyruvate, 2-hydroxybutyrate, malonate, fumarate, itaconate, ?-alanine, ?-aminobutyrate, levulate, glutarate or adipate as potential CoA acceptor. Amongst CoA donors, butyryl-CoA, crotonyl-CoA, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, isobutyryl-CoA, succinyl-CoA and valeryl-CoA apart from already known propionyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA could also donate CoA to acetate. The highest rate of the reaction was observed with 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (2.5 ?mol mg?¹ min?¹). K(m) values for propionyl-CoA, acetyl-CoA, acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate were 0.3, 0.6, 4.5 and 4.3 mM, respectively. The rather broad substrate range might be a good starting point for enzyme engineering approaches and for the application of Pct(Re) in biotechnological polyester production. PMID:24057402

  1. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one preliminary experiment of this type and have successfully complemented an A. tumefaciens CelC mutant with the homologous gene (yhjM) from E. coli.

  2. Acetate is a superior substrate for microbial fuel cell initiation preceding bioethanol effluent utilization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-06-01

    This study assessed cell voltage development, electricity recovery, and microbial community composition in response to initial substrate including acetate, xylose, acetate/xylose 1:1 mixture (ace/xyl), and bioethanol effluent (BE) during microbial fuel cell (MFC) operation at 1000?? external resistance. The BE mainly contained 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose, and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. The MFCs initially fed with acetate showed shorter initiation time (1 day), higher average cell voltage (634?±?9 mV), and higher coulombic efficiency (31.5?±?0.5 %) than those initially fed with ace/xyl or xylose. However, BE-initiated MFCs only generated 162?±?1 mV. The acetate-initiated MFCs exhibited longer adaptation time (21 h) and lower cell voltage (645?±?10 mV) when the substrate was switched to xylose, whereas substrate switching to BE produced the highest voltage (656 mV), maximum power density (362?±?27 mW/m(2)), maximum current density (709?±?27 mA/m(2)), and coulombic efficiency (25?±?0.5 %) in the acetate-initiated MFCs. The microbial community in acetate-initiated MFCs was less diverse and contained more electrogenic bacteria (13.9?±?0.4 %) including Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfuromonas acetexigen than the MFCs initially fed with ace/xyl, xylose, and BE. After switching the substrate to xylose and subsequently to BE, the microbial community in the acetate-initiated MFCs became more diverse, while no significant changes were observed in ace/xyl-, xylose-, and BE-initiated MFCs. The results showed that initial substrate affected the power generation and the capability to adapt to the substrate alteration in MFCs. Acetate-initiated MFCs showed best performance in utilizing BE. PMID:25794875

  3. Metabolic flux in cellulose batch and cellulose-fed continuous cultures of Clostridium cellulolyticum in response to acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Desvaux, M; Guedon, E; Petitdemange, H

    2001-06-01

    Clostridium cellulolyticum, a nonruminal cellulolytic mesophilic bacterium, was grown in batch and continuous cultures on cellulose using a chemically defined medium. In batch culture with unregulated pH, less cellulose degradation and higher accumulation of soluble glucides were obtained compared to a culture with the pH controlled at 7.2. The gain in cellulose degradation achieved with pH control was offset by catabolite production rather than soluble sugar accumulation. The pH-controlled condition improved biomass, ethanol and acetate production, whereas maximum lactate and extracellular pyruvate concentrations were lower than in the non-pH-controlled condition. In a cellulose-fed chemostat at constant dilution rate and pH values ranging from 7.4 to 6.2, maximum cell density was obtained at pH 7.0. Environmental acidification chiefly influenced biomass formation, since at pH 6.4 the dry weight of cells was more than fourfold lower compared to that at pH 7.0, whereas the specific rate of cellulose assimilation decreased only from 11.74 to 10.13 milliequivalents of carbon (g cells)(-1) h(-1). The molar growth yield and the energetic growth yield did not decline as pH was lowered, and an abrupt transition to washout was observed. Decreasing the pH induced a shift from an acetate-ethanol fermentation to a lactate-ethanol fermentation. The acetate/ethanol ratio decreased as the pH declined, reaching close to 1 at pH 6.4. Whatever the pH conditions, lactate dehydrogenase was always greatly in excess. As pH decreased, both the biosynthesis and the catabolic efficiency of the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase declined, as indicated by the ratio of the specific enzyme activity to the specific metabolic rate, which fell from 9.8 to 1.8. Thus a change of only 1 pH unit induced considerable metabolic change and ended by washout at around pH 6.2. C. cellulolyticum appeared to be similar to rumen cellulolytic bacteria in its sensitivity to acidic conditions. Apparently, the cellulolytic anaerobes studied thus far do not thrive when the pH drops below 6.0, suggesting that they evolved in environments where acid tolerance was not required for successful competition with other microbes. PMID:11390677

  4. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. I. Solvent considerations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation. PMID:10099222

  5. Simultaneous Utilization of Cellobiose, Xylose, and Acetic Acid from Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biofuel Production by an Engineered Yeast Platform.

    PubMed

    Wei, Na; Oh, Eun Joong; Million, Gyver; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2015-06-19

    The inability of fermenting microorganisms to use mixed carbon components derived from lignocellulosic biomass is a major technical barrier that hinders the development of economically viable cellulosic biofuel production. In this study, we integrated the fermentation pathways of both hexose and pentose sugars and an acetic acid reduction pathway into one Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for the first time using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering approaches. The engineered strain coutilized cellobiose, xylose, and acetic acid to produce ethanol with a substantially higher yield and productivity than the control strains, and the results showed the unique synergistic effects of pathway coexpression. The mixed substrate coutilization strategy is important for making complete and efficient use of cellulosic carbon and will contribute to the development of consolidated bioprocessing for cellulosic biofuel. The study also presents an innovative metabolic engineering approach whereby multiple substrate consumption pathways can be integrated in a synergistic way for enhanced bioconversion. PMID:25587748

  6. Effect of different concentrations of acetic, citric, and propionic acid dipping solutions on bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial contamination of raw, processed poultry may include spoilage bacteria and foodborne pathogens. We evaluated different combinations of organic acid (OA) wash solutions for their ability to reduce bacterial contamination of raw chicken skin and to inhibit growth of spoilage bacteria and path...

  7. Influence of a cellulose diacetate matrix on the complexation kinetics of tetraphenylporphin with Zn and Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, I. P.; Kononov, V. D.; Burmistrov, V. A.; Koifman, O. I.

    2011-04-01

    The dependence of the reaction rate of tetraphenylporphin zinc and cadmium complexes in a polymer matrix on a base of cellulose diacetate and low-molecular model solutions was investigated. The characteristics of the diffusive transport of aqueous solutions of zinc and cadmium acetates through the cellulose diacetate membrane were obtained. The kinetic control of the porphyrin reaction incorporated into the polymer, and the determining influence of the steric limitations of the matrix of a rigid chain polymer on macroheterocycle deformation (and thus its reactivity) are shown.

  8. Molecular Structure of Phenylmercuric acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Phenylmercuric acetate is white to white-yellow crystalline powder that is odorless. This phenyl mercury compound is used mainly as a fungicide, herbicide, slimicide and bacteriocide. Phenylmercuric acid serves as a preservative in canned paint, eye ointments and drops, injectable solutions, skin disinfectants and in cosmetics products such as hair shampoos, mouthwashes and toothpastes. It is also used in contraceptive gels and foams. Phenylmercuric acetate is prepared by interaction of benzene with mercuric acetate in glacial acetic acid. Phenylmercuric acetate's former production and use as a fungicide and as a mildew inhibitor in paints may have resulted in its direct release to the environment. This substance is very toxic to aquatic organisms and may be hazardous to the environment.

  9. Stable polymer oxidant for decontamination. Final report, July 1991September 1992

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Tillman; M. S. Kaplan

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of a variety of polymers with ozone in oxygen was investigated as a means of forming covalently-bound peroxide groups attached to solid polymeric materials. Cellulose esters, such as cellulose acetate propionate, were found to form significant amounts of peroxide groups (greater than or equal to 1 mmol\\/g). These ozonized cellulose esters (XAE) were extensively tested for reactivity and sorptivity

  10. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, M.A.; Morris, R.S.

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorption agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure. 3 figs.

  11. Magnetic cellulose-derivative structures

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Myles A. (Falmouth, MA); Morris, Robert S. (Fairhaven, MA)

    1986-09-16

    Structures to serve as selective magnetic sorbents are formed by dissolving a cellulose derivative such as cellulose triacetate in a solvent containing magnetic particles. The resulting solution is sprayed as a fine mist into a chamber containing a liquid coagulant such as n-hexane in which the cellulose derivative is insoluble but in which the coagulant is soluble or miscible. On contact with the coagulant, the mist forms free-flowing porous magnetic microspheric structures. These structures act as containers for the ion-selective or organic-selective sorption agent of choice. Some sorbtion agents can be incorporated during the manufacture of the structure.

  12. Radiation degradation of cellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Arnold, G.; Baer, M.; Langguth, H.; Gey, M.; Hübert, S.

    The application of straw and other cellulose polymers as feedstuff for ruminants is limited by its low digestibility. During recent decades it was attempted to increase the digestibility of straw by several chemical and physical methods. In this work some results of the degradation of gamma and electron treated wheat straw are reported. Complex methods of treatment (e.g. radiation influence and influence of lyes) are taken into consideration. In vitro-experiments with radiation treated straw show that the digestibility can be increased from 20 % up to about 80 %. A high pressure liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the hydrolysates. The contents of certain species of carbohydrates in the hydrolysates in dependence on the applied dose are given.

  13. Biorefining of wheat straw using an acetic and formic acid based organosolv fractionation process.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Benjelloun-Mlayah, Bouchra; Huijgen, Wouter J J; de Wild, Paul J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Gerritsma, Jort; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the potential of acetic and formic acid organosolv fractionation of wheat straw as basis of an integral biorefinery concept, detailed knowledge on yield, composition and purity of the obtained streams is needed. Therefore, the process was performed, all fractions extensively characterized and the mass balance studied. Cellulose pulp yield was 48% of straw dry matter, while it was 21% and 27% for the lignin and hemicellulose-rich fractions. Composition analysis showed that 67% of wheat straw xylan and 96% of lignin were solubilized during the process, resulting in cellulose pulp of 63% purity, containing 93% of wheat straw cellulose. The isolated lignin fraction contained 84% of initial lignin and had a purity of 78%. A good part of wheat straw xylan (58%) ended up in the hemicellulose-rich fraction, half of it as monomeric xylose, together with proteins (44%), minerals (69%) and noticeable amounts of acids used during processing. PMID:24508905

  14. Flow properties of cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose from orange peel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fevzi Ya?ar; Hasan To?rul; Nurhan Arslan

    2007-01-01

    Cellulose was extracted with 10% NaOH at 35°C for 22h from defatted, protein, pectin and hemicellulose free, delignified orange peel. The combined effects of temperature and concentration on the viscosity of orange peel cellulose solutions were examined for a temperature range 20–60°C and a concentration range 1–10kg\\/m3. Twenty-eight different models describing the combined effects of temperature and concentration on the

  15. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight. (2...C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  20. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight. (2...C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  1. Multilayers of cellulose derivatives and chitosan on nanofibrillated cellulose.

    PubMed

    Junka, Karoliina; Sundman, Ola; Salmi, Jani; Osterberg, Monika; Laine, Janne

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of solution conditions and polysaccharide structure on their Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition on nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). Multilayer build-up of cellulose derivatives and chitosan on NFC model surfaces was studied using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Colloidal Probe Microscopy (CPM). The type of cationic polysaccharide was found to significantly affect the multilayer build-up and surface interactions. Cationic cellulose derivative quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose ethoxylate (HECE) formed highly water-swollen layers with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and the build-up was markedly influenced by both the ionic strength and pH. The ionic strength did not significantly influence the multilayer build-up of chitosan-CMC system, and adsorbed chitosan layers decreased the viscoelasticity of the system. Based on the results, it was also confirmed that electrostatic interaction is not the only driving force in case of the build-up of polysaccharide multilayers on nanofibrillated cellulose. PMID:24751244

  2. Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Russo, J A; Creinin, M D

    2010-09-01

    Ulipristal acetate is a progesterone receptor modulator. As an emergency contraceptive, a 30-mg micronized formulation is effective for use up to 120 h from unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate acts as an antagonist of the progesterone receptor at the transcriptional level and a competitive antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor function. In contrast to other contraceptives, it has little effect on sex hormone-binding globulin. Although a single small study demonstrated some potential endometrial effects after ulipristal acetate administration, the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. The incidence of adverse events in clinical trials for emergency contraception has typically been minimal, with one study showing a higher than expected incidence of nausea upon ulipristal acetate use. Ulipristal acetate, like other emergency contraceptive products, can lengthen the time to the next expected menstruation. Ulipristal acetate may have several advantages over currently approved emergency contraceptives. When compared to levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate maintains its efficacy for a full 120 h, whereas levonorgestrel formulations have declining efficacy over that time frame. Moreover, although the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is highly effective as an emergency contraceptive, accessibility is an issue since the IUD requires a skilled provider for insertion. PMID:20967297

  3. Influence of 2(3-methyl-cinnamyl-hydrazono)-propionate on glucose and palmitate oxidation in human mononuclear leukocytes. Hydrazonopropionic acids, a new class of hypoglycaemic substances, VII.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R; Fink, P C; Oellerich, M

    1987-09-01

    2-(3-Methyl-cinnamyl-hydrozono)-propionate stimulated glucose oxidation in human mononuclear leukocytes and the stimulation was similar to that by concanavalin A. Both substances must affect glucose metabolism at two sites, the first site being before the pyruvate dehydrogenase step because of the increase of lactate plus pyruvate concentration. The second site is related to pyruvate oxidation. The hydrazone inhibited the conversion of plamitate to CO2. This effect could have caused an activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, resulting from a decrease acetyl-CoA/CoA ratio. Concanavalin A did not influence fatty acid oxidation. Both substances did not affect the CO2 formation from acetate. Mononuclear leukocytes appear to be a suitable model for the investigation of the influence of hypoglycaemic substances on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in living human cells. PMID:3119765

  4. Ulipristal acetate: contraceptive or contragestive?

    PubMed

    Keenan, Jeffrey A

    2011-06-01

    Ulipristal acetate is the first selective progesterone receptor modulator approved for postcoital contraception in the US. It appears to be significantly more effective in inhibition of ovulation than other forms of emergency contraception. However, ulipristal acetate is structurally similar to mifepristone, and several lines of evidence suggest that a postfertilization mechanism of action is also operative. This mechanism of action is considered to be contragestive versus contraceptive. Ulipristal acetate administration is contraindicated in a known or suspected pregnancy; however, it could quite possibly be used as an effective abortifacient. Health-care providers should inform patients of the possibility of both mechanisms of action with use of this drug. PMID:21666088

  5. Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

  6. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% under occlusion in the treatment of alopecia totalis\\/universalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Tosti; Bianca Maria Piraccini; Massimiliano Pazzaglia; Colombina Vincenzi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Efficacy of topical steroids in alopecia areata is still discussed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment under occlusion in 28 patients with alopecia areata totalis (AT) or AT\\/alopecia universalis. Methods: A total of 28 patients were instructed to apply 2.5 g of clobetasol propionate to the right side of

  7. Nucleophilic ?-Carbon Activation of Propionic Acid as a 3-Carbon Synthon by Carbene Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhichao; Jiang, Ke; Fu, Zhenqian; Torres, Jaume; Zheng, Pengcheng; Yang, Song; Song, Bao-An; Chi, Yonggui Robin

    2015-06-22

    Direct ?-carbon activation of propionic acid (C2 H5 CO2 H) by carbene organocatalysis has been developed. This activation affords the smallest azolium homoenolate intermediate (without any substituent) as a 3-carbon nucleophile for enantioselective reactions. Propionic acid is an excellent raw material because it is cheap, stable, and safe. This approach provides a much better solution to azolium homoenolate synthesis than the previously established use of acrolein (enal without any substituent), which is expensive, unstable, and toxic. PMID:26013883

  8. Thin and flexible bio-batteries made of electrospun cellulose-based membranes.

    PubMed

    Baptista, A C; Martins, J I; Fortunato, E; Martins, R; Borges, J P; Ferreira, I

    2011-01-15

    The present work proposes the development of a bio-battery composed by an ultrathin monolithic structure of an electrospun cellulose acetate membrane, over which was deposited metallic thin film electrodes by thermal evaporation on both surfaces. The electrochemical characterization of the bio-batteries was performed under simulated body fluids like sweat and blood plasma [salt solution--0.9% (w/w) NaCl]. Reversible electrochemical reactions were detected through the cellulose acetate structure. Thus, a stable electrochemical behavior was achieved for a bio-battery with silver and aluminum thin films as electrodes. This device exhibits the ability to supply a power density higher than 3 ?W cm(-2). Finally, a bio-battery prototype was tested on a sweated skin, demonstrating the potential of applicability of this bio-device as a micropower source. PMID:21055915

  9. Cellulose biosynthesis in Acetobacter xylinum

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    Time-lapse video microscopy has shown periodic reversals during the synthesis of cellulose. In the presence of Congo Red, Acetobacter produces a band of fine fibrils. The direction of cell movement is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of cell, and the rate of movement was decreased. A linear row of particles, presumably the cellulose synthesizing complexes, was found on the outer membrane by freeze-fracture technique. During the cell cycle, the increase of particles in linear row, the differentiation to four linear rows and the separation of the linear rows have been observed. A digitonin-solubilized cellulose synthase was prepared from A. xylinum, and incubated under conditions known to lead to active in vitro synthesis of 1,4-{beta}-D-glucan polymer. Electron microscopy revealed that clusters of fibrils were assembled within minutes. Individual fibrils are 17 {plus minus} 2 angstroms in diameter. Evidence for the cellulosic composition of newly synthesized fibrils was based on incorporation of tritium from UDP-({sup 3}H) glucose binding of gold-labeled cellobiohydrolase, and an electron diffraction pattern identified as cellulose II polymorph instead of cellulose I.

  10. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Y. K.; Eun, J. S.; Lee, S. C.; Chu, G. M.; Lee, Sung S.; Moon, Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age) equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C), 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1), 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2) and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3) of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05) by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration. PMID:25557815

  11. Fe(0) enhanced acetification of propionate and granulation of sludge in acidogenic reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Yaobin; Meng, Xusheng; Yu, Zhonghan; Quan, Xie

    2015-07-01

    Acidogenic reactors commonly operated at short hydraulic retention times (HRT) are liable to cause low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and acidogenic efficiency especially under fluctuating feed. Granular sludge as an efficient form for anaerobic microbial community to resist shocks in methanogenic reactors has been widely investigated, which however was less focused in acidogenic reactors. Adding Fe(0) in an acidogenic reactor with propionate as the substrate operated at HRT of 2 h was found to enhance the propionate decomposition and sludge granulation in this study. When increasing the organic load and decreasing pH in the feed, the propionate conversion and COD removal in the reactor with Fe(0) were higher than those in the control reactor. The sludge granulation was well developed in this reactor. Fe(0) advanced the growth of homoacetogenic bacteria that consumed the hydrogen produced in acetification of propionate. The propionate-oxidizing bacteria and homoacetogenic bacteria grew together in the sludge to accelerate hydrogen transfer, which was an important reason for the enhanced propionate decomposition and sludge granulation in the acidogenesis. PMID:25728443

  12. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  13. Methanogenesis from acetate: enrichment studies.

    PubMed

    Baresi, L; Mah, R A; Ward, D M; Kaplan, I R

    1978-07-01

    An acetate enrichment culture was initiated by inoculating anaerobic sludge from a mesophilic methane digestor into a mineral salts medium with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. This enrichment was maintained indefinitely by weekly transfer into medium of the same composition. A study of this enrichment disclosed an unexpected age-dependent inhibition of methanogenesis by H2 and formate which apparently differed from the inhibition by chloroform and benzyl viologen. This age-dependent inhibition indicated that microbial interactions of the mixed enrichment population may play a regulatory role in methane formation. Futhermore, stimulation of methanogenesis in the acetate enrichment by addition of yeast extract showed a nutrient limitation which indicated that syntrophic interactions leading to formation of growth factors may also occur. A model is presented to illustrate the possible interrelationships between methanogenic and nonmethanogenic bacteria in their growth and formation of methane and carbon dioxide from acetate. PMID:697356

  14. [Propionic acidemia with myelination disorders of the CNS].

    PubMed

    Behbehani, A W; Lehnert, W; Langenbeck, U; Luthe, H; Baumgartner, R

    1984-01-01

    Clinical course and special diagnostic procedures in a 7 1/2 weeks old dystrophic infant with propionic acidemia are described. The disorder manifested with vomiting and diarrhea within the first week of life when the child was on a cow milk formula. Parenteral nutrition with glucose and electrolytes led to improvement. When oral nutrition with a cow milk formula was implemented again, an acute deterioration with diarrhoea and vomiting occurred. Thus, a diagnosis of cow milk allergy was suggested. There was also a severe muscular hypotony. Oral nutrition with a soybean formula did not prevent further clinical deterioration. At 7 1/2 weeks of age the patient died with symptoms of cardiogenic shock. The correct diagnosis was considered too late and confirmed post mortem. Clinical symptoms in the neonatal period like vomiting, muscular hypotony and failure to thrive should alert the physician to a possible diagnosis of a hereditary organic aciduria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of urinary organics acids, in the present case, established the diagnosis. On autopsy, spongy degenerations were found in CNS. PMID:6737946

  15. Unusual Presentation of Propionic Acidemia as Isolated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T. M.; Addonizio, L. J.; Barshop, B. A.; Chung, W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Propionic acidemia (PA) is an autosomal recessive disease that results from deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). In virtually all reported cases of PA, the phenotype includes metabolic acidosis and/or neurological deficits. We report on a 14-year-old Asian male with PA who presented with isolated cardiomyopathy without any episodes of metabolic acidosis or evidence of any neurocognitive deficits. On routine metabolic screening, the patient was found to have urine organic acids suggestive of PA. Biochemical and genetic characterization confirmed a PCC deficiency with two novel mutations in PCCB: IVS7+2 T>G (c.763+2 T>G) and p.R410Q (c.1229 G>A). Residual enzyme activity likely explains our patient’s mild phenotype. Splicing mutations tend to result in a milder phenotype as these mutations may still produce small amounts of normal enzyme. In addition, the similar p.R410W mutation has been shown to have partial residual activity. Moreover, this case illustrates the important but under-recognized manifestation of isolated cardiomyopathy as the sole clinical presentation in PA. A thorough metabolic evaluation should be performed in all pediatric patients with cardiomyopathy. Such an evaluation has important implications for clinical management and genetic counseling. PMID:19238581

  16. Molecular Structure of Acetic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-02

    Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

  17. Optimization of culture conditions for bacterial cellulose production from Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahadevaswamy Usha Rani; Anu Appaiah

    Fermentation conditions for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by a newly isolated Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09 were optimized. The effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources on production of BC was determined. The addition\\u000a of ethanol (1.5%) and acetic acid (1.0%) enhanced BC production by more than three times compared to standard Hestrin and\\u000a Schramm medium. The strain was able

  18. Visualization of biomass solubilization and cellulose regeneration during ionic liquid pretreatment of switchgrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema Singh; Blake A. Simmons; Kenneth P. Vogel

    2009-01-01

    Auto-fluorescent mapping of plant cell walls was used to visualize cellulose and lignin in pristine switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stems to determine the mechanisms of biomass dissolution during ionic liquid pretreatment. The addition of ground switchgrass to the ionic liquid 1-n-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate resulted in the disruption and solubilization of the plant cell wall at mild temperatures. Swelling of the plant cell

  19. Production of carboxymethyl cellulose from sugar beet pulp cellulose and rheological behaviour of carboxymethyl cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan To?rul; Nurhan Arslan

    2003-01-01

    The sugar beet pulp cellulose was converted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by etherification and the process of carboxymethylation was optimised with respect to the solvent medium, alkali concentration, sodium chloroacetate amount, temperature and time of reaction. The optimised product had a DS of 0.6670 and the optimum conditions for carboxymethylation were sodium chloroacetate amount of 3.0 g, an NaOH concentration of

  20. Selected morphological and functional properties of extruded acetylated starch-cellulose foams.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junjie; Hanna, Milford A

    2006-09-01

    Starch acetates with degrees of substitution (DS) of 1.68 and 2.3 were extruded with 10%, 20% and 30% (w/w) cellulose and 20% (w/w) ethanol in a twin screw extruder at 150, 160 and 170 degrees C barrel temperatures and 170, 200 and 230 rpm screw speeds. X-ray diffractogram (XRD), differential scanning calormetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze the morphological properties of extruded foams. A central composite response surface design was applied to analyze the effects of starch type, cellulose content, barrel temperature and screw speed on specific mechanical energy requirement of extruding foams and the radial expansion ratio and compressibility of the extruded foams. XRD showed losses of DS starch and cellulose crystallinity and the formation of new complexes. FTIR spectra revealed that functional groups and chemical bonds were maintained after extrusion. Melting temperatures changed significantly when higher DS starch acetate was used. Cellulose content, barrel temperature and screw speed showed significant effects on thermal, physical and mechanical properties of extruded foams and the specific mechanical energy requirement. PMID:16769212

  1. A propionate CoA-transferase of Ralstonia eutropha H16 with broad substrate specificity catalyzing the CoA thioester formation of various carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Lindenkamp, Nicole; Schürmann, Marc; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we have investigated a propionate CoA-transferase (Pct) homologue encoded in the genome of Ralstonia eutropha H16. The corresponding gene has been cloned into the vector pET-19b to yield a histidine-tagged enzyme which was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). After purification, high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) analyses revealed that the enzyme exhibits a broad substrate specificity for carboxylic acids. The formation of the corresponding CoA-thioesters of acetate using propionyl-CoA as CoA donor, and of propionate, butyrate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxypropionate, crotonate, acrylate, lactate, succinate and 4-hydroxybutyrate using acetyl-CoA as CoA donor could be shown. According to the substrate specificity, the enzyme can be allocated in the family I of CoA-transferases. The apparent molecular masses as determined by gel filtration and detected by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were 228 and 64 kDa, respectively, and point to a quaternary structure of the native enzyme (?4). The enzyme exhibited similarities in sequence and structure to the well investigated Pct of Clostridium propionicum. It does not contain the typical conserved (S)ENG motif, but the derived motif sequence EXG with glutamate 342 to be, most likely, the catalytic residue. Due to the homo-oligomeric structure and the sequence differences with the subclasses IA-C of family I CoA-transferases, a fourth subclass of family I is proposed, comprising - amongst others - the Pcts of R. eutropha H16 and C. propionicum. A markerless precise-deletion mutant R. eutropha H16?pct was generated. The growth and accumulation behaviour of this mutant on gluconate, gluconate plus 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid (DTDP), acetate and propionate was investigated but resulted in no observable phenotype. Both, the wild type and the mutant showed the same growth and storage behaviour with these carbon sources. It is probable that R. eutropha H16 is upregulating other CoA-transferase(s) or CoA-synthetase(s), thereby compensating for the lacking Pct. The ability of R. eutropha H16 to substitute absent enzymes by isoenzymes has been already shown in different other studies in the past. PMID:23250223

  2. Gravity effects on cellulose assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. M. Jr; Kudlicka, K.; Cousins, S. K.; Nagy, R.; Brown RM, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on cellulose synthesis using the model system of Acetobacter xylinum was the subject of recent investigations using The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Reduced Gravity Laboratory, a modified KC-135 aircraft designed to produce 20 sec of microgravity during the top of a parabolic dive. Approximately 40 parabolas were executed per mission, and a period of 2 x g was integral to the pullout phase of each parabola. Cellulose biosynthesis was initiated on agar surfaces, liquid growth medium, and buffered glucose during parabolic flight and terminated with 2.0% sodium azide or 50.0% ethanol. While careful ground and in-flight controls indicated normal, compact ribbons of microbial cellulose, data from five different flights consistently showed that during progression into the parabola regime, the cellulose ribbons became splayed. This observation suggests that some element of the parabola (the 20 sec microgravity phase, the 20 sec 2 x g phase, or a combination of both) was responsible for this effect. Presumably the cellulose I alpha crystalline polymorph normally is produced under strain, and the microgravity/hypergravity combination may relieve this stress to produce splayed ribbons. An in-flight video microscopy analysis of bacterial motions during a parabolic series demonstrated that the bacteria continue to synthesize cellulose during all phases of the parabolic series. Thus, the splaying may be a reflection of a more subtle alteration such as reduction of intermicrofibrillar hydrogen bonding. Long-term microgravity exposures during spaceflight will be necessary to fully understand the cellulose alterations from the short-term microgravity experiments.

  3. Acetate Synthesis from H(2) plus CO(2) by Termite Gut Microbes.

    PubMed

    Breznak, J A; Switzer, J M

    1986-10-01

    Gut microbiota from Reticulitermes flavipes termites catalyzed an H(2)-dependent total synthesis of acetate from CO(2). Rates of H(2)-CO(2) acetogenesis in vitro were 1.11 +/- 0.37 mumol of acetate g (fresh weight) h (equivalent to 4.44 +/- 1.47 nmol termite h) and could account for approximately 1/3 of all the acetate produced during the hindgut fermentation. Formate was also produced from H(2) + CO(2), as were small amounts of propionate, butyrate, and lactate-succinate. However, H(2)-CO(2) formicogenesis seemed largely unrelated to acetogenesis and was believed not to be a significant reaction in situ. Little or no CH(4) was formed from H(2) + CO(2) or from acetate. H(2)-CO(2) acetogenesis was inhibited by O(2), KCN, CHCl(3), and iodopropane and could be abolished by prefeeding R. flavipes with antibacterial drugs. By contrast, prefeeding R. flavipes with starch resulted in almost complete defaunation but had little effect on H(2)-CO(2) acetogenesis, suggesting that bacteria were the acetogenic agents in the gut. H(2)-CO(2) acetogenesis was also observed with gut microbiota from Prorhinotermes simplex, Zootermopsis angusticollis, Nasutitermes costalis, and N. nigriceps; from the wood-eating cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus; and from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. Pure cultures of H(2)-CO(2)-acetogenic bacteria were isolated from N. nigriceps, and a preliminary account of their morphological and physiological properties is presented. Results indicate that in termites, CO(2) reduction to acetate, rather than to CH(4), represents the main electron sink reaction of the hindgut fermentation and can provide the insects with a significant fraction (ca. 1/3) of their principal oxidizable energy source, acetate. PMID:16347157

  4. Acetate Synthesis from H2 plus CO2 by Termite Gut Microbes †

    PubMed Central

    Breznak, John A.; Switzer, Jodi M.

    1986-01-01

    Gut microbiota from Reticulitermes flavipes termites catalyzed an H2-dependent total synthesis of acetate from CO2. Rates of H2-CO2 acetogenesis in vitro were 1.11 ± 0.37 ?mol of acetate g (fresh weight)?1 h?1 (equivalent to 4.44 ± 1.47 nmol termite?1 h?1) and could account for approximately 1/3 of all the acetate produced during the hindgut fermentation. Formate was also produced from H2 + CO2, as were small amounts of propionate, butyrate, and lactate-succinate. However, H2-CO2 formicogenesis seemed largely unrelated to acetogenesis and was believed not to be a significant reaction in situ. Little or no CH4 was formed from H2 + CO2 or from acetate. H2-CO2 acetogenesis was inhibited by O2, KCN, CHCl3, and iodopropane and could be abolished by prefeeding R. flavipes with antibacterial drugs. By contrast, prefeeding R. flavipes with starch resulted in almost complete defaunation but had little effect on H2-CO2 acetogenesis, suggesting that bacteria were the acetogenic agents in the gut. H2-CO2 acetogenesis was also observed with gut microbiota from Prorhinotermes simplex, Zootermopsis angusticollis, Nasutitermes costalis, and N. nigriceps; from the wood-eating cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus; and from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. Pure cultures of H2-CO2-acetogenic bacteria were isolated from N. nigriceps, and a preliminary account of their morphological and physiological properties is presented. Results indicate that in termites, CO2 reduction to acetate, rather than to CH4, represents the main electron sink reaction of the hindgut fermentation and can provide the insects with a significant fraction (ca. 1/3) of their principal oxidizable energy source, acetate. PMID:16347157

  5. Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, F.W.; Casebier, R.L.; Hamilton, J.K.; Sandberg, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared by subjecting dilute slurries of cellulose fibers to repeated high-pressure homogenizing action. A highly microfibrillated product will have a gel-like appearance at 2% concentration in water. Such gels have pseudoplastic viscosity properties and are very fluid when stirred at high shear rate. The relative viscosity of 2% MFC dispersions may be used as a measure of the degree of homogenization or microfibrillation of a given wood cellulose pulp. The water retention value of an MFC product can also be used as an indicator for degree of homogenization. Structurally, MFC appears to be a web of interconnected fibrils and microfibrils, the latter having diameters in the range 10-100 nm as observed in scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Chemical studies have revealed that MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC toward chemical reagents is greatly increased. Higher reactivity was demonstrated in dilute cupriethylenediamine solubility, triphenylmethylation, acetylation, periodate oxidation, and mineral acid and cellulase enzyme hydrolysis rates. 16 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

  6. Inactivation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Degradation and Removal of Cellulose from STEC Surfaces by Using Selected Enzymatic and Chemical Treatments?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2011-01-01

    Some Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains produce extracellular cellulose, a long polymer of glucose with ?-1-4 glycosidic bonds. This study evaluated the efficacies of selected enzymatic and chemical treatments in inactivating STEC and degrading/removing the cellulose on STEC surfaces. Six cellulose-producing STEC strains were treated with cellulase (0.51 to 3.83 U/15 ml), acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%), as well as an acidic and alkaline sanitizer (manufacturers' recommended concentrations) under appropriate conditions. Following each treatment, residual amounts of cellulose and surviving populations of STEC were determined. Treatments with acetic and lactic acids significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the populations of STEC, and those with lactic acid also significantly decreased the amounts of cellulose on STEC. The residual amounts of cellulose on STEC positively correlated to the surviving populations of STEC after the treatments with the organic acids (r = 0.64 to 0.94), and the significance of the correlations ranged from 83 to 99%. Treatments with cellulase and the sanitizers both degraded cellulose. However, treatments with cellulase had no influence on the fate of STEC, and those with the sanitizers reduced STEC cell populations to undetectable levels. Thus, the correlations between the residual amounts of cellulose and the surviving populations of STEC caused by these two treatments were not observed. The results suggest that the selected enzymatic and chemical agents degraded and removed the cellulose on STEC surfaces, and the treatments with organic acids and sanitizers also inactivated STEC cells. The amounts of cellulose produced by STEC strains appear to affect their susceptibilities to certain sanitizing treatments. PMID:22003030

  7. Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Chris C; Cox, Brad M; Rodriguez, Brandon A

    2014-05-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is a short-chain fatty acid with wide industrial application including uses in pharmaceuticals, herbicides, cosmetics, and food preservatives. As a three-carbon building block, PA also has potential as a precursor for high-volume commodity chemicals such as propylene. Currently, most PA is manufactured through petrochemical routes, which can be tied to increasing prices and volatility due to difficulty in demand forecasting and feedstock availability. Herein described are research advancements to develop an industrially feasible, renewable route to PA. Seventeen Propionibacterium strains were screened using glucose and sucrose as the carbon source to identify the best platform strain. Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was selected as the platform strain and subsequent fermentation optimization studies were performed to maximize productivity and yield. Fermentation productivity was improved three-fold to exceed 2 g/l/h by densifying the inoculum source. Byproduct levels, particularly lactic and succinic acid, were reduced by optimizing fermentor headspace pressure and shear. Following achievement of commercially viable productivities, the lab-grade medium components were replaced with industrial counterparts to further reduce fermentation costs. A pure enzymatically treated corn mash (ECM) medium improved the apparent PA yield to 0.6 g/g (PA produced/glucose consumed), but it came at the cost of reduced productivity. Supplementation of ECM with cyanocobalamin restored productivity to near lab-grade media levels. The optimized ECM recipe achieved a productivity of 0.5 g/l/h with an apparent PA yield of 0.60 g/g corresponding to a media cost <1 USD/kg of PA. These improvements significantly narrow the gap between the fermentation and incumbent petrochemical processes, which is estimated to have a manufacturing cost of 0.82 USD/kg in 2017. PMID:24627047

  8. Comb polymers prepared by ATRP from hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ostmark, Emma; Harrisson, Simon; Wooley, Karen L; Malmström, Eva E

    2007-04-01

    Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was used as a core molecule for controlled grafting of monomers by ATRP, the aim being to produce densely grafted comb polymers. HPC was either allowed to react with an ATRP initiator or the first generation initiator-functionalized 2,2-bis(methylol)propionic acid dendron to create macroinitiators having high degrees of functionality. The macroinitiators were then "grafted from" using ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or hexadecyl methacrylate. Block copolymers were obtained by chain extending PMMA-grafted HPCs via the ATRP of tert-butyl acrylate. Subsequent selective acidolysis of the tert-butyl ester moieties was performed to form a block of poly(acrylic acid) resulting in amphiphilic block copolymer grafts. The graft copolymers were characterized by 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies, DSC, TGA, rheological measurements, DLS, and tapping mode AFM on samples spin coated upon mica. It was found that the comb (co)polymers were in the nanometer size range and that the dendronization had an interesting effect on the rheological properties. PMID:17367185

  9. A molecular description of cellulose biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Joshua T; Morgan, Jacob L W; Zimmer, Jochen

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, and certain organisms from bacteria to plants and animals synthesize cellulose as an extracellular polymer for various biological functions. Humans have used cellulose for millennia as a material and an energy source, and the advent of a lignocellulosic fuel industry will elevate it to the primary carbon source for the burgeoning renewable energy sector. Despite the biological and societal importance of cellulose, the molecular mechanism by which it is synthesized is now only beginning to emerge. On the basis of recent advances in structural and molecular biology on bacterial cellulose synthases, we review emerging concepts of how the enzymes polymerize glucose molecules, how the nascent polymer is transported across the plasma membrane, and how bacterial cellulose biosynthesis is regulated during biofilm formation. Additionally, we review evolutionary commonalities and differences between cellulose synthases that modulate the nature of the cellulose product formed. PMID:26034894

  10. Plant cellulose synthesis: CESA proteins crossing kingdoms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Turner, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Cellulose is a biopolymer of considerable economic importance. It is synthesised by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) in species ranging from bacteria to higher plants. Enormous progress in our understanding of bacterial cellulose synthesis has come with the recent publication of both the crystal structure and biochemical characterisation of a purified complex able to synthesis cellulose in vitro. A model structure of a plant CESA protein suggests considerable similarity between the bacterial and plant cellulose synthesis. In this review article we will cover current knowledge of how plant CESA proteins synthesise cellulose. In particular the focus will be on the lessons learned from the recent work on the catalytic mechanism and the implications that new data on cellulose structure has for the assembly of CESA proteins into the large complex that synthesis plant cellulose microfibrils. PMID:25104231

  11. Cellulose degradation by polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Beeson, William T; Vu, Van V; Span, Elise A; Phillips, Christopher M; Marletta, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs), also known as lytic PMOs (LPMOs), enhance the depolymerization of recalcitrant polysaccharides by hydrolytic enzymes and are found in the majority of cellulolytic fungi and actinomycete bacteria. For more than a decade, PMOs were incorrectly annotated as family 61 glycoside hydrolases (GH61s) or family 33 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM33s). PMOs have an unusual surface-exposed active site with a tightly bound Cu(II) ion that catalyzes the regioselective hydroxylation of crystalline cellulose, leading to glycosidic bond cleavage. The genomes of some cellulolytic fungi contain more than 20 genes encoding cellulose-active PMOs, suggesting a diversity of biological activities. PMOs show great promise in reducing the cost of conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars; however, many questions remain about their reaction mechanism and biological function. This review addresses, in depth, the structural and mechanistic aspects of oxidative depolymerization of cellulose by PMOs and considers their biological function and phylogenetic diversity. PMID:25784051

  12. Development of nonflammable cellulosic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttinger, M.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a moldable cellulosic foam for use in Skylab instrument storage cushions is considered. Requirements include density of 10 lb cu ft or less, minimal friability with normal handling, and nonflammability in an atmosphere of 70 percent oxygen and 30 percent nitrogen at 6.2 psia. A study of halogenated foam components was made, including more highly chlorinated binders, halogen-containing additives, and halogenation of the cellulose. The immediate objective was to reduce the density of the foam through reduction in inorganic phosphate without sacrificing flame-retarding properties of the foams. The use of frothing techniques was investigated, with particular emphasis on a urea-formaldehyde foam. Halogen-containing flame retardants were deemphasized in favor of inorganic salts and the preparation of phosphate and sulphate esters of cellulose. Utilization of foam products for civilian applications was also considered.

  13. Properties of Polymer Composites with Cellulose Microfibrils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Mihaela Panaitescu; Dumitru Mircea Vuluga; Horia Paven; Michaela Doina Iorga; Marius Ghiurea; Ileana Matasaru; Petronela Nechita

    2008-01-01

    Polypropylene-based composites containing 10–30% by weight cellulose microfibrils were studied. Composites with polypropylene and cellulose microfibrils were characterised by MS-coupled simultaneous TGA-DSC and the reinforcing effect of cellulose microfibrils was emphasised by mechanical characterization. Experimental results are discussed in connection with the composite preparation method by mixing and extrusion. The effect of cellulose on the thermal stability and degradation behaviour

  14. Adsorption and desorption of cellulose derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Hoogendam

    1998-01-01

    Cellulose derivatives, in particular carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) are used in many (industrial) applications. The aim of this work is to obtain insight into the adsorption mechanism of cellulose derivatives on solid-liquid interfaces.In chapter 1<\\/strong> of this thesis we discuss some applications of cellulose derivatives. Application of CMC in pelleting of iron ore and in papermaking and the role of adsorption

  15. Magnetic field effect for cellulose nanofiber alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Chen, Yi; Kang, Kwang-Sun; Park, Young-Bin; Schwartz, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Regenerated cellulose formed into cellulose nanofibers under strong magnetic field and aligned perpendicularly to the magnetic field. Well-aligned microfibrils were found as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased. Better alignment and more crystalline structure of the cellulose resulted in the increased decomposition temperature of the material. X-ray crystallograms showed that crystallinity index of the cellulose increased as the exposure time of the magnetic field increased.

  16. Tyrosine B10 triggers a heme propionate hydrogen bonding network loop with glutamine E7 moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos-Santana, Brenda J., E-mail: brenda.ramos@upr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico); Lopez-Garriga, Juan, E-mail: juan.lopez16@upr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagueez Campus, P.O. Box 9019, Mayagueez 00681-9019 (Puerto Rico)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H-bonding network loop by PheB10Tyr mutation is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The propionate group H-bonding network restricted the flexibility of the heme. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hydrogen bonding interaction modulates the electron density of the iron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propionate H-bonding network loop explains the heme-ligand stabilization. -- Abstract: Propionates, as peripheral groups of the heme active center in hemeproteins have been described to contribute in the modulation of heme reactivity and ligand selection. These electronic characteristics prompted the question of whether the presence of hydrogen bonding networks between propionates and distal amino acids present in the heme ligand moiety can modulate physiological relevant events, like ligand binding association and dissociation activities. Here, the role of these networks was evaluated by NMR spectroscopy using the hemoglobin I PheB10Tyr mutant from Lucina pectinata as model for TyrB10 and GlnE7 hemeproteins. {sup 1}H-NMR results for the rHbICN PheB10Tyr derivative showed chemical shifts of TyrB10 OH{eta} at 31.00 ppm, GlnE7 N{sub {epsilon}1}H/N{sub {epsilon}2}H at 10.66 ppm/-3.27 ppm, and PheE11 C{sub {delta}}H at 11.75 ppm, indicating the presence of a crowded, collapsed, and constrained distal pocket. Strong dipolar contacts and inter-residues crosspeaks between GlnE7/6-propionate group, GlnE7/TyrB10 and TyrB10/CN suggest that this hydrogen bonding network loop between GlnE7, TyrB10, 6-propionate group, and the heme ligand contribute significantly to the modulation of the heme iron electron density as well as the ligand stabilization mechanism. Therefore, the network loop presented here support the fact that the electron withdrawing character of the hydrogen bonding is controlled by the interaction of the propionates and the nearby electronic environments contributing to the modulation of the heme electron density state. Thus, we hypothesize that in hemeproteins with similar electrostatic environment the flexibility of the heme-6-propionate promotes a hydrogen bonding network loop between the 6-propionate, the heme ligand and nearby amino acids, tailoring in this way the electron density in the heme-ligand moiety.

  17. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leschine

    2009-01-01

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms.

  18. Photo-induced degradation of cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maleši?; J. Kolar; M. Strli?; D. Ko?ar; D. Fromageot; J. Lemaire; O. Haillant

    2005-01-01

    Irradiation by light is considered to be one of the primary sources of damage exerted upon cellulosic substrates at ambient conditions. Yet, contrary to studies on thermal ageing of cellulose, only limited attention is devoted to light induced degradation of paper.This research demonstrates that extensive oxidative degradation of cellulose, accompanied by formation of hydroxyl radicals, occurs during exposure to light

  19. Iodine catalyzed acetylation of starch and cellulose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch and cellulose, earth's most abundant biopolymers, are of tremendous economic importance. Over 90% of cotton and 50% of wood are made of cellulose. Wood and cotton are the major resources for all cellulose products such as paper, textiles, construction materials, cardboard, as well as such c...

  20. Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Mehmet; Sardon, Haritz; Mecerreyes, David

    2014-01-01

    Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. PMID:25000264

  1. Double blind trial of oral fluticasone propionate v prednisolone in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, A B; Record, C O; Holdsworth, C D; Giaffer, M H; Burke, D A; Keech, M L; Hawkey, C J

    1993-01-01

    Fluticasone propionate is a corticosteroid with the potential for topical treatment of ulcerative colitis because of low systemic bioavailability. The drug was compared with prednisolone in the management of active left sided or total ulcerative colitis. Two hundred and five patients were studied in the multicentre four week double blind study. Prednisolone was given in a dose of 40 mg daily orally, reducing over four weeks to 10 or 20 mg. Fluticasone propionate was given in an oral daily dose of 20 mg. The primary end point was the investigator's overall assessment of response. Patient's assessment, sigmoidoscopic appearance, and histology were also studied. Patients improved more rapidly with prednisolone. Differences between the two groups were significant at two weeks. At four weeks differences were not significant, but there was a trend in favour of prednisolone. Corticosteroid side effects were minimal in the fluticasone propionate group, and there was minimal suppression of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Fluticasone propionate 20 mg daily is not as effective in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis as prednisolone tapering from 40 mg daily to 10 or 20 mg. The complete absence of suppression of the corticoadrenal axis by fluticasone propionate was encouraging, however, and a higher dosage schedule should be assessed. PMID:8432442

  2. Taraxerol acetate at 100 K.

    PubMed

    Billodeaux, D R; Benavides, G A; Fischer, N H; Fronczek, F R

    1999-12-15

    The title triterpene, D-friedoolean-14-en-3 beta-yl acetate, C32H52O2, was isolated from dichloromethane extracts of the roots of common ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia. The skeleton contains five fused six-membered rings with an average Csp3-Csp3 bond distance of 1.549 (6) A and one double bond of length 1.348 (6) A. The D and E rings are cis-fused. The compound also contains a beta-oriented acetate group with a C-O distance 1.461 (5) A. PMID:10641284

  3. Cellulose Biosynthesis: Current Views and Evolving Concepts

    PubMed Central

    SAXENA, INDER M.; BROWN, R. MALCOLM

    2005-01-01

    • Aims To outline the current state of knowledge and discuss the evolution of various viewpoints put forth to explain the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis. • Scope Understanding the mechanism of cellulose biosynthesis is one of the major challenges in plant biology. The simplicity in the chemical structure of cellulose belies the complexities that are associated with the synthesis and assembly of this polysaccharide. Assembly of cellulose microfibrils in most organisms is visualized as a multi-step process involving a number of proteins with the key protein being the cellulose synthase catalytic sub-unit. Although genes encoding this protein have been identified in almost all cellulose synthesizing organisms, it has been a challenge in general, and more specifically in vascular plants, to demonstrate cellulose synthase activity in vitro. The assembly of glucan chains into cellulose microfibrils of specific dimensions, viewed as a spontaneous process, necessitates the assembly of synthesizing sites unique to most groups of organisms. The steps of polymerization (requiring the specific arrangement and activity of the cellulose synthase catalytic sub-units) and crystallization (directed self-assembly of glucan chains) are certainly interlinked in the formation of cellulose microfibrils. Mutants affected in cellulose biosynthesis have been identified in vascular plants. Studies on these mutants and herbicide-treated plants suggest an interesting link between the steps of polymerization and crystallization during cellulose biosynthesis. • Conclusions With the identification of a large number of genes encoding cellulose synthases and cellulose synthase-like proteins in vascular plants and the supposed role of a number of other proteins in cellulose biosynthesis, a complete understanding of this process will necessitate a wider variety of research tools and approaches than was thought to be required a few years back. PMID:15894551

  4. Non-neuronal release of ACh plays a key role in secretory response to luminal propionate in rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Takaji; Inoue, Ryo; Matsumoto, Megumi; Yajima, Masako

    2011-01-01

    Colonic chloride secretion is induced by chemical stimuli via the enteric nervous reflex. We have previously demonstrated that propionate stimulates chloride secretion via sensory and cholinergic systems of the mucosa in rat distal colon. In this study, we demonstrate non-neuronal release of ACh in the secretory response to propionate using an Ussing chamber. Mucosa preparations from the colon, not including the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, were used. Luminal addition of propionate and serosal addition of ACh caused biphasic changes in short-circuit current (Isc). TTX (1 ?m) had no effects, while atropine (10 ?m) significantly inhibited the Isc response to propionate and abolished that to ACh. In response to luminal propionate stimulation, ACh was released into the serosal fluid. A linear relationship was observed between the maximal increase in Isc and the amounts of ACh released 5 min after propionate stimulation. This ACh release induced by propionate was not affected by atropine and bumetanide, although both drugs significantly reduced the Isc responses to propionate. Luminal addition of 3-chloropropionate, an inactive analogue of propionate, abolished both ACh release and Isc response produced by propionate. RT-PCR analysis indicated that isolated crypt cells from the distal colon expressed an enzyme of ACh synthesis (ChAT) and transporters of organic cation (OCTs), but not neuronal CHT1 and VAChT. The isolated crypt cells contained comparable amounts of ACh to the residual muscle tissues including nerve plexuses. In conclusion, the non-neuronal release of ACh from colonocytes coupled with propionate stimulation plays a key role in chloride secretion, via the paracrine action of ACh on muscarinic receptors of colonocytes. PMID:21135046

  5. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  6. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  7. Very short OHO hydrogen bond in bis(2-quinuclidinium-propionate) hydrobromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2010-09-01

    The molecular structure of bis(2-quinuclidinium-propionate) hydrobromide, (QNPr) 2HBr ( 1), has been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The crystals ( 1) are triclinic, space group P1¯. The two QNPr moieties are joined by a very short O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.449(3) Å, over the inversion centre. The short OHO hydrogen bond is confirmed by the broad absorption band below 1500 cm -1, with the centre of gravity, ?H, at ca. 900 cm -1, in the FTIR spectrum. In the structure of (QNPr) 2HBr ( 2) optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory, the 2-quinuclidinium-propionate units are non-equivalent. The 2-quinuclidinium-propionic acid interacts with the QNPr inner salt by the O-H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.533 Å.

  8. Evaluation of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) as a carrier in solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Fumié; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kokubo, Hiroyasu; Obara, Sakaé

    2004-01-01

    The utility of hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a cellulosic enteric coating agent, as a carrier in a solid dispersion of nifedipine (NP) was evaluated in comparison with other polymers, including hypromellose (HPMC), hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP), methacrylic acid ethyl acrylate copolymer (MAEA), and povidone (PVP). An X-ray diffraction study showed that the minimum amount of HPMCAS required to make the drug completely amorphous was the same as that of other cellulosic polymers, and less than that in dispersions using non-cellulosic polymers. Hypromellose acetate succinate showed the highest drug dissolution level from its solid dispersion in a dissolution study using a buffer of pH 6.8. This characteristic was unchanged after a storage test at high temperature and high humidity. The inhibitory effect of HPMCAS on recrystallization of NP from a supersaturated solution was the greatest among all the polymers examined. Further, the drug release pattern could be modulated by altering the ratio of succinoyl and acetyl moieties in the polymer chain. Our results indicate that HPMCAS is an attractive candidate for use as a carrier in solid dispersions. PMID:15000425

  9. Secondary mitochondrial dysfunction in propionic aciduria: a pathogenic role for endogenous mitochondrial toxins

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Marina A.; Sauer, Sven W.; Okun, Jürgen G.; Nijtmans, Leo G. J.; Rodenburg, Richard J. T.; van den Heuvel, Lambert P.; Dröse, Stefan; Brandt, Ulrich; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Ter Laak, Henk; Kölker, Stefan; Smeitink, Jan A. M.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction during acute metabolic crises is considered an important pathomechanism in inherited disorders of propionate metabolism, i.e. propionic and methylmalonic acidurias. Biochemically, these disorders are characterized by accumulation of propionyl-CoA and metabolites of alternative propionate oxidation. In the present study, we demonstrate uncompetitive inhibition of PDHc (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) by propionyl-CoA in purified porcine enzyme and in submitochondrial particles from bovine heart being in the same range as the inhibition induced by acetyl-CoA, the physiological product and known inhibitor of PDHc. Evaluation of similar monocarboxylic CoA esters showed a chain-length specificity for PDHc inhibition. In contrast with CoA esters, non-esterified fatty acids did not inhibit PDHc activity. In addition to PDHc inhibition, analysis of respiratory chain and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes also revealed an inhibition by propionyl-CoA on respiratory chain complex III and ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. To test whether impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of propionic aciduria, we performed a thorough bioenergetic analysis in muscle biopsy specimens of two patients. In line with the in vitro results, oxidative phosphorylation was severely compromised in both patients. Furthermore, expression of respiratory chain complexes I–IV and the amount of mitochondrial DNA were strongly decreased, and ultrastructural mitochondrial abnormalities were found, highlighting severe mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, our results favour the hypothesis that toxic metabolites, in particular propionyl-CoA, are involved in the pathogenesis of inherited disorders of propionate metabolism, sharing mechanistic similarities with propionate toxicity in micro-organisms. PMID:16686602

  10. Polarized Na+/H+ exchange function is pliable in response to transepithelial gradients of propionate.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, W A; Lesho, M J; Montrose, M H

    1994-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids are produced at high concentration in the colonic lumen and stimulate electroneutral Na+ absorption by activating apical Na+/H+ exchange in colonocytes. We used an epithelial cell line derived from a human colon carcinoma (HT29-18-C1) to study activation of apical and basolateral Na+/H+ exchange by a short-chain fatty acid, propionate. Confluent cell monolayers on membrane filters were loaded with 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and 6)-carboxyfluorescein (a fluorescent pH indicator) and intracellular pH was monitored with a digital fluorescence imaging microscope. Cells acidified by transient exposure to NH4Cl demonstrated both apical and basolateral Na+/H+ exchange. In this condition, apical Na+/H+ exchange was 50% of the total Na+/H+ exchange activity. Similar results were obtained when cells were bilaterally perfused with apical and basolateral propionate in an isosmotic medium (130 mM propionate at each membrane surface). However, apical Na+/H+ exchange was a significantly larger fraction (76%) of the total Na+/H+ exchange activity when cells were acidified by exposure to apical propionate alone. Conversely, in cells acidified by basolateral propionate alone, apical Na+/H+ exchange was 21% of the total Na+/H+ exchange activity. The change in relative activity was observed in individual cells which expressed both apical and basolateral Na+/H+ exchange and occurred rapidly (within 7 min). In the presence of transepithelial propionate gradients, all Na(+)-dependent alkalinization was sensitive to 3 microM 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride, a potent Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor. These results suggest that transepithelial gradients of short-chain fatty acids, which occur in vivo, can cause preferential activation of apical Na+/H+ exchange. PMID:8016132

  11. Biological and physicochemical study of zinc(II) propionate complexes with N-donor heterocyclic ligands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Györyová; E. Szunyogová; J. Ková?ová; D. Hudecová; D. Mudro?ová; E. Juhászová

    2003-01-01

    New zinc(II) propionate complexes (CH3CH2COO)2ZnLnxH2O, where n=1-2, x=0 or 2, were prepared by reaction of zinc(II) propionate with heterocyclic ligands (L=theophylline, nicotinamide, methyl-3-pyridyl carbamate) and their thermal properties were studied. The prepared complex compounds\\u000a were characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectra. TG\\/DTG and DTA measurements of the prepared compounds were performed\\u000a in the air atmosphere under dynamic conditions. The

  12. Infrared spectra and chemical abundance of methyl propionate in icy astrochemical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, B.; Radhika, N.; Das, A.; Gopakumar, G.; Majumdar, L.; Chakrabarti, S. K.; Subramanian, K. P.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Hada, M.

    2015-04-01

    We carried out an experiment in order to obtain the infrared (IR) spectra of methyl propionate (CH3CH2COOCH3) in astrochemical conditions and present the IR spectra for future identification of this molecule in the interstellar medium (ISM). The experimental IR spectrum is compared with the theoretical spectrum, and an attempt was made to assign the observed peak positions to their corresponding molecular vibrations in condensed phase. Moreover, our calculations suggest that methyl propionate must be synthesized efficiently within the complex chemical network of the ISM and therefore be present in cold dust grains, awaiting identification.

  13. Negative association of acetate with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Layden, Brian T; Yalamanchi, Sudha K; Wolever, Thomas MS; Dunaif, Andrea; Lowe, William L

    2012-01-01

    Background The composition of gut flora has been proposed as a cause of obesity, a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to assess whether serum short chain fatty acids, a major by-product of fermentation in gut flora, are associated with obesity and/or diabetes-related traits (insulin sensitivity and secretion). Methods The association of serum short chain fatty acids levels with measures of obesity was assessed using body mass index, computerized tomography scan, and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan. Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion were both determined from an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was also determined from a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Results In this population of young, obese women, acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue determined by computerized tomography scan and dual photon X-ray absorptiometry scan, but not body mass index. The level of the short chain fatty acids acetate, but not propionate or butyrate, was also negatively associated with fasting serum insulin and 2 hour insulin levels in the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions In this population, serum acetate was negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue and insulin levels. Future studies need to verify these findings and expand on these observations in larger cohorts of subjects. PMID:22419881

  14. 2-[4-(7-Chloro-2-quinoxalinyloxyphenoxy]-propionic Acid (XK469), an Inhibitor of Topoisomerase (Topo) II ,

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    2-[4-(7-Chloro-2-quinoxalinyloxyphenoxy]-propionic Acid (XK469), an Inhibitor of Topoisomerase-chloro-2-quinoxalinyloxyphenoxy]-propionic acid (XK469; a new Topo II inhibitor) in the modulation that indolent B- cell tumors express undetectable levels of this enzyme and are refractory to the effects

  15. 2-[4-(7-Chloro-2-quinoxalinyloxy)phenoxy]-propionic Acid (XK469) Inhibition of Topoisomerase II Is Not Sufficient

    E-print Network

    Brand, Paul H.

    2-[4-(7-Chloro-2-quinoxalinyloxy)phenoxy]-propionic Acid (XK469) Inhibition of Topoisomerase II investigated Topo II as a target for 2-[4-(7-chloro-2-quinoxalinyloxy)phenoxy]-propionic acid (XK469), a novel synthetic quinoxaline phenoxypropionic acid derivative, in a Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) model

  16. Novel antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling cellulosic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhuni, Revathi V.

    Cotton and cellulose acetate (CA) are cellulosic polymers with versatile applications. Like any other polymeric materials, cellulosic materials are also susceptible to microbial contamination and cause serious nosocomial infections. Hence, there is a definite need to develop antimicrobial cellulosic materials to prevent microbial colonization. Henceforth, we prepared a suitable polycation to treat cotton fabrics and CA films by LbL self-assembly process to achieve potent antimicrobial functions. The treated fabrics demonstrated total kill against E. coli and S. aureus in 2 h contact time whereas treated CA films, even after 6 h, could inactivate only 98 % of bacteria. Since CA films are more hydrophobic, have less surface charge, and surface area than cotton fabrics, LbL procedure was not much effective for CA films to achieve potent antimicrobial functions. Yet, CA is another very important cellulosic polymer with various applications in which antimicrobial activity is often desired. So, to improve the antimicrobial activity of CA films, we designed a novel strategy to coat the surface of CaCO3 fillers with quaternary ammonium salts (QAS)based fatty acids to make the filler surface organophilic and accomplish antibacterial activity concurrently, rendering the resulting polymer-filler composites antimicrobial. Thus, a series of QAS-based fatty acids (C8-C16) were synthesized, coated onto CaCO 3, and used as antimicrobial additives (5 %) in CA films. Although C8-quat-CaCO 3 could only provide 94 % of reduction of bacteria, both C12- and C16- quats and their corresponding quat-coated CaCO3 provided a total kill of S. aureus and E. coli in 2 h. These findings suggested that it is feasible to use QAS-based fatty acids to coat CaCO3 and use them as antimicrobial additives of CA films to achieve potent antimicrobial effects. Building on these results, to further evaluate the applicability of the antimicrobial filler strategy, we synthesized an N-halamine based fatty acid, coated onto CaCO3 and used as antimicrobial additives in CA films; the resulting samples provided excellent antimicrobial and biofilm-controlling effects, confirming that the antimicrobial filler approach could be an effective strategy for the antimicrobial treatments of CA and potentially other related hydrophobic polymeric materials.

  17. Dehydration and oxidation of cellulose hydrolysis products in acidic solution

    SciTech Connect

    Garves, K.

    1981-01-01

    The dehydration of cotton cellulose in aqueous solutions in the presence of Ac/sub 2/O, AcOH, HCl, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or HBr proceeded by hydrolysis to carbohydrates with acetate groups, followed by conversion to 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (I) and then, to levulinic acid (II) accompanied by humic acids. For the formation of I, HCl was a more efficient and selective catalyst than H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the formation of II was promoted by high acid and H/sub 2/O concentrations in the medium. The addition of FeCl/sub 3/ to the dehydration mixture with HCl and continuous distillation led to the isolation of furfural.

  18. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...form. It is produced synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  4. Electron tunneling studies of Mn12-Acetate 

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lianxi

    2008-10-10

    We used self-assembling tunnel junctions (SATJs) to study the electron transport through films of the molecular magnets, Mn12-Acetate. Pulse laser deposition (PLD) was used to deposit two monolayers of Mn12-Acetate on ...

  5. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    Water may be extracted from aqueous calcium acetate or sodium acetate solutions using low miscibility, low molecular weight tertiary amines, e.g. triethylamine (TEA) and N,N- dietliylmethylaniine (DEMA). This novel extraction technology...

  6. Development of liquid chromatographic enantiomer separation methods and validation for the estimation of ( R)-enantiomer in eslicarbazepine acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahesh Kumar Mone; K. B. Chandrasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Chiral separation method development was carried out for eslicarbazepine acetate and its (R)-enantiomer on diverse chiral stationary phases. Better chiral selectivity was observed on cellulose tris-(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate) immobilized column (Chiralpak IC-3). Under polar organic mode (POM), with 100% acetonitrile as mobile phase and 0.5ml\\/min flow, a resolution close to three was achieved. With normal phase (NP) mobile phase consisting dichloromethane:ethanol (90:10,

  7. Transition of cellulose crystalline structure and surface morphology of biomass as a function of ionic liquid pretreatment and its relation to enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Varanasi, Patanjali; Li, Chenlin; Liu, Hanbin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake A; Kent, Michael S; Singh, Seema

    2011-04-11

    Cellulose is inherently resistant to breakdown, and the native crystalline structure (cellulose I) of cellulose is considered to be one of the major factors limiting its potential in terms of cost-competitive lignocellulosic biofuel production. Here we report the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on the cellulose crystalline structure in different feedstocks, including microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), pine ( Pinus radiata ), and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus ), and its influence on cellulose hydrolysis kinetics of the resultant biomass. These feedstocks were pretreated using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) at 120 and 160 °C for 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. The influence of the pretreatment conditions on the cellulose crystalline structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). On a larger length scale, the impact of ionic liquid pretreatment on the surface roughness of the biomass was determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Pretreatment resulted in a loss of native cellulose crystalline structure. However, the transformation processes were distinctly different for Avicel and for the biomass samples. For Avicel, a transformation to cellulose II occurred for all processing conditions. For the biomass samples, the data suggest that pretreatment for most conditions resulted in an expanded cellulose I lattice. For switchgrass, first evidence of cellulose II only occurred after 12 h of pretreatment at 120 °C. For eucalyptus, first evidence of cellulose II required more intense pretreatment (3 h at 160 °C). For pine, no clear evidence of cellulose II content was detected for the most intense pretreatment conditions of this study (12 h at 160 °C). Interestingly, the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of Avicel was slightly lower for pretreatment at 160 °C compared with pretreatment at 120 °C. For the biomass samples, the hydrolysis rate was much greater for pretreatment at 160 °C compared with pretreatment at 120 °C. The result for Avicel can be explained by more complete conversion to cellulose II upon precipitation after pretreatment at 160 °C. By comparison, the result for the biomass samples suggests that another factor, likely lignin-carbohydrate complexes, also impacts the rate of cellulose hydrolysis in addition to cellulose crystallinity. PMID:21361369

  8. Studies on the cellulose-binding domains adsorption to cellulose.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ricardo; Moreira, Susana; Mota, Manuel; Gama, Miguel

    2004-02-17

    Cellulose-binding domains (CBD) are modular peptides, present in many glycanases, which anchor these enzymes to the substrate. In this work, the effect of CBD adsorption on the surface properties of a model cellulose, Whatman CF11, was studied. The methods applied include inverse gas chromatography (IGC), ESCA, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CBD partition affinity (0.85 L/g) was calculated from adsorption isotherms. However, true adsorption equilibrium does not exist, since CBDs are apparently irreversibly adsorbed to the fibers. Both IGC and ESCA showed that fibers with adsorbed CBD have a lower acidic character and also a slightly higher affinity toward aliphatic molecules. This may however be a consequence of an increased surface area, a hypothesis that is supported by microscopic observations. The crystallinity index was not affected by CBD treatment. PMID:15803726

  9. Synergistic effect of delignification and treatment with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate on enzymatic digestibility of poplar wood.

    PubMed

    Wu, Long; Kumagai, Akio; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Endo, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effects of removing key recalcitrance factors by ionic liquid (IL) treatment on the cellulase digestibility of poplar wood. Ground biomass was subjected to chlorite delignification and IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate) treatment alone or in combination. The compositional and structural features of differentially treated biomass samples and their hydrolysis performance at various cellulase loadings were investigated. IL treatment caused minor compositional changes but drastically decreased cellulose crystallinity; in particular, when administered after delignification, an X-ray diffractogram similar to that of cellulose II polymorph was observed, suggesting that in the absence of lignin, the cellulose was dissolved in the IL and regenerated in water with a polymorphic transformation. The structural changes induced by the combined delignification-IL treatment facilitated the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; the biomass could be fully degraded within 72 h by 4 FPU of cellulase per gram glucan, with cellobiose degradation being the rate-limiting step. PMID:24755318

  10. Investigation and characterization of oxidized cellulose and cellulose nanofiber films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han

    Over the last two decades, a large amount of research has focused on natural cellulose fibers, since they are "green" and renewable raw materials. Recently, nanomaterials science has attracted wide attention due to the large surface area and unique properties of nanoparticles. Cellulose certainly is becoming an important material in nanomaterials science, with the increasing demand of environmentally friendly materials. In this work, a novel method of preparing cellulose nanofibers (CNF) is being presented. This method contains up to three oxidation steps: periodate, chlorite and TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl) oxidation. The first two oxidation steps are investigated in the first part of this work. Cellulose pulp was oxidized to various extents by a two step-oxidation with sodium periodate, followed by sodium chlorite. The oxidized products can be separated into three different fractions. The mass ratio and charge content of each fraction were determined. The morphology, size distribution and crystallinity index of each fraction were measured by AFM, DLS and XRD, respectively. In the second part of this work, CNF were prepared and modified under various conditions, including (1) the introduction of various amounts of aldehyde groups onto CNF by periodate oxidation; (2) the carboxyl groups in sodium form on CNF were converted to acid form by treated with an acid type ion-exchange resin; (3) CNF were cross-linked in two different ways by employing adipic dihydrazide (ADH) as cross-linker and water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylaminopropyl)] carbodiimide (EDC) as carboxyl-activating agent. Films were fabricated with these modified CNF suspensions by vacuum filtration. The optical, mechanical and thermo-stability properties of these films were investigated by UV-visible spectrometry, tensile test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) and water contact angle (WCA) of these films were also studied.

  11. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization?>?3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24?h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82?±?33?mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17?mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in further experiments. PMID:25988123

  12. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a...additive lead acetate may be safely used in cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp...The amount of the lead acetate in the cosmetic shall be such that the lead...

  14. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  15. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  16. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  17. Cellobiohydrolase hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose on hydrophobic faces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-San; Baker, John O; Zeng, Yining; Himmel, Michael E; Haas, Thomas; Ding, Shi-You

    2011-04-01

    Biodegradation of plant biomass is a slow process in nature, and hydrolysis of cellulose is also widely considered to be a rate-limiting step in the proposed industrial process of converting lignocellulosic materials to biofuels. It is generally known that a team of enzymes including endo- and exocellulases as well as cellobiases are required to act synergistically to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose. The detailed molecular mechanisms of these enzymes have yet to be convincingly elucidated. In this report, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to image in real-time the structural changes in Valonia cellulose crystals acted upon by the exocellulase cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) from Trichoderma reesei. Under AFM, single enzyme molecules could be observed binding only to one face of the cellulose crystal, apparently the hydrophobic face. The surface roughness of cellulose began increasing after adding CBH I, and the overall size of cellulose crystals decreased during an 11-h period. Interestingly, this size reduction apparently occurred only in the width of the crystal, whereas the height remained relatively constant. In addition, the measured cross-section shape of cellulose crystal changed from asymmetric to nearly symmetric. These observed changes brought about by CBH I action may constitute the first direct visualization supporting the idea that the exocellulase selectively hydrolyzes the hydrophobic faces of cellulose. The limited accessibility of the hydrophobic faces in native cellulose may contribute significantly to the rate-limiting slowness of cellulose hydrolysis. PMID:21282110

  18. Direct measurement of the energy thresholds to conformational isomerization. II. 3-indole-propionic acid and its water-containing complex

    E-print Network

    Zwier, Timothy S.

    extend these measurements to three-indole-propionic acid IPA . IPA and TRA differ from tryptophanDirect measurement of the energy thresholds to conformational isomerization. II. 3-indole-propionic direct experimental bounds on the energetic barriers to conformational isomerization in 3-indole-propionic

  19. Asymmetric cyclopropanation of ketene silyl acetal with allylic acetate catalyzed by a palladium complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akiharu Satake; Hitomi Kadohama; Hiroyuki Koshino; Tadashi Nakata

    1999-01-01

    The first asymmetric cyclopropanation of ketene silyl acetal with allylic acetate was achieved. New chiral oxazolidinylpyrazole ligands and their ?3-allylpalladium complexes were synthesized. Reaction of cinnamyl acetate with ketene silyl acetal of ethyl isobutylate in the presence of a palladium complex gave a phenyl cyclopropane derivative in 20? 54%ee.

  20. Supercritical carbon dioxide explosion as a pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Zheng; Ho-Mu Lin; Jingquan Wen; Ningjun Cao; Xuezhi Yu; George T. Tsao

    1995-01-01

    Cellulosic material Avicel was treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of

  1. Masquerading acidosis after cardiopulmonary bypass: a case of propionic acidemia and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Robert A; Monge, Michael C; Charrow, Joel; Costello, John M; Epting, Conrad L

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of a child with both propionic acidemia and cyanotic congenital heart disease. The presence of an underlying inborn error of metabolism confounded the management of this patient in the postoperative period, resulting in therapeutic misdirection until the true etiology of hyperlactemia was recognized. PMID:25870350

  2. Impact of Salmeterol\\/Fluticasone Propionate versus Salmeterol on Exacerbations in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kardos; Marion Wencker; Thomas Glaab; Claus Vogelmeier

    Rationale: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) greatly contribute to declining health status and the pro- gression of the disease, thereby incurring significant direct and indirect health care costs. The prevention of exacerbations, there- fore, is an important treatment goal. Objectives:Toassesstheimpactofcombinationtherapywithsalmet- erol\\/fluticasone propionate compared with salmeterol alone on moderate and severe exacerbations in patients with severe COPD and a

  3. Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-propanol to produce propionic acid using an electrocatalytic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Bowen; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yang; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2013-05-18

    An electrocatalytic membrane reactor assembled using a nano-MnO2 loading microporous Ti membrane as an anode and a tubular stainless steel as a cathode was used to oxidize n-propanol to produce propionic acid. The high efficiency and selectivity obtained is related to the synergistic effect between the reaction and separation in the reactor. PMID:23572114

  4. A study of the decomposition of calcium propionate, using simultaneous TG-DTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn A O’Connell; David Dollimore

    2000-01-01

    Chemical preservatives are added to almost all foods to prevent spoilage and extend the shelf life, by inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of microbes. Since most foods are subjected to heating, either by the consumer or by the manufacturer, the thermal behavior of a preservative is very important. In this study, the decomposition of calcium propionate was examined using

  5. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN Cynthia Wolf1,2, Gerald LeBlanc2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Jonathan Furr1, L Earl Gray, Jr.1 1USEPA, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC 27711, 2Dept. Molecular and En...

  6. Non-peptidic ? v? 3 antagonists containing indol-1-yl propionic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristi Leonard; Wenxi Pan; Beth Anaclerio; Joan M. Gushue; Zihong Guo; Renee L. DesJarlais; Marge A. Chaikin; Jennifer Lattanze; Carl Crysler; Carl L. Manthey; Bruce E. Tomczuk; Juan Jose Marugan

    2005-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and structure\\/activity relationship of RGD mimetics that are potent inhibitors of the integrin ?v?3. Indol-1-yl propionic acids containing a variety of basic moieties at the 5-position, as well as substitutions alpha and beta to the carboxy terminus were synthesized and evaluated. Novel compounds with improved potency have been identified.

  7. Functional role of bicarbonate in propionate transport across guinea-pig isolated caecum and proximal colon.

    PubMed Central

    von Engelhardt, W; Gros, G; Burmester, M; Hansen, K; Becker, G; Rechkemmer, G

    1994-01-01

    1. Unidirectional fluxes of propionate across isolated epithelia from the guinea-pig caecum and proximal colon were measured under short-circuit current conditions. In the caecum and proximal colon the serosal-to-mucosal propionate flux (JPrsm) was higher than mucosal-to-serosal flux (JPrms), resulting in a net secretory flux of propionate. 2. HCO3(-)-CO2-free solution reduced JPrms in the caecum and proximal colon markedly; JPrsm was not (caecum) or little (proximal colon) affected. The subsequent addition of acetazolamide caused a further decrease in JPrms in the proximal colon, but not in the caecum. 3. In HCO3(-)-containing solutions acetazolamide or ethoxzolamide inhibited JPrms; JPrsm was not affected. A macromolecular carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, prontosil-dextran, had no effect on propionate fluxes, indicating that the intracellular carbonic anhydrase is of importance for short-chain fatty acid transport. 4. Subsequent to carbonic anhydrase inhibition, mucosal addition of amiloride caused a slight further decrease of JPrms in the caecum and proximal colon; JPrsm was not affected. 5. Results support the view that a considerable proportion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) is absorbed via a SCFA(-)-HCO3- exchange. PMID:7523661

  8. Electrospinning of Cellulose and Carbon Nanotube-Cellulose Fibers for Smart Applications

    E-print Network

    Pankonien, Alexander

    2008-08-19

    Cellulose is one of the Earth’s most abundant natural polymers and is used as a raw material in various applications. Recently, cellulose based electro-active paper (EAPap) has been investigated for its potential as a smart material...

  9. Alignment of cellulose chains of regenerated cellulose by corona poling and its piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sungryul; Kim, Jung Hwan; Li, Yuanxie; Kim, Jaehwan

    2008-04-01

    Cellulose based electroactive paper has been developed as smart material. In this paper, corona poled cellulose films were prepared to improve their piezoelectricity and the influence of grid voltage to the corona poling was investigated. Cellulose was regenerated by dissolving cellulose natural fibers using a solvent, and removing it. During the regeneration process, alignment of cellulose was attempted by applying corona electrical poling. These characteristics were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. As increasing the grid voltage of the corona poling, the generation of cellulose nanofibers in the cellulose layered structures was observed, which influenced the increased crystallinity resulting in improved piezoelectric charge constant of cellulose films.

  10. Effect of isocaloric infusion of glucose in the rumen or propionate in the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Sleiman, F T; Theurer, C B; Santos, F; Simas, J M; Francolin, M; Huber, J T

    1994-06-01

    This study was undertaken to understand better the mechanisms causing increased milk protein. Cows fed steam-flaked sorghum have increased milk protein compared with that of cows fed dry-rolled sorghum because of a large shift of starch digestion from the intestine to the rumen. Five cannulated lactating cows were infused with glucose in the rumen or with propionate in the duodenum in two trials. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 Latin square with 7 d of adjustment and 7 d of infusion. During the experiment, cows received a TMR containing 19.3% CP and 1.56 Mcal/kg of NEL (on a DM basis); alfalfa hay and dry-rolled sorghum grain were the principal ingredients. Similar concentrations in feces of cows among propionate treatments suggested complete absorption of infused propionate. Milk yield did not differ, but protein percentage of milk was higher (2.88 versus 2.72%) for cows infused ruminally with glucose than for those infused in the duodenum with propionate. For the respective treatments, duodenal flows were 2.11 and 1.76 kg/d for microbial protein and 3.44 and 2.73 kg/d for total CP (or 85 and 74% of CP intake). These data demonstrate that increased propionate availability for gluconeogenesis and a possible sparing of essential AA did not result in increased milk protein content, but ruminal infusion of glucose, which tended to increase microbial protein synthesis, did increase the protein percentage of milk. PMID:8083415

  11. The case for cellulose production on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1989-01-01

    From examining the consequences of not requiring that all wastes from life support be recycled back to the food plants, it is concluded that cellulose production on Mars could be an important input for many nonmetabolic material requirements on Mars. The fluxes of carbon in cellulose production would probably exceed those in food production, and therefore settlements on Mars could utilize cellulose farms in building a Mars infrastructure.

  12. Transcrystallization of polypropylene at cellulose nanocrystal surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek G. Gray

    2008-01-01

    There is a resurgence of interest in composite materials incorporating cellulose as fibrous reinforcement in semicrystalline\\u000a melt-processed polymers. Potential natural cellulose sources range from flax and ramie fibres down to whiskers and nanocrystals\\u000a isolated from bacteria. It has long been known that the crystallization of matrix polymers such as polypropylene may be preferentially\\u000a nucleated by Cellulose I surfaces, leading to

  13. Acetic acid recovery from a hybrid biological-hydrothermal treatment process of sewage sludge - a pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J; Dare, P; Estcourt, G; Gapes, D; Lei, R; McDonald, B; Wijaya, N

    2015-03-01

    A two-stage process consisting of anaerobic fermentation followed by sub-critical wet oxidation was used to generate acetic acid from sewage sludge at pilot scale. Volatile fatty acids, dominated by propionic acid, were produced over 4-6 days in the 2,000 L fermentation reactor, which also achieved 31% solids reduction. Approximately 96% of the carbon was retained in solution over the fermentation stage. Using a 200 L wet oxidation reactor operating in batch mode, the second stage achieved 98% volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction and 67% total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD) destruction. Acetic acid produced in this stage was recalcitrant to further degradation and was retained in solution. The gross yield from VSS was 16% for acetic acid and 21% for volatile fatty acids across the process, higher than reported yields for wet oxidation alone. The pilot plant results showed that 72% of the incoming phosphorus was retained in the solids, 94% of the nitrogen became concentrated in solution and 41% of the carbon was converted to a soluble state, in a more degradable form. Acetic acid produced from the process has the potential to be used to offset ethanol requirements in biological nutrient removal plants. PMID:25768220

  14. Influence of Dietary Starch Inclusion on Cecal Environment and Microbial Populations in Horses 

    E-print Network

    Warzecha, Christine Marie

    2013-08-07

    (Sellers and Lowe, 1986). The cecum, the main site of anaerobic fermentation in the equine, maintains an internal temperature between 37 and 40?C. Bacteria, responsible for the production of short chain VFAs such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acid... fermentation results in lower rumen pH and inhibits digestion of cellulose in ruminants (Allen, 1997). A decrease in cecal pH effects production of acetate, propionate, and butyrate (Allison et al., 1974). Volatile Fatty Acids. End products of fermentation...

  15. Construction and evaluation of a genetic construct for specific detection and measurement of propionate by whole-cell bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological technology that converts biomass wastes into biogas, achieving both waste treatment and bioenergy production. Accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during acidogenesis, particularly propionate, often causes upset or failure of digesters. Early detection and monitoring of propionate concentration in digesters allow for just-in-time interventions to prevent irreversible costly process breakdown. In an attempt to develop a rapid method of measuring propionate concentration and bioavailability, we constructed a genetic construct for specific detection of bioavailable propionate. The genetic construct was constructed by transcriptional fusion of the regulatory gene (prpR) and the promoter of the prp operon (PprpB ) of Escherichia coli W3110 with the reporter gene cassette luxCDABE. When the genetic construct was carried on a plasmid and transformed into E. coli (referred to as plasmid-based biosensor), it resulted in stronger emission of luminescence than when it was inserted into the chromosome of E. coli (referred to as chromosome-based biosensor). The biosensor responded specifically to propionate. The luminescence signal increased linearly with increasing concentration of propionate from 1 to 10?mM. The utility of the biosensor was evaluated using samples collected from anaerobic digesters. Once instrumented in future studies, the whole-cell bacterial biosensor developed in this study may provide an alternative technology for real-time detection and measurement of propionate in digesters. PMID:25131426

  16. Carboxymethyl cellulose from sugar beet pulp cellulose as a hydrophilic polymer in coating of mandarin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan To?rul; Nurhan Arslan

    2004-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp cellulose was converted carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) by etherification. The coating of mandarin surfaces with films formed by different emulsions containing CMC from sugar beet pulp cellulose as a hydrophilic polymer was carried out. Paraffin wax, beeswax and soybean oil; CMC with degree of substitution of 0.6670; Emulgin PE, triethanolamine, oleic acid and sodium oleate were used as

  17. Production of caproic acid by cocultures of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria and Clostridium kluyveri grown on cellulose and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kenealy, W R; Cao, Y; Weimer, P J

    1995-12-01

    Ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 or Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1) were combined with the non-ruminal bacterium Clostridium kluyveri and grown together on cellulose and ethanol. Succinate and acetate produced by the cellulolytic organisms were converted to butyrate and caproate only when the culture medium was supplemented with ethanol. Ethanol (244 mM) and butyrate (30 mM at pH 6.8) did not inhibit cellulose digestion or product formation by S85 or FD-1; however caproate (30 mM at pH 6.8) was moderately inhibitory to FD-1. Succinate consumption and caproate production were sensitive to culture pH, with more caproic acid being produced when the culture was controlled at a pH near neutrality. In a representative experiment under conditions of controlled pH (at 6.8) 6.0 g cellulose l-1 and 4.4 g ethanol l-1 were converted to 2.6 g butyrate l-1 and 4.6 g caproate l-1. The results suggest that bacteria that efficiently produce low levels of ethanol and acetate or succinate from cellulose should be useful in cocultures for the production of caproic acid, a potentially useful industrial chemical and bio-fuel precursor. PMID:8597554

  18. Extraction and dissolution of cellulose from nypa fruit husk for nanofibers fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzee, Siti Norfatihah; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2013-11-01

    In this study, cellulose was extracted by alkali and acid protocols from nypa fruit husk, the agricultural waste in order to produce nanofiber. In acid protocol, the pretreated sample was hydrolyzed with 10 % and 17 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and then refluxed using a mixture of sodium chlorite (NaClO2) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). Alkali protocol was a reverse process of acid protocol where the pretreated sample was refluxed and then hydrolyzed. The celluloses from both protocols were characterized and compared. The cellulose with high purity and crystallinity was then dissolved in NaOH/urea aqueous solution to prepare for electrospinning. In terms of yield based on mass, acid protocol is higher. However, since the celulose from the alkali protocol is pure, fibril and with low crystallinity, it was chosen for dissolution to be electrospun into nanofiber. Since the formation of nanofiber is very much affected by shear viscosity, few compositions of cellulose solution was prepared for further investigation.

  19. Lysostaphin-functionalized cellulose fibers with antistaphylococcal activity for wound healing applications.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianjun; Pangule, Ravindra C; Paskaleva, Elena E; Hwang, Elizabeth E; Kane, Ravi S; Linhardt, Robert J; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2011-12-01

    With the emergence of "super bacteria" that are resistant to antibiotics, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, novel antimicrobial therapies are needed to prevent associated hospitalizations and deaths. Bacteriophages and bacteria use cell lytic enzymes to kill host or competing bacteria, respectively, in natural environments. Taking inspiration from nature, we have employed a cell lytic enzyme, lysostaphin (Lst), with specific bactericidal activity against S. aureus, to generate anti-infective bandages. Lst was immobilized onto biocompatible fibers generated by electrospinning homogeneous solutions of cellulose, cellulose-chitosan, and cellulose-poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc]), room temperature ionic liquid. Electron microscopic analysis shows that these fibers have submicron-scale diameter. The fibers were chemically treated to generate aldehyde groups for the covalent immobilization of Lst. The resulting Lst-functionalized cellulose fibers were processed to obtain bandage preparations that showed activity against S. aureus in an in vitro skin model with low toxicity toward keratinocytes, suggesting good biocompatibility for these materials as antimicrobial matrices in wound healing applications. PMID:21959009

  20. Neutron Scattering Study of Deuterated Dicalcium Strontium Propionate Ca2Sr(C2D5CO2)6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Toshirou; Chou, Henry; Shapiro, Stephen M.

    1990-07-01

    Strong critical scattering of neutrons is measured near the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition of deuterated dicalcium strontium propionate (DDSP). The amplitude of motion of the propionate radical in the (001) plane becomes large near the Curie temperature TC{=}279.5 K. The anisotropy in the distribution of the critically scattered intensity is weak compared with other ferroelectrics. The origin of the improper ferroelectricity of DDSP is attributed to the van der Waals interaction between the propionate radicals which induces secondarily fluctuation of polarization near TC.

  1. Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shui, Zong-Xia; Qin, Han; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Lu-Shang; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Li; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Furfural and acetic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the prevalent inhibitors to Zymomonas mobilis during cellulosic ethanol production. Developing a strain tolerant to furfural or acetic acid inhibitors is difficul by using rational engineering strategies due to poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, strategy of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used for development of a furfural and acetic acid-tolerant strain. After three round evolution, four evolved mutants (ZMA7-2, ZMA7-3, ZMF3-2, and ZMF3-3) that showed higher growth capacity were successfully obtained via ALE method. Based on the results of profiling of cell growth, glucose utilization, ethanol yield, and activity of key enzymes, two desired strains, ZMA7-2 and ZMF3-3, were achieved, which showed higher tolerance under 7 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l furfural stress condition. Especially, it is the first report of Z. mobilis strain that could tolerate higher furfural. The best strain, Z. mobilis ZMF3-3, has showed 94.84 % theoretical ethanol yield under 3-g/l furfural stress condition, and the theoretical ethanol yield of ZM4 is only 9.89 %. Our study also demonstrated that ALE method might also be used as a powerful metabolic engineering tool for metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis. Furthermore, the two best strains could be used as novel host for further metabolic engineering in cellulosic ethanol or future biorefinery. Importantly, the two strains may also be used as novel-tolerant model organisms for the genetic mechanism on the "omics" level, which will provide some useful information for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:25935346

  2. The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins

    E-print Network

    Barker, Marcia Wagner

    1979-01-01

    toxicity, the experiment also strengthened the conviction that the pulmonary pathology occurred by direct contact with oxygen, and was not carried from one lung to the other by the circulatory system. Lung surfactant, a lipoprotein material, coats... of OHP exposure. Barach found that some patients showed disturbances in mental functioning after oxygen exposure. Patients with chronic hypoxemia sometimes went into a deep sleep or stupor, followed by coma and delirium. Comroe, Bahnson and Coates (46...

  3. The quantification of oxygen toxicity by the technique of cellulose acetate electrophoresis of rat serum proteins 

    E-print Network

    Barker, Marcia Wagner

    1979-01-01

    and Grinstein (145) presented data on normal, healthy subjects, on patients with chronic hemolytic anemias and on patients with pernicious anemia given oxygen at concentrations of 50/ at 1 ata. Their findings indicated that HBO at this pO depressed... response observed by Cooperberg and Singer (48). Helvey (78) reported the development of hemolytic anemias in volunteers maintained in simulated space capsule environments using 100% 0 2 at 7. 4 psig for 2 weeks. Osmotic fragilities of red blood cells...

  4. Conductivity of blends of polyaniline with PMMA and cellulose acetate: aging studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nizio?; J. Laska

    1999-01-01

    Effect of aging on the conductivity of polyaniline doped with phosphoric acid diesters, and its blends with nonconductive polymers is the subject of this study. Conductivity of polyaniline doped with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate increases about one order of magnitude during first year of aging in ambient conditions, and then decreases one to two orders of magnitude after six years. Similarly, increase

  5. Metaproteomics of cellulose methanisation under thermophilic conditions reveals a surprisingly high proteolytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Fan; Bize, Ariane; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Madigou, Céline; Chapleur, Olivier; Mazéas, Laurent; He, Pinjing; Bouchez, Théodore

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth. Optimising energy recovery from this renewable but recalcitrant material is a key issue. The metaproteome expressed by thermophilic communities during cellulose anaerobic digestion was investigated in microcosms. By multiplying the analytical replicates (65 protein fractions analysed by MS/MS) and relying solely on public protein databases, more than 500 non-redundant protein functions were identified. The taxonomic community structure as inferred from the metaproteomic data set was in good overall agreement with 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. Numerous functions related to cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis and fermentation catalysed by bacteria related to Caldicellulosiruptor spp. and Clostridium thermocellum were retrieved, indicating their key role in the cellulose-degradation process and also suggesting their complementary action. Despite the abundance of acetate as a major fermentation product, key methanogenesis enzymes from the acetoclastic pathway were not detected. In contrast, enzymes from the hydrogenotrophic pathway affiliated to Methanothermobacter were almost exclusively identified for methanogenesis, suggesting a syntrophic acetate oxidation process coupled to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Isotopic analyses confirmed the high dominance of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Very surprising was the identification of an abundant proteolytic activity from Coprothermobacter proteolyticus strains, probably acting as scavenger and/or predator performing proteolysis and fermentation. Metaproteomics thus appeared as an efficient tool to unravel and characterise metabolic networks as well as ecological interactions during methanisation bioprocesses. More generally, metaproteomics provides direct functional insights at a limited cost, and its attractiveness should increase in the future as sequence databases are growing exponentially. PMID:23949661

  6. Effect of rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/microfibrillated cellulose blend suspensions on film forming.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Eve; Rissanen, Marja; Seppälä, Jukka

    2015-03-30

    Enzymatically treated cellulose was dissolved in a NaOH/ZnO solvent system and mixed together with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in order to find the threshold in which MFC fibers form a percolation network within the dissolved cellulose solution and in order to improve the properties of regenerated cellulose films. In the aqueous state, correlations between the rheological properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions and MFC fiber concentrations were investigated and rationalized. In addition, rheological properties of diluted MFC suspensions were characterized and a correlation with NaOH concentration was found, thus partly explaining the flow properties of dissolved cellulose/MFC blend suspensions. Finally, based on results from Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), MFC addition had strengthening/plasticizing effect on regenerated cellulose films if low concentrations of MFC, below the percolation threshold (5.5-6 wt%, corresponding to 0.16-0.18 wt% of MFC in the blend suspensions), were used. PMID:25563945

  7. The preparation of graft copolymers of cellulose and cellulose derivatives using ATRP under homogeneous reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Fanny; Musa, Osama M; Hodgson, David R W; Cameron, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    In this comprehensive review, we report on the preparation of graft-copolymers of cellulose and cellulose derivatives using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) under homogeneous conditions. The review is divided into four sections according to the cellulosic material that is graft-copolymerised; (i) cellulose, (ii) ethyl cellulose, (iii) hydroxypropyl cellulose and (iv) other cellulose derivatives. In each section, the grafted synthetic polymers are described as well as the methods used for ATRP macro-initiator formation and graft-copolymerisation. The physical properties of the graft-copolymers including their self-assembly in solution into nanostructures and their stimuli responsive behaviour are described. Potential applications of the self-assembled graft copolymers in areas such as nanocontainers for drug delivery are outlined. PMID:25016958

  8. Update on Models of Cellulose Crystals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes progress in the computational modeling of cellulose crystals since our 2007 report. These crystal models are needed to better understand the interactions of cotton cellulose with water, enzymes and chemical finishing agents. Previous models resulted from molecular dynamics si...

  9. Bacterial Cellulose: Long-Term Biocompatibility Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renata A. N. Pértile; Susana Moreira; Rui M. Gil da Costa; Alexandra Correia; Luisa Guãrdao; Fátima Gartner; Manuel Vilanova; Miguel Gama

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is a network of pure cellulose nanofibres which has high crystallinity, wettability and mechanical strength. These characteristics make BC an excellent material for tissue-engineering constructs, noteworthy for artificial vascular grafts. In this work, the in vivo biocompatibility of BC membranes produced by two G. xylinus strains was analyzed through histological analysis of

  10. Book review: "cellulose science and technology"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose Science and Technology” by Jean-Luc Wertz, Olivier Bédué and Jean P. Mercier is a fairly comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to many areas of cellulose science. Their summary of a vast and often controversial literature is reasonably comprehensive. It requires little background to re...

  11. Idealized powder diffraction patterns for cellulose polymorphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellulose samples are routinely analyzed by X-ray diffraction to determine their crystal type (polymorph) and crystallinity. However, the connection is seldom made between those efforts and the crystal structures of cellulose that have been determined with synchrotron X-radiation and neutron diffrac...

  12. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  13. Nucleic acids encoding a cellulose binding domain

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1996-03-05

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 15 figs.

  14. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2015-04-21

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  15. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngmi Kim; Rick Hendrickson; Nathan S. Mosier; Michael R. Ladisch

    2009-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of

  16. Cellulose Triacetate Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Cellulose triacetate investigated for use as dielectric material in high-energy-density capacitors for pulsed-electrical-power systems. Films of cellulose triacetate metalized on one or both sides for use as substrates for electrodes and/or as dielectrics between electrodes in capacitors. Used without metalization as simple dielectric films. Advantages include high breakdown strength and self-healing capability.

  17. High-flux Thin-film Nanofibrous Composite Ultrafiltration Membranes Containing Cellulose Barrier Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Yoon, K; Rong, L; Mao, Y; Mo, Z; Fang, D; Hollander, Z; Gaiteri, J; Hsiao , B; Chu, B

    2010-01-01

    A novel class of thin-film nanofibrous composite (TFNC) membrane consisting of a cellulose barrier layer, a nanofibrous mid-layer scaffold, and a melt-blown non-woven substrate was successfully fabricated and tested as an ultrafiltration (UF) filter to separate an emulsified oil and water mixture, a model bilge water for on-board ship bilge water purification. Two ionic liquids: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, were chosen as the solvent to dissolve cellulose under mild conditions. The regenerated cellulose barrier layer exhibited less crystallinity (determined by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, WAXD) than the original cotton linter pulps, but good thermal stability (determined by thermal gravimetric analysis, TGA). The morphology, water permeation, and mechanical stability of the chosen TFNCmembranes were thoroughly investigated. The results indicated that the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibrous scaffold was partially imbedded in the cellulose barrier layer, which enhanced the mechanical strength of the top barrier layer. The permeation flux of the cellulose-based TFNCmembrane was significantly higher (e.g. 10x) than comparable commercial UFmembranes (PAN10 and PAN400, Sepro) with similar rejection ratios for separation of oil/water emulsions. The molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of TFNC membranes with cellulose barrier layer was evaluated using dextran feed solutions. The rejection was found to be higher than 90% with a dextran molecular weight of 2000 KDa, implying that the nominal pore size of the membrane was less than 50 nm. High permeation flux was also observed in the filtration of an emulsified oil/water mixture as well as of a sodium alginate aqueous solution, while high rejection ratio (above 99.5%) was maintained after prolonged operation. A variation of the barrier layer thickness could dramatically affect the permeation flux and the rejection ratio of the TFNCmembranes, while different sources of cellulose, ionic liquids, and non-woven supports did not. As ionic liquids can be recycled and reused without obvious decomposition, the chosen method also demonstrates a benign pathway to fabricate the cellulose barrier layer for other types of membranes.

  18. Single-cell protein from waste cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, C. E.; Callihan, C. D.

    1973-01-01

    The recycle, reuse, or reclamation of single cell protein from liquid and solid agricultural waste fibers by a fermentation process is reported. It is shown that cellulose comprises the bulk of the fibers at 50% to 55% of the dry weight of the refuse and that its biodegradability is of prime importance in the choice of a substrate. The application of sodium hydroxide followed by heat and pressure serves to de-polymerize and disrupt lignin structure while swelling the cellulose to increase water uptake and pore volume. Some of the lignin, hemi-celluloses, ash, and cellulose of the material is hydrolized and solubilized. Introduction of microorganisms to the substrate fibers mixed with nutrients produces continuous fermentation of cellulose for further protein extraction and purification.

  19. Nanoporous cellulose as metal nanoparticles support.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Kimura, Satoshi; Wada, Masahisa; Kuga, Shigenori

    2009-01-12

    Despite considerable progress in the field of metal nanoparticles synthesis, major challenges remain in many practical applications of nanoparticles which require their immobilization on solid substrates, presenting additional difficulty in separation and processing. Here, transparent nanoporous cellulose gel obtained from aqueous alkali hydroxide-urea solution was examined as supporting medium for noble metal nanoparticles. Silver, gold, and platinum nanoparticles were synthesized in the gel by hydrothermal reduction by cellulose or by added reductant. Both methods gave nanoparticles embedded with high dispersion in cellulose gels. Supercritical CO2 drying of the metal-carrying gel gave corresponding aerogels with high transmittance, porosity, surface area, moderate thermal stability, and good mechanical strength. The cellulose and metal-cellulose gels were characterized by UV/vis spectroscopy, optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, XRD, nitrogen physisorption, TGA, and tensile testing, systematically. PMID:19053296

  20. Solid-, solution-, and gas-state NMR monitoring of ¹³C-cellulose degradation in an anaerobic microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Yamazawa, Akira; Iikura, Tomohiro; Shino, Amiu; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of biomacromolecules in various microbial ecosystems is influenced by the variations in types, qualities, and quantities of chemical components. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for characterizing the degradation of solids to gases in anaerobic digestion processes. Here we describe a characterization strategy using NMR spectroscopy for targeting the input solid insoluble biomass, catabolized soluble metabolites, and produced gases. ¹³C-labeled cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus was added as a substrate to stirred tank reactors and gradually degraded for 120 h. The time-course variations in structural heterogeneity of cellulose catabolism were determined using solid-state NMR, and soluble metabolites produced by cellulose degradation were monitored using solution-state NMR. In particular, cooperative changes between the solid NMR signal and ¹³C-¹³C/¹³C-¹²C isotopomers in the microbial degradation of ¹³C-cellulose were revealed by a correlation heat map. The triple phase NMR measurements demonstrated that cellulose was anaerobically degraded, fermented, and converted to methane gas from organic acids such as acetic acid and butyric acid. PMID:23899835

  1. Influence of buffered propionic acid on the development of micro-organisms in hay.

    PubMed

    Reboux, G; Dalphin, J-C; Polio, J-C; Millon, L; Baverel, J; Martinez, J; Girard, L; Piarroux, R

    2002-06-01

    We tested the benefit of using buffered propionic acid (BPA) as a means of preventing farmer's lung disease (FLD). BPA, a new formulation of propionic acid, a hay preservative with no deleterious effect on farm machinery or cattle, reduces the development of micro-organisms in hay. Twenty pairs of round bales were analysed for concentration of micro-organisms measured in the winter following hay treatment. Each pair included one untreated bale and one bale treated with BPA during haymaking. Our results showed the following decreases in concentration in treated bales: total fungal species, 40% (P < 0.05); Eurotium amstelodami (the main species found), 65% (P < 0.01); and thermophilic actinomycetes, 60% (not significant), respectively. We conclude that BPA could be used to prevent FLD. PMID:12100537

  2. Kinetics of two subgroups of propionate-using organisms in anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, R H; Hall, R J

    1983-01-01

    A novel method for measuring the kinetics of a subgroup of organisms growing in mixed culture was used to measure the kinetics of propionate-using organisms in a mixed-population anaerobic digester. It was shown that there are at least two subgroups of propionate-using organisms with distinctly different growth kinetics. Both subgroups could grow without reducing sulfate. The slower-growing subgroup had a Ks of 11 mg/liter and a mumax of 0.0054 h-1 which is similar to the mumax reported for Syntrophobacter wolinii. The faster-growing group had a mumax of 0.050 h-1 and a Ks of 330 mg/liter. The slower-growing group was inhibited by a pH shock from 7.0 to 6.0, whereas the faster-growing group was less sensitive to the pH shock. PMID:6639025

  3. Osteocalcin, Cortisol Levels, and Bone Mineral Density in Prepubertal Children with Asthma Treated with Long-Term Fluticasone Propionate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emin Ozkaya; Mustafa A. Nursoy; Selcuk Uzuner; Ufuk Erenberk; Erkan Çak?r

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study is to determine the effects of the long-term treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate on osteocalcin, cortisol levels, and bone mineral status in children with asthma. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 230 prepubertal children with asthma (aged 6–11) who had intermittently used inhaled fluticasone propionate for at least 5 years at a mean daily dose

  4. The short chain fatty acid propionate stimulates GLP-1 and PYY secretion via free fatty acid receptor 2 in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Psichas, A; Sleeth, M L; Murphy, K G; Brooks, L; Bewick, G A; Hanyaloglu, A C; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Frost, G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The gut hormones peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) acutely suppress appetite. The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptor, free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is present on colonic enteroendocrine L cells, and a role has been suggested for SCFAs in appetite regulation. Here, we characterise the in vitro and in vivo effects of colonic propionate on PYY and GLP-1 release in rodents, and investigate the role of FFA2 in mediating these effects using FFA2 knockout mice. Methods: We used Wistar rats, C57BL6 mice and free fatty acid receptor 2 knockout (FFA?/?) mice on a C57BL6 background to explore the impact of the SCFA propionate on PYY and GLP-1 release. Isolated colonic crypt cultures were used to assess the effects of propionate on gut hormone release in vitro. We subsequently developed an in vivo technique to assess gut hormone release into the portal vein following colonic infusion of propionate. Results: Propionate stimulated the secretion of both PYY and GLP-1 from wild-type primary murine colonic crypt cultures. This effect was significantly attenuated in cultures from FFA2?/? mice. Intra-colonic infusion of propionate elevated PYY and GLP-1 levels in jugular vein plasma in rats and in portal vein plasma in both rats and mice. However, propionate did not significantly stimulate gut hormone release in FFA2?/? mice. Conclusions: Intra-colonic administration of propionate stimulates the concurrent release of both GLP-1 and PYY in rats and mice. These data demonstrate that FFA2 deficiency impairs SCFA-induced gut hormone secretion both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25109781

  5. Effect of treating with propionic acid, sodium bisulfite and sodium hydroxide on the biosynthesis of aflatoxin on groundnut cake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Ghosh; A. Chhabra; P. P. Atreja; R. C. Chopra

    1996-01-01

    Aflatoxin free groundnut cake (GNC) pretreated with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00% each of propionic acid, sodium bisulfite or sodium hydroxide at three moisture levels of 10, 15 and 20% was charged with Aspergillus flavus (107–108 spore) and kept in sealed polythene bags or in petri dishes. The propionic acid and sodium bisulfite treated samples were kept for a period

  6. Metabolism of propionic acid to a novel acyl-coenzyme A thioester by mammalian cell lines and platelets.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Nathaniel W; Basu, Sankha S; Worth, Andrew J; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism of propionate involves the activated acyl-thioester propionyl-CoA intermediate. We employed LC-MS/MS, LC-selected reaction monitoring/MS, and LC-high-resolution MS to investigate metabolism of propionate to acyl-CoA intermediates. We discovered that propionyl-CoA can serve as a precursor to the direct formation of a new six-carbon mono-unsaturated acyl-CoA. Time course and dose-response studies in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells demonstrated that the six-carbon mono-unsaturated acyl-CoA was propionate-dependent and underwent further metabolism over time. Studies utilizing [(13)C1]propionate and [(13)C3]propionate suggested a mechanism of fatty acid synthesis, which maintained all six-carbon atoms from two propionate molecules. Metabolism of 2,2-[(2)H2]propionate to the new six-carbon mono-unsaturated acyl-CoA resulted in the complete loss of two deuterium atoms, indicating modification at C2 of the propionyl moiety. Coelution experiments and isotopic tracer studies confirmed that the new acyl-CoA was trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA. Acyl-CoA profiles following treatment of HepG2 cells with mono-unsaturated six-carbon fatty acids also supported this conclusion. Similar results were obtained with human platelets, mouse hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1c1c7 cells, human bronchoalveolar carcinoma H358 cells, and human colon adenocarcinoma LoVo cells. Interestingly, trans-2-methyl-2-pentenoyl-CoA corresponds to a previously described acylcarnitine tentatively described in patients with propionic and methylmalonic acidemia. We have proposed a mechanism for this metabolic route consistent with all of the above findings. PMID:25424005

  7. A slow-release system of bacterial cellulose gel and nanoparticles for hydrophobic active ingredients.

    PubMed

    Numata, Yukari; Mazzarino, Leticia; Borsali, Redouane

    2015-05-30

    A combination of bacterial cellulose (BC) gel and amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles was investigated as a drug delivery system (DDS) for hydrophobic active ingredients. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) and retinol were used as the block copolymer and hydrophobic active ingredient, respectively. The BC gel was capable of incorporating copolymer nanoparticles and releasing them in an acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH 5.2) at 37 °C. The percentage of released copolymer reached a maximum value of approximately 60% after 6h and remained constant after 24h. The percentage of retinol released from the copolymer-containing BC gel reached a maximum value at 4h. These results show that the combination of BC gel and nanoparticles is a slow-release system that may be useful in the cosmetic and biomedical fields for skin treatment and preparation. PMID:25840273

  8. Analysis of cigarette mainstream smoke for 1,1-dimethylhydrazine and vinyl acetate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, J; Biefel, C; Rustemeier, K

    2002-10-01

    1,1-Dimethylhydrazine, also known as unsymdimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and vinyl acetate (VA), are both classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as 2B carcinogens (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and listed as cigarette smoke constituents; however, there is little or no quantitative data available on them. For UDMH in cigarette smoke, neither a yield nor a method has been published. For VA, the most recent information on yields dates back to 1965. To bridge this gap, we have developed new gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods for both compounds to determine their yields in cigarette smoke. UDMH is determined by derivatization with 2-nitrobenzaldehyde in methanol and is not found in cigarette smoke at levels above the detection limit of 19 ng/cig. In further experiments, when UDMH is added to the smoke stream or air stream of lit or unlit cigarettes, the derivative 2-nitrobenzaldehyde-2,2-dimethylhydrazone is found only in the air stream of the unlit cigarettes. From this, we conclude that UDMH is either not formed during smoking at all or, if it is, it reacts immediately and quantitatively with other smoke constituents (e.g., aldehydes) and is therefore not detectable in cigarette smoke. VA is determined by trapping in acetone at -78 degrees C and is found at a concentration of 270 ng/cig for a standard reference cigarette with a cellulose acetate filter (the reference cigarette 1 R4F). In the literature, VA is reported at concentrations of 1.6 microg/cig for a cigarette with a cellulose acetate/charcoal filter and 4 microg/cig for a cigarette with a cellulose acetate filter and for an unfiltered cigarette. PMID:12433113

  9. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  11. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  12. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  13. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...reporting . (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No....

  14. Characteristics of MnO 2 catalytic ozonation of sulfosalicylic acid and propionic acid in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-ping Tong; Wei-ping Liu; Wen-hua Leng; Qian-qing Zhang

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of different types of MnO2 catalytic ozonation of sulfosalicylic acid (SSal) and propionic acid (PPA) have been investigated in this paper. The experimental results show the dependence of catalytic activity of MnO2 on organic compounds and the pH of solutions, but it is independent on the type of MnO2. For example, three types of MnO2 have not any

  15. Dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) modified gold microarray electrode based electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil K. Arya; Ganna Chornokur; Manju Venugopal; Shekhar Bhansali

    2010-01-01

    Gold microelectrode arrays functionalized with dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) have been used to fabricate an ultrasensitive, disposable, electrochemical cortisol immunosensor. Cortisol specific monoclonal antibody (C-Mab) was covalently immobilized on the surface of gold microelectrode array and the sensors were exposed to solutions with different cortisol concentration. After C-Mab binding, unreacted active groups of DTSP were blocked using ethanol amine

  16. Satiety effects of a dairy beverage fermented with propionic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rianne M. A. J. Ruijschop; Alexandra E. M. Boelrijk; Meike C. te Giffel

    2008-01-01

    Organic acids, and in particular short-chain fatty acids, are reported to have satiety-inducing effects. The aim of this study was to investigate if a dairy beverage containing propionic acid obtained by fermentation induces more satiety and a greater decrease in food intake than a non-fermented dairy product. In a within-subjects repeated-measures design, 43 young, healthy, normal-weight women consumed 150mL, 1.0

  17. Kinetic calculations for the thermal decomposition of calcium propionate under non-isothermal conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ShengLi Niu; KuiHua Han; ChunMei Lu

    2011-01-01

    Calcium propionate (CP) is shown to be useful for simultaneous SO2\\/NO reduction in coal-fired power plants and its thermal decomposition characteristics are measured by thermogravimetric analysis\\u000a in a feasibility study into more complete reduction of these hazardous gases. Calcium carbonate (CC), which has been used\\u000a primarily for in-furnace desulfuration, was used for comparison. The thermal decomposition of this organic calcium-based

  18. Randomised controlled trial of inhaled corticosteroids (fluticasone propionate) in cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian M Balfour-Lynn; Nigel J Klein; Robert Dinwiddie

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUNDControlling lung inflammation may be the key to improving morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis.OBJECTIVETo assess the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis.DESIGNDouble blind placebo controlled randomised sequence crossover trial. Fluticasone propionate (400 ?g\\/day) was given as a dry powder inhaler for six weeks with a four week washout period before crossover.OUTCOME MEASURESSputum inflammatory markers (interleukin-8,

  19. Structure-based design of indole propionic acids as novel PPAR?\\/? co-agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Kuhn; Hans Hilpert; Jörg Benz; Alfred Binggeli; Uwe Grether; Roland Humm; Hans Peter Märki; Markus Meyer; Peter Mohr

    2006-01-01

    In the quest for novel PPAR?\\/? co-agonists as putative drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia, we have used a structure-based design approach to identify propionic acids with a 1,5-disubstituted indole scaffold as potent PPAR?\\/? activators. Compounds 13, 24, and 28 are examples of submicromolar dual agonists with different ?\\/? EC50 ratios that are selective against the

  20. Conformational flexibility in small biomolecules: tryptamine and 3-indole-propionic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel R Carney; Timothy S Zwier

    2001-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study is used to probe the conformational preferences of two flexible tryptophan analogs, tryptamine (TRA) and 3-indole-propionic acid (IPA). Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy provides infrared spectra of single conformations of these molecules free from interference from one another. Density functional theory Becke3LYP calculations are used to predict relative energies for the conformers, while relaxed potential

  1. Proton magnetic resonance studies of the chemical shifts occurring in propionic acid-dioxane solutions

    E-print Network

    Oldham, William J. Bryan

    1958-01-01

    as rapMly as predicted by Gutowsky's linear dspendenoe, They observed, similar results for propionic acid, At very high concentrations of acid, carboxylic acids appear as double molecules~ called dimers, held together by hydrogen bonds As water... is added. , the dimers break up to form monomers. There i, s formed alternately a hydrogen bond between the monomer ac1d and the water, forming a complex. If the correlation times of the diner state aud oomplex water state ere sufficiently smallv...

  2. Poly(vinyl acetate), poly((1- O-(vinyloxy) ethyl-2,3,4,6-tetra- O-acetyl-?- d-glucopyranoside) and amorphous poly(lactic acid) are the most CO 2-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon-based polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tapriyal; Y. Wang; R. M. Enick; J. K. Johnson; J. Crosthwaite; M. C. Thies; I. H. Paik; A. D. Hamilton

    2008-01-01

    Poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, remains the most CO2-soluble non-fluorous polymer identified to date. Small sugar acetates are known to be extraordinarily CO2-philic, but cellulose triacetate, a crystalline high molecule weight polymer is CO2 insoluble. Therefore, an amorphous high molecular weight polymer with pendant sugar acetates was synthesized. This polymer, poly(1-O-(vinyloxy) ethyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-?-d-glucopyranoside, P(AcGIcVE), was indeed CO2-soluble, however cloud point pressures of P(AcGIcVE)

  3. Salmeterol combined with fluticasone propionate improved COPD in patients during stable stage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dongmei; Ma, Junpeng; Yang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effect of inhaled Salmeterol with Fluticasone propionate (50:500 ?g) in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) during the stable stage of the disease. Methods: Sixty patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomly divided into trial and control groups (N=30 each). In the trial group, patients inhaled Salmeterol with Fluticasone (50:500 ?g) propionate twice daily via turbuhaler for 3 months. In the control group, patients used slow- released theophylline, 200 mg, twice daily for 3 months; patients took an expectorant (Ambroxol Hydrochloride, 10 ml, three times daily) if necessary. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were graded using St. George’s respiratory disease questionnaire (SGRQ). Changes in lung function were assessed. Results: Indicators of lung function including the values of FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEV1/predicted values were significantly higher after treatment in the trial group than in the control group (P<0.05). SGRQ values in the trial group decreased significantly after treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Inhaled Salmeterol 50 ?g and Fluticasone propionate 500 ?g can significantly improve the lung function and clinical symptoms of patients with stable moderate to severe COPD. PMID:25356157

  4. Protection against vanadium-induced testicular toxicity by testosterone propionate in rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Ghosh, Rituparna; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2010-07-01

    Vanadium is a well recognized industrial hazard known to adversely affect male reproductive functions. The intricate mechanistic aspects of this metal and the role of oxidative stress in the deterioration of testicular functions are investigated in the current study. The experiment also focused on the effects of testosterone propionate in testicular and sperm functions in the rat intoxicated with vanadate. Vanadium exposure resulted in a more prominent spermatogenic arrest and consistently abolished the conversion of round to mature spermatids along with decreased epididymal sperm number and increased percentage of abnormal sperm. This is followed by a precipitous decline in the level of serum testosterone and gonadotropins and consequently the testicular steroidogenic and antioxidant enzymes were inhibited. Vanadium induces degeneration in the genital organs of rats and exhibits high indices of lipid oxidative damage. In response to exogenous testosterone propionate (TP) administration, spermatogonial cell populations remained suppressed, while the spermatogenesis was restored quantitatively. In contrast, the hormone treatment had no effect on the dramatically decreased serum FSH level after vanadate treatment. Moreover, TP could ameliorate the toxicity, as indicated by decreased testicular lipid peroxidation with marginal but significant increase in the activities of all the measured enzymes following vanadate-treatment. Taken together all these studies establish that vanadium is a testicular toxicant that perturbs the male reproductive system adversely. However, hormone replacement therapy by testosterone propionate may provide partial protection. The results suggest the feasibility of using endocrine regimens to impede deleterious effects of vanadium on the male reproductive system. PMID:20521886

  5. Characterisation of the aggregation behaviour in a salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation aerosol system.

    PubMed

    Michael, Y; Snowden, M J; Chowdhry, B Z; Ashurst, I C; Davies-Cutting, C J; Riley, T

    2001-06-19

    The nature of the drug-drug aggregation phenomena between salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate used in a metered-dose inhaler system has been examined. Interactions between the drugs in the solvents 1,1,2-trichlorotrifloroethane (CFC-113) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA-134a) have been characterised using a focused beam reflectance measurement probe by measuring the average floc size of the drug particles individually and in combination as a function of stirrer rate. The floc composition in the CFC-113 system, where the drug particles cream, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The aggregation behaviour of the individual drugs was shown to depend on the physical and chemical properties of both the drug substance and the media. Larger flocs were observed for salmeterol xinafoate compared with fluticasone propionate, while both drugs formed larger aggregates in HFA-134a compared with in CFC-113. The floc composition studies demonstrated that, in the combined formulation in CFC-113, salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate aggregate together to form hetero-flocs. The interaction between the two drugs was such that they did not separate on creaming, despite having different densities. The average floc size of the combined drug suspension was also found to depend on the dispersion medium. PMID:11397578

  6. Biliverdin amides reveal roles for propionate side chains in bilin reductase recognition and in holophytochrome assembly and photoconversion.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lixia; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark

    2010-07-27

    Linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) perform important antioxidant and light-harvesting functions in cells from bacteria to humans. To explore the role of the propionate moieties in bilin metabolism, we report the semisynthesis of mono- and diamides of biliverdin IXalpha and those of its non-natural XIIIalpha isomer. Initially, these were examined as substrates of two types of NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductase, BVR and BvdR, and of the representative ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase, phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA). Our studies indicate that the NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductases are less accommodating to amidation of the propionic acid side chains of biliverdin IXalpha than PcyA, which does not require free carboxylic acid side chains to yield its phytobilin product, phycocyanobilin. Bilin amides were also assembled with BV-type and phytobilin-type apophytochromes, demonstrating a role for the 8-propionate in the formation of the spectroscopically native P(r) dark states of these biliprotein photosensors. Neither ionizable propionate side chain proved to be essential to primary photoisomerization for both classes of phytochromes, but an unsubstituted 12-propionate was required for full photointerconversion of phytobilin-type phytochrome Cph1. Taken together, these studies provide insight into the roles of the ionizable propionate side chains in substrate discrimination by two bilin reductase families while further underscoring the mechanistic differences between the photoconversions of BV-type and phytobilin-type phytochromes. PMID:20565135

  7. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12. PMID:25261985

  8. Biliverdin amides reveal roles for propionate side chains in bilin reductase recognition and in holophytochrome assembly and photoconversion†

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lixia; Rockwell, Nathan C.; Martin, Shelley S.; Lagarias, J. Clark

    2010-01-01

    Linear tetrapyrroles (bilins) perform important antioxidant and light harvesting functions in cells from bacteria to humans. To explore the role of the propionate moieties in bilin metabolism, we report the semisynthesis of mono- and di-amides of biliverdin IX? and those of its non-natural XIII? isomer. Initially, these were examined as substrates of two types of NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductase, BVR and BvdR, and of the representative ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductase, phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA). Our studies indicate that the NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductases are less accommodating to amidation of the propionic acid sidechains of biliverdin IX? than PcyA, which does not require free carboxylic acid sidechains to yield its phytobilin product, phycocyanobilin. Bilin amides were also assembled with BV-type and phytobilin-type apophytochromes, demonstrating a role for the 8-propionate in formation of the spectroscopically native Pr dark states of these biliprotein photosensors. Neither ionizable propionate sidechain proved essential to primary photoisomerization for both classes of phytochromes, but an unsubstituted 12-propionate was required for full photointerconversion of phytobilin-type phytochrome Cph1. Taken together, these studies provide insight into the roles of the ionizable propionate sidechains in substrate discrimination by two bilin reductase families while further underscoring the mechanistic differences between the photoconversions of BV-type and phytobilin-type phytochromes. PMID:20565135

  9. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  10. Fungal degradation of polyvinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    García Trejo, A

    1988-08-01

    Certain Aspergillus and Penicillium strains isolated from soil grow well and degrade a commercial sample of polyvinyl acetate (PVA, 4.5 g liter-1) when it is used as the only carbon source. These strains showed an increase in dry weight after 11 days of incubation, along with a depletion of carbohydrates, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid. This was interpreted as an active turnover of the above metabolites during the degradation. This effect was greatly enhanced by equilibrating the carbon:nitrogen ratio by addition of yeast extract in the original culture. The increase in esterase activity and the loss of viscosity were also considered evidence of the fungal degradation. Isolation of the enzyme was attempted, but unsuccessful. PMID:3181066

  11. Specific and efficient N-propionylation of histones with propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester for histone marks characterization by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liao, Rijing; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Haibing; Yu, Yanyan; Hu, Min; Zhai, Huili; Yang, Pengyuan; Zhou, Shaolian; Yi, Wei

    2013-02-19

    Histones participate in epigenetic regulation via a variety of dynamic posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on them. Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a powerful tool to investigate histone PTMs. With the bottom-up mass spectrometry approach, chemical derivatization of histones with propionic anhydride or deuterated acetic anhydride followed by trypsin digestion was widely used to block the hydrophilic lysine residues and generate compatible peptides for LC-MS analysis. However, certain severe side reactions (such as acylation on tyrosine or serine) caused by acid anhydrides will lead to a number of analytical issues such as reducing results accuracy and impairing the reproducibility and sensitivity of MS analysis. As an alternative approach, we report a novel derivatization method that utilizes N-hydroxysuccinimide ester to specifically and efficiently derivatize both free and monomethylated amine groups in histones. A competitive inhibiting strategy was implemented in our method to effectively prevent the side reactions. We demonstrated that our method can achieve excellent specificity and efficiency for histones derivatization in a reproducible manner. Using this derivatization method, we succeeded to quantitatively profile the histone PTMs in KMS11 cell line with selective knock out of translocated NSD2 allele (TKO) and the original parental KMS11 cell lines (PAR) (NSD2, a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the histone H3 K36 methylation), which revealed a significant crosstalk between H3 protein K27 methylation and adjacent K36 methylation. PMID:23339652

  12. Evaluation of cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Maha M; Koschella, Andreas; Kadry, Ghada; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Cellulose was isolated from rice straw and converted to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Both polymers were crosslinked with poly(vinyl alcholo) (PVA). The physical properties of the resulting membranes were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, DSC and SEM. The cellulose and CMC were first prepared from bleached rice straw pulp. The infrared spectroscopy of the resulting polymer membranes indicated a decrease in the absorbance of the OH group at 3300-3400 cm(-1), which is due to bond formation with either the cellulose or CMC with the PVA. The thermal stability of PVA/cellulose and PVA/CMC membranes was lower than PVA membrane. The surface of the resulting polymer membranes showed smooth surface in case of the PVA/CMC membrane and rough surface in case of the PVA/cellulose membrane. Desalination test, using 0.2% NaCl, showed that pure PVA membranes had no effect while membranes containing either cellulose or CMC as filler were able to decrease the content of the NaCl from the solution by 25% and 15%, respectively. Transport properties, including water and chloroform vapor were studied. The moisture transport was reduced by the presence of both cellulose and CMC. Moreover, the membranes containing cellulose and CMC showed significantly reduced flux compared to the pure PVA. The water sorption, solubility and soaking period at different pH solutions were also studied and showed that the presence of both cellulose and CMC influences the properties. PMID:23618287

  13. Structure and morphology of cellulose in wheat straw

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruigang Liu; Hui Yu; Yong Huang

    2005-01-01

    The structure and morphology of cellulose extracted from wheat were studied. It was found that the extraction process is effective and hemicelluloses and lignin can be extracted completely. Cellulose in wheat straw was identified as cellulose I allomorph with low crystallinity and the crystallinity of cellulose from different parts of the wheat straw has little difference. There was no metastable

  14. Studies of crystallinity of Scots pine and Norway spruce cellulose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seppo Andersson; Hanne Wikberg; Erkki Pesonen; SirkkaLiisa Maunu; Ritva Serimaa

    2004-01-01

    The variation in the mass fraction of crystalline cellulose (crystallinity of wood), the intrinsic crystallinity of cellulose, and the thickness of cellulose crystallites in early wood of Norway spruce [ Picea abies(L.) Karst.], and Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestrisL.) grown in Finland were studied using wide angle X-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The mass fraction of crystalline cellulose

  15. A novel nanocomposite film prepared from crosslinked cellulosic whiskers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Goetz; Aji Mathew; Kristiina Oksman; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose whiskers are increasingly being used as a reinforcing phase in polymer systems and their use is a growing area of importance in bionanocomposite research. Although the reinforcing effect of cellulose whiskers has been studied in various polymers, the impact of crosslinking cellulose whiskers has not been explored so far. This work deals with the development of novel cellulose nanocomposites,

  16. Cellulose nanofibrils aerogels generated from jute fibers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyou; Yu, Liangbo; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Nie; Li, Xiuhong; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jie

    2014-08-30

    In this work, we report the cellulose nanofibrils extracted from the pristine jute fibers via the pretreatments followed by the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical)-mediated oxidation and mechanical disintegration. The effects of pretreatments by using the NaOH solution and dimethyl sulfoxide solvent on the fiber morphology and macro/micro-structures were investigated by polarizing microscope and synchrotron radiation wide/small-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS/SAXS). The cellulose nanofibrils exhibit a diameter ranging from 5 nm to 20 nm and a length of several micrometers, which have been assembled into cellulose aerogels by the lyophilization of as-prepared nanofibrils dispersions with various concentrations. The results indicated that the hierarchical structures of as-prepared cellulose aerogels were dependent on the dispersion concentrations. The WAXS results show that the typical cellulose aerogels are coexistence of cellulose I and cellulose II, which has a great promise for many potential applications, such as pharmaceutical, liquid filtration, catalysts, bio-nanocomposites, and tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24815398

  17. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  18. Cellulose-builder: a toolkit for building crystalline structures of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thiago C F; Skaf, Munir S

    2012-05-30

    Cellulose-builder is a user-friendly program that builds crystalline structures of cellulose of different sizes and geometries. The program generates Cartesian coordinates for all atoms of the specified structure in the Protein Data Bank format, suitable for using as starting configurations in molecular dynamics simulations and other calculations. Crystalline structures of cellulose polymorphs I?, I?, II, and III(I) of practically any size are readily constructed which includes parallelepipeds, plant cell wall cellulose elementary fibrils of any length, and monolayers. Periodic boundary conditions along the crystallographic directions are easily imposed. The program also generates atom connectivity file in PSF format, required by well-known simulation packages such as NAMD, CHARMM, and others. Cellulose-builder is based on the Bash programming language and should run on practically any Unix-like platform, demands very modest hardware, and is freely available for download from ftp://ftp.iqm.unicamp.br/pub/cellulose-builder. PMID:22419406

  19. Modification of polyurethane foams with cellulose fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Stokke, D.D.; Shaler, S.M.; Hawke, R.N. (Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton (United States))

    1992-07-01

    Cellulosic fibers derived from a chemical wood pulp were added to low density flexible and rigid foams in weight fractions ranging from one to five parts-by-weight (pbw) of the polyol. Foams containing no fibers or milled glass fibers at five and ten pbw were used for comparison. Evaluation of selected properties of the foams revealed that low weight additions (2 pbw) of a fluffed cellulose fiber resulted in generally improved properties over foams containing no fibers, glass fibers, or an expanded cellulose fiber.

  20. New carboxymethyl cellulose tosylate with low biodeterioration.

    PubMed

    Orehek, Janez; Petek, Klemen; Dogsa, Iztok; Stopar, David

    2014-11-26

    Microbial biodegradation and biodeterioration of cellulose based thickeners is a serious problem in industry. A new tosylic ester of carboxymethyl cellulose (TsCMC) was prepared with anhydride of p-toluensulphonic acid. The TsCMC has improved rheological properties, higher viscosity and pseudoplasticity, superior emulsification properties and decreased wettability compared to parental CMC. The biodeterioration of TsCMC was significantly reduced compared to parental CMC or other commercially used modified cellulose thickeners in water based paint industry. Improved rheological properties combined with low biodeterioration make TsCMC a promising new material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the use of hazardous antimicrobial agents. PMID:25256453

  1. Characterization of a novel cellulose synthesis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kiedaisch, Brett M; Blanton, Richard L; Haigler, Candace H

    2003-10-01

    The physiological effects of an experimental herbicide and cellulose synthesis inhibitor, N2-(1-ethyl-3-phenylpropyl)-6-(1-fluoro-1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, called AE F150944, are described. In the aminotriazine molecular class, AE F150944 is structurally distinct from other known cellulose synthesis inhibitors. It specifically inhibits crystalline cellulose synthesis in plants without affecting other processes that were tested. The effects of AE F150944 on dicotyledonous plants were tested on cultured mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans L. cv. Envy, which can be selectively induced to expand via primary wall synthesis or to differentiate into tracheary elements via secondary wall synthesis. The IC50 values during primary and secondary wall synthesis in Z. elegans were 3.91 x 10(-8) M and 3.67 x 10(-9) M, respectively. The IC50 in suspension cultures of the monocot Sorghum halapense (L.) Pers., which were dividing and synthesizing primary walls, was 1.67 x 10(-10) M. At maximally inhibitory concentrations, 18-33% residual crystalline cellulose synthesis activity remained, with the most residual activity observed during primary wall synthesis in Z. elegans. Addition to Z. elegans cells of two other cellulose synthesis inhibitors, 1 microM 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile and isoxaben, along with AE F150944 did not eliminate the residual cellulose synthesis, indicating little synergy between the three inhibitors. In differentiating tracheary elements, AE F150944 inhibited the deposition of detectable cellulose into patterned secondary wall thickenings, which was correlated with delocalization of lignin as described previously for 2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy showed that the plasma membrane below the patterned thickenings of AE F150944-treated tracheary elements was depleted of cellulose-synthase-containing rosettes, which appeared to be inserted intact into the plasma membrane followed by their rapid disaggregation. AE F150944 also inhibited cellulose-dependent growth in the rosette-containing alga, Spirogyra pratensis, but it did not inhibit cellulose synthesis in Acetobacter xylinum or Dictyostelium discoideum, both of which synthesize cellulose via linear terminal complexes. Therefore, AE F150944 may inhibit crystalline cellulose synthesis by destabilizing plasma membrane rosettes. PMID:12883883

  2. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Bruce M. (Bend, OR)

    1986-01-01

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  3. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M.

    1986-12-23

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  4. Nanocrystalline cellulose for optical encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu Ping; Allahverdyan, Karen; Morse, Timothy; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.; Kirk, Andrew G.; Galstian, Tigran; Andrews, Mark P.

    2014-08-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) exhibits unusual optical properties that make it of interest for hierarchical optical encryption in nanostructured films. The color-travel phenomenon of iridescence is exhibited by NCC when cast as a film from chiral nematic aqueous phase suspensions of the nanocrystals. "Iridescence by self-assembly" has potential for overt encryption as an anti-counterfeiting measure. It also offers an intrinsic level of covert encryption by reflecting leftcircularly polarized light. We show that addition of a UV sensitive dye adds another level of (covert) encryption, and that specially prepared films manifest a rare form of optical non-reciprocity that does not require the application of an external field. Chirality parameters and stokes vector analyses suggest a simple authentication scheme. The method uses a UV light source and a circular polarizer in conjunction with an iridescent feature that can be verified by the eye or by chiral spectrometry.

  5. Change in handedness of cholesteric liquid crystal during swelling in water for crosslinked hydroxypropyl cellulose films filled with cellulose powders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichi Suto; Miyoko Inoue

    1999-01-01

    Crosslinked hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) films retaining cholesteric liquid crystalline order (CLCO) were filled with cellulose powders. Swellability in water and circular dichroism study during swelling of the films were determined and the effects of cellulose powders on the swellability and CLCO of the films were discussed. The cellulose powders dispersed in the films swelled more greatly and more rapidly than

  6. Dispersion evaluation of microcrystalline cellulose\\/cellulose nanofibril-filled polypropylene composites using thermogravimetric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han-Seung YangDouglas; Douglas J. Gardner; Jacques W. Nader

    2011-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose-filled polypropylene (PP) composites and cellulose nanofiber-filled composites were prepared by\\u000a melt blending. The compounded material was used to evaluate dispersion of cellulose fillers in the polypropylene matrix. Thermogravimetric\\u000a analysis (TG) and mechanical testing were conducted on composites blended multiple times and the results were compared with\\u000a single batch melt blended composites. The residual mass, tensile strength, and coefficient

  7. Structure and processing of fibrous cellulose: bacterial and ascidian material

    E-print Network

    Khandelwal, Mudrika

    2013-06-11

    bacterial and tunicate cellulose 3. Pilot fibre spinning trials from the liquid crystalline cellulose suspensions 4. Exploratory study into in situ modification of bacterial cellulose to tune micro- macro-structure of cellulose 1.3 Thesis outline... to produce cellulose [17] Prokaryotic Gram positive anaerobic bacteria- Sarcina Gram negative purple bacteria- Acetobacter, Rhizobium, Alcaligenes Agrobacterium Eukaryotic A. Photoynthetic organisms a. Chlorophyta (green algae) b. Charophyta (stoneworts...

  8. Improved assay for quantitating adherence of ruminal bacteria to cellulose.

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, M A; White, B A; Hespell, R B

    1989-01-01

    A quantitative technique suitable for the determination of adherence of ruminal bacteria to cellulose was developed. This technique employs adherence of cells to cellulose disks and alleviates the problem of nonspecific cell entrapment within cellulose particles. By using this technique, it was demonstrated that the adherence of Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD1 to cellulose was inhibited by formaldehyde, methylcellulose, and carboxymethyl cellulose. Adherence was unaffected by acid hydrolysates of methylcellulose, glucose, and cellobiose. PMID:2782879

  9. Direct fabrication of all-cellulose nanocomposite from cellulose microfibers using ionic liquid-based nanowelding.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Hossein; Nishino, Takashi; Faezipour, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Ghanbar; Shakeri, Alireza

    2011-11-14

    All-cellulose nanocomposite was directly fabricated using nanowelding of cellulose microfibers as a starting material, in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) as a solvent, for the first time. The average diameter of the reinforcing component (undissolved nanofibrils) in the nanocomposite made directly from cellulose microfibers (NC-microfiber) was 53 ± 16 nm. Owing to its high mechanical properties (tensile strength of 208 MPa and Young's modulus of 20 GPa), high transparency (76% at a wavelength of 800 nm), and complete barrier to air and biodegradability, the NC-microfiber is regarded as a high multiperformance material. The NC-microfiber made directly from cellulose microfibers showed similar macro-, micro-, and nanostructures and the same properties as those made from solvent-based welding of ground cellulose nanofibers (NC-nanofiber). Omitting the step of cellulose nanofiber production makes the direct production of all-cellulose nanocomposite from cellulose microfibers easier, shorter, and cheaper than using cellulose nanofibers as starting material. The direct nanowelding of macro/micrometer-sized materials is theorized to be a fundamental approach for making nanocomposites. PMID:21939209

  10. Effects of Dietary Linseed Oil and Propionate Precursors on Ruminal Microbial Community, Composition, and Diversity in Yanbian Yellow Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong S.; Choi, Seong H.; Smith, Stephen B.; Yan, Chang G.

    2015-01-01

    The rumen microbial ecosystem is a complex system where rumen fermentation processes involve interactions among microorganisms. There are important relationships between diet and the ruminal bacterial composition. Thus, we investigated the ruminal fermentation characteristics and compared ruminal bacterial communities using tag amplicon pyrosequencing analysis in Yanbian yellow steers, which were fed linseed oil (LO) and propionate precursors. We used eight ruminally cannulated Yanbian yellow steers (510 ± 5.8 kg) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four dietary treatments. Steers were fed a basal diet that comprised 80% concentrate and 20% rice straw (DM basis, CON). The CON diet was supplemented with LO at 4%. The LO diet was also supplemented with 2% dl-malate or 2% fumarate as ruminal precursors of propionate. Dietary supplementation with LO and propionate precursors increased ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the molar proportion of propionate. The most abundant bacterial operational taxonomic units in the rumen were related to dietary treatments. Bacteroidetes dominated the ruminal bacterial community and the genus Prevotella was highly represented when steers were fed LO plus propionate precursors. However, with the CON and LO diet plus malate or fumarate, Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum and the genus Ruminococcus was predominant. In summary, supplementing the diets of ruminants with a moderate level of LO plus propionate precursors modified the ruminal fermentation pattern. The most positive responses to LO and propionate precursors supplementation were in the phyla Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes, and in the genus Ruminococcus and Prevotella. Thus, diets containing LO plus malate or fumarate have significant effects on the composition of the rumen microbial community. PMID:26024491

  11. Prevention by l-carnitine of DNA damage induced by propionic and l-methylmalonic acids in human peripheral leukocytes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graziela S. Ribas; Vanusa Manfredini; Maria Gilda de Marco; Rosana B. Vieira; Carlos Y. Wayhs; Camila S. Vanzin; Giovana B. Biancini; Moacir Wajner; Carmen R. Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Propionic acidemia (PAemia) and methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) are inborn errors of propionate metabolism characterized by the accumulation of, respectively, propionic and l-methylmalonic acids (and their metabolites) in the blood and tissues of affected patients. The conditions lead to severe metabolic complications in the neonatal period and to long-term neurological manifestations. Treatment for these disorders consists of a protein-restricted diet, supplemented

  12. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavici?; Skrgati?, Lana; Radakovi?, Branko; Vrbi?, Hrvoje; Cani?, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception. PMID:24851646

  13. Synthetic biology approach to cellulose degradation 

    E-print Network

    Lakhundi, Sahreena Saleem

    2012-06-22

    Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, is composed of ? – 1,4 – linked glucose units, which in turn form a highly ordered crystalline structure that is insoluble and recalcitrant to degradation. It is the ...

  14. Reactive Liftoff of Crystalline Cellulose Particles.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Andrew R; Krumm, Christoph; Vinter, Katherine P; Paulsen, Alex D; Zhu, Cheng; Maduskar, Saurabh; Joseph, Kristeen E; Greco, Katharine; Stelatto, Michael; Davis, Eric; Vincent, Brendon; Hermann, Richard; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Schmidt, Lanny D; Fan, Wei; Rothstein, Jonathan P; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    The condition of heat transfer to lignocellulosic biomass particles during thermal processing at high temperature (>400?°C) dramatically alters the yield and quality of renewable energy and fuels. In this work, crystalline cellulose particles were discovered to lift off heated surfaces by high speed photography similar to the Leidenfrost effect in hot, volatile liquids. Order of magnitude variation in heat transfer rates and cellulose particle lifetimes was observed as intermediate liquid cellulose droplets transitioned from low temperature wetting (500-600?°C) to fully de-wetted, skittering droplets on polished surfaces (>700?°C). Introduction of macroporosity to the heated surface was shown to completely inhibit the cellulose Leidenfrost effect, providing a tunable design parameter to control particle heat transfer rates in industrial biomass reactors. PMID:26057818

  15. Reactive Liftoff of Crystalline Cellulose Particles

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Andrew R.; Krumm, Christoph; Vinter, Katherine P.; Paulsen, Alex D.; Zhu, Cheng; Maduskar, Saurabh; Joseph, Kristeen E.; Greco, Katharine; Stelatto, Michael; Davis, Eric; Vincent, Brendon; Hermann, Richard; Suszynski, Wieslaw; Schmidt, Lanny D.; Fan, Wei; Rothstein, Jonathan P.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The condition of heat transfer to lignocellulosic biomass particles during thermal processing at high temperature (>400?°C) dramatically alters the yield and quality of renewable energy and fuels. In this work, crystalline cellulose particles were discovered to lift off heated surfaces by high speed photography similar to the Leidenfrost effect in hot, volatile liquids. Order of magnitude variation in heat transfer rates and cellulose particle lifetimes was observed as intermediate liquid cellulose droplets transitioned from low temperature wetting (500–600?°C) to fully de-wetted, skittering droplets on polished surfaces (>700?°C). Introduction of macroporosity to the heated surface was shown to completely inhibit the cellulose Leidenfrost effect, providing a tunable design parameter to control particle heat transfer rates in industrial biomass reactors. PMID:26057818

  16. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582...AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. Influence of hydrogen-consuming bacteria on cellulose degradation by anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Marvin-Sikkema, F D; Richardson, A J; Stewart, C S; Gottschal, J C; Prins, R A

    1990-01-01

    The presence of methanogens Methanobacterium arboriphilus, Methanobacterium bryantii, or Methanobrevibacter smithii increased the level of cellulose fermentation by 5 to 10% in cultures of several genera of anaerobic fungi. When Neocallimastix sp. strain L2 was grown in coculture with methanogens the rate of cellulose fermentation also increased relative to that for pure cultures of the fungus. Methanogens caused a shift in the fermentation products to more acetate and less lactate, succinate, and ethanol. Formate transfer in cocultures of anaerobic fungi and M. smithii did not result in further stimulation of cellulolysis above the level caused by H2 transfer. When Selenomonas ruminatium was used as a H2-consuming organism in coculture with Neocallimastix sp. strain L2, both the rate and level of cellulolysis increased. The observed influence of the presence of methanogens is interpreted to indicate a shift of electrons from the formation of electron sink carbon products to H2 via reduced pyridine nucleotides, favoring the production of additional acetate and probably ATP. It is not known how S. ruminantium exerts its influence. It might result from a lowered production of electron sink products by the fungus, from consumption of electron sink products or H2 by S. ruminantium, or from competition for free sugars which in pure culture could exert an inhibiting effect on cellulolysis. PMID:2082826

  2. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of low substituted carboxymethyl cellulose

    E-print Network

    Chanona Dominquez, Guadalupe

    1984-01-01

    ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF LOW SUBSTITUTED CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE A Thesis by GUADALUPE CHANONA DOMINGUEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF LOW SUBSTITUTED CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE A Thesis by GUADALUPE CHANONA DOMINGUEZ Approved as to style and content by: Cady R. Engler airman) Ed. J. Soltes (Member...

  4. Bioprospecting for cellulose-degrading microbes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

    This is a long-term inquiry activity in which students investigate locations they believe harbor cellulose-digesting microbes, collect samples, isolate them on selective media, and screen them for cellulase activity. These novel microbes may be useful for the production of cellulosic ethanol. In the process they learn about plating techniques, serial dilutions, symbiotic relationships and enzyme specificity. Two methods are provided, one focusing on isolation of pure microbial strains, the other focusing on finding symbiotic communities of microbes.

  5. Nanofibrillar cellulose films for controlled drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni; Laaksonen, Timo

    2012-10-01

    Nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated, or nanofibrillated cellulose) has gotten recent and wide attention in various research areas. Here, we report the application of nanofibrillar cellulose as a matrix-former material for long-lasting (up to three months) sustained drug delivery. Film-like matrix systems with drug loadings between 20% and 40% were produced by a filtration method. This simple production method had an entrapment efficacy>90% and offers a possibility for the film thickness adjustment as well as applicability in the incorporation of heat sensitive compounds. The films had excellent mechanical properties suitable for easy handling and shape tailoring of the drug release systems. They were characterized in terms of the internal morphology, and the physical state of the encapsulated drug. The drug release was assessed by dissolution tests, and suitable mathematical models were used to explain the releasing kinetics. The drug release was sustained for a three month period with very close to zero-order kinetics. It is assumed that the nanofibrillar cellulose film sustains the drug release by forming a tight fiber network around the incorporated drug entities. The results indicate that the nanofibrillar cellulose is a highly promising new material for sustained release drug delivery applications. PMID:22750440

  6. A novel green approach for the preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers from white coir.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diego M; Almeida, Jessica S; Dias, Amanda F; Figueirêdo, Maria Clea B; Morais, João Paulo S; Feitosa, Judith P A; de F Rosa, Morsyleide

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this work was to optimize the extraction of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) from unripe coconut husk fibers (CHF). The CHF was delignified using organosolv process, followed by alkaline bleaching (5% (w/w) H2O2+4% (w/w) NaOH; 50°C, 90 min). The CHF was subsequently hydrolyzed with 30% (v/v) sulfuric acid (60°C, 360 min). The process yielded a partially delignified acetosolv cellulose pulp and acetic black liquor, from which the lignin was recovered. The CNW from the acetosolv pulp exhibited an average length of 172±88 nm and a diameter of 8±3 nm, (aspect ratio of 22±8). The surface charge of the CNW was -33 mV, indicating a stable aqueous colloidal suspension. The nanocrystals presented physical characteristics close to those extracted from cellulose pulp made by CHF chlorine-pulping. This approach offers the additional advantage of extracting the lignin as an alternative to eradication. PMID:24906779

  7. Comparative study of SPORL and dilute-acid pretreatments of spruce for cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shuai, L; Yang, Q; Zhu, J Y; Lu, F C; Weimer, P J; Ralph, J; Pan, X J

    2010-05-01

    The performance of two pretreatment methods, sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) and dilute acid (DA), was compared in pretreating softwood (spruce) for fuel ethanol production at 180 degrees Celsius for 30 min with a sulfuric acid loading of 5% on oven-dry wood and a 5:1 liquor-to-wood ratio. SPORL was supplemented with 9% sodium sulfite (w/w of wood). The recoveries of total saccharides (hexoses and pentoses) were 87.9% (SPORL) and 56.7% (DA), while those of cellulose were 92.5% (SPORL) and 77.7% (DA). The total of known inhibitors (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and formic, acetic and levulinic acids) formed in SPORL were only 35% of those formed in DA pretreatment. SPORL pretreatment dissolved approximately 32% of the lignin as lignosulfonate, which is a potential high-value co-product. With an enzyme loading of 15 FPU (filter paper units) per gram of cellulose, the cellulose-to-glucose conversion yields were 91% at 24h for the SPORL substrate and 55% at 48 h for the DA substrate, respectively. PMID:20061141

  8. Characterization of the cellulose-binding domain of the Clostridium cellulovorans cellulose-binding protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, M A; Takagi, M; Hashida, S; Shoseyov, O; Doi, R H; Segel, I H

    1993-01-01

    Cellulose-binding protein A (CbpA), a component of the cellulase complex of Clostridium cellulovorans, contains a unique sequence which has been demonstrated to be a cellulose-binding domain (CBD). The DNA coding for this putative CBD was subcloned into pET-8c, an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein produced under the direction of the recombinant plasmid, pET-CBD, had a high affinity for crystalline cellulose. Affinity-purified CBD protein was used in equilibrium binding experiments to characterize the interaction of the protein with various polysaccharides. It was found that the binding capacity of highly crystalline cellulose samples (e.g., cotton) was greater than that of samples of low crystallinity (e.g., fibrous cellulose). At saturating CBD concentration, about 6.4 mumol of protein was bound by 1 g of cotton. Under the same conditions, fibrous cellulose bound only 0.2 mumol of CBD per g. The measured dissociation constant was in the 1 microM range for all cellulose samples. The results suggest that the CBD binds specifically to crystalline cellulose. Chitin, which has a crystal structure similar to that of cellulose, also was bound by the CBD. The presence of high levels of cellobiose or carboxymethyl cellulose in the assay mixture had no effect on the binding of CBD protein to crystalline cellulose. This result suggests that the CBD recognition site is larger than a simple cellobiose unit or more complex than a repeating cellobiose moiety. This CBD is of particular interest because it is the first CBD from a completely sequenced nonenzymatic protein shown to be an independently functional domain. Images PMID:8376323

  9. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reactions at a Heme-Propionate in an Iron-Protoporphyrin-IX Model Compound

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A heme model system has been developed in which the heme-propionate is the only proton donating/accepting site, using protoporphyrin IX-monomethyl esters (PPIXMME) and N-methylimidazole (MeIm). Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions of these model compounds have been examined in acetonitrile solvent. (PPIXMME)FeIII(MeIm)2-propionate (FeIII~CO2) is readily reduced by the ascorbate derivative 5,6-isopropylidine ascorbate to give (PPIXMME)FeII(MeIm)2-propionic acid (FeII~CO2H). Excess of the hydroxylamine TEMPOH or of hydroquinone similarly reduce FeIII~CO2, and TEMPO and benzoquinone oxidize FeII~CO2H to return to FeIII~CO2. The measured equilibrium constants, and the determined pKa and E1/2 values, indicate that FeII~CO2H has an effective bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of 67.8 ± 0.6 kcal mol–1. In these PPIX models, electron transfer occurs at the iron center and proton transfer occurs at the remote heme propionate. According to thermochemical and other arguments, the TEMPOH reaction occurs by concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET), and a similar pathway is indicated for the ascorbate derivative. Based on these results, heme propionates should be considered as potential key components of PCET/CPET active sites in heme proteins. PMID:21524059

  10. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Reygagne, Pascal; Poncet, Michel; Sidou, Farzaneh; Soto, Pascale

    2007-05-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a common dermatosis associating hyperseborrhea, erythema, itching, and dandruff, has frequent scalp involvement. Malassezia furfur infection seems to play an important role in the condition's etiopathology. Treatment of SD usually consists of corticosteroids or antifungals, such as ketoconazole. The aim of this multicenter, randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% after different short-contact application times compared with its vehicle and ketoconazole foaming gel 2% in the treatment of SD of the scalp. For 4 weeks, 55 subjects received one of the following treatments twice weekly: clobetasol propionate shampoo for 2.5, 5, or 10 minutes; clobetasol propionate vehicle for 10 minutes; or ketoconazole foaming gel for 5 minutes before rinsing off. Efficacy criteria included total severity score (TSS) and individual scores of signs such as itching and global improvement. Safety included reporting of burning, overall tolerance, and adverse events. Results showed that an application of clobetasol propionate for 5 and 10 minutes provided a similar mean percentage decrease of TSS, and the mean percentage decrease of TSS for all active groups was significantly superior to that of the vehicle (P < .01). Overall and local safety were good for all treatment groups. The present pilot study demonstrated that a short-contact application of clobetasol propionate shampoo is effective and safe in the treatment of SD of the scalp. PMID:17569404

  11. Monitoring of clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate as undeclared steroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2011-07-15

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis, without any indication on the label of the cosmetic products. Due to their severe side effects, such as permanent skin atopy, these two corticosteroids in cosmetic products need to be monitored from a forensic point of view. Cosmetic product samples (number of samples=47) of manufacturers charged by consumers have been collected in local and online markets of Korea, and they were validated and analyzed by a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD). LC-MS/MS and LC-MS were used to confirm these steroids in cosmetic samples with diagnostic ions (m/z) and isotope ratio. Linearity was studied with 0.5-10?g/mL range in both steroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)?0.999) were found, and their limits of quantifications were 0.59?g/mL and 0.66?g/mL in clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were always higher than 93%, and precisions for intra-day and inter-day analyses were both less than 3.5%. The results show 32-96.4?g/g levels of clobetasol propionate in five different cosmetic products. Also, betamethasone dipropionate in a sample was monitored at the level of 195.1?g/g. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have added these steroids in their cosmetic products to advertise the treatment effect for skin atopy. Thus, these cosmetic products need to be monitored carefully, and ultimately removed from the market. PMID:21474261

  12. Investigations into the Formulation of Metered Dose Inhalers of Salmeterol Xinafoate and Fluticasone Propionate Microcrystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darragh Murnane; Gary P. Martin; Christopher Marriott

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  To investigate the aerosolization and behaviour of microparticles of salmeterol xinafoate (SX) and fluticasone propionate\\u000a (FP) suspended in hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Microcrystals of SX and FP were produced from poly(ethylene glycol) by antisolvent crystallization. The suspension behaviour\\u000a and aerosolization of the microcrystals when formulated as metered dose inhalers (MDIs) in HFA 134a propellant was compared\\u000a with that of microparticles produced

  13. Enantiomeric resolution of 2-aryl propionic esters with hyperthermophilic and mesophilic esterases: contrasting thermodynamic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Amitabh C; Kelly, Robert M

    2002-07-17

    The enantiomeric resolution of 2-aryl propionic esters by hyperthermophilic and mesophilic esterases was found to be governed by contrasting thermodynamic mechanisms. Entropic contributions predominated for mesophilic esterases from Candida rugosa and Rhizomucor miehei, while enthalpic forces controlled this resolution by the esterase from the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon, Sulfolobus solfataricus P1. This disparity in thermodynamic mechanism can be attributed to the differences in conformational flexibility of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes as they relate to the temperature range (4-70 degrees C) examined. PMID:12105890

  14. Outcomes and costs of patients with persistent asthma treated with beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane or fluticasone propionate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen J. Lage; Gary N. Gross; Corrine Brewster; Anthony Spalitto

    2009-01-01

    Objective  Examine outcomes and costs of patients with persistent asthma who initiated treatment with beclomethasone dipropionate hydrofluoroalkane\\u000a (BDP-HFA) or fluticasone propionate (FP).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  MedStat’s Commercial Claims and Encounters database (July 1, 2002–June 30, 2007) was utilized. Patients (n=13,968) were included if they initiated treatment with BDP-HFA or FP (first use=index date). Patients also met these criteria:\\u000a (a) no receipt of other study

  15. Conformational flexibility in small biomolecules: tryptamine and 3-indole-propionic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Joel R.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2001-06-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study is used to probe the conformational preferences of two flexible tryptophan analogs, tryptamine (TRA) and 3-indole-propionic acid (IPA). Resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy provides infrared spectra of single conformations of these molecules free from interference from one another. Density functional theory Becke3LYP calculations are used to predict relative energies for the conformers, while relaxed potential energy scans determine the barrier heights separating the minima. The different forms of the potential energy surfaces along the flexible coordinates for the two molecules provide a coherent explanation for the observed conformational preferences.

  16. Development of indole-3-propionic acid (OXIGON™) for alzheimer’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Bendheim; Burkhard Poeggeler; Eyal Neria; Vivi Ziv; Miguel A. Pappolla; Daniel G. Chain

    2002-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-beta and concomitant oxidative stress are major pathogenic events in Alzheimer’s disease. Indole-3-propionic\\u000a acid (IPA, OXIGON™) is a potent anti-oxidant devoid of pro-oxidant activity. IPA has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor\\u000a of beta-amyloid fibril formation and to be a potent neuroprotectant against a variety of oxidotoxins. This review will summarize\\u000a the known properties of IPA and

  17. Cellulose-clay layered nanocomposite films fabricated from aqueous cellulose/LiOH/urea solution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Quanling; Wu, Chun-Nan; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2014-01-16

    Transparent and flexible cellulose-clay (montmorillonite, MTM) nanocomposite films are prepared from cellulose/LiOH/urea solutions. The results show that the composites possess intercalated nanolayered structures. Almost no Na ions are present in MTM, probably because they are substituted by Li ions. The nanocomposite films possess high mechanical strength and gas barrier properties, and lower coefficients of thermal expansion than those of the original cellulose film. In particular, the composite film of 85% cellulose and 15% MTM has the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus 161 and 180% greater than those of the 100% cellulose film, and coefficient of thermal expansion and oxygen permeability at 50-75% RH decrease to 60 and 42-33%, respectively. Moreover, the initial hydrophilic nature of cellulose film changes to somewhat hydrophobic through incorporation of hydrophilic MTM platelets. This is probably because the orientation of cellulose chains on the film surface changes by the formation of numerous hydrogen bonds between cellulose molecules and MTM platelets. PMID:24188852

  18. Acetic Acid Off Gassing in Clamshell Enclosures

    E-print Network

    Brewer, Allison

    2013-01-01

    . This presentation will investigate the use of acid detection strips (A-D strips) to study acetic acid off gassing occurring in custom-made, cloth covered book boxes constructed and used by conservators in research libraries....

  19. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  20. Isolation of acetic acid bacteria from honey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanlaya Kappeng; Wasu Pathom-aree

    Four thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria designated as CMU1, CMU2, CMU3 and CMU4 were isolated from six honey samples produced by three native bee species in northern Thailand, namely the dwarf honey bee (Apis florea), Asian honey bee (A. cerena) and giant honey bee (A. dorsata). All isolates were tested for their tolerance to acetic acid and ethanol at 30?C and