Science.gov

Sample records for center analytical response

  1. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Analytical Response

    SciTech Connect

    E.C. Nielsen

    2003-04-01

    The Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is authorized by the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan to coordinate all off-site radiological response assistance to state and local government s, in the event of a major radiological emergency in the United States. The FRMAC is established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, to coordinate all Federal assets involved in conducting a comprehensive program of radiological environmental monitoring, sampling, radioanalysis, quality assurance, and dose assessment. During an emergency response, the initial analytical data is provided by portable field instrumentation. As incident responders scale up their response based on the seriousness of the incident, local analytical assets and mobile laboratories add additional capability and capacity. During the intermediate phase of the response, data quality objectives and measurement quality objectives are more rigorous. These higher objectives will require the use of larger laboratories, with greater capacity and enhanced capabilities. These labs may be geographically distant from the incident, which will increase sample management challenges. This paper addresses emergency radioanalytical capability and capacity and its utilization during FRMAC operations.

  2. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  3. Teaching social responsibility in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, M; Christian, G D; Lucena, R

    2013-07-01

    Analytical chemistry is key to the functioning of a modern society. From early days, ethics in measurements have been a concern and that remains today, especially as we have come to rely more on the application of analytical science in many aspects of our lives. The main aim of this Feature is to suggest ways of introducing the topic of social responsibility and its relation to analytical chemistry in undergraduate or graduate chemistry courses. PMID:23617684

  4. Stimuli-responsive materials in analytical separation.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Rosa A; Carro, Antonia M; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on the fundamentals of stimuli-responsive materials and their applications to three common separation techniques, namely extraction, chromatography, and electrophoresis. Although still little investigated, materials that switch their affinity for the analyte on and off as a function of tiny changes in physical and biochemical variables offer relevant advantages for analyte extraction, concentration, and separation. Temperature and/or pH-responsive polymers in the form of chains or networks, which are dispersed in the sample as free entities or after being grafted onto beads (which may incorporate magnetic cores), enable quantitative capture and/or elution of the analyte under mild conditions and without needing organic solvents. Regarding liquid-chromatography separation, responsive stationary phases enable the implementation of "all-in-water" procedures in which retention times are modulated by means of temperature or pH gradients. Other stimuli that can be externally applied, for example light or magnetic fields, can also be used for efficient extraction or separation of the target substance without altering the composition of the sample matrix. Moreover, stimuli-responsiveness enables straightforward recycling of solid and/or stationary phases for a prolonged lifetime. Improved understanding of the phase transitions of stimuli-responsive materials and design of suitable formats for analytical applications should enable wider and more successful application of stimuli-responsive materials in analytical separations. PMID:25910881

  5. User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean C.; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-03-23

    In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

  6. User-Centered Evaluation of Technosocial Predictive Analytic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2009-03-23

    In today’s technology filled world, it is absolutely essential to show the utility of new software, especially software that brings entirely new capabilities to potential users. In the case of technosocial predictive analytics, researchers are developing software capabilities to augment human reasoning and cognition. Getting acceptance and buy-in from analysts and decision makers will not be an easy task. In this position paper, we discuss an approach we are taking for user-centered evaluation that we believe will result in facilitating the adoption of technosocial predictive software by the intelligence community.

  7. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  8. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jermey; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier.

    2007-06-30

    The Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) focuses on leveraging scientific visualization andanalytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasingscientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technologyhave resulted in an 'information big bang,' which in turn has created asignificant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widelyacknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporaryscience. The vision of VACET is to adapt, extend, create when necessary,and deploy visual data analysis solutions that are responsive to theneeds of DOE'scomputational and experimental scientists. Our center isengineered to be directly responsive to those needs and to deliversolutions for use in DOE's large open computing facilities. The researchand development directly target data understanding problems provided byour scientific application stakeholders. VACET draws from a diverse setof visualization technology ranging from production quality applicationsand application frameworks to state-of-the-art algorithms forvisualization, analysis, analytics, data manipulation, and datamanagement.

  9. VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathon; Duchaineau, Mark; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom,Peter; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-06-19

    This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.

  10. Analytical response function for planar Ge detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Alvarez, Juan A.; Maidana, Nora L.; Vanin, Vito R.; Fernández-Varea, José M.

    2016-04-01

    We model the response function (RF) of planar HPGe x-ray spectrometers for photon energies between around 10 keV and 100 keV. The RF is based on the proposal of Seltzer [1981. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 188, 133-151] and takes into account the full-energy absorption in the Ge active volume, the escape of Ge Kα and Kβ x-rays and the escape of photons after one Compton interaction. The relativistic impulse approximation is employed instead of the Klein-Nishina formula to describe incoherent photon scattering in the Ge crystal. We also incorporate a simple model for the continuous component of the spectrum produced by the escape of photo-electrons from the active volume. In our calculations we include external interaction contributions to the RF: (i) the incoherent scattering effects caused by the detector's Be window and (ii) the spectrum produced by photo-electrons emitted in the Ge dead layer that reach the active volume. The analytical RF model is compared with pulse-height spectra simulated using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code.

  11. An analytics approach to designing patient centered medical homes.

    PubMed

    Ajorlou, Saeede; Shams, Issac; Yang, Kai

    2015-03-01

    Recently the patient centered medical home (PCMH) model has become a popular team based approach focused on delivering more streamlined care to patients. In current practices of medical homes, a clinical based prediction frame is recommended because it can help match the portfolio capacity of PCMH teams with the actual load generated by a set of patients. Without such balances in clinical supply and demand, issues such as excessive under and over utilization of physicians, long waiting time for receiving the appropriate treatment, and non-continuity of care will eliminate many advantages of the medical home strategy. In this paper, by using the hierarchical generalized linear model with multivariate responses, we develop a clinical workload prediction model for care portfolio demands in a Bayesian framework. The model allows for heterogeneous variances and unstructured covariance matrices for nested random effects that arise through complex hierarchical care systems. We show that using a multivariate approach substantially enhances the precision of workload predictions at both primary and non primary care levels. We also demonstrate that care demands depend not only on patient demographics but also on other utilization factors, such as length of stay. Our analyses of a recent data from Veteran Health Administration further indicate that risk adjustment for patient health conditions can considerably improve the prediction power of the model. PMID:24942633

  12. An Improved Analytic Model for Microdosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An analytic model used to predict energy deposition fluctuations in a microvolume by ions through direct events is improved to include indirect delta ray events. The new model can now account for the increase in flux at low lineal energy when the ions are of very high energy. Good agreement is obtained between the calculated results and available data for laboratory ion beams. Comparison of GCR (galactic cosmic ray) flux between Shuttle TEPC (tissue equivalent proportional counter) flight data and current calculations draws a different assessment of developmental work required for the GCR transport code (HZETRN) than previously concluded.

  13. Deep Center Analytical Foundations v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-02-15

    DCAF is a software library containing analytic functions for encoding, mapping, structuring, and providing access to relations among a collection of entities and deriving attribute and structural features for the purposes of providing an interpretable representation of the information within a collection.

  14. Wind Turbine Response to Analytic Inflow Vortex Parameters Variation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.; Robinson, M. C.; Balas, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    As larger wind turbines are placed on taller towers, rotors frequently operate in atmospheric conditions that support organized, coherent turbulent structures. It is hypothesized that these structures have a detrimental impact on the blade fatigue life experienced by the wind turbine. These structures are extremely difficult to identify with sophisticated anemometry such as ultra-sonic anemometers. In order to ascertain the idealized worst-case scenario for vortical inflow structures impinging on a wind turbine rotor, we created a simple, analytic vortex model. The Rankine vortex model assumes the vortex core undergoes solid body rotation to avoid a singularity at the vortex center and is surrounded by a 2-dimensional potential flow field. Using the wind turbine as a sensor and the FAST wind turbine dynamics code with limited degrees of freedom, we determined the aerodynamic loads imparted to the wind turbine by the vortex structure. The size, strength, rotational direction, plan e of rotation, and location of the vortex were varied over a wide range of operating parameters. We identified the vortex conformation with the most significant effect on blade root bending moment cycle amplitude. Vortices with radii on the scale of the rotor diameter or smaller caused blade root bending moment cyclic amplitudes that lead to reduced fatigue life. The rotational orientation, clockwise or counter-clockwise produces little difference in the bending moment response. Vortices in the XZ plane produce bending moment amplitudes significantly greater than vortices in the YZ plane. The response to vortices in the inflow is similar for both 2- and 3-blade turbines.

  15. An analytical and experimental study of crack extension in center-notched composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuth, Jack L., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The normal stress ratio theory for crack extension in anisotropic materials is studied analytically and experimentally. The theory is applied within a microscopic-level analysis of a single center notch of arbitrary orientation in a unidirectional composite material. The bulk of the analytical work of this study applies an elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center line to obtain critical stress and crack growth direction predictions. An elasticity solution for an infinite plate with a center elliptical flaw is also used to obtain qualitative predictions of the location of crack initiation on the border of a rounded notch tip. The analytical portion of the study includes the formulation of a new crack growth theory that includes local shear stress. Normal stress ratio theory predictions are obtained for notched unidirectional tensile coupons and unidirectional Iosipescu shear specimens. These predictions are subsequently compared to experimental results.

  16. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier

    2006-11-28

    The SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) began operation on 10/1/2006. This document, dated11/27/2006, is the first version of the VACET project management plan. Itwas requested by and delivered to ASCR/DOE. It outlines the Center'saccomplishments in the first six weeks of operation along with broadobjectives for the upcoming future (12-24 months).

  17. Analytical models of optical response in one-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2015-09-01

    The quantum mechanical description of the optical properties of crystalline materials typically requires extensive numerical computation. Including excitonic and non-perturbative field effects adds to the complexity. In one dimension, however, the analysis simplifies and optical spectra can be computed exactly. In this paper, we apply the Wannier exciton formalism to derive analytical expressions for the optical response in four cases of increasing complexity. Thus, we start from free carriers and, in turn, switch on electrostatic fields and electron-hole attraction and, finally, analyze the combined influence of these effects. In addition, the optical response of impurity-localized excitons is discussed.

  18. Teacher Center Responses to Teacher Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Roberta D.; Mort, Ken

    1981-01-01

    The intention of this article is to view specific means of meeting teacher needs through Maslow's multiple-factor theory of self-actualization. Under each of Maslow's five headings, a brief explanation of the use of the term and examples of teacher center services fitting under that heading are discussed. (Author)

  19. Responsibility Center Management: Lessons from 25 Years of Decentralized Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Jon C.; Curry, John R.

    Decentralization of authority is a natural act in universities, but decentralization of responsibility is not. A problem faced by universities is the decoupling of academic authority from financial responsibility. The solution proposed in this book for the coupling is Responsibility Center Management (RCM), also called Revenue Responsibility…

  20. Automating the Analytical Laboratories Section, Lewis Research Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, W. G.; Barton, G. W.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of computerized automation of the Analytical Laboratories Section at NASA's Lewis Research Center was considered. Since that laboratory's duties are not routine, the automation goals were set with that in mind. Four instruments were selected as the most likely automation candidates: an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an emission spectrometer, an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and an X-ray diffraction unit. Two options for computer automation were described: a time-shared central computer and a system with microcomputers for each instrument connected to a central computer. A third option, presented for future planning, expands the microcomputer version. Costs and benefits for each option were considered. It was concluded that the microcomputer version best fits the goals and duties of the laboratory and that such an automted system is needed to meet the laboratory's future requirements.

  1. Analytical and physical modeling program for the NASA Lewis Research Center's Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, J. M.; Deidrich, J. H.; Groeneweg, J. F.; Povinelli, L. A.; Reid, L.; Reinmann, J. J.; Szuch, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    An effort is currently underway at the NASA Lewis Research Center to rehabilitate and extend the capabilities of the Altitude Wind Tunnel (AWT). This extended capability will include a maximum test section Mach number of about 0.9 at an altitude of 55,000 ft and a -20 F stagnation temperature (octagonal test section, 20 ft across the flats). In addition, the AWT will include an icing and acoustic research capability. In order to insure a technically sound design, an AWT modeling program (both analytical and physical) was initiated to provide essential input to the AWT final design process. This paper describes the modeling program, including the rationale and criteria used in program definition, and presents some early program results.

  2. COMPARISON OF RESPONSE OF 9977 TEST PACKAGES TO ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A; Tsu-Te Wu, T

    2007-12-05

    Each of the hypothetical accident test cases for the 9977 prototypes was included in the battery of finite element structural analyses performed for the package. Comparison of the experimental and analytical results provides a means of confirming that the analytical model correctly represents the physical behavior of the package. The ability of the analytical model to correctly predict the performance of the foam overpack material for the crush test is of particular interest. The dissipation of energy in the crushing process determines the deceleration of the package upon impact and the duration of the impact. In addition, if the analytical model correctly models the foam behavior, the predicted deformation of the package will match that measured on the test articles. This study compares the deformations of the test packages with the analytical predictions. In addition, the impact acceleration and impact duration for the test articles are compared with those predicted by the analyses.

  3. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  4. GIS in the World Trade Center Response: 10 Years after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevany, M.

    2011-08-01

    The World Trade Center attack of 9/11/01 and the response brought major attention to GIS as a valuable tool for supporting emergency management and response. That attention led to the allocation of considerable resources to the enhancement of GIS. This paper is intended to provide a look back at the events prior to and immediately following the attack, review of GIS in the response and recovery efforts, explore the emergence of GIS in Emergency Management from the impetus generated in the NYC experience and explore the challenges yet facing the use of GIS in emergency management. The author participated in the WTC response as a member of the Emergency Mapping and Data Center component of the Emergency Operations Center through which the response was managed.

  5. Wind turbine response to parameter variation of analytic inflow vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, M. Maureen; Robinson, Michael C.; Balas, Mark J.

    2006-05-01

    As larger wind turbines are placed on taller towers, rotors frequently operate in atmospheric conditions that support organized, coherent turbulent structures. It is hypothesized that these structures have a detrimental impact on the blade fatigue life experienced by the wind turbine. These structures are extremely difficult to identify with sophisticated anemometry such as ultrasonic anemometers. This study was performed to identify the vortex characteristics that contribute to high-amplitude cyclic blade loads, assuming that these vortices exist under certain atmospheric conditions. This study does not attempt to demonstrate the existence of these coherent turbulent structures. In order to ascertain the idealized worst-case scenario for vortical inflow structures impinging on a wind turbine rotor, we created a simple, analytic vortex model. The Rankine vortex model assumes that the vortex core undergoes solid body rotation to avoid a singularity at the vortex centre and is surrounded by a two-dimensional potential flow field. Using the wind turbine as a sensor and the FAST wind turbine dynamics code with limited degrees of freedom, we determined the aerodynamic loads imparted to the wind turbine by the vortex structure. We varied the size, strength, rotational direction, plane of rotation, and location of the vortex over a wide range of operating parameters. We identified the vortex conformation with the most significant effect on the blade root bending moment cyclic amplitude. Vortices with radii on the scale of the rotor diameter or smaller caused blade root bending moment cyclic amplitudes that contribute to high damage density. The rotational orientation, clockwise or counter-clockwise, produces little difference in the bending moment response. Vortices in the XZ plane produce bending moment amplitudes significantly greater than vortices in the YZ plane. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Received: 9 April 2004; Revised: 14 March 2005; Accepted: 19

  6. Description of a Generalized Analytical Model for the Micro-dosimeter Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Stewart-Sloan, Charlotte R.; Xapsos, Michael A.; Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.; Hunter, Abigail

    2007-01-01

    An analytical prediction capability for space radiation in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), correlated with the Space Transportation System (STS) Shuttle Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) measurements, is presented. The model takes into consideration the energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the TEPC detector, and is capable of predicting energy deposition fluctuations in a micro-volume by incoming ions through both direct and indirect ionic events. The charged particle transport calculations correlated with STS 56, 51, 110 and 114 flights are accomplished by utilizing the most recent version (2005) of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport WZETRN), which has been extensively validated with laboratory beam measurements and available space flight data. The agreement between the TEPC model prediction (response function) and the TEPC measured differential and integral spectra in lineal energy (y) domain is promising.

  7. Measurement of Chern numbers through center-of-mass responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, H. M.; Zilberberg, O.; Ozawa, T.; Carusotto, I.; Goldman, N.

    2016-06-01

    Probing the center-of-mass of an ultracold atomic cloud can be used to measure Chern numbers, the topological invariants underlying the quantum Hall effects. In this work, we show how such center-of-mass observables can have a much richer dependence on topological invariants than previously discussed. In fact, the response of the center of mass depends not only on the current density, typically measured in a solid-state system, but also on the particle density, which itself can be sensitive to the topology of the band structure. We apply a semiclassical approach, supported by numerical simulations, to highlight the key differences between center-of-mass responses and more standard conductivity measurements. We illustrate this by analyzing both the two- and four-dimensional quantum Hall effects. These results have important implications for experiments in engineered topological systems, such as ultracold gases and photonics.

  8. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  9. The germinal center antibody response in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    The germinal center response is the delayed but sustained phase of the antibody response that is responsible for producing high-affinity antibodies of the IgG, IgA and/or IgE isotypes. B cells in the germinal center undergo re-iterative cycles of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin gene variable regions, clonal expansion, and Darwinian selection for cells expressing higher-affinity antibody variants. Alternatively, selected B cells can terminally differentiate into long-lived plasma cells or into a broad diversity of mutated memory B cells; the former secrete the improved antibodies to fight an infection and to provide continuing protection from re-infection, whereas the latter may jumpstart immune responses to subsequent infections with related but distinct infecting agents. Our understanding of the molecules involved in the germinal center reaction has been informed by studies of human immunodeficiency patients with selective defects in the production of antibodies. Recent studies have begun to reveal how innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors can enhance the magnitude and selective properties of the germinal center, leading to more effective control of infection by a subset of viruses. Just as early insights into the nature of the germinal center found application in the development of the highly successful conjugate vaccines, more recent insights may find application in the current efforts to develop new generations of vaccines, including vaccines that can induce broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus or HIV-1. PMID:27303636

  10. On the Use of Factor-Analytic Multinomial Logit Item Response Models to Account for Individual Differences in Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Multidimensional item response models are usually implemented to model the relationship between item responses and two or more traits of interest. We show how multidimensional multinomial logit item response models can also be used to account for individual differences in response style. This is done by specifying a factor-analytic model for…

  11. The Center for Healthy Weight: an academic medical center response to childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, T N; Kemby, K M

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity represents a worldwide medical and public health challenge. Academic medical centers cannot avoid the effects of the obesity epidemic, and must adopt strategies for their academic, clinical and public policy responses to childhood obesity. The Center for Healthy Weight at Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford provides an example and model of one such strategy. The design provides both breadth and depth through six cores: Research, Patient Care, Community Programs, Advocating for Public Policy Change, Training and Professional Education, and the Healthy Hospital Initiative. The Center and its cores are designed to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration across the university, medical school, children's hospital and surrounding community. The foci of these cores are likely to be relevant to almost any academic medical center's mission and functions. PMID:25089192

  12. Responsibility Center Management: An Assessment of RCM at IUPUI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, David L.; Rooney, Patrick Michael

    1995-01-01

    Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis is the first public institution to implement Responsibility Center Management (RCM), a comprehensive decentralized, incentive-base financial management system. RCM has strengthened academic planning, budget management, general accountability, and multiyear fiscal planning. Organizational…

  13. 47 CFR 0.192 - Emergency Response Interoperability Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to develop, recommend, and administer policy goals, objectives... Organization Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau § 0.192 Emergency Response Interoperability Center. (a... extent permitted by applicable law, the Chief of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau...

  14. 47 CFR 0.192 - Emergency Response Interoperability Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to develop, recommend, and administer policy goals, objectives... Organization Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau § 0.192 Emergency Response Interoperability Center. (a... extent permitted by applicable law, the Chief of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau...

  15. Client-centered home care: balancing between competing responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Schoot, Tineke; Proot, Ireen; Legius, Marja; ter Meulen, Ruud; de Witte, Luc

    2006-11-01

    This study explores and describes the perceptions of nurses with respect to everyday client-centered care. A grounded theory study was conducted with 10 Dutch nurses and auxiliary nurses giving home care to chronically ill clients. Participatory observations and semistructured interviews were held. Nurses perceived roles and responsibilities competing with the role as a responsive professional to the client demand: a critical professional, developer of client competencies, individual, and employee. Strategies in balancing between competing responsibilities were distinguished: pleasing, dialoguing, directing, and detaching. Directing (related to impaired client competencies) and detaching (related to organizational barriers) were also used as second choice strategies. Effectively balancing between competing responsibilities was seen in dialoguing and directing as second choice. Conditions identified related to these strategies are awareness of, and responsibility taking for competing responsibilities. Recommendations for practice concern a care relationship and a dialogue with the client, critical ethical reflection, professional autonomy, self-assertiveness and organizational support. PMID:17056768

  16. Approximate analytical description of the nonaffine response of amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Zaccone, Alessio; Scossa-Romano, Enzo

    2011-05-01

    An approximation scheme for model disordered solids is proposed that leads to the fully analytical evaluation of the elastic constants under explicit account of the inhomogeneity (nonaffinity) of the atomic displacements. The theory is in quantitative agreement with simulations for central-force systems and predicts the vanishing of the shear modulus at the isostatic point with the linear law {mu}{approx}(z-2d), where z is the coordination number. The vanishing of rigidity at the isostatic point is shown to be a consequence of the canceling out of positive affine and negative nonaffine terms.

  17. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center: Phase I Response

    SciTech Connect

    C. Riland; D. R. Bowman; R. Lambert; R. Tighe

    1999-09-30

    A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to a Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or State request when a radiological emergency is anticipated or has occurred. The FRMAC coordinates the off-site monitoring, assessment, and analysis activities during such an emergency. The FRMAC response is divided into three phases. FRMAC Phase 1 is a rapid, initial-response capability that can interface with Federal or State officials and is designed for a quick response time and rapid radiological data collection and assessment. FRMAC Phase 1 products provide an initial characterization of the radiological situation and information on early health effects to officials responsible for making and implementing protective action decisions.

  18. Technology Transfer Center to Assume Patenting and Licensing Responsibilities | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Technology Transfer Center (TTC) is undergoing a reorganization that will bring patenting and licensing responsibilities to the Shady Grove and Frederick offices by October 2015. The reorganization is a result of an effort begun in 2014 by NIH to improve the organizational structure of technology transfer at NIH to meet the rapid rate of change within science, technology, and industry, and to better align the science and laboratory goals with the licensing and patenting process.

  19. NASA Lewis Research Center Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George L. (Compiler); Murthy, Durbha V. (Compiler); Morel, Michael (Compiler); Hoyniak, Dan (Compiler); Gauntner, Jim W. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) Workshop on Forced Response in Turbomachinery in August, 1993 is presented. It was sponsored by the following NASA organizations: Structures, Space Propulsion Technology, and Propulsion Systems Divisions of NASA LeRC and the Aeronautics and Advanced Concepts & Technology Offices of NASA Headquarters. In addition, the workshop was held in conjunction with the GUIde (Government/Industry/Universities) Consortium on Forced Response. The workshop was specifically designed to receive suggestions and comments from industry on current research at NASA LeRC in the area of forced vibratory response of turbomachinery blades which includes both computational and experimental approaches. There were eight presentations and a code demonstration. Major areas of research included aeroelastic response, steady and unsteady fluid dynamics, mistuning, and corresponding experimental work.

  20. Analytical and computational modeling of the mechanical response of polycrystalline and nanocrystalline metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hsueh-Hung

    Metallic materials with different grain sizes exhibit vasty differences in their mechanical behavior. For example, the mechanical strength of nanocrystalline materials is superior to those with coarse grain materials. In recent decades, many analytical and experimental efforts have been contributed to this new materials field. In this research, a computational and analytical study of the grain size effect on the behavior of polycrystalline and nanocrystalline copper. A phenomenological constitutive description of this scaling response is discussed and adopted to build the numerical model. Both elastic and plastic anisotropy are included in this investigation. The material is envisaged as a composite, comprised of the grain interior, with flow stress sigmafG, and grain boundary layer, with flow stress sigmafGB. The hardening rates in the grain interior and grain boundary are different as a result of differences in dislocation source densities and interactions. The material is modeled as a monocrystalline core surrounded by a mantle grain boundary with a higher work hardening rate response. The computational predictions of plastic flow as a function of grain size are made incorporating differences of dislocation accumulation rate in grain-boundary regions and grain interiors. To depict the deformation response of face-centered cubic copper, three material models are implemented into an Eulerian finite element hydrocode. In model I, three sets of crystals with hard, medium and soft orientations are randomly embedded in the computational domain; the flow stress is developed for isotropic von Mises plasticity from the experimental data of C23, C26 and C30. In model II, rate dependent crystal plasticity with planar double slip is implemented in the grain interiors to study the nonuniform deformation and localized plastic flow while the mechanical behavior of grain boundaries is defined as in model I. In model III, both the grain interior and grain boundary are modeled

  1. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    PubMed

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. PMID:24767454

  2. Analytical, experimental, and Monte Carlo system response matrix for pinhole SPECT reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, Pablo; Pino, Francisco; Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús; Pavía, Javier; Ros, Doménec; Ruibal, Álvaro; and others

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the performance of two approaches to the system response matrix (SRM) calculation in pinhole single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. Methods: Evaluation was performed using experimental data from a low magnification pinhole SPECT system that consisted of a rotating flat detector with a monolithic scintillator crystal. The SRM was computed following two approaches, which were based on Monte Carlo simulations (MC-SRM) and analytical techniques in combination with an experimental characterization (AE-SRM). The spatial response of the system, obtained by using the two approaches, was compared with experimental data. The effect of the MC-SRM and AE-SRM approaches on the reconstructed image was assessed in terms of image contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, image quality, and spatial resolution. To this end, acquisitions were carried out using a hot cylinder phantom (consisting of five fillable rods with diameters of 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 mm and a uniform cylindrical chamber) and a custom-made Derenzo phantom, with center-to-center distances between adjacent rods of 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 mm. Results: Good agreement was found for the spatial response of the system between measured data and results derived from MC-SRM and AE-SRM. Only minor differences for point sources at distances smaller than the radius of rotation and large incidence angles were found. Assessment of the effect on the reconstructed image showed a similar contrast for both approaches, with values higher than 0.9 for rod diameters greater than 1 mm and higher than 0.8 for rod diameter of 1 mm. The comparison in terms of image quality showed that all rods in the different sections of a custom-made Derenzo phantom could be distinguished. The spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.7 mm at iteration 100 using both approaches. The SNR was lower for reconstructed images using MC-SRM than for those reconstructed using AE-SRM, indicating that AE-SRM deals better with the

  3. Gas turbine rotor/case structural response to rotating stall: Experimental documentation and analytical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    The forcing functions and structural responses characterizing gas turbine rotor/case system vibration due to rotating stall in an axial flow compressor are described. Two data sets with fundamentally different response characteristics are presented; one is supersynchronous and the other subsynchronous. Conventional beam element rotor dynamics analysis is shown to be severely limited in its ability to predict these responses. A new analytical approach, which significantly increases structural response predictive capability for these phenomena, is briefly discussed.

  4. An analytical model for the prediction of a micro-dosimeter response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, F. F.; Xapsos, M. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    2009-07-01

    A rapid analytical procedure for the prediction of a micro-dosimeter response function in low Earth orbit (LEO), correlated with the Space Transportation System (STS, shuttle) Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) measurements is presented. The analytical model takes into consideration the energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the detector, and is capable of predicting energy deposition fluctuations in a cylindrical micro-volume of arbitrary aspect ratio (height/diameter) by incoming ions through both direct and indirect (δ ray) events. At any designated (ray traced) target point within the vehicle, the model accepts the differential flux spectrum of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and/or trapped protons at LEO as input. On a desktop PC, the response function of TEPC for each ion in the GCR/trapped field is computed at the average rate of 30 s/ion. The ionizing radiation environment at LEO is represented by O'Neill's GCR model (2004), covering charged particles in the 1 ⩽ Z ⩽ 28 range. O'Neill's free space GCR model is coupled with the Langley Research Center (LaRC) angular dependent geomagnetic cutoff model to compute the transmission coefficient in LEO. The trapped proton environment is represented by a LaRC developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8MIN/AP8MAX, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment is represented by the extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. The charged particle transport calculations correlated with STS 51 and 114 flights are accomplished by using the most recent version (2005) of the LaRC deterministic High charge ( Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) code. We present the correlations between the TEPC model predictions (response function) and TEPC measured differential/integral spectra in the lineal energy ( y) domain for both GCR and trapped protons, with the conclusion that the model correctly

  5. An analytical model for the prediction of a micro-dosimeter response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis; Michael, Michael; Wilson, John W.

    A rapid analytical procedure for the prediction of a micro-dosimeter response function in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), correlated with the Space Transportation System (STS, shuttle) Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) measurements is presented. The analytical model takes into consideration the energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the detector, and is capable of predicting energy deposition fluctuations in a cylindrical micro-volume of arbitrary aspect ratio (height/diameter) by incoming ions through both direct and indirect (δ rays) events. At any designated (ray traced) target point within the vehicle, the model as input accepts the differential flux spectrum of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and/or trapped protons at LEO. On a desktop PC, the response function of TEPC for each ion in the GCR/trapped field is computed at the average rate of 30 seconds/ion. The ionizing radiation environment at LEO is represented by O'Neill's GCR model (2004), covering charge particles in the 1≤Z≤28 range. O'Neill's free space GCR model is coupled with the Langley Research Center (LaRC) cutoff model with angular dependency compensation to compute the transmission coefficient at LEO. The trapped proton environment is represented by a LaRC developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8min/AP8max, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment is represented by the extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. The charged particle transport calculations correlated with STS 56, 51, 110 and 114 flights are accomplished by using the most recent version (2005) of LaRC's deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN). Herein, we present the correlations between the TEPC model predictions (response function) and TEPC measured differential/integral spectra in the lineal energy (y) domain for both GCR and trapped protons, with

  6. An Analytical Model for the Prediction of a Micro-Dosimeter Response Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Xapsos, Mike

    2008-01-01

    A rapid analytical procedure for the prediction of a micro-dosimeter response function in low Earth orbit (LEO), correlated with the Space Transportation System (STS, shuttle) Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) measurements is presented. The analytical model takes into consideration the energy loss straggling and chord length distribution of the detector, and is capable of predicting energy deposition fluctuations in a cylindrical micro-volume of arbitrary aspect ratio (height/diameter) by incoming ions through both direct and indirect (ray) events. At any designated (ray traced) target point within the vehicle, the model accepts the differential flux spectrum of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and/or trapped protons at LEO as input. On a desktop PC, the response function of TEPC for each ion in the GCR/trapped field is computed at the average rate of 30 seconds/ion. The ionizing radiation environment at LEO is represented by O'Neill fs GCR model (2004), covering charged particles in the 1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 28. O'Neill's free space GCR model is coupled with the Langley Research Center (LaRC) angular dependent geomagnetic cutoff model to compute the transmission coefficient in LEO. The trapped proton environment is represented by a LaRC developed time dependent procedure which couples the AP8MIN/AP8MAX, Deep River Neutron Monitor (DRNM) and F10.7 solar radio frequency measurements. The albedo neutron environment is represented by the extrapolation of the Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation (AIR) measurements. The charged particle transport calculations correlated with STS 51 and 114 flights are accomplished by using the most recent version (2005) of the LaRC deterministic High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN) code. We present the correlations between the TEPC model predictions (response function) and TEPC measured differential/integral spectra in the lineal energy (y) domain for both GCR and trapped protons, with the conclusion

  7. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Fujita, Sydny; McKane, Aimee; Dudley, Junqiao Han; Radspieler, Anthony; Mares, K.C.; Shroyer, Dave

    2009-12-30

    This study examines data center characteristics, loads, control systems, and technologies to identify demand response (DR) and automated DR (Open Auto-DR) opportunities and challenges. The study was performed in collaboration with technology experts, industrial partners, and data center facility managers and existing research on commercial and industrial DR was collected and analyzed. The results suggest that data centers, with significant and rapidly growing energy use, have significant DR potential. Because data centers are highly automated, they are excellent candidates for Open Auto-DR. 'Non-mission-critical' data centers are the most likely candidates for early adoption of DR. Data center site infrastructure DR strategies have been well studied for other commercial buildings; however, DR strategies for information technology (IT) infrastructure have not been studied extensively. The largest opportunity for DR or load reduction in data centers is in the use of virtualization to reduce IT equipment energy use, which correspondingly reduces facility cooling loads. DR strategies could also be deployed for data center lighting, and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. Additional studies and demonstrations are needed to quantify benefits to data centers of participating in DR and to address concerns about DR's possible impact on data center performance or quality of service and equipment life span.

  8. Two Analyte Calibration From The Transient Response Of Potentiometric Sensors Employed With The SIA Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cartas, Raul; Mimendia, Aitor; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    Calibration models for multi-analyte electronic tongues have been commonly built using a set of sensors, at least one per analyte under study. Complex signals recorded with these systems are formed by the sensors' responses to the analytes of interest plus interferents, from which a multivariate response model is then developed. This work describes a data treatment method for the simultaneous quantification of two species in solution employing the signal from a single sensor. The approach used here takes advantage of the complex information recorded with one electrode's transient after insertion of sample for building the calibration models for both analytes. The departure information from the electrode was firstly processed by discrete wavelet for transforming the signals to extract useful information and reduce its length, and then by artificial neural networks for fitting a model. Two different potentiometric sensors were used as study case for simultaneously corroborating the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. CD83 Modulates B Cell Activation and Germinal Center Responses.

    PubMed

    Krzyzak, Lena; Seitz, Christine; Urbat, Anne; Hutzler, Stefan; Ostalecki, Christian; Gläsner, Joachim; Hiergeist, Andreas; Gessner, André; Winkler, Thomas H; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Nitschke, Lars

    2016-05-01

    CD83 is a maturation marker for dendritic cells. In the B cell lineage, CD83 is expressed especially on activated B cells and on light zone B cells during the germinal center (GC) reaction. The function of CD83 during GC responses is unclear. CD83(-/-) mice have a strong reduction of CD4(+) T cells, which makes it difficult to analyze a functional role of CD83 on B cells during GC responses. Therefore, in the present study we generated a B cell-specific CD83 conditional knockout (CD83 B-cKO) model. CD83 B-cKO B cells show defective upregulation of MHC class II and CD86 expression and impaired proliferation after different stimuli. Analyses of GC responses after immunization with various Ags revealed a characteristic shift in dark zone and light zone B cell numbers, with an increase of B cells in the dark zone of CD83 B-cKO mice. This effect was not accompanied by alterations in the level of IgG immune responses or by major differences in affinity maturation. However, an enhanced IgE response was observed in CD83 B-cKO mice. Additionally, we observed a strong competitive disadvantage of CD83-cKO B cells in GC responses in mixed bone marrow chimeras. Furthermore, infection of mice with Borrelia burgdorferi revealed a defect in bacterial clearance of CD83 B-cKO mice with a shift toward a Th2 response, indicated by a strong increase in IgE titers. Taken together, our results show that CD83 is important for B cell activation and modulates GC composition and IgE Ab responses in vivo. PMID:26983787

  10. An academic medical center's response to widespread computer failure.

    PubMed

    Genes, Nicholas; Chary, Michael; Chason, Kevin W

    2013-01-01

    As hospitals incorporate information technology (IT), their operations become increasingly vulnerable to technological breakdowns and attacks. Proper emergency management and business continuity planning require an approach to identify, mitigate, and work through IT downtime. Hospitals can prepare for these disasters by reviewing case studies. This case study details the disruption of computer operations at Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC), an urban academic teaching hospital. The events, and MSMC's response, are narrated and the impact on hospital operations is analyzed. MSMC's disaster management strategy prevented computer failure from compromising patient care, although walkouts and time-to-disposition in the emergency department (ED) notably increased. This incident highlights the importance of disaster preparedness and mitigation. It also demonstrates the value of using operational data to evaluate hospital responses to disasters. Quantifying normal hospital functions, just as with a patient's vital signs, may help quantitatively evaluate and improve disaster management and business continuity planning. PMID:24352930

  11. 77 FR 38398 - Agency Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activities...) National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey, VA Form 0863. OMB Control Number: 2900-0676. Type of... customer's feedback and suggestions on delivered products and services administered by the...

  12. 77 FR 20887 - Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... solicits comments on the information needed to measure customer satisfaction with delivered products and... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey) Activity...: Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) National Acquisition Center Customer Response Survey, VA Form 0863....

  13. An Analytical Solution for Transient Thermal Response of an Insulated Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical solution was derived for the transient response of an insulated aerospace vehicle structure subjected to a simplified heat pulse. This simplified problem approximates the thermal response of a thermal protection system of an atmospheric entry vehicle. The exact analytical solution is solely a function of two non-dimensional parameters. A simpler function of these two parameters was developed to approximate the maximum structural temperature over a wide range of parameter values. Techniques were developed to choose constant, effective properties to represent the relevant temperature and pressure-dependent properties for the insulator and structure. A technique was also developed to map a time-varying surface temperature history to an equivalent square heat pulse. Using these techniques, the maximum structural temperature rise was calculated using the analytical solutions and shown to typically agree with finite element simulations within 10 to 20 percent over the relevant range of parameters studied.

  14. Occupational exposures during the World Trade Center disaster response.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, K M; Snyder, E M

    2001-06-01

    Upon the request of the New York City Department of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitored occupational exposures among emergency response workers during the rescue and recovery activities at the World Trade Center disaster site from September 18 through 4 October 2001. During this period, over 1,200 bulk and air samples were collected to estimate or characterize workers' occupational exposures. Samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), diesel exhaust, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic acids, mercury and other metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, respirable particulate not otherwise regulated (PNOR), respirable crystalline silica, total PNOR, and volatile organic compounds. Exposures to most of these potential hazards did not exceed NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits or Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limits. However, one torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium and another worker (and possibly three others) was overexposed to CO. The elevated cadmium and CO levels were the result of workers using oxy-acetylene cutting torches and gasoline-powered cutting saws. Recommendations were made to ensure adequate ventilation and worker understanding when using these tools and, where possible, to substitute rechargeable, battery-powered cutting saws for gasoline-powered ones. Toxicology PMID:12539869

  15. Applied Analytical Combustion/emissions Research at the NASA Lewis Research Center - a Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Nguyen, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants from future commercial transports are a significant concern. As a result, the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating various low emission combustor technologies. As part of this effort, a combustor analysis code development program was pursued to guide the combustor design process, to identify concepts having the greatest promise, and to optimize them at the lowest cost in the minimum time.

  16. Applied analytical combustion/emissions research at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Nguyen, H. L.

    1992-01-01

    Emissions of pollutants from future commercial transports are a significant concern. As a result, the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is investigating various low emission combustor technologies. As part of this effort, a combustor analysis code development program was pursued to guide the combustor design process, to identify concepts having the greatest promise, and to optimize them at the lowest cost in the minimum time.

  17. Empirical evaluation of meta-analytic approaches for nutrient and health outcome dose-response data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to empirically compare alternative meta-analytic methods for combining dose-response data from epidemiological studies. We identified meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between a single nutrient and a dichotomous outcome. For each to...

  18. Responsibility-centered management: a 10-year nursing assessment.

    PubMed

    McBride, A B; Neiman, S; Johnson, J

    2000-01-01

    In 1988-89, Indiana University became the first public university to implement responsibility-centered management (RCM) comprehensively. This article describes and assesses the implementation of RCM on the core campus of Indiana University School of Nursing in Indianapolis. It describes how RCM encouraged an information-rich environment, particularly with the advent of economic modeling; decision making linked to strategic goals/objectives; and a performance-based reward structure (e.g., merit pay increases and incentive plans). It ends with a discussion about the worth of RCM and the changes that frame-work produced, particularly in reconceptualizing the roles of the business officer and dean. The most profound consequence of RCM may be the effect it has in encouraging rethinking of what it means to be a school of nursing at this point in time. PMID:10932994

  19. Flight and Analytical Methods for Determining the Coupled Vibration Response of Tandem Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeates, John E , Jr; Brooks, George W; Houbolt, John C

    1957-01-01

    Chapter one presents a discussion of flight-test and analysis methods for some selected helicopter vibration studies. The use of a mechanical shaker in flight to determine the structural response is reported. A method for the analytical determination of the natural coupled frequencies and mode shapes of vibrations in the vertical plane of tandem helicopters is presented in Chapter two. The coupled mode shapes and frequencies are then used to calculate the response of the helicopter to applied oscillating forces.

  20. Analytical stability and simulation response study for a coupled two-body system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, K. M.; Roberts, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical stability study and a digital simulation response study of two connected rigid bodies are documented. Relative rotation of the bodies at the connection is allowed, thereby providing a model suitable for studying system stability and response during a soft-dock regime. Provisions are made of a docking port axes alignment torque and a despin torque capability for encountering spinning payloads. Although the stability analysis is based on linearized equations, the digital simulation is based on nonlinear models.

  1. Pathways to Healing: Person-centered Responses to Complementary Services

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Sharon W.; Fermon, Barbara; Coleman, Julie Foley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This research study assessed perceived changes in quality-of-life measures related to participation in complementary services consisting of a variety of nontraditional therapies and/or programs at Pathways: A Health Crisis Resource Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Design: Survey data were used to assess perceived changes participants ascribed to their experience with complementary services at Pathways. Quantitative data analysis was conducted using participant demographics together with participant ratings of items from the “Self-Assessment of Change” (SAC) measure developed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. Qualitative data analysis was conducted on written responses to an additional survey question: “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Setting/Location: Pathways offers a variety of services, including one-to-one sessions using nontraditional healing therapies, support groups, educational classes, and practice groups such as yoga and meditation for those facing serious health challenges. These services are offered free of charge through community financial support using volunteer practitioners. Participants: People (126) diagnosed with serious health challenges who used Pathways services from 2007 through 2009. Interventions: Participation in self-selected Pathways services. Measures: Responses to items on the SAC measure plus written responses to the question, “To what extent has your participation at Pathways influenced your healing process?” Results: Quantitative findings: Participants reported experiencing significant changes across all components of the SAC measure. Qualitative findings: Responses to the open-ended survey question identified perspectives on the culture of Pathways and a shift in participants' perceptions of well-being based on their experience of Pathways services. Conclusions: Participation in services provided by the Pathways organization improved perceptions of

  2. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? 403.207 Section 403.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL...

  3. Analytic Solutions for the Spectral Responses of RCA-Grating-Based Waveguide Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Kai; Wei, Lai

    2012-12-01

    Analytic solutions (ASs) for the spectral responses of waveguide devices with raised-cosine-apodized (RCA) gratings are presented. The waveguide devices include short- and long-period RCA-gratings, RCA-grating-based interferometers as Fabry—Perot, Mach—Zehnder and Michelson interferometers. The calculations based on the analytic solutions are demonstrated and compared with those based on the transfer matrix (TM) method preferred, which has confirmed that the AS-based analysis is with enough accuracy and several thousands times the efficiency of the TM method.

  4. CRMS vegetation analytical team framework: Methods for collection, development, and use of vegetation response variables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, Kari F.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    This document identifies the main objectives of the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation analytical team, which are to provide (1) collection and development methods for vegetation response variables and (2) the ways in which these response variables will be used to evaluate restoration project effectiveness. The vegetation parameters (that is, response variables) collected in CRMS and other coastal restoration projects funded under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) are identified, and the field collection methods for these parameters are summarized. Existing knowledge on community and plant responses to changes in environmental drivers (for example, flooding and salinity) from published literature and from the CRMS and CWPPRA monitoring dataset are used to develop a suite of indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. Two indices, the floristic quality index (FQI) and a productivity index, are described for herbaceous and forested vegetation. The FQI for herbaceous vegetation is tested with a long-term dataset from a CWPPRA marsh creation project. Example graphics for this index are provided and discussed. The other indices, an FQI for forest vegetation (that is, trees and shrubs) and productivity indices for herbaceous and forest vegetation, are proposed but not tested. New response variables may be added or current response variables removed as data become available and as our understanding of restoration success indicators develops. Once indices are fully developed, each will be used by the vegetation analytical team to assess and evaluate CRMS/CWPPRA project and program effectiveness. The vegetation analytical teams plan to summarize their results in the form of written reports and/or graphics and present these items to CRMS Federal and State sponsors, restoration project managers, landowners, and other data users for their input.

  5. Analytical Examinations and Compensation Based on Rolling Friction Model for Slow Settling Response in Precise Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Makoto

    This paper presents a rolling friction model-based friction compensation for precise tracking control of linear motor-driven table systems. Rolling friction in mechanisms behaves as a nonlinear elastic element in the micro-displacement region, and deteriorates the tracking performance with slow settling response in positioning. In this paper, therefore, the rolling friction characteristic is mathematically formulated and is adopted to analytical examinations and compensator design to improve the slow settling response. The proposed compensation has been verified by experiments by using a prototype for industrial positioning devices.

  6. Analytical approach to calculation of response spectra from seismological models of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal

    1988-01-01

    An analytical approach to calculate response spectra from seismological models of ground motion is presented. Seismological models have three major advantages over empirical models: (1) they help in an understanding of the physics of earthquake mechanisms, (2) they can be used to predict ground motions for future earthquakes and (3) they can be extrapolated to cases where there are no data available. As shown with this study, these models also present a convenient form for the calculation of response spectra, by using the methods of random vibration theory, for a given magnitude and site conditions. The first part of the paper reviews the past models for ground motion description, and introduces the available seismological models. Then, the random vibration equations for the spectral response are presented. The nonstationarity, spectral bandwidth and the correlation of the peaks are considered in the calculation of the peak response.

  7. Academic health center hospitals: alternative responses to financial stress.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Sloate, S G

    1987-01-01

    Academic health center hospitals face challenges to their survival in an increasingly competitive, challenging, and entrepreneurial environment. University hospitals face a number of major stresses and are responding in various ways to ensure their financial viability. PMID:3305420

  8. Analytical and Numerical Modeling of Pulsed Eddy Current Response to Thin Conducting Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetervak, A.; Krause, T. W.; Mandache, C.; Lefebvre, J. H. V.

    2010-02-01

    Modeling of transient eddy current response in planar structures requires incorporation of all elements within the system comprised of exciting and pick-up coils, and the conducting structure being investigated. The combined response includes the feedback processes that in turn modify the time constants within the system. In this work analytical and numerical methods are utilized to solve for those feedback mechanisms within the circuit-conductor system that generates the final pick-up coil response. Further, applying numerical analysis to results of the modeling, we parameterize probe-sample interaction via lumped-circuit analogies justified for thin samples. Results are compared with experimental measurements where these parameters have been characterized.

  9. Analytical and experimental evaluations of Space Shuttle TPS tile vibration response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical studies and laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the vibration response of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles due to the intense rocket generated acoustic noise during lift-off. The TPS tiles are mounted over the exterior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter structure through Strain Isolation Pads (SIP) which protect the tiles from thermal induced shear loads at their interface. The analytical predictions indicate that the response of a typical tile is governed by the structural vibration inputs through the SIP under the tile at frequencies below 250 Hz, and by the direct acoustic excitation over the exterior surface of the tile at frequencies above 250 Hz. An evaluation of the laboratory test data for this same tile, in which conditioned (partial) coherent output spectral analysis procedures were used, leads to exactly the same conclusion. The results demonstrate the power of conditioned spectral analysis procedures in identifying vibration response mechanisms when two or more of the inputs are highly correlated.

  10. How Porcupines Make Love: Notes on a Response-Centered Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Alan C., Ed.

    These "notes on a response-centered curriculum" specify four objectives of an English program in the schools. In the program an individual is to trust himself; get to know himself; recognize his differences from others; and recognize his similarity with others. After an overview of the response-centered English curriculum, chapters are devoted to:…

  11. Analytical procedures for estimating structural response to acoustic fields generated by advanced launch systems, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elishakoff, Isaac; Lin, Y. K.; Zhu, Li-Ping; Fang, Jian-Jie; Cai, G. Q.

    1994-01-01

    This report supplements a previous report of the same title submitted in June, 1992. It summarizes additional analytical techniques which have been developed for predicting the response of linear and nonlinear structures to noise excitations generated by large propulsion power plants. The report is divided into nine chapters. The first two deal with incomplete knowledge of boundary conditions of engineering structures. The incomplete knowledge is characterized by a convex set, and its diagnosis is formulated as a multi-hypothesis discrete decision-making algorithm with attendant criteria of adaptive termination.

  12. Analytic model of energy-absorption response functions in compound X-ray detector materials.

    PubMed

    Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung; Youn, Hanbean; Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A

    2013-10-01

    The absorbed energy distribution (AED) in X-ray imaging detectors is an important factor that affects both energy resolution and image quality through the Swank factor and detective quantum efficiency. In the diagnostic energy range (20-140 keV), escape of characteristic photons following photoelectric absorption and Compton scatter photons are primary sources of absorbed-energy dispersion in X-ray detectors. In this paper, we describe the development of an analytic model of the AED in compound X-ray detector materials, based on the cascaded-systems approach, that includes the effects of escape and reabsorption of characteristic and Compton-scatter photons. We derive analytic expressions for both semi-infinite slab and pixel geometries and validate our approach by Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic model provides the energy-dependent X-ray response function of arbitrary compound materials without time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. We believe this model will be useful for correcting spectral distortion artifacts commonly observed in photon-counting applications and optimal design and development of novel X-ray detectors. PMID:23744671

  13. Aquifer response to stream-stage and recharge variations. I. Analytical step-response functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, A.F.; Barlow, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Laplace transform step-response functions are presented for various homogeneous confined and leaky aquifer types and for anisotropic, homogeneous unconfined aquifers interacting with perennial streams. Flow is one-dimensional, perpendicular to the stream in the confined and leaky aquifers, and two-dimensional in a plane perpendicular to the stream in the water-table aquifers. The stream is assumed to penetrate the full thickness of the aquifer. The aquifers may be semi-infinite or finite in width and may or may not be bounded at the stream by a semipervious streambank. The solutions are presented in a unified manner so that mathematical relations among the various aquifer configurations are clearly demonstrated. The Laplace transform solutions are inverted numerically to obtain the real-time step-response functions for use in the convolution (or superposition) integral. To maintain linearity in the case of unconfined aquifers, fluctuations in the elevation of the water table are assumed to be small relative to the saturated thickness, and vertical flow into or out of the zone above the water table is assumed to occur instantaneously. Effects of hysteresis in the moisture distribution above the water table are therefore neglected. Graphical comparisons of the new solutions are made with known closed-form solutions.Laplace transform step-response functions are presented for various homogeneous confined and leaky aquifer types and for anisotropic, homogeneous unconfined aquifers interacting with perennial streams. Flow is one-dimensional, perpendicular to the stream in the confined and leaky aquifers, and two-dimensional in a plane perpendicular to the stream in the water-table aquifers. The stream is assumed to penetrate the full thickness of the aquifer. The aquifers may be semi-infinite or finite in width and may or may not be bounded at the stream by a semipervious streambank. The solutions are presented in a unified manner so that mathematical relations among the

  14. On the use of a uniformly valid analytical cascade response function for fan broadband noise predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, H.; Moreau, S.; Roger, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present paper extends an existing analytical model of the aeroacoustic response of a rectilinear cascade of flat-plate blades to three-dimensional incident vortical gusts, to the prediction of the noise generated by a three-dimensional annular blade-row. The extended formulation is meant to be implemented in a fan broadband noise prediction tool. The intended applications include the modern turbofan engines, for which analytical modelling is believed to be a good alternative to more expensive numerical techniques. The prediction noise model resorts to a strip theory approach based on a three-dimensional rectilinear cascade model. The latter is based on the Wiener-Hopf technique, and yields the pressure field in the blade passage and the unsteady blade loading. The analytical pressure solution is derived by making an extensive use of the residue theorem. The obtained unsteady blade loading distribution over the blades is then used as a dipole source distribution in an acoustic analogy applied in the annular rigid duct with uniform mean flow. The new achievements are then tested on three-dimensional annular-benchmark configurations and compared with three-dimensional lifting-surface models and three-dimensional Euler linearized codes available in the literature. The accuracy of the model is shown for high hub-to-tip ratio cases. When used as such in a true rectilinear-cascade configuration, it also reproduces the exact radiated field that can be derived directly. For low hub-to-tip ratio configurations, the model departs from three-dimensional computations, both regarding the blade loading and the acoustic radiation. A correction is proposed to account for the actual annular dispersion relation in the rectilinear-cascade response function. The results suggest that the proposed correction is necessary to get closer to the underlying physics of the annular-space wave equation, but that it is yet not sufficient to fully reproduce three-dimensional results.

  15. Big Data Analytics for Disaster Preparedness and Response of Mobile Communication Infrastructure during Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Takano, K.; Ji, Y.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The disruption of telecommunications is one of the most critical disasters during natural hazards. As the rapid expanding of mobile communications, the mobile communication infrastructure plays a very fundamental role in the disaster response and recovery activities. For this reason, its disruption will lead to loss of life and property, due to information delays and errors. Therefore, disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure itself is quite important. In many cases of experienced disasters, the disruption of mobile communication networks is usually caused by the network congestion and afterward long-term power outage. In order to reduce this disruption, the knowledge of communication demands during disasters is necessary. And big data analytics will provide a very promising way to predict the communication demands by analyzing the big amount of operational data of mobile users in a large-scale mobile network. Under the US-Japan collaborative project on 'Big Data and Disaster Research (BDD)' supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and National Science Foundation (NSF), we are going to investigate the application of big data techniques in the disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure. Specifically, in this research, we have considered to exploit the big amount of operational information of mobile users for predicting the communications needs in different time and locations. By incorporating with other data such as shake distribution of an estimated major earthquake and the power outage map, we are able to provide the prediction information of stranded people who are difficult to confirm safety or ask for help due to network disruption. In addition, this result could further facilitate the network operators to assess the vulnerability of their infrastructure and make suitable decision for the disaster preparedness and response. In this presentation, we are going to introduce the

  16. A regional burn center's response to a disaster: September 11, 2001, and the days beyond.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Roger W; Bessey, Palmer Q; Bauer, Gregory J; Dembicki, Robert; Laznick, Hope; Alden, Nicole; Rabbits, Angela

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews the response of a regional burn center to the disaster that occurred in New York City at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. In addition, it assesses that response in the context of other medical institutions in the region. There were facilities in the region that had 120 burn care beds; only two-thirds of the burn-injured patients who required hospital admission were admitted to designated burn centers, and only 28% of burn-injured victims initially were triaged to regional burn centers. The care rendered at this center was made possible by a "disaster-ready" facility and supplementation of personnel from the resources provided by The National Disaster Medical System. The patient outcomes at this center exceeded that as predicted by logistic regression analysis. PMID:15756112

  17. Electrogenerated thin films of microporous polymer networks with remarkably increased electrochemical response to nitroaromatic analytes.

    PubMed

    Palma-Cando, Alex; Scherf, Ullrich

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of microporous polymer networks (MPNs) have been generated by electrochemical polymerization of a series of multifunctional carbazole-based monomers. The microporous films show high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 1300 m2 g(-1) as directly measured by krypton sorption experiments. A correlation between the number of polymerizable carbazole units of the monomer and the resulting surface area is observed. Electrochemical sensing experiments with 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene as prototypical nitroaromatic analyte demonstrate an up to 180 times increased current response of MPN-modified glassy carbon electrodes in relation to the nonmodified electrode. The phenomenon probably involves intermolecular interactions between the electron-poor nitroaromatic analytes and the electron-rich, high surface area microporous deposits, with the electrochemical reduction at the MPN-modified electrodes being an adsorption-controlled process for low scan rates. We expect a high application potential of such MPN-modified electrodes for boosting the sensitivity of electrochemical sensor devices. PMID:25946727

  18. Radioanalytical Data Quality Objectives and Measurement Quality Objectives during a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Response

    SciTech Connect

    E. C. Nielsen

    2006-01-01

    During the early and intermediate phases of a nuclear or radiological incident, the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) collects environmental samples that are analyzed by organizations with radioanalytical capability. Resources dedicated to quality assurance (QA) activities must be sufficient to assure that appropriate radioanalytical measurement quality objectives (MQOs) and assessment data quality objectives (DQOs) are met. As the emergency stabilizes, QA activities will evolve commensurate with the need to reach appropriate DQOs. The MQOs represent a compromise between precise analytical determinations and the timeliness necessary for emergency response activities. Minimum detectable concentration (MDC), lower limit of detection, and critical level tests can all serve as measurements reflecting the MQOs. The relationship among protective action guides (PAGs), derived response levels (DRLs), and laboratory detection limits is described. The rationale used to determine the appropriate laboratory detection limit is described.

  19. Implementing Response to Intervention in Context. A Center Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Response to intervention is meant to be broad-based and preventative. However, as formulated and practiced the approach often is too limited in how it frames what needs to go on to enable learning, engage students, and keep them engaged. In particular, it pays too little attention to the need to strengthen the classroom and schoolwide context in…

  20. Analytical Sensor Response Function of Viscosity Sensors Based on Layered Piezoelectric Thickness Shear Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benes, Ewald; Nowotny, Helmut; Braun, Stefan; Radel, Stefan; Gröschl, Martin

    Resonant piezoelectric sensors based on bulk acoustic wave (BAW) thickness shear resonators are promising for the inline measurement of fluid viscosity, e.g., in industrial processes. The sensor response function can be derived from the general rigorous transfer matrix description of one-dimensional layered structures consisting of piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric layers of arbitrary number. This model according to Nowotny et al. provides a complete analytical description of the electrical and mechanical behaviour of such structures with two electrodes and arbitrary acoustic termination impedances (Rig-1d-Model). We apply this model to derive the sensor response functions and the mechanical displacement curves of the following configurations appropriate for viscosity sensors: An AT cut quartz crystal plate in contact with vacuum at the backside plane and with the liquid under investigation at the front side plane (QL). An AT cut quartz crystal in contact with the liquid under investigation at both sides (LQL). It is shown that in the QL case the originally only heuristically introduced and well established sensor response function according to Kanasawa can be derived from the Rig-1d-Model by introducing minor approximations. Experimental results are presented for the LQL configuration using an N1000 viscosity reference oil as test fluid.

  1. Responsibility Center Management: A Financial Paradigm and Alternative to Decentralized Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Phyllis A.; Bava, D. J.; Brennan, Denise C.

    This study examined the implementation of Responsibility Center Management (RCM) systems in two institutions of higher education: the Graduate School of Business at Institution and the Center of Collaborative Education and Professional Studies at Institution B. RCM is a management and budgeting process for universities that decentralizes authority…

  2. Evaluation of a wind-tunnel gust response technique including correlations with analytical and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, L. T.; Hanson, P. W.; Wynne, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    A wind tunnel technique for obtaining gust frequency response functions for use in predicting the response of flexible aircraft to atmospheric turbulence is evaluated. The tunnel test results for a dynamically scaled cable supported aeroelastic model are compared with analytical and flight data. The wind tunnel technique, which employs oscillating vanes in the tunnel throat section to generate a sinusoidally varying flow field around the model, was evaluated by use of a 1/30 scale model of the B-52E airplane. Correlation between the wind tunnel results, flight test results, and analytical predictions for response in the short period and wing first elastic modes of motion are presented.

  3. Analytical simulation of nonlinear response to seismic test excitations of HDR-VKL piping system

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A. ); Mojtahed, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic tests with simulated earthquake excitation (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the Versuchskreislauf (VKL) piping system at the Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, Federal Republic of Germany. The major objectives of these tests were to study the behavior of a full-scale in-plant piping system subjected to a range of seismic excitation levels (from design levels to those that might induce either failure of pipe supports or plasticity in the pipe runs) and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. Data obtained in the tests are also being used to validate analytical methods for piping response calculation. Detailed reports on the SHAM experiments are given elsewhere by Kot et al. (1990). This paper describes an effort to evaluate the computer code NONPIPE (proprietary to Nutech Engineers) with data from one of the SHAM tests. NONPIPE is a nonlinear finite-element program capable of calculating the elastic-plastic response of piping systems subjected to seismic excitation. The special characteristic of this code is the simplified or approximate approach it uses for modeling the elastic behavior which makes the calculations relatively less resource intensive than those of other nonlinear codes. The evaluation is based on a comparison of computational results of simulation of a SHAM test with corresponding test measurements. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  4. An experimental and analytical investigation on the response of GR/EP composite I-frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moas, E., Jr.; Boitnott, R. L.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1991-05-01

    Six-foot diameter, semicircular graphite/epoxy specimens representative of generic aircraft frames were loaded quasi-statically to determine their load response and failure mechanisms for large deflections that occur in an airplane crash. These frame-skin specimens consisted of a cylindrical skin section cocured with a semicircular I-frame. Various frame laminate stacking sequences and geometries were evaluated by statically loading the specimen until multiple failures occurred. Two analytical methods were compared for modeling the frame-skin specimens: a two-dimensional branched-shell finite element analysis and a one-dimensional, closed-form, curved beam solution derived using an energy method. Excellent correlation was obtained between experimental results and the finite element predictions of the linear response of the frames prior to the initial failure. The beam solution was used for rapid parameter and design studies, and was found to be stiff in comparison with the finite element analysis. The specimens were found to be useful for evaluating composite frame designs.

  5. Analytical solutions for the seismic response of underground structures under SH wave propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Smerzini, C.; Aviles, J.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2008-07-08

    A theoretical approach is presented to study the antiplane seismic response of underground structures subjected to the incidence of plane waves. The structure is assumed to be a circular inclusion embedded in a homogenous, isotropic and linear visco-elastic halfspace and its mathematical formulation is approached through the theory of multiple scattering and diffraction. The inclusion may consist either of a cavity, with or without a ring-shaped boundary, or it may be filled in with a linear-elastic material, without loss of generality. The seismic response of the inclusion and its influence on surface ground motions are analyzed in both frequency and time domains. The dependence of the transfer function amplitudes on several parameters, such as the angle of incident SH waves, the frequency content of the excitation, the impedance contrast between the inclusion and the surrounding medium and the position along the ground surface, is underlined. Considering the lack of analytical solutions for quantifying the modification of ground motions induced by subterranean inhomogeneities, the results of this study can be used, on one side, as benchmark for both geophysical investigations and numerical dynamic soil-structure interaction studies, and, on the other side, to support the formulation of simplified approaches and/or formulas for the seismic design and assessment of underground structures.

  6. Analysing task design and students' responses to context-based problems through different analytical frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-05-01

    found successful to analyse both the test items as well as students' responses in a systematic way. The framework can therefore be applied in the design of new tasks, the analysis and assessment of students' responses, and as a tool for teachers to scaffold students in their problem-solving process. Conclusions:This paper gives implications for practice and for future research to both develop new context-based problems in a structured way, as well as providing analytical tools for investigating students' higher order thinking in their responses to these tasks.

  7. Analytic calculation of second-order electric response properties with the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Wenli; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2012-08-01

    Analytic second derivatives of the relativistic energy for the calculation of electric response properties are derived utilizing the normalized elimination of the small component (NESC) method. Explicit formulas are given for electric static dipole polarizabilities and infrared intensities by starting at the NESC representation of electric dipole moments. The analytic derivatives are implemented in an existing NESC program and applied to calculate dipole moments, polarizabilities, and the infrared spectra of gold- and mercury-containing molecules as well as some actinide molecules. Comparison with experiment reveals the accuracy of NESC second order electric response properties.

  8. How Porcupines Make Love II: Teaching a Response-Centered Literature Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Alan C.; And Others

    Written in the same spirit as the earlier edition but thoroughly revised and updated, this book is designed to make teachers aware of reader-response theory and its implications for literature instruction and curriculum. The book demonstrates how a response-centered curriculum brings students to a greater understanding of all forms of literature…

  9. Visual analytics of phosphorylation time-series data on insulin response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, David K. G.; Stolte, Christian; Kaur, Sandeep; Bain, Michael; O'Donoghue, Seán I.

    2013-10-01

    Visual analysis of time-series data on protein phosphorylation presents a particular challenge: bioinformatics tools currently available for visualising 'omics' data in time series have been developed primarily to study gene expression, and cannot easily be adopted to phosphorylation data, where a single protein typically has multiple phosphosites. In this study, we worked with an experimental research group that is applying very recent methods in high-throughput experimental proteomics to study the time course of protein phosphorylation events in human cells in vitro following stimulation by insulin, as part of a broader study of diabetes and obesity. We applied several existing visual analytics approaches with the goal of organising the data to facilitate new insight into underlying molecular processes. We developed a novel layout strategy called 'Minardo' that is loosely based on cell topology and ordered by time and causality. This layout utilises a frame of reference familiar to life scientists and helpful for organising and interpreting time-series data. This strategy proved to be useful, leading to new insights into the insulin response pathway. We are working on generalising the Minardo layout to accommodate similar datasets related to other signalling pathways, which should be straightforward.

  10. A Response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this response to "Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study," the authors agree that assessments should seek parsimony in both theory and application wherever possible. Doing so allows maximal dissemination and implementation while minimizing costs. The Writing…

  11. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  12. Response of a stainless steel cylinder with elliptical ends subjected to an off-center blast load

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, R.; Romero, C.

    1996-06-01

    The response of a stainless steel cylindrical vessel with asymmetric internal blast loading is investigated by experiments, computations, and analysis. Previous research has focused on the response of cylindrical vessels for a centrally located charge. The vessel`s geometry consists of a thin shell cylinder with 2:1 elliptical ends. The high explosive charge is located on the vessel`s axis of symmetry and is axially offset from its geometric center. All explosives are spherical in shape and centrally initiated inside the vessel. The vessel holds the high explosive in air at ambient temperature and pressure. Two-dimensional, Eulerian finite difference calculations from a hydrodynamic code (MESA-2D) are used to study the blast phenomenon and pressure loading on the vessel walls. The loading pulse is compared to data obtained from four experiments where several pressure transducers are positioned along the vessel`s circumference. The calculated two-dimensional loading is applied to a three-dimensional explicit finite element model (DYNA-3D) to predict the structural response of the vessel. The vessel`s structural response from the experimental wave interaction is recorded using strain gages, positioned along its circumference, and then compared with the finite element calculations. These results (experimental and computational) are then compared with analytical predictions and prove to correlate well at distances away from the ends. Experimental and computational results compare well at all other locations.

  13. Analytical treatment of two-center overlap integral with respect to same screening constants over Slater type orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćopuroǧlu, Ebru; Mamedov, Bahtiyar A.

    2016-08-01

    By the use of Löwdin- α radial function, an alternative method is introduced for two-center overlap integral over Slater type orbitals (STOs) at same screening constants (SSC). Notice that the overlap integrals with SSC have an important role in accurate evaluation of multicenter multielectron molecular integrals arising in combined Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (CHFR) theory. This approximation provides us simple and efficient expression for the two-center overlap integrals. To show the effectiveness of established formula we have compared our results with available literature data. The method ensures high performance with a very short CPU time.

  14. Edge analyzing properties of center/surround response functions in cybernetic vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of center/surround response functions to make explicit high resolution spatial information in optical images was investigated by performing convolutions of two dimensional response functions and image intensity functions (mainly edges). The center/surround function was found to have the unique property of separating edge contrast from shape variations and of providing a direct basis for determining contrast and subsequently shape of edges in images. Computationally simple measures of contrast and shape were constructed for potential use in cybernetic vision systems. For one class of response functions these measures were found to be reasonably resilient for a range of scan direction and displacements of the response functions relative to shaped edges. A pathological range of scan directions was also defined and methods for detecting and handling these cases were developed. The relationship of these results to biological vision is discussed speculatively.

  15. Treatment Verification: Multiple Analytical Methods and a Search for Causality in the Child Parent Center Compensatory Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; And Others

    Treatment verification methodology was employed in studying the Chicago Child Parent Center (CPC) compensatory education program. Established in disadvantaged areas by the Chicago public schools, CPCs are designed to break the cycle of poverty through educational intervention with children at ages 3 through 8. An element of evaluation studies that…

  16. A Bright Fluorescent Probe for H2S Enables Analyte-Responsive, 3D Imaging in Live Zebrafish Using Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a critical gaseous signaling molecule emerging at the center of a rich field of chemical and biological research. As our understanding of the complexity of physiological H2S in signaling pathways evolves, advanced chemical and technological investigative tools are required to make sense of this interconnectivity. Toward this goal, we have developed an azide-functionalized O-methylrhodol fluorophore, MeRho-Az, which exhibits a rapid >1000-fold fluorescence response when treated with H2S, is selective for H2S over other biological analytes, and has a detection limit of 86 nM. Additionally, the MeRho-Az scaffold is less susceptible to photoactivation than other commonly used azide-based systems, increasing its potential application in imaging experiments. To demonstrate the efficacy of this probe for H2S detection, we demonstrate the ability of MeRho-Az to detect differences in H2S levels in C6 cells and those treated with AOAA, a common inhibitor of enzymatic H2S synthesis. Expanding the use of MeRho-Az to complex and heterogeneous biological settings, we used MeRho-Az in combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize H2S in the intestinal tract of live zebrafish. This application provides the first demonstration of analyte-responsive 3D imaging with LSFM, highlighting the utility of combining new probes and live imaging methods for investigating chemical signaling in complex multicellular systems. PMID:26061541

  17. A Bright Fluorescent Probe for H2S Enables Analyte-Responsive, 3D Imaging in Live Zebrafish Using Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hammers, Matthew D; Taormina, Michael J; Cerda, Matthew M; Montoya, Leticia A; Seidenkranz, Daniel T; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Pluth, Michael D

    2015-08-19

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a critical gaseous signaling molecule emerging at the center of a rich field of chemical and biological research. As our understanding of the complexity of physiological H2S in signaling pathways evolves, advanced chemical and technological investigative tools are required to make sense of this interconnectivity. Toward this goal, we have developed an azide-functionalized O-methylrhodol fluorophore, MeRho-Az, which exhibits a rapid >1000-fold fluorescence response when treated with H2S, is selective for H2S over other biological analytes, and has a detection limit of 86 nM. Additionally, the MeRho-Az scaffold is less susceptible to photoactivation than other commonly used azide-based systems, increasing its potential application in imaging experiments. To demonstrate the efficacy of this probe for H2S detection, we demonstrate the ability of MeRho-Az to detect differences in H2S levels in C6 cells and those treated with AOAA, a common inhibitor of enzymatic H2S synthesis. Expanding the use of MeRho-Az to complex and heterogeneous biological settings, we used MeRho-Az in combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize H2S in the intestinal tract of live zebrafish. This application provides the first demonstration of analyte-responsive 3D imaging with LSFM, highlighting the utility of combining new probes and live imaging methods for investigating chemical signaling in complex multicellular systems. PMID:26061541

  18. NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center: Providing Situational Awareness for Spaceflight Contingency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; Bihner, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the NASA Headquarters mishap response process for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and how the process has evolved based on lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia accidents. It also describes the NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center (SOC) and its special role in facilitating senior management's overall situational awareness of critical spaceflight operations, before, during, and after a mishap, to ensure a timely and effective contingency response.

  19. Antibody Responses After Analytic Treatment Interruption in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Individuals on Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Bricault, Christine A.; Shields, Jennifer; Bayne, Madeleine; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Seaman, Michael S.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    The examination of antibody responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals in the setting of antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption can provide insight into the evolution of antibody responses during viral rebound. In this study, we assessed antibody responses in 20 subjects in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5187, wherein subjects were treated with antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV-1 infection, underwent analytic treatment interruption, and subsequently demonstrated viral rebound. Our data suggest that early initiation of ART arrests the maturation of HIV-1-specific antibody responses, preventing epitope diversification of antibody binding and the development of functional neutralizing capacity. Antibody responses do not appear permanently blunted, however, because viral rebound triggered the resumption of antibody maturation in our study. We also found that antibody responses measured by these assays did not predict imminent viral rebound. These data have important implications for the HIV-1 vaccine and eradication fields. PMID:27419172

  20. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.

  1. Sinusoidal Siemens star spatial frequency response measurement errors due to misidentified target centers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-07-23

    Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we proposemore » a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.« less

  2. Measurement of Plastic Stress and Strain for Analytical Method Verification (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Project No. 93-08)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.; Steeve, B. E.; Swanson, G. R.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical prediction of stress, strain, and fatigue life at locations experiencing local plasticity is full of uncertainties. Much of this uncertainty arises from the material models and their use in the numerical techniques used to solve plasticity problems. Experimental measurements of actual plastic strains would allow the validity of these models and solutions to be tested. This memorandum describes how experimental plastic residual strain measurements were used to verify the results of a thermally induced plastic fatigue failure analysis of a space shuttle main engine fuel pump component.

  3. Teaching Language Arts: A Student- and Response-Centered Classroom. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carole

    Continuing its emphasis on a student- and response-centered approach to literature-based teaching in today's culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms, this third edition discusses these principles not only through explanation, but through examples of real teachers in real classrooms involved in the actual implementation of these ideas. The…

  4. Chemometric study of the influence of instrumental parameters on ESI-MS analyte response using full factorial design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, M. A.; Schug, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Full factorial experimental design technique was used to study the main effects and the interaction effects between instrumental parameters in two mass spectrometers equipped with conventional electrospray ion sources (Thermo LCQ Deca XP and Shimadzu LCMS 2010). Four major parameters (spray voltage, ion transfer capillary temperature, ion transfer capillary voltage, and tube lens voltage) were investigated in both instruments for their contribution to analyte response, leading to a total of 16 experiments performed for each instrument. Significant parameters were identified by plotting the cumulative probability of each treatment against the estimated effects in normal plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to evaluate the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on ESI-MS analyte response. The results reveal a number of important interactions in addition to the main effects for each instrument. In all the experiments performed, the tube lens voltage (or Q-array dc voltage in LCMS 2010) was found to have significant effects on analyte response in both instruments. The tube lens voltage was also found to interact with the capillary temperature in the case of the LCQ Deca XP and with the spray voltage in the case of the LCMS 2010. The results of these experiments provide important considerations in the instrumental optimization of ionization response for ESI-MS analysis.

  5. Characterizing the Relationship between Steady State and Response Using Analytical Expressions for the Steady States of Mass Action Models

    PubMed Central

    Loriaux, Paul Michael; Tesler, Glenn; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The steady states of cells affect their response to perturbation. Indeed, diagnostic markers for predicting the response to therapeutic perturbation are often based on steady state measurements. In spite of this, no method exists to systematically characterize the relationship between steady state and response. Mathematical models are established tools for studying cellular responses, but characterizing their relationship to the steady state requires that it have a parametric, or analytical, expression. For some models, this expression can be derived by the King-Altman method. However, King-Altman requires that no substrate act as an enzyme, and is therefore not applicable to most models of signal transduction. For this reason we developed py-substitution, a simple but general method for deriving analytical expressions for the steady states of mass action models. Where the King-Altman method is applicable, we show that py-substitution yields an equivalent expression, and at comparable efficiency. We use py-substitution to study the relationship between steady state and sensitivity to the anti-cancer drug candidate, dulanermin (recombinant human TRAIL). First, we use py-substitution to derive an analytical expression for the steady state of a published model of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Next, we show that the amount of TRAIL required for cell death is sensitive to the steady state concentrations of procaspase 8 and its negative regulator, Bar, but not the other procaspase molecules. This suggests that activation of caspase 8 is a critical point in the death decision process. Finally, we show that changes in the threshold at which TRAIL results in cell death is not always equivalent to changes in the time of death, as is commonly assumed. Our work demonstrates that an analytical expression is a powerful tool for identifying steady state determinants of the cellular response to perturbation. All code is available at http://signalingsystems.ucsd.edu/models-and-code/ or

  6. Analytic magnetotelluric responses to a two-segment model with axially anisotropic conductivity structures overlying a perfect conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Linjiang; Yang, Changfu

    2016-06-01

    The rocks in the crust and the upper mantle of the Earth are believed to exhibit electrical anisotropy to some extent. It is beneficial to further understand and recognize the propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the Earth by investigating the magnetotelluric (which is one of the main geophysical techniques to probe the deep structures in the Earth) responses of the media with anisotropic conductivity structures. In this study, we examine the magnetotelluric fields over an idealized 2-D model consisting of two segments with axially anisotropic conductivity structures overlying a perfect conductor basement by a quasi-static analytic approach. The resulting analytic solution could not only contribute to the electromagnetic induction theory in the anisotropic Earth but also serve as at least an initial standard solution which could be used to validate the reliability and accuracy of the numerical algorithms developed for modelling the magnetotelluric responses of the 2-D media with much more general anisotropic conductivity.

  7. Analytic magnetotelluric responses to a two-segment model with axially anisotropic conductivity structures overlying a perfect conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linjiang, QIN; Changfu, YANG

    2016-03-01

    The rocks in the crust and the upper mantle of the Earth are believed to exhibit electrical anisotropy to some extent. It is beneficial to further understand and recognize the propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the Earth by investigating the magnetotelluric (which is one of the main geophysical techniques to probe the deep structures in the Earth) responses of the media with anisotropic conductivity structures. In the present study, we examine the magnetotelluric fields over an idealized 2-D model consisting of two segments with axially anisotropic conductivity structures overlying a perfect conductor basement by a quasi-static analytic approach. The resulting analytic solution could not only contribute to the electromagnetic induction theory in the anisotropic Earth but also serve as at least an initial standard solution which could be used to validate the reliability and accuracy of the numerical algorithms developed for modeling the magnetotelluric responses of the 2-D media with much more general anisotropic conductivity.

  8. Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers: Using a Public Health Systems Approach to Improve All-Hazards Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Leinhos, Mary; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems. PMID:25355970

  9. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F.; Cerra, Frank B.; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  10. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F; Cerra, Frank B; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  11. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for their dependent children. (b) Job Corps centers may operate on center child development programs... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits... have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are responsible...

  12. 20 CFR 670.550 - What responsibilities do Job Corps centers have in assisting students with child care needs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for their dependent children. (b) Job Corps centers may operate on center child development programs... have in assisting students with child care needs? 670.550 Section 670.550 Employees' Benefits... have in assisting students with child care needs? (a) Job Corps centers are responsible...

  13. A cell-centered Lagrangian finite volume approach for computing elasto-plastic response of solids in cylindrical axisymmetric geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar; Shashkov, Mikhail J.; Burton, Donald E.

    2013-03-01

    A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian formulation is presented for solving large deformation problems in cylindrical axisymmetric geometries. Since solid materials can sustain significant shear deformation, evolution equations for stress and strain fields are solved in addition to mass, momentum and energy conservation laws. The total strain-rate realized in the material is split into an elastic and plastic response. The elastic and plastic components in turn are modeled using hypo-elastic theory. In accordance with the hypo-elastic model, a predictor-corrector algorithm is employed for evolving the deviatoric component of the stress tensor. A trial elastic deviatoric stress state is obtained by integrating a rate equation, cast in the form of an objective (Jaumann) derivative, based on Hooke's law. The dilatational response of the material is modeled using an equation of state of the Mie-Grüneisen form. The plastic deformation is accounted for via an iterative radial return algorithm constructed from the J2 von Mises yield condition. Several benchmark example problems with non-linear strain hardening and thermal softening yield models are presented. Extensive comparisons with representative Eulerian and Lagrangian hydrocodes in addition to analytical and experimental results are made to validate the current approach.

  14. A Micro-Level Event-Centered Approach to Investigating Armed Conflict and Population Responses

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nathalie E.; Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.; Jennings, Elyse A.; Pradhan, Meeta S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we construct and test a micro-level event-centered approach to the study of armed conflict and behavioral responses in the general population. Event-centered approaches have been successfully used in the macro-political study of armed conflict but have not yet been adopted in micro-behavioral studies. The micro-level event-centered approach that we advocate here includes decomposition of a conflict into discrete political and violent events, examination of the mechanisms through which they affect behavior, and consideration of differential risks within the population. We focus on two mechanisms: instability and threat of harm. We test this approach empirically in the context of the recent decade-long armed conflict in Nepal, using detailed measurements of conflict-related events and a longitudinal study of first migration, first marriage, and first contraceptive use. Results demonstrate that different conflict-related events independently shaped migration, marriage, and childbearing and that they can simultaneously influence behaviors in opposing directions. We find that violent events increased migration, but political events slowed migration. Both violent and political events increased marriage and contraceptive use net of migration. Overall, this micro-level event-centered approach yields a significant advance for the study of how armed conflict affects civilian behavioral responses. PMID:22911154

  15. Domains of analyticity for response solutions in strongly dissipative forced systems

    SciTech Connect

    Corsi, Livia E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it; Feola, Roberto E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it; Gentile, Guido E-mail: feola@mat.uniroma1.it

    2013-12-15

    We study the ordinary differential equation εx{sup ¨}+x{sup .}+εg(x)=εf(ωt), where g and f are real-analytic functions, with f quasi-periodic in t with frequency vector ω. If c{sub 0}∈R is such that g(c{sub 0}) equals the average of f and g′(c{sub 0}) ≠ 0, under very mild assumptions on ω there exists a quasi-periodic solution close to c{sub 0} with frequency vector ω. We show that such a solution depends analytically on ε in a domain of the complex plane tangent more than quadratically to the imaginary axis at the origin.

  16. ANALYTICAL COMPUTATION OF THE LYOT CORONAGRAPH RESPONSE TO AN EXTENDED SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrari, Andre; Aime, Claude

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives analytical expressions of the intensity in a Lyot coronagraph when the object is a resolved uniform disk. Intensities are given inside the Lyot stop and in the final plane. The derivation relies on the decomposition of the impinging waves on Zernike functions which allows the computation of the expansion of the intensities on infinite series. The expression in the final plane assumes that the sizes of the Lyot stop and the pupil are the same. An analysis of the truncation error is provided. These expressions are validated by computer simulations which makes it possible to recover known results such as the so-called diffraction ring observed by solar astronomers inside the Lyot stop. These analytical results and simulations bring deeper insight into the understanding of a Lyot coronagraph, for example, the fact that although the geometrical image of the source is behind the mask, a ghost image of the source can still be observed in the final plane.

  17. Five key pillars of an analytics center of excellence, which are required to manage populations and transform organizations into the next era of health care.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Jim; Furlong, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    Acute care facilities are experiencing fiscal challenges as noted by decreasing admissions and lower reimbursement creating an unsustainable fiscal environment as we move into the next era of health care. This situation necessitates a strategy to move away from acting solely on hunches and instinct to using analytics to become a truly data-driven organization that identifies opportunities within patient populations to improve the quality and efficiency of care across the continuum. A brief overview of knowledge management philosophies will be provided and how it is used to enable organizations to leverage data, information, and knowledge for operational transformation leading to improved outcomes. This article outlines the 5 key pillars of an Analytics Center of Excellence; governance, organizational structure, people, process, and technology, that are foundational to the development of this strategy. While culture is the most important factor to achieve organizational transformation and improved care delivery, it is the 5 pillars of the ACoE that will enable the culture shift necessary to become a truly data-driven organization and thus achieve transformation into the next era of health care. PMID:24569763

  18. Analytical Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    In the Analytical Microscopy group, within the National Center for Photovoltaic's Measurements and Characterization Division, we combine two complementary areas of analytical microscopy--electron microscopy and proximal-probe techniques--and use a variety of state-of-the-art imaging and analytical tools. We also design and build custom instrumentation and develop novel techniques that provide unique capabilities for studying materials and devices. In our work, we collaborate with you to solve materials- and device-related R&D problems. This sheet summarizes the uses and features of four major tools: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, the dual-beam focused-ion-beam workstation, and scanning probe microscopy.

  19. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? 403.207 Section 403.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the...

  20. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? 403.207 Section 403.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the...

  1. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? 403.207 Section 403.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the...

  2. 34 CFR 403.207 - What are the State's responsibilities to the National Center or Centers for Research in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Center or Centers for Research in Vocational Education? 403.207 Section 403.207 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the...

  3. Development of a simplified analytical method for representing material cyclic response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.

    1983-01-01

    Development of a simplified method for estimating structural inelastic stress and strain response to cyclic thermal loading is presented. The method assumes that high temperature structural response is the sum of time independent plastic and time dependent elastic/creep components. The local structural stress and strain response predicted by linear elastic analysis is modified by the simplified method to predict the inelastic response. The results with simulations by a nonlinear finite element analysis and used time independent plasticity and unified time dependent material model are compared.

  4. Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Induce Germinal Center B Cell Formation and Sustained Serum Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Vela Ramirez, Julia E; Tygrett, Lorraine T; Hao, Jihua; Habte, Habtom H; Cho, Michael W; Greenspan, Neil S; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle-based subunit vaccines have shown promising characteristics by enhancing antigen presentation and inducing protective immune responses when compared with soluble protein. Specifically, polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have been shown to successfully encapsulate and release antigens, activate B and T cells, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity towards a variety of immunogens. One of the characteristics of strong thymus-dependent antibody responses is the formation of germinal centers (GC) and the generation of GC B cells, which is part of the T helper cell driven cellular response. In order to further understand the role of nanovaccines in the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, their ability to induce germinal center B cell formation and isotype switching and the effects thereof on serum antibody responses were investigated in these studies. Polyanhydride nanovaccines based on 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane and 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane were used to subcutaneously administer a viral antigen. GC B cell formation and serum antibody responses induced by the nanovaccines were compared to that induced by alum-based vaccine formulations. It was demonstrated that a single dose of polyanhydride nanovaccines resulted in the formation of robust GCs and serum antibody in comparison to that induced by the alum-based formulation. This was attributed to the sustained release of antigen provided by the nanovaccines. When administered in a multiple dose regimen, the highest post-immunization titer and GC B cell number was enhanced, and the immune response induced by the nanovaccines was further sustained. These studies provide foundational information on the mechanism of action of polyanhydride nanovaccines. PMID:27319223

  5. Regulation of germinal center responses and B-cell memory by the chromatin modifier MOZ.

    PubMed

    Good-Jacobson, Kim L; Chen, Yunshun; Voss, Anne K; Smyth, Gordon K; Thomas, Tim; Tarlinton, David

    2014-07-01

    Memory B cells and long-lived bone marrow-resident plasma cells maintain humoral immunity. Little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms that are essential for forming memory B cells or endowing them with the ability to rapidly differentiate upon reexposure while maintaining the population over time. Histone modifications have been shown to regulate lymphocyte development, but their role in regulating differentiation and maintenance of B-cell subsets during an immune response is unclear. Using stage-specific deletion of monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ), a histone acetyltransferase, we demonstrate that mutation of this chromatin modifier alters fate decisions in both primary and secondary responses. In the absence of MOZ, germinal center B cells were significantly impaired in their ability to generate dark zone centroblasts, with a concomitant decrease in both cell-cycle progression and BCL-6 expression. In contrast, there was increased differentiation to IgM and low-affinity IgG1(+) memory B cells. The lack of MOZ affected the functional outcome of humoral immune responses, with an increase in secondary germinal centers and a corresponding decrease in secondary high-affinity antibody-secreting cell formation. Therefore, these data provide strong evidence that manipulating epigenetic modifiers can regulate fate decisions during humoral responses, and thus could be targeted for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24979783

  6. A Note on the Relation between Factor Analytic and Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Akihito; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The relations among several alternative parameterizations of the binary factor analysis model and the 2-parameter item response theory model are discussed. It is pointed out that different parameterizations of factor analysis model parameters can be transformed into item response model theory parameters, and general formulas are provided.…

  7. Analytical Prediction of the Seismic Response of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.; Tsurumaki, S.

    1999-03-19

    Under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) is investigating the seismic behavior of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) through scale-model testing using the high-performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory. A series of tests representing design-level seismic ground motions was initially conducted to gather valuable experimental measurements for use in design verification. Additional tests will be conducted with increasing amplifications of the seismic input until a structural failure of the test model occurs. In a cooperative program with NUPEC, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), is conducting analytical research on the seismic behavior of RCCV structures. As part of this program, pretest analytical predictions of the model tests are being performed. The dynamic time-history analysis utilizes a highly detailed concrete constitutive model applied to a three-dimensional finite element representation of the test structure. This paper describes the details of the analysis model and provides analysis results.

  8. Analytical simulation of nonlinear response to seismic test excitations of HDR-VKL (Heissdampfreaktor-Versuchskreislauf) piping system

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A. ); Mojtahed, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the analytical modeling, calculations, and results of the posttest nonlinear simulation of high-level seismic testing of the VKL piping system at the HDR Test Facility in Germany. One of the objectives of the tests was to evaluate analytical methods for calculating the nonlinear response of realistic piping systems subjected to high-level seismic excitation that would induce significant plastic deformation. Two out of the six different pipe-support configurations, (ranging from a stiff system with struts and snubbers to a very flexible system with practically no seismic supports), subjected to simulated earthquakes, were tested at very high levels. The posttest nonlinear calculations cover the KWU configuration, a reasonably compliant system with only rigid struts. Responses for 800% safe-shutdown-earthquake loading were calculated using the NONPIPE code. The responses calculated with NONPIPE were found generally to have the same time trends as the measurements but contained under-, over-, and correct estimates of peak values, almost in equal proportions. The only exceptions were the peak strut forces, which were underestimated as a group. The scatter in the peak value estimate of displacements and strut forces was smaller than that for the strains. The possible reasons for the differences and the effort on further analysis are discussed.

  9. All Source Solution Decision Support Products Created for Stennis Space Center in Response to Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Graham, William D.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and in response to the needs of SSC (Stennis Space Center), NASA required the generation of decision support products with a broad range of geospatial inputs. Applying a systems engineering approach, the NASA ARTPO (Applied Research and Technology Project Office) at SSC evaluated the Center's requirements and source data quality. ARTPO identified data and information products that had the potential to meet decision-making requirements; included were remotely sensed data ranging from high-spatial-resolution aerial images through high-temporal-resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products. Geospatial products, such as FEMA's (Federal Emergency Management Agency's) Advisory Base Flood Elevations, were also relevant. Where possible, ARTPO applied SSC calibration/validation expertise to both clarify the quality of various data source options and to validate that the inputs that were finally chosen met SSC requirements. ARTPO integrated various information sources into multiple decision support products, including two maps: Hurricane Katrina Inundation Effects at Stennis Space Center (highlighting surge risk posture) and Vegetation Change In and Around Stennis Space Center: Katrina and Beyond (highlighting fire risk posture).

  10. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analyses of unknown analytical response in imported Fava beans: 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole.

    PubMed

    Petzinger, G; Barry, T L; Roach, J A; Musser, S M; Sphon, J

    1995-01-01

    A halogenated unidentified analytical response (UAR) was encountered in a number of imported Fava bean samples during the Food and Drug Administration's routine pesticide-monitoring program. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) analyses identified the halogenated component as 4-chloro-6-methoxyindole, a naturally occurring promutagen in Fava beans that has been linked to incidents of gastric cancer. Data from electron impact, positive and negative chemical ionization, collision-induced dissociation, and deuteration studies of this compound are presented, along with GC retention time data. PMID:7756907

  11. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, G.; Walters, G.; Ward, L.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) conducted by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) at the former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg (ARC), a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA, Federal agencies are required to identity expeditiously real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. ARC is an 18-acre site located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. ARC was used for a variety of activities from 1955-1986. has served as a Nike Missile Control Site, as a communications and electronics research facility, and as an Army Reserve Center. Activities of environmental concern were mainly associated with construction, testing, and maintenance of electronic systems. The site has been vacant since 1986. Former Army Reserve Center, Gaithersburg, CERFA, Base closure, BRAC.

  12. Spatially variable water table recharge and the hillslope hydrologic response: Analytical solutions to the linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dralle, David N.; Boisramé, Gabrielle F. S.; Thompson, Sally E.

    2014-11-01

    The linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation, introduced by Brutsaert (1994), describes the dynamics of saturated, subsurface flow from hillslopes with shallow, unconfined aquifers. In this paper, we use a new analytical technique to solve the linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation to predict water table dynamics and hillslope discharge to channels. The new solutions extend previous analytical treatments of the linearized hillslope Boussinesq equation to account for the impact of spatiotemporal heterogeneity in water table recharge. The results indicate that the spatial character of recharge may significantly alter both steady state subsurface storage characteristics and the transient hillslope hydrologic response, depending strongly on similarity measures of controls on the subsurface flow dynamics. Additionally, we derive new analytical solutions for the linearized hillslope-storage Boussinesq equation and explore the interaction effects of recharge structure and hillslope morphology on water storage and base flow recession characteristics. A theoretical recession analysis, for example, demonstrates that decreasing the relative amount of downslope recharge has a similar effect as increasing hillslope convergence. In general, the theory suggests that recharge heterogeneity can serve to diminish or enhance the hydrologic impacts of hillslope morphology.

  13. Simulation of population response to ionizing radiation in an ecosystem with a limiting resource--Model and analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Sazykina, Tatiana G; Kryshev, Alexander I

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model is formulated, predicting the development of radiation effects in a generic animal population, inhabiting an elemental ecosystem 'population-limiting resource'. Differential equations of the model describe the dynamic responses to radiation damage of the following population characteristics: gross biomass; intrinsic fractions of healthy and reversibly damaged tissues in biomass; intrinsic concentrations of the self-repairing pool and the growth factor; and amount of the limiting resource available in the environment. Analytical formulae are found for the steady states of model variables as non-linear functions of the dose rate of chronic radiation exposure. Analytical solutions make it possible to predict the expected severity of radiation effects in a model ecosystem, including such endpoints as morbidity, mortality, life shortening, biosynthesis, and population biomass. Model parameters are selected from species data on lifespan, physiological growth and mortality rates, and individual radiosensitivity. Thresholds for population extinction can be analytically calculated for different animal species, examples are provided for generic mice and wolf populations. The ecosystem model demonstrates a compensatory effect of the environment on the development of radiation effects in wildlife. The model can be employed to construct a preliminary scale 'radiation exposure-population effects' for different animal species; species can be identified, which are vulnerable at a population level to chronic radiation exposure. PMID:26408836

  14. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  15. IQ Is Not Strongly Related to Response to Reading Instruction: A Meta-Analytic Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuebing, Karla K.; Barth, Amy E.; Molfese, Peter J.; Weiss, Brandon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 22 studies evaluating the relation of different assessments of IQ and intervention response did not support the hypothesis that IQ is an important predictor of response to instruction. We found an R[superscript 2] of 0.03 in models with IQ and the autoregressor as predictors and a unique lower estimated R[superscript 2] of 0.006…

  16. Analytical design and evaluation of an active control system for helicopter vibration reduction and gust response alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.; Zwicke, P. E.; Gold, P.; Miao, W.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to define the basic configuration of an active control system for helicopter vibration and gust response alleviation. The study culminated in a control system design which has two separate systems: narrow band loop for vibration reduction and wider band loop for gust response alleviation. The narrow band vibration loop utilizes the standard swashplate control configuration to input controller for the vibration loop is based on adaptive optimal control theory and is designed to adapt to any flight condition including maneuvers and transients. The prime characteristics of the vibration control system is its real time capability. The gust alleviation control system studied consists of optimal sampled data feedback gains together with an optimal one-step-ahead prediction. The prediction permits the estimation of the gust disturbance which can then be used to minimize the gust effects on the helicopter.

  17. An analytic model for the response of a CZT detector in diagnostic energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    LeClair, Robert J.; Wang Yinkun; Zhao Peiying; Boileau, Michel; Wang, Lilie; Fleurot, Fabrice

    2006-05-15

    A CdZnTe detector (CZTD) can be very useful for measuring diagnostic x-ray spectra. The semiconductor detector does, however, exhibit poor hole transport properties and fluorescence generation upon atomic de-excitations. This article describes an analytic model to characterize these two phenomena that occur when a CZTD is exposed to diagnostic x rays. The analytical detector response functions compare well with those obtained via Monte Carlo calculations. The response functions were applied to 50, 80, and 110 kV x-ray spectra. Two 50 kV spectra were measured; one with no filtration and the other with 1.35 mm Al filtration. The unfiltered spectrum was numerically filtered with 1.35 mm of Al in order to see whether the recovered spectrum resembled the filtered spectrum actually measured. A deviation curve was obtained by subtracting one curve from the other on an energy bin by bin basis. The deviation pattern fluctuated around the zero line when corrections were applied to both spectra. Significant deviations from zero towards the lower energies were observed when the uncorrected spectra were used. Beside visual observations, the exposure obtained using the numerically attenuated unfiltered beam was compared to the exposure calculated with the actual filtered beam. The percent differences were 0.8% when corrections were applied and 25% for no corrections. The model can be used to correct diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with a CdZnTe detector.

  18. Analytical ultrasonics for evaluation of composite materials response. Part 2: Generation and detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the response of composite materials, it is imperative that the input excitation as well as the observed output be well characterized. This characterization ideally should be in terms of displacements as a function of time with high spatial resolution. Additionally, the ability to prescribe these features for the excitation is highly desirable. Various methods for generating and detecting ultrasound in advanced composite materials are examined. Characterization and tailoring of input excitation is considered for contact and noncontact, mechanical, and electromechanical devices. Type of response as well as temporal and spatial resolution of detection methods are discussed as well. Results of investigations at Virginia Tech in application of these techniques to characterizing the response of advanced composites are presented.

  19. An analytical study of the response of a constant-attitude aircraft to atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Carden, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A light airplane equipped with an automatic control system which drives large wing flaps and the stabilator so as to produce a constant pitch attitude in all flight modes was analyzed for its response to a specific gust. The aircraft was also equipped with a bank-angle steering, zero sideslip automatic control system which was studied for its effectiveness in suppressing a specific lateral gust. The gusts were assumed to be comprised of 200 lateral and 400 vertical sinusoids. Each was used to excite the controlled aircraft and the time response to the sum of all sinusoids was plotted. The assumption was that the gust may be treated as stationary in space but variable in time rather than the reverse. Results indicate that such a control system can suppress vertical gusts up to the limit of control authority. Either the lateral accelerations or the yawing velocity response to lateral gusts can be suppressed with this system but not both simultaneously.

  20. Motion of soliton center of interactional solitons in nonlinear media with an exponential nonlocal response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhiping; Yang, Zhenjun; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shumin; Pang, Zhaoguang; Li, Jianxing

    2016-05-01

    The motion of two interactional solitons is investigated in nonlinear media with an exponential nonlocal response. A differential equation describing the motion trajectories of soliton center is proposed. Some numerical simulations are performed to illustrate the characteristics of the motion trajectories. The results show that the trajectories always oscillate periodically. However, if the two solitons are launched with a relative inclined angle which is larger than a critical value, they do not collide any more but diverge from each other. The critical angle is also given.

  1. Crisis Preparedness and Response for Schools: An Analytical Study of Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad Latif; Niazi, Hamid Khan

    2015-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the Preparedness and Response to crises in School Education department at secondary level in Punjab, Pakistan. This was done through the experiences and views of District Education Officers (DEOs), Head of Schools and Secondary School Teachers (SST). The purpose of the study was not only to examine preparedness…

  2. Relationships among Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory Frameworks via Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Nidhi; Koran, Jennifer; Henn, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    There are well-defined theoretical differences between the classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) frameworks. It is understood that in the CTT framework, person and item statistics are test- and sample-dependent. This is not the perception with IRT. For this reason, the IRT framework is considered to be theoretically superior…

  3. Assessing Acquiescence in Binary Responses: IRT-Related Item-Factor-Analytic Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Condon, Lorena

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes procedures for assessing acquiescence in a balanced set of binary personality items. These procedures are based on the bidimensional item-factor analysis model, which is an alternative parameterization of the bidimensional 2-parameter normal-ogive item response theory model. First the rationale and general approach are…

  4. Psychiatry department response to the Boston Marathon bombings within a level-1 trauma center.

    PubMed

    Oser, Megan; Shah, Sejal B; Gitlin, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present how the consultation-liaison and psychology divisions of an academic medical center's Department of Psychiatry responded in the first week after the Boston Marathon bombings, specifically in the context of disaster response guidelines and evidence-based approaches to acute trauma. Since the department had to address several complicated matters at multiple levels within the hospital system, we highlight unexpected issues unique to this particular event as they arose within the primary domains of our involvement. This article aims to (1) provide a descriptive analysis of how we enacted disaster and trauma guidelines and evidence-based care within a hospital setting, (2) shed light on the unique and unexpected administrative and systemic issues encountered in our response, and (3) discuss lessons learned, including opportunities to improve trauma-related care. PMID:25943313

  5. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-11-09

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations.

  6. Experimental, numerical, and analytical studies on the seismic response of steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epackachi, Siamak

    The seismic performance of rectangular steel-plate concrete (SC) composite shear walls is assessed for application to buildings and mission-critical infrastructure. The SC walls considered in this study were composed of two steel faceplates and infill concrete. The steel faceplates were connected together and to the infill concrete using tie rods and headed studs, respectively. The research focused on the in-plane behavior of flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. An experimental program was executed in the NEES laboratory at the University at Buffalo and was followed by numerical and analytical studies. In the experimental program, four large-size specimens were tested under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. The design variables considered in the testing program included wall thickness, reinforcement ratio, and slenderness ratio. The aspect ratio (height-to-length) of the four walls was 1.0. Each SC wall was installed on top of a re-usable foundation block. A bolted baseplate to RC foundation connection was used for all four walls. The walls were identified to be flexure- and flexure-shear critical. The progression of damage in the four walls was identical, namely, cracking and crushing of the infill concrete at the toes of the walls, outward buckling and yielding of the steel faceplates near the base of the wall, and tearing of the faceplates at their junctions with the baseplate. A robust finite element model was developed in LS-DYNA for nonlinear cyclic analysis of the flexure- and flexure-shear-critical SC walls. The DYNA model was validated using the results of the cyclic tests of the four SC walls. The validated and benchmarked models were then used to conduct a parametric study, which investigated the effects of wall aspect ratio, reinforcement ratio, wall thickness, and uniaxial concrete compressive strength on the in-plane response of SC walls. Simplified analytical models, suitable for preliminary analysis and design of SC walls, were

  7. Simplified analytical procedures for representing material cyclic response. [for high temperature gas turbine engine analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, V.; Kaufman, A.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements for increased durability of gas turbine hot section structural components have made it necessary to place greater emphasis on accurate structural analysis and life prediction. Linear finite-element analysis is generally sufficient for structural analysis applications. However, for structures in the hot part of the engine, nonlinear structural analysis may be required under certain conditions for the accurate prediction of the local stress-strain response. Nonlinear finite element analysis represents a costly effort which is generally incompatible with the iterative nature of the design process. The present investigation is, therefore, concerned with two simplified procedures for estimating the local hysteretic response produced by cyclic thermal loading. These procedures reduce the need for nonlinear finite-element analysis.

  8. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    1978-01-01

    Surface motion of compliant walls in drag reduction experiments was analyzed. Critical comparison was made between the dynamic motion of the structure and the postulated mechanism of drag reduction. The spectrum of surface motion indicated that membranes over deep cavities respond at low frequencies and large wavelengths. The membrane over a deep cavity is therefore found not to yield the desired response predicted by the postulated mechanism. The membrane over a thin air gap is found to act as a wavelength chopper, and analysis of the nonlinear response of that compliant surface indicated its possible suitability for compliant wall experiments. Periodic structures are found to lock in the desired wavelengths of motion, and it was shown that at least in Kramer's initial experiments they produced high frequency surface motions. Laminated structures are found to be very ineffective as compliant models, except when there is no bonding between the membrane and the backing. Computer programs developed for these analyses are documented.

  9. Engineering Values Into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Pamela L; Cho, Mildred K

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to "edit" genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing the Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a "gene drive" that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments. PMID:26632356

  10. Engineering Values into Genetic Engineering: A Proposed Analytic Framework for Scientific Social Responsibility

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mildred K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have been used to “edit” genomes of various plant, animal and other species, including humans, with unprecedented precision. Furthermore, editing Cas9 endonuclease gene with a gene encoding the desired guide RNA into an organism, adjacent to an altered gene, could create a “gene drive” that could spread a trait through an entire population of organisms. These experiments represent advances along a spectrum of technological abilities that genetic engineers have been working on since the advent of recombinant DNA techniques. The scientific and bioethics communities have built substantial literatures about the ethical and policy implications of genetic engineering, especially in the age of bioterrorism. However, recent CRISPr/Cas experiments have triggered a rehashing of previous policy discussions, suggesting that the scientific community requires guidance on how to think about social responsibility. We propose a framework to enable analysis of social responsibility, using two examples of genetic engineering experiments. PMID:26632356

  11. An analytical solution for the elastoplastic response of a continuous fiber composite under uniaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Allen, David H.

    1990-01-01

    A continuous fiber composite is modelled by a two-element composite cylinder in order to predict the elastoplastic response of the composite under a monotonically increasing tensile loading parallel to fibers. The fibers and matrix are assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic materials obeying Hill's and Tresca's yield criteria, respectively. Here, the composite behavior when the fibers yield prior to the matrix is investigated.

  12. Molecular tubes for lipid sensing: tube conformations control analyte selectivity and fluorescent response.

    PubMed

    Avetta, Christopher T; Shorthill, Berkeley J; Ren, Chun; Glass, Timothy E

    2012-01-20

    Two fluorescent sensors for lipids have been prepared and tested for detection of a number of hydrophobic compounds of varying shape and size. The data suggest that the two sensors have a different mode of fluorescent response. Yet, the two sensors are only different in the bridging group--one having a flexible amide and one having a rigid allyl bridge. The fluorescence data are explained based on a difference in conformation of the two sensors in aqueous solution. PMID:22263717

  13. Assessing the Immunogenic Response of a Single Center's Pneumococcal Vaccination Protocol in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Jonathan D; Myers, Leann; Kanter, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hematologic disorder in the United States. Patients with SCD are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease and are reliant on both early penicillin prophylaxis and antipneumococcal vaccination for prevention of infection. Although studies examining vaccine response have demonstrated a drop-off of titer response after 3 years, an optimal vaccination regimen has not been identified. Our study sought to assess the immunogenicity of our center's pneumococcal vaccination strategy, which included Prevnar (PCV-7) (before the introduction of PCV-13) followed by Pneumovax (PPV-23) given routinely at 2 and 5 years of age and then every 5 years thereafter. Our goal was to assess vaccine response in a population of patients with SCD who had received vaccines according to this regimen using multiplex bead analysis. Our study demonstrated a significant percentage of persons with SCD do not maintain a sufficient vaccination response to PPV-23 for 5 years. Our study revealed that only 36% of patients had protective levels of antipneumococcal antibody titers at an average of 37 months after vaccination. Most alarmingly, within the group of patients with subtherapeutic titers, 64% demonstrated vaccine response to <25% of the tested serotypes. These findings were significantly associated with duration of time since last vaccine administration, but the mean age of lack of response was below the 3-year window where vaccine response was previously reported to wane. Our results indicate antipneumococcal immunity may not be optimally maintained using this vaccination strategy in patients with SCD leaving them vulnerable to invasive pneumococcal disease. Many pediatric hematologists stop prophylactic penicillin at 5 years of age making these results alarming. We recommend further investigation into an optimal vaccine schedule and monitoring of antipneumococcal titers in at-risk patients. PMID:26886376

  14. Metals and trace elements in feathers: A geochemical approach to avoid misinterpretation of analytical responses.

    PubMed

    Borghesi, Fabrizio; Migani, Francesca; Andreotti, Alessandro; Baccetti, Nicola; Bianchi, Nicola; Birke, Manfred; Dinelli, Enrico

    2016-02-15

    interpretation of the analytical results. PMID:26657393

  15. Effect of Phase on Human Responses to Vertical Whole-Body Vibration and SHOCK—ANALYTICAL Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MATSUMOTO, Y.; GRIFFIN, M. J.

    2002-03-01

    The effect of the “phase” on human responses to vertical whole-body vibration and shock has been investigated analytically using alternative methods of predicting subjective responses (using r.m.s., VDV and various frequency weightings). Two types of phase have been investigated: the effect of the relative phase between two frequency components in the input stimulus, and the phase response of the human body. Continuous vibrations and shocks, based on half-sine and one-and-a-half-sine accelerations, each of which had two frequency components, were used as input stimuli. For the continuous vibrations, an effect of relative phase was found for the vibration dose value (VDV) when the ratio between two frequency components was three: about 12% variation in the VDV of the unweighted acceleration was possible by changing the relative phase. The effect of the phase response of the body represented by frequency weightings was most significant when the frequencies of two sinusoidal components were about 3 and 9 Hz. With shocks, the effect of relative phase was observed for all stimuli used. The variation in the r.m.s. acceleration and in the VDV caused by variations in the relative phase varied between 3 and 100%, depending on the nature of stimulus and the frequency weighting. The phase of the frequency weightings had a different effect on the r.m.s. and the VDV.

  16. Is harm reduction profitable? An analytical framework for corporate social responsibility based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption.

    PubMed

    Massin, Sophie

    2012-06-01

    This article aims to help resolve the apparent paradox of producers of addictive goods who claim to be socially responsible while marketing a product clearly identified as harmful. It advances that reputation effects are crucial in this issue and that determining whether harm reduction practices are costly or profitable for the producers can help to assess the sincerity of their discourse. An analytical framework based on an epidemic model of addictive consumption that includes a deterrent effect of heavy use on initiation is developed. This framework enables us to establish a clear distinction between a simple responsible discourse and genuine harm reduction practices and, among harm reduction practices, between use reduction practices and micro harm reduction practices. Using simulations based on tobacco sales in France from 1950 to 2008, we explore the impact of three corresponding types of actions: communication on damage, restraining selling practices and development of safer products on total sales and on the social cost. We notably find that restraining selling practices toward light users, that is, preventing light users from escalating to heavy use, can be profitable for the producer, especially at early stages of the epidemic, but that such practices also contribute to increase the social cost. These results suggest that the existence of a deterrent effect of heavy use on the initiation of the consumption of an addictive good can shed new light on important issues, such as the motivations for corporate social responsibility and the definition of responsible actions in the particular case of harm reduction. PMID:22475402

  17. Analytic derivative couplings in time-dependent density functional theory: Quadratic response theory versus pseudo-wavefunction approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Herbert, John M.

    2015-02-14

    We revisit the formalism for analytic derivative couplings between excited states in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). We derive and implement these couplings using quadratic response theory, then numerically compare this response-theory formulation to couplings implemented previously based on a pseudo-wavefunction formalism and direct differentiation of the Kohn-Sham determinant. Numerical results, including comparison to full configuration interaction calculations, suggest that the two approaches perform equally well for many molecular systems, provided that the underlying DFT method affords accurate potential energy surfaces. The response contributions are found to be important for certain systems with high symmetry, but can be calculated with only a moderate increase in computational cost beyond what is required for the pseudo-wavefunction approach. In the case of spin-flip TDDFT, we provide a formal proof that the derivative couplings obtained using response theory are identical to those obtained from the pseudo-wavefunction formulation, which validates our previous implementation based on the latter formalism.

  18. Rapid-Response Parenting Intervention in Diagnostic Centers as a Patient-Centered Innovation for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillin, Stephen Edward; Bultas, Margaret W.; Wilmott, Jennifer; Grafeman, Sarah; Zand, Debra H.

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children newly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders are a high-need population for whom skills-based parenting interventions likely help. Diagnostic centers are compelling locations to deliver parenting interventions because families are served in an accessible location and at a time they receive overwhelming treatment…

  19. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  20. Analytical calculation of in-plane response of plates with concentrated masses to impact and application to pyroshock simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacher, Alexander; Jüngel, Nikolas; von Wagner, Utz; Bäger, Annette

    2012-07-01

    In aerospace missions pyroshocks occur due to controlled explosions of ordnance devices enabling the functionality of space modules. These shocks result from deployment mechanisms or opening solar sails and can cause failures of electronic devices and structures. Thus, essential components for assuring the reliability of modules are pyroshock tests for the completion of which strict requirements by the aerospace administrations have to be met. One of them is the definition of a specific acceleration signal and, based on this, the Shock Response Spectrum (SRS) for each part. So far, there is rather empirical than analytical knowledge about producing desired SRS with mechanical impacts and its characteristics due to the variation of input parameters. In this paper a widespread testing procedure for far-field pyroshocks is discussed which is realized by the in-plane impact of a hammer pendulum on a plate including the test specimen. The mechanical model consists of the contact between a rigid sphere and a free deformable rectangular plate with attached masses including subsequent propagation and reflection of longitudinal waves. In order to allow for a prediction of the acceleration field and the corresponding SRS due to the impact the problem is solved semi-analytically by using Hertzian contact theory, the Galerkin-procedure and numerical integration in time domain. The in-plane problem has, to the best of the authors' knowledge, not yet been treated in the literature in the way presented. The results calculated are compared with experimental data showing very good coincidence and allowing for a fast prediction of far-field pyroshock tests due to the impact excitation by a hammer pendulum. Hence, the framework of this paper is an enrichment for the current state of the art considering analytical pyroshock simulation. By better understanding the effect of pyroshocks to one and two dimensional structures a reduction of costs as well as durations for testing procedures

  1. A reversible dual-response fluorescence switch for the detection of multiple analytes.

    PubMed

    Geng, Junlong; Liu, Ping; Liu, Bianhua; Guan, Guijian; Zhang, Zhongping; Han, Ming-Yong

    2010-03-22

    This paper reports a reversible dual fluorescence switch for the detection of a proton target and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) with opposite-response results, based on fluorophore derivatization of silica nanoparticles. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles were synthesized through modification of the surface with a nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) fluorophore and an organic amine to form a hybrid monolayer of fluorophores and amino ligands; the resultant nanoparticles showed different fluorescence responses to the proton target and TNT. Protonation of the amino ligands leads to fluorescence enhancement due to inhibition of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between the amine and fluorophore. By contrast, addition of TNT results in fluorescence quenching because a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) happens between the NBD fluorophore and the formed TNT-amine complex. The fluorescence signal is reversible through washing with the proper solvents and the nanoparticles can be reused after centrifugal separation. Furthermore, these nanoparticles were assembled into chips on an etched silicon wafer for the detection of TNT and the proton target. The assembled chip can be used as a convenient indicator of herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and TNT residues with the use of only 10 microL of sample. The simple NBD-grafted silica nanoparticles reported here show a reversible signal and good assembly flexibility; thus, they can be applied in multianalyte detection. PMID:20151433

  2. An analytical/numerical correlation study of the multiple concentric cylinder model for the thermoplastic response of metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Salzar, Robert S.; Williams, Todd O.

    1993-01-01

    The utility of a recently developed analytical micromechanics model for the response of metal matrix composites under thermal loading is illustrated by comparison with the results generated using the finite-element approach. The model is based on the concentric cylinder assemblage consisting of an arbitrary number of elastic or elastoplastic sublayers with isotropic or orthotropic, temperature-dependent properties. The elastoplastic boundary-value problem of an arbitrarily layered concentric cylinder is solved using the local/global stiffness matrix formulation (originally developed for elastic layered media) and Mendelson's iterative technique of successive elastic solutions. These features of the model facilitate efficient investigation of the effects of various microstructural details, such as functionally graded architectures of interfacial layers, on the evolution of residual stresses during cool down. The available closed-form expressions for the field variables can readily be incorporated into an optimization algorithm in order to efficiently identify optimal configurations of graded interfaces for given applications. Comparison of residual stress distributions after cool down generated using finite-element analysis and the present micromechanics model for four composite systems with substantially different temperature-dependent elastic, plastic, and thermal properties illustrates the efficacy of the developed analytical scheme.

  3. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface motion of compliant walls in drag reduction experiments was analyzed. The spectrum of surface motion indicates that membranes over deep cavities respond at low frequencies and large wavelengths. The membrane over a deep cavity is therefore found not to yield the desired reponse predicted by the postulated mechanism. The membrane over a thin air gap is found to act as a wavelength chopper, and analysis of the nonlinear response of the compliant surface indicates its possible suitability for compliant wall experiments. Periodic structures are found to lock in the desired wavelengths of motion. Laminated structures are found to be very ineffective as compliant models, except when there is no bonding between the membrane and the backing. Computer programs developed for these analyses are documented.

  4. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanian, R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of an electrostatically driven wall system for a compliant wall drag reduction program is reported. The electrostatic wall system is capable of producing deflections of many orders greater than the wall thicknesses and at small wavelengths. An intermediate large response theory is used for structural analysis. The theoretical predictions are compared to bench test results, and good agreement between the two is obtained. The effects of aerodynamic loads and perturbation electric fields on the theoretical solutions are considered. It is shown that for very small wavelengths (lambda almost equals 2 mm) the aerodynamic effects can be estimated using potential theory without loss of accuracy, and the perturbation electric fields do not effect solutions as long as the deflections are less than one percent of the wavelength. Resonance effects for this type of structure are shown to be fairly small.

  5. Analytical and numerical investigation of structural response of compliant wall materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Balasubramanian, R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of an electrostatically driven wall system for a compliant wall drag reduction program is reported. The electrostatic wall system is capable of producing deflections of many orders greater than the thicknesses and at small wavelengths. An intermediate large response theory was used for structural analysis. The theoretical predictions were compared to bench test results, and good agreement between the two was obtained. The effects of aerodynamic loads and perturbation electric fields on the theoretical solutions were considered. It was shown that for very small wavelengths (approximately 2mm) the aerodynamic effects can be estimated using potential theory without loss of accuracy, and the perturbation electric fields do not affect solutions as long as the deflections are less than one percent of the wavelength. Resonance effects for this type of structure were shown to be fairly small.

  6. Analytical study of graphite-epoxy tube response to thermal loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, Tamara W.; Hyer, M. W.

    1988-01-01

    The thermally-induced stresses and deformations in graphite-epoxy tubes with aluminum foil bonded to both inner and outer surfaces, and to the outer surface only are computed. Tubes fabricated from three material systems, T300/934, P75s/934, and P75s/BP907, and having a 1 inch inner radius and a lamination sequence of (+15/0 + or - 10/0)sub s are studied. Radial, axial, and circumferential stresses in the various layers of the tube, in the foil, and in the adhesive bonding the foil to the tubes are computed using an elasticity solution. The results indicate that the coatings have no detrimental effect on the stress state in the tube, particularly those stresses that lead to microcracking. The addition of the aluminum foil does, however, significantly influence the axial expansion of the T300/934 tube, the tube with the softer graphite fibers. The addition of foil can change the sign of the axial coefficient of thermal expansion. Twist tendencies of the tubes are only slightly affected by the addition of the coatings, but are of second order compared to the axial response.

  7. Early maternal separation and responsiveness to thermal nociception in rodent offspring: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liyun; Jackson, Todd

    2016-02-15

    Although numerous animal studies have assessed the impact of maternal separation upon pain sensitivity, overall conclusions are difficult to draw about the literature in light of mixed patterns of findings. In this research, a meta-analysis was performed to assess effects of early maternal separation on sensitivity to nociceptive thermal stimulation in rodent offspring and to identify moderators that might explain variable results between studies. Fifteen studies comprising 19 rodent offspring samples (N=1642) fulfilled all selection criteria. Analyses indicated that rodent offspring exposed to early maternal separation had longer response latencies (RLs) reflecting lower sensitivity to nociceptive thermal stimulation compared to non-separated controls. Heightened effect size heterogeneity was also evident. Moderator analyses indicated variable findings between studies were partially or fully explained by operationalizations of maternal separation (early handling vs. maternal separation), type of noxious stimuli, age of testing, receipt of injections during separation, sex composition of samples, and publication year. Biobehavioral underpinnings of overall group differences and moderator effects are posited in the discussion. PMID:26592163

  8. Teachers’ Relationship Closeness with Students as a Resource for Teacher Wellbeing: A Response Surface Analytical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Milatz, Anne; Lüftenegger, Marko; Schober, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Teachers’ relationship quality with students has been argued to be an important source of teacher wellbeing. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate to what extent teachers’ relationship closeness toward students, combined with attachment security is a resource protecting against teacher burnout. Eighty-three elementary school teachers reported on their most and least attached student’s relationship closeness, their attachment security and levels of burnout, as measured by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Response surface analysis (RSA), enabling researchers to investigate the effect of congruence/incongruence of two predictors on an outcome, revealed that teachers’ depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were lowest when they developed homogenous close relationships toward the students within their classroom and when teachers in general made congruent relationship experiences. No RSA model could be specified for personal accomplishment, even though a correlational analysis revealed that increasing closeness with students fostered teachers’ personal accomplishment. Teachers’ secure attachment experiences were not directly related to burnout, but enhanced their capability to establish close relationships toward their students. Findings suggest that teachers’ relationships toward students are a resource for the teacher’s wellbeing, which highlights once again the importance of student–teacher relationships in education. PMID:26779045

  9. Report of tritide study at the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, Robert; Coffey, Jaime

    2008-11-01

    This report documents a study of sample counting results for wipes from routine surface area monitoring conducted at the Responsive Neutron Generator Product Deployment Center (RNGPDC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The study was initiated in November 2006, with two samples suspected of containing erbium tritide, after some samples were found to exhibit higher tritium counting rates upon recount at a later time. The main goal of the study was to determine whether the current practice of analyzing tritium wipe samples once, within a few days of sample collection, is adequate to accurately quantify the amount of tritium on the sample when tritides may be present. Recommendations are made toward routine recounting of vials suspected of containing particulate forms of tritium.

  10. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias towards the plasma cell (PC) fate,...

  11. Prospective Impact of Responsibility Center Budgeting on Communication and Theatre Programs: View from a State Supported University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Robert C.

    In response to the nationwide trend toward increased financial pressures and growing demands by state legislatures for accountability, several large universities (including Indiana University) have adopted various forms of "responsibility center budgeting" (RCB), which has fiscal implications for programs in speech communication and related…

  12. Experimental research activities in dynamic response and sonic fatigue of hypersonic vehicle structures at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of experimental research activities being pursued at the NASA Langley Research Center for dynamic response and sonic fatigue of hypersonic vehicle structures. The capabilities of the principle test facility, the Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus, are first given. Results from recent dynamic response and sonic fatigue tests on candidate hypersonic vehicle structures are then presented.

  13. Responsiveness of Lebanon's primary healthcare centers to non-communicable diseases and related healthcare needs.

    PubMed

    Yassoub, Rami; Hashimi, Suha; Awada, Siham; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Lebanon currently faces a rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) that is stressing the population's health and financial well-being. Preventive care is recognized as the optimal health equitable, cost-effective solution. The study aims to assess the responsiveness of primary health care centers (PHCs) to NCD, and identify the needed health arrangements and responsibilities of PHCs, the Ministry Of Public Health and other healthcare system entities, for PHCs to purse a more preventive role against NCD. Single and group interviews were conducted via a semi-structured questionnaire with 10 PHCs from Lebanon's primary health care network that have undergone recent pilot accreditation and are recognized for having quality services and facilities. This manifested administrative aspects and NCD-related services of PHCs and generated information regarding the centers' deficiencies, strengths and areas needing improvement for fulfilling a more preventive role. Administrative features of PHCs varied according to number and type of health personnel employed. Variations and deficiencies within and among PHCs were manifested specifically at the level of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. PHCs identified the pilot accreditation as beneficial at the administrative and clinical levels; however, various financial and non-financial resources, in addition to establishing a strong referral system with secondary care settings and further arrangements with MOPH, are necessary for PHCs to pursue a stronger preventive role. The generated results denote needed changes within the healthcare system's governance, financing and delivery. They involve empowering PHCs and increasing their breadth of services, allocating a greater portion of national budget to health and preventive care, and equipping PHCs with personnel skilled in conducting community-wide preventive activities. PMID:23729408

  14. Experimental and Analytical Characterization of the Macromechanical Response for Triaxial Braided Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    micromacromechanical computer model is created to simulate the behavior of these composite material systems under static and ballistic impact loading using the test data acquired. The model also quantifies the way in which the fiber/matrix interface affects material response under static and impact loading. The results show that the test methods are capable of accurately quantifying the polymer resin under a variety of strain rates and temperature for three loading conditions. The resin strength and stiffness data show a clear rate and temperature dependence. The data also show the hydrostatic stress effects and hysteresis, all of which can be used by researchers developing composite constitutive models for the resins. The results for the composite data reveal noticeable differences in strength, failure strain, and stiffness in the different material systems presented. The investigations into the microscale failure mechanisms provide information about the nature of the different material system behaviors. Finally, the developed computer model predicts composite static strength and stiffness to within 10 percent of the gathered test data and also agrees with composite impact data, where available.

  15. Research on Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center has conducted many tests investigating subjective response to simulated sonic booms. Most tests have used the Sonic Boom Booth, an airtight concrete booth fitted with loudspeakers that play synthesized sonic booms pre-processed to compensate for the response of the booth/loudspeaker system. Tests using the Booth have included investigations of shaped booms, booms with simulated ground reflections, recorded booms, outdoor and indoor booms, booms with differing loudness for bow and tail shocks, and comparisons of aircraft flyover recordings with sonic booms. Another study used loudspeakers placed inside people s houses, so that they could experience the booms while in their own homes. This study investigated the reactions of people to different numbers of booms heard within a 24-hour period. The most recent Booth test used predicted boom shapes from candidate low-boom aircraft. At present, a test to compare the Booth with boom simulators constructed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company is underway. The Lockheed simulator is an airtight booth similar to the Langley booth; the Gulfstream booth uses a traveling wave method to create the booms. Comparison of "realism" as well as loudness and other descriptors is to be studied.

  16. Geographic Variation in Tsunami Warning Center Response Time: Identifying Areas of Greatest Concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, N. C.; Sardiña, V.; Cessaro, R. K.; Fryer, G. J.; Weinstein, S.

    2010-12-01

    network. We estimate the time required for P-waves generated by subduction zone earthquakes to reach the number of stations typically needed to produce a tsunami warning. We then project these data to the nearest coastlines to produce a table of P-wave reception times for earthquakes affecting these coastlines. Next, we subtract these reception time values from the travel time of tsunamis from these earthquakes to the coastlines. The resulting data sets and corresponding maps reveal the time window of opportunity for populations to act upon PTWC's warnings and safely evacuate these coastal areas. Our maps show that while most of the world's coastal populations have an hour or more to evacuate after receiving a warning from PTWC, certain coastlines have less than an hour, and in the worst cases, the first tsunami wave will arrive before PTWC can warn the affected areas. While our analysis reveals response problems for a given tsunami warning center, it also highlights the solutions by indicating where to install and monitor additional seismic stations, and where data outages could have the greatest negative impact, thus showing where redundancy in station deployment is most critical.

  17. Opioids depress cortical centers responsible for the volitional control of respiration.

    PubMed

    Pattinson, Kyle T S; Governo, Ricardo J; MacIntosh, Bradley J; Russell, Elizabeth C; Corfield, Douglas R; Tracey, Irene; Wise, Richard G

    2009-06-24

    Respiratory depression limits provision of safe opioid analgesia and is the main cause of death in drug addicts. Although opioids are known to inhibit brainstem respiratory activity, their effects on cortical areas that mediate respiration are less well understood. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine how brainstem and cortical activity related to a short breath hold is modulated by the opioid remifentanil. We hypothesized that remifentanil would differentially depress brain areas that mediate sensory-affective components of respiration over those that mediate volitional motor control. Quantitative measures of cerebral blood flow were used to control for hypercapnia-induced changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal. Awareness of respiration, reflected by an urge-to-breathe score, was profoundly reduced with remifentanil. Urge to breathe was associated with activity in the bilateral insula, frontal operculum, and secondary somatosensory cortex. Localized remifentanil-induced decreases in breath hold-related activity were observed in the left anterior insula and operculum. We also observed remifentanil-induced decreases in the BOLD response to breath holding in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, the cerebellum, and periaqueductal gray, brain areas that mediate task performance. Activity in areas mediating motor control (putamen, motor cortex) and sensory-motor integration (supramarginal gyrus) were unaffected by remifentanil. Breath hold-related activity was observed in the medulla. These findings highlight the importance of higher cortical centers in providing contextual awareness of respiration that leads to appropriate modulation of respiratory control. Opioids have profound effects on the cortical centers that control breathing, which potentiates their actions in the brainstem. PMID:19553457

  18. Improving Response to Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: Findings of the Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE), 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Biggerstaff, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    Context Each year foodborne diseases (FBD) affect approximately 1 in 6 Americans, resulting in 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Decreasing resources impact the ability of public health officials to identify, respond to, and control FBD outbreaks. Geographically dispersed outbreaks necessitate multijurisdictional coordination across all levels of the public health system. Rapid response depends on rapid detection. Objective Targeted resources were provided to state and local health departments to improve completeness and timeliness of laboratory, epidemiology, and environmental health (EH) activities for FBD surveillance and outbreak response. Design Foodborne Disease Centers for Outbreak Response Enhancement (FoodCORE) centers, selected through competitive award, implemented work plans designed to make outbreak response more complete and faster in their jurisdiction. Performance metrics were developed and used to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of activities. Participants Departments of Health in Connecticut, New York City, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Utah, and Wisconsin. Results From the first year (Y1) of the program in October 2010 to the end of second year (Y2) in December 2012, the centers completed molecular subtyping for a higher proportion of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Listeria (SSL) isolates (86% vs 98%) and reduced the average time to complete testing from a median of 8 to 4 days. The centers attempted epidemiologic interviews with more SSL case-patients (93% vs 99%) and the average time to attempt interviews was reduced from a median of 4 to 2 days. During Y2, nearly 200 EH assessments were conducted. FoodCORE centers began documenting model practices such as streamlining and standardizing case-patient interviewing. Conclusion Centers used targeted resources and process evaluation to implement and document practices that improve the completeness and timeliness of FBD surveillance and outbreak response activities

  19. Immobilization of β-Galactosidase onto Functionalized Graphene Nano-sheets Using Response Surface Methodology and Its Analytical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Devesh; Talat, Mahe; Srivastava, Onkar Nath; Kayastha, Arvind M.

    2012-01-01

    Background β-Galactosidase is a vital enzyme with diverse application in molecular biology and industries. It was covalently attached onto functionalized graphene nano-sheets for various analytical applications based on lactose reduction. Methodology/Principal Findings Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design of experiment was used for determination of optimal immobilization conditions, which resulted in 84.2% immobilization efficiency. Native and immobilized functionalized graphene was characterized with the help of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, followed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Functionalized graphene sheets decorated with islands of immobilized enzyme were evidently visualized under both transmission and scanning electron microscopy after immobilization. FTIR spectra provided insight on various chemical interactions and bonding, involved during and after immobilization. Optimum temperature and energy of activation (Ea) remains unchanged whereas optimum pH and Km were changed after immobilization. Increased thermal stability of enzyme was observed after conjugating the enzyme with functionalized graphene. Significance Immobilized β-galactosidase showed excellent reusability with a retention of more than 92% enzymatic activity after 10 reuses and an ideal performance at broad ranges of industrial environment. PMID:22815797

  20. A semi-analytical method to evaluate the dynamic response of functionally graded plates subjected to underwater shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lizhong; Izzuddin, Bassam A.; Liu, Guohua

    2015-02-01

    Functionally graded (FG) plates are of current interest and are widely used in a variety of applications including deep sea exploration and naval/marine and coastal engineering, despite the fact that there has, to date, been little research undertaken on the subject. In order to remedy the situation, an analytical method to investigate the elastic dynamic responses of FG plates to underwater shock is proposed here, their material properties varying by the same exponential law along the thickness direction. Taylor's one dimensional fluid solid interaction (FSI) model is extended to fit a three dimensional model suitable for FG plates. The extended FSI model and Laplace transform are integrated into the state space method, with the transient solution in the time domain being obtained by using the numerical inversion of the Laplace transform. The solutions of the total forces acting throughout the front and back faces in the time domain are derived for the first time. The present method is validated by comparing it with the results of other methods and experiments found in the relevant literature. The influence of the boundary conditions at the backside of the plate and FG parameters on front and back side pressures, cavitations, displacements, stresses and total forces acting throughout the faces are then investigated, with the time progression of the cavitation areas of air-backed plates and water-backed plates being investigated in detail. The method proposed in this paper may prove useful for the future three-dimensional assessment of the response of FG structures when FSI effects are taken into consideration. It is hoped that the results will lead to a full understanding of the mechanism of the interaction between fluid and an FG plate, and that they can be used as benchmark solutions in further research.

  1. The USGS National Earthquake Information Center's Response to the Wenchuan, China Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, P. S.; Wald, D. J.; Benz, H.; Sipkin, S.; Dewey, J.; Allen, T.; Jaiswal, K.; Buland, R.; Choy, G.; Hayes, G.; Hutko, A.

    2008-12-01

    Immediately after detecting the May 12th, 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) began a coordinated effort to understand and communicate the earthquake's seismological characteristics, tectonic context, and humanitarian impact. NEIC's initial estimates of magnitude and location were distributed within 30 minutes of the quake by e-mail and text message to 70,000 users via the Earthquake Notification System. The release of these basic parameters automatically triggered the generation of more sophisticated derivative products that were used by relief and government agencies to plan their humanitarian response to the disaster. Body-wave and centroid moment tensors identified the earthquake's mechanism. Predictive ShakeMaps provided the first estimates of the geographic extent and amplitude of shaking. The initial automated population exposure estimate generated and distributed by the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system stated that 1.2 million people were exposed to severe-to-extreme shaking (Modified Mercalli Intensity VIII or greater), indicating a large-scale disaster had occurred. NEIC's modeling of the mainshock and aftershocks was continuously refined and expanded. The length and orientation of the fault were determined from aftershocks, finite-fault models, and back-projection source imaging. Firsthand accounts of shaking intensity were collected and mapped by the "Did You Feel It" system. These results were used to refine our ShakeMaps and PAGER exposure estimates providing a more accurate assessment of the extent and enormity of the disaster. The products were organized and distributed in an event-specific summary poster and via the USGS Earthquake Program web pages where they were viewed by millions and reproduced by major media outlets (over 1/2 billion hits were served that month). Rather than just a point showing magnitude and epicenter, several of the media's schematic maps

  2. Strategic response by providers to specialty hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, and retail clinics.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawton R; David, Guy; Helmchen, Lorens A

    2011-04-01

    Radical innovation and disruptive technologies are frequently heralded as a solution to delivering higher quality, lower cost health care. According to the literature on disruption, local hospitals and physicians (incumbent providers) may be unable to competitively respond to such "creative destruction" and alter their business models for a host of reasons, thus threatening their future survival. However, strategic management theory and research suggest that, under certain conditions, incumbent providers may be able to weather the discontinuities posed by the disrupters. This article analyzes 3 disruptive innovations in service delivery: single-specialty hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, and retail clinics. We first discuss the features of these innovations to assess how disruptive they are. We then draw on the literature on strategic adaptation to suggest how incumbents develop competitive responses to these disruptive innovations that assure their continued survival. These arguments are then evaluated in a field study of several urban markets based on interviews with both incumbents and entrants. The interviews indicate that entrants have failed to disrupt incumbent providers primarily as a result of strategies pursued by the incumbents. The findings cast doubt on the prospects for these disruptive innovations to transform health care. PMID:21091376

  3. Financial sustainability of academic health centers: identifying challenges and strategic responses.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Jim P; Li, Tao; Shiyanbola, Oyewale O; Jacobson, Janelle J

    2014-06-01

    Academic health centers (AHCs) play a vital role in the health care system. The training of health care personnel and delivery of health care services, especially to the most complex and financially challenged patients, has been a responsibility increasingly shouldered by AHCs over the years. Additionally, AHCs play a significant role in researching and developing new treatment protocols, including discovering and validating new health technologies. However, AHCs face unique financial challenges in fulfilling their social mission in the health care system. Reforms being implemented under the Affordable Care Act and shifting economic patterns are threatening the financial sustainability of AHCs.The authors review challenges facing AHCs, including training new health care professionals with fewer funding resources, disproportionate clinical care of complex and costly patients, charity care to uninsured and underinsured, and reduced research funding opportunities. Then, they provide a review of some potential solutions to these challenges, including new reimbursement methods, improvements in operational efficiency, price regulation, subsidization of education, improved decision making and communication, utilization of industrial management tools, and increasing internal and external cooperation. Devising solutions to the evolving problems of AHCs is crucial to improving health care delivery in the United States. Most likely, a combination of market, government, and system reforms will be needed to improve the viability of AHCs and assist them in fulfilling their social and organizational missions. PMID:24871234

  4. Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kristin L; Perales, Hugo R

    2010-01-01

    Landraces cultivated in centers of crop diversity result from past and contemporary patterns of natural and farmer-mediated evolutionary forces. Successful in situ conservation of crop genetic resources depends on continuity of these evolutionary processes. Climate change is projected to affect agricultural production, yet analyses of impacts on in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity and farmers who conserve it have been absent. How will crop landraces respond to alterations in climate? We review the roles that phenotypic plasticity, evolution, and gene flow might play in sustaining production, although we might expect erosion of genetic diversity if landrace populations or entire races lose productivity. For example, highland maize landraces in southern Mexico do not express the plasticity necessary to sustain productivity under climate change, but may evolve in response to altered conditions. The outcome for any given crop in a given region will depend on the distribution of genetic variation that affects fitness and patterns of climate change. Understanding patterns of neutral and adaptive diversity from the population to the landscape scale is essential to clarify how landraces conserved in situ will continue to evolve and how to minimize genetic erosion of this essential natural resource. PMID:25567941

  5. Evolutionary response of landraces to climate change in centers of crop diversity.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Kristin L; Perales, Hugo R

    2010-09-01

    Landraces cultivated in centers of crop diversity result from past and contemporary patterns of natural and farmer-mediated evolutionary forces. Successful in situ conservation of crop genetic resources depends on continuity of these evolutionary processes. Climate change is projected to affect agricultural production, yet analyses of impacts on in situ conservation of crop genetic diversity and farmers who conserve it have been absent. How will crop landraces respond to alterations in climate? We review the roles that phenotypic plasticity, evolution, and gene flow might play in sustaining production, although we might expect erosion of genetic diversity if landrace populations or entire races lose productivity. For example, highland maize landraces in southern Mexico do not express the plasticity necessary to sustain productivity under climate change, but may evolve in response to altered conditions. The outcome for any given crop in a given region will depend on the distribution of genetic variation that affects fitness and patterns of climate change. Understanding patterns of neutral and adaptive diversity from the population to the landscape scale is essential to clarify how landraces conserved in situ will continue to evolve and how to minimize genetic erosion of this essential natural resource. PMID:25567941

  6. Empirical-Analytical Methodological Research in Environmental Education: Response To a Negative Trend in Methodological and Ideological Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Explores the current status of the empirical-analytical methodology and its "positivist" ideologies in environmental education research through the critical analysis of three criticisms outlined in an article by Robottom and Hart. Suggests that the criticisms misrepresent empirical-analytical methodology in their dismissal of it as behaviorist…

  7. 20 CFR 670.950 - What are the financial management responsibilities of Job Corps center operators and other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are the financial management responsibilities of Job Corps center operators and other service providers? 670.950 Section 670.950 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR THE JOB CORPS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Administrative...

  8. Responsibilities and practical limitations in the operation of an astronomical data center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.; Mead, J. M.; Nagy, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The operation of an astronomical data center requires that many decisions be made concerning the handling of the astronomical catalogs and data distributed. Should a data center be, as Wilkins (1977) described it, passive, in that catalogs and data are collected and distributed blackbox-wise upon request, or should a data center be active and have experts in various fields to scrutinize, correct, reformat, and document data where necessary. These questions will be addressed and illustrated by describing the current operations and future goals of the Astronomical Data Center at NASA/GSFC.

  9. Rgs13 Constrains Early B Cell Responses and Limits Germinal Center Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Il-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Park, Chung; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Kehrl, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomic structures that develop in secondary lymphoid organs in response to antigenic stimulation. Within GCs B cells clonally expand and their immunoglobulin genes undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Transcriptional profiling has identified a number of genes that are prominently expressed in GC B cells. Among them is Rgs13, which encodes an RGS protein with a dual function. Its canonical function is to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits at the plasma membrane, thereby limiting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. A unique, non-canonical function of RGS13 occurs following translocation to the nucleus, where it represses CREB transcriptional activity. The functional role of RGS13 in GC B cells is unknown. To create a surrogate marker for Rgs13 expression and a loss of function mutation, we inserted a GFP coding region into the Rgs13 genomic locus. Following immunization GFP expression rapidly increased in activated B cells, persisted in GC B cells, but declined in newly generated memory B and plasma cells. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN) of immunized mice revealed the rapid appearance of GFP+ cells at LN interfollicular regions and along the T/B cell borders, and eventually within GCs. Analysis of WT, knock-in, and mixed chimeric mice indicated that RGS13 constrains extra-follicular plasma cell generation, GC size, and GC B cell numbers. Analysis of select cell cycle and GC specific genes disclosed an aberrant gene expression profile in the Rgs13 deficient GC B cells. These results indicate that RGS13, likely acting at cell membranes and in nuclei, helps coordinate key decision points during the expansion and differentiation of naive B cells. PMID:23533672

  10. Predictors of pathologic complete response after preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy of rectal cancer: a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Euncheol; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Mi Young; Oh, Young Ki; Baek, Sung Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify possible predictors of pathologic complete response (pCR) of rectal cancer after preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 53 patients with rectal cancer who underwent preoperative CCRT followed by radical surgery at a single center between January 2007 and December 2012. The median radiotherapy dose to the pelvis was 54.0 Gy (range, 45.0 to 63.0 Gy). Five-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy was administered via continuous infusion with leucovorin. Results: The pCR rate was 20.8%. The downstaging rate was 66%. In univariate analyses, poor and undifferentiated tumors (p = 0.020) and an interval of ≥7 weeks from finishing CCRT to surgery (p = 0.040) were significantly associated with pCR, while female gender (p = 0.070), initial carcinoembryonic antigen concentration of <5.0 ng/dL (p = 0.100), and clinical stage T2 (p = 0.100) were marginally significant factors. In multivariate analysis, an interval of ≥7 weeks from finishing CCRT to surgery (odds ratio, 0.139; 95% confidence interval, 0.022 to 0.877; p = 0.036) was significantly associated with pCR, while stage T2 (odds ratio, 5.363; 95% confidence interval, 0.963 to 29.877; p = 0.055) was a marginally significant risk factor. Conclusion: We suggest that the interval from finishing CCRT to surgery is a predictor of pCR after preoperative CCRT in patients with rectal cancer. Stage T2 cancer may also be an important predictive factor. We hope to perform a robust study by collecting data during treatment to obtain more advanced results. PMID:27306776

  11. Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

    2012-01-01

    Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

  12. Analytical Protocol (GC/ECNIMS) for OSWER's Response to OIG Report (2005-P-00022) on Toxaphene Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research approached the large number and complexity of the analytes as four separate groups: technical toxaphene, toxaphene congeners (eight in number), chlordane, and organochlorine pesticides. This approach was advantageous because it eliminated potential interferences amon...

  13. Recommendations for Safe Separation Distances from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) Using a Heat-Flux-Based Analytical Approach (Abridged)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cragg, Clinton H.; Bowman, Howard; Wilson, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was requested to provide computational modeling to support the establishment of a safe separation distance surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The two major objectives of the study were 1) establish a methodology based on thermal flux to determine safe separation distances from the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) with large numbers of solid propellant boosters containing hazard division 1.3 classification propellants, in case of inadvertent ignition; and 2) apply this methodology to the consideration of housing eight 5-segment solid propellant boosters in the VAB. The results of the study are contained in this report.

  14. Protecting worker and public health during responses to catastrophic disasters-learning from the World Trade Center experience.

    PubMed

    Newman, David M

    2014-11-01

    Despite incremental lessons learned since 9/11, responder and community health remain at unnecessary risk during responses to catastrophic disasters, as evidenced during the BP Deepwater Horizon spill and Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Sandy. Much of the health harm that occurs during disaster response, as distinct from during the disaster event itself, is avoidable. Protection of public health should be an integral component of disaster response, which should "do no additional harm." This commentary examines how challenges and gaps the World Trade Center response resulted in preventable occupational and environmental health harm. It proposes changes in disaster response policies to better protect the health of rescue and recovery workers, volunteers, and impacted worker and residential communities. PMID:25255981

  15. SU-E-P-45: An Analytical Formula for Deriving Mechanical Iso-Center of Rotational Gantry Treatment Unit Rotational Gantry Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X; Bues, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To present an analytical formula for deriving mechanical isocenter (MIC) of a rotational gantry treatment unit. The input data to the formula is obtained by a custom-made device. The formula has been implemented and used in an operational proton therapy facility since 2005. Methods: The custom made device consisted of 3 mutually perpendicular dial indicators and 5 clinometers, to obtain displacement data and gantry angle data simultaneously. During measurement, a steel sphere was affixed to the patient couch, and the device was attached to the snout rotating with the gantry. The displacement data and angle data were obtained simultaneously at angular increments of less than 1 degree. The analytical formula took the displacement and angle as input and derived the positions of dial indicator tips (DIT) position in room-fixed coordinate system. The formula derivation presupposes trigonometry and 3-dimentional coordinate transformations. Due to the symmetry properties of the defining equations, the DIT position can be solved for analytically without using mathematical approximations. We define the mean of all points in the DIT trajectory as the MIC. The formula was implemented in computer code, which has been employed during acceptance test, commissioning, as well as routine QA practice in an operational proton facility since 2005. Results: It took one minute for the custom-made device to acquire the measurement data for a full gantry rotation. The DIT trajectory and MIS are instantaneously available after the measurement. The MIC Result agrees well with vendor’s Result, which came from a different measurement setup, as well as different data analysis algorithm. Conclusion: An analytical formula for deriving mechanical isocenter was developed and validated. The formula is considered to be absolutely accurate mathematically. Be analyzing measured data of radial displacements as function of gantry angle, the formula calculates the MI position in room

  16. The Lewis Research Center geomagnetic substorm simulation facility. [its function in determining the response of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkopec, F. D.; Stevens, N. J.; Sturman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A simulation facility was established at the NASA-Lewis Research Center to determine the response of typical spacecraft materials to the geomagnetic substorm environment and to evaluate instrumentation that will be used to monitor spacecraft system response to this environment. Space environment conditions simulated included the thermal-vacuum conditions of space, solar simulation, geomagnetic substorm electron fluxes and energies, and the low energy plasma environment. Measurements for spacecraft material tests included sample currents, sample surface potentials, and the cumulative number of discharges. Discharge transients were measured by means of current probes and oscilloscopes and were verified by a photomultiplier.

  17. Characterizing the therapeutic response to deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression: a single center long-term perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Andrea L.; Garlow, Steven J.; Riva-Posse, Patricio; Mayberg, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    The number of depressed patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) is relatively small. However, experience with this intervention now spans more than 10 years at some centers, with study subjects typically monitored closely. Here we describe one center’s evolving impressions regarding optimal patient selection for DBS of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) as well as observations of short- and long-term patterns in antidepressant response and mood reactivity. A consistent time course of therapeutic response with distinct behavioral phases is observed. Early phases are characterized by changes in mood reactivity and a transient and predictable worsening in self ratings prior to stabilization of response. It is hypothesized that this characteristic recovery curve reflects the timeline of neuroplasticity in response to DBS. Further investigation of these emerging predictable psychiatric, biological, and psychosocial patterns will both improve treatment optimization and enhance understanding and recognition of meaningful DBS antidepressant effects. PMID:26124710

  18. Smoking: The Health Consequences of Tobacco Use. An Annotated Bibliography with Analytical Introduction. Science and Social Responsibility Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Cecilia M.; Gray, Richard A.

    This volume contains an extensive introduction to the health consequences of tobacco use and extended annotations of the most important English-language monographs and articles to appear on the subject in the 1980s and 1990s arranged in classified order under select headings. The introductory analytical essay by Richard A. Gray covers: early and…

  19. Empirical-Analytical Methodological Research in Environmental Education: Response to a Negative Trend in Methodological and Ideological Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to methodological discourse about research approaches to environmental education. More specifically, the paper explores the current status of the "empirical-analytical methodology" and its "positivist" (traditional- and post-positivist) ideologies, in environmental education research through the critical…

  20. The Hamovitch Research Center: An Experiment in Collective Responsibility for Advancing Science in the Human Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Marilyn; Brekke, John S.; Soydan, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    Research centers in schools of social work are growing in number and scope. In this article the authors argue that this increase is in line with the growing recognition that research and science are critical components of the mission of the social work profession. The authors examine the purposes and various models for establishing research…

  1. The Rural Teacher Center--A Response to Rural Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, John R.

    The history of the emergence and eventual success of the Mountain Towns' Teacher Center (MTTC) in South Central Vermont is embedded in the socio-historical development of the area and in the process of educational change. In the late 60's and early 70's the skiing industry created an influx of exurban populations which altered the patterns of…

  2. 20 CFR 670.510 - Are Job Corps center operators responsible for providing all vocational training?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for providing all vocational training? 670.510 Section 670.510 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... providing all vocational training? No, in order to facilitate students' entry into the workforce, the... training programs at specific centers. Contractors providing such vocational training will be selected...

  3. Math and Science Training in California: The Response of the Teacher Education and Computer Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padia, William L.; Brandes, Barbara G.

    Fifteen Teacher Education and Computer Centers (TEC) were funded by the California State Legislature to provide staff development services to teachers and administrators in all areas of the curriculum, but especially in mathematics, science, technology, and other curriculum areas in which there are significant shortages of teachers. This paper…

  4. Germinal Center B Cell and T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to Viral Vector and Protein-in-Adjuvant Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Hart, Matthew; Chui, Cecilia; Ajuogu, Augustine; Brian, Iona J; de Cassan, Simone C; Borrow, Persephone; Draper, Simon J; Douglas, Alexander D

    2016-08-15

    There is great interest in the development of Ab-inducing subunit vaccines targeting infections, including HIV, malaria, and Ebola. We previously reported that adenovirus vectored vaccines are potent in priming Ab responses, but uncertainty remains regarding the optimal approach for induction of humoral immune responses. In this study, using OVA as a model Ag, we assessed the magnitude of the primary and anamnestic Ag-specific IgG responses of mice to four clinically relevant vaccine formulations: replication-deficient adenovirus; modified vaccinia Ankara (a poxvirus); protein with alum; and protein in the squalene oil-in-water adjuvant Addavax. We then used flow cytometric assays capable of measuring total and Ag-specific germinal center (GC) B cell and follicular Th cell responses to compare the induction of these responses by the different formulations. We report that adenovirus vectored vaccines induce Ag insert-specific GC B cell and Ab responses of a magnitude comparable to those induced by a potent protein/squalene oil-in-water formulation whereas-despite a robust overall GC response-the insert-specific GC B cell and Ab responses induced by modified vaccinia Ankara were extremely weak. Ag-specific follicular Th cell responses to adenovirus vectored vaccines exceeded those induced by other platforms at day 7 after immunization. We found little evidence that innate immune activation by adenovirus may act as an adjuvant in such a manner that the humoral response to a recombinant protein may be enhanced by coadministering with an adenovirus lacking a transgene of interest. Overall, these studies provide further support for the use of replication-deficient adenoviruses to induce humoral responses. PMID:27412417

  5. Analytical determination of space station response to crew motion and design of suspension system for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Frank C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make analytical determination of the acceleration produced by crew motion in an orbiting space station and define design parameters for the suspension system of microgravity experiments. A simple structural model for simulation of the IOC space station is proposed. Mathematical formulation of this model provides the engineers a simple and direct tool for designing an effective suspension system.

  6. Analytical determination of space station response to crew motion and design of suspension system for microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to make analytical determination of the acceleration produced by crew motion in an orbiting space station and define design parameters for the suspension system of microgravity experiments. A simple structural model for simulation of the IOC space station is proposed. Mathematical formulation of this model provides the engineers a simple and direct tool for designing an effective suspension system.

  7. Meteorological forecasting for emergency preparedness and response at the Kennedy Space Center of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Hodur, R.; Liou, C.S.

    1995-10-13

    The NORAPS model has been used to simulate the motion of Hurricane Erin over Florida. A triplynested grid was used to capture the meteorological features which span from regional to local scales with the highest resolution nest centered at the Kennedy Space Center area. The simulated storm track agreed remarkably well with the observed path of the hurricane. There was also good qualitative agreement between the computed surface precipitation pattern and observations based on radar signatures. Although the validity of the Kuo- type cumulus parameterization scheme used in the model was marginal and even questionable on the finest resolution (4 km) nest, the simulated results were nevertheless qualitatively reasonable. The results generated by NORAPS from the simulation of such a numerical challenging meteorological event were very encouraging. Our next step is to use the meteorological information from the model to provide wind fields for dispersion model simulations of potential atmospheric releases.

  8. The Evaluation of Time Performance in the Emergency Response Center to Provide Pre-Hospital Emergency Services in Kermanshah

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour Amir, Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients’ cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  9. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  10. Renal Medullary Carcinoma Response to Chemotherapy: a Referral Center Experience in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Maroja Silvino, Marina Cavalcanti; Venchiarutti Moniz, Camila Motta; Munhoz Piotto, Gustavo Henrique; Siqueira, Sheila; Galapo Kann, Ariel; Dzik, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all renal neoplasms. Case reports suggest RMC is highly aggressive, poorly responsive to chemotherapy, often metastatic at diagnosis, affects young men with sickle cell trait, and median overall survival (mOS) is less than 12 months. We report the epidemiological characteristics, treatments performed, response rate to each treatment and mOS of five patients with RMC. All patients had sickle cell trait, four were male, three had metastatic disease at diagnosis and mean age at diagnosis was 25 years. Non-metastatic patients were submitted to nephrectomy. Two patients had partial response to first line chemotherapy including cisplatin and gemcitabine. There was no response to sunitinib or second line chemo - therapy; mOS was 6 months. Due to its rarity, case series are the only evidence available to discuss the treatment for RMC. In our experience, only cisplatin and gemcitabine based regimen offered response. PMID:24179656

  11. Germinal Center B Cell and T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to Viral Vector and Protein-in-Adjuvant Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuan; Hart, Matthew; Chui, Cecilia; Ajuogu, Augustine; Brian, Iona J.; de Cassan, Simone C.; Borrow, Persephone; Draper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the development of Ab-inducing subunit vaccines targeting infections, including HIV, malaria, and Ebola. We previously reported that adenovirus vectored vaccines are potent in priming Ab responses, but uncertainty remains regarding the optimal approach for induction of humoral immune responses. In this study, using OVA as a model Ag, we assessed the magnitude of the primary and anamnestic Ag–specific IgG responses of mice to four clinically relevant vaccine formulations: replication-deficient adenovirus; modified vaccinia Ankara (a poxvirus); protein with alum; and protein in the squalene oil-in-water adjuvant Addavax. We then used flow cytometric assays capable of measuring total and Ag-specific germinal center (GC) B cell and follicular Th cell responses to compare the induction of these responses by the different formulations. We report that adenovirus vectored vaccines induce Ag insert–specific GC B cell and Ab responses of a magnitude comparable to those induced by a potent protein/squalene oil-in-water formulation whereas—despite a robust overall GC response—the insert-specific GC B cell and Ab responses induced by modified vaccinia Ankara were extremely weak. Ag-specific follicular Th cell responses to adenovirus vectored vaccines exceeded those induced by other platforms at day 7 after immunization. We found little evidence that innate immune activation by adenovirus may act as an adjuvant in such a manner that the humoral response to a recombinant protein may be enhanced by coadministering with an adenovirus lacking a transgene of interest. Overall, these studies provide further support for the use of replication-deficient adenoviruses to induce humoral responses. PMID:27412417

  12. Use of Strain Measurements from Acoustic Bench Tests of the Battleship Flowliner Test Articles To Link Analytical Model Results to In-Service Resonant Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Greg; Smaolloey, Kurt; LaVerde, Bruce; Bishop, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The paper will discuss practical and analytical findings of a test program conducted to assist engineers in determining which analytical strain fields are most appropriate to describe the crack initiating and crack propagating stresses in thin walled cylindrical hardware that serves as part of the Space Shuttle Main Engine's fuel system. In service the hardware is excited by fluctuating dynamic pressures in a cryogenic fuel that arise from turbulent flow/pump cavitation. A bench test using a simplified system was conducted using acoustic energy in air to excite the test articles. Strain measurements were used to reveal response characteristics of two Flowliner test articles that are assembled as a pair when installed in the engine feed system.

  13. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed. PMID:26631024

  14. MORT User's Manual for use with the Management Oversight and Risk Tree analytical logic diagram. [Contains a list of System Safety Development Center publications

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, N.W.; Eicher, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    This report contains the User's Manual for MORT (Management Oversight and Risk Tree), a logic diagram in the form of a work sheet'' that illustrates a long series of interrelated questions. MORT is a comprehensive analytical procedure that provides a disciplined method for determining the causes and contributing factors of major accidents. Alternatively, it serves as a tool to evaluate the quality of an existing system. While similar in many respects to fault tree analysis, MORT is more generalized and presents over 1,500 specific elements of an ideal universal'' management program for optimizing environment, safety and health, and other programs. This User's Manual is intended to be used with the MORT diagram dated February 1992.

  15. Experimental and analytical study on the flutter and gust response characteristics of a torsion-free-wing airplane model. [in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, A. C.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data and correlative analytical results on the flutter and gust response characteristics of a torsion-free-wing (TFW) fighter airplane model are presented. TFW consists of a combined wing/boom/canard surface and was tested with the TFW free to pivot in pitch and with the TFW locked to the fuselage. Flutter and gust response characteristics were measured in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel with the complete airplane model mounted on a cable mount system that provided a near free flying condition. Although the lowest flutter dynamic pressure was measured for the wing free configuration, it was only about 20 deg less than that for the wing locked configuration. However, no appreciable alleviation of the gust response was measured by freeing the wing.

  16. Evaluating initial spine trauma response: injury time to trauma center in PA, USA.

    PubMed

    Harrop, James S; Ghobrial, George M; Chitale, Rohan; Krespan, Kelly; Odorizzi, Laura; Fried, Tristan; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Cohen, Murray; Vaccaro, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Historical perceptions regarding the severity of traumatic spinal cord injury has led to considerable disparity in triage to tertiary care centers. This article retrospectively reviews a large regional trauma database to analyze whether the diagnosis of spinal trauma affected patient transfer timing and patterns. The Pennsylvania Trauma database was retrospectively reviewed. All acute trauma patient entries for level I and II centers were categorized for diagnosis, mechanism, and location of injury, analyzing transportation modality and its influence on time of arrival. A total of 1162 trauma patients were identified (1014 blunt injuries, 135 penetrating injuries and 12 other) with a mean transport time of 3.9 hours and a majority of patients arriving within 7 hours (>75%). Spine trauma patients had the longest mean arrival time (5.2 hours) compared to blunt trauma (4.2 hours), cranial neurologic injuries (4.35 hours), and penetrating injuries (2.13 hours, p<0.0001). There was a statistically significant correlation between earlier arrivals and both cranial trauma (p=0.0085) and penetrating trauma (p<0.0001). The fastest modality was a fire rescue (0.93 hours) or police (0.63 hours) vehicle with Philadelphia County (1.1 hour) having the quickest arrival times. Most trauma patients arrived to a specialty center within 7 hours of injury. However subsets analysis revealed that spine trauma patients had the greatest transit times. Present research trials for spinal cord injuries suggest earlier intervention may lead to improved recovery. Therefore, it is important to focus on improvement of the transportation triage system for traumatic spinal patients. PMID:24932590

  17. Human-centered design of a cyber-physical system for advanced response to Ebola (CARE).

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Velin; Jagtap, Vinayak; Skorinko, Jeanine; Chernova, Sonia; Gennert, Michael; Padir, Taşkin

    2015-08-01

    We describe the process towards the design of a safe, reliable, and intuitive emergency treatment unit to facilitate a higher degree of safety and situational awareness for medical staff, leading to an increased level of patient care during an epidemic outbreak in an unprepared, underdeveloped, or disaster stricken area. We start with a human-centered design process to understand the design challenge of working with Ebola treatment units in Western Africa in the latest Ebola outbreak, and show preliminary work towards cyber-physical technologies applicable to potentially helping during the next outbreak. PMID:26737868

  18. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center, Baltimore, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-11

    Public Laws designated more than 100 Department of Army facilities for closure and realignment. As a result, it became necessary to expedite the environmental investigation and cleanup process, as necessary, prior to the release and reuse of Army Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) property. The BRAC environmental restoration program was established in 1989 with the first round (BRAC 88) of base closures and continued with subsequent rounds (BRAC 91, BRAC 93, etc.). As a result of the BRAC program, Fort Holabird Crime Records Center has been investigated to determine its environmental condition.

  19. Effect of Percent Relative Humidity, Moisture Content, and Compression Force on Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Response as a Process Analytical Tool.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ishan G; Stagner, William C

    2016-08-01

    The effect of percent relative humidity (16-84% RH), moisture content (4.2-6.5% w/w MC), and compression force (4.9-44.1 kN CF) on the light-induced fluorescence (LIF) response of 10% w/w active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) compacts is reported. The fluorescent response was evaluated using two separate central composite designs of experiments. The effect of % RH and CF on the LIF signal was highly significant with an adjusted R (2)  = 0.9436 and p < 0.0001. Percent relative humidity (p = 0.0022), CF (p < 0.0001), and % RH(2) (p = 0.0237) were statistically significant factors affecting the LIF response. The effects of MC and CF on LIF response were also statistically significant with a p value <0.0001 and adjusted R (2) value of 0.9874. The LIF response was highly impacted by MC (p < 0.0001), CF (p < 0.0001), and MC(2) (p = 0022). At 10% w/w API, increased % RH, MC, and CF led to a nonlinear decrease in LIF response. The derived quadratic model equations explained more than 94% of the data. Awareness of these effects on LIF response is critical when implementing LIF as a process analytical tool. PMID:27435199

  20. Evidence for formation of DNA repair centers and dose-response nonlinearity in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Neumaier, Teresa; Swenson, Joel; Pham, Christopher; Polyzos, Aris; Lo, Alvin T.; Yang, PoAn; Dyball, Jane; Asaithamby, Aroumougame; Chen, David J.; Bissell, Mina J.; Thalhammer, Stefan; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of DNA “repair centers” and the meaning of radiation-induced foci (RIF) in human cells have remained controversial. RIFs are characterized by the local recruitment of DNA damage sensing proteins such as p53 binding protein (53BP1). Here, we provide strong evidence for the existence of repair centers. We used live imaging and mathematical fitting of RIF kinetics to show that RIF induction rate increases with increasing radiation dose, whereas the rate at which RIFs disappear decreases. We show that multiple DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) 1 to 2 μm apart can rapidly cluster into repair centers. Correcting mathematically for the dose dependence of induction/resolution rates, we observe an absolute RIF yield that is surprisingly much smaller at higher doses: 15 RIF/Gy after 2 Gy exposure compared to approximately 64 RIF/Gy after 0.1 Gy. Cumulative RIF counts from time lapse of 53BP1-GFP in human breast cells confirmed these results. The standard model currently in use applies a linear scale, extrapolating cancer risk from high doses to low doses of ionizing radiation. However, our discovery of DSB clustering over such large distances casts considerable doubts on the general assumption that risk to ionizing radiation is proportional to dose, and instead provides a mechanism that could more accurately address risk dose dependency of ionizing radiation. PMID:22184222

  1. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  2. Metal-centered polymers: Using controlled polymerization methodologies for the generation of responsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert Matthew

    Controlled polymerization methods were used to prepare highly modular polymeric metal complexes via convergent and divergent strategies. In these materials, the metal center provides a versatile hub for preparing diverse architectures through coordinative bonds. Moreover, the metal complex introduces various properties to the polymer such as luminescence, magnetism, or electroactivity. Suitably functionalized metal complexes have been used for the atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylate and methacrylate monomers by metalloinitiation to generate luminescent biocompatible materials through a divergent synthesis. By cleaving the tert-butyl groups from poly(tert -butyl acrylate), water soluble [Ru(bpyPAA2)3] 2+ has been prepared as well as the amphiphilic star block copolymer [Ru{bpy(PLA-PAA)2}3]2+ (PLA = poly(lactic acid), PAA = poly(acrylic acid) Bipyridine-centered polymeric macroligands may be chelated to a variety of metal salts. The polymer size greatly influences the formation of [Fe(bpy) 3]2+ centered polymers. As the molecular weight increases (> ˜25 kDa) tris complex formation decreases. Tris(bpy) synthesis is also impacted by chemical composition. BpyPtBA2 (PtBA = poly(tert-butyl acrylate) generates an iron mono(bpy) complex before giving rise to the bis(bpy) iron complex; no tris complex is observed. In contrast, the combination of bpyPEG2 (3 equiv) (PEG = (poly(ethylene glycol)) results in the formation of some iron tris(bpy) compound; however, complete tris(bpy) product formation is suppressed, presumably because of the chelating ability of the PEG chains. These examples contrast with other polymeric macroligands such as bpyPS2, bpyPMMA2, bpyPCL2 and bpyPLA 2 (PS = polystyrene; PMMA = poly(methyl methacrylate); PCL = poly(epsilon-caprolactone); PLA = poly(DL-lactic acid)) for which chelation reactions are facile for low molecular weight macroligands (<15 kDa), with chelation efficiencies (defined as (epsilonPMC/epsilonbpy) x 100%) only declining

  3. Semi-analytical solution for three-dimensional transient response of functionally graded annular plate on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lizhong; Liu, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    The three-dimensional transient analysis of functionally graded annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions is carried out in this paper. The material properties of the FGM plate are assumed to vary smoothly in an exponential law along the thickness direction. The plate is assumed to rest on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation. A semi-analytical method, which integrates the state space method (SSM), Laplace transform and its inversion, as well as the one-dimensional differential quadrature method (DQM), is proposed to obtain the transient response of the plate. The state space method is used to obtain the analytical solution in the thickness direction. The differential quadrature method is employed to approximate the solution in the radial direction. The Laplace transform and the numerical inversion are used to obtain the solution in time domain. Numerical results show a good agreement between the response histories obtained by the present method and finite element method. The effects of the boundary conditions at the edges, the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient are studied. Numerical examples show that the peak response decreases as the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient increase. The results obtained in this paper can serve as benchmark data in further research.

  4. Vegetation Response to Carbon Dioxide and Climate: Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to vegetation response to carbon dioxide and climate includes: • Area and Carbon Content of Sphagnum Since Last Glacial Maximum (2002) (Trends Online) • TDE Model Intercomparison Project Data Archive • Presentations and abstracts from the recent DOE Terrestrial Science Team Meeting (Argonne National Laboratory, October 29-31, 2001) • FACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) • Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment Data Report: Site Characterization, System Performance, Weather, Species Composition, and Growth (2001) • Bibliography on CO2 Effects on Vegetation and Ecosystems: 1990-1999 Literature (2000) • Direct effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on plants and ecosystems: An updated bibliographic data base (1994) • A Database of Herbaceous Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (1999) • A Database of Woody Vegetation Responses to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 (1999) • Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST) Database (1995) • Effects of CO2 and Nitrogen Fertilization on Growth and Nutrient Content of Juvenile Ponderosa Pine (1998) • Carbon Dioxide Enrichment: Data on the Response of Cotton to Varying CO2Irrigation, and Nitrogen (1992) • Growth and Chemical Responses to CO2 Enrichment Virginia Pine Pinus Virginiana Mill.(1985)

  5. Community-Centered Responses to Ebola in Urban Liberia: The View from Below

    PubMed Central

    Abramowitz, Sharon Alane; McLean, Kristen E.; McKune, Sarah Lindley; Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Fallah, Mosoka; Monger, Josephine; Tehoungue, Kodjo; Omidian, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The West African Ebola epidemic has demonstrated that the existing range of medical and epidemiological responses to emerging disease outbreaks is insufficient, especially in post-conflict contexts with exceedingly poor healthcare infrastructures. In this context, community-based responses have proven vital for containing Ebola virus disease (EVD) and shifting the epidemic curve. Despite a surge in interest in local innovations that effectively contained the epidemic, the mechanisms for community-based response remain unclear. This study provides baseline information on community-based epidemic control priorities and identifies innovative local strategies for containing EVD in Liberia. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted in September 2014 in 15 communities in Monrovia and Montserrado County, Liberia – one of the epicenters of the Ebola outbreak. Findings from 15 focus group discussions with 386 community leaders identified strategies being undertaken and recommendations for what a community-based response to Ebola should look like under then-existing conditions. Data were collected on the following topics: prevention, surveillance, care-giving, community-based treatment and support, networks and hotlines, response teams, Ebola treatment units (ETUs) and hospitals, the management of corpses, quarantine and isolation, orphans, memorialization, and the need for community-based training and education. Findings have been presented as community-based strategies and recommendations for (1) prevention, (2) treatment and response, and (3) community sequelae and recovery. Several models for community-based management of the current Ebola outbreak were proposed. Additional findings indicate positive attitudes towards early Ebola survivors, and the need for community-based psychosocial support. Conclusions/Significance Local communities’ strategies and recommendations give insight into how urban Liberian communities contained the EVD outbreak

  6. A simplified analytical solution for thermal response of a one-dimensional, steady state transpiration cooling system in radiative and convective environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubota, H.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified analytical method for calculation of thermal response within a transpiration-cooled porous heat shield material in an intense radiative-convective heating environment is presented. The essential assumptions of the radiative and convective transfer processes in the heat shield matrix are the two-temperature approximation and the specified radiative-convective heatings of the front surface. Sample calculations for porous silica with CO2 injection are presented for some typical parameters of mass injection rate, porosity, and material thickness. The effect of these parameters on the cooling system is discussed.

  7. A fast 3D semi-analytical model for simulating flaw responses provided by a magnetic flux leakage NDT system inspecting ferromagnetic pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trillon, Adrien; Deneuville, François; Prémel, Denis; Djafa, Steve; Pichon, Lionel

    2014-02-01

    This communication presents a semi-analytical model based on BEM formalism for computing MFL flaw responses. MFL 2D configurations have been already simulated in the linear case taking into account the complex shape of the magnetizing circuit surrounding the pipe to be inspected. In this paper, the 3D problem is considered, but, in a first step, in order to be able to solve the non-linear problem, we assume that each ferromagnetic part can be divided in a finite number of polyhedral cells of complex shapes, assuming that the relative magnetic permeability is constant inside each cell. The nonlinear magnetosattic problem may be tackled as a finite number of successive 3D linear problems: the unknowns of the problem being the values of the surface magnetic charge density, in this case, the scalar potential of single layer charge on all the facets of each cell. By assuming that the unknowns are piecewise constant on all the facets of each cell, the kernels derived from integral equations can be analytically evaluated. The implemented semi-analytical model reveals itself to be very effective. Some simulated data are presented for some specific configurations before solving truly NDT MFL configurations.

  8. Toddlers' Bids and Teachers' Responses in Title XX Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice S.; Wittmer, Donna S.

    Part of a larger investigation of teacher-child-peer interactions among two- and three-year-old children in day care, this microanalytic study of toddler-initiated bids (attempts to communicate with caregivers) and teacher responses depicts in detail toddler-caregiver interaction. Subjects for the study were 25 males and 25 females between the…

  9. Nonlinear optical response in a zincblende GaN cylindrical quantum dot with donor impurity center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Jaime H.; Correa, J. D.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.; Duque, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient of a cylindrical zincblende GaN-based quantum dot. For this purpose, we consider Coulomb interactions between electrons and an impurity ionized donor atom. The electron-donor-impurity spectrum and the associated quantum states are calculated using the effective mass approximation with a parabolic potential energy model describing both the radial and axial electron confinement. We also include the effects of the hydrostatic pressure and external electrostatic fields. The energy spectrum is obtained through an expansion of the eigenstates as a linear combination of Gaussian-type functions which reduces the computational effort since all the matrix elements are obtained analytically. Therefore, the numerical problem is reduced to the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The obtained energies are used in the evaluation of the dielectric susceptibility and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficient within a modified two-level approach in a rotating wave approximation. This quantity is investigated as a function of the quantum dot dimensions, the impurity position, the external electric field intensity and the hydrostatic pressure. The results of this research could be important in the design and fabrication of zincblende GaN-quantum-dot-based electro-optical devices.

  10. Corn Response as Affected by Planting Distance from the Center of Strip-Till Fertilized Rows.

    PubMed

    Adee, Eric; Hansel, Fernando D; Ruiz Diaz, Dorivar A; Janssen, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Strip-till has been used at a large scale in east central Kansas as an alternative to earlier planting dates under a no-till system. To determine the effects of planting corn (Zea mays) under previously established strip-tilled fertilized rows, experiments were conducted on an Osage silty clay loam soil in 2006 and 2008 and on a Woodson silt loam soil in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using three different planting distances from the strip-tilled fertilized rows (0, 10, 20, and 38 cm) with a strip-till operation performed between 1 and 73 days before planting. The depth of the strip-till fertilizer application was 13-15 cm below the soil surface. Corn that was planted 10 cm from the fertilized row showed greater early season growth, higher plant population, and grain yield. Planting 20 and 38 cm from the center of the fertilized rows showed none of the benefits that are typically associated with strip-tillage system. Enough time should be allowed between the strip-till operation and planting to reach satisfactory soil conditions (e.g., moist and firm seedbed). Our results suggest that the best location for planting strip-tilled fertilized corn vary depending on soil and climatic conditions as well as the time between fertilizer application with the strip-till operation and planting. With fewer number of days, planting directly on the center of fertilized strip-till resulted in decreased plant population and lower grain yield. However, the greatest yield benefit across different planting conditions was attained when planting within 10 cm of the strip. PMID:27588024

  11. Corn Response as Affected by Planting Distance from the Center of Strip-Till Fertilized Rows

    PubMed Central

    Adee, Eric; Hansel, Fernando D.; Ruiz Diaz, Dorivar A.; Janssen, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Strip-till has been used at a large scale in east central Kansas as an alternative to earlier planting dates under a no-till system. To determine the effects of planting corn (Zea mays) under previously established strip-tilled fertilized rows, experiments were conducted on an Osage silty clay loam soil in 2006 and 2008 and on a Woodson silt loam soil in 2009, 2010, and 2011 using three different planting distances from the strip-tilled fertilized rows (0, 10, 20, and 38 cm) with a strip-till operation performed between 1 and 73 days before planting. The depth of the strip-till fertilizer application was 13–15 cm below the soil surface. Corn that was planted 10 cm from the fertilized row showed greater early season growth, higher plant population, and grain yield. Planting 20 and 38 cm from the center of the fertilized rows showed none of the benefits that are typically associated with strip-tillage system. Enough time should be allowed between the strip-till operation and planting to reach satisfactory soil conditions (e.g., moist and firm seedbed). Our results suggest that the best location for planting strip-tilled fertilized corn vary depending on soil and climatic conditions as well as the time between fertilizer application with the strip-till operation and planting. With fewer number of days, planting directly on the center of fertilized strip-till resulted in decreased plant population and lower grain yield. However, the greatest yield benefit across different planting conditions was attained when planting within 10 cm of the strip. PMID:27588024

  12. Solution-based characterization of surface-enhanced Raman response of single scattering centers

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, T A; Talley, C; Schwartzberg, A; Braun, G; Moskovits, M; Reich, N; Huser, T

    2008-03-06

    We demonstrate the rapid optical characterization of large numbers of individual metal nanoparticles freely diffusing in colloidal solution by confocal laser spectroscopy. We find that hollow gold nanospheres and solid silver nanoparticles linked with a bifunctional ligand, both designed nanostructures, exhibit significantly higher monodispersity in their Rayleigh and Raman scattering response than randomly aggregated gold and silver nanoparticles. We show that measurements of rotational diffusion timescales allow sizing of particles significantly more reliably than can be obtained using translational diffusion timescales.

  13. Antigen targeting reveals splenic CD169+ macrophages as promoters of germinal center B-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Veninga, Henrike; Borg, Ellen G F; Vreeman, Kyle; Taylor, Philip R; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kraal, Georg; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; den Haan, Joke M M

    2015-03-01

    Ag delivery to specific APCs is an attractive approach in developing strategies for vaccination. CD169(+) macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen represent a suitable target for delivery of Ag because of their strategic location, which is optimal for the capture of blood-borne Ag and their close proximity to B cells and T cells in the white pulp. Here we show that Ag targeting to CD169(+) macrophages in mice resulted in strong, isotype-switched, high-affinity Ab production and the preferential induction and long-term persistence of Ag-specific GC B cells and follicular Th cells. In agreement with these observations, CD169(+) macrophages retained intact Ag, induced cognate activation of B cells, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules upon activation. In addition, macrophages were required for the production of cytokines that promote B-cell responses. Our results identify CD169(+) macrophages as promoters of high-affinity humoral immune responses and emphasize the value of CD169 as target for Ag delivery to improve vaccine responses. PMID:25487358

  14. Antigen targeting reveals splenic CD169+ macrophages as promoters of germinal center B‐cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Veninga, Henrike; Borg, Ellen G. F.; Vreeman, Kyle; Taylor, Philip R.; Kalay, Hakan; van Kooyk, Yvette; Kraal, Georg; Martinez‐Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Ag delivery to specific APCs is an attractive approach in developing strategies for vaccination. CD169+ macrophages in the marginal zone of the spleen represent a suitable target for delivery of Ag because of their strategic location, which is optimal for the capture of blood‐borne Ag and their close proximity to B cells and T cells in the white pulp. Here we show that Ag targeting to CD169+ macrophages in mice resulted in strong, isotype‐switched, high‐affinity Ab production and the preferential induction and long‐term persistence of Ag‐specific GC B cells and follicular Th cells. In agreement with these observations, CD169+ macrophages retained intact Ag, induced cognate activation of B cells, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules upon activation. In addition, macrophages were required for the production of cytokines that promote B‐cell responses. Our results identify CD169+ macrophages as promoters of high‐affinity humoral immune responses and emphasize the value of CD169 as target for Ag delivery to improve vaccine responses. PMID:25487358

  15. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: An analytical technique to understand therapeutic responses at the molecular level

    PubMed Central

    Kalmodia, Sushma; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Yang, Wenrong; Barrow, Colin J.; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Rapid monitoring of the response to treatment in cancer patients is essential to predict the outcome of the therapeutic regimen early in the course of the treatment. The conventional methods are laborious, time-consuming, subjective and lack the ability to study different biomolecules and their interactions, simultaneously. Since; mechanisms of cancer and its response to therapy is dependent on molecular interactions and not on single biomolecules, an assay capable of studying molecular interactions as a whole, is preferred. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has become a popular technique in the field of cancer therapy with an ability to elucidate molecular interactions. The aim of this study, was to explore the utility of the FTIR technique along with multivariate analysis to understand whether the method has the resolution to identify the differences in the mechanism of therapeutic response. Towards achieving the aim, we utilized the mouse xenograft model of retinoblastoma and nanoparticle mediated targeted therapy. The results indicate that the mechanism underlying the response differed between the treated and untreated group which can be elucidated by unique spectral signatures generated by each group. The study establishes the efficiency of non-invasive, label-free and rapid FTIR method in assessing the interactions of nanoparticles with cellular macromolecules towards monitoring the response to cancer therapeutics. PMID:26568521

  16. Patterns of Clinical Response to PSA Elevation in American Indian/Alaska Native Men: A Multi-center Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tilburt, Jon C.; Koller, Kathryn; Tiesinga, James J.; Wilson, Robin T.; Trinh, Anne C.; Hill, Kristin; Hall, Ingrid J.; Smith, Judith Lee; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Petersen, Wesley O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess clinical treatment patterns and response times among American Indian/Alaska Native men with a newly elevated PSA. Methods We retrospectively identified men ages 50–80 receiving care in one of three tribally-operated clinics in Northern Minnesota, one medical center in Alaska, and who had an incident PSA elevation (≥ 4 ng/ml) in a specified time period. A clinical response was considered timely if it was documented as occurring within 90 days of the incident PSA elevation. Results Among 82 AI/AN men identified from medical records with an incident PSA elevation, 49 (60%) received a timely clinical response, while 18 (22%) had no documented clinical response. Conclusions One in five AI/AN men in our study had no documented clinical action following an incident PSA elevation. Although a pilot study, these findings suggest the need to improve the documentation, notification, and care following an elevated PSA at clinics serving AI/AN men. PMID:24185163

  17. The response of academic medical centers to the 2010 Haiti earthquake: the Mount Sinai School of Medicine experience.

    PubMed

    Ripp, Jonathan A; Bork, Jacqueline; Koncicki, Holly; Asgary, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti was struck by a 7.0 earthquake which left the country in a state of devastation. In the aftermath, there was an enormous relief effort in which academic medical centers (AMC) played an important role. We offer a retrospective on the AMC response through the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (MSSM) experience. Over the course of the year that followed the Earthquake, MSSM conducted five service trips in conjunction with two well-established groups which have provided service to the Haitian people for over 15 years. MSSM volunteer personnel included nurses, resident and attending physicians, and specialty fellows who provided expertise in critical care, emergency medicine, wound care, infectious diseases and chronic disease management of adults and children. Challenges faced included stressful and potentially hazardous working conditions, provision of care with limited resources and cultural and language barriers. The success of the MSSM response was due largely to the strength of its human resources and the relationship forged with effective relief organizations. These service missions fulfilled the institution's commitment to social responsibility and provided a valuable training opportunity in advocacy. For other AMCs seeking to respond in future emergencies, we suggest early identification of a partner with field experience, recruitment of administrative and faculty support across the institution, significant pre-departure orientation and utilization of volunteers to fundraise and advocate. Through this process, AMCs can play an important role in disaster response. PMID:22232447

  18. Client-Centered Advocacy: Every Occupational Therapy Practitioner's Responsibility to Understand Medical Necessity.

    PubMed

    Stover, Alyson D

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners must advocate for clients in multiple ways. The Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process as well as the Occupational Therapy Code of Ethics lend support to advocacy. Recognizing one's responsibility to provide advocacy for clients is different from knowing how to provide that advocacy. One aspect of health care affected by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is the definition and implementation of medical necessity. This article outlines some major concepts around medical necessity, particularly in relation to the passage of the ACA, and outlines guidance on how to advocate effectively to meet both individual and community needs. PMID:27548855

  19. The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center's Response to the Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, S. A.; Becker, N. C.; Shiro, B.; Koyanagi, K. K.; Sardina, V.; Walsh, D.; Wang, D.; McCreery, C. S.; Fryer, G. J.; Cessaro, R. K.; Hirshorn, B. F.; Hsu, V.

    2011-12-01

    The largest Pacific basin earthquake in 47 years, and also the largest magnitude earthquake since the Sumatra 2004 earthquake, struck off of the east coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan at 5:46 UTC on 11 March 2011. The Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) generated a massive tsunami with runups of up to 40m along the Tohoku coast. The tsunami waves crossed the Pacific Ocean causing significant damage as far away as Hawaii, California, and Chile, thereby becoming the largest, most destructive tsunami in the Pacific Basin since 1960. Triggers on the seismic stations at Erimo, Hokkaido (ERM) and Matsushiro, Honshu (MAJO), alerted Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) scientists 90 seconds after the earthquake began. Four minutes after its origin, and about one minute after the earthquake's rupture ended, PTWC issued an observatory message reporting a preliminary magnitude of 7.5. Eight minutes after origin time, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued its first international tsunami message in its capacity as the Northwest Pacific Tsunami Advisory Center. In accordance with international tsunami warning system protocols, PTWC then followed with its first international tsunami warning message using JMA's earthquake parameters, including an Mw of 7.8. Additional Mwp, mantle wave, and W-phase magnitude estimations based on the analysis of later-arriving seismic data at PTWC revealed that the earthquake magnitude reached at least 8.8, and that a destructive tsunami would likely be crossing the Pacific Ocean. The earthquake damaged the nearest coastal sea-level station located 90 km from the epicenter in Ofunato, Japan. The NOAA DART sensor situated 600 km off the coast of Sendai, Japan, at a depth of 5.6 km recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of nearly two meters, making it by far the largest tsunami wave ever recorded by a DART sensor. Thirty minutes later, a coastal sea-level station at Hanasaki, Japan, 600 km from the epicenter, recorded a tsunami wave amplitude of

  20. Assessment of Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Incest: A Factor Analytic Study of the Responses to Childhood Incest Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)

  1. Cardiovascular Safety Assessment in Early-Phase Clinical Studies: A Meta-Analytical Comparison of Exposure-Response Models.

    PubMed

    Conrado, D J; Chen, D; Denney, W S

    2016-06-01

    Exposure-response analysis of QT interval in clinical studies has been proposed as a thorough QT study alternative. Many exposure-response model structures have been proposed for cardiovascular (CV) safety markers, but few studies have compared models across multiple drugs. To recommend preferred drug-effect exposure-response models on vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) intervals, an individual-level model-based meta-analysis (39 studies and 1,291 subjects) compared 90 model structures. Models were selected to describe the data and cross-validate studies on the same drug. The most commonly selected baseline model was an unstructured model (estimation of a value at each study nominal time) for all measures but blood pressure. The unstructured model estimated a better cross-validated drug-effect when considering all markers. A linear model was the most commonly selected to characterize drug-effect on all markers. We propose these models as a starting point assisting with CV safety exposure-response assessment in nondedicated small studies with healthy subjects. PMID:27318037

  2. A simulation-based and analytic analysis of the off-Hugoniot response of alternative inertial confinement fusion ablator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Alastair S.; Prisbrey, Shon; Baker, Kevin L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Fry, Jonathan; Dittrich, Thomas R.; Wu, Kuang-Jen J.; Kervin, Margaret L.; Schoff, Michael E.; Farrell, Mike; Nikroo, Abbas; Hurricane, Omar A.

    2016-09-01

    The attainment of self-propagating fusion burn in an inertial confinement target at the National Ignition Facility will require the use of an ablator with high rocket-efficiency and ablation pressure. The ablation material used during the National Ignition Campaign (Lindl et al. 2014) [1], a glow-discharge polymer (GDP), does not couple as efficiently as simulations indicated to the multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environment created by laser power profile (Robey et al., 2012). We investigate the performance of two other ablators, boron carbide (B4C) and high-density carbon (HDC) compared to the performance of GDP under the same hohlraum conditions. Ablation performance is determined through measurement of the shock speed produced in planar samples of the ablator material subjected to the identical multiple-shock inducing radiation drive environments that are similar to a generic three-shock ignition drive. Simulations are in better agreement with the off-Hugoniot performance of B4C than either HDC or GDP, and analytic estimations of the ablation pressure indicate that while the pressure produced by B4C and GDP is similar when the ablator is allowed to release, the pressure reached by B4C seems to exceed that of HDC when backed by a Au/quartz layer.

  3. Virological Response and Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Emerging during Antiretroviral Therapy at Three Treatment Centers in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kirungi, Wilford; Watera, Christine; Asio, Juliet; Lyagoba, Fred; Lutalo, Tom; Kapaata, Anne A.; Nanyonga, Faith; Parry, Chris M.; Magambo, Brian; Nazziwa, Jamirah; Nannyonjo, Maria; Hughes, Peter; Hladik, Wolfgang; Ruberantwari, Anthony; Namuwenge, Norah; Musinguzi, Joshua; Downing, Robert; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background With the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), monitoring programme performance is needed to maximize ART efficacy and limit HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). Methods We implemented a WHO HIVDR prospective survey protocol at three treatment centers between 2012 and 2013. Data were abstracted from patient records at ART start (T1) and after 12 months (T2). Genotyping was performed in the HIV pol region at the two time points. Results Of the 425 patients enrolled, at T2, 20 (4.7%) had died, 66 (15.5%) were lost to follow-up, 313 (73.6%) were still on first-line, 8 (1.9%) had switched to second-line, 17 (4.0%) had transferred out and 1 (0.2%) had stopped treatment. At T2, 272 out of 321 on first and second line (84.7%) suppressed below 1000 copies/ml and the HIV DR prevention rate was 70.1%, just within the WHO threshold of ≥70%. The proportion of participants with potential HIVDR was 20.9%, which is higher than the 18.8% based on pooled analyses from African studies. Of the 35 patients with mutations at T2, 80% had M184V/I, 65.7% Y181C, and 48.6% (54.8% excluding those not on Tenofovir) had K65R mutations. 22.9% had Thymidine Analogue Mutations (TAMs). Factors significantly associated with HIVDR prevention at T2 were: baseline viral load (VL) <100,000 copies/ml [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36–7.19] and facility. Independent baseline predictors for HIVDR mutations at T2 were: CD4 count <250 cells/μl (AOR 2.80, 95% CI: 1.08–7.29) and viral load ≥100,000 copies/ml (AOR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.00–6.14). Conclusion Strengthening defaulter tracing, intensified follow-up for patients with low CD4 counts and/or high VL at ART initiation together with early treatment initiation above 250 CD4 cells/ul and adequate patient counselling would improve ART efficacy and HIVDR prevention. The high rate of K65R and TAMs could compromise second line regimens including NRTIs. PMID:26700639

  4. Medical Relief Response by Miyako Public Health Center after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To improve disaster preparedness, we investigated the response of medical relief activities managed by Iwate Prefectural Miyako Public Health Center during the post-acute phase of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on March 11, 2011.Methods The study divided the post-disaster period into three approximate time segments: Period I (time of disaster through late March), Period II (mid-April), and Period III (end of May in Miyako City, early July in Yamada Town). We reviewed records on medical relief activities conducted by medical assistance teams (MATs) in Miyako City and Yamada Town.Results Miyako Public Health Center had organized a meeting to coordinate medical relief activities from Period I to Period III. According to demand for medical services and recovery from the local medical institutions (LMIs) in the affected area, MATs were deployed and active on evacuation centers in each area assigned. The number of patients examined by MATs in Miyako rose to approximately 250 people per day in Period I and decreased to 100 in Period III. However, in Yamada, the number surged to 700 in Period I, fell to 100 in Period II, and decreased to 50 in Period III. This difference could be partly explained as follows. In Miyako, most evacuees had consulted LMIs which restarted medical services after disaster, and the number of LMIs restarted had already reached 29 (94% of the whole) in Period I. In Yamada, most evacuees who had consulted MATs in Period I had almost moved to LMIs restarted in Period II. During the same time, a division of roles and coordination on medical services provision was conducted, such as MATs mainly in charge of primary emergency triage, in response to the number of LMIs restarted which reached 1 (20%) in Period I and 3 (60%) in Period II. Following Period III, more than 80% of patients in Miyako had been a slight illness, such as need for health guidance, and the number of people who underwent emergency medical transport

  5. Analytical investigations of seismic responses for reinforced concrete bridge columns subjected to strong near-fault ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chin-Kuo; Sung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Shuenn-Yih; Huang, Chao-Hsun

    2007-09-01

    Strong near-fault ground motion, usually caused by the fault-rupture and characterized by a pulse-like velocity-wave form, often causes dramatic instantaneous seismic energy (Jadhav and Jangid 2006). Some reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns, even those built according to ductile design principles, were damaged in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Thus, it is very important to evaluate the seismic response of a RC bridge column to improve its seismic design and prevent future damage. Nonlinear time history analysis using step-by-step integration is capable of tracing the dynamic response of a structure during the entire vibration period and is able to accommodate the pulsing wave form. However, the accuracy of the numerical results is very sensitive to the modeling of the nonlinear load-deformation relationship of the structural member. FEMA 273 and ATC-40 provide the modeling parameters for structural nonlinear analyses of RC beams and RC columns. They use three parameters to define the plastic rotation angles and a residual strength ratio to describe the nonlinear load-deformation relationship of an RC member. Structural nonlinear analyses are performed based on these parameters. This method provides a convenient way to obtain the nonlinear seismic responses of RC structures. However, the accuracy of the numerical solutions might be further improved. For this purpose, results from a previous study on modeling of the static pushover analyses for RC bridge columns (Sung et al. 2005) is adopted for the nonlinear time history analysis presented herein to evaluate the structural responses excited by a near-fault ground motion. To ensure the reliability of this approach, the numerical results were compared to experimental results. The results confirm that the proposed approach is valid.

  6. Comparison of different experimental and analytical measures of the thermal annealing response of neutron-irradiated RPV steels

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    The thermal annealing response of several materials as indicated by Charpy transition temperature (TT) and upper-shelf energy (USE), crack initiation toughness, K{sub Jc}, predictive models, and automated-ball indentation (ABI) testing are compared. The materials investigated are representative reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels (several welds and a plate) that were irradiated for other tasks of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program and are relatively well characterized in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions. They have been annealed at two temperatures, 343 and 454 C (650 and 850 F) for varying lengths of time. The correlation of the Charpy response and the fracture toughness, ABI, and the response predicted by the annealing model of Eason et al. for these conditions and materials appears to be reasonable. The USE after annealing at the temperature of 454 C appears to recover at a faster rate than the TT, and even over-recovers (i.e., the recovered USE exceeds that of the unirradiated material).

  7. Analytical testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flannelly, W. G.; Fabunmi, J. A.; Nagy, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Analytical methods for combining flight acceleration and strain data with shake test mobility data to predict the effects of structural changes on flight vibrations and strains are presented. This integration of structural dynamic analysis with flight performance is referred to as analytical testing. The objective of this methodology is to analytically estimate the results of flight testing contemplated structural changes with minimum flying and change trials. The category of changes to the aircraft includes mass, stiffness, absorbers, isolators, and active suppressors. Examples of applying the analytical testing methodology using flight test and shake test data measured on an AH-1G helicopter are included. The techniques and procedures for vibration testing and modal analysis are also described.

  8. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    PubMed Central

    He, Jin-Shu; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Xiangying, Deng; Zuan, Lim Yok; Jones, Leigh Ann; Ramakrishna, Lakshmi; de Vries, Victor C.; Dolpady, Jayashree; Aina, Hoi; Joseph, Sabrina; Narayanan, Sriram; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Puthia, Manoj; Wong, Glenn; Xiong, Huizhong; Poidinger, Michael; Urban, Joseph F.; Lafaille, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE+ B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias toward the plasma cell (PC) fate, and dependence on sequential switching for the production of high-affinity IgE. We show here that IgE+ GC B cells are unfit to undergo the conventional GC differentiation program due to impaired B cell receptor function and increased apoptosis. IgE+ GC cells fail to populate the GC light zone and are unable to contribute to the memory and long-lived PC compartments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that direct and sequential switching are linked to distinct B cell differentiation fates: direct switching generates IgE+ GC cells, whereas sequential switching gives rise to IgE+ PCs. We propose a comprehensive model for the generation and memory of IgE responses. PMID:24218137

  9. Fast, continuous recirculation of germinal center B cell populations enhances robustness of immune response towards varying pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or-Guil, Michal

    2009-03-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are dynamic microstructures that form in lymphatic tissues during immune responses. There, B cells undergo rapid proliferation and mutation of their B cell receptors (BCRs). Selection of B cells bearing BCRs that bind to the pathogen causing the immune response ultimately leads to BCRs that, when secreted as antibodies, form a new, effective, and pathogen specific antibody repertoire. However, the details of this evolutionary process are poorly understood, since currently available experimental techniques do not allow for direct observation of the prevailing mechanisms [Or-Guil et al., Imm.Rev. 2007]. Based on optimality considerations, we put forward the assumption that GCs are not isolated entities where evolutionary processes occur independently, but interconnected structures which allow for continuous exchange of B cells. We show that this architecture leads to a system whose response is much more robust towards different antigen variants than a set of independently working GCs could ever be. We test this hypothesis by generating our own experimental data (time course of 3-D volume distribution of GCs, analysis of high-throughput BCR sequences), and show that available data is consistent with the outlined hypothesis.

  10. Implications of the World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP) for the Public Health Response to the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    CRANE, Michael A.; CHO, Hyunje G.; LANDRIGAN, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    The attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in a serious burden of physical and mental illness for the 50,000 rescue workers that responded to 9/11 as well as the 400,000 residents and workers in the surrounding areas of New York City. The Zadroga Act of 2010 established the WTC Health Program (WTCHP) to provide monitoring and treatment of WTC exposure-related conditions and health surveillance for the responder and survivor populations. Several reports have highlighted the applicability of insights gained from the WTCHP to the public health response to the Great East Japan Earthquake. Optimal exposure monitoring processes and attention to the welfare of vulnerable exposed sub-groups are critical aspects of the response to both incidents. The ongoing mental health care concerns of 9/11 patients accentuate the need for accessible and appropriately skilled mental health care in Fukushima. Active efforts to demonstrate transparency and to promote community involvement in the public health response will be highly important in establishing successful long-term monitoring and treatment programs for the exposed populations in Fukushima. PMID:24317449