Sample records for central alarm monitoring

  1. Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

  2. Wireless ECG monitoring and alarm system using ZigBee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ovidiu Apostu; Bogdan Hagiu; Sever Pasca

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a system for wireless ECG monitoring and alarm using ZigBee. The system is intended for home use by patients that are not in a critical condition but need to be constant or periodically monitored by clinicians or family. Patient monitoring is the cornerstone of proper medical care. It provides clinicians the much needed information

  3. Generating Adaptive Alarms For Condition Monitoring Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Willetts; A. G. Starr; A. Doyle; J. Barnes; Kilburn House

    Maintenance actions cannot be defined and undertaken in isolation from the business and production objectives of a typical company. They must be predicted and subsequently planned into the production schedule. Condition monitoring identifies changes within defined monitoring parameters to trigger maintenance. These changes when combined with engineering knowledge, historical data and other monitoring parameters enable the prediction and identification of

  4. Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

  5. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal...vectorcardiograph, or blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset...

  6. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal...vectorcardiograph, or blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal...vectorcardiograph, or blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal...vectorcardiograph, or blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset...

  9. Integrating monitor alarms with laboratory test results to enhance patient deterioration prediction.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yong; Do, Duc H; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Schindler, Daniel; Boyle, Noel G; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Patient monitors in modern hospitals have become ubiquitous but they generate an excessive number of false alarms causing alarm fatigue. Our previous work showed that combinations of frequently co-occurring monitor alarms, called SuperAlarm patterns, were capable of predicting in-hospital code blue events at a lower alarm frequency. In the present study, we extend the conceptual domain of a SuperAlarm to incorporate laboratory test results along with monitor alarms so as to build an integrated data set to mine SuperAlarm patterns. We propose two approaches to integrate monitor alarms with laboratory test results and use a maximal frequent itemsets mining algorithm to find SuperAlarm patterns. Under an acceptable false positive rate FPRmax, optimal parameters including the minimum support threshold and the length of time window for the algorithm to find the combinations of monitor alarms and laboratory test results are determined based on a 10-fold cross-validation set. SuperAlarm candidates are generated under these optimal parameters. The final SuperAlarm patterns are obtained by further removing the candidates with false positive rate>FPRmax. The performance of SuperAlarm patterns are assessed using an independent test data set. First, we calculate the sensitivity with respect to prediction window and the sensitivity with respect to lead time. Second, we calculate the false SuperAlarm ratio (ratio of the hourly number of SuperAlarm triggers for control patients to that of the monitor alarms, or that of regular monitor alarms plus laboratory test results if the SuperAlarm patterns contain laboratory test results) and the work-up to detection ratio, WDR (ratio of the number of patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns to that of code blue patients triggering any SuperAlarm patterns). The experiment results demonstrate that when varying FPRmax between 0.02 and 0.15, the SuperAlarm patterns composed of monitor alarms along with the last two laboratory test results are triggered at least once for [56.7-93.3%] of code blue patients within an 1-h prediction window before code blue events and for [43.3-90.0%] of code blue patients at least 1-h ahead of code blue events. However, the hourly number of these SuperAlarm patterns occurring in control patients is only [2.0-14.8%] of that of regular monitor alarms with WDR varying between 2.1 and 6.5 in a 12-h window. For a given FPRmax threshold, the SuperAlarm set generated from the integrated data set has higher sensitivity and lower WDR than the SuperAlarm set generated from the regular monitor alarm data set. In addition, the McNemar's test also shows that the performance of the SuperAlarm set from the integrated data set is significantly different from that of the SuperAlarm set from the regular monitor alarm data set. We therefore conclude that the SuperAlarm patterns generated from the integrated data set are better at predicting code blue events. PMID:25240252

  10. Centralized Power Room Monitoring Systems (COPM) Design and Implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Jorgensen; Michael G. Mc Dermott

    1987-01-01

    Case studies resulting from power room monitoring performed by on-site microprocessor monitoring devices which are plooed by the Central Office Power Monitor System (COPM) are presented. Data Base Tabulations, graphs and alarm notification procedures fron the use of thisa system in use within 14 major Central Offices in the Bell of Pennsylvania. Liberty Region are described. These case studies detail

  11. Optimization of WAMDAS: A Web Service-Based Wireless Alarm Monitoring and Data Acquisition System for Pharmaceutical Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edith Quispe-Holgado; Manuel Rodríguez-martínez; Edilberto García-Rodríguez

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel infrastructure which allows the Web service-based wireless alarm monitoring and data acquisition system for pharmaceutical plants (WAMDAS) to be a more portable, reliable, secure and robust wireless Web service-based middleware system. This infrastructure provides a reliable alarm management mechanism that guarantees timely alarm delivery according with a defined configuration schema for alarms. Also it provides a

  12. 21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits. (b)...

  13. ALARM-LEVEL MONITOR FOR SO2 EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field prototype, alarm-level monitor for SO2 emissions from stationary sources was designed, fabricated and tested. The monitor was designed to be inexpensive, simple to operate and easily maintained. The monitoring system is an extractive type that employs an air aspirator to ...

  14. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  15. GPS Real Time Vehicle Alarm Monitoring System Base on GPRS\\/CSD using the Embedded System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Jianping; Zhang Jun; Cheng Hebin; Li Changqing; Shi Xiaohui

    2006-01-01

    It proposed a method of combining the two types of data service CSD and GPRS based on GSM applied to GPS vehicle real-time monitoring and alarming system. Based on this method, basic constitution and network structure of the system is given out, and then it implements the CSD and GPRS hardware interface and software flow based on the GR47 wireless

  16. A CONTINUOUSLY RECORDING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING SYSTEM WITH FULLY AUTOMATIC ALARMS IN A BLAST FURNACE AREA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Davies; J. Graham Jones; C. G. Warner

    1965-01-01

    A continuously recording carbon monoxide monitoring system with fully automatic alarms is described for use in blast furnace areas. The equipment comprised the Mines Safety Appliances Model 200 infra-red analyser, pumping system, recorder, extension meter, and alarm unit.Use of the apparatus showed that concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blast furnace area studied were mostly in the range of 0

  17. Real-time analysis of physiological data and development of alarm algorithms for patient monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Ying, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    The lack of effective data integration and knowledge representation in patient monitoring limits its utility to clinicians. Intelligent alarm algorithms that use artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to ...

  18. Substation alarm multiplexing system (SAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    ElBadaly, H.; Gaughan, J.; Ward, G.; Amengual, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes an on going R&D project to develop, design, install, and assess the field performance of an advanced substation alarm system. SAMS provides a highly fault-tolerant system for the reporting of equipment alarms. SAMS separates and identifies each of the multiple alarm contacts, transmits an alarm condition over existing substation two-wire system, and displays the alarm source, and its associated technical information, on a touch-screen monitor inside the substation control room, and a remote central location and on a hand held terminal which may be carried anywhere within the substation. SAMS is currently installed at the Sherman Creek substation in the Bronx for the purpose of a three month field evaluation.

  19. Insights into the Problem of Alarm Fatigue with Physiologic Monitor Devices: A Comprehensive Observational Study of Consecutive Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Barbara J.; Harris, Patricia; Zègre-Hemsey, Jessica K.; Mammone, Tina; Schindler, Daniel; Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Ding, Quan; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing “alarm fatigue” which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. Results A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. Discussion The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms should be configurable. Because computer devices are more reliable than humans, an opportunity exists to improve physiologic monitoring and reduce alarm fatigue. PMID:25338067

  20. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

  1. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

  2. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

  3. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

  4. 46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

  5. Transformation of Ground Vibration Signal for Debris-Flow Monitoring and Detection in Alarm Systems

    PubMed Central

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Fritschi, Bruno; Graf, Christoph; Moya, José

    2012-01-01

    Debris flows are fast mass movements formed by a mix of water and solid materials, which occur in steep torrents, and are a source of high risks for human settlements. Geophones are widely used to detect the ground vibration induced by passing debris flows. However, the recording of geophone signals usually requires storing a huge amount of data, which leads to problems in storage capacity and power consumption. This paper presents a method to transform and simplify the signals measured by geophones. The key input parameter is the ground velocity threshold, which removes the seismic noise that is not related to debris flows. A signal conditioner was developed to implement the transformation and the ground velocity threshold was set by electrical resistors. The signal conditioner was installed at various European monitoring sites to test the method. Results show that data amount and power consumption can be greatly reduced without losing much information on the main features of the debris flows. However, the outcome stresses the importance of choosing a ground vibration threshold, which must be accurately calibrated. The transformation is also suitable to detect other rapid mass movements and to distinguish among different processes, which points to a possible implementation in alarm systems. PMID:22666064

  6. Central-Monitor Software Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

    2005-01-01

    One of the software modules of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system of the two preceding articles performs numerous functions for the central monitoring subsystem. This module monitors the states of all units (vehicle transponders and intersection controllers): It provides real-time access to the phases of traffic and pedestrian lights, and maps the positions and states of all emergency vehicles. Most of this module is used for installation and configuration of units as they are added to the system. The module logs all activity in the system, thereby providing information that can be analyzed to minimize response times and optimize response strategies. The module can be used from any location within communication range of the system; with proper configuration, it can also be used via the Internet. It can be integrated into call-response centers, where it can be used for alerting emergency vehicles and managing their responses to specific incidents. A variety of utility subprograms provide access to any or all units for purposes of monitoring, testing, and modification. Included are "sniffer" utility subprograms that monitor incoming and outgoing data for accuracy and timeliness, and that quickly and autonomously shut off malfunctioning vehicle or intersection units.

  7. Integration of Toxic Gas Monitoring Systems into Building Fire Alarm Systems at Harvard University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sweeney

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the following topics: description of a large scale TGMS in a clean room; description of a small TGMS in a lab using highly toxic gas; description of a small TGMS in a lab using flammable gases; how each system interacts with the building fire alarm system (FAS); and how to implement a process to integrate the two

  8. Design and development of a personal alarm monitor for use by first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Louie, Alan S.; Marenchic, Ingrid G.; Forni, Ronald J.

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small, portable alarm device that can be used by first responders to an emergency event to warn of the presence of low levels of a toxic nerve gas. The device consists of a rigid reusable portion and a consumable packet that is sensitive to the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as the nerve gases Sarin or Soman. The sensitivity level of the alarm is set to be at initial physiological response at the meiosis level, orders of magnitude below lethal concentrations. The AChE enzyme used is specific for nerve-type toxins. A color development reaction is used to demonstrate continued activity of the enzyme over its twelve-hour operational cycle.

  9. 21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement...a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an...

  10. Rack protection monitor

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Stanley G. (Wheaton, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

  11. WAMDAS: A Web Service-Based Wireless Alarm Monitoring and Data Acquisition System for Pharmaceutical Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edilberto García-Rodríguez; Manuel Rodriguez-martinez

    2006-01-01

    Typical IT infrastructures used in manufacturing companies such as pharmaceutical plants are based on enterprise servers, with vast capacities for large data sets, managed with relational database systems, with powerful capabilities for query processing. In addition, workstations running diagnostics and control applications that monitor critical status conditions in manufacturing equipments are located in far locations throughout the plant. These workstations

  12. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1988-04-22

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

  13. Functional relationship-based alarm processing system

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1989-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  14. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

  15. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

  16. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

  17. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

  18. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

  19. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

  20. Hidden Alarm

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH

    2010-01-01

    In this design challenge activity, learners invent a device that will make their friends and family ask, "What's buzzing?" Learners design an alarm with an on/off switch that is small enough to hide. This activity is a fun, hands-on way for learners to get a taste for the design process and experiment with circuitry.

  1. The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Chen, Xihui [ORNL; Danilova, Katia [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

  2. Medical devices; invitation for offers to submit or to develop a performance standard for cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm)--FDA. Notice of inquiry.

    PubMed

    1985-11-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this notice to invite interested persons, including any Federal agency, to submit any existing standard as a proposed performance standard for the cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) for use in measuring heart rate, or to submit an offer to develop such a proposed standard. If FDA does not receive any response to this notice, or receives a response to but does not accept any existing standard or offer to develop a standard, the agency will proceed to develop a performance standard or take other appropriate action to facilitate the development of a performance standard for the device. PMID:10274372

  3. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual...alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor...

  4. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual...alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor...

  5. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual...alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor...

  6. 33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01... Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have audio and visual...alarms nearby. (b) Fixed sensors that continuously monitor...

  7. A Centralized Display for Mission Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    2004-01-01

    Humans traditionally experience a vigilance decrement over extended periods of time on reliable systems. One possible solution to aiding operators in monitoring is to use polar-star displays that will show deviations from normal in a more salient manner. The primary objectives of this experiment were to determine if polar-star displays aid in monitoring and preliminary diagnosis of the aircraft state. This experiment indicated that the polar-star display does indeed aid operators in detecting and diagnosing system events. Subjects were able to notice system events earlier and they subjectively reported the polar-star display helped them in monitoring, noticing an event, and diagnosing an event. Therefore, these results indicate that the polar-star display used for monitoring and preliminary diagnosis improves performance in these areas for system related events.

  8. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mockler; N. Clarke

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication sYSTem) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance, perimeter-alarm verification system that, using computer-vision, automatically rejects false alarms. AMETHYST will pass to an operator only those alarms that are caused by an intruder.

  9. D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System

    SciTech Connect

    Markely, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-03

    The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

  10. Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Lyles; Jenny Chapman; John Healey; David Gillespie

    2006-09-30

    Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses.

  11. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  12. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  13. Alarm signals in fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jan F. Smith

    1992-01-01

    Summary the evolutionary questions surrounding alarm signalling remain unresolved, but we should now have a better understanding of the elements that must be considered in the balance sheet. The amplification that may occur in alarm signalling may be a key to understanding its evolution. The benefit to receivers will often go far beyond the response of a few nearby schoolmates

  14. Central enhancement of evoked electromyographic monitoring of neuromuscular function.

    PubMed

    Smith, D C

    1991-05-01

    Central neural influences on neuromuscular transmission may explain the frequent failure of evoked electromyographic (EEMG) responses to return to control values during offset of neuromuscular block. This study, performed in conscious subjects, did not demonstrate any change in EEMG response of either the first dorsal interosseous muscle during onset of ulnar nerve block or the flexor hallucis brevis during onset of subarachnoid block. It is concluded that central enhancement of EEMG response via a neural mechanism does not explain the observed failure of EEMG monitoring of neuromuscular block. PMID:1851627

  15. 105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    KINKEL, C.C.

    1999-12-14

    This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

  16. Learn about Smoke Alarms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Association Outreach materials from the U.S. Fire Administration Community outreach guide and presentation Use these materials to ... smoke alarms and other fire risks in your community. Our community outreach guide shares a few ideas ...

  17. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Markman

    2001-08-06

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

  18. Video systems for alarm assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

    1994-06-10

    Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

  20. Communication Strategies and Timeliness of Response to Life Critical Telemetry Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Bonzheim, Kimberly A.; Gebara, Rani I.; O'Hare, Bridget M.; Ellis, R. Darin; Brand, Monique A.; Balar, Salil D.; Stockman, Rita; Sciberras, Annette M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: A centralized electrocardiogram telemetry monitoring system (TMS) facilitates early identification of critical arrhythmias and acute medical decompensation. Timely intervention can only be performed if abnormalities are communicated rapidly to the direct caregiver. The study objectives were to measure effectiveness of bi-directional voice communication badges versus one-way alphanumeric pagers for telemetry alarm response and communication loop closure. Methods: A sequential observational pilot study of nursing response to TMS alarms compared communication technologies on four nursing units in a 1,061 bed tertiary care hospital with 264 TMS channels of telemetry over a 2-year period. Subsequently, the communication technologies were compared in a randomized fashion on a 68-bed progressive cardiac care unit. Caregivers were blinded to the protocol. All alarm responses were recorded during two periods using either pagers or voice communication devices. Alarm response time and closure of the communication loop were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results: The direct communication functionality of the badge significantly shortened the time to first contact, time to completion, and rate of closure of the communication loop in both the pilot and study phases. Median time to first contact with the communication badge was 0.5?min, compared to 1.6?min with pager communication (p?alarms using the badge versus 19% with the pager (p?alarm time to first contact and completion as well as facilitated communication loop closures. Immediate two-way communication significantly impacted practice, alarm management, and resulted in faster bedside care. PMID:21457122

  1. High Power Microwave effects on alarm systems and components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jostein Godø; Odd H. Arnesen; Mats Bäckström; Brian A. Kerr; Ernst Krogager

    This paper presents a compilation of results from a series of high power microwave (HPM) radio frequency interference (RFI) effects trials on alarm systems and components. The test objects represent a wide range of alarm and sensor technologies. Some HPM tests have been undertaken on some items in isolation and on the centrals with the detectors and card readers connected.

  2. An investigation of training strategies to improve alarm reactions.

    PubMed

    Bliss, James P; Chancey, Eric T

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have suggested that operator training may improve operator reactions; however, researchers have not documented this for alarm reactions. The goal of this research was to train participants to react to alarms using sensor activity patterns. In Experiment 1, 80 undergraduates monitored a simulated security screen while completing a primary word search task. They received spatial, temporal, single sensor, or no training to respond to alarms of differing reliability levels. Analyses revealed more appropriate and quicker reactions when participants were trained and when the alarms were reliable. In Experiment 2, 56 participants practiced time estimation by simple repetition, performance feedback, or performance feedback and temporal subdivision. They then reacted to alarms based on elapsed time between sensor activity and alarm onset. Surprisingly, results indicated that participants did not benefit differentially from temporal interval training, focusing instead on advertised system reliability. Researchers should replicate these findings with realistic tasks and real-world complex task operators. PMID:23849303

  3. Central retinal artery color Doppler monitoring versus transcranial Doppler monitoring in cardiac surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Kochi; Taijiro Sueda; Kazumasa Orihashi; Yuichiro Matsuura

    2000-01-01

    We hypothesized that the central retinal artery color Doppler (CRAD) technique can be used as an alternative monitoring method\\u000a to the conventional transcranial Doppler (TCD) technique which does not consistently provide good signals during cardiopulmonary\\u000a bypass. This is the first study to compare CRAD with TCD during cardiac surgery. Twenty patients without stroke were examined\\u000a at the seven preset stages

  4. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  5. Control of ELT false alarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

    1979-01-01

    The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

  6. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  7. Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients1

    PubMed Central

    Bridi, Adriana Carla; Louro, Thiago Quinellato; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify the number of electro-medical pieces of equipment in a coronary care unit, characterize their types, and analyze implications for the safety of patients from the perspective of alarm fatigue. METHOD: this quantitative, observational, descriptive, non-participatory study was conducted in a coronary care unit of a cardiology hospital with 170 beds. RESULTS: a total of 426 alarms were recorded in 40 hours of observation: 227 were triggered by multi-parametric monitors and 199 were triggered by other equipment (infusion pumps, dialysis pumps, mechanical ventilators, and intra-aortic balloons); that is an average of 10.6 alarms per hour. CONCLUSION: the results reinforce the importance of properly configuring physiological variables, the volume and parameters of alarms of multi-parametric monitors within the routine of intensive care units. The alarms of equipment intended to protect patients have increased noise within the unit, the level of distraction and interruptions in the workflow, leading to a false sense of security. PMID:25591100

  8. Functional relationship-based alarm processing

    DOEpatents

    Corsberg, D.R.

    1987-04-13

    A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

  9. 78 FR 2683 - Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S. Flagged Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...Carriage Standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS) Aboard U.S...carriage standards for Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm Systems (BNWAS), in accordance...monitors the awareness of the Officer of the Watch (OOW) and automatically alerts the...

  10. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  11. Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Executive Educator, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

  12. Monitoring of cropland practices for carbon sequestration purposes in north central Montana by Landsat remote sensing

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Monitoring of cropland practices for carbon sequestration purposes in north central Montana form 30 March 2009 Accepted 11 April 2009 Keywords: Carbon sequestration validation Tillage type. Cropland producers involved in terrestrial carbon sequestration programs are paid to implement practices

  13. A system identification approach to non-invasive central cardiovascular monitoring

    E-print Network

    Hahn, Jin-Oh, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a new system identification approach to non-invasive central cardiovascular monitoring problem. For this objective, this thesis will develop and analyze blind system identification and input signal ...

  14. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required...

  15. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required...

  16. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required...

  17. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required...

  18. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required...

  19. A distributed approach to alarm management in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Roa, Laura M; Naranjo-Hernández, David; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Aresté-Fosalba, Nuria; Milán-Martín, José A

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study of using a distributed approach for the management of alarms from chronic kidney disease patients. In a first place, the key issues regarding alarm definition, classification, and prioritization according to available normalization efforts are analyzed for the main scenarios addressed in hemodialysis. Then, the middleware proposed for alarm management is described, which follows the publish/subscribe pattern, and supports the Object Management Group data distribution service (DDS) standard. This standard facilitates the real-time monitoring of the exchanged information, as well as the scalability and interoperability of the solution developed regarding the different stakeholders and resources involved. Finally, the results section shows, through the proof of concept studied, the viability of DDS for the activation of emergency protocols in terms of alarm prioritization and personalization, as well as some remarks about security, privacy, and real-time communication performance. PMID:25014977

  20. The design of infrared alarm system based on ZigBee technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Yin; Haiyang Yu; Xingling Shao; Zhengyan Wang; Wei Yang; Wendong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In view of the existing shortcomings of the existing infrared system,such as complicated structure, high transmitting power, expensive cost and etc. A infrared alarm system based on ZigBee technology was presented in this paper. The system consists of owner-alarm, the monitoring room in the housing estate and network router. Through the alarm information detected by infrared sensors, it starts the

  1. Alarming increase in refugees.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to swamp reception systems. There was a growing phenomenon of "asylum shopping" -- people turned down by 1 country applying to another and another. The cost of supporting applicants on welfare while their claims were processing was rising. In 1990 there were some 800,000 foreigners in Germany alone whose claims were under consideration. PMID:12285235

  2. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  3. Instrumental lahar monitoring at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lavigne, F.; Thouret, J.-C.; Voight, B.; Young, K.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Suwa, H.; Sumaryono, A.; Sayudi, D.S.; Dejean, M.

    2000-01-01

    More than 50 volcanic debris flows or lahars were generated around Mt Merapi during the first rainy season following the nuees ardentes of 22 November 1994. The rainfalls that triggered the lahars were analyzed, using such instruments as weather radar and telemetered rain gauges. Lahar dynamics were also monitored, using new non-contact detection instrumentation installed on the slopes of the volcano. These devices include real-time seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM), seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) systems. Calibration of the various systems was accomplished by field measurements of flow velocities and discharge, contemporaneously with instrumental monitoring. The 1994–1995 lahars were relatively short events, their duration in the Boyong river commonly ranging between 30 min and 1 h 30 min. The great majority (90%) of the lahars was recognized at Kaliurang village between 13:00 and 17:30 h, due to the predominance of afternoon rainfalls. The observed mean velocity of lahar fronts ranged between 1.1 and 3.4 m/s, whereas the peak velocity of the flows varied from 11 to 15 m/s, under the Gardu Pandang viewpoint location at Kaliurang, to 8–10 m/s at a section 500 m downstream from this site. River slopes vary from 28 to 22 m/km at the two sites. Peak discharges recorded in various events ranged from 33 to 360 m3/s, with the maximum value of peak discharge 360 m3/s, on 20 May 1995. To improve the lahar warning system along Boyong river, some instrumental thresholds were proposed: large and potentially hazardous lahars may be detected by RSAM units exceeding 400, SSAM units exceeding 80 on the highest frequency band, or AFM values greater than 1500 mV on the low-gain, broad-band setting.

  4. Monitoring of atmospheric 14CO2 in central European countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sv?tlík, I.; Tomášková, L.; Molnár, M.; Svingor, E.; Futó, I.; Pintér, T.; Rulík, P.; Michálek, V.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon-14 is a radionuclide with global occurrence and partly natural origin. The main anthropogenic sources of the 14C were the nuclear weapon tests, namely at the beginning of the 1960s, nowadays the nuclear energy facilities are the main sources. Maximum in the atmospheric 14C activity was observed in 1963. In the following years the considerable 14C activity decrease was due to intensive carbon deposition into oceanic water and sediments particularly. At present the 14C activity approximates the level before nuclear age, corresponding to ˜0 ‰ ? 14C. Another actual type of anthropogenic influence is the Suess effect, i.e., the dilution of 14C by fossil carbon (fuel combustion). This effect causes a decrease of the 14C activity on a global, regional and local scale. Thus, monitoring of actual reference level of 14C activity gives a possibility to indicate local or global anthropogenic influences. This paper reporting data from the atmospheric 14CO2 monitoring in the Czech Republic and Hungary compares the actual results with other European countries. The observed effects connected with local and regional CO2 releases from fossil fuel combustion are discussed.

  5. Prototype ventilator and alarm algorithm for the NASA space station

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef X. Brunner; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Paul Zelenkov

    1988-01-01

    An alarm algorithm was developed to monitor the ventilator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space station. The algorithm automatically identifies and interprets critical events so that an untrained user can manage the mechanical ventilation of a critically injured crew member. The algorithm was tested in two healthy volunteers by simulating 260 critical events in each volunteer while the

  6. Composition of aphid alarm pheromones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Pickett; D. C. Griffiths

    1980-01-01

    Analysis of single cornicle droplets from six species of aphid showed the presence of volatile components in addition to (E)-ß-farnesene. Compounds identified included (Z,E)-a- and (E,E)-a-farnesene forMyzus persicae and a- and ß-pinene forMegoura viciae. WithMegoura viciae, (-)-a-pinene was most important for alarm activity. The major component of the alarm pheromone ofPhorodon humuli was (E)-ß-farnesene even though farnesenes are present in

  7. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), where the Faultless underground nuclear test was conducted. It includes a thorough literature review of monitoring well network design. A multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed, incorporating a number of issues, including uncertainty of the subsurface environment, cost, selection of well locations, etc. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells. The second stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network.

  8. Monitoring and Reducing Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections: A National Survey of State Hospital Associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Murphy; Dale M. Needham; Christine Goeschel; Eddy Fan; Sara E. Cosgrove; Peter J. Pronovost

    2010-01-01

    Central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) acquired in health care institutions are common and costly. A novel monitoring and prevention program dramatically reduced CLABSIs across one state. The extent to which other states have adopted similar efforts is unknown. State hospital associations were surveyed regarding their efforts to address these infections. All 50 responding associations endorsed the importance of improving patient

  9. Experimental Computerized Alarm Display System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    Computer-based systems are being used in an increasing number of nuclear materials management and safeguards applications. The goal of the Experimental Computerized Alarm Display System (ECADS) project is to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of hardware components and software techniques for security console communication and interaction. The focus of these investigations is on the human factors of

  10. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery. PMID:23344371

  11. Mobile Devices for Community-Based REDD+ Monitoring: A Case Study for Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M.; Ribbe, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery. PMID:23344371

  12. Alarm system for a nuclear control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  13. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to...

  14. 30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311 Alarm devices. Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to...

  15. Integrating Multiple Alarms & Driver Situation Awareness

    E-print Network

    Cummings, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses this gap in CAS and intelligent alarm research by examining whether or not a single master alarm warning versus multiple warnings for the different collision warning systems conveys adequate information ...

  16. Voice Alarm System in Emergency Evacuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiyang Li; Xianghong Sun; Kan Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Under emergency situations such as large fires, floods, hazardous-materials, etc., incident commander have to manage an evacuation\\u000a in help of alarm systems (audible or\\/and visual notification). This article reviewed selected literature relevant to ergonomics\\u000a of alarm systems (esp. voice alarm system) in emergency evacuation, and occupants’ response behavior to the voice alarm. The\\u000a literature cited is of world-wide origin, and

  17. Priority coding for control room alarms

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1994-01-01

    Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

  18. NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).

  19. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  20. Improved alarm tracking for better accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

    2011-03-28

    An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

  1. Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals?

    E-print Network

    Mondor, Ed

    NOTE Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals? Anca aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, emit an alarm pheromone, (E)--farnesene, which causes nearby conspecifics that plants release farnesene to habituate aphids, i.e., to disrupt their alarm-pheromone re- sponses, perhaps

  2. The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

    The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

  3. Estimation of Central Aortic Blood Pressure using a Noninvasive Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Ta Shih; Yi-Jung Sun; Chen-Huan Chen; Hao-min Cheng; Hu Wei-Chih

    Automatic blood pressure monitors are the most important healthcare products. The abnormal blood pressure values and waveform\\u000a could indicate many cardiovascular diseases. The pressures measured using oscillometric method, which compared with invasive\\u000a blood pressure devices, are often slight overestimation in SBP and underestimation in DBP.Recent studies indicated that the\\u000a continuous pulse volume recording (PVR) could predict the central aortic blood

  4. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan

    2003-09-02

    The groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) was accepted by the state regulator and the environmental remediation efforts at the site have progressed to the stages of model validation and long-term monitoring design. This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for CNTA. Subsurface monitoring is an expensive and time-consuming process, and the design approach should be based on a solid foundation. As such, a thorough literature review of monitoring network design is first presented. Monitoring well networks can be designed for a number of objectives including aquifer characterization, parameter estimation, compliance monitoring, detection monitoring, ambient monitoring, and research monitoring, to name a few. Design methodologies also range from simple hydrogeologic intuition-based tools to sophisticated statistical- and optimization-based tools. When designing the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA, a number of issues are carefully considered. These are the uncertainty associated with the subsurface environment and its implication for monitoring design, the cost associated with monitoring well installation and operation, the design criteria that should be used to select well locations, and the potential conflict between different objectives such as early detection versus impracticality of placing wells in the vicinity of the test cavity. Given these considerations and the literature review of monitoring design studies, a multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed. This multi-staged approach will proceed in parallel with the validation efforts for the groundwater flow and transport model of CNTA. Two main stages are identified as necessary for the development of the final long-term monitoring well network for the site. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells that will serve two purposes. The first is to place the wells in areas likely to encounter migration pathways thereby enhancing the probability of detecting radionuclide migration in the long run. The second objective is crucial in the short run and is aimed at using this set of wells to collect validation data for the model. The selection criteria should thus balance these two objectives. Based on the results of the validation process that progresses concurrently with the first monitoring stage, either more wells will be needed in this first stage or the second stage will be initiated. The second monitoring design stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network. The first-stage probabilistic analysis conducted using the CNTA model indicates that the likelihood of migration away from the test cavity is very low and the probability of detecting radionuclides in the next 100 years is extremely low. Therefore, it is recommended to place one well in the downstream direction along the model longitudinal centerline (i.e., directly north of the working point), which is the location with the highest probability of encountering the plume. Lack of significant plume spreading, coupled with the extremely low velocities, suggests that this one well is sufficient for the first stage. Data from this well, and from additional wells located with validation as the prime objective, will benefit the model validation process. In the long run, this first monitoring well is going to be crucial for the long-term monitoring of the site (assuming that the flow model is validated), as it will be the most likely place to detect any plume migration away from the cavity.

  5. HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

  6. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  7. False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, reducing the number of false positive cardiac monitor alarms (FA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become an issue of the utmost importance. In our work, we developed a robust methodology that, without the need for additional non-ECG waveforms, suppresses false positive ventricular tachycardia (VT) alarms without resulting in false negative alarms. Our approach is based on features extracted from the ECG signal 20 seconds prior to a triggered alarm. We applied a multi resolution wavelet transform to the ECG data 20seconds prior to the alarm trigger, extracted features from appropriately chosen scales and combined them across all available leads. These representations are presented to a L1-regularized logistic regression classifier. Results are shown in two datasets of physiological waveforms with manually assessed cardiac monitor alarms: the MIMIC II dataset, where we achieved a false alarm (FA) suppression of 21% with zero true alarm (TA) suppression; and a dataset compiled by UCSF and General Electric, where a 36% FA suppression was achieved with a zero TA suppression. The methodology described in this work could be implemented to reduce the number of false monitor alarms in other arrhythmias. PMID:25172188

  8. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  9. The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Melander-Wikman, A; Jansson, M; Hallberg, J; Mörtberg, C; Gard, G

    2007-01-01

    An important factor for health is the possibility to be active and mobile. To make this possible various kinds of support are needed. Integrating geographical information systems technology and user experiences is important in the development of more user-friendly positioning devices. The Lighthouse Alarm and Locator trial aimed to test a new mobile alarm system with additional functionality such as positioning and monitoring of vital signs which can be used regardless of location (in hospital, at home). The system was tested by elderly persons from a pensioner organisation and home care personnel answered up on the alarms. After the tests qualitative interviews were performed with the two groups. The results showed that their experiences of the new mobile alarm system could be described in three main categories: to be supervised, to feel safe and to be mobile. These categories formed a theme: Positioning - an ethical dilemma. The clients' mobility was perceived to increase. The personnel did not think that positioning was ethical but the clients (elderly) did. PMID:17473400

  10. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  11. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  12. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  13. TMACS test procedure TP001: Alarm management. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the Alarm Management requirements of the TMACS. The features to be tested are: real-time alarming on high and low level and discrete alarms, equipment alarms, dead-band filtering, alarm display color coding, alarm acknowledgement, and alarm logging.

  14. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  15. Technical Assessment of DOE Savannah River Site-Sponsored Radionuclide Monitoring Efforts in the Central Savannah River Area

    E-print Network

    Georgia, University of

    Technical Assessment of DOE Savannah River Site-Sponsored Radionuclide Monitoring Efforts radiological monitoring program conducted on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This request was made in the Central Savannah River Area Prepared by the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory at the Request

  16. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  17. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  18. Spatial variability of air pollution in the vicinity of a permanent monitoring station in central Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Gonzalez-Flesca, Norbert; Fisher, Bernard E. A.; Pericleous, Koulis

    The strong spatial and temporal variability of traffic-related air pollution detected at roadside locations in a number of European cities has raised the question of how representative the site and time period of air quality measurements actually can be. To address this question, a 7-month sampling campaign was carried out on a major road axis (Avenue Leclerc) leading to a very busy intersection (Place Basch) in central Paris, covering the surroundings of a permanent air quality monitoring station. This station has recorded the highest CO and NO x concentrations during recent years in the region of Paris. Diffusive BTX samplers as well as a mobile monitoring unit equipped with real-time CO, NO x and O 3 analysers and meteorological instruments were used to reveal the small-scale pollution gradients and their temporal trends near the permanent monitoring station. The diffusive measurements provided 7-day averages of benzene, toluene, xylene and other hydrocarbons at different heights above the ground and distances from the kerb covering summer and winter periods. Relevant traffic and meteorological data were also obtained on an hourly basis. Furthermore, three semi-empirical dispersion models (STREET-SRI, OSPM and AEOLIUS) were tested for an asymmetric canyon location in Av. Leclerc. The analysis of this comprehensive data set has helped to assess the representativeness of air quality monitoring information.

  19. Specificity improvement for network distributed physiologic alarms based on a simple deterministic reactive intelligent agent in the critical care environment.

    PubMed

    Blum, James M; Kruger, Grant H; Sanders, Kathryn L; Gutierrez, Jorge; Rosenberg, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Automated physiologic alarms are available in most commercial physiologic monitors. However, due to the variability of data coming from the physiologic sensors describing the state of patients, false positive alarms frequently occur. Each alarm requires review and documentation, which consumes clinicians' time, may reduce patient safety through 'alert fatigue' and makes automated physician paging infeasible. To address these issues a computerized architecture based on simple reactive intelligent agent technology has been developed and implemented in a live critical care unit to facilitate the investigation of deterministic algorithms for the improvement of the sensitivity and specificity of physiologic alarms. The initial proposed algorithm uses a combination of median filters and production rules to make decisions about what alarms to generate. The alarms are used to classify the state of patients and alerts can be easily viewed and distributed using standard network, SQL database and Internet technologies. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, a 28 day study was conducted in the University of Michigan Medical Center's 14 bed Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit. Alarms generated by patient monitors, the intelligent agent and alerts documented on patient flow sheets were compared. Significant improvements in the specificity of the physiologic alarms based on systolic and mean blood pressure was found on average to be 99% and 88% respectively. Even through significant improvements were noted based on this algorithm much work still needs to be done to ensure the sensitivity of alarms and methods to handle spurious sensor data due to patient or sensor movement and other influences. PMID:19169835

  20. Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Bajpai; D. K. Upreti; S. K. Dwivedi

    2010-01-01

    Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive\\u000a monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road\\u000a site exhibit the maximum

  1. Monitoring for central apnoea in infancy--limitations of single channel recordings.

    PubMed Central

    MacFadyen, U M; Borthwick, G; Simpson, H; McKay, M; Neilson, J

    1988-01-01

    Apparent central apnoea (absent breathing movements) detected by monitoring movement of the thoracic wall was compared with simultaneous detection by abdominal wall movement. Eighteen infants provided one or more 24 hour recording of heart rate (electrocardiography), thoracic respiration (transthoracic impedance), and abdominal wall movement (pressure sensitive capsule distortion). Detection of true apnoea, recognition of artefact, and measurement of the duration of true apnoea were all improved when two channels of respiratory monitoring were used in combination. We recommend that any study purporting to observe breathing patterns by indirect recording of respiratory movement will be more reliable if more than one channel of respiratory movements is recorded simultaneously. Further, in infants no estimation of duration of central apnoea can be made on the basis of either a transthoracic impedance record alone or an abdominal wall movement sensor alone. Comparison of findings among studies using different single channel recordings are unlikely to be meaningful. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:3355207

  2. ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements

    E-print Network

    Huth, Michael

    ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements 6 March 2012 Revision 0-5 sentences stating the nature of the app (e.g., MDDS, derived alarm, app panel of the app and the functionality that the app provides that advances the current

  3. A miner's personal carbon monoxide alarm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSEPH E. CHILTON; CLARENCE R. CARPENTER

    1989-01-01

    For the purpose of alerting an underground miner to life-threatening concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) a miner's personal CO alarm prototype called PEMCOAL has been developed by the Bureau of Mines. The PEMCOAL unit is small enough to be carried on a miner's belt, has a flashlamp visual alarm, requires to calibration for use, and uses a disk sensor which

  4. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: operational experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Horner; Graham Leach; T. O'Dwyer

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (Automatic Event Authentication Systems) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance perimeter detection system by using video assessment to enhance the Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms that are likely to be caused by an intruder.

  5. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment becoming a reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Horner; H. Sage; G. Leach

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of PIDS alarms and pass to an operator those alarms likely to be caused by an

  6. AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: becoming a reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Horner; K. Sage; G. Leach

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms which are likely to

  7. A prison guard Duress alarm location system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Christ; P. A. Godwin; R. E. Lavigne

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss concepts used in developing the CSC (Correctional Services Canada) Duress Alarm Location System (DALS). A block diagram and theory of operation for the system are presented. A sample data and test results for an actual test installation are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that the DALS is able to acknowledge and locate a duress alarm within

  8. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...miners in affected working sections, in...must continuously monitor for carbon monoxide...report contaminant levels to the AMS operator...alert and alarm levels specified in...Detectors used to monitor under this section must have a level of...

  9. Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

  10. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  11. Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

  12. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

  14. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

  15. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

  16. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

  17. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

  18. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping...Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified:...

  19. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

  20. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 108.627 Section 108.627 Shipping...Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by marking:...

  1. 46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162...CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS...050-33 Bilge alarm: Design specification. ...date, time, alarm status, and operating status of the 15 ppm...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace...alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm...or tactile devices meeting the requirements of this section are...shall assure that all employee alarm systems...

  3. Peripheral venous pressure as a reliable predictor for monitoring central venous pressure in patients with burns

    PubMed Central

    Sherif, Lulu; Joshi, Vikas S.; Ollapally, Anjali; Jain, Prithi; Shetty, Kishan; Ribeiro, Karl Sa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimizing cardiovascular function to ensure adequate tissue oxygen delivery is a key objective in the care of critically ill patients with burns. Hemodynamic monitoring may be necessary to optimize resuscitation in serious burn patients with reasonable safety. Invasive central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring has become the corner stone of hemodynamic monitoring in patients with burns but is associated with inherent risks and technical difficulties. Previous studies on perioperative patients have shown that measurement of peripheral venous pressure (PVP) is a less invasive and cost-effective procedure and can reliably predict CVP. Objective: The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to determine whether a reliable association exists between changes in CVP and PVP over a long period in patients admitted to the Burns Intensive Care Unit (BICU). Subjects and Methods: The CVP and PVP were measured simultaneously hourly in 30 burns patients in the BICU up to 10 consecutive hours. The predictability of CVP by monitoring PVP was tested by applying the linear regression formula and also using the Bland–Altman plots of repeated measures to evaluate the agreement between CVP and PVP. Results: The regression formula revealed a reliable and significant association between CVP and PVP. The overall mean difference between CVP and PVP was 1.628 ± 0.84 mmHg (P < 0.001). The Bland–Altman diagram also showed a perfect agreement between the two pressures throughout the 10 h period. Conclusion: Peripheral venous pressure measured from a peripheral intravenous catheter in burns patients is a reliable estimation of CVP, and its changes have good concordance with CVP over a long period of time. PMID:25878426

  4. LIDAR monitoring of mass wasting processes: The Radicofani landslide, Province of Siena, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldo, Marco; Bicocchi, Claudio; Chiocchini, Ugo; Giordan, Daniele; Lollino, Giorgio

    2009-04-01

    The Radicofani Basin, stretching about 30 km NW-SE, is an intra-Central Apennine basin connected to Pliocene-Pleistocene extensional tectonics. It consists of an Early to Middle Pliocene succession including essentially shelf pelites. In the Radicofani area, province of Siena (Tuscany region), morphodynamic processes are very frequent with widespread badlands and rapidly evolving mudflows. In order to evaluate the general instability of the Radicofani area, geological and geomorphological surveys were carried out. The 1954, 1990 and 2003 aerial surveys allowed a comparison of the changes in the various morphological aspects of the study area, which suggested an increase in slope instability with time. A new complex translational landslide evolving into mudflows, activated during the winter of 2003, was monitored using an experimental system based on terrestrial LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies. This system allowed the monitoring of the morphologic and volumetric evolution of the landslide. A comparison of the monitoring data of October 2004, June 2005, May 2006 and May 2007 points out that the evolution is characterised by the sliding of displaced materials. A volume of about 1300 m 3 of materials was removed during the period 2004-2005, 300 m 3 for 2005-2006, and 400 m 3 for 2006-2007. The greater initial mass movement probably reflects a greater static imbalance during the early period of landslide movement and increased rainfall. Therefore, the proposed monitoring system methodology allows the numerical evaluation of the landslide morphological evolution and to validate the landslide evolution model based on geological and geomorphological field surveys.

  5. Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

    2013-05-01

    Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates obtained for the years 1993, 2000 and 2011, were subjected to a trend analysis (Theil-Sen) to assess changes in the series. The results showed that in the semi-arid central Plateau, since 1993 to 2011, the forests and thornscrub have lost 10% of their surface. In stark contrast, urban areas have been increased in 5%. The desertification map showed that 30% of the analyzed surface presents a low desertification condition, 40% half, 20% high and 10% extreme. Forests and thornscrub are the most vulnerable areas to deforestation and hence desertification. Results themselves, suggests that desertification process must be examined in spatiotemporal scale and remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor and analyze this phenomena.

  6. Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christina H.; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L.; Spengler, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 – 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification. PMID:23645993

  7. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  8. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  9. Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela Rodriguez, F.

    2011-12-01

    The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

  10. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

  11. 46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a periodically unattended machinery...

  12. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

  13. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

  14. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

  15. 46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

  16. Structural damage alarming using auto-associative neural network technique: Exploration of environment-tolerant capacity and setup of alarming threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. F.; Ni, Y. Q.; Ko, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    With the intention of avoiding false-positive and false-negative alarms in structural damage alarming using the auto-associative neural network (AANN) technique, two issues pertaining to this technique are addressed in this study. The first issue explored is the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN. Efforts have been made to seek a generalization technique to enhance the environment-tolerant capacity. First, a baseline AANN model is formulated using the conventional training algorithm. Generalization techniques including AIC and FPE, early stopping, and Bayesian regularization are then investigated, resulting in three new AANN models. Their environment-tolerant capacity is evaluated as per their capability to avoid false-positive and false-negative alarms. The other issue addressed is the setup of alarming threshold, with intent to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming. A procedure based on the probability analysis of the novelty index is proposed for this purpose. First, the novelty index characterizing the intact structure is analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test to obtain its best-fit continuous probability distribution. A confidence interval is then defined in consideration of the compromise between type I and type II errors. The alarming threshold of the novelty index is consequently set at the upper limit of the confidence interval. The above explorations are examined by using the long-term monitoring data on modal properties of the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. The capability to eliminate false-positive alarm is verified by using unseen testing data which were not used in formulating the AANN models, while the capability to alleviate false-negative alarm is examined by using simulated data from the 'damaged' bridge with the help of a precise finite element model. The study indicates that the early stopping technique performs best in improving the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN, and the alarming threshold set by the proposed procedure helps to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming.

  17. Ovitrap Efficacy Using Plant Infusions to Monitor Vertical Distribution of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Central Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Aedes albopictus to ovitraps containing water, oak or oak-pine was evaluated in four suburban and four sylvatic habitats in North-Central Florida to ascertain potential egg-laying heights. A total of 48 ovitraps were suspended at 1 and 6 meters and monitored weekly for five months....

  18. Rockfall hazard alarm strategy based on FBG smart passive net structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Hu, Jun

    2014-09-01

    In order to realize working state remote monitoring for a passive net, alarm timely and correctly for the rockfall invasion, and solve the disadvantages in the existing means, such as needing power supply in situ, vulnerability to electromagnetic interference and environmental climate impact, a smart passive net structure based on the optical fiber sensing technology was designed which equipped with intercepting and sensing functions. The wire rope net as one part of the smart passive net was weaved with two kinds of optical fiber sensing elements, namely, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) perimeter severity sensors and optical fiber monitoring net with each end of the tail fiber containing an FBG probe. Based on the proposed smart structure, a combination alarm strategy for rockfall was proposed, which can distinguish transmission bug, whether the rockfall invasion or net broken occurs. Through a designed simulation test, the effectiveness of the proposed alarm strategy was certificated.

  19. Rockfall hazard alarm strategy based on FBG smart passive net structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Hu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In order to realize working state remote monitoring for a passive net, alarm timely and correctly for the rockfall invasion, and solve the disadvantages in the existing means, such as needing power supply in situ, vulnerability to electromagnetic interference and environmental climate impact, a smart passive net structure based on the optical fiber sensing technology was designed which equipped with intercepting and sensing functions. The wire rope net as one part of the smart passive net was weaved with two kinds of optical fiber sensing elements, namely, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) perimeter severity sensors and optical fiber monitoring net with each end of the tail fiber containing an FBG probe. Based on the proposed smart structure, a combination alarm strategy for rockfall was proposed, which can distinguish transmission bug, whether the rockfall invasion or net broken occurs. Through a designed simulation test, the effectiveness of the proposed alarm strategy was certificated.

  20. Accuracy, alarm limits and rise times of 12 oxygen analysers.

    PubMed

    Lauber, R; Steiner, A; Zbinden, A M

    1994-12-01

    The Comité Européen de Normalisation recently proposed a new standard for 'the particular requirements of oxygen monitors for medical use'. The feasibility of this proposed standard was tested in respect of (1) accuracy of alarm activation (2) accuracy of oxygen display value during both continuous and cyclical gas flows (3) rise time during rapid changes in oxygen concentration in the following 12 analysers: Datex Capnomac II and Servomex 570A (paramagnetic); Brüel & Kjaer 1304 (magnetoacoustic); Criticare Poet II, Multinex, Dräger Oxydig, Dräger PM 8030, Megamed 046A (part of the Megamed 700 ventilator), Ohmeda 5120, Spacelabs Multigas, Teledyne TED 200 (galvanic); Kontron OM 810 (polarographic). All the analysers tested displayed an oxygen reading which was within +/- 3 vol% of the actual oxygen concentrations of the test gases (15, 21, 40, 60 and 100 vol%). A cyclical pressure of between -1.5 to +8 kPa did not affect the measured oxygen concentration as displayed by the Brüel & Kjaer 1304, Datex Capnomac II and Servomex 570A analysers. The remainder, however, showed, depending on their measuring principle, a display error of between -1 and +6 vol%. After exposure to high pressure all the oximeters functioned normally. Some of the tested devices showed more than 2% of deviation between their alarm activation and the preset alarm limits. Only the Kontron OM 810, the Megamed 046A and the Spacelabs Multigas monitors satisfied the requirements at all the tested oxygen concentrations. The time required by the oxygen analyser to display the rise from 29 to 92 vol % after a sudden change of concentration from 21 to 100 vol % O2 is defined as "rise time" and must not, according to the Comité Européen de Normalisation standard proposal, exceed the manufacturers' specification by more than a factor of 1.15.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7864324

  1. Epidermal `alarm substance' cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    Epidermal `alarm substance' cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-5301, USA 5 The Nature by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin

  2. The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (Central Europe) - Five Years of Seismo-Hydrological Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenta, J.; Kolinsky, P.; Gazdova, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone - generally a NW-SE striking reverse fault - is a major fault zone forming the NE border of the Bohemian Massif. The zone is located in the center of the SE part of the important central European tectonic structure - the Elbe Fault system. The Bohemian Massif in general is a region with a weak intraplate seismicity. Two areas are exceptions - the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region and the Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (HPFZ). The HPFZ is a result of long-lasting evolution since the late Paleozoic with several tectonic phases. The contemporary HPFZ consist of a main reverse fault (thrust) accompanied by parallel or oblique normal or reverse faults. The fault zone is still tectonically active, the relatively frequent weak local earthquakes being one of the proofs of this activity. The strongest earthquake registered within the HPFZ was the January 1901 earthquake with the magnitude of 4.6. Another proof of the mobility is a presence of CO2-rich mineral springs in the area. The hydrogeological and seismic monitoring in the area aims to find possible connections between changes in the ground water level and seismic events. The hydrological changes are monitored in four wells by water level sensors. The ground water level is measured every 10 minutes, the air pressure every hour. The sesimicity is monitored by four broadband seismic stations (CHVC, DPC, OSTC and UPC) with sampling frequency of 100 or 250 Hz. The recorded data are automatically scanned for possible local earthquakes which are then reviewed by seismologists and further processed. Several distinct ground water level changes were observed on one well before some of the local earthquakes. Very distinct ground water level changes were also observed on one well before the Tohoku M 9.0 earthquake. In addition to a simple examination of variations in a ground water level we also compute a phase shift (delay) between the band-passed filtered water level and theoretical tides. Changes in the delay could indicate changes in stress conditions of the rock massif. In the period of increased seismic activity the phase shift on one of the wells significantly increases compared to the period of seismic inactivity. However, the possible connections between changes in water levels and earthquakes still could not be satisfactorily proved and explained.

  3. Studying the NDVI dynamics features for vegetation monitoring method development in the south of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, Irina

    Monitoring of vegetation state can be based on studying their dynamics features. Effective methods of satellite data interpretation using spectral feature distinctions should be applied for this purpose. Studying the time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during growth period is one of such approaches. The analysis of NDVI temporal profile shape allows to identify vegetation objects on satellite image. The NDVI curve transformation regularities during growth period are studied in the process of study carried out. Growth rate in specific phenological phases (growth of vegetative organs; maturation and fruiting) and extreme NDVI values during total growth period are detected. Growth rate is calculated as a NDVI curve slope. The NDVI dynamics of different vegetation types (agricultural crops - wheat, oats, buckwheat; abandoned fields of different age, meadow steppe, stony steppe, feather-grass steppe, flood meadow etc.), located in the south of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai, Khakasia), has been derived and analyzed. Results of this study are as the basis for developed software, which produces the automatic identification of canopy using Terra Modis satellite measurement data.

  4. In vitro evaluation of the CeVOX continuous central venous oxygenation monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Baulig, W; Dullenkopf, A; Hasenclever, P; Schmid, E R; Weiss, M

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the in vitro performance of the CeVOX system for continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry (Pulsion Medical Systems, Munich, Germany). Oxygen inflow into the system was varied, and oxygen saturation values measured by CeVOX were documented. Blood samples were simultaneously taken to assess oxygen saturation by co-oximetry, and values were compared by Bland-Altman analysis. Sixty-six data pairs were obtained at CeVOX and co-oximetry values of 16-99% and 5.5-100%, respectively. Overall, CeVOX values only slightly overestimated co-oximetry values (mean bias +2.4%), but limits of agreement (2 SD of bias) were wide (-11.8 to +16.6%). Saturation measured by CeVOX underestimated that measured by co-oximetry at higher oxygen concentrations and overestimated it at lower oxygen concentrations. There was a nearly linear correlation of the mean bias, suggesting a systematic error. We conclude that the current version of the CeVOX system does not reliably reflect oxygen saturation. PMID:18336492

  5. Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation with groundwater can complicate the use of tritium alone for age dating. The presence of radiogenic helium-4 in several samples with measurable tritium provides evidence of mixing between pre-modern and younger groundwater. Groundwater age-depth relationships are complicated, consistent with transient flow patterns in shallow agricultural groundwaters affected by irrigation pumping and recharge. For the multi-level installations in the southern dairies, both depth profiles and re-sampling after significant changes in groundwater elevation emphasize the need to sample groundwater within 3 meters of the water table to obtain "first-encounter" groundwater with a tritium/helium-3 age of less than 5 years, and to use age tracers to identify wells and groundwater conditions suitable for monitoring and assessment of best management practice impacts on underlying groundwater quality. This work was carried out with funding from Sustainable Conservation and the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with UC-Davis, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

  7. Pressurized security barrier and alarm system

    DOEpatents

    Carver, D.W.

    1995-04-11

    A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed. 7 figures.

  8. ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

  9. Development of a Method of Selecting Important Alarms for Nuclear Power Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setsuo ARITA; Yukiharu OHGA; Yohichi YOSHIDA; Tadahiro YUDATE; Yu AOKI

    1995-01-01

    Presenting important alarms selected from a large number of activated alarms provides useful operational support under a transient status in a nuclear power plant. We have developed an alarm processing method which selects and presents important alarms depending on plant status.In this method, important alarms are selected, first, based on physical relationships between alarms and component status including alarms themselves

  10. 33 CFR 127.207 - Warning alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...207 Warning alarms. (a) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a rotating or flashing amber light with a minimum...below the horizontal plane. (b) The marine transfer area for LNG must have a siren with a minimum 1/3 -octave band...

  11. Alarm System for Credit Losses Impairment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Alarm System for Credit Losses Impairment Yahia SALHI Pierre-E. THÉROND January 13, 2014 credit losses related to loans commitments and nancial guarantee contracts. In an exposure draft with a new impairment losses mechanism: Expected Credit Losses. In this paper, after a brief description

  12. Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy

    2012-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

  13. Comprehensive Smoke Alarm Coverage in Lower Economic Status Homes: Alarm Presence, Functionality, and Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elanor A. SidmanDavid; David C. Grossman; Beth A. Mueller

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value\\u000a owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and\\u000a burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King\\u000a County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke

  14. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...are encouraged to locate the alarm in the living area remote from the kitchen and cooking appliances. A smoke alarm located within 20 feet horizontally of a cooking appliance must incorporate a temporary silencing feature or be of a...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

  16. Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:

    SciTech Connect

    Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

    1990-06-01

    This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. 47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.318 Use of alarm signals....

  18. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

  19. 8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  1. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  2. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  3. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  4. 46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1365 Audible and visual alarms. (a) Each audible alarm must have an arrangement that...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

  7. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

  8. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

  9. Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the staus of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) criticality alarm system. A new radiation detection alarm system was installed in 1990. The anunciation system, calibration and maintenance, and detector placement is described.

  10. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible...

  11. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible...

  12. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible...

  13. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible...

  14. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible...

  15. Comparative utility of centrally versus peripherally transduced venous pressure monitoring in the perioperative period in spine surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Bombardieri, Anna Maria; Beckman, James; Shaw, Pamela; Girardi, Federico P.; Ma, Yan; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To compare central venous pressure (CVP) with peripheral venous pressure (PVP) monitoring during the intraoperative and postoperative periods in patients undergoing spine surgery. Design Prospective observational study. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Patients 35 ASA physical status 1, 2, and 3 patients. Interventions A peripheral catheter in the forearm or hand and a central catheter into the internal jugular vein were placed for PVP and CVP monitoring, respectively. Measurements CVP and PVP values were collected simultaneously and recorded electronically at 5-minute intervals throughout surgery and in the recovey room. The number of attempts for catheter placement, ease of use, maintenance, and interpretation were recorded. Patient comfort, frequency of complications, and cost were analyzed. Main results The correlation coefficient between CVP and PVP was 0.650 in the operating room (P < 0.0001) and 0.388 in the recovery room (P < 0.0001). There was no difference between groups in number of attempts to place either catheter, maintenance, and interpretation with respect to PVP and CVP monitoring in the operating room. In the recovery room, the nurses reported a higher level of difficulty in interpretation of PVP than CVP, but no differences were noted in ease of maintenance. There were no complications related to either central or peripheral catheter placement. Patient comfort and cost efficiency were higher with a peripheral than a central catheter. Conclusion During clinically relevant conditions, there was limited correlation between PVP and CVP in the prone position during surgery and postoperatively in the recovery room. PMID:22999983

  16. Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms

    DOEpatents

    Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

    2013-06-11

    An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

  17. Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

    2012-12-01

    Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a good basis for successful functioning of the equipment.

  18. Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.

    PubMed

    Purbaugh, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

  19. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  4. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

  9. Empirical Bayes Methods Applied to Estimating Fire Alarm Probabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grace M. Carter; John E. Rolph

    1974-01-01

    An empirical Bayes approach is used to derive a Stein-type estimator of a multivariate normal mean when the components have unequal variances. This estimator is applied to estimating the probability that a fire alarm reported from a particular street box signals a structural fire rather than a false alarm or other emergency. The approach is to group alarm boxes into

  10. Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa. In addition, 6 out of 9 alarm pheromone compounds were significantly repellent. Next to isopentyl-acetate, which showed no ef- fect, 1-octanol is the most quantitatively important alarm pheromone compound

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping...Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with the...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping...Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with the...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping...Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with the...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping...Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with the...

  15. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping...Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with the...

  16. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...pressure. If the alarm has a centrifugal mixture pump or is not equipped with a mixture...positive displacement mixture pump, the influent pressure is...pressure. If the alarm has a centrifugal mixture pump or if the alarm is not...

  17. 46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...pressure. If the alarm has a centrifugal mixture pump or is not equipped with a mixture...positive displacement mixture pump, the influent pressure is...pressure. If the alarm has a centrifugal mixture pump or if the alarm is not...

  18. An Innovative Alarming Access Strategy in the WBANs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Ying Hao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of novel alarming access scheme is proposed for the pervasive and mobile healthcare application. This algorithm makes use of the wasted bandwidth in Contention Free Period in order to reduce transmission latency of alarming packets. The performance evaluation shows that this scheme can reduce the delay time of the alarming frame, especially in handling the

  19. A personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer(SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to don either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine, nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to don either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. The authors report on the development of a prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL.

  20. MCS51 - Based Carbon Monoxide Alarm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tunlasakun; R. Nimnual

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a MCS51-based carbon monoxide alarm. The system was designed on a single T89C51AC2 microcontroller that performed the acquisition, processing and display of carbon monoxide (CO) data from MiCS-5132 automotive pollution gas sensor and displayed the CO data on 7 segment display. The system was tested using carbon monoxide from car exhaust fumes

  1. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113...COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm....

  2. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113...COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm....

  3. 46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Engineers' assistance-needed alarm. 113...COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1 Engineers' assistance-needed alarm....

  4. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 12, 1999 CONDITIONED ALARM BEHAVIOR IN FATHEAD

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    (Pimephales promelas) RESULTING FROM ASSOCIATION OF CHEMICAL ALARM PHEROMONE WITH A NONBIOLOGICAL VISUAL--Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) adopt antipredator (alarm) behavior when they detect alarm pheromone, Pimephales promelas, alarm pheromone, Schreckstoff, learned recognition of predation risk, red light. #12

  5. Short-Term Monitoring to Diagnose Comfort Problems in a Residence in Central Texas

    E-print Network

    Kootin-Sanwu, V.; Sresthaputra, A.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    undertaken to diagnose the problem are typical of those that could be undertaken by a house inspector and include an inspection of the construction of the house, short-term monitoring of temperature and humidity, blower door tests and whole...

  6. A Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaronson, A. C.; Buchman, P. E.; Wescott, T.; Fries, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the Landsat Agricultural Monitoring Program which was developed to identify, observe, and evaluate alarm conditions influencing Iowa corn production in 1976. Used in conjunction with climatic and field reports, studies were made of crop development, crop alarms (such as heavy rainfall, hail, tornadoes, and drought) and estimated crop yield.

  7. Dual sensitivity mode system for monitoring processes and sensors

    DOEpatents

    Wilks, Alan D. (Mount Prospect, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for analyzing a source of data. The system and method involves initially training a system using a selected data signal, calculating at least two levels of sensitivity using a pattern recognition methodology, activating a first mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source, activating a second mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source and generating a first alarm signal upon the first mode of sensitivity detecting an alarm condition and a second alarm signal upon the second mode of sensitivity detecting an associated alarm condition. The first alarm condition and second alarm condition can be acted upon by an operator and/or analyzed by a specialist or computer program.

  8. The monitoring and forecasting system of Etna volcanic plumes for reinforcement of the aviation safety on the central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.

    2009-12-01

    Since 1979 explosive activity of Etna volcano produced many short-lived and two long-lived ash plume forming eruptions that disrupted the operations of Catania and Reggio Calabria airports and create difficulties to the air traffic in the central Mediterranean region. National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV) is charged of the monitoring of Etna eruptive phenomena. It cooperates with the National Civil Protection Department, the Agency for Civil Aviation (ENAC), the Air Traffic Control company (ENAV) and the Italian Air Force for warning continuously the aviation authorities about the occurring of the ash cloud on Sicilian airspace and the ash fallout on Catania airport. The objective of INGV is to develop and implement a system for monitoring and forecasting volcanic plumes of Etna. Monitoring is based at present on multispectral infrared satellite imagery received at high-rate from METEOSAT, ground-based visual and thermal cameras, a Doppler Radar for volcanic-jet monitoring and some ash fallout detectors. Forecasting is using a multi-model approach that is performed every day through a fully automatic procedures for: i) downloading weather forecast data from meteorological mesoscale models; ii) running models of tephra dispersal, iii) plotting hazard maps of volcanic ash dispersal and deposition for certain scenarios and, iv) publishing the results on a web-site dedicated to the Civil Protection. Simulations are based on eruptive scenarios obtained by analysing of field data collected from recent Etna eruptions. Forecasting is, hence, supported by plume observations carried out by the monitoring network. The monitoring and forecasting system was tested successfully on some explosive events occurred during 2006 and 2007, and will be tested again during the Volcanic Ash Exercise of ICAO EUR/NAT in November 2009.

  9. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Johnson, Christian D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  10. Neonatal peripherally inserted central catheter practices and their association with demographics, training, and radiographic monitoring: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Elizabeth L

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this secondary analysis of results from a national survey of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) practices in neonates was to determine whether demographics and types of training were associated with differing radiographic confirmation practices of these catheters. Correlational analyses were performed on the 2010 national database of neonatal PICC practices. The sample consisted of 187 respondents, representing 25% of the level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of more than 20 beds in the United States. The key factors examined were geographic location, size of NICU, academic affiliation, and type of training related to radiographic confirmation of the catheter tip position, routine monitoring and reconfirmation of the catheter tip position following adjustments, and associated patient positioning practices for consistent evaluation of the catheter tip position. Formal training and annual retraining were statistically significantly associated with consistent patient positioning practices for more accurate monitoring of the catheter tip position and acceptable tip location. Size of NICU and academic affiliation were not associated with differences in practices. Adherence to specific national guidelines and recommendations for care of infants with PICCs is significantly impacted by formal training and annual retraining. This underscores the importance of education and annual retraining in preventing PICC-related complications beyond the crucial prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections. PMID:24950035

  11. Recharge in Karst Shrublands of Central Texas: Monitoring Drip Rates in Shallow Caves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Bazan; B. P. Wilcox; C. L. Munster; K. Owens; B. Shade

    2007-01-01

    The exceedingly complex subsurface hydrology of karst landscapes presents formidable challenges to understanding recharge rates and the relationships between rainfall and recharge. In this study, we have established a network of drip collectors and monitoring stations in shallow caves in the Edwards Plateau to better understand the dynamics of recharge and eventually for determining the effect of woody plants on

  12. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for a broad spectrum of users. This paper will briefly describe the latest systems developed for the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the Department of State (DOS) applications. Applications covered will vary from relatively small facilities to large complex sites. Ongoing system developments will also be discussed. The concluding section will summarize the practical, implementable state-of-the-art features available in new systems. 6 figs.

  13. Weather Alarm Clock 2.1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    This handy application is fairly self-explanatory: It displays both the weather and tells the time. Now, it does so in a visually pleasing manner, and for that alone it should be praised. It comes with a few customized skins, and users can create alarms which can be accompanied by pop-up messages. Finally, for those who are quite particular about the exact time, the clock feature can be synchronized with various omnipotent atomic clock servers. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 2000, XP, and 2003.

  14. 40 CFR 49.4166 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...continuous burning pilot flame, electronically controlled automatic igniters, and monitoring system failures, using a malfunction alarm...burning pilot flame failure, electronically controlled automatic igniter failure, or improper monitoring equipment operation and...

  15. 40 CFR 49.4166 - Monitoring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...continuous burning pilot flame, electronically controlled automatic igniters, and monitoring system failures, using a malfunction alarm...burning pilot flame failure, electronically controlled automatic igniter failure, or improper monitoring equipment operation and...

  16. MONITORING AND ALARM MANAGEMENT FOR SYSTEM AND NETWORK SECURITY

    E-print Network

    Monteiro, Edmundo

    João Afonso Informatics and Systems Laboratory, Pedro Nunes Institute, Coimbra, Portugal Email: jafonso, trigger the warning messages through the pre- defined medium ­ E-Mail, SMS (short message service) or IM running on a number of different platforms/operating systems) and a large number of available services (e

  17. Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site Task 2 Potential Applications at the Central Plateau Remediation Project

    SciTech Connect

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-10-30

    This report is the second of two studies on potential applications for vadose zone monitoring (VZM) at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to perform the studies in a letter from M. S. Schlender, DOE, to M. L. Goldstein, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and M. A. Wilson, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), subject ''Vadose Zone Monitoring Study,'' 02-ERD-0055, dated March 11, 2002. The first study evaluated the potential for performance monitoring at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) and was published as ''Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site, Task I . Use in New Cells at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility'', dated May 2003 (DOE/RL-2003-31). This report is Task 2 and examines the potential for VZM at waste sites and tank farms in the 200 East and West Areas of the Central Plateau Remediation Project (Central Plateau). The potential benefits of VZM are discussed in the introduction, as well as the objectives of the study. A summary of the hydrogeology of the central plateau is presented. This includes a discussion of the stratigraphy, vadose zone transport, and groundwater characteristics. A chapter on the regulatory framework is presented in the context of the anticipated remediation, Environmental Protection Agency regulations, and the regulations of other western states. While the previous Task I study presented a survey of commercial sites in the western part of the United States, this report surveys vadose zone monitoring at other government sites in the western United States. Most of the significant Department of Energy Sites are discussed and compared. Since the western part of the United States contains many of the DOE research facilities, a discussion is presented on the vadose zone research and development activities at these facilities. The ongoing development and use of VZM by the Air Force, Navy, and Army is presented. A summary is presented of the planned remediation on the Central Plateau in order to identify the relevant types of remediations that would be candidates for VZM. A short discussion of the existing groundwater plumes is given to complete the picture of how vadose zone contamination eventually becomes groundwater contamination. The technology is surveyed and categorized by type. These types include moisture change methods, moisture sampling methods, geophysical techniques, and remote sensing techniques. Future trends are identified. The probable course will be the development of methods that can integrate the information over larger volumes, particularly those that will use less invasive or remote sensing technologies. A discussion of deployment methods is given. These include basin lysimeters, access tubes, sensors placed inside landfills, and cover monitoring. In order to match the technologies with the planned remedies the current technologies are discussed in the context of specific types of site remediations. These include waste sites such as cribs and trenches, tank farm sites, and other facilities. Conclusions are reached, which include an analysis of the different types of conditions appropriate for VZM, considerations in the selections of the appropriate technologies, and issues associated with adapting to the development of new technologies. Also, a short discussion is given of the operational facilities that will be used during the cleanup efforts.

  18. Monitoring

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... to share with my doctor and diabetes educator. C . Test my levels if I am not feeling ... are practicing healthy monitoring habits. If you answered C or D, you should revisit monitoring recommendations with ...

  19. Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.

    PubMed Central

    Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when parents visit the nest ('begging') and when they are absent ('non-begging'), so we measured effects on both types of vocalization. Playback of parental alarm calls suppressed non-begging vocalization almost completely but only slightly reduced begging calls during a playback of parental feeding calls that followed. The reaction of nestlings was largely independent of age. Our results suggest two reasons why experiments ignoring the role of parents probably overestimate the real cost of nestling vocalizations. Parents can warn young from a distance about the presence of danger and so suppress non-begging vocalizations that might otherwise be overheard, and a parent's presence at the nest presumably indicates when it is safe to beg. PMID:15306351

  20. 5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Anti-predator behaviour in response to conspecific chemical alarm cues in an esociform fish, Umbra limi (Kirtland 1840)

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    -predator behaviour and reduce their probability of predation. Here, we test central mudminnows, Umbra limi (KirtlandAnti-predator behaviour in response to conspecific chemical alarm cues in an esociform fish, Umbra limi (Kirtland 1840) Brian D. Wisenden Ã? Justin Karst Ã? Jeffrey Miller Ã? Stacey Miller Ã? Linda Fuselier

  2. Monitoring and Assessing Environmental Controls on Blowing Dust in Dryland Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, C. M.; Wiggs, G. F.; Bryant, R. G.; O'Hara, S. L.; Wegerdt, J.; Hubbard, R.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral aerosols are an important component of the Earth's climate system and potentially a major forcing mechanism for climate change. Monitoring aeolian dust dynamics and improving our understanding of the major environmental controls influencing dust storm occurrence is therefore a key scientific challenge. Meteorological records are regularly used to calculate wind erosion indices for modelling conditions conducive to dust storm occurrence and remote sensing (e.g. TOMS) is increasingly being used as a method for monitoring regional atmospheric aerosol loading. Given that direct measurements of dust concentrations and deposition rates are very limited in number, very few studies have investigated the associations between wind erosion indices, satellite monitoring of aerosol loadings and actual dust flux. In this paper we report the findings of a study aiming to validate correlations between measured dust deposition, meteorological conditions and TOMS aerosol index in the region adjacent to the southern shore of the Aral Sea. Monthly measurements of dust deposition were collected from May 2000 to May 2001 at 7 sites in Karakalpakstan. Daily meteorological data from these sites were used to calculate a climatic index of wind erosion parameterised using a variety of measures of available soil moisture (P-E, mean rainfall, number of rain days) and a range of measures of wind erosivity (mean wind speed, dimensionless vector units, frequency over threshold). Additionally, monthly N7 TOMS and EP TOMS AI data were extracted for a coincident period for 3 areas covering the SW, S and SE regions adjacent to the Aral Sea. Regression analysis was used to identify relationships between direct measurements of dust deposition, various adaptations of the wind erosion index and the TOMS AI data. Findings from the study indicate strong negative (and exponential) relationships between rates of dust deposition flux and various measures of soil moisture availability at the annual and monthly temporal scale. Surprisingly, relationships between dust flux and all measures of wind power were poor. These results suggest that the occurrence of dust storms in the region is strongly controlled by seasonally changing surface erodibility parameters (surface crusting, vegetation growth, damp sediment) rather than erosivity factors. Time lags associated with the dynamics of these erodibility parameters resulted in only weak associations between dust flux and environmental controls over time periods less than one month and discussion highlights the complex role of such surface characteristics in modelling of dust emissions. Particularly strong associations between TOMS AI and dust flux were found suggesting that at temporal scales greater than one month satellite monitoring can provide a useful tool for describing regional dust occurrence.

  3. Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

  4. Estimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in eastern and central North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Gay, D.A.; Prestbo, E.M.; Risch, M.R.; Johnson, D.; Narayan, J.; Zsolway, R.; Holsen, T.M.; Miller, E.K.; Castro, M.S.; Graydon, J.A.; St. Louis, V.L.; Dalziel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dry deposition of speciated mercury, i.e., gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), was estimated for the year 2008–2009 at 19 monitoring locations in eastern and central North America. Dry deposition estimates were obtained by combining monitored two- to four-hourly speciated ambient concentrations with modeled hourly dry deposition velocities (Vd) calculated using forecasted meteorology. Annual dry deposition of GOM+PBM was estimated to be in the range of 0.4 to 8.1 ?g m?2 at these locations with GOM deposition being mostly five to ten times higher than PBM deposition, due to their different modeled Vd values. Net annual GEM dry deposition was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 26 ?g m?2 at 18 sites and 33 ?g m?2 at one site. The estimated dry deposition agrees very well with limited surrogate-surface dry deposition measurements of GOM and PBM, and also agrees with litterfall mercury measurements conducted at multiple locations in eastern and central North America. This study suggests that GEM contributes much more than GOM+PBM to the total dry deposition at the majority of the sites considered here; the only exception is at locations close to significant point sources where GEM and GOM+PBM contribute equally to the total dry deposition. The relative magnitude of the speciated dry deposition and their good comparisons with litterfall deposition suggest that mercury in litterfall originates primarily from GEM, which is consistent with the limited number of previous field studies. The study also supports previous analyses suggesting that total dry deposition of mercury is equal to, if not more important than, wet deposition of mercury on a regional scale in eastern North America.

  5. Calibrating a FDR sensor for soil moisture monitoring in a wetland in Central Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Beate; Becker, Mathias; Diekkrüger, Bernd

    The recent transformation of wetlands into farmland in East Africa is accelerating due to growing food-demand, land shortages, and an increasing unpredictability of climatic conditions for crop production in uplands. However, the conversion of pristine wetlands into sites of production may alter hydrological attributes with negative effects on production potential. Particularly the amount and the dynamics of plant available soil moisture in the rooting zone of crops determine to a large extent the agricultural production potential of wetlands. Various methods exist to assess soil moisture dynamics with Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) being among the most prominent. However, the suitability of FDR sensors for assessing plant available soil moisture has to date not been confirmed for wetland soils in the region. We monitored the seasonal and spatial dynamics of water availability for crop growth in an inland valley wetland of the Kenyan highlands using a FDR sensor which was site-specifically calibrated. Access tubes were installed within different wetland use types and hydrological situations along valley transects and soil properties affecting soil moisture (organic C, texture, and bulk density) were investigated. There was little variation in soil attributes between physical positions in the valley, and also between topsoil and subsoil attributes with the exception of organic C contents. With a root mean squared error of 0.073 m3/m3, the developed calibration function of the FDR sensor allows for reasonably accurate soil moisture prediction for both within-site comparisons and the monitoring of temporal soil moisture variations. Applying the calibration equation to a time series of profile probe readings over a period of one year illustrated not only the temporal variation of soil moisture, but also effects of land use.

  6. Transoesophageal Doppler compared to central venous pressure for perioperative hemodynamic monitoring and fluid guidance in liver resection

    PubMed Central

    El Sharkawy, Osama A.; Refaat, Emad K.; Ibraheem, Abdel Elmoniem M.; Mahdy, Wafiya R.; Fayed, Nirmeen A.; Mourad, Wesam S.; Abd Elhafez, Hanaa S.; Yassen, Khaled A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Major hepatic resections may result in hemodynamic changes. Aim is to study transesophageal Doppler (TED) monitoring and fluid management in comparison to central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring. A follow-up comparative hospital based study. Methods: 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients (CHILD A) undergoing major hepatotomy. CVP monitoring only (CVP group), (n=30) and TED (Doppler group), (n=29) with CVP transduced but not available on the monitor. Exclusion criteria include contra-indication for Doppler probe insertion or bleeding tendency. An attempt to reduce CVP during the resection in both groups with colloid restriction, but crystalloids infusion of 6 ml/kg/h was allowed to replace insensible loss. Post-resection colloids infusion were CVP guided in CVP group (5-10 mmHg) and corrected flow time (FTc) aortic guided in Doppler group (>0.4 s) blood products given according to the laboratory data. Results: Using the FTc to guide Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 significantly decreased intake in TED versus CVP (1.03 [0.49] versus 1.74 [0.41] Liter; P<0.05). Nausea, vomiting, and chest infection were less in TED with a shorter hospital stay (P<0.05). No correlation between FTc and CVP (r=0.24, P > 0.05). Cardiac index and stroke volume of TED increased post-resection compared to baseline, 3.0 (0.9) versus 3.6 (0.9) L/min/m2, P<0.05; 67.1 (14.5) versus 76 (13.2) ml, P<0.05, respectively, associated with a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) 1142.7 (511) versus 835.4 (190.9) dynes.s/cm5, P<0.05. No significant difference in arterial pressure and CVP between groups at any stage. CVP during resection in TED 6.4 (3.06) mmHg versus 6.1 (1.4) in CVP group, P=0.6. TED placement consumed less time than CVP (7.3 [1.5] min versus 13.2 [2.9], P<0.05). Conclusion: TED in comparison to the CVP monitoring was able to reduced colloids administration post-resection, lower morbidity and shorten hospital stay. TED consumed less time to insert and was also able to present significant hemodynamic changes. Advanced surgical techniques of resection play a key role in reducing blood loss despite CVP more than 5 cm H2O. TED fluid management protocols during resection need to be developed. PMID:24348287

  7. Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shkelzen Shabani; Michiya Kamio; Charles D. Derby

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Sound the alarm: learned association of predation risk

    E-print Network

    Wisenden, Brian D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Sound the alarm: learned association of predation risk with novel auditory stimuli 2006 / Published online: 23 December 2006 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006 Abstract Fathead (alarm cue) and an artificial auditory sound stimulus, but no response to water (control) and sound

  9. 1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

  11. Advanced fire detection using multi-signature alarm algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T. Gottuk; Michelle J. Peatross; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of reducing false alarms while increasing sensitivity through the use of combined conventional smoke detectors with carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. This was accomplished through an experimental program using both real (fire) and nuisance alarm sources. A broad selection of sources was used ranging from smoldering wood and flaming fabric to

  12. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Riede; Klaus Zuberbühler

    2003-01-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the

  13. 33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

  14. Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel T. Blumstein; Laure Verneyre; Janice C. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found

  15. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section...Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel...registered tons or more equipped with a variable pitch propeller shall be equipped with—...

  16. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section...Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel...registered tons or more equipped with a variable pitch propeller shall be equipped with—...

  17. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section...Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel...registered tons or more equipped with a variable pitch propeller shall be equipped with—...

  18. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section...Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel...registered tons or more equipped with a variable pitch propeller shall be equipped with—...

  19. 33 CFR 401.17 - Pitch indicators and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pitch indicators and alarms. 401.17 Section...Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.17 Pitch indicators and alarms. Every vessel...registered tons or more equipped with a variable pitch propeller shall be equipped with—...

  20. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2014-09-01

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  1. A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels are found on the NTS which are potential roost sites for bats. Multiple technqiues are being used to inventory and monitor the bat fauna on the NTS. These techniques include mistnetting at water sources with concurrent use of the Anabat II bat detection system, conducting road surveys with the Anabat II system, and conducting exit surveys at mine and tunnel entrances using the Anabat II system. To date, a total of 13 species of bats has been documented on the NTS, of which six are considered species of concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These include Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), spotted bat (Euderma maculatum), small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum), long-eared myotis (M. evotis), fringed myotis (M. thysanodes), and long-legged myotis (M. volans). Results from mistnet and Anabat surveys reveal that all bat species of concern except for the long-legged myotis are found exclusively in the Great Basin Desert portion of the NTS. The long-legged myotis is found throughout the NTS. The Anabat II system has greatly facilitated the monitoring of bats on the NTS, and allowed biologists to cost effectively survey large areas for bat activity. Information obtained from bat monitoring will be used to develop and update guidelines for managing bats on the NTS.

  2. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanism, or tunnel shutdown.

  3. Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

    1987-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanisms, or tunnel shutdown.

  4. An unusual cause of high peak airway pressure: Interpretation of displayed alarms

    PubMed Central

    Vinay, Byrappa; Sriganesh, Kamath; Gopalakrishna, Kadarapura Nanjundaiah; Sudhir, Venkataramaiah

    2015-01-01

    Airway pressure monitoring is critical in modern day anesthesia ventilators to detect and warn high or low pressure conditions in the breathing system. We report a scenario leading to unexpectedly very high peak inspiratory pressure in the intraoperative period and describe the mechanism for high priority alarm activation. We also discuss the role of a blocked bacterial filter in causing sustained display of increased airway pressure. This scenario is a very good example for understanding the unique safety feature present in the Dräger ventilators and the attending anesthesiologist must have an adequate knowledge of the functioning and safety feature of the ventilators they are using to interpret the alarms in the perioperative to prevent unnecessary anxiety and intervention. PMID:25558208

  5. Acid rain monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madsen, B. C.; Kheoh, T.; Hinkle, C. R.; Dreschel, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at both locations. The weighted average pH at each site is 4.58; however, annual weighted average pH has been equal to or above the 12 year average during six of the past eight years. Nitrate concentrations have increased slightly during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 12 year weighted average during six of the past seven years. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 20 to 50 meg/(m(exp 2) year) and 100 to 180 cm/year, respectively. Sea salt comprises at least 25 percent of the total ionic composition.

  6. Benthic foraminifera for environmental monitoring: a case study in the central Adriatic continental shelf.

    PubMed

    Capotondi, L; Bergami, C; Orsini, G; Ravaioli, M; Colantoni, P; Galeotti, S

    2015-04-01

    A study of benthic foraminifera was carried out in sediment samples collected from the central Adriatic coast of Italy, near the Ancona harbour and the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, in order to validate and support their use as bioindicators of ecosystem quality. On the basis of a principal component analysis (PCA), three biotopes (following the bathymetric gradient) have been documented, showing that the distribution pattern of benthic foraminifera is principally related to riverine inputs, organic matter contents at the seafloor, and sediment grain size. We observed higher abundances of opportunistic, low-oxygen tolerant taxa along the coastline, thus being representative of polluted environmental conditions. Near the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, the microfaunal assemblages is characterized by the absence of living specimens and by a low diversity associated with the dominance of opportunistic species. At this site, aberrant tests were also found. The data point out that Ammonia parkinsoniana and Quinqueloculina seem to be the most sensitive taxa and can be considered as good bioindicators of environmental stress in this area. This study confirms that faunal composition and morphology of benthic foraminifera respond to human-induced environmental perturbations, making their study potentially useful for biomonitoring in coastal-marine areas. PMID:25382496

  7. Long term and seasonal ground deformation monitoring of Larissa Plain (Central Greece) by persistent scattering interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilopoulou, Spyridoula; Sakkas, Vasileios; Wegmuller, Urs; Capes, Ren

    2013-03-01

    The land subsidence which occurs at the Larissa Basin (Thessaly Plain, Central Greece) is due to various causes including aquifer system compaction. Deformation maps of high spatial resolution deduced by the Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) technique (using radar scenes from ERS and ENVISAT satellites) for the period 1992-2006 were produced to study the spatial and temporal ground deformation. A developed GIS database (including geological, tectonic, morphological, hydrological, meteorological and watertable variation from wells in the area) offered the possibility of studying in detail the intense subsidence. The PSI based average deformation image clearly shows that subsidence generally takes place inside the Larissa Plain ranging from 5-250 mm. The largest amplitude rates (-25 mm/yr) are observed around the urban area of Larissa City (especially at Gianouli and Nikea villages), while the Larissa City center appears to be relatively stable with a tendency to subside. The rest of the plain regions seem to subside at moderate rates (about 5-10 mm/yr). The surrounding mountainous area is stable, or has slightly been uplifted with respect to the NE located reference point. It was found that there is a correlation between the seasonal water-table variation (deduced from wells data), the seasonal water demand for irrigation associated with specific types of cultivation (cotton fields), the monthly rainfall, and the observed subsidence rate in the rural regions of the Thessaly Plain.

  8. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  9. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the number of particles passing through a unit area. Better still, the monitor can be used anywhere.

  10. Scanning seismic intrusion detection method and apparatus. [monitoring unwanted subterranean entry and departure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An intrusion monitoring system includes an array of seismic sensors, such as geophones, arranged along a perimeter to be monitored for unauthorized intrusion as by surface movement or tunneling. Two wires lead from each sensor to a central monitoring station. The central monitoring station has three modes of operation. In a first mode of operation, the output of all of the seismic sensors is summed into a receiver for amplification and detection. When the amplitude of the summed signals exceeds a certain predetermined threshold value an alarm is sounded. In a second mode of operation, the individual output signals from the sensors are multiplexed into the receiver for sequentially interrogating each of the sensors.

  11. Wireless boundary monitor system and method

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A wireless boundary monitor system used to monitor the integrity of a boundary surrounding an area uses at least two housings having at least one transmitting means for emitting ultrasonic pressure waves to a medium. Each of the housings has a plurality of receiving means for sensing the pressure waves in the medium. The transmitting means and the receiving means of each housing are aimable and communicably linked. At least one of the housings is equipped with a local alarm means for emitting a first alarm indication whereby, when the pressure waves propagating from a transmitting means to a receiving means are sufficiently blocked by an object a local alarm means or a remote alarm means or a combination thereof emit respective alarm indications. The system may be reset either manually or automatically. This wireless boundary monitor system has useful applications in both indoor and outdoor environments.

  12. 40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Access to communications or alarm system. 264... § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. ...immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either...

  13. 40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Access to communications or alarm system. 265... § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. ...immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either...

  14. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Design and Equipment General Alarm System § 149.665 What are the requirements for a general alarm system? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system that: (a) Is capable of being...

  15. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Design and Equipment General Alarm System § 149.665 What are the requirements for a general alarm system? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system that: (a) Is capable of being...

  16. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Design and Equipment General Alarm System § 149.665 What are the requirements for a general alarm system? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system that: (a) Is capable of being...

  17. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Design and Equipment General Alarm System § 149.665 What are the requirements for a general alarm system? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system that: (a) Is capable of being...

  18. 33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Design and Equipment General Alarm System § 149.665 What are the requirements for a general alarm system? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system that: (a) Is capable of being...

  19. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37-5 Shipping... § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  20. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37-5 Shipping... § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  1. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37-5 Shipping... § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  2. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37-5 Shipping... § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  3. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37-5 Shipping... § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  4. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  5. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  6. 46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 ...Markings and Instructions § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be identified by...

  7. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

  8. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

  9. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

  10. 30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

  11. 78 FR 21567 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...NRC-2011-0251] Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources...regulations to require the installation of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron sources...regulations to require installation of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron...

  12. Influence of Human Activity Patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM 2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that in¿uence personal exposures to ambient ¿ne-particulate matter (PM2.5). We describe and compare different ambient PM2.5 exposure estimation...

  13. Earthquake-induced landslide hazard monitoring and assessment using SOM and PROMETHEE techniques: A case study at the Chiufenershan area in Central Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring and assessment of landslide hazard is an important task for decision making and policy planning in the landslide area. Massive landslides, caused by the catastrophic Chi?Chi earthquake in 1999, occurred in Central Taiwan, especially at Chiufenershan area in Nantou county. This study proposed two useful indicators coupled with the Self?organizing map (SOM) neural network and the Preference Ranking Organization

  14. Development of a Distance-to-Roadway Proximity Metric to Compare Near-Road Pollutant Levels to a Central Site Monitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or commun...

  15. Residential carbon monoxide alarm use: opportunities for poisoning prevention.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B; Weaver, Lindell K

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of carbon monoxide (CO) alarm usage in localities where they are not required is poorly defined and the reasons for failing to have a home CO alarm have never been described. In this study, the authors conducted a computer-based survey among employees of similar major medical centers in Seattle, Washington, and Salt Lake City, Utah. Questions were asked about the prevalence of use of residential smoke and CO alarms with regard to home style and structure, ownership status, and energy use. Respondents not using home CO detectors were asked the reasons. Among 1,351 individuals participating in the survey, 98% reported residential use of smoke alarms, while only 51% used CO alarms. CO alarm use was more common among residents of Utah than Washington, among home owners than renters, and among those with single family homes rather than other styles. Reasons for failure to use CO alarms related largely to lack of knowledge about the devices and motivation. PMID:21306092

  16. Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.

    PubMed

    Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

    2006-05-01

    Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

  17. Rapid decrease of malaria morbidity following the introduction of community-based monitoring in a rural area of central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Ngo Duc; Erhart, Annette; Hung, Le Xuan; Thuan , Le Khanh; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc; Ky, Pham Van; Coosemans, Marc; Speybroeck, Nico; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a successful control programme, malaria has not completely disappeared in Vietnam; it remains endemic in remote areas of central Vietnam, where standard control activities seem to be less effective. The evolution of malaria prevalence and incidence over two and half years in a rural area of central Vietnam, after the introduction of community-based monitoring of malaria cases, is presented. Methods After a complete census, six cross-sectional surveys and passive detection of malaria cases (by village and commune health workers using rapid diagnostic tests) were carried out between March 2004 and December 2006 in Ninh-Thuan province, in a population of about 10,000 individuals. The prevalence of malaria infection and the incidence of clinical cases were estimated. Results Malaria prevalence significantly decreased from 13.6% (281/2,068) in December 2004 to 4.0% (80/2,019) in December 2006. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were the most common infections with few Plasmodium malariae mono-infections and some mixed infections. During the study period, malaria incidence decreased by more than 50%, from 25.7/1,000 population at risk in the second half of 2004 to 12.3/1,000 in the second half of 2006. The incidence showed seasonal variations, with a yearly peak between June and December, except in 2006 when the peak observed in the previous years did not occur. Conclusion Over a 2.5-year follow-up period, malaria prevalence and incidence decreased by more than 70% and 50%, respectively. Possibly, this could be attributed to the setting up of a passive case detection system based on village health workers, indicating that a major impact on the malaria burden can be obtained whenever prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment are available. PMID:19123932

  18. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  19. 10 CFR 37.49 - Monitoring, detection, and assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2) Monitoring and detection must be performed by: (i) A monitored intrusion detection system that is linked to...Electronic devices for intrusion detection alarms that will alert...video surveillance system; or (iv)...

  20. How to design plant evacuation alarms: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, D.A. (Webb, Murray and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-10-01

    Using new guidelines, safety managers can evaluate plant emergency alarms and decide if their systems meet OSHA requirements. Under OSHA's CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) and 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) directives, employers must develop, implement and maintain alarm systems to protect and evacuate all employees during an emergency. The paper discusses OSHA requirements; information sources and availability; and performance over time. Part 2 will examine how alarm signals are interpreted by workers. Using the Do's and Don'ts for alarms, safety engineers can effectively design around signaling problems so that employees are able to see, hear or feel emergency signals and respond quickly and correctly.

  1. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

    2007-01-01

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  2. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

  3. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

  4. 46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

  5. 46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each...

  6. Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

    2007-03-27

    Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

  7. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are encouraged...living area remote from the kitchen and cooking appliances. A smoke alarm located within 20 feet horizontally of a cooking appliance must incorporate a...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are encouraged...living area remote from the kitchen and cooking appliances. A smoke alarm located within 20 feet horizontally of a cooking appliance must incorporate a...

  9. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are encouraged...living area remote from the kitchen and cooking appliances. A smoke alarm located within 20 feet horizontally of a cooking appliance must incorporate a...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are encouraged...living area remote from the kitchen and cooking appliances. A smoke alarm located within 20 feet horizontally of a cooking appliance must incorporate a...

  11. 46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2 system that has a...

  12. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...constructed of wood must, in addition to paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all watertight compartments except small buoyancy chambers. (c) A visual indicator must be provided at the operating station to indicate when any automatic bilge pump...

  13. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  14. Sun-glint false alarm mitigation in a maritime scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Riccobono, Aldo; Landini, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be exploited to detect anomalous objects in the maritime scenario. Due to the objects high contrast with respect to the sea surface, detection can be easily accomplished by means of local anomaly detectors, such as the well-known Reed-Xiaoli (RX) algorithm. During the development of a real-time system for the detection of anomalous pixels, it has been noticed that the performance of detection is deeply affected by the presence of sun-glint. The reflection on the sea surface of the solar radiation produces a high density of alarms, that makes challenging the task of detecting the objects of interest. In this paper, it is introduced a strategy aimed at discriminating the sun-glint false alarms from the effective alarms related to targets of potential interest. False alarms due to glint are mitigated performing a local spatio-spectral analysis on each alarm furnished by the anomaly detector. The technique has been tested on hyperspectral images collected during a measurement campaign carried out near Pisa, Italy. The Selex ES SIMGA hyperspectral sensor was mounted on board of an airplane to collect high spectral resolution images in both the VNIR and SWIR spectral channels. Several experiments were carried out, setting up scenarios with small man-made objects deployed on the sea surface, so as to simulate search and rescue operations. The results have highlighted the effectiveness of the proposed solution in terms of mitigation of false alarms due to sun-glints on the maritime scenario.

  15. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  16. The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, S.; Teige and, S.; Quick, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

  17. Integrated nuclear radiation detector and monitor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. L. Biehl; S. I. Lieberman

    1982-01-01

    A battery powered device which can continuously monitor and detect nuclear radiation utilizing fully integrated circuitry and which is provided with an alarm which alerts persons when the radiation level exceeds a predetermined threshold.

  18. Epidermal 'alarm substance' cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

    2007-10-22

    Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator-prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation. PMID:17686729

  19. Epidermal ‘alarm substance’ cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G.W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C.O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

    2007-01-01

    Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator–prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation. PMID:17686729

  20. A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

    2007-01-01

    Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

  1. Reciprocal recognition of sifaka ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi ) and redfronted lemur ( Eulemur fulvus rufus ) alarm calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Fichtel

    2004-01-01

    Redfronted lemurs ( Eulemur fulvus rufus) and Verreaux's sifakas ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) occur sympatrically in western Madagascar. Both species exhibit a so-called mixed alarm call system with functionally referential alarm calls for raptors and general alarm calls for carnivores and raptors. General alarm calls also occur in other contexts associated with high arousal, such as inter-group encounters. Field playback

  2. Modulation of alarm pheromone perception in the honey bee: evidence for division of labor based on hormonall regulated response thresholds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene E. Robinson

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of 1-day-old worker honey bees with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene prematurely reduced their behavioral threshold sensitivity to alarm pheromones. Electroantennogram assays indicated that peripheral perception was not affected; the effects apparently occurred in the central nervous system. These results support a model (Robinson 1987) of division of labor based on the hormonal regulation of response thresholds to task-associated

  3. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  4. Attributions of Cancer ‘Alarm’ Symptoms in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Katriina L.; Scott, Suzanne E.; Winstanley, Kelly; Macleod, Una; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Attribution of early cancer symptoms to a non-serious cause may lead to longer diagnostic intervals. We investigated attributions of potential cancer ‘alarm’ and non-alarm symptoms experienced in everyday life in a community sample of adults, without mention of a cancer context. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 4858 adults (?50 years old, no cancer diagnosis) through primary care, asking about symptom experiences in the past 3 months. The word cancer was not mentioned. Target 'alarm' symptoms, publicised by Cancer Research UK, were embedded in a longer symptom list. For each symptom experienced, respondents were asked for their attribution (‘what do you think caused it'), concern about seriousness (‘not at all’ to ‘extremely’), and help-seeking (‘did you contact a doctor about it’: Yes/No). Results The response rate was 35% (n?=?1724). Over half the respondents (915/1724; 53%) had experienced an ‘alarm’ symptom, and 20 (2%) cited cancer as a possible cause. Cancer attributions were highest for ‘unexplained lump’; 7% (6/87). Cancer attributions were lowest for ‘unexplained weight loss’ (0/47). A higher proportion (375/1638; 23%) were concerned their symptom might be ‘serious’, ranging from 12% (13/112) for change in a mole to 41% (100/247) for unexplained pain. Just over half had contacted their doctor about their symptom (59%), although this varied by symptom. Alarm symptoms were appraised as more serious than non-alarm symptoms, and were more likely to trigger help-seeking. Conclusions Consistent with retrospective reports from cancer patients, ‘alarm’ symptoms experienced in daily life were rarely attributed to cancer. These results have implications for understanding how people appraise and act on symptoms that could be early warning signs of cancer. PMID:25461959

  5. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  6. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  7. Determining minimum alarm activities of orphan sources in scrap loads; Monte Carlo simulations, validated with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Potiriadis, C.

    2010-02-01

    Portal monitoring radiation detectors are commonly used by steel industries in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. These portal monitors typically consist of polystyrene or polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillating detectors, one or more photomultiplier tubes (PMT), an electronic circuit, a controller that handles data output and manipulation linking the system to a display or a computer with appropriate software and usually, a light guide. Such a portal used by the steel industry was opened and all principal materials were simulated using a Monte Carlo simulation tool (MCNP4C2). Various source-detector configurations were simulated and validated by comparison with corresponding measurements. Subsequently an experiment with a uniform cargo along with two sets of experiments with different scrap loads and radioactive sources ( 137Cs, 152Eu) were performed and simulated. Simulated and measured results suggested that the nature of scrap is crucial when simulating scrap load-detector experiments. Using the same simulating configuration, a series of runs were performed in order to estimate minimum alarm activities for 137Cs, 60Co and 192Ir sources for various simulated scrap densities. The minimum alarm activities as well as the positions in which they were recorded are presented and discussed.

  8. Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    E.F. Loros

    2000-06-29

    The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system consists of instrument and control equipment and components necessary to provide human operators with sufficient information to monitor and control the operation of the repository in an efficient and safe manner. The system consists of operator consoles and workstations, multiple video display terminals, communications and interfacing equipment, and instrument and control software with customized configuration to meet the needs of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Process and logic controllers and the associated input/output units of each system interfaced with this system will be configured into Remote Terminal Units (RTU) and located close to the systems to be monitored and controlled. The RTUs are configured to remain operational should communication with CCC operations be lost. The system provides closed circuit television to selectively view systems, operations, and equipment areas and to aid in the operation of mechanical systems. Control and monitoring of site utility systems will be located in the CCC. Site utilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment; plant compressed air; plant water; firewater; electrical systems; and inert gases, such as nitrogen, if required. This system interfaces with surface and subsurface systems that either generate output data or require remote control input. The system interfaces with the Site Communications System for bulk storage of operational data, on-site and off-site communication, and a plant-wide public announcement system. The system interfaces with the Safeguards and Security System to provide operational status and emergency alarm indications. The system interfaces with the Site Operation System to provide site wide acquisition of data for analysis and reports, historical information for trends, utility information for plant operation, and to receive operating plans and procedures.

  9. 2009 Berea College Residence Hall Fire Protection Systems, Notification Systems and Fire Drill Data Berea College Fire Alarm Partial 1 Full 2 Smoke Fire Evacuations Evacuation

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Berea College Fire Alarm Partial 1 Full 2 Smoke Fire Evacuations Evacuation Residence Halls Monitoring* Yes Yes 1 Yes Yes Talcott Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 Yes Yes Yes ** Rooms have battery powered smoke flames: candles (regardless of use), incense, electrical wax pots, candle burners and electrical plates

  10. Field response of tadpoles to conspecific and heterospecific alarm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, M.J.; Claeson, S.

    1998-01-01

    Many organisms use chemical cues from a variety of sources to mediate predator avoidance. Response to heterospecific alarm cues has been demonstrated for tadpoles within but not among taxa and alarm response behavior has seldom been examined under field conditions. This study examined the response of three sympatric amphibian larvae and predaceous larval Dytiscus sp. (diving beetle) to damage-release signals in natural ponds by using capture rates from treated funnel traps as an index of larval behavior. Hyla regilla (Pacific tree frog) tadpoles avoided traps treated with either crushed conspecifics or with Rana aurora (red-legged frog) tadpoles but the larger ranids and Arabystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander) did not respond to either treatment. H. regilla tadpoles were likely susceptible to any potential predators of ranid tadpoles in these ponds and this result is consistent with the hypothesis that a response to heterospecific alarm occurs in sympatric prey with shared predators.

  11. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  12. An investigation of thermal anomalies in the Central American volcanic chain and evaluation of the utility of thermal anomaly monitoring in the prediction of volcanic eruptions. [Central America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoiber, R. E. (principal investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground truth data collection proves that significant anomalies exist at 13 volcanoes within the test site of Central America. The dimensions and temperature contrast of these ten anomalies are large enough to be detected by the Skylab 192 instrument. The dimensions and intensity of thermal anomalies have changed at most of these volcanoes during the Skylab mission.

  13. Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms

    PubMed Central

    Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K.; Quinn, Lauretta

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject’s future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject’s continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection. PMID:22865931

  14. Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2003-05-01

    The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

  15. Eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls: from mechanisms to consequences.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Haff, Tonya M; Fallow, Pamela M; Radford, Andrew N

    2014-06-11

    Animals often gather information from other species by eavesdropping on signals intended for others. We review the extent, benefits, mechanisms, and ecological and evolutionary consequences of eavesdropping on other species' alarm calls. Eavesdropping has been shown experimentally in about 70 vertebrate species, and can entail closely or distantly related species. The benefits of eavesdropping include prompting immediate anti-predator responses, indirect enhancement of foraging or changed habitat use, and learning about predators. Eavesdropping on heterospecifics can provide more eyes looking for danger, complementary information to that from conspecifics, and potentially information at reduced cost. The response to heterospecific calls can be unlearned or learned. Unlearned responses occur when heterospecific calls have acoustic features similar to that used to recognize conspecific calls, or acoustic properties such as harsh sounds that prompt attention and may allow recognition or facilitate learning. Learning to recognize heterospecific alarm calls is probably essential to allow recognition of the diversity of alarm calls, but the evidence is largely indirect. The value of eavesdropping on different species is affected by problems of signal interception and the relevance of heterospecific alarm calls to the listener. These constraints on eavesdropping will affect how information flows among species and thus affect community function. Some species are 'keystone' information producers, while others largely seek information, and these differences probably affect the formation and function of mixed-species groups. Eavesdroppers might also integrate alarm calls from multiple species to extract relevant and reliable information. Eavesdropping appears to set the stage for the evolution of interspecific deception and communication, and potentially affects communication within species. Overall, we now know that eavesdropping on heterospecific alarm calls is an important source of information for many species across the globe, and there are ample opportunities for research on mechanisms, fitness consequences and implications for community function and signalling evolution. PMID:24917385

  16. West Nile Virus activity in central Iowa bird populations and the utility of wildlife rehabilitation centers in monitoring wildlife disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Randall

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the frequency or occurrence of West Nile Virus (WNV) in many Iowa wildlife species, including birds. The lack of knowledge about WNV in Iowa birds is partially due to difficulties associated with monitoring wildlife health. We evaluated the utility of wildlife rehabilitation centers for providing information about wildlife health and disease monitoring, and assessed where on

  17. Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer, distributed between developed and undeveloped parts of the basin. Water samples collected should be analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including physical properties, nutrients, suspended sediment, and constituents associated with increased urban development such as pesticides, other trace organic compounds associated with domestic and industrial waste, and trace elements.

  18. [A wireless ECG monitor based on ARM].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ai-Hua; Bian, Chun-Hua; Ning, Xin-Bao; He, Ai-Jun; Zhuang, Jian-Jun; Wu, Xu-Hui

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a novel monitor which uses ARM controller AT91SAM7S64 as its main processor, LCM (Liquid Crystal Display Module) for displaying ECG waves, SD (Secure Digital memory) card for data storage and RF module PTR8000 for radio data transmission. This portable monitor boasts alarm function for abnormality and can provide dynamic ECG monitoring for patients. PMID:19253573

  19. A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

    2009-04-01

    Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many application as CiscoWorks, HP OpenView NNM and Operation, BMC Patrol, etc. Analysis of text of an alarm can detect some keywords that allow to classify the particular event. The inference rules were developed by means an analysis about news regard real emergency found by web reaserches. We have seen that often a kind of emergency is characterized by more keyword. Keywords are not uniquely associated with a specific emergency, but they can be shared by different types of emergencies (such as. keyword "landslide" can be associated both emergency "landslide" and emergency "Flood"). However, the identification of two or more keywords associated with a particular type of emergency identified in most cases the correct type of emergency. So, for example, if text contains words as "water", "flood", "overflowing", "landslide" o other words belonging to the set of defined keywords or words that have some root of keywords, the system "decides" that this alarm belongs to specific typology, in this case "flood typology". The system has the memory of this information, so if a new alarm is reported and belongs to one of the typology already identified, it proceeds with the comparison of coordinates. The comparison between the centers of the alarms allows to see if they describe an area inscribed in an ideal circle that has centered on the first alarm and radius defined by the typology above mentioned. If this happens the system CI6 creates an emergency that has centered on the centre of that area and typology equal to that of the alarms. It follows that an emergency is represented by at least two alarms. Thus, the system suggests to manager (CI6's user) the possibility that most alarms can concern same events and makes a classification of this event. It is important to stress that CI6 is a system of decision support, hence also this service is limited to providing advice to the user to facilitate his task, leaving him the decision to accept it or not. REFERENCES SEC (Simple Event Correlator), htt

  20. Stable isotopes as indicators of sources and processes influencing nitrate distributions in dairy monitoring wells and domestic supply wells in the Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Holstege, D.; Lockhart, K.; Applegate, O.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrate concentrations above the 10 mg/L NO3-N maximum contaminant level (MCL) have been found in many wells throughout the Central Valley, California. This area contains many possible anthropogenic nitrate sources including current and historic agriculture, private septic systems, municipal waste water, and confined animal feeding operations (primarily dairies). In order to better understand the potential contributions of dairy manure derived nitrate to both shallow and deep groundwater, we used a combined chemical, stable isotope, and age-dating approach for water samples collected from a network of shallow groundwater monitoring wells located on seven different dairies, and from a survey of approximately 200 deeper domestic supply wells (used for drinking water and dairy operations). Groundwater from shallow monitoring wells and deep supply wells was collected in two geographic regions. In the northern region, the lower San Joaquin Valley, the water table is shallow (2- 5 m below surface) and therefore considered highly vulnerable to contamination, while in the southern region, the Tulare Lake Basin, the water table is much deeper (20 - 30 m). Mean ?15N of nitrate in dairy monitoring wells in both the north and south regions was significantly higher than the mean ?15N measured in the deeper supply wells, and also showed greater variability. Mean ?15N and ?18O values measured in the deep supply wells were not significantly different between the north and south regions. Mean nitrate concentrations, ?15N, and ?18O were significantly higher in the northern (lower San Joaquin Valley) monitoring wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) monitoring wells. Nitrate isotope measurements indicated that many of the northern monitoring wells had consistently high contributions of manure-derived nitrate to the shallow groundwater during the 16 month study. Monitoring wells located in relatively new dairies in the south region showed little evidence of manure-derived nitrate, while those located in much older dairies in the south region showed a very wide range of nitrate isotope values, indicating significant nitrate contributions from multiple sources including manure and industrial fertilizer and biological processing effects. Combined nitrate concentration and isotopic data from all the monitoring wells showed very little evidence of significant saturated-zone denitrification. Monitoring well networks within individual dairies showed wide ranges of nitrate concentrations, nitrate isotopic compositions, and geochemical compositions, confirming the heterogeneity of the nitrate loading across dairy facilities and indicating that measurements from any single monitoring well may not be representative of general groundwater quality downgradient of an individual dairy.

  1. A Fire-Alarming Method Based on Video Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping-He Huang; Jing-Yong Su; Zhe-Ming Lu; Jeng-Shyang Pan

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fire-alarming method based on video processing. We propose a system that uses color and motion information extracted from video sequences to detect fire. Flame can be recognized according to its color which is a primary element of fire images. Thus choosing a suitable color model is the key to detect flames from fire images. An effective

  2. Tinnitus as an Alarm Bell: Stress Reaction Tinnitus Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Alpini; A. Cesarani

    2006-01-01

    Stress is a significant factor influencing the clinical course of tinnitus. Auditory system is particularly sensitive to the effects of different stress factors (chemical, oxidative, emotional, etc.). Different stages of reaction (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) lead to different characteristics of tinnitus and different therapeutic approaches. Individual characteristics of stress reaction may explain different aspects of tinnitus in various patients with different

  3. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

  4. Personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm. Information Circular/1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to do either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to do either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. A prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL unit is small enough to be carried on a miner's belt, has a flash lamp visual alarm, requires no calibration for use, and uses a chemical sensor that changes color by reaction with trace quantities of CO. The chemical sensor was tested at concentrations of CO from 10 to 1,000 ppm, at temperatures from 5 to 40 C, and with several potential mine gas interferents. The PEMCOAL alarm times were sufficiently fast to warn miners before they are exposed to hazardous quantities of CO.

  5. Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

  6. Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents

    PubMed Central

    Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger. PMID:23487748

  7. Rawls' Fairness, Income Distribution and Alarming Level of Gini Coefficient

    E-print Network

    Tao, Yong; Li, Changshuai

    2014-01-01

    The argument that the alarming level of Gini coefficient is 0.4 is very popular, especially in the media industry, all around the world for a long time. Although the 0.4 standard is widely accepted, the derivation of the value lacks rigid theoretical foundations. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, it is not based on any prevalent and convincing economic theories. In this paper, we incorporate Rawls' principle of fair equality of opportunity into Arrow-Debreu's framework of general equilibrium theory with heterogeneous agents, and derive the alarming level of Gini coefficient formally. Our theory reveals that the exponential distribution of income not only satisfies Pareto optimality, but also obeys social fairness in Rawls' sense. Therefore, we specify the maximal value of the Gini coefficient when income follows exponential distribution as a possible alarming level. Our computations show that the alarming level should be specified at least equal or larger than 0.5 rather than 0.4. We empirically investig...

  8. Spectral and spatial analysis of false alarms in background data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhishek Sanaka; Shivakar Vulli; Sanjeev Agarwal; Richard Ess; Anh Trang

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of background data was collected as part of May 2005 tests at an arid site for airborne minefield detection. An extensive library of the target chips for MSI (four bands) and MWIR sensors for false alarms and mines was created from this data collection, as discussed in another paper in the same proceeding. In this paper we

  9. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  10. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    SciTech Connect

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  11. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.

    PubMed

    Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

    2010-12-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

  12. Control, Alarm and Indicator Systems in Modern Electric Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Sharma; R. D. Kamble; R. Sharma

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the different controls and their associated indicator and alarm systems used in modern day electric vehicles (EVs). These electric vehicles are of hybrid type incorporating diesel, petrol or hydrogen as alternate fuel source. The purpose of different controls is to give smooth start, passenger comfort, amenities, safety and smooth stop. This is achieved through vehicle management unit

  13. Centralized Wavelength Monitoring\\/Stabilization Technique by Dithering Temperature of LD in Power-Splitter-Based WDM-PON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masamichi Fujiwara; Hiro Suzuki; Naoto Yoshimoto; Takamasa Imai

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple and cost-effective wavelength monitoring\\/stabilization technique for upstream signals in a power-splitter-based dense WDM-PON. We present the concept and experimentally confirm the feasibility of this technique.

  14. Barbados green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) recognize ancestral alarm calls after 350 years of isolation.

    PubMed

    Burns-Cusato, Melissa; Cusato, Brian; Glueck, Amanda C

    2013-11-01

    Vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) produce alarm calls and anti-predator behaviors that are specific to a threatening predator's mode of attack. Upon hearing a leopard alarm, the monkeys will run up trees where they are relatively safe. In contrast, eagle alarms prompt the monkeys to run under bushes and snake alarms stimulate bipedal standing. Early researchers proposed that the meaning of each alarm call is conveyed by observational learning. If this true then absence of the predator that elicits the alarm call may lead to alteration or decay of the alarm's meaning since there is no longer opportunity for observational learning to occur. The present study tested this hypothesis by presenting alarm calls to a closely related species of monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) that have been isolated from their ancestral predators for more than 350 years. The monkeys ran up trees in response to a leopard alarm, but not when the same alarm was played backwards and not in response to a snake alarm. Snake alarms failed to reliably elicit bipedal standing. These results suggest that the leopard alarm call conveys the same information to Barbados green monkeys as West African green monkeys despite generations of isolation from leopards. PMID:24129028

  15. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-10-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area, surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in June 2009. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new fractures were identified in the soil cover and were filled with bentonite chips during the inspection. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations

  16. Preclinical evidence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an effective alarm parameter under hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hua; Sun, Nannan; Mayevsky, Avraham; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10 min. As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided.

  17. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  18. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  19. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  1. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  2. 46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

  3. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

  4. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

  5. 33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

  6. Directions for Your Child When Using a Bed-Wetting Alarm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... child activate the alarm by touching the moisture sensors with a wet finger and practice going to ... a vibrate rather than noise alarm Additional remote sensor for parents Wireless system with bed mat to ...

  7. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  8. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  9. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  10. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  11. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

  12. 46 CFR 131.815 - Alarm for fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...system. Each alarm for a fixed gaseous fire-extinguishing system must be conspicuously identified, using the following statement: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, LEAVE AT ONCE: [CARBON DIOXIDE] [HALON] BEING...

  13. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  15. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  17. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  19. 46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  20. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  1. 46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

  2. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  3. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  4. 46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815 ...and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

  5. 76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2011-0251] Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing...Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...require installation of radiation alarms for rooms housing...December 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory...

  6. Automatic radio-transmission monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    System continuously monitors radio transmissions stored in memory. If spectrum deviates beyond present limits, alarm is tripped and spectrum is transferred to long-term storage for later analysis. Monitor can be useful in ensuring proper power level and spectral quality and in finding cause of failure. It might also be used to monitor radio-frequency interference or power levels of citizen's-band transmitters.

  7. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...have immediate access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either...

  8. Global Environmental Change 18 (2008) 2637 The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming?

    E-print Network

    Risbey, James S.

    . Introduction As the evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change continues to mount, arguments aboutGlobal Environmental Change 18 (2008) 26­37 The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming? James on climate change is in part divided between a sense of alarm and a sense of alarmism in assessments

  9. The U's Facilities Management Department (FM) conducted an internal review of its fire alarm testing

    E-print Network

    Webb, Peter

    Benefits The U's Facilities Management Department (FM) conducted an internal review of its fire alarm testing process in 2009 that resulted in annual savings of approximately $578,000. The fire alarm and repaired by FM employees. The review compared this service model to one where fire alarm services would

  10. Mondrian Tree: A Fast Index for Spatial Alarm Processing Myungcheol Doo, Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-print Network

    Liu, Ling

    are focused on computing alarm free regions (AFR) and alarm free period (AFP) such that mobile objects spatial alarm processing is to efficiently compute AFR and AFP such that mobile objects traveling within advances in mobile devices, we witness the growing demands and in- creasing market shares of mobile

  11. Performance Evaluation of Two Data Mining Techniques of Network Alarms Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques-H. Bellec; M. Tahar Kechadi; Joe Carthy

    2006-01-01

    In large telecommunication networks, alarms are usually useful for identifying faults and, therefore solving them. However, for large systems the number of alarms produced is so large that the current management systems are overloaded. One way of overcoming this problem is to analyse and interpret these alarms before faults can be located. Two different techniques were developed and setup to

  12. 46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker...

  13. 46 CFR 35.40-5 - General alarm bells-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false General alarm bells-TB/ALL. 35.40-5 Section 35.40-5 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-5 General alarm bells—TB/ALL. General alarm bells must be marked...

  14. Detecting Alarm Sounds Dan Ellis Columbia University dpwe@ee.columbia.edu

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Dan

    .5 1 1.5 -40 -20 0 dB freq/kHz 0 1 2 3 4 freq/kHz 0 1 2 3 4 bph04 hrn02 Music + alarms (snr 0 ns 8 al 5) Alarms (al 5) Neural network output bph01 0 5 10 15 20 25 30time/sec Sound mixture Detected alarms

  15. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Pre-discharge alarms and time delay...EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems...95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay...settings. (b) The pre-discharge alarm must: (1...extinguishing agent, gas from a pilot...

  16. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Pre-discharge alarms and time delay...EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems...95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay...settings. (b) The pre-discharge alarm must: (1...extinguishing agent, gas from a pilot...

  17. 46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Pre-discharge alarms and time delay...EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems...95.16-45 Pre-discharge alarms and time delay...settings. (b) The pre-discharge alarm must: (1...extinguishing agent, gas from a pilot...

  18. Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

    2008-08-01

    When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans. PMID:18689413

  19. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? (a) Each cargo transfer system must have an alarm to signal a malfunction or failure in the system. (b) The alarm must sound...activated at the pumping platform complex; (2) Have a signal...

  20. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? (a) Each cargo transfer system must have an alarm to signal a malfunction or failure in the system. (b) The alarm must sound...activated at the pumping platform complex; (2) Have a signal...

  1. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? (a) Each cargo transfer system must have an alarm to signal a malfunction or failure in the system. (b) The alarm must sound...activated at the pumping platform complex; (2) Have a signal...

  2. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? (a) Each cargo transfer system must have an alarm to signal a malfunction or failure in the system. (b) The alarm must sound...activated at the pumping platform complex; (2) Have a signal...

  3. 33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? (a) Each cargo transfer system must have an alarm to signal a malfunction or failure in the system. (b) The alarm must sound...activated at the pumping platform complex; (2) Have a signal...

  4. Online root-cause analysis of alarms in discrete Bayesian networks with known structures

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jiandong

    Online root-cause analysis of alarms in discrete Bayesian networks with known structures Jiandong to analyze the root cause of alarms arisen in industrial process variables. The relation among alarm one child node exits so that its abnormal state is caused by one or multiple parent nodes. The root

  5. 46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1...ALL § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  6. 46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1...ALL. § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  7. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping... § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  8. 46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1...ALL § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping... § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  10. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping... § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  11. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping... § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  12. 46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1...ALL § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5 Shipping... § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

  14. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-03-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspections conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2011 and July 2012. The annual post-closure site inspections included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspections conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new fractures or extension of existing fractures were observed and no issues with the fence or gate were identified. The vegetation on the cover continues to look healthy, but the biennial vegetation survey conducted during the 2012 inspection indicated that the total foliar cover was slightly higher in 2009 than in 2012. This may be indicative of a decrease in precipitation observed during the 2-year monitoring period. The precipitation totaled 9.9 inches from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and 5 inches from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. This decrease in precipitation is also evident in the soil moisture data obtained from the time domain reflectometry sensors. Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 cover is performing as designed, and evapotranspiration is effectively removing water from the cover.

  15. A 13-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p...

  16. A THIRTEEN-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p...

  17. Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

  18. Design of a cardiac monitor in terms of parameters of QRS complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Su, Ke-ping; Wang, Hong-yan; Jiang, Da-zong

    2002-08-01

    Objective. To design a portable cardiac monitor system based on the available ordinary ECG machine and works on the basis of QRS parameters. Method. The 80196 single chip microcomputer was used as the central microprocessor and real time electrocardiac signal was collected and analyzed [correction of analysized] in the system. Result. Apart from the performance of an ordinary monitor, this machine possesses also the following functions: arrhythmia analysis, HRV analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic papering. Convenient in carrying, the system is powered by AC or DC sources. Stability, low power and low cost are emphasized in the hardware design; and modularization method is applied in software design. Conclusion. Popular in usage and low cost made the portable monitor system suitable for use under simple conditions. PMID:12422858

  19. Uranyl nitrate source characterization for criticality alarm placement analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.T.; Pevey, R.E.; Angelo, P.L.

    2000-07-01

    This work concerns the development of an equivalent point source to represent the radiation release from a highly enriched uranyl nitrate criticality accident. This source will be used in a subsequent deep penetration criticality alarm placement analysis. It is more efficient to separate the source characterization analysis from the alarm placement analysis because (a) the industry standard tools for doing the two analyses are different (criticality safety code versus deep penetration shielding code), (b) the industry standard libraries commonly used for the two analyses are different (neutron library versus coupled neutron/photon library), and (c) the calculational approaches for the two analyses are different (neutronic critical {kappa}{sub eff} eigenvalue search versus deep penetration dose determination).

  20. Development of a distance-to-roadway proximity metric to compare near-road pollutant levels to a central site monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzyk, Timothy M.; George, Barbara Jane; Vette, Alan F.; Williams, Ronald W.; Croghan, Carry W.; Stevens, Carvin D.

    The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or community monitor. One of the EMAs was located near a busy freeway (annual average daily traffic (AADT) of ˜130,000) so that impacts of mobile sources could be examined. Air pollution concentrations from the roadway-proximate sites were compared to the central site monitor. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) selected (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p- and o-xylene, 1,3 butadiene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 4-ethyltoluene) are typically associated with mobile sources. Gradients were also evident that demonstrated the amplification of pollutant levels near the roadway compared to the community monitor. A novel distance-to-roadway proximity metric was developed to plot the measurements and model these gradients. Effective distance represents the actual distance an air parcel travels from the middle of a roadway to a site and varies as a function of wind direction, whereas perpendicular distance is a fixed distance oriented normal to the roadway. Perpendicular distance is often used as a proxy for exposures to traffic emissions in epidemiological studies. Elevated concentrations of all the compounds were found for both a summer and winter season. Effective distance was found to be a statistically significant ( p < 0.05) univariate predictor for concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene for summer 2005. For each of these pollutants, effective distance yielded lower p-values than the corresponding perpendicular distance models, and model fit improved. Results demonstrate that this near-road EMA had elevated levels of traffic-related VOCs compared to the community monitor, and that effective distance was a more accurate predictor of the degree to which they were elevated as a function of distance. Effective distance produced a range of distance-to-roadway values for a single site based on wind direction, thus increasing the number and range of values that could be used to plot and predict relative differences in pollutant concentrations between two sites.

  1. ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This latest version of ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2 will help keep users' computers free from phishing devices and other such pesky intruders. The application takes about 5 minutes to setup, and it can now also stop program spoofing, which is when a malicious program pretends to be a good one. The program also has an extensive interactive help feature, which can be useful for new users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP, Vista, and 7.

  2. PIC implementation of carbon monoxide alarm for indoor parking car

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charathip Chunkul; K. Tunlasakun; R. Nimnual

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is design and construct of a PIC implementation of carbon monoxide alarm for indoor parking car. The prototype of this paper was designed on a single PIC16F877 microcontroller that performed the acquisition, processing and display of carbon monoxide (CO) data from MiCS-5132 automotive pollution gas sensor and displayed the CO data on 7 segment displays.

  3. Lichen Diversity and Lichen Transplants as Monitors of Air Pollution in a Rural Area of Central Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Loppi; Luisa Frati

    2006-01-01

    The results of a biomonitoring study carried out in the Municipality of Colle di Val d'Elsa (central Italy), using the diversity\\u000a of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected elements in thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted in two urban sites are reported. The results indicate that the survey area suffers from different types of pollution.\\u000a The main air

  4. A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hall

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels

  5. National Estuarine Research Reserve System Centralized Data Management Office in Support of the NERR System-wide Monitoring Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1972 through the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERR) is a network of protected areas representing different types of estuaries and biogeographic regions. Operated by coastal states with input from local communities and regional groups, NERR studies address coastal watershed management issues. For reserve data and data on water quality (and associated metadata), see the NERR Centralized Data Management homepage.

  6. Experiences from near-real-time satellite-based volcano monitoring in Central America: case studies at Fuego, Guatemala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. W. Webley; M. J. Wooster; W. Strauch; J. A. Saballos; K. Dill; P. Stephenson; J. Stephenson; R. Escobar Wolf; O. Matias

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, remote sensing has been used increasingly in the study of active volcanoes and their associated hazards. Ground?based remote sensing techniques, such as those aimed at the analysis of volcanic gases or fumarole temperatures, are now part of routine monitoring operations with additional satellite?based remote sensing methods. It is likely that the use of satellite?based systems will

  7. Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, rangeland degradation was accelerated due to increased population and economic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results could help to better understand the interactions between rangeland degradation and climatic and socio-economic change in arid and semi-arid central Asia.

  8. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2009-12-20

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  9. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  10. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Diabetes: From Evidence to Clinical Reality in Central and Eastern Europe—Recommendations from the International Central-Eastern European Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Barkai, László; Bolgarska, Svetlana; Bronisz, Agata; Broz, Jan; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Honka, Marek; Janez, Andrej; Krnic, Mladen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Martinka, Emil; Rahelic, Dario; Roman, Gabriela; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Várkonyi, Tamás; Wolnik, Bogumi?; Zherdova, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is universally considered to be an integral part of type 1 diabetes management and crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of complex insulin regimens. This extends to type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy, and there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that structured SMBG is beneficial for all type 2 diabetes patients, regardless of therapy. However, access to SMBG can be limited in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A consensus group of diabetes experts from 10 countries in this region (with overlapping historical, political, and social environments)—Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine—was formed to discuss the role of SMBG across the spectrum of patients with diabetes. The group considered SMBG to be an essential tool that should be accessible to all patients with diabetes, including those with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. The current article summarizes the evidence put forward by the consensus group and provides their recommendations for the appropriate use of SMBG as part of individualized patient management. The ultimate goal of these evidence-based recommendations is to help patients and providers in Central and Eastern Europe to make optimal use of SMBG in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies, to prevent complications, and to empower the patient to play a more active role in the management of their diabetes. PMID:24716890

  11. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2008-09-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable vegetation cover on the site. It is suggested that future vegetation surveys be conducted once every 2 years or as needed to help monitor the health of the vegetation.

  12. RESULTS OF RECENT INFRASOUND AVALANCHE MONITORING STUDIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest D. Scott; Christopher T. Hayward; Robert F. Kubichek; Jerry C. Hamann; John W. Pierre

    Results of recent infrasound avalanche monitoring studies have advanced technological capabilities and provided further understanding of technological challenges. Avalanche identification performance of single sensor monitoring systems varies according to ambient noise and signal levels. While single sensor signal processing algorithms can identify avalanche activity, uncertainties (missed detections and false alarms) increase with increasing wind noise, and as signal levels decrease

  13. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  14. Non-arousal and non-action of normal sleepers in response to a smoke detector alarm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmut Horasan

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four young adults were exposed twice to a smoke detector alarm activated at 60 dBA. Unlike previous studies, all subjects were unprepared for the first alarm activation (naive) and the stage of sleep in which the alarms occurred was manipulated, with the alarm being activated twice in either stage 4, stage 2 or REM sleep for each subject. Upon being

  15. New technologies for item monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, J.A. [EG & G Energy Measurements, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Waddoups, I.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  16. Flights of fear: a mechanical wing whistle sounds the alarm in a flocking bird

    PubMed Central

    Hingee, Mae; Magrath, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Animals often form groups to increase collective vigilance and allow early detection of predators, but this benefit of sociality relies on rapid transfer of information. Among birds, alarm calls are not present in all species, while other proposed mechanisms of information transfer are inefficient. We tested whether wing sounds can encode reliable information on danger. Individuals taking off in alarm fly more quickly or ascend more steeply, so may produce different sounds in alarmed than in routine flight, which then act as reliable cues of alarm, or honest ‘index’ signals in which a signal's meaning is associated with its method of production. We show that crested pigeons, Ocyphaps lophotes, which have modified flight feathers, produce distinct wing ‘whistles’ in alarmed flight, and that individuals take off in alarm only after playback of alarmed whistles. Furthermore, amplitude-manipulated playbacks showed that response depends on whistle structure, such as tempo, not simply amplitude. We believe this is the first demonstration that flight noise can send information about alarm, and suggest that take-off noise could provide a cue of alarm in many flocking species, with feather modification evolving specifically to signal alarm in some. Similar reliable cues or index signals could occur in other animals. PMID:19726481

  17. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May of 2008. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection and were immediately filled with bentonite chips. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate, but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in August 2008. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed.

  18. Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang

    1999-12-10

    Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10{sup {minus}8} M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

  19. Combination of multi-sensor PSI monitoring data with a landslide damage inventory: the Tena Valley case study (Central Spanish Pyrenees) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, G.; Gutierrez, F.; García-Davalillo, J.; Galve, J.; Fernández-Merodo, J.; Cooksley, G.; Guerrero, J.; Duro, J.

    2013-12-01

    This work illustrates the usefulness of integrating multi-sensor DInSAR monitoring data and landslide damage inventories for risk analysis. The approach has been applied in the Tena Valley (Central Spanish Pyrenees), where active landslides have caused significant damage on human structures over the last decade. Slope instability in this glacial trough is mainly related to very slow deep-seated slide-flows developed in Paleozoic slates. The PSI processing of ascending orbit ALOS PALSAR images (2006-2010), and descending orbit ERS & Envisat (2001-2007) and TerraSAR-X (2008) datasets, has provided heterogeneous displacement velocity measurements. The geometrical differences introduced by each satellite have been homogenized through the projection of the LOS displacements along the steepest slope gradient. Additionally, conventional DInSAR analysis of ALOS PALSAR images has permitted the detection of faster movements (up to 145cm yr-1) from 46 day interferograms (, increasing the number of detected landslides. Overall, the number of monitored landslides increased from 4% and 19%, using C- and X- band data, to 38% of the total (294) using L-band. In a subsequent phase, the multi-sensor velocities measured for the landslides are classified with respect to the magnitude of the road damage occurred in the 2008-2010 period. According to available measurements, minor or no damages are produced for landslide velocities smaller than 21 mm yr-1, moderate damages occurred between 21 and 160 mm yr-1, and major damages between 160 and 1450 mm yr-1.

  20. LEMON - LHC Era Monitoring for Large-Scale Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, Babik; Ivan, Fedorko; Nicholas, Hook; Hector, Lansdale Thomas; Daniel, Lenkes; Miroslav, Siket; Denis, Waldron

    2011-12-01

    At the present time computer centres are facing a massive rise in virtualization and cloud computing as these solutions bring advantages to service providers and consolidate the computer centre resources. However, as a result the monitoring complexity is increasing. Computer centre management requires not only to monitor servers, network equipment and associated software but also to collect additional environment and facilities data (e.g. temperature, power consumption, cooling efficiency, etc.) to have also a good overview of the infrastructure performance. The LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system is addressing these requirements for a very large scale infrastructure. The Lemon agent that collects data on every client and forwards the samples to the central measurement repository provides a flexible interface that allows rapid development of new sensors. The system allows also to report on behalf of remote devices such as switches and power supplies. Online and historical data can be visualized via a web-based interface or retrieved via command-line tools. The Lemon Alarm System component can be used for notifying the operator about error situations. In this article, an overview of the Lemon monitoring is provided together with a description of the CERN LEMON production instance. No direct comparison is made with other monitoring tool.

  1. Monitoring of arsenic, boron and mercury by lichen and soil analysis in the Mt. Amiata geothermal area (central Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Loppi, S. [Universita di Siena Via P.A. Mattioli (Italy)

    1997-12-31

    Epiphytic lichens and top-soils from the Mt. Amiata geothermal field (central Italy) were analyzed for their As, B and Hg content. Three areas were selected: (1) Abbadia S. Salvatore, where a large Hg mine with smelting and roasting plant was located; (2) Piancastagnaio, where there are geothermal power plants; (3) a remote site far from mines and geothermal power plants. The results showed that the geothermal power plants do not represent a macroscopic source of arsenic and boron contamination in the area. As far as mercury is concerned, at the Hg mining area of Abbadia S. Salvatore concentrations were extremely high both in soil and epiphytic lichens, and the anomalous content in these organisms was due to the uptake of elemental mercury originating from soil degassing. At the geothermal area of Piancastagnaio, soil mercury was not different from that in the control area, but Hg in lichens was almost twice the control levels, suggesting that the gaseous emissions from the geothermal power plants are an important source of air contamination.

  2. Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

    2000-10-01

    Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) during summer whereas the TEC and PCV showed higher OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season. PMID:11020365

  3. Monitor circuit for a control rod drive mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    A monitor circuit for a control rod drive mechanism (crdm) that is adapted to detect erroneous stator phase sequences and generate a visible and audible alarm. The monitor circuit has particular application for use in connection with the control element assembly of a nuclear reactor. The monitor circuit includes an interface circuit for each stator phase winding of the drive

  4. The double slit experiment and the time reversed fire alarm

    E-print Network

    Tarek Halabi

    2010-04-10

    When both slits of the double slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to "understand" such a puzzling feature only draws us into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double slit experiment and a time reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double slit experiment with a time reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow. In further support of this, we employ a plausible formulation of the thermodynamic arrow to derive an uncertainty in classical mechanics that is reminiscent of quantum uncertainty.

  5. Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C

    2004-09-01

    Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

  6. Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C.

    2004-01-01

    Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

  7. COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JP

    2011-09-08

    Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

  8. Diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, S; Otte, A; Schumacher, M; Klein, R; Gutfleisch, J; Brink, I; Otto, P; Nitzsche, E; Moser, E; Peter, H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate prospectively abnormalities of brain glucose utilisation in relation to major or minor neuropsychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).?METHODS—Positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose was performed in 28 patients with SLE. Patients were classified as having severe neuropsychiatric manifestations (seizures, focal neurological deficits, acute confusional states, mood disorders) (n=12), or mild neuropsychiatric manifestations (headache, reactive depression, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety disorders) (n=11) and five patients without signs of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls. In 26 patients magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and autoantibodies against CNS tissue, ribosomal P protein and cardiolipin were measured. In 14 patients follow up PET scans were performed after a mean (SD) period of 11.6 (9.5) months.?RESULTS—PET scans showed hypometabolism in at least one brain region in all patients with severe or mild CNS symptoms (100%) as compared with patients without cerebral symptoms (40%) (p<0.0025). Parieto-occipital regions were most commonly affected (96%), followed by parietal regions (32%). In contrast, MRI images were abnormal in only 11 of 22 patients (50%) with neuropsychiatric symptoms and in one of four patients (25%) without symptoms. In 12 of 14 patients examined in follow up PET scans persistence, improvement or worsening of cerebral symptoms were associated with unchanged, decreased or increased brain hypometabolism, respectively. No significant correlation was found between PET or MRI findings and autoantibody profiles.?CONCLUSIONS—PET imaging represents a sensitive tool to detect manifest or subclinical CNS involvement in SLE and PET findings correlate well with the clinical course of disease.?? PMID:10784521

  9. Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

  10. A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

    2011-09-01

    By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

  11. Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food

    PubMed Central

    Flower, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

  12. Study of the alarming volatile characteristics of Tessaratoma papillosa using SPME-GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-Min; Wu, Wen-Wei; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-04-01

    The stinkbug's volatile compositions would alter very much before and after stinkbugs were disturbed or irritated, which caused the alarming effect. An efficient headspace solid-phase microextraction sampling method was established to study the alarming volatile characteristics and potential alarming volatiles of stinkbugs (Tessaratoma papillosa) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. The number of volatiles identified was 16 and 22 before and after stinkbug irritation, respectively. Long-chain alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols consisted of the main volatile compositions of Tessaratoma papillosa. When stinkbugs were disturbed, the typical unsaturated volatiles were released, especially including a series of tridecane derivatives. In comparison with the volatile compounds of lichi leaf and flower (plants the stinkbug eats), it could be seen that most stinkbug alarming volatiles were synthesized by the insects themselves, and that they do not originate from their food. The different statistical alarming volatile characteristics of Tessaratoma papillosa before and after irritation were interpreted by principal component analysis in the original Chromatography Data Processing System. However, temperature and light did not affect the alarming volatile characteristics. The variety of the stinkbug alarming volatile characteristics before and after irritation was specified by common model strategy. Tridecane, [E]-2-hexenal, dodecane, [E]-2-hexen-1-ol acetate, and 2,3-dimethyl-1-pentene contributed most to the various alarming volatile characteristics before and after irritation, which might be the potential alarming volatiles. It is hoped that this work will provide useful information for insect control. PMID:19406015

  13. Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness. PMID:20071391

  14. Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.

    PubMed

    Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

    2014-05-01

    Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

  15. Seismological Research Letters Volume 81, Number 3 May/June 2010 505doi: 10.1785/gssrl.81.3.505 Alarm systems can play a critical role in alerting scientists to

    E-print Network

    West, Michael

    ), and the 2004 eruption of Mt. St. Helens (Qamar et al. 2008). The RSAM system has inspired other tremor alarm such as earthquake swarms and volcanic tremor that often precedes or coincides with explosive volcanic eruptions. This system was used to monitor seismicity throughout the 2009 eruption of Redoubt volcano. INTRODUCTION

  16. Heat Stress Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The heavy, cumbersome body protection suits worn by members of hazardous materials response teams cause marked elevation of body temperatures, which can reduce effectiveness and lead to heat stress and injury. The CorTemp System, marketed by Human Technologies, Inc., provides the basis for a body temperature monitoring alarm system. Encased in a three-quarter-inch ingestible capsule, the system includes a mini-thermometer, miniature telemetry system, a microbattery and temperature sensor. It makes its way through the digestive system, continuously monitoring temperature. Findings are sent to the recorder by telemetry, and then displayed and stored for transfer to a computer.

  17. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  18. Correlation of a Novel Non-Invasive Tissue Oxygen Saturation Monitor to Serum Central Venous Oxygen Saturation in Pediatric Postoperative Congenital Cyanotic Heart Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Using a novel non-invasive, visible-light optical diffusion oximeter (T-Stat VLS Tissue Oximeter, Spectros Corporation, Portola Valley, CA, USA) to measure the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) of the buccal mucosa, the correlation between StO2 and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) was examined in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. Methods Paired StO2 and serum ScvO2 measurements were obtained postoperatively and statistically analyzed for agreement and association. Thirteen children (9 male) participated in the study (age range, 4 days-18 months). Surgeries included Glenn shunt procedures, Norwood procedures, unifocalization procedures with Blalock-Taussig shunt placement, a Kawashima/Glenn shunt procedure, a Blalock-Taussig shunt placement and a modified Norwood procedure. Results A total of 45 paired StO2- ScvO2 measurements were obtained. Linear regression demonstrated a Pearson’s correlation of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.35–0.75, P < 0.0001). The regression slope coefficient estimate was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.54–1.36) with an interclass-correlation coefficient of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.22–0.68). Below a clinically-relevant average ScvO2 value, a receiver operator characteristic analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.78. Statistical methods to control for repeatedly measuring the same subjects produced similar results. Conclusion This study shows a moderate relationship and agreement between StO2 and ScvO2 measurements in pediatric patients with a history of congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. This real-time monitoring device can act as a valuable adjunct to standard non-invasive monitoring where serum ScvO2 sampling currently assists in the diagnosis of low cardiac output following pediatric cardiac surgery. PMID:23691783

  19. Assimilation of GRACE terrestrial water storage into a land surface model: Evaluation and potential value for drought monitoring in western and central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-06-01

    SummaryA land surface model's ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff estimates (in temporal correlation and root mean square error) in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. GRACE data assimilation also had significant impacts in groundwater estimates including trend and seasonality. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. The assimilation downscaled (in space and time) and disaggregated GRACE data into finer scale components of TWS which exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation. Mass imbalances associated with GRACE data assimilation and challenges of using GRACE data for drought monitoring are discussed.

  20. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  1. Thermoelectric Generator Used in Fire-Alarm Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenchang; Du, Zhengliang; Cui, Jiaolin; Shi, Zhongtao; Deng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a thermoelectric (TE) generator used in fire-alarm temperature sensing. The TE module, a core component of this generator, has a sandwich-like structure consisting of a Cu/Sn95Ag5/coated Ni/sprayed Ni/TE/sprayed Ni/coated Ni/Sn95Ag5/Cu multilayer that exhibits a low internal resistance of 5.5 ? to 5.9 ? and a contact resistance of 0.51 ? to 0.91 ? at room temperature (RT), enabling the TE generator to attain an open-circuit voltage (V op) of 1.50 V at RT and 2.97 V at ~90°C. Moreover, its maximum output power (p max) was estimated to be 11.6 mW and 428.7 mW, respectively, for a temperature difference (?T) of 9.3°C and 52.9°C. These values are comparable to those for the bulk TE generator developed by Thermonamic. According to these figures, we obtain corresponding power densities of ~7.25 × 103 nW/mm2 and 2.68 × 105 nW/mm2, respectively. Although there is still much room to improve the performance of the generator when the source temperature rises above 90°C, the output voltages and maximum output powers attained in the current testing conditions are large enough to drive small electronic devices such as fire-alarm systems etc. Therefore, it is believed that the fabrication technology and designed structure of the generator are appropriate for such applications.

  2. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  3. Monitoring deforestation trend and future outlooks of the aboveground forest carbon stocks in Central Sumatra using ALOS-PALSAR mosaic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Rajesh B.; Watanabe, Manabu; Motohka, Takeshi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2014-10-01

    In this research, we present methods for monitoring deforestation and examining implication of the forest policies in forest carbon stocks in the future utilizing ALOS-PALSAR data. Riau Province of central Sumatra is selected for the study as it has received worldwide attention due to high forest-related carbon emissions. An aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) model was calibrated with field measurement data and L-band backscatters from high-resolution slope corrected PALSAR mosaic data of 2009 and 2010. A total of 87 plots of field measured AFCS data ranging 1 - 340 t/ha was used. This AFCS model provides the AFCS map with RMSE of +/-45 t/ha. The AFCS modeling results was extrapolated across the province using the mosaic data. The model estimated 315 million tons of AFCS in the province in 2010. A spatial model was used to spatialize three forest policy scenarios. These scenario maps were overlaid with AFCS map for deriving future perspective on AFCS. The future spatial patterns of the AFCS between the policy scenarios are apparent. If the historical trend continues, the forest cover will be consistently disappeared leaving very few small forest patches and releasing 77% of the current AFCS in to the atmosphere by 2030. However, one of the governance scenarios in the province indicates that almost half of the carbon emission can be reduced in the same period.

  4. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR INTELLIGENT REAL TIME POWER QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajith Abraham; Baikunth Nath

    Most of the modern industrial power quality monitoring systems are used for the pre-fault alarming and load flow analysis. In this paper, we present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for intelligent utilization of power and for monitoring the power quality. The proposed ANN system will assist the conventional monitoring systems with added intelligence. For on-line monitoring, voltage and current

  5. The GTN-P Data Management System: A central database for permafrost monitoring parameters of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanckman, Jean-Pierre; Elger, Kirsten; Karlsson, Ævar Karl; Johannsson, Halldór; Lantuit, Hugues

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost is a direct indicator of climate change and has been identified as Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the global observing community. The monitoring of permafrost temperatures, active-layer thicknesses and other parameters has been performed for several decades already, but it was brought together within the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) in the 1990's only, including the development of measurement protocols to provide standardized data. GTN-P is the primary international observing network for permafrost sponsored by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), and managed by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). All GTN-P data was outfitted with an "open data policy" with free data access via the World Wide Web. The existing data, however, is far from being homogeneous: it is not yet optimized for databases, there is no framework for data reporting or archival and data documentation is incomplete. As a result, and despite the utmost relevance of permafrost in the Earth's climate system, the data has not been used by as many researchers as intended by the initiators of the programs. While the monitoring of many other ECVs has been tackled by organized international networks (e.g. FLUXNET), there is still no central database for all permafrost-related parameters. The European Union project PAGE21 created opportunities to develop this central database for permafrost monitoring parameters of GTN-P during the duration of the project and beyond. The database aims to be the one location where the researcher can find data, metadata, and information of all relevant parameters for a specific site. Each component of the Data Management System (DMS), including parameters, data levels and metadata formats were developed in cooperation with the GTN-P and the IPA. The general framework of the GTN-P DMS is based on an object oriented model (OOM), open for as many parameters as possible, and implemented into a spatial database. To ensure interoperability and enable potential inter-database search, field names are following international metadata standards and are based on a control vocabulary registry. Tools are developed to provide data processing, analysis capability, and quality control. Our system aims to be a reference model, improvable and reusable. It allows a maximum top-down and bottom-up data flow, giving scientists one global searchable data and metadata repository, the public a full access to scientific data, and the policy maker a powerful cartographic and statistical tool. To engage the international community in GTN-P, it was essential to develop an online interface for data upload. Aim for this was that it is easy-to-use and allows data input with a minimum of technical and personal effort. In addition to this, large efforts will have to be produced in order to be able to query, visualize and retrieve information over many platforms and type of measurements. Ultimately, it is not the layer in itself that matter, but more the relationship that these information layers maintain with each other.

  6. LEARNED RECOGNITION OF HETEROSPECIFIC ALARM CUES ENHANCES SURVIVAL DURING ENCOUNTERS WITH PREDATORS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Chivers; Reehan S. Mirza; Jeffery G. Johnston

    2002-01-01

    Summary Numerous species of aquatic animals release chemical cues when attacked by a predator. These chemicals serve to warn other conspecié cs, and in some cases heterospecié cs, of danger, and hence have been termed alarm cues. Responses of animals to alarm cues produced by other species often need to be learned, yet mechanisms of learned recognition of heterospecié c

  7. Underwater Video Reveals Strong Avoidance of Chemical Alarm Cues by Prey Fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Friesen; Douglas P. Chivers

    2006-01-01

    A diversity of fishes release chemical cues upon being attacked by a pre- dator. These cues, commonly termed alarm cues, act as sources of public information warning conspecifics of predation risk. Species which are members of the same prey guild (i.e. syntopic and share predators) often respond to one another's alarm cues. The purpose of this study was to discriminate

  8. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

  9. 46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

  10. 46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire...

  11. Sistemas Híbridos Aplicados à Filtragem de Sinais de Alarme de Proteção de uma Subestação Telecomandada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milde Maria da Silva; Manoel Lira; Afonso de Carvalho Jr

    In this work an Artificial Inteligent Hybrid System is applied to the filtering process of an alarm signal set, generated at a substation. This combined system consists in an Artificial Neural Network, using MLP backpropagation algorithm and a Fuzzy Logic Inference System of the Mamdani type. The results show that the Hybrid System is able to interpret correctly the alarm

  12. Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus , produce predator-class specific alarm calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERICK GREENE; TOM MEAGHER

    1998-01-01

    Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans).

  13. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...signaling an alarm, must be identified by the words “Oil Transfer Alarm” or...

  14. 33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01...Section 149.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...signaling an alarm, must be identified by the words “Oil Transfer Alarm” or...

  15. Testing and Evaluation Protocol for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    Testing and Evaluation Protocol for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security T Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security EFF. DATE 2010-11-09 REV. 2.02 PAGE 1 of 74 Testing and Evaluation Protocol Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for use in Homeland Security 1. Scope This document

  16. Testing and Evaluation Protocol for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security

    E-print Network

    Testing and Evaluation Protocol for Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security T Radiation Detectors for Homeland Security EFF. DATE 2013-05-17 REV. 3.00 PAGE 1 of 5 Testing and Evaluation Protocol Alarming Personal Radiation Detectors for use in Homeland Security 1. Scope This document

  17. Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Welbergen; N. B. Davies

    2008-01-01

    Brood parasites and predators pose unique threats that may favour the evolution of enemy-specific defence strategies. We considered whether reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, have a specific alarm call for com- mon cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, and whether their alarms attract mates and neighbours. Mounts of cuckoos (threat to nest but harmless to adults) were significantly more likely to be mobbed and

  18. The ‘club’ cell and behavioural and physiological responses to chemical alarm cues in the Nile tilapia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Egydio Barreto; Augusto Barbosa Júnior; Ana Catarina Casari Giassi; Anette Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    The alarm response to skin extract has been well documented in fish. In response to skin extract, there is a decline in both locomotion activity and aggressive interactions. Our observation herein of these responses in the cichlid Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, confirmed the existence of the alarm response in this species. However, so far there has been a paucity of

  19. Dine or Dash?: Ontogenetic Shift in the Response of Yellow Perch to Conspecific Alarm Cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Harvey; Grant E. Brown

    2004-01-01

    During their first year of growth yellow perch, Perca flavescens, undergo an ontogenetic niche shift from invertebrate feeding to piscivory. They also undergo a similar shift in their response to heterospecific alarm cues, switching from anti-predator to foraging behaviour. We conducted laboratory trials to determine whether yellow perch experience a comparable ontogenetic shift in their response to conspecific alarm cues.

  20. Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) to chemical alarm cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas P. Chivers; Joseph M. Kiesecker; Michael T. Anderson; Erica L. Wildy; Andrew R. Blaustein

    1996-01-01

    Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of

  1. Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada (L)

    E-print Network

    Patricelli, Gail

    Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels Spermophilus's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm

  2. Juvenile Richardson's ground squirrels, Spermophilus richardsonii , discriminate among individual alarm callers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES F. HARE

    1998-01-01

    Richardson's ground squirrels,Spermophilus richardsonii, issue vocal alarm responses to avian and terrestrial predators. Recipients of those calls presumably benefit from enhanced detection and subsequent avoidance of predators. If receivers of alarm calls differentiate among callers, they could use that information to tailor their behavioural response to the perceived level of threat. A neighbour's call may indicate more imminent danger than

  3. Responses to alarm calls by California ground squirrels: Effects of call structure and maternal status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. Leger; Donald H. Owings

    1978-01-01

    1.The purposes of this study were to assess the response eliciting properties of five structural variants of the California ground squirrel alarm call system, and to compare the responsiveness of females with and without young to the vocalizations. Tape recordings of alarm calls and control sounds were played back in the field to adult female ground squirrels. The squirrels responded

  4. Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

    1993-01-01

    In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

  5. CENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF SMALL TREATMENT PLANTS USING INSTRUMENTS AND REMOTE ALARMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The operation and maintenance of small treatment plants and associated lift stations pose unique and difficult problems to the authority responsible for their performance. Due to financial and manpower limitations, they must operate unattended the majority of the time. Undetected...

  6. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  7. Does the Aphid Alarm Pheromone (E)-?-farnesene Act as a Kairomone under Field Conditions?

    PubMed

    Joachim, Christoph; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-03-01

    Insect natural enemies use several environmental cues for host/prey finding, and adjust their foraging behavior according to these signals. In insects, such cues are mainly chemical, derived from the host plant or the prey itself. The aphid alarm pheromone, (E)-?-farnesene (EBF), is believed to be such a cue, because several aphid enemies are able to perceive EBF and show attractant behavior. These studies are, however, based mainly on electroantennogram or olfactometer assays, and often use unnaturally high pheromone concentrations. It is, therefore, unclear if EBF is used to locate prey in the field when only naturally released amounts are present. We monitored the frequencies and durations of plant visits by aphid natural enemies in the field using long-duration camera observations. By placing pheromone releasers emitting no, natural or exaggerated amounts of EBF next to small colonies of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), we analyzed if EBF presence altered long-range foraging behavior of natural enemies. Thirteen potential groups of aphid natural enemies were observed in 720 hr of analyzed video data. There was no effect of EBF on the number of predator visits to an aphid colony, or on predator patch residence times. The number of plant visits increased at exaggerated EBF amounts but not at natural EBF levels. We conclude that while there may be potential for use of high EBF concentrations for agricultural pest management strategies, an ecological role of EBF as a kairomone in a natural context is doubtful. PMID:25779875

  8. Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W.

    2008-08-01

    MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time. Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation—but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications. The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above. Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

  9. [Pre-alarming apparatus for earthquake based on mid-infrared trace methane detection].

    PubMed

    Qiu, He; Liu, Ming-jun; Tian, Xiao-feng

    2014-06-01

    With the rapid development of gas observation technology in seismic fracture zone, in order to accurately predict the earthquake, and reduce the people's lives and property losses caused by earthquake, a mid-infrared methane sensor was designed and developed, which is based on the microscopic relation between methane release and earthquake fissures on the crustal rocks. This instrument utilizes quantum cascaded laser (QCL) operating at 7.65 ?m, combined with MIR multipass herriott cell with 76 m absorption path length to obtain low detection sensitivity down to 40 nmol x mol(-1) level in 4s acquisition time. Meanwhile, to decrease the primary noise source (1/f noise), semiconductor laser frequency modulation of direct absorption technology was utilized to obtain gas detection limitation as low as 5 nmol x mol(-1) (40 s acquiring time). In field experiments, controllable vibrator was used as vibration source, a number of trace methane detectors were placed with 100 m distance interval to carry out the dynamic measurement of methane concentration on the ground surface at different distances from the vibration source. Experimental results show that the instrument can monitor the release of underground methane before the earthquake and provide a novel measure as a pre-alarming for earthquake. PMID:25358158

  10. Hawk calls elicit alarm and defensive reactions in captive Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).

    PubMed

    Searcy, Yvonne M; Caine, Nancy G

    2003-01-01

    Most descriptions of callitrichid antipredator behavior have come from observations of visual encounters with predators, but there is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that callitrichids may use auditory cues associated with raptors for the early detection of potential danger. In the present study, Geoffroy's marmosets consistently reacted to the tape-recorded calls of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with high-intensity antipredator behaviors. Compared to the taped calls of a raven (Corvus corax) and the taped sound of a power drill, the hawk calls elicited more startle reactions, more alarm calls, longer freeze times, increased use of safe areas of their enclosure and greater disruption in ongoing behavior. Once in a relatively safe location in the enclosure, the marmosets visually monitored the site of origin of the calls for 10 min and minimized locomotion for 30 min, but resumed baseline levels of other activities that had been disrupted by the hawk calls. Marmosets may use the auditory cues associated with predators for early detection, and subsequent avoidance, of a potential predator in the vicinity. PMID:12826731

  11. Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

  12. Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

    2008-09-01

    Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

  13. A mobile phone based alarm system for supervising vital parameters in free moving rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Study protocols involving experimental animals often require the monitoring of different parameters not only in anesthetized, but also in free moving animals. Most animal research involves small rodents, in which continuously monitoring parameters such as temperature and heart rate is very stressful for the awake animals or simply not possible. Aim of the underlying study was to monitor heart rate, temperature and activity and to assess inflammation in the heart, lungs, liver and kidney in the early postoperative phase after experimental cardiopulmonary bypass involving 45 min of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in rats. Besides continuous monitoring of heart rate, temperature and behavioural activity, the main focus was on avoiding uncontrolled death of an animal in the early postoperative phase in order to harvest relevant organs before autolysis would render them unsuitable for the assessment of inflammation. Findings We therefore set up a telemetry-based system (Data Science International, DSI™) that continuously monitored the rat's temperature, heart rate and activity in their cages. The data collection using telemetry was combined with an analysis software (Microsoft excel™), a webmail application (GMX) and a text message-service. Whenever an animal's heart rate dropped below the pre-defined threshold of 150 beats per minute (bpm), a notification in the form of a text message was automatically sent to the experimenter's mobile phone. With a positive predictive value of 93.1% and a negative predictive value of 90.5%, the designed surveillance and alarm system proved a reliable and inexpensive tool to avoid uncontrolled death in order to minimize suffering and harvest relevant organs before autolysis would set in. Conclusions This combination of a telemetry-based system and software tools provided us with a reliable notification system of imminent death. The system's high positive predictive value helped to avoid uncontrolled death and facilitated timely organ harvesting. Additionally we were able to markedly reduce the drop out rate of experimental animals, and therefore the total number of animals used in our study. This system can be easily adapted to different study designs and prove a helpful tool to relieve stress and more importantly help to reduce animal numbers. PMID:22361392

  14. Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

    2003-09-01

    A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention. PMID:14519407

  15. Monitors: an operating system structuring concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. R. Hoare

    1974-01-01

    This paper develops Brinch-Hansen's concept of a monitor as a method of structuring an operating system. It introduces a form of synchronization, describes a possible method of implementation in terms of sema- phores and gives a suitable proof rule. Illustrative examples include a single resource scheduler, a bounded buffer, an alarm clock, a buffer pool, a disk head optimizer, and

  16. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. McCann; D. White

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes

  17. NON-STATIONARY CONDITION MONITORING THROUGH EVENT

    E-print Network

    performance with mixed aligned and unaligned data, e.g. detection of fault condition of unaligned examples changes. INTRODUCTION We pursue Condition Monitoring (CM) systems which are capable of detect- ing faults versus false alarms of aligned normal condition data. Further, we expect that the non-stationary model

  18. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing

  19. Using the exhibited generalization approach to evaluate a carbon monoxide alarm ordinance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey T; Yip, Fuyuen; Lavonas, Eric J; Iqbal, Shahed; Turner, Nannette; Cobb, Bobby; Garbe, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Current interests in enhancing the focus of external validity or transferability call for developing practical evaluation approaches and illustrating their applications in this area for meeting the need. This study takes the challenge by introducing an innovative evaluation approach, named the exhibited generalization approach, and applying it in evaluating the carbon monoxide (CO) alarm ordinance passed by Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The stakeholders specifically asked evaluators to determine the answers to the following two questions: (1) Does the alarm ordinance work? (2) What generalizable information can the Mecklenburg experience provide to other jurisdictions trying to decide if the alarm ordinance's planning, implementation, adoption, and outcomes are transferable to their communities? This study illustrates how to apply the exhibited generalization approach to provide the stakeholders with answers to these questions. Our results indicate that the alarm ordinance was effective in increasing CO alarm ownerships and reducing CO poisoning cases. The evaluation provides potential users and other interested parties with the necessary information on contextual factors and the causal mechanism underlying the CO alarm ordinance, so that these parties and users could decide whether the Mecklenburg alarm ordinance would be transferable to their own communities. Discussions include implications of this study for contributing in further advancing evaluation theory in addressing transferability or external validity issues. PMID:25105583

  20. Isolation and characterization of alarm pheromone from electric shock-induced earthworm secretion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X C; Wang, D; Halpern, M

    1989-10-01

    Electric stimulation of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, causes secretion of a yellow mucus which has alarm properties for conspecifics and chemoattractive properties for garter snakes. An alarm pheromone was isolated and purified to homogeneity from the mucus by means of permeation, thin-layer and high performance liquid chromatographies. The purified substance was highly active as an alarm chemosignal to earthworms (L. terrestris), but it did not elicit alarm responses from either sandworms (Nereis virens) or bloodworms (Glycera debranciata). It was not a snake chemoattractant. The alarm pheromone could not be retained with 1 kDa cut-off dialysis tubing, and it was eluted from a Bio-gel P2 column ahead of p-nitrophenol. These data suggest an apparent mass greater than 139 Da but less than 1 kDa. The order of solubility of this alarm pheromone is H2O greater than DMSO greater than MeOH greater than 2-propanol greater than acetone. It was thermostable, and it fully retained activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 1 hour. This alarm pheromone fluoresced under u.v. light, and it showed an optimal excitation wavelength of 420 nm and emission wavelength of 465 nm. PMID:2622977