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Sample records for cemented tungsten carbides

  1. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  2. Shock propagation in a cemented tungsten carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Stennett, C.; Cooper, G.; Helaar, K.; Diederen, A. M.

    2009-03-01

    WC-based ceramic metal composites (cermets) are of great importance in both armor and munition design due to the combination of properties imparted by the presence of two different phases. WC-Co cermets are of interest in this area due to the hardness and strength imparted by the WC phase while the cementing Co matrix acts to increase plasticity and toughness. Here the dynamic response of G13 WC-Co manufactured by Kennametal Engineered Products B.V. was studied via a series of plate impact experiments involving both longitudinal and lateral gauges, which allowed determination of the Us-Up relationship, measurement of a Hugoniot elastic limit of 3.3±0.2 GPa, measurement of a spall strength of 4.38 GPa, and an investigation of the stress dependence of shear strength in such a strong material.

  3. Analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented compact tungsten carbides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotný, K.; Staňková, A.; Häkkänen, H.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Otruba, V.; Kanický, V.

    2007-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the direct analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hard-metal precursors and cemented tungsten carbides. The aim of this work was to examine the possibility of quantitative determination of the niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt. The investigated samples were in the form of pellets, pressed with and without binder (powdered silver) and in the form of cemented tungsten carbides. The pellets were prepared by pressing the powdered material in a hydraulic press. Cemented tungsten carbides were embedded in resin for easier manipulation. Several lasers and detection systems were utilized. The Nd:YAG laser working at a basic wavelength of 1064 nm and fourth-harmonic frequency of 266 nm with a gated photomultiplier or ICCD detector HORIBA JY was used for the determination of niobium which was chosen as a model element. Different types of surrounding gases (air, He, Ar) were investigated for analysis. The ICCD detector DICAM PRO with Mechelle 7500 spectrometer with ArF laser (193 nm) and KrF laser (248 nm) were employed for the determination of niobium, titanium, tantalum and cobalt in samples under air atmosphere. Good calibration curves were obtained for Nb, Ti, and Ta (coefficients of determination r2 > 0.96). Acceptable calibration curves were acquired for the determination of cobalt (coefficient of determination r2 = 0.7994) but only for the cemented samples. In the case of powdered carbide precursors, the calibration for cobalt was found to be problematic.

  4. Energy loss mechanics in the erosion of cemented tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Freinkel, D.M. ); Luyckx, S.B. )

    1989-05-01

    The erosion of tungsten carbide has been studied by several researchers under various conditions: the cobalt content of the cemented carbide has been varied from 4.5 to 11.3 wt % Co, the size of the WC grains varied from 0.9 to 5.1 {mu}m, the size of the erodant particles varied from 30 to 630 {mu}m, the velocity of the particles varied from 30 to 507 m/s, and particle incidence angle varied from 15{degrees} to 90{degrees}. While it is generally agreed that with increasing cobalt content and increasing particle velocity the erosion rate of WC-Co increases, there is disagreement on the effect of grain size and angle of incidence. More work was clearly required to explain this disagreement, thus the present investigation was undertaken. The present work differs from previous experimental work in that the erodant particles are 4 mm average diameter and that the present investigation does not neglect the role of plastic deformation in the erosion process and the energy lost in damage to the erodant particles. These two additional energy loss mechanisms have been found to contribute significantly to the interpretation of the present results and of the results previously reported in the literature.

  5. Characteristics of dusts encountered during the production of cemented tungsten carbides.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Day, Gregory A; Harvey, Christopher J; Leonard, Stephen S; Schwegler-Berry, Diane E; Chipera, Steve J; Sahakian, Nancy M; Chisholm, William P

    2007-12-01

    Inhalation of cobalt (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles, but not Co or WC alone, may cause hard metal disease, risk of which does not appear to be uniform across cemented tungsten carbide (CTC) production processes. Inhalation of Co alone or in the presence of WC may cause asthma. Hypothesizing that aerosol size, chemical content, heterogeneity, and constituent compaction may be important exposure factors, we characterized aerosols from representative CTC manufacturing processes. Six work areas were sampled to characterize aerosol size distributions (dust, Co) and 12 work areas were sampled to characterize physicochemical properties (using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry [SEM-EDX]). Bulk feedstock and process-generated powders were characterized with SEM-EDX and x-ray diffraction. The dust mass median diameter was respirable and the cobalt respirable mass fraction was highest (37%) in grinding. Morphology of particles changed with processing: individual, agglomerate, or aggregates (pre-sintered materials), then mostly compacted particles (subsequent to sintering). Elemental composition of particles became increasingly heterogeneous: mostly discrete Co or W particles (prior to spray drying), then heterogeneous W/Co particles (subsequent work areas). Variability in aerosol respirability and chemical heterogeneity could translate into differences in toxicity and support detailed characterization of physicochemical properties during exposure assessments. PMID:18212475

  6. Health hazard of poorly regulated exposure during manufacture of cemented tungsten carbides and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, J H; Abraham, J L; Gilbert, R; Lax, M; Henneberger, P K; Heitzman, E R; Peppi, D J

    1992-12-01

    Forty two of 125 former workers in a factory in Syracuse, New York, which manufactured hard metal parts from tungsten carbide and cobalt, were studied by chest radiographs, spirometry, and plethysmographically determined lung volumes. The plant was closed in 1982 and the studies were performed in 1983-5. Recorded measurements of carbide dust concentrations were only mildly excessive by modern standards, but deceitful efforts to reduce the apparent concentration of dust were known to have occurred during an inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Lung biopsies in four cases in the study and necropsy in one of the 83 cases not studied during life showed giant cell interstitial pneumonia and appreciable concentrations of tungsten carbide. This information indicates that exposure was substantial. Four workers had evidence of pulmonary fibrosis by chest radiographs; two of these workers had normal pulmonary function. Fourteen had abnormal pulmonary function, five of whom had a restrictive pattern, eight a pattern of air trapping, and one a combined pattern. Thus radiographic, or functional abnormalities, or both occurred in 16 of the 42 cases studied. No correlation with duration of exposure was established. Progressive clinically important disease (one fatal) has been found in four ex-workers, two in each of the restrictive and air trapping groups. These findings suggest that poorly regulated dust concentrations in a hard metals factory possibly cause pulmonary abnormalities and sometimes severe illness. PMID:1472440

  7. Study on tribological behavior and cutting performance of CVD diamond and DLC films on Co-cemented tungsten carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongcan; Shen, Bin; Sun, Fanghong

    2010-02-01

    The tribological behaviors of diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films play a major role on their machining and mechanical applications. In this study, diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are deposited on the cobalt cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrate respectively adopting the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) technique and the vacuum arc discharge with a graphite cathode, and their friction properties are evaluated on a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer with counterfaces of silicon nitride (Si 3N 4) ceramic, cemented tungsten carbide (WC) and ball-bearing steel materials, under the ambient air without lubricating condition. Moreover, to evaluate their cutting performance, comparative turning tests are conducted using the uncoated WC-Co and as-fabricated CVD diamond and DLC coated inserts, with glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) composite materials as the workpiece. The as-deposited HFCVD diamond and DLC films are characterized with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry. Furthermore, Rocwell C indentation tests are conducted to evaluate the adhesion of HFCVD diamond and DLC films grown onto WC-Co substrates. SEM and 3D surface topography based on white-light interferometry are also used to investigate the worn region on the surfaces of diamond and DLC films. The friction tests suggest that the obtained friction coefficient curves that of various contacts exhibit similar evolution tendency. For a given counterface, DLC films present lower stable friction coefficients than HFCVD diamond films under the same sliding conditions. The cutting tests results indicate that flank wear of the HFCVD diamond coated insert is lower than that of DLC coated insert before diamond films peeling off.

  8. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.

  9. Analysis of tungsten carbides by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kinson, K; Knott, A C; Belcher, C B

    Five sample presentation techniques were examined for the X-ray fluorescence spectrometric analysis of tungsten carbide alloys in powder and cemented forms. Powder samples may be oxidized by air at 600 degrees before fusion (I), or preferably by lithium nitrate during fusion (II); the fusion is effected with lithium-lanthanum tetraborate followed by briquetting with graphite. Powder samples may also be blended with wax and briquetted (III). Cemented carbides are surface-prepared with silicon carbide before analysis (V). Briquettes prepared by blending carbide powder, lithium-lanthanum tetraborate and graphite (IV), give poor reproducibility, however, owing to micro-absorption effects the technique is not recommended. The determination of eight common elements in tungsten carbide is discussed and the relative standard deviations are 0.002-0.004 for major and 0.008-0.01 for minor elements. PMID:18961988

  10. Hard coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films on cemented tungsten carbide by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Egiza, Mohamed; Tominaga, Aki; Murasawa, Koki; Gonda, Hidenobu; Sakurai, Masatoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite (UNCD/a-C) films were deposited on cemented carbide containing Co by coaxial arc plasma deposition. With decreasing substrate temperature, the hardness was enhanced accompanied by an enhancement in the sp3/(sp2 + sp3). Energy-dispersive X-ray and secondary ion mass spectrometry spectroscopic measurements exhibited that the diffusion of Co atoms from the substrates into the films hardly occurs. The film deposited at room temperature exhibited the maximum hardness of 51.3 GPa and Young's modulus of 520.2 GPa, which evidently indicates that graphitization induced by Co in the WC substrates, and thermal deformation from sp3 to sp2 bonding are suppressed. The hard UNCD/a-C films can be deposited at a thickness of approximately 3 μm, which is an order larger than that of comparably hard a-C films. The internal compressive stress of the 51.3-GPa film is 4.5 GPa, which is evidently smaller than that of comparably hard a-C films. This is a reason for the thick deposition. The presence of a large number of grain boundaries in the film, which is a structural specific to UNCD/a-C films, might play a role in releasing the internal stress of the films.

  11. Tungsten carbide: Crystals by the ton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. N.

    1988-06-01

    A comparison is made of the conventional process of making tungsten carbide by carburizing tungsten powder and the Macro Process wherein the tungsten carbide is formed directly from the ore concentrate by an exothermic reaction of ingredients causing a simultaneous reduction and carburization. Tons of tungsten monocarbide crystals are formed in a very rapid reaction. The process is unique in that it is self regulating and produces a tungsten carbide compound with the correct stoichiometry. The high purity with respect to oxygen and nitrogen is achieved because the reactions occur beneath the molten metal. The morphology and hardness of these crystals has been studied by various investigators and reported in the listed references.

  12. Dissolution and reactive oxygen species generation of inhaled cemented tungsten carbide particles in artificial human lung fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniak, A. B.; Leonard, S. S.; Hoover, M. D.; Virji, M. A.; Day, G. A.

    2009-02-01

    Inhalation of both cobalt (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles is associated with development of hard metal lung disease (HMD) via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas Co alone is sufficient to cause asthma via solubilization and hapten formation. We characterized bulk and aerodynamically size-separated W, WC, Co, spray dryer (pre-sintered), and chamfer grinder (post-sintered) powders. ROS generation was measured in the murine RAW 264.7 cell line using electron spin resonance. When dose was normalized to surface area, hydroxyl radical generation was independent of particle size, which suggests that particle surface chemistry may be an important exposure factor. Chamfer grinder particles generated the highest levels of ROS, consistent with the hypothesis that intimate contact of metals is important for ROS generation. In artificial extracellular lung fluid, alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC), added to prevent mold growth during experiments, did not influence dissolution of Co (44.0±5.2 vs. 48.3±6.4%) however, dissolution was higher (p<0.05) in the absence of phosphate (62.0±5.4 vs. 48.3±6.4%). In artificial macrophage phagolysosomal fluid, dissolution of Co (36.2±10.4%) does not appear to be influenced (p=0.30) by the absence of glycine (29.8±2.1%), phosphate (39.6±8.6%), or ABDC (44.0±10.5%). These results aid in assessing and understanding Co and W inhalation dosimetry.

  13. Processing of functionally graded tungsten carbide-cobalt-diamond composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Mohit

    Polycrystalline diamond compacts (PDCs) are widely used as drill bit cutters in rock drilling and as tool bits in machining non-ferrous materials. A typical PDC comprises a thin layer of sintered polycrystalline diamond bonded to a tungsten carbide-cobalt substrate. A well recognized failure mechanism is delamination at the interface between diamond and cemented carbide. High stresses at the diamond/carbide interface, due to thermal expansion and modulus mismatch, are the primary cause of in-service failure under impact loading conditions. This work was undertaken to develop a tungsten carbide-cobalt-diamond composite, which has a continuously graded interface between the diamond and tungsten carbide. The process developed comprised the following steps: (i) generation of a pore size gradient by electrochemical etching of cobalt from the surface of a partially sintered tungsten carbide-cobalt preform; (ii) chemical vapor infiltration of the porous preform with carbon by catalytic decomposition of a methane/hydrogen mixture, resulting in a graded carbon concentration; and (iii) consolidation of the carbon infiltrated preforms at 8GPa/1500°C to complete densification and to transform the carbon into diamond. Thus, the final product consists of a functionally graded WC-Co-diamond composite, with controlled distribution of the constituent phases. Tungsten carbide-cobalt powders with mean tungsten carbide particle size of 0.8mum(micro-grain) and 100 nm(nano-grain) were used as starting materials. Processing conditions were adjusted to obtain an optimal distribution of carbon in porous preforms. After high pressure/high temperature consolidation, both micro- and nano-composites showed a diffused interface between inner and outer regions of the fully dense materials. A micro-composite showed columnar-like tungsten carbide grains and faceted diamond grains in the outer region of the sintered material. The grain size of the diamond in this region was ˜2mum, and the

  14. Characterization of exposures among cemented tungsten carbide workers. Part II: Assessment of surface contamination and skin exposures to cobalt, chromium and nickel.

    PubMed

    Day, Gregory A; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2009-05-01

    Cobalt, chromium and nickel are among the most commonly encountered contact allergens in the workplace, all used in the production of cemented tungsten carbides (CTC). Exposures to these metal-containing dusts are frequently associated with skin sensitization and/or development of occupational asthma. The objectives of this study were to assess the levels of cobalt, chromium and nickel on work surfaces and on workers' skin in three CTC production facilities. At least one worker in each of 26 work areas (among all facilities) provided hand and neck wipe samples. Wipe samples were also collected from work surfaces frequently contacted by the 41 participating workers. Results indicated that all surfaces in all work areas were contaminated with cobalt and nickel, with geometric means (GMs) ranging from 4.1 to 3057 microg/100 cm(2) and 1.1-185 microg/100 cm(2), respectively; most surfaces were contaminated with chromium (GM=0.36-67 microg/100 cm(2)). The highest GM levels of all metals were found on control panels, containers and hand tools, whereas lowest levels were on office and telecommunication equipment. The highest GM levels of cobalt and nickel on skin were observed among workers in the powder-handling facility (hands: 388 and 24 microg; necks: 55 and 6 microg, respectively). Levels of chromium on workers' skin were generally low among all facilities. Geometric standard deviations associated with surface and skin wipe measurements among work areas were highly variable. Exposure assessment indicated widespread contamination of multiple sensitizing metals in these three facilities, suggesting potential transfer of contaminants from surfaces to skin. Specific action, including improved housekeeping and training workers on appropriate use and care of personal protective equipment, should be implemented to reduce pathways of skin exposure. Epidemiologic studies of associated adverse health effects will likely require more biologically relevant exposure metrics to

  15. Interaction of tungsten with tungsten carbide in a copper melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodrova, L. E.; Goida, E. Yu.; Pastukhov, E. A.; Marshuk, L. A.; Popova, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    The chemical interaction between tungsten and tungsten carbide in a copper melt with the formation of W2C at 1300°C is studied. It is shown that the mechanical activation of a composition consisting of copper melt + W and WC powders by low-temperature vibrations initiates not only the chemical interaction of its solid components but also their refinement.

  16. Evidence of hydrogen embrittlement of tungsten carbide.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G C

    1978-02-01

    Tungsten carbide vessels containing materials at high temperature and high pressure are used in many laboratories. We note that any oils at medium to high temperature which can break down and liberate hydrogen cause rapid failure of the pressure vessel, whereas perfluorated kerosenes used as lubricants inside a pressure vessel give sharply increased life of the vessel. PMID:18699072

  17. Synthesis of nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, Gourav; Singh, K.; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-06-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten carbide (WC) has been obtained from bulk WO3 by in situ reduction and carbonization reactions at low temperature (˜ 600 °C) by taking Mg as reductant and acetone C3H6O as carbon source. It was aimed to elucidate carburization behavior of WO3 powder and to establish optimal conditions for the synthesis of nanocrystalline WC. The role of reaction time on the synthesis of WC has been investigated and discussed. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, differential thermal analyzer (DTA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA).

  18. Preparation and electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Sujuan; Shi, Binbin; Yao, Guoxing; Li, Guohua; Ma, Chunan

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite is related to the structure, crystal phase and chemical components of the nanocomposite, and is also affected by the property of electrolyte. A synergistic effect exists between tungsten carbide and titania of the composite. Highlights: {yields} Electrocatalytic activity of tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite with core-shell structure. {yields} Activity is related to the structure, crystal phase and chemical component of the nanocomposite. {yields} The property of electrolyte affects the electrocatalytic activity. {yields} A synergistic effect exists between tungsten carbide and titania of the composite. -- Abstract: Tungsten carbide and titania nanocomposite was prepared by combining a reduced-carbonized approach with a mechanochemical approach. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope under scanning mode and X-ray energy dispersion spectrum. The results show that the crystal phases of the samples are composed of anatase, rutile, nonstoichiometry titanium oxide, monotungsten carbide, bitungsten carbide and nonstoichiometry tungsten carbide, and they can be controlled by adjusting the parameters of the reduced-carbonized approach; tungsten carbide particles decorate on the surface of titania support, the diameter of tungsten carbide particle is smaller than 20 nm and that of titania is around 100 nm; the chemical components of the samples are Ti, O, W and C. The electrocatalytic activity of the samples was measured by a cyclic voltammetry with three electrodes. The results indicate that the electrocatalytic activities of the samples are related to their crystal phases and the property of electrolyte in aqueous solution. A synergistic effect between titania and tungsten carbide is reported for the first time.

  19. Dynamic compaction of tungsten carbide powder.

    SciTech Connect

    Gluth, Jeffrey Weston; Hall, Clint Allen; Vogler, Tracy John; Grady, Dennis Edward

    2005-04-01

    The shock compaction behavior of a tungsten carbide powder was investigated using a new experimental design for gas-gun experiments. This design allows the Hugoniot properties to be measured with reasonably good accuracy despite the inherent difficulties involved with distended powders. The experiments also provide the first reshock state for the compacted powder. Experiments were conducted at impact velocities of 245, 500, and 711 m/s. A steady shock wave was observed for some of the sample thicknesses, but the remainder were attenuated due to release from the back of the impactor or the edge of the sample. The shock velocity for the powder was found to be quite low, and the propagating shock waves were seen to be very dispersive. The Hugoniot density for the 711 m/s experiment was close to ambient crystal density for tungsten carbide, indicating nearly complete compaction. When compared with quasi-static compaction results for the same material, the dynamic compaction data is seen to be significantly stiffer for the regime over which they overlap. Based on these initial results, recommendations are made for improving the experimental technique and for future work to improve our understanding of powder compaction.

  20. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined. Etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the WC and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation. The wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  1. Some observations on uranium carbide alloy/tungsten compatibility.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Results of chemical compatibility tests between both pure tungsten and thoriated tungsten run at 1800 C for up to 3300 hours with uranium carbide alloys. Alloying with zirconium carbide appeared to widen the homogeneity range of uranium carbide, making additional carbon available for reaction with the tungsten. Reaction layers were formed both by vapor phase reaction and by physical contact, producing either or both UWC2 and W2C, depending upon the phases present in the starting fuel alloy. Formation of UWC2 results in slow growth of the reaction layer with time, while W2C reaction layers grow rapidly, allowing equilibrium to be reached in less than 2500 hours at 1800 C. Neither the presence of a thermal gradient nor the presence of thoria in the tungsten clad affect the reactions observed.

  2. METHOD FOR PRODUCING CEMENTED CARBIDE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Onstott, E.I.; Cremer, G.D.

    1959-07-14

    A method is described for making molded materials of intricate shape where the materials consist of mixtures of one or more hard metal carbides or oxides and matrix metals or binder metals thereof. In one embodiment of the invention 90% of finely comminuted tungsten carbide powder together with finely comminuted cobalt bonding agent is incorporated at 60 deg C into a slurry with methyl alcohol containing 1.5% paraffin, 3% camphor, 3.5% naphthalene, and 1.8% toluene. The compact is formed by the steps of placing the slurry in a mold at least one surface of which is porous to the fluid organic system, compacting the slurry, removing a portion of the mold from contact with the formed object and heating the formed object to remove the remaining organic matter and to sinter the compact.

  3. Surface Coating of Tungsten Carbide by Electric Exploding of Contact

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryev, Evgeny G.

    2011-01-17

    Electric exploding of a tungsten carbide--cobalt material near-by high-speed steel surface forms on it a hardening coating. The essential structure properties of the formed coatings are determined by parameters of contact exploding electrode at the pulse current amplitude from above 106 A/cm2 and duration less than 10-4 s. The metallographic investigations of coating structures were done by microscope 'Neophot-24'. They have shown that the contact electric exploding caused the transfer of tungsten carbide and cobalt on the surface of high-speed steel. The breakdown of tungsten carbide--cobalt material took place during electrical exploding. The hardening layers of tungsten carbide and pure nanocrystalline tungsten have been formed upon the surface of high-speed steel as a result of electric exploding. Crystalline grains of tungsten have an almost spherical form and their characteristic size less than 400 nanometers. Micro hardness of the coating layers and high-speed steel structures was measured.

  4. Properties of tungsten-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium with hafnium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Todd

    2009-07-01

    Historically, tungsten-25wt.% rhenium alloy has been manufactured into wire for the thermocouple market, but recent demands for high-temperature structural components have forced the development of novel processing techniques for tungsten-rhenium and tungsten-rhenium with hafnium carbide. With a melting temperature of 3,050°C, and a recrystallization temperature near 1,900°C, tungsten-rhenium alloys are being used in aerospace, temperature measuring, and friction stir welding applications. The mechanical properties and microstructures of tungsten-25wt.% rhenium and tungsten-25wt.% rhenium with hafnium carbide are reported at ambient temperature, 1,371°C, and 1,926°C, after processing by three methods: hot isostatic pressing, swaging, and extrusion.

  5. Some observations on uranium carbide alloy/tungsten compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical compatibility between both pure and thoriated tungsten and uranium carbide alloys was studied at 1800 C for up to 3300 hours. Alloying with zirconium carbide appeared to widen the homogeneity range of uranium carbide, making additional carbon available for reaction with the tungsten. Reaction layers were formed both by vapor phase reaction and by physical contact, producing either or both UWC2 and W2C, dependent upon the phases present in the starting fuel alloy. Formation of UWC2 results in slow growth of the reaction layer with time, while W2C reaction layers grow rapidly, allowing equilibrium to be reached in less than 2500 hours at 1800 C. The presence of a thermal gradient had no effect on the reactions observed nor did the presence of thoria in the tungsten clad.

  6. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets. [friction and wear experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined, and etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the tungsten carbide (WC) and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation, and the wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation, and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  7. Electrochemical reaction mechanisms for hydrogen at highly disperse tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Boikova, G.V.; Zhutaeva, G.V.; Tarasevich, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen ionization and evolution of tungsten carbide were compared and these reactions were described in terms of a unified reaction scheme. Two types of electrodes were used, a rotating disk electrode with a thin catalyst layer of disperse tungsten carbide and the second model was a floating gas-diffusion electrode. Fluoropolymer lacquer was used as the binder. The kinetic parameters were determined by measuring steady-state polarization curves and potentiodynamic curves. A hypothesis for a hydrogen ionization reaction scheme was developed which may serve in future investigations and the authors suggest prior deprotonation of the hydrogen molecules.

  8. Tungsten-yttria carbide coating for conveying copper

    DOEpatents

    Rothman, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for providing a carbided-tungsten-yttria coating on the interior surface of a copper vapor laser. The surface serves as a wick for the condensation of liquid copper to return the condensate to the interior of the laser for revolatilization.

  9. Automated laser fabrication of cemented carbide components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, C. P.; Khajepour, A.

    2008-07-01

    Automated Laser Fabrication (ALFa) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid-manufacturing technologies. It is similar to laser cladding at process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit materials on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn-out parts, while ALFa is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. This manufacturing method is very attractive for low volume manufacturing of hard materials, as near net shaping minimizes machining of hard material and subsequently brings significant savings in time and costly material. To date, many researchers have used this technology to fabricate components using various alloy steels, nickel-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys. In the present study, the work is extended to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) composites. A set of comprehensive experiments was carried out to study the effect of processing parameters during multi-layer fabrication. The process parameters were optimized for the component-level fabrication. Fabricated components were subjected to dye-penetrant testing, three-point flexural testing, hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The test results revealed that the laser-fabricated material was defect free and more ductile in nature. Thus, ALFa technology, not only produced the quality components, but also minimized machining of hard material and brought significant saving of time and costly WC-Co material.

  10. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    SciTech Connect

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Buzhinskiy, O. I.; Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A.

    2015-12-15

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400–1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  11. Boron carbide coating deposition on tungsten and testing of tungsten layers and coating under intense plasma load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetov, A. A.; Begrambekov, L. B.; Buzhinskiy, O. I.; Grunin, A. V.; Gordeev, A. A.; Zakharov, A. M.; Kalachev, A. M.; Sadovskiy, Ya. A.; Shigin, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    A device intended for boron carbide coating deposition and material testing under high heat loads is presented. A boron carbide coating 5 μm thick was deposited on the tungsten substrate. These samples were subjected to thermocycling loads in the temperature range of 400-1500°C. Tungsten layers deposited on tungsten substrates were tested in similar conditions. Results of the surface analysis are presented.

  12. A visible light-sensitive tungsten carbide/tungsten trioxde composite photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-ho; Irie, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    2008-05-05

    A photocatalyst composed of tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) has been prepared by the mechanical mixing of each powder. Its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the gaseous isopropyl alcohol decomposition process. The photocatalyst showed high visible light photocatalytic activity with a quantum efficiency of 3.2% for 400-530 nm light. The photocatalytic mechanism was explained by means of enhanced oxygen reduction reaction due to WC, which may serve as a multielectron reduction catalyst, as well as the photogeneration of holes in the valence band of WO{sub 3}.

  13. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2016-02-01

    Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W2CoB2 with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600-730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  14. Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun; Yan, Qingzhi Lang, Shaoting

    2014-05-14

    A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (α-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, α-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, α-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

  15. Solid-state chemistry route for supported tungsten and tungsten carbide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Hugot, N.; Desforges, A.; Fontana, S.; Mareche, J.F.; Herold, C.; Albiniak, A.

    2012-10-15

    Nanoparticles of tungsten and tungsten carbide have been prepared using solid-state chemistry methods. After the vapor phase impregnation of a tungsten hexachloride precursor on a carbon support, a temperature-programmed reduction/carburization was performed. Several parameters were investigated and the evolution of obtained samples was followed by XRD and TEM. The optimization of the reaction parameters led to the preparation of W, W{sub 2}C and WC particles well dispersed on the support. WC phase however could not be obtained alone with less than 10 nm mean size. This could be explained by the carburization mechanism and the carbon diffusion on the support. - Graphical abstract: Bright field picture of carbon-supported WC nanoparticles dispersed on the surface of the sample 1223 K in 10% CH{sub 4}/90% H{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We aimed at the preparation of supported nanoparticulate tungsten derivatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several parameters were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution of obtained samples was followed by XRD and TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimal preparation led to W, W{sub 2}C and WC particles dispersed on the support.

  16. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co-Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10-15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC-Co materials.

  17. Rolling contact fatigue characteristics of thermal sprayed tungsten carbide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Nieminen, R.; Vuoristo, P.; Niemi, K.; Maentylae, T.

    1995-12-31

    The rolling contact fatigue (RCF) behavior of tungsten carbide (WC) based cermet coatings (WC-12% Co) deposited by plasma and HVOF spraying was studied. The RCF testing was carried out with a two-roll configuration testing machine under unlubricated rolling conditions without sliding. Loads applied in the tests resulted to Hertzian contact pressures of 420--600 MPa. The influence of spraying method on the RCF behavior of the coatings was studied as a function of Hertzian contact stress. Plasma sprayed coating showed severe surface roughening and subsurface cracking of the coating under all studied load levels. HVOF sprayed coating behavior was clearly different from the plasma coating with smaller structural changes. HVOF coating retained its original surface roughness but vertical cracks penetrating the coating appeared in this coating.

  18. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co2Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  19. Effect of xenon on the structural phase state of the surface layer of cemented carbide under pulsed electron-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ovcharenko, Vladimir E.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Mohovikov, Alexey A.; Baohai, Yu Cai, Xiaolong Zhong, Lisheng Xu, Yunhua

    2015-10-27

    A comparative analysis of the surface-layer microstructure of a tungsten-based cemented carbide modified with pulsed high-energy electron beams generated by gas-discharge plasmas and of the tool life of metal-cutting plates prepared from this alloy is performed. The choice of a plasma-forming gas providing for the emission of electrons out of the plasma-filled cathode is shown to have a profound influence both on the formation process of nano-sized structural-phase states in the surface layer of the cemented carbide and on the tool life of the metal-cutting plates prepared from this alloy.

  20. Surface roughness analysis after machining of direct laser deposited tungsten carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, S.; Twardowski, P.; Chwalczuk, T.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an experimental surface roughness analysis in machining of tungsten carbide is presented. The tungsten carbide was received using direct laser deposition technology (DLD). Experiments carried out included milling of tungsten carbide samples using monolithic torus cubic boron nitride (CBN) tool and grinding with the diamond cup wheel. The effect of machining method on the generated surface topography was analysed. The 3D surface topographies were measured using optical surface profiler. The research revealed, that surface roughness generated after the machining of tungsten carbide is affected by feed per tooth (fz) value related to kinematic-geometric projection only in a minor extent. The main factor affecting machined surface roughness is the occurrence of micro grooves and protuberances on the machined surface, as well as other phenomena connected, inter alia, with the mechanism for material removal.

  1. Micro electrical discharge drilling of tungsten carbide using deionized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ki Young; Chung, Do Kwan; Park, Min Soo; Chu, Chong Nam

    2009-04-01

    Micro electrical discharge machining (micro EDM) is an effective machining method for cobalt-bonded tungsten carbide (WC-Co); however, this material is susceptible to electrolytic corrosion when deionized water is used as the working fluid with a dc power source for the RC circuit. In this study, a bipolar pulse power source and a triangular electrode were used in order to reduce the electrolytic corrosion phenomenon during micro EDM using an RC discharge circuit. A bipolar pulse power source reduces the positive polarity period of the workpiece by periodically alternating the polarity of the workpiece and electrode and decreases the average gap voltage at the machining gap. Therefore, electrolytic corrosion, which is a type of electrochemical reaction on the positively charged workpiece, is reduced by these electrical conditions. The triangular electrode has a smaller side area as compared with the cylindrical electrode. Since the electrolytic corrosion is an electrochemical reaction between the side of the electrode and the surface of the workpiece, the small side area of the triangular electrode could reduce these reactions. With the aid of the bipolar pulse power source and the triangular electrode, an electrolytic-corrosion-free hole could be machined on the WC-Co workpiece using deionized water.

  2. EUV nanosecond laser ablation of silicon carbide, tungsten and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Oleksandr; Kolacek, Karel; Schmidt, Jiri; Straus, Jaroslav; Choukourov, Andrei; Kasuya, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present results of study interaction of nanosecond EUV laser pulses at wavelength of 46.9 nm with silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo). As a source of laser radiation was used discharge-plasma driver CAPEX (CAPillary EXperiment) based on high current capillary discharge in argon. The laser beam is focused with a spherical Si/Sc multilayer-coated mirror on samples. Experimental study has been performed with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 laser pulses ablation of SiC, W and Mo at various fluence values. Firstly, sample surface modification in the nanosecond time scale have been registered by optical microscope. And the secondly, laser beam footprints on the samples have been analyzed by atomic-force microscope (AFM). This work supported by the Czech Science Foundation under Contract GA14-29772S and by the Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under Contract LG13029.

  3. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K.

    2000-05-01

    Spectroscopic constants (R{sub e},{omega}{sub e},T{sub e},{mu}{sub e}) and potential energy curves for 40 low-lying electronic states of the diatomic tungsten carbide (WC) were obtained using the complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field followed by the multireference singles+doubles configuration interaction and full first- and second-order configuration interaction calculations that included up to 6.4 mil configurations. Spin-orbit effects were included through the enhanced relativistic configuration interaction method described here for 28 electronic states of WC lying below {approx}20 000 cm-1. The spin-orbit splitting of the ground state of WC was found to be very large (4394 cm-1). The ground and excited electronic states of the W atom were also computed and were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The nature of bonding was analyzed through the composition of orbitals, leading configurations, Mulliken populations, and dipole moments. The dissociation energy of WC was computed including spin-orbit and electron correlation effects. The recent photoelectron spectra of WC{sup -} were assigned on the basis of our computed results. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Thermal and electrochemical stability of tungsten carbide catalyst supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhina, H.; Campbell, S.; Kesler, O.

    The thermal and electrochemical stability of tungsten carbide (WC), with and without a catalyst dispersed on it, have been investigated to evaluate the potential suitability of the material as an oxidation-resistant catalyst support. Standard techniques currently used to disperse Pt on carbon could not be used to disperse Pt on WC, so an alternative method was developed and used to disperse Pt on both commercially available WC and on carbon for comparison of stability. Electrochemical testing was performed by applying oxidation cycles between +0.6 V and +1.8 V to the support-catalyst material combinations and monitoring the activity of the supported catalyst over 100 oxidation cycles. Comparisons of activity change with cumulative oxidation cycles were made between C and WC supports with comparable loadings of catalyst by weight, solid volume, and powder volume. WC was found to be more thermally and electrochemically stable than currently used carbon support material Vulcan XC-72R. However, further optimization of the particle sizes and dispersion of Pt/WC catalyst/support materials and of comparison standards between new candidate materials and existing carbon-based supports are required.

  5. Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Pujada, B. R.; Tichelaar, F. D.; Arnoldbik, W. M.; Sloof, W. G.; Janssen, G. C. A. M.

    2009-02-01

    Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings, sputter deposited in a reactive argon/acetylene plasma, has been studied as a function of the acetylene partial pressure. Stress and microstructure have been investigated by wafer curvature and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) whereas composition and energy distribution functions of positive ions were obtained by electron probe microanalyzer, elastic recoil detection analysis, and mass-energy analyzer (MEA). It has been observed that the compressive stress decreases with increasing acetylene partial pressure, showing an abrupt change from -5.0 to -1.6 GPa at an acetylene partial pressure of 0.012 Pa. TEM micrographs show that by increasing the acetylene partial pressure in the plasma from 0 to 0.012 Pa, the microstructure of the coating changes from polycrystalline to amorphous. MEA results show that the most probable energy of positive ions bombarding the substrate during deposition in pure argon and argon/acetylene atmosphere is the same. Based on the results, it is concluded that the huge variation in the compressive stress at low acetylene partial pressures is due to a change in the microstructure of the coating from polycrystalline to amorphous and not to the energy of positive ions bombarding the film.

  6. Effect of Helmholtz Oscillation on Auto-shroud for APS Tungsten Carbide Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Younggil; Choi, Sooseok; Yang, Seung Jae; Park, Chong Rae; Kim, Gon-Ho

    2013-06-01

    The atmospheric-pressure plasma spray (APS) of tungsten coating was performed using tungsten carbide (WC) powder by means of DC plasma torch equipped with a stepped anode nozzle as a potential method of W coating on graphite plasma-facing component of fusion reactors. This nozzle configuration allows Helmholtz oscillation mode dominating in APS arc fluctuation, and the variation of auto-shroud effect with Helmholtz oscillation characteristics can be investigated. Tungsten coating made from WC powder has lower porosity and higher tungsten purity than that made from pure tungsten powder. The porosity and chemical composition of coatings were investigated by mercury intrusion porosimetry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The purity of tungsten coating layer is increased with the increasing frequency of Helmholtz oscillation and the increasing arc current. The modulation of Helmholtz oscillation frequency and magnitude may enhance the decarburization of WC to deposit tungsten coating without W-C and W-O bond from WC powder.

  7. APT analysis of WC-Co based cemented carbides.

    PubMed

    Weidow, Jonathan; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    2011-05-01

    A method for quickly producing sharp and site-specific atom probe specimens from WC-Co based cemented carbides was developed using a combination of electropolishing, controlled back-polishing and FIB milling. Also, a method for measuring the amount of segregated atoms to an interface between two phases with a big difference in field needed for field evaporation was developed. Using atom probe tomography, the interface chemistry of WC/WC grain boundaries, WC/(M,W)C phase boundaries and WC/binder phase boundaries was analysed. In addition, the transition metal solubility in WC was determined. PMID:21664543

  8. Impact of temperature during He+ implantation on deuterium retention in tungsten, tungsten with carbon deposit and tungsten carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Sato, Misaki; Li, Xiaochun; Yuyama, Kenta; Fujita, Hiroe; Sakurada, Shodai; Uemura, Yuki; Hatano, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoaki; Ashikawa, Naoko; Sagara, Akio; Chikada, Takumi

    2016-02-01

    Temperature dependence on deuterium (D) retention for He+ implanted tungsten (W) was studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) to evaluate the tritium retention behavior in W. The activation energies were evaluated using Hydrogen Isotope Diffusion and Trapping (HIDT) simulation code and found to be 0.55 eV, 0.65 eV, 0.80 eV and 1.00 eV. The heating scenarios clearly control the D retention behavior and, dense and large He bubbles could work as a D diffusion barrier toward the bulk, leading to D retention enhancement at lower temperature of less than 430 K, even if the damage was introduced by He+ implantation. By comparing the D retention for W, W with carbon deposit and tungsten carbide (WC), the dense carbon layer on the surface enhances the dynamic re-emission of D as hydrocarbons, and induces the reduction of D retention. However, by He+ implantation, the D retention was increased for all the samples.

  9. Critical Analysis of Wear Mechanisms in Cemented Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, Saurabh; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath

    2015-07-01

    Wear phenomena of cemented carbide (94 wt.% WC, 6 wt.% Co) tip of conical picks have been observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The conical pick is one type of the cutters which are used to excavate soft structure like coal. It has a cone-shaped abrasive part made of cemented carbide (CC). The picks, under study, have been used for coal mining in an underground mine through a continuous miner machine. During the critical analysis of four picks, wear mechanisms are categorized into four parts, such as, cracks, cavity formation in WC grains, grinding effect, and roughness of WC surface. Through a careful examination, the cracking mechanism has been further divided into three parts. They are cracks with overlapping surfaces, crack on a large surface of CC, and cracks in WC grains. In addition, the severe crushing and tearing of WC grains have also been clearly examined. The possible causes of each wear phenomenon have been explained comprehensively. Crushing and corrosion are the two wearing processes which have severely deteriorated the condition of the CC. Corrosion has been easily identified by observing a number of pores and triangular notches in the WC surface. The oxidation of WC grains due to corrosion has been established by EDS and XRD.

  10. Chemical vapour deposition diamond coating on tungsten carbide dental cutting tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sein, H.; Ahmed, W.; Rego, C. A.; Jones, A. N.; Amar, M.; Jackson, M.; Polini, R.

    2003-10-01

    Diamond coatings on Co cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal tools are widely used for cutting non-ferrous metals. It is difficult to deposit diamond onto cutting tools, which generally have a complex geometry, using a single step growth process. This paper focuses on the deposition of polycrystalline diamond films onto dental tools, which possess 3D complex or cylindrical shape, employing a novel single step chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth process. The diamond deposition is carried out in a hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor with a modified filament arrangement. The filament is mounted vertically with the drill held concentrically in between the filament coils, as opposed to the commonly used horizontal arrangement. This is a simple and inexpensive filament arrangement. In addition, the problems associated with adhesion of diamond films on WC-Co substrates are amplified in dental tools due to the very sharp edges and unpredictable cutting forces. The presence of Co, used as a binder in hard metals, generally causes poor adhesion. The amount of metallic Co on the surface can be reduced using a two step pre-treatment employing Murakami etching followed by an acid treatment. Diamond films are examined in terms of their growth rate, morphology, adhesion and cutting efficiency. We found that in the diamond coated dental tool the wear rate was reduced by a factor of three as compared to the uncoated tool.

  11. Influence of coolant on ductile mode processing of binderless nanocrystalline tungsten carbide through ultraprecision diamond turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doetz, Marius; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz; Fähnle, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Molds made of tungsten carbide are typically used for the replicative mass production of glass lenses by precision glass molding. Consequently an ultra-precision grinding process with a subsequent fresh-feed polishing operation is conventionally applied. These processes are time consuming and have a relatively low reproducibility. An alternative manufacturing technology, with a high predictability and efficiency, which additionally allows a higher geometrical flexibility, is the single point diamond turning technique (SPDT). However, the extreme hardness and the chemical properties of tungsten carbide lead to significant tool wear and therefore the impossibility of machining the work pieces in an economical way. One approach to enlarge the tool life is to affect the contact zone between tool and work piece by the use of special cutting fluids. This publication emphasizes on the most recent investigations and results in direct machining of nano-grained tungsten carbide with mono crystal diamonds under the influence of various kinds of cutting fluids. Therefore basic ruling experiments on binderless nano grained tungsten carbide were performed, where the tool performed a linear movement with a steadily increasing depth of cut. As the ductile cutting mechanism is a prerequisite for the optical manufacturing of tungsten carbide these experiments serve the purpose for establish the influence of different cutting fluid characteristics on the cutting performance of mono crystal diamonds. Eventually it is shown that by adjusting the coolant fluid it is possible to significantly shift the transition point from ductile to brittle removal to larger depths of cut eventually enabling a SPDT of binderless tungsten carbide molds.

  12. High-strength ultrafine-grained tungsten-carbide-based materials obtained by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvil'deev, V. N.; Blagoveshchenskii, Yu. V.; Boldin, M. S.; Sakharov, N. V.; Nokhrin, A. V.; Isaeva, N. V.; Shotin, S. V.; Lopatin, Yu. G.; Belkin, O. A.; Smirnova, E. S.

    2015-04-01

    Ultrafine-grained (UFG) tungsten carbide (WC) samples with high hardness (up to 34 GPa) and increased cracking resistance have been obtained by the method of spark plasma sintering (SPS). Initial powders have been prepared by two-stage plasmachemical synthesis. The influence of the initial size of WC nanoparticles on the density, structural parameters, and mechanical properties of UFG tungsten carbide obtained by SPS has been studied. It is established that the phenomenon of accelerated sintering of WC powder is related to enhanced grain-boundary diffusion.

  13. Tungsten carbide nanoparticles as efficient cocatalysts for photocatalytic overall water splitting.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; Cha, Dongkyu; Ou, Yiwei; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten carbide exhibits platinum-like behavior, which makes it an interesting potential substitute for noble metals in catalytic applications. Tungsten carbide nanocrystals (≈5 nm) are directly synthesized through the reaction of tungsten precursors with mesoporous graphitic C(3)N(4) (mpg-C(3)N(4)) as the reactive template in a flow of inert gas at high temperatures. Systematic experiments that vary the precursor compositions and temperatures used in the synthesis selectively generate different compositions and structures for the final nanocarbide (W(2)C or WC) products. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the WC phase with a high surface area exhibits both high activity and stability in hydrogen evolution over a wide pH range. The WC sample also shows excellent hydrogen oxidation activity, whereas its activity in oxygen reduction is poor. These tungsten carbides are successful cocatalysts for overall water splitting and give H(2) and O(2) in a stoichiometric ratio from H(2)O decomposition when supported on a Na-doped SrTiO(3) photocatalyst. Herein, we present tungsten carbide (on a small scale) as a promising and durable catalyst substitute for platinum and other scarce noble-metal catalysts in catalytic reaction systems used for renewable energy generation. PMID:23255471

  14. Calibration graphs for Ti, Ta and Nb in sintered tungsten carbide by infrared laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kanický, V; Otruba, V; Mermet, J M

    2001-12-01

    Infrared laser ablation (IR-LA) has been studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of sintered cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide materials by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Fractionation of cobalt was observed. Linearity of calibration plots was verified at least up to 15% Ti, 8% Ta, and 3% Nb. Above 1% (m/m) Ti, Ta, and Nb, the repeatability of results was better than 3% R.S.D. The relative uncertainty at the centroid of the calibration line was in the range from +/- 3% to +/- 4% for Ti, Ta, and Nb with internal standardization by tungsten and up to +/- 5% without internal standardization. The limits of detection were 0.004% Ti, 0.001% Ta, and 0.004% Nb. Elimination of the cemented hardmetal dissolution procedure is the main advantage of this method. PMID:11769803

  15. Development of high temperature materials for solid propellant rocket nozzle applications. [tantalum carbides-tungsten fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, C. R., Jr.; Honeycutt, L., III

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of tantalum carbide-tungsten fiber composites has been completed as far as weight percent carbon additions and weight percent additions of tungsten fiber. Extensive studies were undertaken concerning Young's Modulus and fracture strength of this material. Also, in-depth analysis of the embrittling effects of the extra carbon additions on the tungsten fibers has been completed. The complete fabrication procedure for the tantalum carbide-tungsten fiber composites with extra carbon additions is given. Microprobe and metallographic studies showed the effect of extra carbon on the tungsten fibers, and evaluation of the thermal shock parameter fracture strength/Young's Modulus is included.

  16. A Hard Sell: Factors Influencing the Interwar Adoption of Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tools in Germany, Britain, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Giffard, Hermione

    2015-10-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide cutting tools-virtually unknown to historians-came on the market in the late 1920s. Although existing literature alleges that their adoption was rapid and universal, contemporary data indicate that the rate of adoption in fact took many decades and varied greatly between the world's three leading industrialized economies of the time: Germany, England, and the United States. This article suggests that the explanation lies in differing national environments for innovation in the interwar period. It looks at many features that influence adoption by users and argues that the feature emphasized in the literature, increased cutting speed, was not the primary consideration behind adoption, but rather metal shortages. It thereby casts doubt on what measures of national productivity show. The case raises important questions about the use of production efficiency to make international comparisons and about the role of patent monopolies in introducing production innovations. PMID:26593713

  17. Maintenance of stellite and tungsten carbide saw tips: respiratory health and exposure-response evaluations.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, S M; Chan-Yeung, M; Marion, S; Lea, J; Teschke, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study exposure to cobalt and chromium in saw maintenance rooms and test respiratory health among saw filers at lumber mills. Hard-metal lung disease is associated with cobalt in the manufacture of tungsten carbide tools; recently it has also been reported among tool maintenance workers. Lumber mills often use saws tipped with tungsten carbide or with a newer alloy, stellite (containing more cobalt, as well as chromium). METHODS--A cross sectional study of 118 saw filers at eight lumber mills was carried out that included a standardised questionnaire, spirometry, personal air sampling, and examination of tasks every 10 minutes (by observation). Comparison data were from a study of bus mechanics tested with similar methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION--Cobalt exposure was associated with tungsten carbide grinding but not with stellite grinding. Chromium exposure was associated mainly with stellite welding. Saw filers had a twofold increase in phlegm and wheeze (P < 0.01) and a threefold increase in cough, phlegm, and wheeze related to work (P < 0.001), but no increase in breathlessness. Stellite welding was associated with a significant increase in nasal symptoms and cough related to work and a small decrease in airflow (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%), P < 0.05). Saw filers wet grinding with tungsten carbide had significant reductions in forced expiratory lung volumes (FEV1 and FVC, P < 0.05) and were significantly more likely to have FEV1 and FVC values in the abnormal range. Cobalt exposure (in wet grinding) and duration of work that involved tungsten carbide grinding were both associated with significant reductions in FEV1 and FVC. Average cobalt exposures in this study were about 5 micrograms/m3, well below the currently accepted permissible concentration, which suggests that the current workplace limit for cobalt may be too high. PMID:7735392

  18. Effect of SiC Nanowhisker on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of WC-Ni Cemented Carbide Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chengbiao

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine tungsten carbide-nickel (WC-Ni) cemented carbides with varied fractions of silicon carbide (SiC) nanowhisker (0–3.75 wt.%) were fabricated by spark plasma sintering at 1350°C under a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa with the assistance of vanadium carbide (VC) and tantalum carbide (TaC) as WC grain growth inhibitors. The effects of SiC nanowhisker on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared WC-Ni cemented carbides were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that during spark plasma sintering (SPS) Ni may react with the applied SiC nanowhisker, forming Ni2Si and graphite. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that, with the addition of SiC nanowhisker, the average WC grain size decreased from 400 to 350 nm. However, with the additional fractions of SiC nanowhisker, more and more Si-rich aggregates appeared. With the increase in the added fraction of SiC nanowhisker, the Vickers hardness of the samples initially increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum of about 24.9 GPa when 0.75 wt.% SiC nanowhisker was added. However, the flexural strength of the sample gradually decreased with increasing addition fraction of SiC nanowhisker. PMID:25003143

  19. Irradiation test of tungsten clad uranium carbide-zirconium carbide ((U,Zr)C) specimens for thermionic reactor application at conditions conductive to long-term performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, J. W. R.; Smith, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Uranium carbide fueled, thermionic emitter configurations were encapsulated and irradiated. One capsule contained a specimen clad with fluoride derived chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten. The other capsule used a duplex clad specimen consisting of chloride derived on floride derived CVD tungsten. Both fuel pins were 16 millimeters in diameter and contained a 45.7-millimeter length of fuel.

  20. Crack Free Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Ni(Cr) Layers obtained by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Tobar, M. J.; Yáñez, A.; Amigó, V.; Candel, J. J.

    The development of hardfacing coatings has become technologically significant in many industries A common approach is the production of metal matrix composites (MMC) layers. In this work NiCr-WC MMC hardfacing layers are deposited on C25 steel by means of laser cladding. Spheroidal fused tungsten carbides is used as reinforcement phase. Three different NiCr alloys with different Cr content were tested. Optimum conditions to obtain dense, uniform carbide distribution and hardness close to nominal values were defined. The effect of Cr content respect to the microstructure, susceptibility for cracking and the wear rate of the resulting coating will also be discussed.

  1. Encapsulation of carbides of chromium, molybdenum and tungsten in carbon nanocapsules by arc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yahachi; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Nishikubo, Keishi

    1997-02-01

    Encapsulation of Cr, Mo and W in multilayered graphitic cages by arc evaporation of metal/carbon composites under different pressures of helium gas (100, 600 and 1500 Torr) has been studied. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction of carbonaceous products revealed that encapsulated crystallites were carbides, i.e. Cr 7C 3 and Cr 3C 2 for Cr; Mo 2C, δ-MoC 1- x (NaCl type) and γ'-MoC (AsTi type) for Mo; W 2C and β-WC 1- x (NaCl type) for W. Effect of the pressure of helium gas on the formation of filled nanocapsules was markedly found for tungsten: Encapsulated tungsten carbides were formed at the highest pressure, but not in the lower pressures.

  2. Tungsten carbide-nitride on graphene nanoplatelets as a durable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Fu; Schneider, Jonathan M; Sasaki, Kotaro; Wang, Chiu-Hui; Schneider, Jacob; Iyer, Shilpa; Iyer, Shweta; Zhu, Yimei; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

    2014-09-01

    Alternatives to platinum-based catalysts are required to sustainably produce hydrogen from water at low overpotentials. Progress has been made in utilizing tungsten carbide-based catalysts, however, their performance is currently limited by the density and reactivity of active sites, and insufficient stability in acidic electrolytes. We report highly active graphene nanoplatelet-supported tungsten carbide-nitride nanocomposites prepared via an in situ solid-state approach. This nanocomposite catalyzes the hydrogen evolution reaction with very low overpotential and is stable operating for at least 300 h in harsh acidic conditions. The synthetic approach offers a great advantage in terms of structural control and kinetics improvement. PMID:25059477

  3. The effect of plasma impurities on the sputtering of tungsten carbide.

    PubMed

    Vörtler, K; Björkas, C; Nordlund, K

    2011-03-01

    Understanding of sputtering by ion bombardment is needed in a wide range of applications. In fusion reactors, ion impacts originating from a hydrogen-isotope-rich plasma will lead, among other effects, to sputtering of the wall material. To study the effect of plasma impurities on the sputtering of the wall mixed material tungsten carbide molecular dynamics simulations were carried out. Simulations of cumulative D cobombardment with C, W, He, Ne or Ar impurities on crystalline tungsten carbide were performed in the energy range 100-300 eV. The sputtering yields obtained at low fluences were compared to steady state SDTrimSP yields. During bombardment single C atom sputtering was preferentially observed. We also detected significant W(x)C(y) molecule sputtering. We found that this molecule sputtering mechanism is of physical origin. PMID:21411895

  4. Numerical simulation and experiment on split tungsten carbide cylinder of high pressure apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yunfei; Li, Mingzhe; Liu, Zhiwei; Wang, Bolong

    2015-12-01

    A new high pressure device with a split cylinder was investigated on the basis of the belt-type apparatus. The belt-type die is subjected to excessive tangential tensile stress and the tungsten carbide cylinder is easily damaged in the running process. Taking into account the operating conditions and material properties of the tungsten carbide cylinder, it is divided into 6 blocks to eliminate the tangential tensile stress. We studied two forms of the split type: radial split and tangential split. Simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has more uniform stress distribution and smaller equivalent stress compared with the belt-type cylinder. The inner wall of the tangential split cylinder is in the situation that compressive stress is distributed in the axial, radial, and tangential directions. It is similar to the condition of hydrostatic pressure, and it is the best condition for tungsten carbide materials. The experimental results also verify that the tangential split die can bear the highest chamber pressure. Therefore, the tangential split structure can increase the pressure bearing capacity significantly.

  5. Numerical simulation and experiment on split tungsten carbide cylinder of high pressure apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunfei; Li, Mingzhe Wang, Bolong; Liu, Zhiwei

    2015-12-15

    A new high pressure device with a split cylinder was investigated on the basis of the belt-type apparatus. The belt-type die is subjected to excessive tangential tensile stress and the tungsten carbide cylinder is easily damaged in the running process. Taking into account the operating conditions and material properties of the tungsten carbide cylinder, it is divided into 6 blocks to eliminate the tangential tensile stress. We studied two forms of the split type: radial split and tangential split. Simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has more uniform stress distribution and smaller equivalent stress compared with the belt-type cylinder. The inner wall of the tangential split cylinder is in the situation that compressive stress is distributed in the axial, radial, and tangential directions. It is similar to the condition of hydrostatic pressure, and it is the best condition for tungsten carbide materials. The experimental results also verify that the tangential split die can bear the highest chamber pressure. Therefore, the tangential split structure can increase the pressure bearing capacity significantly.

  6. Effect of WC/Co coherency phase boundaries on Fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongxian; Song, Xiaoyan; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yongguang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of coherency WC/Co phase boundaries on the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides is studied by MD simulation method. The simulation results show that the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides with coherency WC/Co phase boundaries has higher fracture toughness than that without coherency WC/Co phase boundaries. Moreover, the mechanism of why coherency WC/Co phase boundaries can improve the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides is also investigated. It is found the fact that the separation energy of the coherent WC/Co phase boundary is larger than that of the incoherent WC/Co phase boundaries is the main reason for this excellent mechanical property. PMID:27485922

  7. Effect of WC/Co coherency phase boundaries on Fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hongxian; Song, Xiaoyan; Yin, Fuxing; Zhang, Yongguang

    2016-08-01

    The effect of coherency WC/Co phase boundaries on the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides is studied by MD simulation method. The simulation results show that the nanocrystalline WC-Co cemented carbides with coherency WC/Co phase boundaries has higher fracture toughness than that without coherency WC/Co phase boundaries. Moreover, the mechanism of why coherency WC/Co phase boundaries can improve the fracture toughness of the nanocrystalline cemented carbides is also investigated. It is found the fact that the separation energy of the coherent WC/Co phase boundary is larger than that of the incoherent WC/Co phase boundaries is the main reason for this excellent mechanical property.

  8. Tensile and stress-rupture behavior of hafnium carbide dispersed molybdenum and tungsten base alloy wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Hee Mann; Titran, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    The tensile strain rate sensitivity and the stress-rupture strength of Mo-base and W-base alloy wires, 380 microns in diameter, were determined over the temperature range from 1200 K to 1600 K. Three molybdenum alloy wires; Mo + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC), Mo + 25w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+25W) and Mo + 45w/o W + 1.1w/o hafnium carbide (MoHfC+45W), and a W + 0.4w/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) tungsten alloy wire were evaluated. The tensile strength of all wires studied was found to have a positive strain rate sensitivity. The strain rate dependency increased with increasing temperature and is associated with grain broadening of the initial fibrous structures. The hafnium carbide dispersed W-base and Mo-base alloys have superior tensile and stress-rupture properties than those without HfC. On a density compensated basis the MoHfC wires exhibit superior tensile and stress-rupture strengths to the WHfC wires up to approximately 1400 K. Addition of tungsten in the Mo-alloy wires was found to increase the long-term stress rupture strength at temperatures above 1400 K. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength and ductility advantage of the HfC dispersed alloy wires is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  9. Tungsten carbides as potential alternative direct methanol fuel cell anode electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, Michael

    The reduction of precious metal loading and the improvement of sluggish kinetics at the anode electrocatalyst are two primary concerns for economical development of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The purpose of this research is to examine the feasibility of using tungsten carbides as alternative fuel cell anode electrocatalysts. The anodic chemistry of the direct methanol fuel cell requires the oxidation of methanol and the decomposition of water to produce protons, electrons, and gas-phase CO2. Currently, the most effective anode electrocatalyst for DMFC is the Pt/Ru bimetallic catalyst, which efficiently oxidizes methanol, as well as decomposes water for the oxidation and removal of adsorbed CO species. Although the Pt/Ru bimetallic system exhibits desirable electrochemical activities, both Pt and Ru are expensive due to limited supplies. In addition, strong chemisorption of CO on Pt and Ru makes the electrocatalyst susceptible to CO poisoning, blocking the active sites for methanol oxidation. This work began by examining the reactions of methanol, water, and CO on carbide-modified tungsten (C/W) single crystal surfaces, with and without submonolayer coverages of Pt. These fundamental surface science results demonstrated the potential for tungsten carbides to be used as anode catalysts in DMFC, exhibiting decomposition of both methanol and water along with significantly lowered CO desorption temperatures. Additionally, submonolayer Pt-modification of the C/W surfaces resulted in a synergistic effect, eliminating the undesired reaction pathway on the C/W surface that produced gas-phase CH4. To bridge the materials gap between model single crystal surfaces and the more realistic thin film electrocatalysts, polycrystalline tungsten carbide thin films were created via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and carburization of polycrystalline tungsten foil. Fundamental surface science techniques were applied to the PVD films to examine the reaction pathways of DMFC

  10. Characterizations of WC-10Co nanocomposite powders and subsequently sinterhip sintered cemented carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.L. . E-mail: sxl071932@126.com; Shao, G.Q.; Duan, X.L.; Xiong, Z.; Yang, H.

    2006-12-15

    Ultrafine WC-Co cemented carbides, combining high hardness and high toughness, are expected to find broad applications. In this study, WC-10Co-0.4VC-0.4Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} (wt.%) nanocomposite powders, whose average grain size was about 30 nm, were fabricated by spray pyrolysis-continuous reduction and carbonization technology. The as-prepared nanocomposite powders were characterized and analyzed by chemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), BET analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, 'sinterhip' was used in the sintering process, by which ultrafine WC-10Co cemented carbides with an average grain size of 240 nm were prepared. The material exhibited high Rockwell A hardness of HRA 92.8, Vickers hardness HV{sub 1} 1918, and transverse rapture strength (TRS) of 3780 MPa. The homogeneously dispersed grain growth inhibitors such as VC, Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} in nanocomposite powder and the special nonmetal-metal nanocomposite structure of WC-10Co nanocomposite powder played very important roles in obtaining ultrafine WC-10Co cemented carbide with the desired properties and microstructure. There was an abundance of triple junctions in the ultrafine WC-10Co cemented carbide; these triple junctions endowed the sintered specimen with high mechanical properties.

  11. Adhesion of diamond coatings synthesized by oxygen-acetylene flame CVD on tungsten carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Marinkovic, S.; Stankovic, S.; Dekanski, A.

    1995-12-31

    The results of a study concerned with chemical vapor deposition of diamond on tungsten carbide cutting tools using an oxygen-acetylene flame in a normal ambient environment are presented. Effects of preparation conditions on the adhesion of the coating have been investigated, including different surface treatment, different position of the flame with respect to the coated surface, effect of an intermediate poorly crystalline diamond layer, etc. In particular, effect of polishing and ultrasonic lapping with diamond powder was compared with that of a corresponding treatment with SiC powder.

  12. Tungsten carbide production from ore concentrates by molten salt-natural gas sparging treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, T.G.; Kazonich, G.; Raddatz, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a bench-scale study to delineate the important parameters in a three-step process to produce commercial-quality tungsten carbide (WC) directly from tungsten minerals. In the process, tungsten concentrates of wolframite or wolframite and scheelite are decomposed at 1,050{sup 0}C in a molten mixture of NcCl and Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} that forms two immiscible phases. Tungsten, as sodium tungstate, reports to the halide phase and is separated from the gangue constituents, which report to the silicate phase. After decanting to separate the two phases, natural gas is sparged into the molten halide phase a 1,070{sup 0}C. Submicrometer crystals of WC are initially produced. These crystals grow into thin triangular-shaped plates up to 100 {mu}m on a side or into popcorn-shaped conglomerates. Sparged WC was examined for its suitability for use in sintered carbide products. In physical evaluations, sparged WC ground to an average particle size of 1.52 {mu}m and compacted with 10 pct Co binder into standard 6-by 22-mm test bars had a density of 14.35 and a Rockwell A hardness of 89.6. This compared favorably with 14.39 and 89.7 respectively, for test bars made from a standard commercial 1.52-{mu}m WC powder. Test bars made from Bureau of Mines WC had no C'' porosity or eta phase.

  13. Metal modified tungsten carbide (WC) for catalytic and electrocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, Zachary J.

    One of the major challenges in the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is the cost, and low CO tolerance of the anode electrocatalyst material. The anode typically requires a high loading of precious metal electrocatalyst (Pt or Pt--Ru) to obtain a useful amount of electrical energy from the electrooxidation of methanol (CH3OH) or ethanol (C2H5OH). The complete electro--oxidation of methanol or ethanol on these catalysts produces strongly adsorbed CO on the surface, which reduces the activity of the Pt or Pt--Ru catalysts. Another major disadvantage of these electrocatalyst components is the scarcity and consequently high price of both Pt and Ru. Tungsten monocarbide (WC) has shown similar catalytic properties to Pt, leading to the utilization of WC and metal modified WC as replacements to Pt and Pt--Ru. In this thesis we investigated WC and Pt--modified WC as a potentially more CO--tolerant electrocatalysts as compared to pure Pt. These catalysts would reduce or remove the high loading of Pt used industrially. The binding energy of CO, estimated using temperature programmed desorption, is weaker on WC and Pt/WC than on Pt, suggesting that it should be easier to oxidize CO on WC and Pt/WC. This hypothesis was verified using cyclic voltammetry to compare the electro--oxidation of CO on WC, Pt/WC, and Pt supported on carbon substrates, which showed a lower voltage for the onset of oxidation of CO on WC and Pt/WC than on Pt. After observing these improved properties on the Pt/WC catalysts, we decided to expand our studies to investigate Pd--modified WC as Pd is less expensive than Pt and has shown more ideal properties for alcohol electrocatalysis in alkaline media. Pd/WC showed a lower binding energy of CO than both its parent metal Pd as well as Pt. Then, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to determine how the presence of Pd affected the bonding of methanol and ethanol on the WC surface. The DFT studies showed

  14. Deposition and Characterization of Tungsten Carbide Thin Films by DC Magnetron Sputtering for Wear-Resistant Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavsanoglu, Tolga; Begum, Ceren; Alkan, Murat; Yucel, Onuralp

    2013-04-01

    In this study, WC (tungsten carbide) thin films were deposited on high-speed steel (AISI M2) and Si (100) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering of a tungsten carbide target having 7% cobalt as binding material. The properties of the coatings have been modified by the change in the bias voltages from grounded to 200 V. All the coatings were deposited at 250°C constant temperature. The microstructure and the thickness of the films were determined from cross-sectional field-emission gun scanning electron microscope micrographs. The chemical composition of the film was determined by electron probe micro analyzer. The x-ray diffractometer has been used for the phase analyses. Nanoindentation and wear tests were used to determine the mechanical and tribological properties of the films, respectively. It is found that the increase in the bias voltages increased drastically the hardness and elastic modulus, decreased the friction coefficient values and increased the wear resistance of tungsten carbide thin films by a phase transformation from metallic W (tungsten) to a nonstoichiometric WC1- x (tungsten carbide) phase.

  15. Formation of tungsten carbide nanoparticles on graphitized carbon to facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zaoxue; He, Guoqiang; Cai, Mei; Meng, Hui; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-11-01

    Tungsten carbide nanoparticles with the average size less than 5 nm uniformly dispersed on the graphitized carbon matrix have been successfully synthesized by a one-step ion-exchange method. This route is to locally anchor the interested species based on an ionic level exchange process using ion-exchange resin. The advantage of this method is the size control of targeted nanomaterial as well as the graphitization of resin at low temperatures catalyzed by iron salt. The Pt nanoparticles coupled with tungsten carbide nanoparticles on graphitized carbon nanoarchitecture form a stable electrocatalyst (Pt/WC-GC). The typical Pt/WC-GC electrocatalyst gives a Pt-mass activity of 247.7 mA mgPt-1, which is much higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst (107.1 mA mgPt-1) for oxygen reduction reaction due to the synergistic effect between Pt and WC. The presented method is simple and could be readily scaled up for mass production of the nanomaterials.

  16. Design and fabrication of tungsten carbide mould with micro patterns imprinted by micro lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woojae; Lee, Jayong; Kim, Wook-Bae; Min, Byung-Kwon; Kang, Shinill; Lee, Sang-Jo

    2004-11-01

    Core fabrication is one of the key technologies of glass moulding process used in micro optical component manufacturing. However, when the cavity size is very small and an array-type cavity is needed, a conventional diamond turning process cannot be employed. In this study, a novel core fabrication method that can be used for glass micro optical components has been developed. First, microlens array (with individual lens diameters of 36-300 µm) mould masters were produced with silicon using a photoresist reflow and a reactive ion etching process. Then, the shape of the silicon lens masters was transferred to tungsten carbide cores using a powder pressure forming and a sintering process. To further improve the surface qualities, magnetic abrasive finishing was carried out. The details of the fabrication process are presented in this paper. The characteristics of the proposed method, such as the shrinkage in the sintering process and the effects of grain size of the tungsten carbide powder and abrasive finishing process on the surface qualities, were also discussed.

  17. Pump/probe Microwave-Optical Double Resonance (ppmodr) Study of Tungsten Carbide (wc) and Platinum Carbide (PtC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2012-06-01

    Gas-phase metal-containing molecules serve as ideal venues for testing computational methodologies being developed to predict chemical properties of simple molecules. The most accurate determination of molecular properties comes from the analysis of pure rotational spectra, which for metal containing molecules can be difficult to obtain. One powerful method for recording pure rotational spectrum is to use the PPMODR technique which couples the sensitivity of optical detection with the precision of molecular beam microwave spectroscopy. Here we report on the application of PPMODR to the study of tungsten carbide, WC, and platinum carbide, PtC. The J=1→2 pure rotational transitions in the X^3Δ_1(v=0) state of ^1^8^6W^1^2C and ^1^8^4W^1^2C reveal a small splitting, an analysis of which provides accurate determination of the rotational and Ω-doubling parameters for the X^3Δ_1(v=0) state, which are critical to the proposed electron electric dipole moment experiments (eEDM). The implications for the proposed eEDM measurements will be presented. We also report on the J=0→1 and J=1→2 rotational transitions of PtC for the X^1Σ^+(v=0) state. The ^1^9^5Pt(I=1/2) nuclear spin-rotation interaction parameter, C_I^e^f^f , was determined to be 0.138(6) MHz. A comparison with other Pt-containing molecules and a proposed molecular orbital correlation diagram is given. W. J. Childs, Physics Reports 211, No. 3 (1991). F. Wang and T. C. Steimle, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 044312 (2012). J. Lee, E. R. Meyer, R. Paudel, J. L. Bohn and A. E. Leanhardt, J. Mod. Opt. 56 2005, (2009). F. Wang and T. C. Steimle, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 201106 (2011). F. Wang and T. C. Steimle, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 104313 (2011).

  18. Reactive ion etching of sputtered silicon carbide and tungsten thin films for device applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.S.

    1988-01-01

    For high temperature processing and device applications refractory materials, silicon carbide (SiC) and tungsten (W), are considered or evaluated as the basic semiconductor and metallization materials for integrated circuits. In order to pattern fine lines in SiC and W thin films, a selective and anisotropic etching technique is needed. First, materials properties, such as crystallinity, conductivity, refractive index, optical bandgap, etc., of sputtered silicon carbide (SiC) and tungsten (W) thin films have been investigated in conjunction with the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) technique. The RTA temperature dependence of the optical bandgap of SiC thin films has been obtained. High crystallinity W thin of low resistivity films were obtained using by RTA. Reactive ion etching (RIE) of SiC thin films in a variety of fluorinated gas plasmas, such as SF{sub 6}, CBrF{sub 3} and CHF{sub 3} mixed with oxygen has been investigated in depth. The emission spectra and induced DC bias of the RF plasma were monitored to explore the etching mechanisms. A SiC:Si etch ratio higher than unity was obtained for the first time by using CBrF{sub 3}/75%O{sub 2} and CHF{sub 3}/90%O{sub 2} at 200W, 20 sccm, 20mTorr plasma conditions. The best anisotropic profile was observed by using CHF{sub 3} gas in the RIE mode. A typical DC bias, -300V, is concluded from etching experiments to determine the dependence of SiC etch rate and physical reaction under RIE mode. RIE of tungsten (W) thin film was investigated by using the different fluorinated gas plasmas, such as CF{sub 4}, SF{sub 6}, CBrF{sub 3} and CHF{sub 3} mixed with oxygen. We have achieved our goal of selective patterning of tungsten films over SiC, Si, SiO{sub 2}, which required in order to use W in SiC device applications. A very good W:Si and W:SiO{sub 2} selective ratio, 4:1 and 4.8:1, were observed by using CHF{sub 3}/70%O{sub 2} gases under different Plasma conditions.

  19. [Study on the Interface Characteristics of Cemented Carbide after Stripping Ti Department Coatings].

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiang; Liang, Zheng; Song, Hui-jin; Wu, Tao; Wu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    TiAlN Coatings were stripped by chemical method, which were deposited on Y WZ Alloy by arc ion plating. The surface morphology and composition of the cemented carbide after stripping TiAlN coatings by chemistry method were analyzed. It was found that TiA1N coatings on the cemented carbide substrates could be removed by being taken in 30% of hydrogen peroxide and potassium oxalate in alkaline mixed solution (V(NaOH so1ution):V(3O%H2O2):V(COOK solution) = 1:1:1) at 45 °C for 45 minutes. The surface of the cemented carbide substrate was bright, and the color was the same as that before depositing TiA1N coatings. The surface of the substrate after removing was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). The results showed that binding energies of the W element and the main peak of N element on the substrate surface were much close to the criterion binding energy in the XPS data-base; and the valence of the element on the YW2 alloy changed little. The Al, Ti and N elements diffusing into the superficial zone of the sample during the coating depositing process made their contents increase and the band energy location offset after stripping the coating. TiN and A1N were formed, which benefit to increase the film-substrate cohesion during re-preparing coatings. The influence of stripping solution on the corrosion degree of cemented carbide substrate was small. PMID:26197607

  20. Tuning lattice stability and mechanical strength of ultraincompressible tungsten carbides by varying the stacking sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z. J.; Fu, Z. H.; Legut, D.; Yu, X. H.; Zhang, Q. F.; Ivashchenko, V. I.; Veprek, S.; Zhang, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanical properties and electronic structure of polymorphic tungsten carbides with different stacking sequences have been investigated by means of density functional theory. The stacking sequence strongly influences the stability and mechanical strength of these polymorphs. Using the plastic parameters based on resistance to slip, we found that the newly identified metastable h P 4 [194 ] structure (expressed by the Pearson symbol and a space group number) possesses the highest plastic resistance despite its lower elastic moduli as compared to the thermodynamically stable h P 2 [187 ] . The c F 8 [225 ] structure is thermodynamically and dynamically unstable at 0 K, but it shows anharmonic stabilization at finite temperature, in agreement with the experimental data. Our results provide a way to increase material strength and hardness by varying the crystal lattice stacking sequence.

  1. Expansion into vacuum of a shocked tungsten carbide-epoxy mixture.

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott

    2009-03-01

    The behavior of a shocked tungsten carbide / epoxy mixture as it expands into a vacuum has been studied through a combination of experiments and simulations. X-ray radiography of the expanding material as well as the velocity measured for a stood-off witness late are used to understand the physics of the problem. The initial shock causes vaporization of the epoxy matrix, leading to a multi-phase flow situation as the epoxy expands rapidly at around 8 km/s followed by the WC particles moving around 3 km/s. There are also small amounts of WC moving at higher velocities, apparently due to jetting in the sample. These experiments provide important data about the multi-phase flow characteristics of this material.

  2. Laser cladding of tungsten carbides (Spherotene ®) hardfacing alloys for the mining and mineral industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, J. M.; Tobar, M. J.; Alvarez, J. C.; Lamas, J.; Yáñez, A.

    2009-03-01

    The abrasive nature of the mechanical processes involved in mining and mineral industry often causes significant wear to the associated equipment and derives non-negligible economic costs. One of the possible strategies to improve the wear resistance of the various components is the deposition of hardfacing layers on the bulk parts. The use of high power lasers for hardfacing (laser cladding) has attracted a great attention in the last decade as an alternative to other more standard methods (arc welding, oxy-fuel gas welding, thermal spraying). In laser cladding the hardfacing material is used in powder form. For high hardness applications Ni-, Co- or Fe-based alloys containing hard phase carbides at different ratios are commonly used. Tungsten carbides (WC) can provide coating hardness well above 1000 HV (Vickers). In this respect, commercially available WC powders normally contain spherical micro-particles consisting of crushed WC agglomerates. Some years ago, Spherotene ® powders consisting of spherical-fused monocrystaline WC particles, being extremely hard, between 1800 and 3000 HV, were patented. Very recently, mixtures of Ni-based alloy with Spherotene powders optimized for laser processing were presented (Technolase ®). These mixtures have been used in our study. Laser cladding tests with these powders were performed on low carbon steel (C25) substrates, and results in terms of microstructure and hardness will be discussed.

  3. Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zaoxue; Cai, Mei; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-04-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used engineering material which is usually prepared at high temperature. A new mechanism for synthesizing nanoscaled WC at ultralow temperature has been discovered. This discovery opens a novel route to synthesize valuable WC and other carbides at a cost-efficient way. The novel formation mechanism is based on an ion-exchange resin as carbon source to locally anchor the W and Fe species. As an intermediate, FeWO4 can be formed at lower temperature, which can be directly converted into WC along with the carbonization of resin. The size of WC can be less than 2 nm. The catalyst made with Pt nanoparticles supported on nanosized WC-GC (WC-graphitized carbon) shows enhanced electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The result also indicates that the Pt nanoparticles deposited on WC-GC are dominated by Pt (111) plane and shows a mass activity of 257.7 mA mg-1Pt@0.9 V.

  4. Nanosized tungsten carbide synthesized by a novel route at low temperature for high performance electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zaoxue; Cai, Mei; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used engineering material which is usually prepared at high temperature. A new mechanism for synthesizing nanoscaled WC at ultralow temperature has been discovered. This discovery opens a novel route to synthesize valuable WC and other carbides at a cost-efficient way. The novel formation mechanism is based on an ion-exchange resin as carbon source to locally anchor the W and Fe species. As an intermediate, FeWO4 can be formed at lower temperature, which can be directly converted into WC along with the carbonization of resin. The size of WC can be less than 2 nm. The catalyst made with Pt nanoparticles supported on nanosized WC-GC (WC-graphitized carbon) shows enhanced electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. The result also indicates that the Pt nanoparticles deposited on WC-GC are dominated by Pt (111) plane and shows a mass activity of 257.7 mA mg−1Pt@0.9 V. PMID:23571654

  5. Precision grinding of tungsten carbide mold insert for molding of sub-millimeter glass aspheric lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Choung-Lii; Chang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Chou, Wen-Chen; Ma, Kung-Jeng

    2013-06-01

    As the demand for precision optical components with sub-millimeter feature size steadily increasing, numerous efforts have been made in developing new techniques and in improving the existing approaches to efficiently and economically produce those components. Glass molding process (GMP) is one of these methods to enable mass production of precision glass optical components in recent years. One of the key issues in GMP is precision mold insert fabrication. Since the mould are normally made of hard and brittle materials such as tungsten carbide (WC) and silicon carbide (SiC), precision diamond grinding is by far the principal choice used to machine the GMP mould. As the feature size of optical component gets smaller, the size of mould and grinding wheel used to fabricate the mould gets smaller too. This makes the grinding process a very time consuming and expensive task. This research aimed to improve the small mold fabrication processes by developing an effective way of producing small diamond wheels and in-process monitoring wheel profile. Diamond wheels of around 0.2mm to 0.5mm in diameter after truing and WC aspheric mold insert of form accuracy around 0.47μm were successfully produced in this research.

  6. Removal of a Tungsten Carbide Ring from the Finger of a Pregnant Patient: A Case Report Involving 2 Emergency Departments and the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Alexandre; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Destructive or nondestructive procedures may be used to remove rings from injured fingers. Because of their hardness, tungsten carbide rings present special problems. Case Presentation. The patient was a 33-year-old woman, two weeks before delivery, with a swollen and reddened ring finger. It was decided to remove a tungsten carbide ring from her ring finger. This was achieved by shattering the ring with locking pliers. The patient's ring finger recovered fully. PMID:27042363

  7. Electric Discharge Sintering and Joining of Tungsten Carbide--Cobalt Composite with High-Speed Steel Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryev, Evgeny G.

    2011-01-17

    Simultaneous electro discharge sintering of high strength structure of tungsten carbide-cobalt composite and connection it with high-speed steel substrate is investigated and suitable operating parameters are defined. Tungsten carbide-cobalt and high-speed steel joining was produced by the method of high voltage electrical discharge together with application of mechanical pressure to powder compact. It was found that the density and hardness of composite material reach its maximum values at certain magnitudes of applied pressure and high voltage electrical discharge parameters. We show that there is an upper level for the discharge voltage beyond which the powder of composite material disintegrates like an exploding wire. Due to our results it is possible to determine optimal parameters for simultaneous electro discharge sintering of WC-Co and bonding it with high-speed steel substrate.

  8. Nickel-tungsten carbide catalysts for the production of 2,5-dimethylfuran from biomass-derived molecules.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Bing; Chen, Meng-Yuan; Yan, Long; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-04-01

    The development of new catalytic systems for the conversion of biomass-derived molecules into liquid fuels has attracted much attention. We propose a non-noble bimetallic catalyst based on nickel-tungsten carbide for the conversion of the platform molecules 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural into the liquid-fuel molecule 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF). Different catalysts, metal ratios and reaction conditions have been tested and give rise to a 96% yield of DMF. The catalysts have been characterized and are discussed. The reaction mechanism is also explored through capture of reaction intermediates. The analysis of the reaction mixture over different catalysts is presented and helps to understand the role of nickel and tungsten carbide during the reaction. PMID:24574062

  9. Quantitative analysis of WC grain shape in sintered WC-Co cemented carbides.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Mikael; Wahnström, Göran; Allibert, Colette; Lay, Sabine

    2005-02-18

    The morphology of WC grains is examined by ab initio calculations, and by transmission electron microscopy in a WC-Co cemented carbide. Two compositions are studied to determine the effect of carbon chemical potential on the shape development. The WC grains are found to be truncated triangles, and the grain morphology is adequately reproduced by the ab initio calculations. The energy difference between the two types of grain facets is shown to be due to the formation of stronger bonds with more covalent character between low coordinated W and Co atoms at one type of facet. PMID:15783755

  10. Experimental investigations and DICTRA simulations on formation of diffusion-controlled fcc-rich surface layers on cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, José; Prat, Orlando

    2011-08-01

    Wear resistant fcc-rich surface layers were produced on cemented carbides by nitridation of W-Ti-Ta-Nb-Co-C compositions at 1400 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. A 15 ± 3 μm thick (Ti,Ta,Nb,W)(C,N) top-layer formed on the surface of the cemented carbides. The driving force for formation of the fcc-rich layers was the difference in nitrogen activity between the sintering atmosphere and the cemented carbide bulk, which promoted in-diffusion of nitrogen and out-diffusion of Ti, Ta and Nb. The diffusion-controlled process was modeled by DICTRA considering that all diffusion occurred in the liquid binder phase of a dispersed system model with a labyrinth factor of λ( f) = f. Good agreement between experimental and simulations regarding layer thickness, phase fraction distribution and element profiles was obtained for the presented model.

  11. A Novel Approach for Direct Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Tungsten Carbide from Milled Scheelite Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harjinder; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, nanostructured tungsten carbide (WC) has been synthesized mainly from precursors like WO3, W, WCl6, and WCl4. These pure precursors are obtained by multistep high temperature treatments from the ore. Single phase nanocrystalline WC has been synthesized for the first time from scheelite ore at significantly lower [923 K (650 °C)] temperature. The activated charcoal and Mg turnings have been used as carbon source and reducing agent, respectively. The effect of time and temperature on the reaction has been investigated. The reaction by-products and impurities were washed firstly with dilute HCl and then with dilute base. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique and high resolution transmission electron microscope. The XRD patterns were refined by Rietveld method. The WC crystallite size was observed to decrease with lowering of synthesis temperature. The average crystallite size of WC formed was 20 nm. This report presents an exclusive, straight forward, environment friendly, and reproducible method for synthesis of nanocrystalline WC directly from scheelite ore.

  12. Erosion and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Cladded Stainless Steels with Tungsten Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raghuvir; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Suman K.

    2012-11-01

    Laser cladding of tungsten carbide (WC) on stainless steels 13Cr-4Ni and AISI 304 substrates has been performed using high power diode laser. The cladded stainless steels were characterized for microstructural changes, hardness, solid particle erosion resistance and corrosion behavior. Resistance of the clad to solid particle erosion was evaluated using alumina particles according to ASTM G76 and corrosion behavior was studied by employing the anodic polarization and open circuit potential measurement in 3.5% NaCl solution and tap water. The hardness of laser cladded AISI 304 and 13Cr-4Ni stainless steel was increased up to 815 and 725Hv100 g, respectively. The erosion resistance of the modified surface was improved significantly such that the erosion rate of cladded AISI 304 (at 114 W/mm2) was observed ~0.74 mg/cm2/h as compared to ~1.16 and 0.97 mg/cm2/h for untreated AISI 304 and 13Cr-4Ni, respectively. Laser cladding of both the stainless steels, however, reduced the corrosion resistance in both NaCl and tap water.

  13. Direct deposition of cubic boron nitride films on tungsten carbide-cobalt.

    PubMed

    Teii, Kungen; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    2012-10-24

    Thick cubic boron nitride (cBN) films in micrometer-scale are deposited on tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) substrates without adhesion interlayers by inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) using the chemistry of fluorine. The residual film stress is reduced because of very low ion-impact energies (a few eV to ∼25 eV) controlled by the plasma sheath potential. Two types of substrate pretreatment are used successively; the removal of surface Co binder using an acid solution suppresses the catalytic effect of Co and triggers cBN formation, and the surface roughening using mechanical scratching and hydrogen plasma etching increases both the in-depth cBN fraction and deposition rate. The substrate surface condition is evaluated by the wettability of the probe liquids with different polarities and quantified by the apparent surface free energy calculated from the contact angle. The surface roughening enhances the compatibility in energy between the cBN and substrate, which are bridged by the interfacial sp(2)-bonded hexagonal BN buffer layer, and then, the cBN overlayer is nucleated and evolved easier. PMID:22950830

  14. Enhanced activity of urea electrooxidation on nickel catalysts supported on tungsten carbides/carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Du, Tingting; Cheng, Jin; Xie, Xing; Yang, Bolun; Li, Mingtao

    2015-04-01

    Nickel nanoparticles with tungsten carbides supported on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes, noted as Ni-WC/MWCNT catalyst, is prepared through an impregnation method and used for the electrooxidation of urea in alkaline conditions. The micro-morphology and composition of the Ni-WC/MWCNT particles are determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The electrooxidation activity and conductivity of the catalyst are investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Characterization results indicate that the Ni nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the WC/MWCNT framework, and the Ni-WC/MWCNT catalyst shows an improved activity for the urea electrooxidation. The current densities of Ni-WC/MWCNT are over 3 times and 15 times higher than those of the Ni-WC/C and Ni/C catalysts, respectively, and the electrochemical impedance also decreases markedly. The higher activity on Ni-WC/MWCNT is attributed to the support effect of MWCNT as well as the synergistic effect between Ni and WC.

  15. Determination of cobalt in samples containing cobalt and tungsten carbide by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Firriolo, J.M.; Kutzman, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    A method has been developed to determine the amount of cobalt (Co) in atmospheric dust samples which include free and sintered Co. Cobalt and tungsten carbide (WC) mixtures ranging from 0-100% Co were prepared for atomic absorption analysis by dissolving the Co in aqua regia. Using this method, the amount of Co in the samples assayed ranged from 90.9-100.1% of that gravimetrically added to the mixtures. The results of this aqua regia dissolution procedure for Co were compared to a hydrofluoric acid method which solubilized both the Co and the WC. Application of the aqua regia dissolution method to samples of sintered WC and Co dust resulted in complete recovery of the Co from these materials. These results were supported by x-ray analysis of the samples before and after dissolution of the Co with aqua regia. The described procedure is advantageous because it avoids the use of highly-caustic hydrofluoric acid and the results are quickly available.

  16. Self-lubricating aluminum metal-matrix composites dispersed with tungsten disulfide and silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, S.V.; Mecklenburg, K.R.

    1994-07-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and tribological behavior of self-lubricating aluminum alloy metal-matrix composites (MMCs). The formulations of MMCs comprised of tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles dispersed in a commercial aluminum alloy (Al-0.40Si-0.75Mg) matrix. Composites were fabricated by a conventional powder metallurgy route involving blending, compacting and sintering. Friction and wear tests (up to a duration of one million cycles) were performed in a ball-on-disk configuration against a steel counterface. Wear scars on MMC disks and steel balls were analyzed in SEM/EDXS. In a dry nitrogen environment, the steady state friction coefficient of an Al-0.10SiC-0.03WS{sub 2}MMC was 0.05, whereas in laboratory air with relative humidity at approximately 65 percent it was 0.10. In both environments, transfer of aluminum to the steel counterface was absent. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Microstructure and thermal properties of copper–diamond composites with tungsten carbide coating on diamond particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Qiping; He, Xinbo Ren, Shubin; Liu, Tingting; Liu, Qian; Wu, Mao; Qu, Xuanhui

    2015-07-15

    An effective method for preparing tungsten carbide coating on diamond surfaces was proposed to improve the interface bonding between diamond and copper. The WC coating was formed on the diamond surfaces with a reaction medium of WO{sub 3} in mixed molten NaCl–KCl salts and the copper–diamond composites were obtained by vacuum pressure infiltration of WC-coated diamond particles with pure copper. The microstructure of interface bonding between diamond and copper was discussed. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion behavior of the obtained copper–diamond composites were investigated. Results indicated that the thermal conductivity of as-fabricated composite reached 658 W m{sup −} {sup 1} K{sup −} {sup 1}. Significant reduction in coefficient of thermal expansion of the composite compared with that of pure copper was obtained. - Highlights: • WC coating was successfully synthesized on diamond particles in molten salts. • WC coating obviously promoted the wettability of diamond and copper matrix. • WC coating greatly enhanced the thermal conductivity of Cu–diamond composite. • The composites are suitable candidates for heat sink applications.

  18. A computational study of interfaces in WC-Co cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petisme, Martin V. G.; Johansson, Sven A. E.; Wahnström, Göran

    2015-06-01

    Interfaces in WC-Co cemented carbides have been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT). Six different model WC/WC grain boundaries are considered, together with the corresponding WC surfaces and WC/Co phase boundaries. The contribution to the grain boundary energies arising from misfit is estimated using an analytical bond order potential (ABOP) and the effect of magnetism is investigated using spinpolarized and non-spinpolarized calculations. A systematic study of adsorption of Co to WC surfaces, Co segregation to WC/WC grain boundaries and Co substitution at WC/Co phase boundaries has been carried out. Adsorption of Co to most WC surfaces is predicted, and result in a monolayer coverage of Co and sometimes a mixed Co/W or Co/W monolayer. The WC surfaces will become prewetted with Co as soon as the atoms become mobile at finite temperatures. Co substitutional segregation is predicted to all model WC/WC grain boundaries in 0.5 monolayer proportion. The segregation of Co to grain boundaries stabilizes the continuous skeleton network of hard WC grains in cemented carbides. Using the obtained interfacial energies, the wetting and the driving force for cobalt grain boundary infiltration are discussed. A dependence on the wetting efficiency on the carbon chemical potential is predicted, which could be an explanation for the better wetting observed experimentally under W-rich conditions.

  19. Analysis of Microstructure and Properties of Cemented Carbide and Invar Alloy Weldment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P. Q.; Zhao, X. J.

    2010-03-01

    Multi-phase composite microstructure was designed in a Ni42C0.6Mn3.5Nb3Fe50.9 invar alloy which was welded to WC-Co cemented carbide. The multi-component composition (Ni42C0.6Mn3.5Nb3Fe50.9) was chosen such that on welding of the cemented carbide to invar alloy the nonequilibrium interface reactions were suppressed. The microstructures of Ni42C0.6Mn3.5Nb3Fe50.9 invar alloy and the dissimilar materials (WC-Co and Ni42C0.6Mn3.5Nb3Fe50.9) welded joint were characterized with SEM and EDS analysis, and phase was done using x-rays diffractometer. The hardness profile is determined using micro-hardness measurements. Sound metallurgical bond and smooth hardness transition from 420HV0.2 to 870HV0.2 near interface were obtained without groove and filler materials.

  20. Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The name tungsten, derived from the Swedish words {open_quotes}tung{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sten{close_quotes}, meaning heavy stone, was first applied to a tungsten-containing mineral in 1755. The mineral, itself, was subsequently identified by C.W. Scheele in 1781, and named scheelite. Metallic tungsten was first isolated from the mineral wolframite in 1783, and given the German name {open_quotes}wolfram,{close_quotes} which remains an alternative name for the element. Ultimately, the English word, tungsten, became the official name, while W remains the element`s chemical symbol. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, applications, and market overview of tungsten.

  1. Use of tungsten carbide disc-mill in geochemistry: no evidence of contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, A. H. N.; Tait, J.; Anderson, M. W.

    2009-04-01

    A common statement in the analytical techniques section of geochemical papers is that the samples were powdered in an "agate disc-mill", the inference being that the use of a tungsten steel disc-mill is a poor mans alternative and would likely have caused contamination. This is also a commonly stated verbal opinion, although no evidence for this has ever been quoted to the authors. Since tungsten steel disc-mills are commonly available, a simple test was made to see if contamination does occur. Small fragments (< 1*1*0.5 cm) of a shale sample from the Caledonides of N. Norway were subjected to 5 minutes milling in a tungsten-carbide disc-mill, enough time to make a suitably fine powder for digestion for geochemical analysis. After a small portion had been removed, the remainder was milled for a further 20 minutes, after which another portion was removed. The remainder was then milled to give a total milling time of 85 minutes. After allowing the mill to cool to room temperature, the final powder was extracted. The three samples were then sent under anonymous names to professional, research-quality chemical laboratories, for a full range of analyses (major, traces, REE, LOI, TOC, TOS). Correlation coefficients (R2) between the three data sets gave R2 = 0.9993 (5-25 min), 0.9996 (5-85 min) and 0.9991 (25-85 min). If wt % data are converted to ppm, R2 increases to > 0.9999 in all cases. Comparison of the three data sets showed no systematic evidence of contamination by the disc-mill; the maximum value was not necessarily found to occur in the 85-minute sample (13 % in 5 min; 29 % in 25 min; 26 % in 85 min); 32 % of elements had equal values for all times. Ratios of elements from the three data sets lay between 1.22 and 0.71 (shorter time/longer time). The largest percentage difference ((max-min)*100/max) was 28.6 %, for W, from 1.5 ppm (5 min) to 2.1 ppm (25 min), and then ‘dropped' to 2.0 ppm in the 25 minute sample. Fe underwent a reduction in concentration, from

  2. Influence of CH(4) partial pressure on the microstructure of sputter-deposited tungsten carbide thin films.

    PubMed

    Abdelouahdi, K; Sant, C; Miserque, F; Aubert, P; Zheng, Y; Legrand-Buscema, C; Perrière, J

    2006-02-15

    Tungsten carbide thin films have been prepared by reactive rf sputtering from a tungsten target in various Ar-CH(4) mixtures. The composition, structure, microstructure and chemical state of the films have been investigated by the complementary use of RBS, NRA, XRD, GIXRD, TEM and XPS analyses. These characteristics of the films were then correlated to their mechanical properties determined by hardness (H), Young's modulus (E(r)) and friction coefficient measurements. Under low CH(4) pressures, the formation of a mixture of nanocrystalline WC(1-x) and W(2)C phases has been observed. A pure WC(1-x) phase was observed in films having a composition close to W(1)C(0.9). With increasing CH(4) pressure, the amount of carbon in the films increases, leading to a progressive amorphization of tungsten carbide deposited layers. Nanocomposite films appeared to be formed, with WC(1-x) nanograins (<3 nm) dispersed in an amorphous carbon matrix. The film deposited at 30% of CH(4) exhibits a-C:H phase. The nature of the phases present in the films plays an important role on their mechanical properties, as shown by the wide domain of variation of the films' hardness (between 22 and 5.5 GPa) and the plastic deformation parameter H(3)/E(r)(2) (between 0.08 and 0.04). PMID:21697565

  3. Tungsten Carbide Grain Size Computation for WC-Co Dissimilar Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dongran; Cui, Haichao; Xu, Peiquan; Lu, Fenggui

    2016-05-01

    A "two-step" image processing method based on electron backscatter diffraction in scanning electron microscopy was used to compute the tungsten carbide (WC) grain size distribution for tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds and laser welds. Twenty-four images were collected on randomly set fields per sample located at the top, middle, and bottom of a cross-sectional micrograph. Each field contained 500 to 1500 WC grains. The images were recognized through clustering-based image segmentation and WC grain growth recognition. According to the WC grain size computation and experiments, a simple WC-WC interaction model was developed to explain the WC dissolution, grain growth, and aggregation in welded joints. The WC-WC interaction and blunt corners were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The WC grain size distribution and the effects of heat input E on grain size distribution for the laser samples were discussed. The results indicate that (1) the grain size distribution follows a Gaussian distribution. Grain sizes at the top of the weld were larger than those near the middle and weld root because of power attenuation. (2) Significant WC grain growth occurred during welding as observed in the as-welded micrographs. The average grain size was 11.47 μm in the TIG samples, which was much larger than that in base metal 1 (BM1 2.13 μm). The grain size distribution curves for the TIG samples revealed a broad particle size distribution without fine grains. The average grain size (1.59 μm) in laser samples was larger than that in base metal 2 (BM2 1.01 μm). (3) WC-WC interaction exhibited complex plane, edge, and blunt corner characteristics during grain growth. A WC ( { 1 {bar{{1}}}00} ) to WC ( {0 1 1 {bar{{0}}}} ) edge disappeared and became a blunt plane WC ( { 10 1 {bar{{0}}}} ) , several grains with two- or three-sided planes and edges disappeared into a multi-edge, and a WC-WC merged.

  4. Tungsten Carbide Grain Size Computation for WC-Co Dissimilar Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dongran; Cui, Haichao; Xu, Peiquan; Lu, Fenggui

    2016-06-01

    A "two-step" image processing method based on electron backscatter diffraction in scanning electron microscopy was used to compute the tungsten carbide (WC) grain size distribution for tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds and laser welds. Twenty-four images were collected on randomly set fields per sample located at the top, middle, and bottom of a cross-sectional micrograph. Each field contained 500 to 1500 WC grains. The images were recognized through clustering-based image segmentation and WC grain growth recognition. According to the WC grain size computation and experiments, a simple WC-WC interaction model was developed to explain the WC dissolution, grain growth, and aggregation in welded joints. The WC-WC interaction and blunt corners were characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The WC grain size distribution and the effects of heat input E on grain size distribution for the laser samples were discussed. The results indicate that (1) the grain size distribution follows a Gaussian distribution. Grain sizes at the top of the weld were larger than those near the middle and weld root because of power attenuation. (2) Significant WC grain growth occurred during welding as observed in the as-welded micrographs. The average grain size was 11.47 μm in the TIG samples, which was much larger than that in base metal 1 (BM1 2.13 μm). The grain size distribution curves for the TIG samples revealed a broad particle size distribution without fine grains. The average grain size (1.59 μm) in laser samples was larger than that in base metal 2 (BM2 1.01 μm). (3) WC-WC interaction exhibited complex plane, edge, and blunt corner characteristics during grain growth. A WC ( { 1 {bar{{1}}}00} ) to WC ( {0 1 1 {bar{{0}}}} ) edge disappeared and became a blunt plane WC ( { 10 1 {bar{{0}}}} ) , several grains with two- or three-sided planes and edges disappeared into a multi-edge, and a WC-WC merged.

  5. Kinetics of carbide formation in the molybdenum-tungsten coatings used in the ITER-like Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H.; Rasinski, M.; von Toussaint, U.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Balden, M.; Elgeti, S.; Ruset, C.; Matthews, G. F.

    2016-02-01

    The kinetics of tungsten carbide formation was investigated for tungsten coatings on carbon fibre composite with a molybdenum interlayer as they are used in the ITER-like Wall in JET. The coatings were produced by combined magnetron sputtering and ion implantation. The investigation was performed by preparing focused ion beam cross sections from samples after heat treatment in argon atmosphere. Baking of the samples was done at temperatures of 1100 °C, 1200 °C, and 1350 °C for hold times between 30 min and 20 h. It was found that the data can be well described by a diffusional random walk with a thermally activated diffusion process. The activation energy was determined to be (3.34 ± 0.11) eV. Predictions for the isothermal lifetime of this coating system were computed from this information.

  6. Investigation of atypical molten pool dynamics in tungsten carbide-cobalt during laser deposition using in-situ thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Yuhong; Schoenung, Julie M.; Hofmeister, William H.; Smugeresky, John E.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-16

    An atypical ''swirling'' phenomenon observed during the laser deposition of tungsten carbide-cobalt cermets by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) was studied using in-situ high-speed thermal imaging. To provide fundamental insight into this phenomenon, the thermal behavior of pure cobalt during LENS was also investigated for comparison. Several factors were considered as the possible source of the observed differences. Of those, phase difference, material emissivity, momentum transfer, and free surface disruption from the powder jets, and, to a lesser extent, Marangoni convection were identified as the relevant mechanisms.

  7. Size-dependent effects of tungsten carbide-cobalt particles on oxygen radical production and activation of cell signaling pathways in murine epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, M.; Kisin, E.R.; Zhao, J.; Bowman, L.; Lu, Y.; Jiang, B.; Leonard, S.; Vallyathan, V.; Castranova, V.; Murray, A.R.; Fadeel, B.; Shvedova, A.A.

    2009-12-15

    Hard metal or cemented carbide consists of a mixture of tungsten carbide (WC) (85%) and metallic cobalt (Co) (5-15%). WC-Co is considered to be potentially carcinogenic to humans. However, no comparison of the adverse effects of nano-sized WC-Co particles is available to date. In the present study, we compared the ability of nano- and fine-sized WC-Co particles to form free radicals and propensity to activate the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-kappaB, along with stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in a mouse epidermal cell line (JB6 P{sup +}). Our results demonstrated that nano-WC-Co generated a higher level of hydroxyl radicals, induced greater oxidative stress, as evidenced by a decrease of GSH levels, and caused faster JB6 P{sup +} cell growth/proliferation than observed after exposure of cells to fine WC-Co. In addition, nano-WC-Co activated AP-1 and NF-kappaB more efficiently in JB6{sup +/+} cells as compared to fine WC-Co. Experiments using AP-1-luciferase reporter transgenic mice confirmed the activation of AP-1 by nano-WC-Co. Nano- and fine-sized WC-Co particles also stimulated MAPKs, including ERKs, p38, and JNKs with significantly higher potency of nano-WC-Co. Finally, co-incubation of the JB6{sup +/+} cells with N-acetyl-cysteine decreased AP-1 activation and phosphorylation of ERKs, p38 kinase, and JNKs, thus suggesting that oxidative stress is involved in WC-Co-induced toxicity and AP-1 activation.

  8. Microstructure and properties of (Ti, Al) N coatings on WC-Co cemented carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yudong; Liu, Zhen; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yigang

    2013-03-01

    (Ti, Al)N films were grown on WC-Co cemented carbides by R.F. reactive sputtering using Ti/Al composite target. The crystalline structure, morphology and composition of (Ti, Al)N coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), respectively. The mechanical properties of (Ti, Al)N coatings with the variable Al content were investigated by applying nanoindentation. With the increase of the Al content, the crystal structure of (Ti, Al)N films changed from fcc to hexagonal structure. When the ratio of Ti to Al in (Ti, Al)N coatings was approximately 4:1, and the N content was 40.67 %, the nano-hardness of (Ti, Al)N coating was highly up to 28 GPa. By adjusting the Al content, the lowest value of friction coefficients was 0.1397.

  9. Titanium carbonitride films on cemented carbide cutting tool prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenran; Liu, Chizi; Chen, Guangliang; Zhang, Guling; Gu, Weichao; Niu, Erwu; Yang, Si-Ze

    2007-03-01

    Hard films prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) are characterized by high film/substrate adhesive strength, and high wear resistance. Titanium carbonitride (TiCN) films were deposited onto YG11C (ISO G20) cemented carbide cutting tool substrates by PHEDP at room temperature. XRD, XPS, SEM, AES, etc. were adopted to analyze the phases (elements) composition, microstructure and the interface of the films, respectively. The results show that, the uniform dense films are composed of grains ranging from 70 to 90 nm. According to the AES result, there is a broad transition layer between the film and the substrate, due to the ion implantation effect of the PHEDP. The transition layer is favorable for the film/substrate adhesion.

  10. Evaluation of the apoptogenic potential of hard metal dust (WC-Co), tungsten carbide and metallic cobalt.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, Noömi; De Boeck, Marlies; Decordier, Ilse; Cundari, Enrico; Lison, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2004-12-01

    The present study aimed at comparing in vitro the apoptogenic properties of metallic cobalt (Co), tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) in conditions known to cause genotoxicity. Human peripheral blood mononucleated cells were incubated with 2.0-6.0 microg/ml of Co alone or mixed with WC particles and 33.3-100.0 microg/ml WC alone for up to 24 h. Under these culture conditions the majority (60%) of the cobalt metal particles were almost immediately solubilised in the culture medium, while WC remained under the form of particles that were progressively phagocytosed by monocytes. Apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V staining, flow cytometry and analysis of DNA fragmentation by ELISA. Metallic Co-particles induced apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, although so far considered as biologically inert, WC particles also induced apoptosis. When compared with its individual components WC-Co displayed an additive apoptotic effect in the DNA fragmentation assay. Apoptosis induced by WC particles was found largely dependent on caspase-9 activation and occurred presumably in monocytes, while that induced by Co involved both caspase-9 and -8 activation. The data suggest that apoptosis induced by the tested WC-Co mixture results from the additive effects of WC apoptosis induced in monocytes and Co-specific apoptosis in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The apoptogenic properties of these metals may be important in the mechanism of lung pathologies induced by the cobalt-containing particles. PMID:15475175

  11. Experimental study of the diamond turning characteristics of tungsten carbide (Co 0.5%) when using a chamfered diamond bite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Jae; Lee, June Key; Hwang, Yeon; Cha, Du Hwan; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2012-11-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) is a widely used as a mold material for fabrication of glass lens because of its superior properties. Due to its extremely high hardness (R c > 90), an abrasive machining process, although unproductive and expensive, is used to fabricate the mold. In this research, the authors investigated the machining possibility of tungsten carbide by single-point diamond turning (SPDT) for fabricating high-quality optical surfaces directly. A finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the chamfered length on the cutting forces and the strain rate of single-crystal diamond tools. The obtained FEA results showed that a smaller chamfered length decreased the bite strain rate. The performance characteristics in terms of surface roughness (R a ) and tool wear (VB max ) of a conventional bite and a chamfered bite under same machining conditions were studied, the results were compared. Experimental results suggest that the chamfered bite wased a better performance than the conventional bite in terms of tool wear resistance. The WC surface machined by using the chamfered bite showed a 2.26 nm roughness (R a ), which is suitable for the fabrication of glass lenses.

  12. Structural and chemical phase transitions in tungsten carbide films evidenced by the analysis of their stiffness tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wittkowski, T.; Jung, K.; Hillebrands, B.; Comins, J. D.

    2006-10-01

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) is used to provide a comprehensive study of thin tungsten carbide films deposited on single crystal silicon substrates whose distinctive nature depends critically on the deposition parameters. The use of stepped films in these slow-on-fast systems provides enhanced data sets and allows the velocity dispersion of the observed surface excitations, including the discrete Rayleigh and Sezawa modes to be studied in detail. Comprehensive and powerful methods of data analysis and interpretation including the recently developed Monte Carlo (MC) method, the surface Green's function, and classical approaches are applied to extract the effective elastic constants and density of each of the films. The MC and Green's function methods are used to remove ambiguities in Sezawa mode assignments and to identify a mode-crossing event. Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction investigations confirm conclusions about chemical composition and microstructure obtained by BLS including a structural phase transition, thus leading to a consistent description of elastic, structural, and chemical properties of tungsten carbide films as a function of their deposition conditions. The anisotropic elastic tensors of the various films are employed for an analysis of the angular dependent Young's modulus and the shear modulus, suggesting implications for the film performance in wear protection. Finally, an estimate of the elastic anisotropy of the {alpha}-W{sub 2}C single crystal is provided on the basis of the effective elastic constants of a nanocrystalline W{sub 2}C film.

  13. PLD deposition of tungsten carbide contact for diamond photodiodes. Influence of process conditions on electronic and chemical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelli, E.; Bellucci, A.; Orlando, S.; Trucchi, D. M.; Mezzi, A.; Valentini, V.

    2013-08-01

    Tungsten carbide, WC, contacts behave as very reliable Schottky contacts for opto-electronic diamond devices. Diamond is characterized by superior properties in high-power, high frequency and high-temperature applications, provided that thermally stable electrode contacts will be realized. Ohmic contacts can be easily achieved by using carbide-forming metals, while is difficult to get stable Schottky contacts at elevated temperatures, due to the interface reaction and/or inter-diffusion between metals and diamond. Novel type of contacts, made of tungsten carbide, WC, seem to be the best solution, for their excellent thermal stability, high melting point, oxidation and radiation resistance and good electrical conductivity. Our research was aimed at using pulsed laser deposition for WC thin film deposition, optimizing experimental parameters, to obtain a final device characterized by excellent electronic properties, as a detector for radiation in deep UV or as X-ray dosimeter. We deposited our films by laser ablation from a target of pure WC, using different reaction conditions (i.e., substrate heating, vacuum or reactive atmosphere (CH4/Ar), RF plasma activated), to optimize both the stoichiometry of the film and its structure. Trying to obtain a material with the best electronic response, we used also two sources of laser radiation for target ablation, i.e., nano-second pulsed excimer laser ArF, and ultra-short fs Ti:Sapphire laser. The structure and chemical aspects have been evaluated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), while the dosimeter photodiode response has been tested by the I-V measurements, under soft X-ray irradiation.

  14. Comparison of Mechanical Properties and Calculation of Cutting Force Between Uncoated Tungsten Carbide & ti Coated Tip Tungsten Carbide with the Help of Lathe Tool Dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehra, Deepak; Rakhecha, Khushwant

    The keyword for manufacturers of cutting tools and coatings for cutting tools is productivity: a 30%; reduction of tool costs, or a 50%; increase in tool lifetime results only in a 1%; reduction of manufacturing costs. But an increase in cutting data by 20%; reduces manufacturing costs by 15%;. In order to achieve higher productivity different approaches - High Performance Cutting (HPC) and High Speed Cutting (HSC) can be chosen. The performance of Carbide tools was studied to investigate the tool life and wear behavior at various machining parameters. This study presents tool wear characterization of carbide cutting tool inserts coated with titanium nitride (TiN) on a single point turning operation on copper, aluminum. A set of experiments with conditions of cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate were performed on a lathe machine. Force analysis is done on Lathe Tool Dynamometer. From the result, cutting speed was found to be the main factor to have significant effect on surface roughness. At the end of this study, optimization was made by suggesting the most suitable sets of parameter settings to produce minimum surface roughness. Suggestion on parameter settings to obtain minimum surface roughness made.

  15. Determination of carbide-forming metals, chromium and barium, by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using a tungsten coil platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno Camero, Rosa; Alvarado, José

    2000-07-01

    The use of a tungsten coil as a platform has been evaluated for the determination of carbide-forming metals, Cr and Ba. The methodology developed has been used for Cr and Ba determinations in HPS CRM, Trace Metals in Drinking Water, and NIST SRM 1643b, Trace Elements in Water. Good agreement was found between the results obtained and the certified values for Cr in both reference materials and for Ba in the NIST SRM. Barium results were approximately 14% lower than the certified results for the HPS CRM. This inaccuracy was ascribed to the presence of considerable amounts of Ca in this particular material. Precision of the measurements, 3σ relative standard deviation as percentage, were 2.5 and 5.8 for Cr and Ba, respectively. Characteristic masses, in picograms, were 1.70 for Cr and 19.0 for Ba. These results compare favorably with the literature values for Cr but not for Ba.

  16. Sliding wear behavior of tungsten carbide thermal spray coatings for replacement of chromium electroplate in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarimuthu, A. C.; Taber, H. F.; Megat, I.; Shadley, J. R.; Rybicki, E. F.; Cornell, W. C.; Emery, W. A.; Somerville, D. A.; Nuse, J. D.

    2001-09-01

    Tungsten carbide (WC) thermal spray coatings have gained increased acceptance for commercial aircraft applications driven by the desire to replace chromium electroplate due to environmental and economic considerations. In order to confidently replace electroplated chrome with WC thermal spray coatings in aircraft applications, the coatings must demonstrate fatigue and wear characteristics as good as or better than those of electroplated chrome. Previous research in this area has shown that the fatigue life of the WC thermal spray coatings can be improved by inducing compressive residual stresses in the coating. This paper compares the wear characteristics of several types of WC thermal spray coatings with those of electroplated chrome in sliding wear tests using the “block-on-ring” procedures described in the ASTM G77 standard. Wear results are interpreted in terms of coating residual stresses and in terms of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses.

  17. Adhesion of tungsten carbide reinforced amorphous hydrocarbon thin films (WC/a-C:H) to steel substrates for tribological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. D.; Shiller, P. J.; Howe, J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    We have explored the adhesive interlayer structure for a tungsten carbide reinforced amorphous hydrocarbon thin film coating (WC/a-C:H) that demonstrated excellent coating adhesion under highly stressed tribological contact. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis including cross-sectional imaging, electron diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy was performed on abrupt and gradient interfaces within the multilayer film architecture. Interpretation of these results is aided by quantum mechanical calculations that were performed to investigate bonding interactions of the Cr adhesive interlayer to the Fe substrate surface within a ˜3 nm thick interfacial region. Low levels of oxygen present in the coating deposition chamber during deposition were found at the Fe-Cr interface using high-resolution TEM. Molecular orbital calculations for a linear three-atom molecular model Fe-O-Cr demonstrate the role of O in strengthening Fe to Cr bonding within that interfacial region.

  18. Adhesion of tungsten carbide reinforced amorphous hydrocarbon thin films (WC/a-C:H) to steel substrates for tribological applications

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Ryan D.; Schiller, P. J; Howe, Jane Y

    2011-01-01

    We have explored the adhesive interlayer structure for a tungsten carbide reinforced amorphous hydrocarbon thin film coating (WC/a-C:H) that demonstrated excellent coating adhesion under highly stressed tribological contact. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis including cross-sectional imaging, electron diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy was performed on abrupt and gradient interfaces within the multilayer film architecture. Interpretation of these results is aided by quantum mechanical calculations that were performed to investigate bonding interactions of the Cr adhesive interlayer to the Fe substrate surface within a - 3 nm thick interfacial region. Low levels of oxygen present in the coating deposition chamber during deposition were found at the Fe-Cr interface using high-resolution TEM. Molecular orbital calculations for a linear three-atom molecular model Fe-O-Cr demonstrate the role of O in strengthening Fe to Cr bonding within that interfacial region.

  19. Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu

    2007-05-17

    Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix - WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.

  20. Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu

    2007-05-01

    Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix — WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.

  1. Effect of Decreasing of Cobalt Content in Properties for Diamond/Cemented Carbide Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waratta, A.; Hamdi, M.; Ariga, T.

    2010-03-01

    Powder metallurgy plays a role in manufacturing such as automotive and cutting tool applications. Diamond/cemented carbide tools are also made from this technique. Diamond particle and other matrix materials were employed in this study. The purpose is to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of different Cobalt (Co) content samples by using Taguchi's method. The materials used in the experiments were mixed by using a ball-mill machine. The mixed powders were pressed by conventional method. Then the green samples were sintered in a vacuum furnace. After reaching 500° C, the samples were sintered with Argon (Ar) gas. The sintered samples were investigated density by immersion method, porosity by water saturation method, and hardness by Vicker hardness tester. It was found that with 59.5% Co content, plain diamond type, sintering temperature of 950° C, sintering time of 40 minutes, and pressure of 625 MPa, density, porosity, and hardness got the best result in this study. From the Taguchi's analysis, the significant factors effected the performance were composition, sintering temperature, and sintering time.

  2. Effect of Decreasing of Cobalt Content in Properties for Diamond/Cemented Carbide Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Waratta, A.; Hamdi, M.; Ariga, T.

    2010-03-11

    Powder metallurgy plays a role in manufacturing such as automotive and cutting tool applications. Diamond/cemented carbide tools are also made from this technique. Diamond particle and other matrix materials were employed in this study. The purpose is to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of different Cobalt (Co) content samples by using Taguchi's method. The materials used in the experiments were mixed by using a ball-mill machine. The mixed powders were pressed by conventional method. Then the green samples were sintered in a vacuum furnace. After reaching 500 deg. C, the samples were sintered with Argon (Ar) gas. The sintered samples were investigated density by immersion method, porosity by water saturation method, and hardness by Vicker hardness tester. It was found that with 59.5% Co content, plain diamond type, sintering temperature of 950 deg. C, sintering time of 40 minutes, and pressure of 625 MPa, density, porosity, and hardness got the best result in this study. From the Taguchi's analysis, the significant factors effected the performance were composition, sintering temperature, and sintering time.

  3. Mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles by using WO{sub 3}/Zn/C powder mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hoseinpur, Arman; Vahdati Khaki, Jalil; Marashi, Maryam Sadat

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Nano particles of WC are synthesized by mechanochemical process. ► Zn was used to reduce WO{sub 3}. ► By removing ZnO from the milling products with an acid leaching, WC will be the final products. ► XRD results showed that the reduction reactions were completed after 36 h. ► TEM and SEM images showed that the morphology of produced powder is nearly spherical like. -- Abstract: In this research we introduce a new, facile, and economical system for fabrication of tungsten carbide (WC) nano particle powder. In this system WO{sub 3}, Zn, and C have been ball-milled for several hours, which led to the synthesis of tungsten carbide nano particles. The synthesized WC can successfully be separated from the ball-milled product by subjecting the product powder to diluted HCl for removing ZnO and obtaining WC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the reduction of WO{sub 3} will be completed gradually by increasing milling time up to 36 h. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that after 36 h of milling the particle size of the fabricated powder is nano metric (about 20 nm). Results have shown that this system can surmount some main problems occurred in previous similar WC synthesizing systems. For example carbothermic reduction reactions, which lead to the synthesis of W{sub 2}C instead of WC, would not be activated because in this system reactions take place gradually.

  4. Tungsten carbide cobalt nanoparticles exert hypoxia-like effects on the gene expression level in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tungsten carbide (WC) and tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles are of occupational health relevance because of the increasing usage in hard metal industries. Earlier studies showed an enhanced toxic potential for WC-Co compared to WC or cobalt ions alone. Therefore, we investigated the impact of these particles, compared to cobalt ions applied as CoCl2, on the global gene expression level in human keratinocytes (HaCaT) in vitro. Results WC nanoparticles exerted very little effects on the transcriptomic level after 3 hours and 3 days of exposure. In contrast, WC-Co nanoparticles caused significant transcriptional changes that were similar to those provoked by CoCl2. However, CoCl2 exerted even more pronounced changes in the transcription patterns. Gene set enrichment analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes were related to hypoxia response, carbohydrate metabolism, endocrine pathways, and targets of several transcription factors. The role of the transcription factor HIF1 (hypoxia inducible factor 1) is particularly highlighted and aspects of downstream events as well as the role of other transcription factors related to cobalt toxicity are considered. Conclusions This study provides extensive data useful for the understanding of nanoparticle and cobalt toxicity. It shows that WC nanoparticles caused low transcriptional responses while WC-Co nanoparticles are able to exert responses similar to that of free cobalt ions, particularly the induction of hypoxia-like effects via interactions with HIF1α in human keratinocytes. However, the enhanced toxicity of WC-Co particles compared to CoCl2 could not be explained by differences in gene transcription. PMID:20105288

  5. The abrasive wear of plasma sprayed nanoscale tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewksbury, Graham Alfred

    Thermal spray coatings composed of a variety of carbide sizes and cobalt contents were sprayed with a high energy plasma spray system. The size of the carbides used fell into three rough groupings, micrometer scale carbides (1--2 mum), submicrometer (700--300 nm), and nanoscale (≈100 nm). The feedstock powder was evaluated in terms of their size distribution, external morphology, internal morphology, and initial carbide size. Two different fixtures were used in spraying to evaluate the effect of cooling rate on the wear resistance of the coatings. The microstructures of the sprayed coatings were examined using optical metallography, SEM, FESEM, TEM, XRD and chemical analysis. The coatings were evaluated in low stress abrasive wear by the ASTM G-65 Dry Sand Rubber Wheel test. Furthermore, the porosity and hardness of the coatings were evaluated. The cobalt content was found to be the predominant influence on the wear rate of the coatings. The decrease in the carbide size was not found to effect the wear rate of the coatings. Coatings sprayed on the 'hot' fixture were found to have slightly improved wear resistance as compared to coatings sprayed on the 'cold' fixture. The wear rates of the coatings were found to be a function of the WC/Co volume ratio.

  6. Analysis of tungsten carbide coatings by infrared laser-induced argon spark with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanický, V.; Otruba, V.; Mermet, J.-M.

    2000-10-01

    Infrared laser ablation was studied for application to the analysis of plasma-sprayed tungsten carbide/cobalt coatings. The potential of the laser induced argon-spark (LINA-Spark™), as a sample introduction device in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was studied. The use of an IR laser along with defocusing led to laser-induced microplasma-based ablation. The mass ablation rate, represented by the ICP emission intensity per laser beam unit area, exhibited a flat increase in the irradiance range 2-250 GW/cm 2. A low slope (0.5) of this dependence in log-log scale gave evidence of plasma shielding. The steep increase in the measured acoustic signal when focused in front of the sample, i.e. in argon, indicated a breakdown of argon. Consequently, considerably lower ICP emissions were observed within the same range of irradiance. The cobalt/tungsten line intensity ratio in the ICP was practically constant from 1.5 up to at least 250 GW/cm 2. Acceptable precision (R.S.D.<5%) was obtained without internal standardization for irradiance between 2 and 8 GW/cm 2. Optimization of the laser pulse energy, repetition rate, beam focusing and sample displacement during interaction led to the linearization of dependences of signal vs. cobalt percentage, at least up to the highest studied value of 23% Co.

  7. Silicon Carbide as a tritium permeation barrier in tungsten plasma-facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, G. M.; Durrett, M. G.; Hoover, K. W.; Kesler, L. A.; Whyte, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    The control of tritium inventory is of great importance in future fusion reactors, not only from a safety standpoint but also to maximize a reactor's efficiency. Due to the high mobility of hydrogenic species in tungsten (W) one concern is the loss of tritium from the system via permeation through the tungsten plasma-facing components (PFC). This can lead to loss of tritium through the cooling channels of the wall thereby mandating tritium monitoring and recovery methods for the cooling system of the first wall. The permeated tritium is then out of the fuel cycle and cannot contribute to energy production until it is recovered and recycled into the system.

  8. Tungsten carbide/porous carbon composite as superior support for platinum catalyst toward methanol electro-oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Liming; Fu, Honggang; Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Jiang, Baojiang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ruihong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The WC nanoparticles are well dispersed in the carbon matrix. The size of WC nanoparticles is about 30 nm. It can be concluded that tungsten carbide and carbon composite was successfully prepared by the present synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • The WC/PC composite with high specific surface area was prepared by a simple way. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst has superior performance toward methanol electro-oxidation. • The current density for methanol electro-oxidation is as high as 595.93 A g{sup −1} Pt. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst shows better durability and stronger CO electro-oxidation. • The performance of Pt/WC/PC is superior to the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide/porous carbon (WC/PC) composites have been successfully synthesized through a surfactant assisted evaporation-induced-assembly method, followed by a thermal treatment process. In particular, WC/PC-35-1000 composite with tungsten content of 35% synthesized at the carbonized temperature of 1000 °C, exhibited a specific surface area (S{sub BET}) of 457.92 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. After loading Pt nanoparticles (NPs), the obtained Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst exhibits the highest unit mass electroactivity (595.93 A g{sup −1} Pt) toward methanol electro-oxidation, which is about 2.6 times as that of the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. Furthermore, the Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst displays much stronger resistance to CO poisoning and better durability toward methanol electrooxidation compared with the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity, strong poison-resistivity and good stability of Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst are attributed to the porous structures and high specific surface area of WC/PC support could facilitate the rapid mass transportation. Moreover, synergistic effect between WC and Pt NPs is favorable to the higher catalytic performance.

  9. Effect of pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality and adhesion of HFCVD diamond coating on cemented carbide inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, S. K.; Chattopadhyay, A.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.

    2008-04-01

    In the present investigation, diamond coating was deposited on cemented carbide substrate by hot filament chemical vapour deposition. The effect of substrate pretreatment methods and chamber pressure on morphology, quality, and adhesion of the diamond film were studied. The carbide inserts were pretreated with acid, Murakami's solution, and Murakami's solution followed by acid, respectively. The chamber pressure was set at 6.6, 13.2, 26.4, 39.6 and 66 mbar. Deposition carried out at pressure of 26.4 and 39.6 mbar on inserts pretreated with acid exhibited uniform crystal habit and provided coating-substrate adhesion adequate for machining application. Good coating morphology was obtained when deposition was done at 6.6 mbar on carbide inserts treated with Murakami's solution. Pretreatment with Murakami's solution followed by acid and deposition at 6.6 mbar also resulted in good morphology of diamond film. Indentation (Rockwell C scale) was done on diamond-coated inserts to assess coating-substrate adhesion under three loads of 294, 588 and 980 N. The diameter of the indentation crack at the coating-substrate interface was observed under SEM. The results suggested that diamond coating deposited at medium pressure of 26.4 mbar on carbide substrate treated with acid not only exhibited best morphology but also highest coating-substrate adhesion and improved machining performance.

  10. Alloying the X40CrMoV5-1 steel surface layer with tungsten carbide by the use of a high power diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzański, L. A.; Bonek, M.; Hajduczek, E.; Klimpel, A.

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents the effect of alloying with tungsten carbide on properties of the X40CrMoV5-1 steel surface layer, using the high power diode laser (HPDL). Selection of laser operating conditions is discussed, as well as thickness of the alloying layer, and their influence on structure and chemical composition of the steel. Analysis of the influence of the process conditions on the thicknesses of the alloyed layer and heat-affected zone is presented.

  11. Research into preparation and properties of graded cemented carbides with face center cubic-rich surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Deng, Xin; Gong, Manfeng; Liu, Wei; Wu, Shanghua

    2016-09-01

    This paper systematically investigated a set of functionally graded WC-TiC-Mo-Co cemented carbides with modified surface layer (called fcc-rich surface layer in this study), which is mainly composed of fcc phases (Ti(CN) and TiN) and WC. Nitridation at liquid phase sintering temperature is the key process making this fcc-rich surface layer. The functionally graded WC-TiC-Mo-Co cemented carbides synthesized in this study show 3 layer structure: the outer layer, i.e. the fcc-rich surface layer; the intermediate layer, which is characterized by abnormally large WC and high Co content; and the inner layer. It was found that TiC is the most critical component for the formation of fcc-rich surface layer. The higher content of TiC results in the thicker fcc-rich outer layer, higher (Ti(CN) and TiN) content in the outer layer, and higher hardness of the fcc-rich outer layer. The formation of this fcc-rich surface layer is mainly due to the nitridation process between Ti and N, which leads to the diffusion of Ti outwards (from the inside of the sample to the surface) and the subsequent migration of liquid cobalt inwards (from surface to the inside of the sample). The three-layer structure developed in this study provides the excellent combination of high wear resistance and high toughness, which is favorable for some applications.

  12. Corrective finishing of a micro-aspheric mold made of tungsten carbide to 50  nm accuracy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang

    2015-06-20

    The increasing demand on the optical performance of micro-aspheric glass lenses used for consumer, medical, as well as industrial applications places a high requirement on the surface quality of the molds used for replicating these lenses. However, it is difficult, almost impossible to generate a supersmooth surface with extremely high form accuracy by using the current cutting or grinding techniques. Therefore, this paper presents a corrective polishing process to finish micro-aspheric molds made of tungsten carbide by applying the vibration-assisted polishing method, aiming to obtain tens-of-nanometer form accuracy and subnanometer surface roughness. A polishing system which provides precise position, angle, and force control in 5 degrees of freedom (DOF)is employed for the experiments, and a tilting angle control method is introduced for the ease of the precisely controlling polishing force so as to keep the material removal rate stable. Then a dwell time algorithm is proposed by considering the scanning path of the polishing tool and the tilting angle of the workpiece. The experimental results show that after corrective polishing, the form accuracy of a micro-aspheric mold with high numerical aperture (NA) is successfully improved from 230 nm peak-to-valley (PV) to under 50 nm PV, while the surface roughness is reduced from 7.2 nm root-mean-square (rms) to 0.5 nm rms. PMID:26193027

  13. Genotoxicity of tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles in vitro: mechanisms-of-action studies.

    PubMed

    Moche, Hélène; Chevalier, Dany; Vezin, Hervé; Claude, Nancy; Lorge, Elisabeth; Nesslany, Fabrice

    2015-02-01

    We showed previously that tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticles (NP) can be used as a nanoparticulate positive control in some in vitro mammalian genotoxicity assays. Here, we investigate the mechanisms of action involved in WC-Co NP genotoxicity in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and primary human lymphocytes, in vitro. Data from the micronucleus assay coupled with centromere staining and from the chromosome-aberration assay show the involvement of both clastogenic and aneugenic events. Experiments with the formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-modified comet assay showed a slight (non-significant) increase in FPG-sensitive sites in the L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells but not in the human lymphocytes. Electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping results showed the presence of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) in WC-Co NP suspensions, with or without cells, but with time-dependent production in the presence of cells. However, a significant difference in •OH production was observed between human lymphocytes from two different donors. Using H2O2, we showed that WC-Co NP can participate in Fenton-like reactions. Thus, •OH might be produced either via intrinsic generation by WC-Co NP or through a Fenton-like reaction in the presence of cells. PMID:25813722

  14. Novel tungsten carbide nanorods: an intrinsic peroxidase mimetic with high activity and stability in aqueous and organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Yan, Ya; Xia, Bao-Yu; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Wang, Xin

    2014-04-15

    Tungsten carbide nanorods (WC NRs) are demonstrated for the first time to possess intrinsic peroxidase-like activity towards typical peroxidase substrates, such as 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and ο-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The reactions catalyzed by these nanorods follow the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The excellent catalytic performance of WC NRs could be attributed to their intrinsic catalytic activity to efficiently accelerate the electron-transfer process and facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to generate more numbers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based upon the strong peroxidase-like activity of these WC NRs, a colorimetric sensor for H2O2 is designed, which provides good response towards H2O2 concentration over a range of 2×10(-7)-8×10(-5) M with a detection limit of 60 nM. Moreover, the peroxidase-like activities of WC NRs with TMB as the substrate are investigated in both protic and aprotic organic media, showing different colorimetric reactions from that performed in aqueous solutions. In comparison with the natural horse radish peroxidase, WC NR exhibits excellent robustness of catalytic activity and considerable reusability, thus making it a promising mimic of peroxidase catalysts. PMID:24325981

  15. Methanol electro-oxidation on platinum modified tungsten carbides in direct methanol fuel cells: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Tian; Lin, Xiao; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Hu, P; Sun, Shi-Gang; Chu, You-Qun; Ma, Chun-An; Lin, Wen-Feng

    2015-10-14

    In exploration of low-cost electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), Pt modified tungsten carbide (WC) materials are found to be great potential candidates for decreasing Pt usage whilst exhibiting satisfactory reactivity. In this work, the mechanisms, onset potentials and activity for electrooxidation of methanol were studied on a series of Pt-modified WC catalysts where the bare W-terminated WC(0001) substrate was employed. In the surface energy calculations of a series of Pt-modified WC models, we found that the feasible structures are mono- and bi-layer Pt-modified WCs. The tri-layer Pt-modified WC model is not thermodynamically stable where the top layer Pt atoms tend to accumulate and form particles or clusters rather than being dispersed as a layer. We further calculated the mechanisms of methanol oxidation on the feasible models via methanol dehydrogenation to CO involving C-H and O-H bonds dissociating subsequently, and further CO oxidation with the C-O bond association. The onset potentials for the oxidation reactions over the Pt-modified WC catalysts were determined thermodynamically by water dissociation to surface OH* species. The activities of these Pt-modified WC catalysts were estimated from the calculated kinetic data. It has been found that the bi-layer Pt-modified WC catalysts may provide a good reactivity and an onset oxidation potential comparable to pure Pt and serve as promising electrocatalysts for DMFCs with a significant decrease in Pt usage. PMID:26351805

  16. Paste development and co-sintering test of zirconium carbide and tungsten in freeze-form extrusion fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang

    Ultra-high temperature ceramics are being investigated for future use in aerospace applications due to their superior thermo-mechanical properties, as well as oxidation resistance, at temperatures above 2000°C. However, their brittle properties make them susceptible to thermal shock failure. Components fabricated as functionally graded materials (FGMs) can combine the superior properties of ceramics with the toughness of an underlying refractory metal by fabricating graded composites. This paper discusses the grading of two materials through the use of a Freeze-form Extrusion Fabrication (FEF) system to build FGMs parts consisting of zirconium carbide (ZrC) and tungsten (W). Aqueous-based colloidal suspensions of ZrC and W were developed and utilized in the FEF process to fabricate test bars graded from 100%ZrC to 50%W-50%ZrC (volume percent). Following FEF processing the test bars were co-sintered at 2300°C and characterized to determine their resulting density and micro-structure. Four-point bending tests were performed to assess the strength of test bars made using the FEF process, compared to test bars prepared using conventional powder processing and isostatic pressing techniques, for five distinct ZrC-W compositions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to verify the inner structure of composite parts built using the FEF process.

  17. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to produce carbon monoxide and methane. Furthermore, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.

  18. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-03-27

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to producemore » carbon monoxide and methane. In addition, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.« less

  19. Decomposition pathways of C2 oxygenates on Rh-modified tungsten carbide surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Thomas G.; Ren, Hui; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-03-27

    Ethanol decomposition on tungsten monocarbide (WC) and Rh-modified WC was investigated using ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. DFT calculations indicated that the binding energies of ethanol and its decomposition intermediates on WC(0001) were modified by Rh, with Rh/WC(0001) showing similar values to those on Rh(111). Through temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments on polycrystalline WC and Rh-modified WC, it was shown that the selectivity for ethanol decomposition was different on these surfaces. On WC, the C-O bond of ethanol was preferentially broken to produce ethylene; on Rh-modified WC, the C-C bond was broken to produce carbon monoxide and methane. In addition, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to determine likely surface intermediates. On Rh-modified WC, ethanol first formed ethoxy through O-H scission, then reacted through an aldehyde intermediate to form the C1 products.

  20. Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Nanoparticles Induce Reactive Oxygen Species, AKT, ERK, AP-1, NF-κB, VEGF, and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling-Zhi; Ding, Min; Zheng, Jenny Z; Zhu, Yingxue; Fenderson, Bruce A; Li, Bingyun; Yu, Jing J; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Powder mixtures of tungsten carbide and metallic cobalt (WC-Co) are widely used in various products. Nanoparticles are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nm or smaller. WC-Co is known to be associated with lung injury and diseases. Angiogenesis is a key process during vasculature, carcinogenesis, recovery of injury, and inflammatory diseases. However, the cellular effects of WC-Co nanoparticles on angiogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated angiogenic response and relative mechanisms after exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles. Our results showed that WC-Co nanoparticles at 5 μg/cm(2) induced ROS production which activated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in lung epithelial cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) staining and immunoblotting; WC-Co treatment also increased transcriptional activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF by reporter assay. Further studies demonstrated that ROS are upstream molecules of AKT and ERK signaling pathways; the activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF was through ROS generation, AKT and ERK1/2 activation. In addition, WC-Co nanoparticles affected the cells to induce angiogenesis by chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results illustrate that exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles induces angiogenic response by activating ROS, AKT, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and the downstream molecules and elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms during this process. This information may be useful for preventing potential damage from nanoparticle exposure in the future. PMID:25893364

  1. Microstructural, phase evolution and corrosion properties of silicon carbide reinforced pulse electrodeposited nickel-tungsten composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swarnima; Sribalaji, M.; Wasekar, Nitin P.; Joshi, Srikant; Sundararajan, G.; Singh, Raghuvir; Keshri, Anup Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) reinforced nickel-tungsten (Ni-W) coatings were successfully fabricated on steel substrate by pulse electrodeposition method (PED) and the amount of SiC was varied as 0 g/l, 2 g/l, and 5 g/l in Ni-W coating. Effect of subsequent addition of SiC on microstructures, phases and on corrosion property of the coating was investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) image of the surface morphology of the coating showed the transformation from the dome like structure to turtle shell like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of Ni-W-5 g/l SiC showed the disappearance of (220) plane of Ni(W), peak splitting in major peak of Ni(W) and formation of distinct peak of W(Ni) solid solution. Absence of (220) plane, peak splitting and presence of W(Ni) solid solution was explained by the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. Tafel polarization plot was used to study the corrosion property of the coatings in 0.5 M NaCl solution. Ni-W-5 g/l SiC coating was showed higher corrosion resistance (i.e. ∼21% increase in corrosion potential, Ecorr) compared to Ni-W coating. Two simultaneous phenomena have been identified for the enhanced corrosion resistance of Ni-W-5 g/l SiC coating. (a) Presence of crystallographic texture (b) formation of continuous double barrier layer of NiWO4 and SiO2.

  2. Effects of Liquid-Phase Composition on Its Migration during Liquid-Phase Sintering of Cemented Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Peng; Guo, Jun; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Prichard, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Functionally graded composite materials (FGM composites) with a gradient of matrix phase can offer improved properties. Liquid-phase sintering is one of the approaches for making such materials with a desired gradient of the matrix phase by controlling the redistribution of the liquid phase during sintering. The present study on cemented carbide, WC-Co, demonstrates that the composition of the liquid phase (cobalt phase) is one of the key factors controlling the liquid redistribution. The dependence of the final gradient of the cobalt phase after sintering on its own chemical composition profile is quantitatively established, enabling the design and manufacture of WC-Co with a cobalt-phase-volume gradient via predesigned gradients of carbon content in the system.

  3. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of High-Cr WCI Matrix Surface Composite Reinforced with Cemented Carbide Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shuzeng; Bao, Chonggao; Zhang, Zhiyun; Bai, Yaping

    2013-07-01

    The present article reports a new superior wear resistance surface composite prepared by a vacuum evaporative pattern casting-in process. This surface composite was constructed with reinforcing cemented carbide rod (CCR) array within high-Cr white cast iron (WCI) matrix. Three reaction zones that formed around the CCRs were characterized and established the good metallurgical bonding between CCRs and matrix. In addition, some compound carbide containing Fe, Cr, W, and Co elements were formed in the reaction zones, owing to the partial dissolution of the CCRs and the resulting interdiffusion of elements such as W, Co, C, Fe, and Cr. The wear behavior of the composite was evaluated and compared with unreinforced high-Cr WCI by means of a three-body abrasive wear tester. The results showed that the wear resistance of the composite was significantly higher than that of the unreinforced high-Cr WCI. The exciting wear resistance can be ascribed to protective effect introduced by the CCRs during wear process and the good metallurgical bonding between CCRs and matrix.

  4. Microstructural analyses and wear behavior of the cemented carbide tools after laser surface treatment and PVD coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Davi; Diniz, Anselmo Eduardo; Lima, Milton Sérgio Fernandes

    2013-10-01

    Adhesion is one of the most important characteristics of coating on cutting tools. Poor coating adhesion on the tool favors fragmentation and release of hard abrasive particles between the tool and the workpiece. These particles interact with the surfaces of the tool, accelerating its wear and decreasing tool life. One possible solution is the use of laser texturing prior to coating in order to achieve a desired surface topography with enhanced adhesion properties. In the texturing, a high-frequency short-pulse laser changes surface characteristics, generating resolidified material and selective vaporization. This work evaluated the effectiveness of laser texturing in improving the substrate-coating adhesion of PVD coated cemented carbide tools. To this end, the substrates were textured with a Nd:YAG laser, in four different intensities, and then coated with a PVD TiAlN film. To ascertain the effectiveness of laser texturing, Rockwell C indentation and turning experiments were performed on both textured tools and conventional unlasered tools. The PVD coated laser-textured tool showed better performance in the indentation and turning tests than the standard tools. A comparative evaluation of tool wear mechanisms indicated that texturing did not change the wear mechanisms, but altered their importance to tool wear. The anchoring provided by the higher roughness of the textured surface increased the adhesion of the coating on the substrate, thus increasing tool life. Additionally, the chemical modification of the carbide grains due to the laser heating might be responsible for an enhanced adhesion between coating and substrate.

  5. On the Use of Mo/Mo2C Gradient Interlayers in Diamond Deposition onto Cemented Carbide Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jie; Hei, Hongjun; Zheng, Ke; Gao, Xueyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Tang, Bin; He, Zhiyong; Yu, Shengwang

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum/molybdenum carbide (Mo/Mo2C) gradient interlayers were prepared via double glow plasma surface alloying (DGPSA) technique onto cemented carbide (WC-Co) substrates for diamond deposition. The morphologies, phase composition and adhesion of the interlayers were investigated, as well as their effect on the subsequent diamond deposition. The results indicated that the Mo/Mo2C gradient interlayer deposited on WC-Co substrate was composed of 4.0-μm-thick diffusion layer and 2.7-μm-thick deposition layer. The Mo concentration decreased gradually with the depth direction whereas the Co and W concentrations increased. As a result, the Co binder phase was completely restricted within the substrate by the diffusion layer. The presence of gradient diffusion layer ensured excellent adhesion of the interlayer. Subsequently, nanocrystalline diamond coatings with excellent adhesion were deposited on the interlayered substrates. Thus, the Mo/Mo2C gradient interlayers deposited via DGPSA technique were demonstrated as a novel option for depositing adherent diamond coatings on WC-Co substrates.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N films on cemented carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shi-lu; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shuang-hong; Zhang, Zheng-gui

    2014-01-01

    (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N bilayer films were deposited on cemented carbide (WC-8%Co) substrates by multi-arc ion plating (MAIP) using two Ti-Al-Zr alloy targets and one pure Cr target. To investigate the composition, morphology, and crystalline structure of the bilayer films, a number of complementary methods of elemental and structural analysis were used, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Adhesive strength and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated by scratch testing and Vickers microindentation, respectively. It is shown that the resulting films have a TiN-type face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The films exhibit fully dense, uniform, and columnar morphology. Furthermore, as the bias voltages vary from -50 to -200 V, the microhardness (max. Hv0.01 4100) and adhesive strength (max. > 200 N) of the bilayer films are superior to those of the (Ti,Al,Zr)N and (Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N monolayer films.

  7. Atom probe tomography of a Ti-Si-Al-C-N coating grown on a cemented carbide substrate.

    PubMed

    Thuvander, M; Östberg, G; Ahlgren, M; Falk, L K L

    2015-12-01

    The elemental distribution within a Ti-Si-Al-C-N coating grown by physical vapour deposition on a Cr-doped WC-Co cemented carbide substrate has been investigated by atom probe tomography. Special attention was paid to the coating/substrate interface region. The results indicated a diffusion of substrate binder phase elements into the Ti-N adhesion layer. The composition of this layer, and the Ti-Al-N interlayer present between the adhesion layer and the main Ti-Si-Al-C-N layer, appeared to be sub-stoichiometric. The analysis of the interlayer showed the presence of internal surfaces, possibly grain boundaries, depleted in Al. The composition of the main Ti-Al-Si-C-N layer varied periodically in the growth direction; layers enriched in Ti appeared with a periodicity of around 30 nm. Laser pulsing resulted in a good mass resolution that made it possible to distinguish between N(+) and Si(2+) at 14 Da. PMID:25956619

  8. Nanostructured TaxC interlayer synthesized via double glow plasma surface alloying process for diamond deposition on cemented carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Wolong; Hei, Hongjun; Zhong, Qiang; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Bing; He, Zhiyong; Yu, Shengwang

    2015-12-01

    The aim in this work was to improve the adhesion of diamond coating with pre-deposition of a TaxC interlayer on cemented carbide (WC-Co) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The following deposition of diamond coating on the interlayer was performed in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. TaxC interlayer with an inner diffusion layer and an outer deposition layer was composed of Ta2C and TaC nanocrystalline, and it exhibited a special compact surface morphology formed of flower-shaped pits. As the gradual element distributions existed in the diffusion layer, the interlayer displayed a superior adherence to the substrate with significantly enhanced surface microhardness to the original substrate. After CVD process, the preferred orientation of TaC changed from (2 2 2) to (2 0 0) plane, and a uniform and tense diamond coating with adhesion referred to class HF 2 at least (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 3198 norm) was obtained on the interlayered substrate. It indicated that the diffusion of Co was effectively inhibited by the formation of TaxC diffusion-deposition interlayer. The TaxC interlayer is most likely to improve the performance of diamond coatings used in cutting tools.

  9. Comparison of tungsten carbide and stainless steel ball bearings for grinding single maize kernels in a reciprocating grinder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reciprocating grinders can grind single maize kernels by shaking the kernel in a vial with a ball bearing. This process results in a grind quality that is not satisfactory for many experiments. Tungesten carbide ball bearings are nearly twice as dense as steel, so we compared their grinding performa...

  10. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Andrea L.; Arena, Christopher B.; Li, Bingyun

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggests that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. PMID:24746988

  11. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Armstead, Andrea L; Arena, Christopher B; Li, Bingyun

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause "hard metal lung disease" but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggest that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. PMID:24746988

  12. Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Magnesium-Matrix Composites with Boron Carbide and Tungsten Nano-powder Inclusions: Modeling and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvilis, E. S.; Khasanov, O. L.; Gulbin, V. N.; Petyukevich, M. S.; Khasanov, A. O.; Olevsky, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    Spark-plasma sintering (SPS) is used to fabricate fully-dense metal-matrix (Al/Mg) composites containing hard ceramic (boron carbide) and refractory metal (tungsten) inclusions. The study objectives include the modeling (and its experimental verification) of the process of the consolidation of the composites consisted of aluminum-magnesium alloy AMg6 (65 wt.%), B4C powder (15 wt.%), and W nano-powder (20 wt.%), as well as the optimization of the composite content and of the SPS conditions to achieve higher density. Discrete element modeling of the composite particles packing based on the particle size distribution functions of real powders is utilized for the determination of the powder compositions rendering maximum mixture packing densities. Two models: a power-law creep model of the high temperature deformation of powder materials, and an empirical logarithmic pressure-temperature-relative density relationship are successfully applied for the description of the densification of the aluminum-magnesium metal matrix powder composite subjected to spark-plasma sintering. The elastoplastic properties of the sintered composite samples are assessed by nanoindentation.

  13. Tungsten carbide precursors as an example for influence of a binder on the particle formation in the nanosecond laser ablation of powdered materials.

    PubMed

    Holá, Markéta; Mikuska, Pavel; Hanzlíková, Renáta; Kaiser, Jozef; Kanický, Viktor

    2010-03-15

    A study of LA-ICP-MS analysis of pressed powdered tungsten carbide precursors was performed to show the advantages and problems of nanosecond laser ablation of matrix-unified samples. Five samples with different compositions were pressed into pellets both with silver powder as a binder serving to keep the matrix unified, and without any binder. The laser ablation was performed by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser working at 213 nm. The particle formation during ablation of both sets of pellets was studied using an optical aerosol spectrometer allowing the measurement of particle concentration in two size ranges (10-250 nm and 0.25-17 microm) and particle size distribution in the range of 0.25-17 microm. Additionally, the structure of the laser-generated particles was studied after their collection on a filter using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the particle chemical composition was determined by an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). The matrix effect was proved to be reduced using the same silver powdered binder for pellet preparation in the case of the laser ablation of powdered materials. The LA-ICP-MS signal dependence on the element content present in the material showed an improved correlation for Co, Ti, Ta and Nb of the matrix-unified samples compared to the non-matrix-unified pellets. In the case of W, the ICP-MS signal of matrix-unified pellets was influenced by the changes in the particle formation. PMID:20152424

  14. Effect of surfactant concentration in the electrolyte on the tribological properties of nickel-tungsten carbide composite coatings produced by pulse electro co-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartal, Muhammet; Uysal, Mehmet; Gul, Harun; Alp, Ahmet; Akbulut, Hatem

    2015-11-01

    A nickel plating bath containing WC particles was used to obtain hard and wear-resistant particle reinforced Ni/WC MMCs on steel surfaces for anti-wear applications. Copper substrates were used for electro co-deposition of Ni matrix/WC with the particle size of <1 μm tungsten carbide reinforcements. The influence of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) concentration on particle distribution, microhardness and wear resistance of composite coatings has been studied. The nickel films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of the surfactant on the zeta potential, co-deposition and distribution of WC particles in the nickel matrix, as well as the tribological properties of composite coatings were also investigated. The tribological behaviors of the electrodeposited WC composite coatings sliding against M50 steel ball (Ø 10 mm) were examined on a CSM Instrument. All friction and wear tests were performed without lubrication at room temperature and in the ambient air (relative humidity 55-65%).

  15. The surface modified composite layer formation with boron carbide particles on magnesium alloy surfaces through pulse gas tungsten arc treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W. B.; Jiang, H. Y.; Zeng, X. Q.; Li, D. H.; Yao, S. S.

    2007-02-01

    A novel fabrication process of surface modified composite layer by pulse current gas tungsten arc (GTA) surface modification process was used to deposit B 4C particles on the surface of magnesium alloy AZ31. This method is an effective technique in producing a high performance surface modified composite layer. During the pulse current GTA surface modification process, considerable convection can exist in the molten pool due to various driving forces and the pulse current could cause violent stirring in the molten pool, and the large temperature gradient across the boundary between the GTA modified surface and matrix metal resulted in rapid resolidification with high cooling rates in the molten pool, so that the process result notable grain refinement in the GTA surface modified composite layer. The hardness and wear resistance of the GTA surface modified composite layer are superior to that of as-received magnesium alloy AZ31. The hardness values and wear resistance of GTA surface modified composite layer depend on the GTA process parameters and the B 4C particles powder concentration and distribution. The optimum processing parameters for the formation of a homogeneous crack/defect-free and grain refinement microstructure were established.

  16. Direct solid analysis of powdered tungsten carbide hardmetal precursors by laser-induced argon spark ablation with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Holá, Markéta; Kanický, Viktor; Mermet, Jean-Michel; Otruba, Vítezslav

    2003-12-01

    The potential of the laser-induced argon spark atomizer (LINA-Spark atomizer) coupled with ICP-AES as a convenient device for direct analysis of WC/Co powdered precursors of sintered hardmetals was studied. The samples were presented for the ablation as pressed pellets prepared by mixing with powdered silver binder containing GeO2 as internal standard. The pellets were ablated with the aid of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) focused 16 mm behind the target surface with a resulting estimated power density of 5 GW cm(-2). Laser ablation ICP-AES signals were studied as a function of ablation time, and the duration of time prior to measurement (pre-ablation time) which was necessary to obtain reliable results was about 40 s. Linear calibration plots were obtained up to 10% (m/m) Ti, 9% Ta and 3.5% Nb both without internal standardization and by using germanium as an added internal standard or tungsten as a contained internal standard. The relative uncertainty at the centroid of the calibration line was in the range from +/- 6% to +/- 11% for Nb, Ta and Ti both with and without internal standardisation by Ge. A higher spread of points about the regression was observed for cobalt for which the relative uncertainty at the centroid was in the range from +/- 9% to +/- 14%. Repeatability of results was improved by the use of both Ge and W internal standards. The lowest determinable quantities calculated for calibration plots were 0.060% Co, 0.010% Nb, 0.16% Ta and 0.030% Ti with internal standardization by Ge. The LA-ICP-AES analyses of real samples led to good agreement with the results obtained by solution-based ICP determination with a relative bias not exceeding 10%. The elimination of the dissolution procedure of powdered tungsten (Nb, Ta, Ti) carbide is the principal advantage of the developed LA-ICP-AES method. PMID:14564441

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nano-Size Zirconium Carbide Dispersion Strengthened Tungsten Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhuoming; Liu, Rui; Fang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Xianping; Liu, Changsong

    2015-12-01

    W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC alloys with a relative density above 97.5% were fabricated through the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The grain size of W-1.0wt% ZrC is about 2.7 μm, smaller than that of pure W and W-(0.2, 0.5)wt% ZrC. The results indicated that the W-ZrC alloys exhibit higher hardness at room temperature, higher tensile strength at high temperature, and a lower ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than pure W. The tensile strength and total elongation of W-0.5wt% ZrC alloy at 700 °C is 535 MPa and 24.8%, which are respectively 59% and 114% higher than those of pure W (337 MPa, 11.6%). The DBTT of W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC materials is in the range of 500°C-600°C, which is about 100 °C lower than that of pure W. Based on microstructure analysis, the improved mechanical properties of the W-ZrC alloys were suggested to originate from the enhanced grain boundary cohesion by ZrC capturing the impurity oxygen in tungsten and nano-size ZrC dispersion strengthening. supported by the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJCX2-YW-N35), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB108004), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51301164, 11075177, 11274305), and Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 1408085QE77)

  18. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Armstead, Andrea L.; Arena, Christopher B.; Li, Bingyun

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggest that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. - Highlights: • Hard metal (WC-Co) particle toxicity was established in lung epithelial cells. • Nano-WC-Co particles caused greater toxicity than micro-WC-Co particles. • Nano- and micro-WC-Co particles were capable of inducing cellular apoptosis. • Nano-WC-Co particles were internalized by lung epithelial cells. • WC-Co particle internalization was mediated by actin dynamics.

  19. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Nickel-Titanium Carbide Cemented Hard Metals from 600 F to 1,600 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.; Casey, F. W., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The total hemispherical emissivity of several nickel-titanium carbide cemented hard metals have been measured over a temperature range from 600 F to l,600 F. A variety of cemented hard metals were obtained from the Kennametal Corporation. A brief discussion of the apparatus employed and the procedures used for this investigation is included. The results of the tests of specimens in the as-received and polished states indicate a nearly constant emissivity for each material tested over the temperature range considered and only slight differences in emissivity values for the different materials. Values obtained on the stably oxidized specimens range from 0.90 to 0.94 at 6000 F and o.88 to 0.92 at 1,600 F for the as-received specimens and from 0.82 to 0.89 at 600 F and 0.85 to 0.87 at 1,600 F for the polished specimens. The surface analysis of the oxidized materials as obtained by X-ray diffraction methods and metallographic techniques are presented as an aid to reproducing the surface on which these measurements were made.

  20. Agglomeration of tungsten carbide nanoparticles in exposure medium does not prevent uptake and toxicity toward a rainbow trout gill cell line.

    PubMed

    Kühnel, Dana; Busch, Wibke; Meissner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Potthoff, Annegret; Richter, Volkmar; Gelinsky, Michael; Scholz, Stefan; Schirmer, Kristin

    2009-06-28

    Due to their increased production and use, engineered nanoparticles are expected to be released into the aquatic environment where particles may agglomerate. The aim of this study was to explore the role of agglomeration of nanoparticles in the uptake and expression of toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill cell line, RTgill-W1. This cell line was chosen as model because it is known to be amenable to culture in complete as well as greatly simplified exposure media. Nano-sized tungsten carbide (WC) with or without cobalt doping (WC-Co), two materials relevant in the heavy metal industry, were applied as model particles. These particles were suspended in culture media with decreasing complexity from L15 with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to L15 to L15/ex, containing only salts, galactose and pyruvate of the complete medium L15. Whereas the serum supplement in L15 retained primary nanoparticle suspensions, agglomerates were formed quickly in L15 and L15/ex. Nevertheless, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis revealed an uptake of both WC and WC-Co nanoparticles into RTgill-W1 cells irrespective of the state of agglomeration of nanoparticles. The localisation seemed to be restricted to the cytoplasm, as no particles were observed in the nucleus of cells. Moreover, reduction in cell viability between 10 and 50% compared to controls were observed upon particle exposure in all media although the pattern of impact varied depending on the medium and exposure time. Short-term exposure of cells led to significant cytotoxicity at the highest nominal particle concentrations, irrespective of the particle type or exposure medium. In contrast, long-term exposures led to preferential toxicity in the simplest medium, L15/ex, and an enhanced toxicity by the cobalt-containing WC nanoparticles in all exposure media. The composition of the exposure media also influenced the toxicity of the cobalt ions, which may

  1. Progress in development of coated indexable cemented carbide inserts for machining of iron based work piece materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czettl, C.; Pohler, M.

    2016-03-01

    Increasing demands on material properties of iron based work piece materials, e.g. for the turbine industry, complicate the machining process and reduce the lifetime of the cutting tools. Therefore, improved tool solutions, adapted to the requirements of the desired application have to be developed. Especially, the interplay of macro- and micro geometry, substrate material, coating and post treatment processes is crucial for the durability of modern high performance tool solutions. Improved and novel analytical methods allow a detailed understanding of material properties responsible for the wear behaviour of the tools. Those support the knowledge based development of tailored cutting materials for selected applications. One important factor for such a solution is the proper choice of coating material, which can be synthesized by physical or chemical vapor deposition techniques. Within this work an overview of state-of-the-art coated carbide grades is presented and application examples are shown to demonstrate their high efficiency. Machining processes for a material range from cast iron, low carbon steels to high alloyed steels are covered.

  2. A TEM study of CVD TiC x /Ti(C, N) x coating on WC-Co cemented carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Li, Jian Chun; Kuo, K. H.

    1989-02-01

    The cross-sectional microstructure of TiC x /Ti(C,N) x (0< x<1) coating deposited on WC-8 wt pct Co-4 pct TaC-6 wt pct TiC cemented carbide by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopic analysis (EELS), and the interfacial structures between TiC x coating and the substrate were emphasized. TEM studies showed that a multilayer structure can be delineated in the coating. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and EELS analysis revealed that it consists mainly of a TiC x layer and a Ti(C,N) x layer. Additionally, two sublayers were found, one between the TiC x and Ti(C,N) x layers and the other between the substrate and the TiC x layer. A <111> preferred orientation formed in the TiC x layer, whereas <100> preferred orientation formed in the Ti(C,N) x layer. Grains in the sublayers, in general, oriented randomly. The changes in composition of the coating were measured qualitatively by the EELS analysis. Microelectron diffraction (γ-Diff) analysis and centered dark-field (CDF) technique were used to investigate the interfacial structure between the TiC x and the γ-phase (TaC or TiC in the substrate), and two kinds of coherent structure were revealed. According to these findings, the formation of the CVD TiC x coating is possibly affected by the carbon supply from the component phases in the substrate.

  3. HIP Joining of Cemented Carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Derby, B.; Miodownik, M.

    1999-04-01

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is investigated as a technique for joining the cermet WC-15% Co to itself. Encapsulation of the specimens prior to HIPing was carried out using steel encapsulation, glass encapsulation and self encapsulation. The bonds were evaluated using a four point bend method. It is shown that the glass and steel encapsulation methods have a number of inherent problems which make them inappropriate for near net shape processing. In contrast the novel self encapsulation method, described for the first time in this communication, is both simple and effective, producing joined material with bulk strength. The concept of self encapsulation is potentially widely applicable for joining composite materials.

  4. Development of refractory armored silicon carbide by infrared transient liquid phase processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.; Blue, Craig A.

    2005-12-01

    Tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) were coated on silicon carbide (SiC) for use as a refractory armor using a high power plasma arc lamp at powers up to 23.5 MW/m 2 in an argon flow environment. Both tungsten powder and molybdenum powder melted and formed coating layers on silicon carbide within a few seconds. The effect of substrate pre-treatment (vapor deposition of titanium (Ti) and tungsten, and annealing) and sample heating conditions on microstructure of the coating and coating/substrate interface were investigated. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The mechanical properties of the coated materials were evaluated by four-point flexural tests. A strong tungsten coating was successfully applied to the silicon carbide substrate. Tungsten vapor deposition and pre-heating at 5.2 MW/m 2 made for a refractory layer containing no cracks propagating into the silicon carbide substrate. The tungsten coating was formed without the thick reaction layer. For this study, small tungsten carbide grains were observed adjacent to the interface in all conditions. In addition, relatively large, widely scattered tungsten carbide grains and a eutectic structure of tungsten and silicon were observed through the thickness in the coatings formed at lower powers and longer heating times. The strength of the silicon carbide substrate was somewhat decreased as a result of the processing. Vapor deposition of tungsten prior to powder coating helped prevent this degradation. In contrast, molybdenum coating was more challenging than tungsten coating due to the larger coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch as compared to tungsten and silicon carbide. From this work it is concluded that refractory armoring of silicon carbide by Infrared Transient Liquid Phase Processing is possible. The tungsten armored silicon carbide samples proved uniform, strong, and capable of withstanding thermal fatigue testing.

  5. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  6. Effect of surface preparation on bond strength of resin luting cements to dentin.

    PubMed

    Peerzada, Farrahnaz; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; Hiraishi, Noriko; Tay, Franklin Russell; King, Nigel Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of using two different burs for dentin surface preparation on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of three resin luting cements. Flat, deep dentin surfaces from 45 extracted human third molars were divided into three groups (n = 15) according to bur type: (i) diamond bur and (ii) tungsten carbide bur. The controls were abraded with #600-grit SiC paper. Both burs operated in a high-speed handpiece under water-cooling. Composite blocks were luted onto the dentin using one of three cements: RelyX ARC (ARC, 3M ESPE), Panavia F2.0 (PF, Kuraray) and RelyX Unicem (UN, 3M ESPE) following the manufacturers' instructions. For ARC, the dentin surface was treated with 32% phosphoric acid. The bonded specimens were stored at 37 degrees C for 24 hours and sectioned into 0.9 x 0.9 mm beams for microTBS testing. The data were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Representative fractured beams from each group were prepared for fractographic analysis under SEM. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the effects of "dentin surface preparation" and "luting cement" were statistically significant (p < 0.001); however, the interaction of these two factors was not significant (p > 0.05). ARC showed no significant difference in microTBS among the three differently prepared dentin surfaces. The microTBS of PF and UN was significantly lower when bonding to dentin prepared with a diamond bur (p < 0.05), compared to the control. For Panavia F2.0, higher bond strengths were achieved on the dentin surface prepared with a tungsten carbide bur. Proper bur selection is essential to optimizing the dentin adhesion of self-etch resin luting cements. PMID:21180001

  7. Tin-tungsten mineralizing processes in tungsten vein deposits: Panasqueira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecumberri-Sanchez, P.; Pinto, F.; Vieira, R.; Wälle, M.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tungsten has a high heat resistance, density and hardness, which makes it widely applied in industry (e.g. steel, tungsten carbides). Tungsten deposits are typically magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Despite the economic significance of tungsten, there are no modern quantitative analytical studies of the fluids responsible for the formation of its highest-grade deposit type (tungsten vein deposits). Panasqueira (Portugal) is a tungsten vein deposit, one of the leading tungsten producers in Europe and one of the best geologically characterized tungsten vein deposits. In this study, compositions of the mineralizing fluids at Panasqueira have been determined through combination of detailed petrography, microthermometric measurements and LA-ICPMS analyses, and geochemical modeling has been used to determine the processes that lead to tungsten mineralization. We characterized the fluids related to the various mineralizing stages in the system: the oxide stage (tin and tungsten mineralization), the sulfide stage (chalcopyrite and sphalerite mineralization) and the carbonate stage. Thus, our results provide information on the properties of fluids related with specific paragenetic stages. Furthermore we used those fluid compositions in combination with host rock mineralogy and chemistry to evaluate which are the controlling factors in the mineralizing process. This study provides the first quantitative analytical data on fluid composition for tungsten vein deposits and evaluates the controlling mineralization processes helping to determine the mechanisms of formation of the Panasqueira tin-tungsten deposit and providing additional geochemical constraints on the local distribution of mineralization.

  8. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  9. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajoure, Meloud; Tajouri, Ali; Abuzriba, Mokhtar; Akreem, Mosbah

    2013-12-01

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A & the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  10. Surfacing With Tungsten-containing Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Galevsky, G. V.; Valuev, D. V.; Shurupov, V. M.; Kozyreva, O. E.

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has been carried out into AN 26C flux surfacing with flux cored wires made of dust-like carbon and fluorine containing components and tungsten- containing ores. The investigations have revealed the fact that tungsten can be reduced immediately from tungsten-containing oxide materials. The chemical composition of added metal has been determined, as well as slag compositions after surfacing; hardness, wear resistance have been investigated and metallographic tests have been carried out. Thermodynamic calculations of reactions of WO3, as well as W2C and WC carbides reduction to W by carbon and carbon oxide have been made in standard conditions at temperature T = 1500 - 6000 K. The obtained thermodynamic characteristics of reactions have demonstrated that in the course of WO3 reduction tungsten is most likely to be obtained in terms of thermodynamics, subsequently W2C and WC carbides. After these reactions those of W2C and WC carbides obtaining are thermodynamically possible via reduced tungsten and carbon composition.

  11. Damage and reliability of Y-TZP after cementation surface treatment.

    PubMed

    Guess, P C; Zhang, Y; Kim, J-W; Rekow, E D; Thompson, V P

    2010-06-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry, but their susceptibility to post-sintering cementation surface treatments remains controversial. We hypothesized that grinding (600-grit) and alumina abrasion (50 microm, 5 sec, 0.5 MPa) affect the damage modes and reliability of zirconia core material. Monolithic CAD/CAM-machined and sintered Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thickness) were adhesively cemented to dentin-like composite substrates. Uni-axial mouth-motion cyclic contact was applied through a tungsten carbide spherical indenter (r = 3.18 mm). Results showed that zirconia core ceramic is vulnerable to lower surface radial fracture after grinding or alumina abrasion, while the as-received control chiefly fractured from load-application surface cone fracture. Significantly lower reliability of ground and alumina-abraded compared with the as-received zirconia core ceramic can be attributed to damage induced on the cementation surface. Clinical relevance concerning surface treatment protocols for zirconia framework materials prior to cementation is addressed. PMID:20354231

  12. Damage and Reliability of Y-TZP after Cementation Surface Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guess, P.C.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Rekow, E.D.; Thompson, V.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based restorations are widely used in prosthetic dentistry, but their susceptibility to post-sintering cementation surface treatments remains controversial. We hypothesized that grinding (600-grit) and alumina abrasion (50 µm, 5 sec, 0.5 MPa) affect the damage modes and reliability of zirconia core material. Monolithic CAD/CAM-machined and sintered Y-TZP plates (0.5 mm thickness) were adhesively cemented to dentin-like composite substrates. Uni-axial mouth-motion cyclic contact was applied through a tungsten carbide spherical indenter (r = 3.18 mm). Results showed that zirconia core ceramic is vulnerable to lower surface radial fracture after grinding or alumina abrasion, while the as-received control chiefly fractured from load-application surface cone fracture. Significantly lower reliability of ground and alumina-abraded compared with the as-received zirconia core ceramic can be attributed to damage induced on the cementation surface. Clinical relevance concerning surface treatment protocols for zirconia framework materials prior to cementation is addressed. PMID:20354231

  13. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 115 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Tungsten and tungsten alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications excluding lamps. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys, including applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 97 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Influence of the matrix structure and properties on the crack resistance of sintered carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, N.V.; Devin, L.N.; Mitlikin, M.D.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.

    1985-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an automatic analysis of the structure of tungsten-cobalt sintered carbides with 6-25% weight of the binder phase and shows the possibility of their practical use for improvement of the mechanical properties of the materials. The authors conclude that accurate determination of the structural parameters of sintered carbides has made it possible to establish the yield strengths of the matrix material of different types of tungsten-cobalt sintered carbides and to determine those for which an increase in crack resistance is possible. The effect of the increase in fracture toughness of sintered carbides with an increase in loading rate is also explained.

  18. Metal seated ball valves with carbide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, R.; Yung, E.

    1994-12-31

    Valvtechnologies valves utilize Alloy Carbide HVOF Sprayed RAM{reg_sign} Hardcoatings such as Chrome Carbide and Tungsten Carbide Coatings. The coatings are applied using a Proprietary Gun combusting Hydrogen and Oxygen. The powders are heated and accelerated toward the valve component forming a tenaciously bonded coating. Each coating is chosen depending upon the environment the valve will operate in. These valves have solved many Petro-Chemical service life problems. Free from the temperature limits of elastomers, the only sealing materials are metal, the carbides and grafoils (carbons). Operating temperatures to 982 C (1,800 F) are typical limits; 649 C (1,200 F) is common. Lower temperatures are also common, even in the cryogenic range. Even though the coatings have low thermal expansion rates, RAM{reg_sign} Hardcoatings can expand and contract with the base material and still maintain a seal.

  19. Tungsten thermal neutron dosimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. L.; Richardson, P. J.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1969-01-01

    Tungsten-185 activity, which is produced by neutron activation of tungsten-184, determines thermal neutron flux. Radiochemical separation methods and counting techniques for irradiated tungsten provide accurate determination of the radiation exposure.

  20. Characterization of the carbides and the martensite phase in powder-metallurgy high-speed steel

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, Matjaz; Batic, Barbara Setina; Mandrino, Djordje; Nagode, Ales; Leskovsek, Vojteh; Skapin, Sreco D.; Jenko, Monika

    2010-04-15

    A microstructural characterization of the powder-metallurgy high-speed-steel S390 Microclean was performed based on an elemental distribution of the carbide phase as well as crystallographic analyses. The results showed that there were two types of carbides present: vanadium-rich carbides, which were not chemically homogeneous and exhibited a tungsten-enriched or tungsten-depleted central area; and chemically homogeneous tungsten-rich M{sub 6}C-type carbides. Despite the possibility of chemical inhomogenities, the crystallographic orientation of each of the carbides was shown to be uniform. Using electron backscatter diffraction the vanadium-rich carbides were determined to be either cubic VC or hexagonal V{sub 6}C{sub 5}, while the tungsten-rich carbides were M{sub 6}C. The electron backscatter diffraction results were also verified using X-ray diffraction. Several electron backscatter diffraction pattern maps were acquired in order to define the fraction of each carbide phase as well as the amount of martensite phase. The fraction of martensite was estimated using band-contrast images, while the fraction of carbides was calculated using the crystallographic data.

  1. Thermal shock and erosion resistant tantalum carbide ceramic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honeycutt, L., III; Manning, C. R. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic tantalum carbide artifacts with high thermal shock and mechanical erosion resistance are provided by incorporating tungsten-rhenium and carbon particles in a tantalum carbide matrix. The mix is sintered by hot pressing to form the ceramic article which has a high fracture strength relative to its elastic modulus and thus has an improved thermal shock and mechanical erosion resistance. The tantalum carbide is preferable less than minus 100 mesh, the carbon particles are preferable less than minus 100 mesh, and the tungsten-rhenium particles are preferable elongate, having a length to thickness ratio of at least 2/1. Tungsten-rhenium wire pieces are suitable as well as graphite particles.

  2. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Bona, Alvaro Della; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Methods Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2 mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Results Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. Significance While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. PMID:25687628

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2000-11-01

    The main objective of this program was to develop an efficient and economically viable microwave processing technique to process cobalt cemented tungsten carbide with improved properties for drill-bits for advanced drilling operations for oil, gas, geothermal and excavation industries. The program was completed in three years and successfully accomplished all the states goals in the original proposal. In three years of the program, we designed and built several laboratory scale microwave sintering systems for conducting experiments on Tungsten carbide (WC) based composites in controlled atmosphere. The processing conditions were optimized and various properties were measured. The design of the system was then modified to enable it to process large commercial parts of WC/Co and in large quantities. Two high power (3-6 kW) microwave systems of 2.45 GHz were built for multi samples runs in a batch process. Once the process was optimized for best results, the technology was successfully transferred to our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. We helped them to built couple of prototype microwave sintering systems for carbide tool manufacturing. It was found that the microwave processed WC/Co tools are not only cost effective but also exhibited much better overall performance than the standard tools. The results of the field tests performed by Dennis Tool Co. showed remarkable advantage and improvement in their overall performance. For example: wear test shows an increase of 20-30%, corrosion test showed much higher resistance to the acid attack, erosion test exhibited about 15% better resistance than standard sinter-HIP parts. This proves the success of microwave technology for WC/Co based drilling tools. While we have successfully transferred the technology to our industrial partner Dennis Tool Co., they have signed an agreement with Valenite, a world leading WC producer of cutting and drilling tools and wear parts, to push aggressively the new microwave technology in

  4. Bone cement

    PubMed Central

    Vaishya, Raju; Chauhan, Mayank; Vaish, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge about the bone cement is of paramount importance to all Orthopaedic surgeons. Although the bone cement had been the gold standard in the field of joint replacement surgery, its use has somewhat decreased because of the advent of press-fit implants which encourages bone in growth. The shortcomings, side effects and toxicity of the bone cement are being addressed recently. More research is needed and continues in the field of nanoparticle additives, enhanced bone–cement interface etc. PMID:26403875

  5. Creep behavior of uranium carbide-based alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, M. S.; Wright, T. R.; Moak, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The present work gives the results of experiments on the influence of zirconium carbide and tungsten on the creep properties of uranium carbide. The creep behavior of high-density UC samples follows the classical time-dependence pattern of (1) an instantaneous deformation, (2) a primary creep region, and (3) a period of steady-state creep. Creep rates for unalloyed UC-1.01 and UC-1.05 are several orders of magnitude greater than those measured for carbide alloys containing a Zr-C and/or W dispersoid. The difference in creep strength between alloyed and unalloyed materials varies with temperature and applied stress.

  6. The diffusion bonding of silicon carbide and boron carbide using refractory metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cockeram, B.V.

    1999-10-01

    Joining is an enabling technology for the application of structural ceramics at high temperatures. Metal foil diffusion bonding is a simple process for joining silicon carbide or boron carbide by solid-state, diffusive conversion of the metal foil into carbide and silicide compounds that produce bonding. Metal diffusion bonding trials were performed using thin foils (5 {micro}m to 100 {micro}m) of refractory metals (niobium, titanium, tungsten, and molybdenum) with plates of silicon carbide (both {alpha}-SiC and {beta}-SiC) or boron carbide that were lapped flat prior to bonding. The influence of bonding temperature, bonding pressure, and foil thickness on bond quality was determined from metallographic inspection of the bonds. The microstructure and phases in the joint region of the diffusion bonds were evaluated using SEM, microprobe, and AES analysis. The use of molybdenum foil appeared to result in the highest quality bond of the metal foils evaluated for the diffusion bonding of silicon carbide and boron carbide. Bonding pressure appeared to have little influence on bond quality. The use of a thinner metal foil improved the bond quality. The microstructure of the bond region produced with either the {alpha}-SiC and {beta}-SiC polytypes were similar.

  7. Tungsten and tungsten-alloy powder metallurgy: Powder production and applications-excluding lamps. November 1971-July 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1971-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the preparation of metallic and ceramic powders of tungsten and tungsten alloys including various applications of these materials. The hydrogen reduction of tungsten compounds together with alloying-element compounds produce forms with characteristics of high density, hardness, wear resistance, high melting points, and abrasiveness. Topics include production of various cathodes, heaters, filament wires, electrical contacts, acoustic absorbers, high-density sheets and coatings, hard penetrators, and tungsten carbide and metallized ceramics. Tungsten halogen lamps are examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 60 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Cement disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, L C; Hungerford, D S

    1987-12-01

    Does "cement disease" exist? The bony environment surrounding a loosened cemented prosthesis is an abnormal pathologic condition which, if left unattended, will progress to a total failure of the joint including an inhibition of function and immobilizing pain. That biomaterial properties of the cement used for fixation also contribute to the pathologic state separates this disease from other modes of loosening. This leads inevitably to the conclusion that "cement disease" does exist. Methyl methacrylate has revolutionized the treatment of severe joint dysfunction. There can be no doubt that improving surgical technique, cement handling, and the cement itself will continue to improve the results and reduce the incidence of failure due to loosening. Cement is undoubtedly satisfactory for elderly patients with low activity levels and relatively short life expectancies. However, because of the inherent biologic and biomechanical properties of methyl methacrylate, it is unlikely that it can be rendered satisfactory in the long run for the young, the active, or the overweight patient, for whom alternatives are currently being sought. In such cases, the elimination of "cement disease" can only occur with the elimination of cement. Alternatives include the search for other grouting materials and the development of prostheses with satisfactory surfaces for either press-fit or biologic ingrowth. PMID:3315375

  9. Systematic studies of the nucleation and growth of ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon substrates coated with a tungsten layer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yueh-Chieh; Jiang, Gerald; Tu, Chia-Hao; Chang Chi; Liu, Chuan-pu; Ting, Jyh-Ming; Lee, Hsin-Li; Tzeng, Yonhua; Auciello, Orlando

    2012-06-15

    We report on effects of a tungsten layer deposited on silicon surface on the effectiveness for diamond nanoparticles to be seeded for the deposition of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD). Rough tungsten surface and electrostatic forces between nanodiamond seeds and the tungsten surface layer help to improve the adhesion of nanodiamond seeds on the tungsten surface. The seeding density on tungsten coated silicon thus increases. Tungsten carbide is formed by reactions of the tungsten layer with carbon containing plasma species. It provides favorable (001) crystal planes for the nucleation of (111) crystal planes by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPECVD) in argon diluted methane plasma and further improves the density of diamond seeds/nuclei. UNCD films grown at different gas pressures on tungsten coated silicon which is pre-seeded by nanodiamond along with heteroepitaxially nucleated diamond nuclei were characterized by Raman scattering, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Field testing of pressureless sintered silicon carbide for choke trim

    SciTech Connect

    Regitz, A.; Keene, K.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, tungsten carbide has been the most erosion resistant material in use for choke stem tips and seats. An increase in the number of wells that produce sand has led to a need for an improved material that will maintain its integrity significantly longer, when exposed to high velocity sand. During the last two years, FMC Wellhead Equipment Division's R and D Engineering Department has been conducting field tests of pressureless sintered silicon carbide (herein called SiC) used as trim for chokes. The test results have been very encouraging. SiC appears to have wear resistance two to three times better than tungsten carbide. The main problems encountered have been the brittleness of the material and the difficulty in attaching a SiC tip to the steel choke stem.

  11. A study of the effect of grain size on the ballistic performance of silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The depth of penetration method was used to ballistically evaluate the performance of silicon carbide as a function of grain size. The hot-pressed silicon carbide was backed by 4340 steel Rc = 35 and impacted by tungsten heavy metal projectiles of L/D = 4 at velocities of 1.6 and 1/75 km/s. The hot-pressed silicon carbide was also compared with reaction-sintered silicon carbide of identical thickness in the current study. Results are compared with data previously reported by others.

  12. Evaluation of the role of reactive oxygen species in the interactive toxicity of carbide-cobalt mixtures on macrophages in culture.

    PubMed

    Lison, D; Lauwerys, R

    1993-01-01

    The lung toxicity of a carbide-cobalt mixture is more important than that of each individual component; the mechanism of this interaction is not understood. The capacity of cobalt metal particles alone and mixed with different carbides to generate hydroxyl radicals was examined with the deoxyribose assay. In a chemical system, cobalt ions and cobalt metal particles (Co) were found to catalyse the degradation of deoxyribose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Carbides were able to directly oxidize deoxyribose, but their respective activities did not support such a mechanism to explain the carbide-cobalt interactive toxicity, since there was no direct relationship between deoxyribose degradation ability and cytotoxicity toward macrophages. Tungsten, niobium, titanium and chromium carbides (interactive carbides) were only weak oxidants and conversely molybdenum, vanadium and silicon carbides (non-interactive carbides) were the most potent ones. The ability of cobalt metal to produce hydroxyl radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was not increased by tungsten carbide. The role of reactive radical formation in the toxicity of these particles was further assessed in a macrophage culture model. Catalase (4000 U/ml), superoxide dismutase (300 U/ml), sodium azide (1 mM), sodium benzoate, mannitol, taurine and methionine (all 20 mM) were all unable to protect against the cytotoxic effects of cobalt ions and cobalt metal alone or mixed with tungsten carbide. In conclusion, no evidence was found that production of reactive oxygen species contributes to the elective toxicity of carbide-cobalt mixtures. PMID:8396391

  13. Application of diffusion barriers to the refractory fibers of tungsten, columbium, carbon and aluminum oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, F. C.; Paradis, E. L.; Veltri, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    A radio frequency powered ion-plating system was used to plate protective layers of refractory oxides and carbide onto high strength fiber substrates. Subsequent overplating of these combinations with nickel and titanium was made to determine the effectiveness of such barrier layers in preventing diffusion of the overcoat metal into the fibers with consequent loss of fiber strength. Four substrates, five coatings, and two metal matrix materials were employed for a total of forty material combinations. The substrates were tungsten, niobium, NASA-Hough carbon, and Tyco sapphire. The diffusion-barrier coatings were aluminum oxide, yttrium oxide, titanium carbide, tungsten carbide with 14% cobalt addition, and zirconium carbide. The metal matrix materials were IN 600 nickel and Ti 6/4 titanium. Adhesion of the coatings to all substrates was good except for the NASA-Hough carbon, where flaking off of the oxide coatings in particular was observed.

  14. Qualification of tungsten coatings on plasma-facing components for JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H.; Neu, R.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Balden, M.; Lindig, S.; Matthews, G. F.; Rasinski, M.; Wienhold, P.; Wiltner, A.

    2009-12-01

    This contribution summarizes the work that has been performed to establish the industrial production of tungsten coatings on carbon fibre composite (CFC) for application within the ITER-like Wall Project at JET. This comprises the investigation of vacuum plasma-sprayed coatings, physical vapour deposited tungsten/rhenium multilayers, as well as coatings deposited by combined magnetron-sputtering and ion implantation. A variety of analysis tools were applied to investigate failures and oxide and carbide formation in these systems.

  15. Wear of single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with various metals in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with single crystal silicon carbide (0001) surface in contact with transition metals (tungsten, iron, rhodium, nickel, titanium, and cobalt), copper, and aluminum. The hexagon shaped cracking and fracturing of silicon carbide that occurred is believed to be due to cleavages of both the prismatic and basal planes. The silicon carbide wear debris, which was produced by brittle fracture, slides or rolls on both the metal and silicon carbide and produces grooves and indentations on these surfaces. The wear scars of aluminum and titanium, which have much stronger chemical affinity for silicon and carbon, are generally rougher than those of the other metals. Fracturing and cracking along the grain boundary of rhodium and tungsten were observed. These may be primarily due to the greater shear moduli of the metals.

  16. Tungsten filament fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-05-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent light bulb is being replaced by compact fluorescent and LED lamps.

  17. Deuterium trapping in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Michael

    Tungsten is one of the primary material candidates being investigated for use in the first-wall of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor. An ion accelerator was used to simulate the type of ion interaction that may occur at a plasma-facing material. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was the primary tool used to analyze the effects of the irradiation. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to determine the distribution of trapped D in the tungsten specimen. The tritium migration analysis program (TMAP) was used to simulate thermal desorption profiles from the D depth distributions. Fitting of the simulated thermal desorption profiles with the measured TDS results provided values of the D trap energies. Deuterium trapping in single crystal tungsten was studied as a function of the incident ion fluence, ion flux, irradiation temperature, irradiation history, and surface impurity levels during irradiation. The results show that deuterium was trapped at vacancies and voids. Two deuterium atoms could be trapped at a tungsten vacancy, with trapping energies of 1.4 eV and 1.2 eV for the first and second D atoms, respectively. In a tungsten void, D is trapped as atoms adsorbed on the inner walls of the void with a trap energy of 2.1 eV, or as D2 molecules inside the void with a trap energy of 1.2 eV. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten was also studied as a function of the incident fluence, irradiation temperature, and irradiation history. Deuterium trapping in polycrystalline tungsten also occurs primarily at vacancies and voids with the same trap energies as in single crystal tungsten; however, the presence of grain boundaries promotes the formation of large surface blisters with high fluence irradiations at 500 K. In general, D trapping is greater in polycrystalline tungsten than in single crystal tungsten. To simulate mixed materials comprising of carbon (C) and tungsten, tungsten specimens were pre-irradiated with carbon ions prior to D

  18. Tungsten-microdiamond composites for plasma facing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livramento, V.; Nunes, D.; Correia, J. B.; Carvalho, P. A.; Mardolcar, U.; Mateus, R.; Hanada, K.; Shohoji, N.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Alves, E.

    2011-09-01

    Tungsten is considered as one of promising candidate materials for plasma facing component in nuclear fusion reactors due to its resistance to sputtering and high melting point. High thermal conductivity is also a prerequisite for plasma facing components under the unique service environment of fusion reactor characterised by the massive heat load, especially in the divertor area. The feasibility of mechanical alloying of nanodiamond and tungsten, and the consolidation of the composite powders with Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was previously demonstrated. In the present research we report on the use of microdiamond instead of nanodiamond in such composites. Microdiamond is more favourable than nanodiamond in view of phonon transport performance leading to better thermal conductivity. However, there is a trade off between densification and thermal conductivity as the SPS temperature increases tungsten carbide formation from microdiamond is accelerated inevitably while the consolidation density would rise.

  19. Structural and phase changes in carbides of the high-speed steel upon heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaus, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of austenitizing temperature on structural and phase changes in carbides of the tungsten-molybdenum high-speed steel has been studied. The results of metallographic analysis and energy dispersive microanalysis have been discussed. It has been shown that an increase in austenitizing temperature from 1180 to 1260°C causes structural transformations in carbide particles of eutectic origin crushed upon hot plastic deformation, which are related to their dissolution and coalescence, and changes in the phase composition of the carbides themselves.

  20. KISMET tungsten dispersal experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.; Kunkle, T.; Hawkins, W.

    1996-12-01

    Results of the KISMET tungsten dispersal experiment indicate a relatively small degree of wall-rock contamination caused by this underground explosive experiment. Designed as an add-on to the KISMET test, which was performed in the U-1a.02 drift of the LYNER facility at Nevada Test Site on 1 March 1995, this experiment involved recovery and analysis of wall-rock samples affected by the high- explosive test. The chemical, high-explosive blast drove tungsten powder, placed around the test package as a plutonium analog, into the surrounding wall- rock alluvium. Sample analyses by an analytical digital electron microscope (ADEM) show tungsten dispersed in the rock as tiny (<10 {mu}m) particles, agglomerates, and coatings on alluvial clasts. Tungsten concentrations, measured by energy dispersive spectral analysis on the ADEM, indicate penetration depths less than 0.1 m and maximum concentrations of 1.5 wt % in the alluvium.

  1. Lunar cement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  2. Certain questions of the thermodynamics of the tungsten carbidization process

    SciTech Connect

    Vaskeuich, N.K.; Senchikkin, V.K.; Tret'yakou, V.I.

    1985-11-01

    The authors present results of thermodynamic calculations of equilibria in W-C-H and W-C-O systems. The present their data in tabulations of Gibbs free energies, equilibrium constants, and carbon activities of reaction in relation to temperature and composition of the mixtures, and they present diagrams of phase equilibria and temperature relationships.

  3. Effect of atmospheric plasma versus conventional surface treatments on the adhesion capability between self-adhesive resin cement and titanium surface

    PubMed Central

    Kilicarslan, Mehmet Ali; Deniz, Sule Tugba; Mumcu, Emre; Ozkan, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of atmospheric plasma (APL) versus conventional surface treatments on the adhesion of self-adhesive resin cement to Ti-6Al-4V alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty plates of machined titanium (Ti) discs were divided into five groups (n=12): 1) Untreated (CNT); 2) Sandblasted (SAB); 3) Tribochemically treated (ROC); 4) Tungsten CarbideBur (TCB); 5) APL treated (APL). SEM analysis and surface roughness (Ra) measurements were performed. Self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the Ti surfaces and shear bond strength (SBS) tests, Ra and failure mode examinations were carried out. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and chi-squared test. RESULTS The lowest SBS value was obtained with CNT and was significantly different from all other groups except for APL. The ROC showed the highest SBS and Ra values of all the groups. CONCLUSION It was concluded that the effect of APL on SBS and Ra was not sufficient and it may not be a potential for promoting adhesion to titanium. PMID:26140177

  4. Silicon carbide ceramic production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, K.; Shinohara, N.

    1984-01-01

    A method to produce sintered silicon carbide ceramics in which powdery carbonaceous components with a dispersant are mixed with silicon carbide powder, shaped as required with or without drying, and fired in nonoxidation atmosphere is described. Carbon black is used as the carbonaceous component.

  5. Sculpting with Cement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    1983-01-01

    Cement offers many creative possibilities for school art programs. Instructions are given for sculpting with fiber-cement and sand-cement, as well as for finishing processes and the addition of color. Safety is stressed. (IS)

  6. Simple preparation of tungsten supported carbon nanoreactors for specific applications: Adsorption, catalysis and electrochemical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayani, Vishal J.; Mayani, Suranjana V.; Kim, Sang Wook

    2015-08-01

    Porous carbon supported tungsten carbide nanoreactors, two sizes (∼25 and 170 nm), were designed using economical petroleum pitch residue followed by tungsten (W) doping. X-ray diffractions showed both carbon tungsten composites (CTC-25 and CTC-170) contained tungsten subcarbide (W2C) and monocarbide (WC) as the major and minor crystalline phases, respectively. The present study provides a multiple perspective of carbon tungsten composites (CTCs) for methanol oxidation (as an electrode), adsorption (as an adsorbent) and degradation (as a solid catalyst) of methylene blue (MB). The operational electrodes were designed from both CTCs and used as a catalyst in an electrocatalysis process. The electrocatalysts exhibited high and stable catalytic performance (CTCE-25 > CTCE-170) in methanol electro-oxidation. The newly synthesized W-doped carbon nanoreactors were used successfully as an adsorbent for MB and a heterogeneous catalyst for MB oxidation. Ordered CTC-25 and CTC-170 exhibited dynamic MB adsorption within 15 min and complete oxidation of MB in 25-40 min. A synergetic effect between tungsten carbide and the carbon cage framework was noted.

  7. Tensile behavior of tungsten and tungsten-alloy wires from 1300 to 1600 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hee, Man Yun

    1988-01-01

    The tensile behavior of a 200-micrometer-diameter tungsten lamp (218CS-W), tungsten + 1.0 atomic percent (a/o) thoria (ST300-W), and tungsten + 0.4 a/o hafnium carbide (WHfC) wires was determined over the temperature range 1300 t0 1600 K at strain rates of 3.3 X 10 to the -2 to 3.3 X 10 to the -5/sec. Although most tests were conducted on as-drawn materials, one series of tests was undertaken on ST300-W wires in four different conditions: as-drawn and vacuum-annealed at 1535 K for 1 hr, with and without electroplating. Whereas heat treatment had no effect on tensile properties, electropolishing significantly increased both the proportional limit and ductility, but not the ultimate tensile strength. Comparison of the behavior of the three alloys indicates that the HfC-dispersed material possesses superior tensile properties. Theoretical calculations indicate that the strength/ductility advantage of WHfC is due to the resistance to recrystallization imparted by the dispersoid.

  8. Friction and metal transfer for single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with various metals in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide in contact with transition metals (tungsten, iron, rhodium, nickel, titanium, and cobalt), copper, and aluminum. Results indicate the coefficient of friction for a silicon carbide-metal system is related to the d bond character and relative chemical activity of the metal. The more active the metal, the higher the coefficient of friction. All the metals examined transferred to the surface of silicon carbide in sliding. The chemical activity of metal to silicon and carbon and shear modulus of the metal may play important roles in metal transfer and the form of the wear debris. The less active and greater resistance to shear the metal has, with the exception of rhodium and tungsten, the less transfer to silicon carbide.

  9. Microwave sintering of boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Blake, R.D.; Katz, J.D.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.

    1988-06-10

    A method for forming boron carbide into a particular shape and densifying the green boron carbide shape. Boron carbide in powder form is pressed into a green shape and then sintered, using a microwave oven, to obtain a dense boron carbide body. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical density have been obtained. 1 tab.

  10. Minerals yearbook, 1988. Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Only one U.S. tungsten mine was open during 1988 while prices for concentrates rose only modestly from the previous year. Consequently, the United States continued to be highly import-dependent for tungsten concentrate and intermediate materials. A significant portion of these materials came from China. The report discusses the following topics: Domestic data coverage; Legislation and government programs; Domestic production; Consumption and uses; Prices; Foreign trade; World capacity; World review--Australia, Austria, India, Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Rwanda, Spain; Technology.

  11. Diffusion of tungsten on stepped tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, D. S.; Kim, S. K.; Gomer, R.

    1990-08-01

    Self-diffusion of thermally generated tungsten atoms near (123) and (257), on the zone (011)-(112) and on (023), on the zone (011)-(001) of a tungsten field emitter has been investigated by the field-emission fluctuation method, using a rectangular probe in order to investigate diffusion anisotropy. In agreement with earlier findings of Gong and Gomer [J. Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] diffusion of single W atoms along and across (011) terraces separated by (011) steps, i.e. step edges running along [111] is essentially isotropic with Ed = 16 kcal, D0 ≈ 10 -4 cm 2 s -1, while atoms can cross (001) oriented steps only with much activation energy: Ed ≈ 35 kcal, D0 = 10 -2 cm -2 s -1. Slow diffusion parallel to steps attributed previously by Gong Chem. Phys. 88 (1988) 1359, 1370] to kink motion was also seen along the zone (011)-(112) but seems more complicated than previously assumed, with several regimes, which may correspond to motions of different kink configurations. Distinct dips in the slow regime diffusion coefficients occurred at 910 K, somewhat higher than the previously seen onset of dips, 875 K, and may indicate roughening, as previously hypothesized. Slow diffusion perpendicular to steps was also seen in this zone and is not fully understood. It may arise from some step components always perpendicular to the short slit dimensions, or may correspond to more complicated surface configurations than the step and terrace pattern on an ideal emitter surface.

  12. Zirconium carbide recrystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Lanin, A.G.; Erin, O.N.; Sul'Yanov, S.N.; Turchin, V.N.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the primary recrystallization process of the sintered polycrystalline zirconium carbide with a composition of ZrC /SUB 0.98/ . The properties of zirconium carbide samples deformed under compression are presented; the selected degree of deformation ensures a lower scatter of grain sizes at relative error of +/- 5% in the final deformation measurement. The established mechanisms of structural changes in zirconium carbide during plastic deformation and subsequent high temperature treatment indicate the possibility of using thermomechanical methods for the direct control of the structure of these mechanical methods for the direct control of the structure of these and obviously othe group IV and V carbides obtained by powder metallurgical methods.

  13. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-07-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  14. Interface reactions between silicon carbide and interlayers in silicon carbide copper metal matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köck, T.; Brendel, A.; Bolt, H.

    2007-05-01

    Novel copper matrix composites reinforced with silicon carbide fibres are considered as a new generation of heat sink materials for the divertor of future fusion reactors. The divertor is exposed to intense particle bombardment and heat loads of up to 15 MW m-2. This component consists of the plasma-facing material which is bonded to the actively cooled heat sink. Due to its high thermal conductivity of about 400 W m-1 K-1 copper is a promising material for the heat sink. To increase the mechanical properties of copper at working temperature (823 K), silicon carbide fibres with a diameter of 140 μm are used to reinforce the interface area between the plasma-facing material and the heat sink. Push-out tests show that the adhesion between SiC fibre and Cu matrix without any interlayer is very low. To increase the fibre-matrix bonding the fibres are coated with Cr and W with a thickness of 300-400 nm before Cu deposition by magnetron sputtering. Push-out tests on these modified fibres show a significant increase in adhesion compared to the fibres without interlayer. XRD investigations after a heat treatment at 923 K show a chromium carbide (Cr23C6, Cr3C2) formation and the absence of chromium silicides. In the case of a W interlayer a W2C formation is detected and also no tungsten silicides. Single-fibre tensile tests were performed to investigate the influence of the reaction zone on the ultimate tensile strength of the fibres. The ultimate tensile strength for fibres without interlayer remains constant at about 2200 MPa after annealing at 923 K. The fibres with chromium and tungsten interlayers, respectively, show a decrease of about 30% of the ultimate tensile strength after the heat treatment at 923 K.

  15. Gas tungsten arc welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    A welder for automated closure of fuel pins by a gas tungsten arc process in which a rotating length of cladding is positioned adjacent a welding electrode in a sealed enclosure. An independently movable axial grinder is provided in the enclosure for refurbishing the used electrode between welds.

  16. High purity tungsten targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    High purity tungsten, which is used for targets in X-ray tubes was considered for space processing. The demand for X-ray tubes was calculated using the growth rates for dental and medical X-ray machines. It is concluded that the cost benefits are uncertain.

  17. Tungsten diffusion in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Van Orman, J. A.

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion of tungsten has been characterized in synthetic forsterite and natural olivine (Fo90) under dry conditions. The source of diffusant was a mixture of magnesium tungstate and olivine powders. Experiments were prepared by sealing the source material and polished olivine under vacuum in silica glass ampoules with solid buffers to buffer at NNO or IW. Prepared capsules were annealed in 1 atm furnaces for times ranging from 45 min to several weeks, at temperatures from 1050 to 1450 °C. Tungsten distributions in the olivine were profiled by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). The following Arrhenius relation is obtained for W diffusion in forsterite: D=1.0×10-8exp(-365±28 kJ mol/RT) m s Diffusivities for the synthetic forsterite and natural Fe-bearing olivine are similar, and tungsten diffusion in olivine shows little dependence on crystallographic orientation or oxygen fugacity. The slow diffusivities measured for W in olivine indicate that Hf-W ages in olivine-metal systems will close to diffusive exchange at higher temperatures than other chronometers commonly used in cosmochronology, and that tungsten isotopic signatures will be less likely to be reset by subsequent thermal events.

  18. Chemical downstream etching of tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Blain, M.G.; Jarecki, R.L.; Simonson, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    The downstream etching of tungsten and tungsten oxide has been investigated. Etching of chemical vapor deposited tungsten and e-beam deposited tungsten oxide samples was performed using atomic fluorine generated by a microwave discharge of argon and NF{sub 3}. Etching was found to be highly activated with activation energies approximated to be 6.0{plus_minus}0.5thinspkcal/mol and 5.4{plus_minus}0.4thinspkcal/mol for W and WO{sub 3}, respectively. In the case of F etching of tungsten, the addition of undischarged nitric oxide (NO) directly into the reaction chamber results in the competing effects of catalytic etch rate enhancement and the formation of a nearly stoichiometric WO{sub 3} passivating tungsten oxide film, which ultimately stops the etching process. For F etching of tungsten oxide, the introduction of downstream NO reduces the etch rate. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  19. [Adhesive strengths of cast crowns with various types of cements].

    PubMed

    Utz, K H; Grüner, M; Büscher, M

    1990-12-01

    In an in vitro study the adhesive strength of sand-blasted castings (gold alloy) was tested on human teeth prepared and finished in different ways. For cementation we used two glass ionomer and one phosphate cement. On the surfaces treated with carbide finishing instruments the force required for separating the crown from the tooth was about 1.9 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, about 2 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and about 1.8 N/mm2 for Harvard (a zinc oxide phosphate cement). Compared with this, the values obtained for dentin surfaces pretreated with fine diamonds (red ring) were 1.5 N/mm2 for Ketac-cem, 1.6 N/mm2 for Fuji Ionomer, and 1.9 N/mm2 for Harvard. The measured differences between the various types of cement were statistically not significant. PMID:2135267

  20. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  1. Tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis from amorphous-like tungsten films.

    PubMed

    Seelaboyina, Raghunandan

    2016-03-18

    A synthesis technique which can lead to direct integration of tungsten oxide nanowires onto silicon chips is essential for preparing various devices. The conversion of amorphous tungsten films deposited on silicon chips by pulsed layer deposition to nanowires by annealing is an apt method in that direction. This perspective discusses the ingenious features of the technique reported by Dellasega et al on the various aspects of tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis. PMID:26871521

  2. Tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis from amorphous-like tungsten films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelaboyina, Raghunandan

    2016-03-01

    A synthesis technique which can lead to direct integration of tungsten oxide nanowires onto silicon chips is essential for preparing various devices. The conversion of amorphous tungsten films deposited on silicon chips by pulsed layer deposition to nanowires by annealing is an apt method in that direction. This perspective discusses the ingenious features of the technique reported by Dellasega et al on the various aspects of tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis.

  3. Improved toughness of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Impact energy absorbing layers (EALs) comprised of partially densified silicon carbide were formed in situ on fully sinterable silicon carbide substrates. After final sintering, duplex silicon carbide structures resulted which were comprised of a fully sintered, high density silicon carbide substrate or core, overlayed with an EAL of partially sintered silicon carbide integrally bonded to its core member. Thermal cycling tests proved such structures to be moderately resistant to oxidation and highly resistant to thermal shock stresses. The strength of the developed structures in some cases exceeded but essentially it remained the same as the fully sintered silicon carbide without the EAL. Ballistic impact tests indicated that substantial improvements in the toughness of sintered silicon carbide were achieved by the use of the partially densified silicon carbide EALs.

  4. Monolayer Tungsten Disulfide Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yu; Wong, Zi Jing; Lu, Xiufang; Ni, Xingjie; Zhu, Hanyu; Chen, Xianhui; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have opened a new paradigm for fundamental physics exploration and device applications because of their emerging physical properties. Unlike gapless graphene, monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides are two-dimensional semiconductors that undergo an indirect-to-direct band gap transition, creating new optical functionalities for next-generation ultra-compact photonics and optoelectronics. Here, we report the realization of a two-dimensional excitonic laser by embedding monolayer tungsten disulfide in a microdisk resonator.

  5. Silicon carbide thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmond, John A. (Inventor); Palmour, John W. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The SiC thyristor has a substrate, an anode, a drift region, a gate, and a cathode. The substrate, the anode, the drift region, the gate, and the cathode are each preferably formed of silicon carbide. The substrate is formed of silicon carbide having one conductivity type and the anode or the cathode, depending on the embodiment, is formed adjacent the substrate and has the same conductivity type as the substrate. A drift region of silicon carbide is formed adjacent the anode or cathode and has an opposite conductivity type as the anode or cathode. A gate is formed adjacent the drift region or the cathode, also depending on the embodiment, and has an opposite conductivity type as the drift region or the cathode. An anode or cathode, again depending on the embodiment, is formed adjacent the gate or drift region and has an opposite conductivity type than the gate.

  6. Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, G.A.; Schildbach, M.A.

    1996-12-03

    A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system including a reaction chamber, a source of elemental carbon, a heating subassembly and a source of reaction gases. Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon and the reaction gases are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part, evacuating the chamber with a vacuum subassembly and heating all of the components to the desired temperature. 5 figs.

  7. Helium bubble bursting in tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    Sefta, Faiza; Juslin, Niklas; Wirth, Brian D.

    2013-12-28

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to systematically study the pressure evolution and bursting behavior of sub-surface helium bubbles and the resulting tungsten surface morphology. This study specifically investigates how bubble shape and size, temperature, tungsten surface orientation, and ligament thickness above the bubble influence bubble stability and surface evolution. The tungsten surface is roughened by a combination of adatom “islands,” craters, and pinholes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms and conditions leading to various tungsten topology changes, which we believe are the initial stages of surface evolution leading to the formation of nanoscale fuzz.

  8. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2003-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra- lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report discusses testing that was performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of the carbide wastes of hard alloys using alternating current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryukvin, V. A.; Palant, A. A.; Levchuk, O. M.; Tsybin, O. I.

    2012-03-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of the carbide wastes of a W-Co alloy has been studied by gas, electron-probe microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction analyses. The experiments are carried out using halfwave sinusoidal alternating current. It is established that a CO2 + CO mixture forms under such conditions in a gaseous phase in volumetric ratio of 2: 1 and that a tungsten deposit forms in an anode sludge mainly in the form of hydrated tungsten oxide WO2(OH)2. Marketable products are obtained in the form of pure CO3O4 and WO3.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: tungsten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on tungsten. It says that tungsten is a metal found in chemical compounds such as in the scheelite and ore minerals wolframite. It states that tungsten has the highest melting point and it forms a compound as hard as diamond when combined with carbon. It states that tungsten can be used as a substitute for lead in fishing weights, ammunition, and hunting shot. Moreover, China started to export tungsten materials and products instead of tungsten raw materials.

  11. Silicon carbide reinforced silicon carbide composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Sai-Kwing (Inventor); Calandra, Salvatore J. (Inventor); Ohnsorg, Roger W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to a process comprising the steps of: a) providing a fiber preform comprising a non-oxide ceramic fiber with at least one coating, the coating comprising a coating element selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, aluminum and titanium, and the fiber having a degradation temperature of between 1400.degree. C. and 1450.degree. C., b) impregnating the preform with a slurry comprising silicon carbide particles and between 0.1 wt % and 3 wt % added carbon c) providing a cover mix comprising: i) an alloy comprising a metallic infiltrant and the coating element, and ii) a resin, d) placing the cover mix on at least a portion of the surface of the porous silicon carbide body, e) heating the cover mix to a temperature between 1410.degree. C. and 1450.degree. C. to melt the alloy, and f) infiltrating the fiber preform with the melted alloy for a time period of between 15 minutes and 240 minutes, to produce a ceramic fiber reinforced ceramic composite.

  12. Carbide fuel pin and capsule design for irradiations at thermionic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. L.; Slaby, J. G.; Mattson, W. F.; Dilanni, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The design of a capsule assembly to evaluate tungsten-emitter - carbide-fuel combinations for thermionic fuel elements is presented. An inpile fuel pin evaluation program concerned with clad temperture, neutron spectrum, carbide fuel composition, fuel geometry,fuel density, and clad thickness is discussed. The capsule design was a compromise involving considerations between heat transfer, instrumentation, materials compatibility, and test location. Heat-transfer calculations were instrumental in determining the method of support of the fuel pin to minimize axial temperature variations. The capsule design was easily fabricable and utilized existing state-of-the-art experience from previous programs.

  13. A Magnetorheological Polishing-Based Approach for Studying Precision Microground Surfaces of Tungsten Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-03-23

    Surface features of tungsten carbide composites processed by bound abrasive deterministic microgrinding and magnetorheological finishing (MRF) were studied for five WC-Ni composites, including one binderless material. All the materials studied were nonmagnetic with different microstructures and mechanical properties. White-light interferometry, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the surfaces after various grinding steps, surface etching, and MRF spot-taking.

  14. Composition Comprising Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  15. Improved toughness of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palm, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Several techniques were employed to apply or otherwise form porous layers of various materials on the surface of hot-pressed silicon carbide ceramic. From mechanical properties measurements and studies, it was concluded that although porous layers could be applied to the silicon carbide ceramic, sufficient damage was done to the silicon carbide surface by the processing required so as to drastically reduce its mechanical strength. It was further concluded that there was little promise of success in forming an effective energy absorbing layer on the surface of already densified silicon carbide ceramic that would have the mechanical strength of the untreated or unsurfaced material. Using a process for the pressureless sintering of silicon carbide powders it was discovered that porous layers of silicon carbide could be formed on a dense, strong silicon carbide substrate in a single consolidation process.

  16. Tungsten coating for improved wear resistance and reliability of microelectromechanical devices

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Mani, Seethambal S.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Blewer, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    A process is disclosed whereby a 5-50-nanometer-thick conformal tungsten coating can be formed over exposed semiconductor surfaces (e.g. silicon, germanium or silicon carbide) within a microelectromechanical (MEM) device for improved wear resistance and reliability. The tungsten coating is formed after cleaning the semiconductor surfaces to remove any organic material and oxide film from the surface. A final in situ cleaning step is performed by heating a substrate containing the MEM device to a temperature in the range of 200-600 .degree. C. in the presence of gaseous nitrogen trifluoride (NF.sub.3). The tungsten coating can then be formed by a chemical reaction between the semiconductor surfaces and tungsten hexafluoride (WF.sub.6) at an elevated temperature, preferably about 450.degree. C. The tungsten deposition process is self-limiting and covers all exposed semiconductor surfaces including surfaces in close contact. The present invention can be applied to many different types of MEM devices including microrelays, micromirrors and microengines. Additionally, the tungsten wear-resistant coating of the present invention can be used to enhance the hardness, wear resistance, electrical conductivity, optical reflectivity and chemical inertness of one or more semiconductor surfaces within a MEM device.

  17. Preparation of tungsten oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Bulian, Christopher J.; Dye, Robert C.; Son, Steven F.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Perry, W. Lee

    2009-09-22

    Tungsten trioxide hydrate (WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O) was prepared from a precursor solution of ammonium paratungstate in concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid. The precursor solution was rapidly added to water, resulting in the crash precipitation of a yellow white powder identified as WO.sub.3.H.sub.2O nanosized platelets by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Annealing of the powder at 200.degree. C. provided cubic phase WO.sub.3 nanopowder, and at 400.degree. C. provided WO.sub.3 nanopowder as a mixture of monoclinic and orthorhombic phases.

  18. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2001-04-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

  19. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2001-07-18

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job.

  20. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-04-29

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, and shear bond. Testing to determine the effect of temperature cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. In addition, the stress-strain behavior of the cement types was studied. This report discusses a software program that is being developed to help design ULHS cements and foamed cements.

  1. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2002-10-31

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that will be performed for analyzing the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries, as well as the results of Field Tests 1 and 2.

  2. Carbide transformations in constructional steels

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokur, B.B.

    1986-01-01

    In connection with the type of carbides formed in general purpose constructional steels or on the mechanisms of carbide transformations and the influence of carbide formation on the properties, this work presents an investigation that was made of medium-carbon chrome-nickel and chrome-manganese steels with 1, 2, and 3% Cr, 1% Ni, and 1% Mn additionally alloyed with 0.25-2% Mo or W (every 0.25%). All of the steels were hardened from temperatures providing the fullest solution of carbides in austenite and were tempered at 400-650/sup 0/C every 25-50/sup 0/C. The composition of the carbides and their type were established by chemical, x-ray diffraction, and microdiffraction methods and the mechanism of the carbide transformations was determined on the basis of the changes in distortions of the second and third order of the matrix electrical resistance, and coercive force of the steel. All of the carbideforming elements present in steel participate in saturation of the carbides, as a result of which the formation of a special carbide is eased and the degree of alloying of the matrix increases. In the carbide transformation with a certain share of carbide phase an increase or retarding of the reduction in strength with an increase in tempering temperature with constant plasticity and impact strength is possible.

  3. High strength uranium-tungsten alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Hogan, Billy M.; Lewis, Homer D.; Dickinson, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  4. High strength uranium-tungsten alloy process

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Hogan, Billy M.; Lewis, Homer D.; Dickinson, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  5. AES XPS study of chromium carbides and chromium iron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detroye, M.; Reniers, F.; Buess-Herman, C.; Vereecken, J.

    1999-04-01

    The nature of chromium rich carbides which precipitate at grain boundaries in steels is still not perfectly understood. We performed a multitechnique approach on model chromium carbide and chromium-iron carbide samples: Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Energy Electron Diffraction (HEED) were used to characterise the samples. Significant chemical shifts were observed for the Cr, Fe and C XPS peaks in the M 7C 3 compound (M stands for metal), indicating unambiguously that the compound formed is a mixed iron-chromium carbide.

  6. METHOD OF MAKING TUNGSTEN FILAMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, J.W.

    1962-12-18

    A method of making tungsten filaments is described in which the tungsten is completely free of isotope impurities in the range of masses 234 to 245 for use in mass spectrometers. The filament comprises a tantalum core generally less than 1 mil in diameter having a coating of potassium-free tantalum-diffused tungsten molecularly bonded thereto. In the preferred process of manufacture a short, thin tantalum filament is first mounted between terminal posts mounted in insulated relation through a backing plate. The tungsten is most conveniently vapor plated onto the tantalum by a tungsten carbonyl vapor decomposition method having a critical step because of the tendency of the tantalum to volatilize at the temperature of operntion of the filament. The preferred recipe comprises volatilizing tantalum by resistance henting until the current drops by about 40%, cutting the voltage back to build up the tungsten, and then gradually building the temperature back up to balance the rate of tungsten deposition with the rate of tantalum volatilization. (AEC)

  7. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Lindemer, T.B.

    1991-05-21

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  8. Modified silicon carbide whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Lindemer, Terrence B.

    1991-01-01

    Silicon carbide whisker-reinforced ceramic composites are fabricated in a highly reproducible manner by beneficating the surfaces of the silicon carbide whiskers prior to their usage in the ceramic composites. The silicon carbide whiskers which contain considerable concentrations of surface oxides and other impurities which interact with the ceramic composite material to form a chemical bond are significantly reduced so that only a relatively weak chemical bond is formed between the whisker and the ceramic material. Thus, when the whiskers interact with a crack propagating into the composite the crack is diverted or deflected along the whisker-matrix interface due to the weak chemical bonding so as to deter the crack propagation through the composite. The depletion of the oxygen-containing compounds and other impurities on the whisker surfaces and near surface region is effected by heat treating the whiskers in a suitable oxygen sparaging atmosphere at elevated temperatures. Additionally, a sedimentation technique may be utilized to remove whiskers which suffer structural and physical anomalies which render them undesirable for use in the composite. Also, a layer of carbon may be provided on the surface of the whiskers to further inhibit chemical bonding of the whiskers to the ceramic composite material.

  9. RECOVERY OF URANIUM FROM TUNGSTEN

    DOEpatents

    Newnam, K.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for the rccovery of uranium which has adhered to tungsten parts in electromagnetic isotope separation apparatus. Such a tungsten article is dissolved electrolytically in 20% NaOH by using the tungsten article as the anode. The resulting solution, containing soluble sodium lungstate and an insoluble slime, is then filtered. The slime residue is ignited successively with sodium nitrate and sodium pyrosulfate and leashed, and the resulting filtrates are combined with the original filtrate. Uranium is then recovered from the combined flltrates by diuranate precipitation.

  10. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined. PMID:27137642