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1

Bilevel alarm monitoring multiplexer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the operation of the Bilevel Alarm Monitoring Multiplexer used in the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to transfer and control alarm signals being sent to the Nova 2 computer, the Memory Controlled Data Processor, and its own integral Display Panel. The multiplexer can handle 48 alarm channels and format the alarms into binary formats compatible with the

Johnson

1977-01-01

2

Alarm- And Power-Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronic central monitoring system, called Remote Monitor Alarm System, RMAS, used to monitor malfunction alarms and power supplies of remotely located equipment modules of transmitting and receiving equipment in fiber-optic communication network at Kennedy Space Center. Includes central monitoring unit at location convenient for technicians, plus remote terminal unit at each remote site containing equipment to be monitored.

Stute, Rob; Galloway, F. Houston; Swindle, Bob; Bierman, Tracy Alan; Medelius, Pedro

1994-01-01

3

Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.  

PubMed

False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

2014-01-01

4

Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.  

PubMed

Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication. PMID:23963169

Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

2014-01-01

5

Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

Miller, G.C.

1987-05-01

6

Auditory alarms during anesthesia monitoring with an integrated monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarms in the operating room remain a major source of annoyance and confusion. A previous study by Kestin et al. utilized\\u000a a specific combination of distinct, separate monitors in 50 pediatric patients. He reported a mean of 10 alarms per case with\\u000a a mean frequency of one alarm every 4.5 minutes. The alarms were classified as spurious (75%), change outside

Frank E. Block; Carl Schaaf

1996-01-01

7

Temperature monitor and alarm for cryogenic instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal temperatures in filled cryostats must be continuously monitored to preserve the health and safety of hardware and personnel. The accidental response of cryogenic gases into the atmosphere pose a health threat and, if the gases are flammable, may lead to an explosion. One indication of an imminent cryogen release is the sudden increase in cryogen temperature. Although there are many data acquisition systems and temperature monitoring products commercially available, these systems lack the portability and safety features required during cryostat qualification tests and transport. This paper describes a temperature monitor and alarm circuit developed for the Spirit II solid hydrogen cryostat program. The instrument is battery-operated, accurate, portable, and intrinsically safe in an explosive atmosphere.

Thatcher, John B., Jr.; Keliher, Pat; Jeanpierre, Carlos

1994-06-01

8

Voltage monitor and alarm for power line  

SciTech Connect

A device is described for monitoring the voltage of an electrical power line means, comprising: lamps in circuit with the power line means; a display driver in circuit with the lamps and the power line means and arranged to light one lamp at a time depending on the voltage of the power line means in a predetermined voltage range; oscillator means in circuit with the display driver for generating a fixed frequency signal when the voltage of the power line means is outside the voltage range; an audible sound generator in circuit with the oscillator means and driven thereby to sound an alarm when the oscillator means generates the signal; an auxiliary power supply connected in circuit with the oscillator means; and electronic latching means in circuit with the auxiliary power supply and the oscillator means and arranged to pass a driving current to the oscillator means to keep the same energized and generating the signal, so that the alarm continues to sound even though the voltage of the power line means returns to a magnitude within the predetermined voltage range.

Fathi, S.S.

1986-09-02

9

Intra-operative monitoring--many alarms with minor impact.  

PubMed

Alarms are key components of peri-operative monitoring devices, but a high false-alarm rate may lead to desensitisation and neglect. The objective of this study was to quantify the number of alarms and assess the value of these alarms during moderate-risk surgery. For this purpose, we analysed documentation of anaesthesia workstations during 38 surgical procedures. Alarms were classified on technical validity and clinical relevance. The median (IQR [range]) alarm density per procedure was 20.8 (14.5-34.2 [3.7-85.6]) alarms.h?¹ (1 alarm every 2.9 min) and increased during induction and emergence of anaesthesia, with up to one alarm per 0.99 min during these periods (p < 0.001). Sixty-four per cent of all alarms were clinically irrelevant, whereas 5% of all alarms required immediate intervention. The positive predictive value of an alarm during induction and emergence was 20% (95% CI 16-24%) and 11% (95% CI 8-14%), respectively. This study shows that peri-operative alarms are frequently irrelevant, with a low predictive value for an emerging event requiring clinical intervention. PMID:23745968

de Man, F R; Greuters, S; Boer, C; Veerman, D P; Loer, S A

2013-08-01

10

The hazards of alarm overload. Keeping excessive physiologic monitoring alarms from impeding care.  

PubMed

There are many reasons that the numbers of physiologic monitoring system alarms that clinicians must respond to can grow out of control. This article identifies the most common reasons and delivers recommendations for handling them. Although alarms are an important part of patient care and safety, they can easily reach quantities that overwhelm nurses, thereby compromising alarm effectiveness. Excessive quantities of alarms may desensitize nurses, leading them to not promptly respond to alarms or to inappropriately inactivate them. And alarms that ultimately prove to have been unnecessary can needlessly distract nurses or pull them away from other tasks. ECRI doesn't believe that there is a single "cure-all" for controlling alarm quantities. Rather, the way to combat alarm overload is to first identify the various sources of excessive alarms and to then take actions to individually address each source. This article recommends key actions to take and describes how these actions can be organized into a systematic plan. The effect of these efforts should be better clinical efficiency and improved patient safety. PMID:17500263

2007-03-01

11

Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.  

PubMed

In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

2013-01-01

12

Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

2005-12-01

13

Alarm Characterization for Continuous Glucose Monitors Used as Adjuncts to Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose  

PubMed Central

Background Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) devices available in the United States are approved for use as adjuncts to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Alarm evaluation in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline for CGM does not specifically address devices that employ both CGM and SMBG. In this report, an alarm evaluation method is proposed for these devices. Method The proposed method builds on the CLSI method using data from an in-clinic study of subjects with type 1 diabetes. CGM was used to detect glycemic events, and SMBG was used to determine treatment. To optimize detection of a single glucose level, such as 70 mg/dl, a range of alarm threshold settings was evaluated. The alarm characterization provides a choice of alarm settings that trade off detection and false alarms. Detection of a range of high glucose levels was similarly evaluated. Results Using low glucose alarms, detection of 70 mg/dl within 30 minutes increased from 64 to 97% as alarm settings increased from 70 to100 mg/dl, and alarms that did not require treatment (SMBG >85 mg/dl) increased from 18 to 52%. Using high glucose alarms, detection of 180 mg/dl within 30 minutes increased from 87 to 96% as alarm settings decreased from 180 to 165 mg/dl, and alarms that did not require treatment (SMBG <180 mg/dl) increased from 24 to 42%. Conclusion The proposed alarm evaluation method provides information for choosing appropriate alarm thresholds and reflects the clinical utility of CGM alarms.

McGarraugh, Geoffrey

2010-01-01

14

Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

15

Optimization of WAMDAS: A Web Service-Based Wireless Alarm Monitoring and Data Acquisition System for Pharmaceutical Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel infrastructure which allows the Web service-based wireless alarm monitoring and data acquisition system for pharmaceutical plants (WAMDAS) to be a more portable, reliable, secure and robust wireless Web service-based middleware system. This infrastructure provides a reliable alarm management mechanism that guarantees timely alarm delivery according with a defined configuration schema for alarms. Also it provides a

Edith Quispe-Holgado; Manuel Rodríguez-martínez; Edilberto García-Rodríguez

2008-01-01

16

ALARM-LEVEL MONITOR FOR SO2 EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

A field prototype, alarm-level monitor for SO2 emissions from stationary sources was designed, fabricated and tested. The monitor was designed to be inexpensive, simple to operate and easily maintained. The monitoring system is an extractive type that employs an air aspirator to ...

17

Standard for Cardiac Monitors, Heart Rate Meters, and Alarms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The standard establishes minimum performance and safety requirements for ECG heart rate monitors intended for critically ill patient monitoring. Subject to this standard are all parts of such monitors that are necessary (a) to obtain a heart rate indicati...

A. A. Schoenberg A. R. Grahn H. E. Booth

1978-01-01

18

Monitoring, alarm, and data visualization service on sample preparing and sample storing devices in biobanks.  

PubMed

An important feature in "Good Biobanking Practices" is to monitor and log conditions of sample storing devices. The Institute of Laboratory Medicine at Landspitali University Hospital in Reykjavik, Iceland, has installed a temperature monitoring and alarm system for freezers, incubators, and refrigerators as a part of its quality program. This paper describes the key features of the system, how it works, and what has been learned. PMID:20949405

Hauksdóttir, Halla; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Thorarinsson, Andres

2011-01-01

19

Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Real-Time Algorithms for Calibration, Filtering, and Alarms  

PubMed Central

Algorithms for real-time use in continuous glucose monitors are reviewed, including calibration, filtering of noisy signals, glucose predictions for hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic alarms, compensation for capillary blood glucose to sensor time lags, and fault detection for sensor degradation and dropouts. A tutorial on Kalman filtering for real-time estimation, prediction, and lag compensation is presented and demonstrated via simulation examples. A limited number of fault detection methods for signal degradation and dropout have been published, making that an important area for future work.

Bequette, B. Wayne

2010-01-01

20

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

21

Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability.

Jenkins, J.B.

1996-05-21

22

Ordonnance sur la Centrale nationale d'alarme. (Ordinance on the National Emergency Station).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Ordinance concerns the National Emergency Station (CENAL) which is responsible for raising the alarm with the authorities and the population, in particular, in case of radioactivity (atomic explosion, nuclear accident). The Ordinance provides for the...

1984-01-01

23

Medical audible alarms: a review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem.

Edworthy, Judy

2013-01-01

24

Reaction time of a health care team to monitoring alarms in the intensive care unit: implications for the safety of seriously ill patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the characteristics and measure the reaction time of a health care team monitoring alarms in the intensive care unit. Methods A quantitative, observational, and descriptive study developed at the coronary care unit of a cardiology public hospital in Rio de Janeiro state (RJ). Data were obtained from the information collected on the patients, the monitoring used, and the measurement of the team's reaction time to the alarms of multi-parameter monitors during a non-participatory field observation. Results Eighty-eight patients were followed (49 during the day shift and 39 during the night shift). During the 40 hours of observation (20 hours during the day shift and 20 hours during the night shift), the total number of monitoring alarms was 227, with 106 alarms during the day shift and 121 during the night shift, an average of 5.7 alarms/hour. In total, 145 alarms unanswered by the team were observed, with 68 occurring during the day shift (64.15%) and 77 during the night shift (63.64%). This study demonstrated that the reaction time was longer than 10 minutes in more than 60% of the alarms, which were considered as unanswered alarms. The median reaction time of the answered alarms was 4 minutes and 54 seconds during the day shift and 4 minutes and 55 seconds during the night shift. The respiration monitoring was activated in only nine patients (23.07%) during the night shift. Regarding the alarm quality of these variables, the arrhythmia alarm was qualified in only 10 (20.40%) of the day-shift patients and the respiration alarm in four night-shift patients (44.44%). Conclusion The programming and configuration of the physiological variables monitored and the parameters of alarms in the intensive care unit were inadequate; there was a delay and lack of response to the alarms, suggesting that relevant alarms may have been ignored by the health care team, thus compromising the patient safety.

Bridi, Adriana Carla; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra; de Farias, Carolina Correa Pinto; Franco, Andrezza Serpa; dos Santos, Viviane de Lima Quintas

2014-01-01

25

Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm...

2003-01-01

26

Central-Monitor Software Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the software modules of the emergency-vehicle traffic-light-preemption system of the two preceding articles performs numerous functions for the central monitoring subsystem. This module monitors the states of all units (vehicle transponders and intersection controllers): It provides real-time access to the phases of traffic and pedestrian lights, and maps the positions and states of all emergency vehicles. Most of this module is used for installation and configuration of units as they are added to the system. The module logs all activity in the system, thereby providing information that can be analyzed to minimize response times and optimize response strategies. The module can be used from any location within communication range of the system; with proper configuration, it can also be used via the Internet. It can be integrated into call-response centers, where it can be used for alerting emergency vehicles and managing their responses to specific incidents. A variety of utility subprograms provide access to any or all units for purposes of monitoring, testing, and modification. Included are "sniffer" utility subprograms that monitor incoming and outgoing data for accuracy and timeliness, and that quickly and autonomously shut off malfunctioning vehicle or intersection units.

Bachelder, Aaron; Foster, Conrad

2005-01-01

27

Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied.  

PubMed

A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories. PMID:21500088

Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

2011-04-01

28

Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied  

SciTech Connect

The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

Yates, K.R.

2003-05-26

29

Attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms.  

PubMed

Background The number of devices with alarms has multiplied in recent years, causing alarm fatigue in bedside clinicians. Alarm fatigue is now recognized as a critical safety issue. Objective To determine if attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms have changed since 2005. Methods The Healthcare Technology Foundation's Clinical Alarms Committee developed an online survey for hospital personnel that addressed attitudes and practices related to clinical alarms. They administered it in 2005-2006 and in 2011 and compared the results. Results Respondents were asked about their level of agreement with 19 statements about alarms. Many of the statements revealed no significant differences between the 2 survey years, although some differences were apparent. Respondents to the 2011 survey were significantly more likely to agree with statements about alarm sounds differentiating the priority of alarm and the helpfulness of central alarm management. Respondents in 2011 were significantly less likely to feel that nuisance alarms occur frequently and disrupt patient care. Respondents also ranked the importance of 9 different alarm issues. In both years, they ranked frequent false alarms as the most important. In response to a new question in the 2011 survey, 18% of respondents reported patients' experiencing adverse events related to alarms at their institutions. Conclusions Since 2005-2006 when the first survey was conducted, not much has changed. False alarms continue to contribute to a noisy hospital environment, and sentinel events related to alarm fatigue persist. Alarm hazards are a significant patient safety issue. PMID:24786820

Funk, Marjorie; Clark, J Tobey; Bauld, Thomas J; Ott, Jennifer C; Coss, Paul

2014-05-01

30

Learn about Smoke Alarms  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Campaigns Smoke Alarms Smoke Alarms Learn about smoke alarms This page may contain links to non- ... to you » Why should I have a working smoke alarm? A properly installed and maintained smoke alarm ...

31

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1988-04-22

32

Rack protection monitor  

DOEpatents

A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

Orr, Stanley G. (Wheaton, IL) [Wheaton, IL

2000-01-01

33

On false alarm mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condition-based maintenance (CBM) of complex military vehicles or industrial machines presumes the capability to correctly detect faults in components or subsystems. Faults are malfunctions that are observed in the monitoring system. Two types of errors can occur during automated fault detection: (1) missed detections or (2) false alarms. The practical consequence of either type of error is that a failed

J. R. Bock; T. Brotherton; P. Grabill; D. Gass; J. A. Keller

2006-01-01

34

Semantic Alarms in Medical Device Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe preliminary work on semantic alarms, a framework for context-sensitive clinical alerts. Semantic alarms are intended for deployment in a multi-parameter vital sign monitoring system. Requirements for device and data interoperability within this system are discussed. Extended examples are provided for sepsis and congestive heart failure disease state alarms.

Albert Goldfain; Atanu Roy Chowdhury; Min Xu; Jim DelloStritto; Jonathan Bona; Blue Highway

35

Effect of Short-Term Use of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System with a Real-Time Glucose Display and a Low Glucose Alarm on Incidence and Duration of Hypoglycemia in a Home Setting in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to examine whether setting the low glucose alarm of a Guardian® REAL-Time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to 80 mg/dl for 3 days and providing instructions to users reduce the risk of hypoglycemia under free-living conditions in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods Fourteen participants with T1DM aged 26.1 ± 6.0 years (mean ± standard deviation) were fitted with a CGMS and assigned for 3 days to either an alarm [low and high blood glucose (BG) alarms set at 80 and 200 mg/dl, respectively] or no alarm condition, with each treatment administered to all participants following a counterbalanced design. All participants were given detailed instructions on how to respond appropriately to low glucose alarms. Results The CGMS with alarm reduced the incidence of hypoglycemia (CGMS readings ?65 mg/dl) by 44% as well as the time spent below this hypoglycemic threshold by 64% without increasing average BG levels. However, the CGMS with alarm had no effect on the incidence of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Conclusions Short-term use of the CGMS with alarm, together with appropriate instructions for users, reduces the incidence and duration of hypoglycemia, but only to a limited extent, in part because it overestimates BG in the low glucose range.

Davey, Raymond J; Jones, Timothy W; Fournier, Paul A

2010-01-01

36

Alarm acknowledgement in a nuclear plant control room  

SciTech Connect

Alarm acknowledgment can be made not only at the alarm tile array of a given console but via other touch sensitive alarm indications in the screen displays of the monitoring system at the same or other consoles; also, touching one tile can acknowledge multiple alarm sources.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

37

AUDITORY ALARMS: FROM ALERTING TO INFORMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current alarm and warning systems in medical domains are integrated into patient monitoring devices and are centered around the concept of alerting operators to potential problems without specifying the specific nature of the problem. In contrast, informative auditory alarms and warning systems have been proposed for next-generation monitoring equipment, These \\

F. Jacob Seagull; Yan Xiao; Cohn F. Mackenzie; Christopher D. Wickens

2000-01-01

38

Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

1995-01-01

39

Network alarm assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physical intrusion alarm systems provide a structural and operating model that gives useful insights into how to detect intrusions into computer networks. This paper covers one major component of an alarm system called the assessment subsystem. Assessment...

D. J. Bailey

1994-01-01

40

Criticality accident alarm system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identif...

R. E. Malenfant

1991-01-01

41

A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE

D. S. Fortney; J. J. Lim

1994-01-01

42

Modern earthquake monitoring in central Balkan region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central part of the Balkan Peninsula has the key position in the most seismically hazardous region in Europe. The seismological network of Bulgaria, situated in the central part of the Balkan region, consists of 21 analog telemetry seismic stations, including two local networks and the operative centre situated in Sofia. One more local network with 3 digital stations will

E. A. Botev; R. P. Glavcheva

2003-01-01

43

There Is a Need for Alarm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the alarm system planning process and provides examples of approaches that have worked for school districts. Explains system elements, monitoring, the bidding process, and the importance of staff training. (MLF)

Kaufer, Steve

1994-01-01

44

Spacecraft operations automation: Automatic alarm notification and web telemetry display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these times of Faster, Better, Cheaper (FBC) spacecraft, Spacecraft Operations Automation is an area that is targeted by many Operations Teams. To meet the challenges of the FBC environment, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Operations Team designed and quickly implemented two new low-cost technologies: one which monitors spacecraft telemetry, checks the status of the telemetry, and contacts technical experts by pager when any telemetry datapoints exceed alarm limits, and a second which allows quick and convenient remote access to data displays. The first new technology is Automatic Alarm Notification (AAN). AAN monitors spacecraft telemetry and will notify engineers automatically if any telemetry is received which creates an alarm condition. The second new technology is Web Telemetry Display (WTD). WTD captures telemetry displays generated by the flight telemetry system and makes them available to the project web server. This allows engineers to check the health and status of the spacecraft from any computer capable of connecting to the global internet, without needing normally-required specialized hardware and software. Both of these technologies have greatly reduced operations costs by alleviating the need to have operations engineers monitor spacecraft performance on a 24 hour per day, 7 day per week basis from a central Mission Support Area. This paper gives details on the design and implementation of AAN and WTD, discusses their limitations, and lists the ongoing benefits which have accrued to MGS Flight Operations since their implementation in late 1996.

Short, Owen G.; Leonard, Robert E.; Bucher, Allen W.; Allen, Bryan

1999-11-01

45

[Modality of fetal heart monitoring during labor (continuous or intermittent), telemetry and central fetal monitoring].  

PubMed

Fetal heart monitoring during labor is almost systematic today. Continuous monitoring decreases neonatal convulsions, but increases caesarean section and forceps deliveries without impact on long term neonatal prognosis. Overall, there is no proved impact of cardiac fetal monitoring (continuous or intermittent) on perinatal mortality. The most recent study shows neonatal benefits of continuous monitoring associated with an overall increase of caesarean section rate. Continuous fetal monitoring has a better sensitivity to detect acidosis. Many arguments for continuous fetal monitoring will be reported in this review. In specific conditions, intermittent fetal auscultation can be realised, but in current practice such conditions can rarely be applied. Telemetry has been poorly evaluated to date but experiences are currently undertaken. Central fetal monitoring does not improve neonatal issue but could increase caesarean section rate. Central of fetal monitoring could help in the organisation and the conservation of fetal heart monitoring. PMID:18187266

Bretelle, F; Le Du, R; Foulhy, C

2008-02-01

46

Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality  

PubMed Central

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W.; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

2013-01-01

47

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-01-01

48

Alarm toe switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard

1982-01-01

49

Alarm toe switch  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard; Floyd P

1982-01-01

50

Alarm Processing System  

SciTech Connect

During power plant transients, a control room operator is deluged with large amounts of diverse information of varying degrees of importance and in different format. Control room operators are sometimes overwhelmed. They are required to make quick decisions based on operating procedures thereby bypassing most deep-level reasoning. The application of expert systems to process alarms and to perform diagnosis can substantially improve the quality of information presented to operators. The high-level goal of the Alarm Processing System is for operators to enthusiastically accept a new technology that will improve their response to alarms during plant transient conditions. The Alarm Processing System dynamically prioritizes alarms based on the state of the plant; reduces the amount of information presented to the operator by grouping and displaying alarms in accordance with the present state of the plant; and allows nuisance alarms to be suppressed. Object-oriented programming techniques are used to describe plant analog and binary sensors, alarms, and plant states. The system reasons about nuisance signals taken off-line by using logic system that has three states: true, false, and null. A null or invalid state is propagated through the logic until the operator can assign a derived value for the signal. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Di Domenico, P.; Mah, E. (Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Corsberg, D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)); Somsel, J. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Chan, J.K. (Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Naser, J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA)); Scarl, E. (Boeing Computer Services Co., Seattle, WA (USA))

1989-01-01

51

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to produce a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class...

2010-04-01

52

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...device monitors an electrocardiogram and is designed to produce a visible or audible signal or alarm when atrial or ventricular arrhythmia, such as premature contraction or ventricular fibrillation, occurs. (b) Classification. Class...

2009-04-01

53

Likelihood alarm displays. [for human operator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a likelihood alarm display (LAD) information about event likelihood is computed by an automated monitoring system and encoded into an alerting signal for the human operator. Operator performance within a dual-task paradigm was evaluated with two LADs: a color-coded visual alarm and a linguistically coded synthetic speech alarm. The operator's primary task was one of tracking; the secondary task was to monitor a four-element numerical display and determine whether the data arose from a 'signal' or 'no-signal' condition. A simulated 'intelligent' monitoring system alerted the operator to the likelihood of a signal. The results indicated that (1) automated monitoring systems can improve performance on primary and secondary tasks; (2) LADs can improve the allocation of attention among tasks and provide information integrated into operator decisions; and (3) LADs do not necessarily add to the operator's attentional load.

Sorkin, Robert D.; Kantowitz, Barry H.; Kantowitz, Susan C.

1988-01-01

54

Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

1991-01-01

55

Efficient indexing structure for scalable processing of spatial alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and implementation of a new indexing technique, Mondrian tree. The Mondrian tree indexing method partitions the entire universe of discourse into spatial alarm monitoring regions and alarm-free regions. This enables us to reduce the number of on-demand alarm-free region computations, significant savings of both server load and client-to-server communication cost. We evaluate the efficiency of the

Myungcheol Doo; Ling Liu; Nitya Narasimhan; Venu Vasudevan

2010-01-01

56

Criticality accident alarm system  

SciTech Connect

The American National Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Criticality Accident Alarm System provides guidance for the establishment and maintenance of an alarm system to initiate personnel evacuation in the event of inadvertent criticality. In addition to identifying the physical features of the components of the system, the characteristics of accidents of concern are carefully delineated. Unfortunately, this ANSI Standard has led to considerable confusion in interpretation, and there is evidence that the minimum accident of concern'' may not be appropriate. Furthermore, although intended as a guide, the provisions of the standard are being rigorously applied, sometimes with interpretations that are not consistent. Although the standard is clear in the use of absorbed dose in free air of 20 rad, at least one installation has interpreted the requirement to apply to dose in soft tissue. The standard is also clear in specifying the response to both neutrons and gamma rays. An assembly of uranyl fluoride enriched to 5% {sup 235}U was operated to simulate a potential accident. The dose, delivered in a free run excursion 2 m from the surface of the vessel, was greater than 500 rad, without ever exceeding a rate of 20 rad/min, which is the set point for activating an alarm that meets the standard. The presence of an alarm system would not have prevented any of the five major accidents in chemical operations nor is it absolutely certain that the alarms were solely responsible for reducing personnel exposures following the accident. Nevertheless, criticality alarm systems are now the subject of great effort and expense. 13 refs.

Malenfant, R.E.

1991-01-01

57

105KE Basin Area Radiation Monitor System (ARMS) Acceptance Test Procedure  

SciTech Connect

This procedure is intended for the Area Radiation Monitoring System, ARMS, that is replacing the existing Programmable Input-Output Processing System, PIOPS, radiation monitoring system in the 105KE basin. The new system will be referred to as the 105KE ARMS, 105KE Area Radiation Monitoring System. This ATP will ensure calibration integrity of the 105KE radiation detector loops. Also, this ATP will test and document the display, printing, alarm output, alarm acknowledgement, upscale check, and security functions. This ATP test is to be performed after completion of the 105KE ARMS installation. The alarm outputs of the 105KE ARMS will be connected to the basin detector alarms, basin annunciator system, and security Alarm Monitoring System, AMS, located in the 200 area Central Alarm Station (CAS).

KINKEL, C.C.

1999-12-14

58

A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

1994-06-10

59

Ship Navigation Alarm System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers all work done under Contract DAAK02-68-C-0513 by Stewart Warner Electronics (SWE), Chicago, Ill., from 28 June 1968 till 15 July 1969 to develop and test the Ship Navigation Alarm System (SNAS). The prime objective was to determine whet...

H. J. Osinga

1969-01-01

60

[Multi-bed & multi-parameter central monitoring system based on TCP/IP protocol].  

PubMed

Communication is one of the key problems to a central monitoring system. In this paper we put forward a central monitoring system using TCP/IP as the network protocol, Windows NT4.0 as the platform, forming a Intranet in a hospital. We also discussed the communication problem between the bed-side monitoring station and the central monitoring station in detail and then put forward a new protocol--Hospital Central Monitor Protocol (HCMP) based on TCP/IP to transfer monitoring data. It is easy to achieve tele-monitoring through the current communication subsystem. PMID:12583091

Lian, S J; Hu, D K; Zhao, M H; Tang, L H

2000-02-01

61

An investigation of training strategies to improve alarm reactions.  

PubMed

Researchers have suggested that operator training may improve operator reactions; however, researchers have not documented this for alarm reactions. The goal of this research was to train participants to react to alarms using sensor activity patterns. In Experiment 1, 80 undergraduates monitored a simulated security screen while completing a primary word search task. They received spatial, temporal, single sensor, or no training to respond to alarms of differing reliability levels. Analyses revealed more appropriate and quicker reactions when participants were trained and when the alarms were reliable. In Experiment 2, 56 participants practiced time estimation by simple repetition, performance feedback, or performance feedback and temporal subdivision. They then reacted to alarms based on elapsed time between sensor activity and alarm onset. Surprisingly, results indicated that participants did not benefit differentially from temporal interval training, focusing instead on advertised system reliability. Researchers should replicate these findings with realistic tasks and real-world complex task operators. PMID:23849303

Bliss, James P; Chancey, Eric T

2014-09-01

62

Automatic Alarm for Fluorescent Blinking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Alarming mechanism, sounding and/or flashing, which signals fluorescent lamp malfunctioning as visibly manifested by flickering. The alarming mechanism according to this invention electrically engages the starter mechanism of a fluorescent lamp and is res...

C. J. Fleck C. J. Fleck R. Bohenski

1995-01-01

63

Control of Elt False Alarms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, a...

S. Toth I. Gershkoff

1979-01-01

64

Control of ELT false alarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

1979-01-01

65

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km/sup 2/ area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station.

DesJardin, R.; Machanik, J.

1980-01-01

66

D0 Cryo System ODH and Cryo Alarm System Response  

SciTech Connect

The D0 Cryo System is monitored by a computerized process control system and an ODH safety system. During steady state operations the cryo system will be unmanned and system experts will depend on communication systems for notification of system problems. The FIRUS system meets the minimum communication requirement and is supplemented with an autodialer which attempts to contact cryo operators by pager or phone. The RD/Safety Department requires the ODH monitor system to be connected to the labwide FIRUS system. which enables the Communications Center to receive alarms and notify the proper experts of the condition. The ODH system will have two alarm points. One for an ODH alarm and one for a system trouble alarm. The autodialer system has replaced a former cryo operations summation alarm point in the FIRUS system. This has freed space on the FIRUS system and has allowed the cryo experts more flexibility in setting up their own communication link. The FIRUS and the autodialer systems receive alarms and access lists of experts to call for notification of problems. Attempts to contact these experts will continue until the alarm or alarms is acknowledged.

Urbin, J.; Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-04-05

67

Summary of Pre-2011 Seismic Monitoring Results for the Central Virginia Seismic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M 5.7 earthquake affecting Louisa county, Virginia on September 23, 2011 occurred in the central Virginia seismic zone, in the Piedmont physiographic province of Virginia. The largest previous shock occurred on December 22, 1875 with magnitude 5.0 estimated from intensity reports. Other events causing minor damage and widespread alarm occurred in 1774, 1833, 1852, 1907, 1929, 1984 (mbLg 4.2) and 2003 (M 4.3). Previous studies have documented that the seismic zone overlies a major change in crustal thickness and that the seismogenic upper crust is comprised of Appalachian thrust sheets. However, the area was affected by early Mesozoic extensional tectonics and includes several Triassic fault-bounded basins (Culpepper, Scottsville, Farmville, and Richmond). Local network stations have operated in central Virginia since the mid-1970's, although hypocenter location capability has declined since the mid-1990's. The monitoring indicates a mean focal depth of 8 km and maximum depth of approximately 13 km: approximately 75% of the well-located shocks have focal depths above 10 km, and most events are in allochthonous rocks above the Blue Ridge thrust (resolved on seismic reflection profiles). This is in contrast to the situation west of the Blue Ridge province in the Southern Appalachians, where earthquakes generally occur in Grenville basement. The central Virginia seismicity occurs on multiple seismogenic structures. Focal mechanisms of the pre-2011 events exhibit a mixture of strike-slip and reverse faulting on steeply dipping planes showing variable strike. The seismicity has exhibited both temporal and spatial clustering. The M 4.3 December 9, 2003 compound earthquake occurred at a depth of 10 km, and probably represented reverse faulting on a steeply dipping (69 deg) N190E-striking nodal plane, although no aftershocks were recorded to confirm actual fault orientation. The epicenter of the August 23, 2011 shock was only 20 km to the north-northeast of the 2003 event, along the strike of major Paleozoic structure mapped at the surface. The early focal mechanism solution for the 2011 mainshock shows reverse motion on planes trending north-northeast, with dip to either the northwest or southeast. The depth estimate was 6 km, and preliminary focal depths for many early aftershocks are at shallower depths. An important question that may be addressed with data from aftershocks involves the orientation and extent of the mainshock rupture, and whether or not the fault is a Mesozoic or Paleozoic structure.

Chapman, M. C.

2011-12-01

68

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1987-04-13

69

Alarm toe switch  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-01-01

70

Scrub Typhus Complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Multiorgan Failure; an Unrecognized Alarming Entity in Central India: A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness, distributed throughout the Asia Pacific rim. In India, it has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India. However, cases of scrub typhus have not been well-documented from Vidarbha, an eastern region of Maharashtra state in central India. We report two cases of complicated scrub typhus from Vidarbha region. These cases admitted in unconscious state with 8-10 days history of fever, body ache, cough, and progressive breathlessness. The diagnosis in both cases was based on presence of eschar, a positive Weil-Felix test, and a positive rapid diagnostic test (immunochromatographic assay). Both cases were complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Both of them presented in their 2nd week of illness and died during the hospital course in spite of intensive supportive care. The main cause of mortality was delayed referral leading to delay in diagnosis and treatment.

Saxena, Amrish; Khiangte, Benjamine; Tiewsoh, Iadarilang

2014-01-01

71

"Turn It Off!": Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future  

PubMed Central

Abstract Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a “patient safety first” perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery.

Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

2013-01-01

72

Alarm toe switch. [Patent application  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the

Ganyard

1980-01-01

73

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

74

ZoneAlarm 6.0.631.003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Zone Alarm application was created to protect DSL-or cable-connected PCs from hackers, and this latest version contains four valuable security services. They include a firewall, an application control, an Internet lock, and zones. Working in tandem, these interlocking devices block Internet traffic while the computer is unattended and also monitor all activity on a given computer. This version of ZoneAlarm is compatible with Windows 98 or newer.

75

46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. 78.47-13...manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells. (a) The fire...manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in the engine room...

2013-10-01

76

Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) was accepted by the state regulator and the environmental remediation efforts at the site have progressed to the stages of model validation and long-term monitoring design. This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for CNTA. Subsurface monitoring is an

Ahmed E. Hassan

2003-01-01

77

Automated detection of alarm sounds  

PubMed Central

Two approaches to the automated detection of alarm sounds are compared, one based on a change in overall sound level (RMS), the other a change in periodicity, as given by the power of the normalized autocorrelation function (PNA). Receiver operating characteristics in each case were obtained for different exemplars of four classes of alarm sounds (bells/chimes, buzzers/beepers, horns/whistles, and sirens) embedded in four noise backgrounds (cafeteria, park, traffic, and music). The results suggest that PNA combined with RMS may be used to improve current alarm-sound alerting technologies for the hard-of-hearing.

Lutfi, Robert A.; Heo, Inseok

2012-01-01

78

The "Let's Get Alarmed!" initiative: a smoke alarm giveaway programme  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To reduce fires and fire related injuries by increasing the prevalence of functioning smoke alarms in high risk households. Setting—The programme was delivered in an inner London area with above average material deprivation and below average smoke alarm ownership. The target population included low income and rental households and households with elderly persons or young children. Methods—Forty wards, averaging 4000 households each, were randomised to intervention or control status. Free smoke alarms and fire safety information were distributed in intervention wards by community groups and workers as part of routine activities and by paid workers who visited target neighbourhoods. Recipients provided data on household age distribution and housing tenure. Programme costs were documented from a societal perspective. Data are being collected on smoke alarm ownership and function, and on fires and related injuries and their costs. Results—Community and paid workers distributed 20 050 smoke alarms, potentially sufficient to increase smoke alarm ownership by 50% in intervention wards. Compared with the total study population, recipients included greater proportions of low income and rental households and households including children under 5 years or adults aged 65 and older. Total programme costs were £145 087. Conclusions—It is possible to implement a large scale smoke alarm giveaway programme targeted to high risk households in a densely populated, multicultural, materially deprived community. The programme's effects on the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms and the incidence of fires and fire related injuries, and its cost effectiveness, are being evaluated as a randomised controlled trial.

DiGuiseppi, C.; Slater, S.; Roberts, I.; Adams, L.; Sculpher, M.; Wade, A.; McCarthy, M.

1999-01-01

79

The proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreases as patient clinical severity decreases in intensive care units: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine (1) the proportion and number of clinically relevant alarms based on the type of monitoring device; (2) whether patient clinical severity, based on the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, affects the proportion of clinically relevant alarms and to suggest; (3) methods for reducing clinically irrelevant alarms in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design A prospective, observational clinical study. Setting A medical ICU at the University of Tokyo Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Participants All patients who were admitted directly to the ICU, aged ?18?years, and not refused active treatment were registered between January and February 2012. Methods The alarms, alarm settings, alarm messages, waveforms and video recordings were acquired in real time and saved continuously. All alarms were annotated with respect to technical and clinical validity. Results 18 ICU patients were monitored. During 2697 patient-monitored hours, 11?591 alarms were annotated. Only 740 (6.4%) alarms were considered to be clinically relevant. The monitoring devices that triggered alarms the most often were the direct measurement of arterial pressure (33.5%), oxygen saturation (24.2%), and electrocardiogram (22.9%). The numbers of relevant alarms were 12.4% (direct measurement of arterial pressure), 2.4% (oxygen saturation) and 5.3% (electrocardiogram). Positive correlations were established between patient clinical severities and the proportion of relevant alarms. The total number of irrelevant alarms could be reduced by 21.4% by evaluating their technical relevance. Conclusions We demonstrated that (1) the types of devices that alarm the most frequently were direct measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and ECG, and most of those alarms were not clinically relevant; (2) the proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreased as the patients’ status improved and (3) the irrelevance alarms can be considerably reduced by evaluating their technical relevance.

Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nanjo, Yuko; Echigo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Aoi; Ishii, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takehiro; Doi, Kent; Gunshin, Masataka; Hiruma, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yahagi, Naoki

2013-01-01

80

Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)

Lee, Martha A.

2000-01-01

81

75 FR 18110 - Antarctic Marine Living Resources; Use of Centralized-Vessel Monitoring System and Importation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Marine Living Resources; Use of Centralized-Vessel Monitoring System and Importation of Toothfish...verifiable documentation that the harvesting vessel participated in the Centralized-Vessel Monitoring System (C-VMS) regardless...

2010-04-09

82

Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent  

SciTech Connect

Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS.

MISKA, C.R.

2000-09-03

83

Smart Sensors Network for Air Quality Monitoring Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a network for indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring. Each node is installed in a different room and includes tin dioxide sensor arrays connected to an acquisition and control system. The nodes are hardwired or wirelessly connected to a central monitoring unit. To increase the gas concentration measurement accuracy and to prevent false alarms, two gas sensor

Octavian A. Postolache; Jose Miguel Dias Pereira; P. M. B. Silva Girao

2009-01-01

84

2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the envi...

2011-01-01

85

Estimation of central systolic blood pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current noninvasive techniques for assessing central aortic pressure require the recording of an arterial pressure wave using a high-fidelity applanation tonometer. We therefore developed and validated a novel method to estimate the central aortic systolic pressure using an oscillometric blood pressure monitor alone. Invasive high-fidelity right brachial and central aortic pressure waves, and left-brachial pulse volume plethysmography from an oscillometric

Hao-Min Cheng; Kang-Ling Wang; Ying-Hwa Chen; Shing-Jong Lin; Lung-Ching Chen; Shih-Hsien Sung; Philip Yu-An Ding; Wen-Chung Yu; Jaw-Wen Chen; Chen-Huan Chen; C-H Chen

2010-01-01

86

Vibration Monitoring for Predictive Maintenance in Central Energy Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equipment maintenance and unexpected downtime resulting from equipment failure can make up a significant part of the cost of running a central heating plant (CHP). As with most rotating equipment, the machinery in CHPs often suffers from the effects of vi...

R. Moshage L. Bowman C. Bethea R. Chesser D. Burch

1993-01-01

87

Composition of aphid alarm pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of single cornicle droplets from six species of aphid showed the presence of volatile components in addition to (E)-ß-farnesene. Compounds identified included (Z,E)-a- and (E,E)-a-farnesene forMyzus persicae and a- and ß-pinene forMegoura viciae. WithMegoura viciae, (-)-a-pinene was most important for alarm activity. The major component of the alarm pheromone ofPhorodon humuli was (E)-ß-farnesene even though farnesenes are present in

J. A. Pickett; D. C. Griffiths

1980-01-01

88

Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics.  

PubMed

Patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are usually set to trigger alarms when abnormal values are detected. Alarms are generated by threshold-crossing rules that lead to high false alarm rates. This is a recognized issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. Recently developed smart alarm models require alarms to be validated by experts during the training phase. The manual annotation process involved is time-consuming and virtually impossible to achieve for the thousands of alarms recorded in the ICU every week. To tackle this problem, we investigate in this study if the use of semi-supervised learning methods, that can naturally integrate unlabeled data samples in the model, can be used to improve the accuracy of the alarm detection. As a proof of concept, the detection system is evaluated on intracranial pressure (ICP) signal alarms. Specific morphological and trending features are extracted from the ICP signal waveform to capture the dynamic of the signal prior to alarms. This study is based on a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarms recorded from 108 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis is provided between kernel spectral regression (SR-KDA) and support vector machine (SVM) both modified for the semi-supervised setting. Results obtained during the experimental evaluations indicate that the two models can significantly reduce false alarms using unlabeled samples; especially in the presence of a restrained number of labeled examples. At a true alarm recognition rate of 99%, the false alarm reduction rates improved from 9% (supervised) to 27% (semi-supervised) for SR-KDA, and from 3% (supervised) to 16% (semi-supervised) for SVM. PMID:23524637

Scalzo, Fabien; Hu, Xiao

2013-04-01

89

Integrated taut wire sensor alarm monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years mechanical taut wire intrusion detection systems have played a key role in protecting high risk facilities. The taut wire sensor has the advantage that it combines a physical barrier with an intrusion sensor, a useful feature where no fence is installed or planned. However, mechanical taut wire sensors have proven to have several major disadvantages, including: no

J. B. Morgan; M. R. Tennefoss

1986-01-01

90

Prototype ventilator and alarm algorithm for the NASA space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm algorithm was developed to monitor the ventilator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space station. The algorithm automatically identifies and interprets critical events so that an untrained user can manage the mechanical ventilation of a critically injured crew member. The algorithm was tested in two healthy volunteers by simulating 260 critical events in each volunteer while the

Josef X. Brunner; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Paul Zelenkov

1988-01-01

91

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

92

Real-time Health Information Acquisition and Alarm System Based on Bluetooth and GPRS Communication Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing medical monitor information integrated application system which is used to enhance the people's health guarantee. It integrated the circadian detecting technology, Bluetooth technology, GPRS technology, artificial intelligence medical diagnosis technology and alarm technology. It is an uninterrupted real-time working system which includes the subsystem of medical detecting, long distance transmission, date storage and analysis, alarm etc. It is mainly

Fang Yanan; Lu Xinghua; Li Huaizu

2006-01-01

93

A mini digital methane detecting and alarm system for miners lamp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane detecting and alarm miners lamp has proved very effective on methane monitoring in recent decades. The functions of those lamps are limited for its size, caused high maintenance costs and performance instability. Aimed at computer technology, modern signal analysis and processing technology, a mini intelligent methane detecting and alarm system is developed. Firstly, the status of domestic and overseas

Xuhui Zhang; Hongwei Ma

2010-01-01

94

Clinical Evaluation of a Noninvasive Alarm System for Nocturnal Hypoglycemia  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a prototype noninvasive alarm system (HypoMon®) for the detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia. A prospective cohort study evaluated an alarm system that included a sensor belt, a radio frequency transmitter for chest belt signals, and a receiver. The receiver incorporated integrated “real-time” algorithms designed to recognize hypoglycemia “signatures” in the physiological parameters monitored by the sensor belt. Methods Fifty-two children and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) participated in this blinded, prospective, in-clinic, overnight study. Participants had a mean age of 16 years (standard deviation 2.1, range 12–20 years) and were asked to follow their normal meal and insulin routines for the day of the study. Participants had physiological parameters monitored overnight by a single HypoMon system. Their BG levels were also monitored overnight at regular intervals via an intravenous cannula and read on two independent Yellow Springs Instruments analyzers. Hypoglycemia was not induced by any manipulations of diabetes management, rather the subjects were monitored overnight for “natural” occurrences of hypoglycemia. Performance analyses included comparing HypoMon system alarm times with allowed time windows associated with each hypoglycemic event. Results The primary recognition algorithm in the prototype alarm system performed at a level consistent with expectations based on prior user surveys. The HypoMon system correctly recognized 8 out of the 11 naturally occurring overnight hypoglycemic events and falsely alarmed on 13 out of the remaining 41 normal nights [sensitivity 73% (8/11), specificity 68% (28/41), positive predictive value 38%,negative predictive value 90%]. Conclusion The prototype HypoMon shows potential as an adjunct method for noninvasive overnight monitoring for hypoglycemia events in young people with T1DM.

Skladnev, Victor N.; Ghevondian, Nejhdeh; Tarnavskii, Stanislav; Paramalingam, Nirubasini; Jones, Timothy W.

2010-01-01

95

Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.  

PubMed

Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

Rainey, Hugo J; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J B

2004-04-01

96

GPS-BASED ONLINE CONTROL AND ALARM SYSTEM (GOCA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A GPS-based online control and alarm system (GOCA) for the monitoring of three-dimensional movements has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the EuroNav, Wunstorf. The GOCA hardware consists of an array of GPS sensors and communication units to be placed in the monitoring area. The hardware dependent control software communicates with the GPS sensors

Simone Kälber; Reiner Jäger

97

A GPS-Based Online Control and Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A global positioning system (GPS)-based online control and alarm system (GOCA) for monitoring of three-dimensional movements\\u000a has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Technology. The GOCA hardware consists of an array of GPS sensors and communication\\u000a units to be placed in the monitoring area. The hardware-dependent control software communicates with the GPS sensors and provides\\u000a the GPS baseline data

Simone Kälber; Reiner Jäger; Rainer Schwäble

2000-01-01

98

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

99

Priority coding for control room alarms  

DOEpatents

Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

100

False Alarm Mitigation of Vibration Diagnostic Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarms in legacy aircraft diagnostic systems have negatively impacted fleet maintenance costs and mission readiness. As the industry moves towards more advanced prognostic and health management (PHM) solutions, a reduction in false alarms is needed to reduce the cost and readiness burdens that have plagued legacy systems. It is therefore important to understand why these false alarms occur and

C. S. Byington; M. J. Watson; Sanket Amin; M. Begin

2008-01-01

101

Improved alarm tracking for better accountability  

SciTech Connect

An alarm system is a vital component of any accelerator, as it provides a warning that some element of the system is not functioning properly. The severity and age of the alarm may sometimes signify whether urgent or deferred attention is required. For example, older alarms may be given a lower priority if an assumption is made that someone else is already investigating it, whereas those of higher severity or alarms that are more current may indicate the need for an immediate response. The alarm history also provides valuable information regarding the functionality of the overall system, thus careful tracking of these data is likely to improve response time, remove uncertainty about the current status and assist in the ability to promptly respond to the same warning/trigger in the future. Since one goal of every alarm display is to be free of alarms, a clear and concise presentation of an alarm along with useful historic annotations can help the end user address the warning more quickly, thus expediting the elimination of such alarm conditions. By defining a discrete set of very specific alarm management states and by utilizing database resources to maintain a complete and easily accessible alarm history, we anticipate facilitated work flow due to more efficient operator response and management of alarms.

Nemesure, S.; Marr, G.; Shrey, T.; Kling, N.; Hammons, L.; Ingrassia, P.; D'Ottavio, T.

2011-03-28

102

HYBRID ALARM SYSTEMS: COMBINING SPATIAL ALARMS AND ALARM LISTS FOR OPTIMIZED CONTROL ROOM OPERATION  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.

Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky

2012-07-01

103

Grass and surface soils as monitors of atmospheric metal pollution in Central Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hypothesis has been proposed that some respiratory disease could be causally related to air pollution by metals. To investigate more fully the suggested link between such pollution and respiratory disease in towns in central Scotland, a large number of sites for monitoring the pattern of air pollution within each town was required. The levels of metals in indigenous samplers,

F. A. Gailey; O. L. L. Lloyd

1985-01-01

104

Yearly Extraction of Central America's Land Cover for Carbon Flux Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideal remote sensor land cover extraction for national to regional carbon flux monitoring constitutes highly accurate change detection on an annual basis, a challenge magnified in the cloud-occluded tropics. Focusing on seven Central American countries from Belize to Panama, this study tested the feasibility of yearly land cover extraction from MODIS surface reflectance composites, ancillary land cover maps, and country-produced

Jason A. Tullis; Jackson D. Cothren; Daniel E. Irwin; Carey P. Yeager; W. Fredrick Limp; John M. Wilson; Bruce E. Gorham; Stephen Ogle

2007-01-01

105

Intraoperative monitoring to preserve central visual fields during occipital corticectomy for epilepsy.  

PubMed

Photic driving using a flashing strobe light was recorded via intracranial electrodes in two patients with occipital epilepsy being evaluated for surgery. The same technique was used to monitor the visual cortex intraoperatively. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were also obtained using the intracranial electrodes in one patient. Preoperative photic driving occurred in a separate location from the cortical areas producing ictal epileptiform activity. VEPs were located in the same site as photic driving. Photic driving was monitored throughout the resection and remained unaffected at the end of each procedure. Postoperative visual field testing in both patients showed preservation of central vision although some reduction in peripheral fields was seen. Intraoperative monitoring of the visual cortex using photic stimulation proved to be a reliable technique for preserving central vision during occipital lobe surgery. PMID:10833622

Curatolo, J M; Macdonell, R A; Berkovic, S F; Fabinyi, G C

2000-05-01

106

Minimum fire alarm sound pressure level for elder care centres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some building occupants cannot hear the activated fire alarm nor can they recognize the alarm, although the fire alarm system has been installed to the acceptable standard. Measurements of fire alarm sound pressure levels (SPLs) in five elder care centres showed that the sound output of a fire alarm can be depreciated after installation. The alarm level of a new

L. T. Wong; L. K. Leung

2005-01-01

107

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

108

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

109

Alarm toe switch. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

Ganyard, F.P.

1980-11-18

110

NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).

Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona

2004-01-01

111

An embedded telecommunication cable auto-locating system of guard against theft and alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This system adopted two-level structure that was composed of Cable Monitoring And Controlling Device (CMCD) and Cable Monitoring Center (CMC). CMC receives the alarm data via the MODEM and the telephone net. In this way, the functions of typing the fault point's map, alarming and the cable management can be picked up. CMCD takes the processor chip Atemega128 as the center of the system that adopted the alternating current and direct current on-line switching electricity-supply mode. Also, the system includes four groups of independent power, the relay and the optical isolation to separate the system from the monitoring cable and the telephone net. CMCD accomplishes the cable real-time monitoring, malfunctions auto-locating, telephone voice alarming, long-distance parameters modification, data up-loading, error verifying and the telecommunication room's environment monitoring and so on. The longest distance of monitoring cable is 20 km, and the precision is 1%.

Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Li-yong

2005-12-01

112

Testing alarm-based earthquake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Motivated by a recent resurgence in earthquake predictability research, we present a method for testing alarm-based earthquake predictions. The testing method is based on the Molchan diagram—a plot of miss rate and fraction of space-time occupied by alarm—and is applicable to a wide class of predictions, including probabilistic earthquake forecasts varying in space, time, and magnitude. A single alarm

J. Douglas Zechar; Thomas H. Jordan

2008-01-01

113

Neural Mechanisms of Alarm Pheromone Signaling  

PubMed Central

Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appear to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system.

Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

2013-01-01

114

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

115

Continuous and less invasive central hemodynamic monitoring by blood pressure waveform analysis  

PubMed Central

Blood pressure waveform analysis may permit continuous (i.e., automated) and less invasive (i.e., safer and simpler) central hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit and other clinical settings without requiring any instrumentation beyond what is already in use or available. This practical approach has been a topic of intense investigation for decades and may garner even more interest henceforth due to the evolving demographics as well as recent trends in clinical hemodynamic monitoring. Here, we review techniques that have appeared in the literature for mathematically estimating clinically significant central hemodynamic variables, such as cardiac output, from different blood pressure waveforms. We begin by providing the rationale for pursuing such techniques. We then summarize earlier techniques and thereafter overview recent techniques by our collaborators and us in greater depth while pinpointing both their strengths and weaknesses. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions in the field and a description of some potential clinical applications of the techniques.

Xu, Da

2010-01-01

116

Ambulatory monitoring device for central hemodynamic and ECG signal recording on PCMCI flash memory cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new ambulatory monitoring, universal 4-channel recorder enabling simultaneous collection of ECG and central haemodynamics signals was constructed. The system is based on 80C552 family controller with built-in analogue to digital converters and 20 MB PCMCIA (type II) FLASH MEMORY CARD is used as a data storage. The communication with the system is performed via specialised keys and the small,

G. Cybulski; A. Ksiazkiewicz; W. Lukasik; W. Niewiadomski; T. Palko

1995-01-01

117

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

118

The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discourse on climate change is in part divided between a sense of alarm and a sense of alarmism in assessments of the magnitude and urgency of the problem. The divide in the discourse among climatologists relates to tensions in the use of key phrases to describe climate change. This article reviews evidence to support claims that climate change can

James S. Risbey

2008-01-01

119

T-Farm complex alarm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

Roberts, J.B.

1995-01-01

120

Alarm rates for quality control charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a direct relationship between a single alarm probability and the average run length only for basic Shewhart charts such as the X-chart. Alarm rates are defined in this paper that can be applied with charts such as the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart that base decisions on several observations, not just

Thomas M. Margavio; Michael D. Conerly; William H. Woodall; Laurel G. Drake

1995-01-01

121

Building intelligent alarm systems by combining mathematical models and inductive machine learning techniques Part 2—Sensitivity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier study an approach was described to generate intelligent alarm systems for monitoring ventilation of patients via mathematical simulation and machine learning. However, ventilator settings were not varied. In this study we investigated whether an alarm system could be created with which a satisfactory classification performance could be obtained under a wide variety of ventilator settings, by varying

B Müller; A. Hasman; J. A. Blom

1996-01-01

122

Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

Berger, J.F.

1995-03-01

123

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms.

Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

2013-01-01

124

Central venous sampling for intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring: are peripheral guidelines applicable?  

PubMed

Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring has become an integral adjunct to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. Guidelines for predicting therapeutic excision of all hyperactive parathyroid tissue have been routinely based on peripheral blood samples drawn at various time intervals. Whether these same guidelines can be used to predict success based on central blood draws has not been established. The authors wanted to evaluate whether peripheral criteria were applicable when PTH levels were drawn from a central location. Simultaneous peripheral venous (PV) and central venous (CV) PTH samples were drawn from 64 patients undergoing cervical exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism. Median preexcision PTH was significantly higher centrally at 165 pg/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 101-391 pg/mL) versus peripherally 102 pg/mL (interquartile range, 73-156 pg/mL, P < 0.0001). Postexcision PTH was slightly greater in CV (38 pg/mL; IQR, 24-62) than in PV (29 pg/mL; IQR, 22-51; P < 0.0001). The decrease in intraoperative PTH was compared after excision of an initial gland. Fifty-four of the 64 patients had all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue removed after initial gland resection. Pre- to postexcision ratios for CV and PV were compared using receiver operating characteristic curve methods, and summarized by area under the curve (AUC). PV (AUC = 0.85) appears to be a slightly more sensitive discriminator than CV (AUC = 0.83), although the difference is not statistically significant (P = 0.5). Despite higher absolute values for CV, both peripheral and central sample sites accurately predict outcomes based on established guidelines for intraoperative PTH monitoring. PMID:17674948

Broome, James T; Schrager, Jason J; Bilheimer, Dean; Chambers, Eugene P; Jacobs, J Kenneth; Phay, John

2007-07-01

125

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency...employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable...sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm....

2009-07-01

126

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency...employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable...sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm....

2010-07-01

127

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency...employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable...sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm....

2013-07-01

128

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms...Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire alarm systems capable of promptly...safe evacuation in the event of a...

2013-07-01

129

X-ray monitoring of Classical Novae in the central region of M 31  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent results of the first dedicated monitoring programme for supersoft X-ray source (SSS) states of classical novae (CNe) in the central region of the Andromeda galaxy ({M 31}), performed in high-cadence campaigns with {XMM-Newton } and Chandra. After the first three years we had detected 21 novae in X-rays (17 new), thereby discovering peculiar objects and increasing the number of known {M 31} novae with SSS state to 60. This is the largest sample known in any galaxy and we used it to carry out the first statistical analysis of novae in X-rays. We found several correlations between optical and SSS parameters, and carried out a simulation on the completeness of our monitoring as well as the first nova population study in X-rays. This shows that X-ray surveys of CNe populations are a powerful tool to address the open questions connected to these objects.

Henze, M.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Hernanz, M.; Sala, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Della Valle, M.; Rau, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Burwitz, V.; Greiner, J.

130

2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

None

2011-02-01

131

Spatial variability of air pollution in the vicinity of a permanent monitoring station in central Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong spatial and temporal variability of traffic-related air pollution detected at roadside locations in a number of European cities has raised the question of how representative the site and time period of air quality measurements actually can be. To address this question, a 7-month sampling campaign was carried out on a major road axis (Avenue Leclerc) leading to a very busy intersection (Place Basch) in central Paris, covering the surroundings of a permanent air quality monitoring station. This station has recorded the highest CO and NO x concentrations during recent years in the region of Paris. Diffusive BTX samplers as well as a mobile monitoring unit equipped with real-time CO, NO x and O 3 analysers and meteorological instruments were used to reveal the small-scale pollution gradients and their temporal trends near the permanent monitoring station. The diffusive measurements provided 7-day averages of benzene, toluene, xylene and other hydrocarbons at different heights above the ground and distances from the kerb covering summer and winter periods. Relevant traffic and meteorological data were also obtained on an hourly basis. Furthermore, three semi-empirical dispersion models (STREET-SRI, OSPM and AEOLIUS) were tested for an asymmetric canyon location in Av. Leclerc. The analysis of this comprehensive data set has helped to assess the representativeness of air quality monitoring information.

Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Gonzalez-Flesca, Norbert; Fisher, Bernard E. A.; Pericleous, Koulis

132

Essays on remote monitoring as an emerging tool for centralized management of decentralized wastewater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the United States Environmental Protections Agency (USEPA), nearly one in four households in the United States depends on an individual septic system (commonly referred as an onsite system or a decentralized wastewater system) to treat and disperse wastewater. More than half of these systems are over 30 years old, and surveys indicate at least 10 to 20% might not be functioning properly. The USEPA concluded in its 1997 report to Congress that adequately managed decentralized wastewater systems (DWS) are a cost-effective and long-term option for meeting public health and water quality goals, particularly in less densely populated areas. The major challenge however is the absence of a guiding national regulatory framework based on consistent performance-based standards and lack of proper management of DWS. These inconsistencies pose a significant threat to our water resources, local economies, and public health. This dissertation addresses key policy and regulatory strategies needed in response to the new realities confronting decentralized wastewater management. The two core objectives of this research are to demonstrate the centralized management of DWS paradigm and to present a scientific methodology to develop performance-based standards (a regulatory shift from prescriptive methods) using remote monitoring. The underlying remote monitoring architecture for centralized DWS management and the value of science-based policy making are presented. Traditionally, prescriptive standards using conventional grab sampling data are the norm by which most standards are set. Three case studies that support the potential of remote monitoring as a tool for standards development and system management are presented. The results revealed a vital role for remote monitoring in the development of standardized protocols, policies and procedures that are greatly lacking in this field. This centralized management and remote monitoring paradigm fits well and complements current USEPA policy (13 elements of management); meets the growing need for qualitative data (objective and numerical); has better time efficiencies as real-time events are sampled and translated into machine-readable signals in a short period of time; allows cost saving rapid response to system recovery and operation; produces labor and economic efficiencies through targeted responses; and, improves the quality and operational costs of any management program. This project was funded by the USEPA grant # C-82878001 as part of the National Onsite Demonstration Project (NODP), West Virginia University.

Solomon, Clement

133

Reducing False Alarm Rates for Critical Arrhythmias Using the Arterial Blood Pressure Waveform  

PubMed Central

Background Over the past two decades, high false alarm (FA) rates have remained an important yet unresolved concern in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). High FA rates lead to desensitization of the attending staff to such warnings, with associated slowing in response times and detrimental decreases in the quality of care for the patient. False arrhythmia alarms are commonly due to single channel ECG artifacts and low voltage signals, and therefore it is likely that the FA rates may be reduced if information from other independent signals is used to form a more robust hypothesis of the alarm’s etiology. Methods A large multi-parameter ICU database (PhysioNet’s MIMIC II database) was used to investigate the frequency of five categories of false critical (“red” or “life-threatening”) ECG arrhythmia alarms produced by a commercial ICU monitoring system, namely: asystole, extreme bradycardia, extreme tachycardia, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia. Non-critical (“yellow”) arrhythmia alarms were not considered in this study. Multiple expert reviews of 5,386 critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from a total of 447 adult patient records in the MIMIC II database were made using the associated 41,301 hours of simultaneous ECG and arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveforms. An algorithm to suppress false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms using morphological and timing information derived from the ABP signal was then tested. Results An average of 42.7% of the critical ECG arrhythmia alarms were found to be false, with each of the five alarm categories having FA rates between 23.1% and 90.7%. The FA suppression algorithm developed was able to suppress 59.7% of the false alarms, with FA reduction rates as high as 93.5% for asystole and 81.0% for extreme bradycardia. FA reduction rates were lowest for extreme tachycardia (63.7%) and ventricular-related alarms (58.2% for ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and 33.0% for ventricular tachycardia). True alarm (TA) reduction rates were all 0%, except for ventricular tachycardia alarms (9.4%). Conclusions The FA suppression algorithm reduced the incidence of false critical ECG arrhythmia alarms from 42.7% to 17.2%, where simultaneous ECG and ABP data were available. The present algorithm demonstrated the potential of data fusion to reduce false ECG arrhythmia alarms in a clinical setting, but the non-zero TA reduction rate for ventricular tachycardia indicates the need for further refinement of the suppression strategy. To avoid suppressing any true alarms, the algorithm could be implemented for all alarms except ventricular tachycardia. Under these conditions the FA rate would be reduced from 42.7% to 22.7%. This implementation of the algorithm should be considered for prospective clinical evaluation. The public availability of a real-world ICU database of multiparameter physiologic waveforms, together with their associated annotated alarms is a new and valuable research resource for algorithm developers.

Aboukhalil, Anton; Nielsen, Larry; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G.; Clifford, Gari D.

2008-01-01

134

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives for the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program was to investigate new methods for immobilizing the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, on selected supports suitable for use in enzyme alarms. Various coupling procedures were developed for glass, nylon and urethane suppo...

H. W. Levin E. S. Erenrich

1976-01-01

135

Technical standard: Nuclear Incident Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

This Standard establishes the requirements for installing and operating Nuclear Incident Alarm Systems in all areas of the Savannah River Plant and Laboratory where fissile material is handled and processed. These systems contain instruments for detecting gamma radiation.

Not Available

1986-01-01

136

Improved protection for alarm communications systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has initiated efforts to identify systems and concepts which are promising for enhanced protection of the alarm communications system against both the insider and outsider adversary. Modules from commercial vendors are being d...

C. D. Jaeger A. Y. Liang

1991-01-01

137

Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.  

PubMed

An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration. PMID:22226338

Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obo?o?czyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

2012-01-01

138

Stochastic modeling to identify requirements for centralized monitoring of distributed wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Distributed (decentralized) wastewater treatment can, in many situations, be a valuable alternative to a centralized sewer network and wastewater treatment plant. However, it is critical for its acceptance whether the same overall treatment performance can be achieved without on-site staff, and whether its performance can be measured. In this paper we argue and illustrate that the system performance depends not only on the design performance and reliability of the individual treatment units, but also significantly on the monitoring scheme, i.e. on the reliability of the process information. For this purpose, we present a simple model of a fleet of identical treatment units. Thereby, their performance depends on four stochastic variables: the reliability of the treatment unit, the respond time for the repair of failed units, the reliability of on-line sensors, and the frequency of routine inspections. The simulated scenarios show a significant difference between the true performance and the observations by the sensors and inspections. The results also illustrate the trade-off between investing in reactor and sensor technology and in human interventions in order to achieve a certain target performance. Modeling can quantify such effects and thereby support the identification of requirements for the centralized monitoring of distributed treatment units. The model approach is generic and can be extended and applied to various distributed wastewater treatment technologies and contexts. PMID:22378004

Hug, T; Maurer, M

2012-01-01

139

The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers  

SciTech Connect

The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

PASSELL, HOWARD D.; BARBER, DAVID S.; BETSILL, J. DAVID; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.; MOHAGHEGHI, AMIR H.; SHANKS, SONOYA T.; YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV,BAJGABYL; VALENTINA,ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN,VLADIMIR; POZNIAK,VICTOR

2002-04-02

140

Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect: a case for central venous pressure and oxygen saturation monitoring.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old patient with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) was admitted to the hospital for tubal ligation. Invasive arterial and central venous (CVP) pressure, pulse oximetric oxygen saturation (SpO2), and (from the tip of oximetric central venous catheter) central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and oxygen extraction rate (ExO2) were continuously monitored. Heart rate (range: 68-75 beat/min), mean arterial pressure (80-90 mmHg), CVP (7-10 mmHg), SpO2 (79-90 percent), ScvO2 (57-70 percent), and ExO2 (21-30 percent) remained stable during epidural anesthesia and transvaginal sterilization. Following an overnight stay (peak SpO2 92 percent; peak ScvO2 71 percent; through ExO2 21 percent), the oxygen data returned to baseline on awakening (SpO2 < 80 percent, ScvO2 < 55 percent, ExO2 > 35 percent), and the patient was discharged. In PA-VSD, a single-outlet double-ventricle anomaly, CVP reflects the preload of systemic ventricle. As the mixed venous oxygen saturation cannot be defined, ScvO2 is the best available indicator of the whole body oxygen consumption. Continuous monitoring of CVP, ScvO2 and ExO2 in the superior vena cava may provide more insight into the response to anesthesia and surgery in patients with PA-VSD. PMID:9713951

Weiss, B M; Atanassoff, P G; Jenni, R; Walder, B; Wight, E

1998-01-01

141

Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

2014-03-01

142

Is there a hypersensitive visual alarm system in panic disorder?  

PubMed

Agoraphobia in panic disorder (PD) has been related to abnormal balance system function. Vision influences balance and behavioural adaptations; peripheral vision influences orienting and fast defensive reactions whereas central vision analyzes details of objects. We have hypothesized that the abnormal balance function in PD could be mainly related to peripheral vision as part of a defensive alarm system in the brain. In 25 patients with PD and agoraphobia and 31 healthy controls we assessed, by posturography, balance system reactivity to video-films projected in peripheral and central visual fields (randomized sequence). Length, velocity and surface of body sway were calculated. Patients increased their body sway during peripheral stimulation, whereas controls did not; the two groups showed a similar increase of body sway during central stimulation. Anxiety levels during peripheral stimulation significantly influenced the postural response in the group of patients. These preliminary results suggest that the higher visual sensitivity to peripheral stimulation in patients with PD and agoraphobia may be linked to a more active "visual alarm system" involving visual, vestibular and limbic areas that might influence the development of agoraphobia in situations where environmental stimuli are uncertain. PMID:21477868

Caldirola, Daniela; Teggi, Roberto; Bondi, Stefano; Lopes, Fabiana Leao; Grassi, Massimiliano; Bussi, Mario; Perna, Giampaolo

2011-05-30

143

Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

None

2008-04-01

144

Functional Alarming and Information Retrieval.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with two facets of the design and efficient utilisation by operating personnel of computer-based interfaces for monitoring and the supervisory control of complex industrial systems - e.g., power stations, chemical plants, etc. These are a...

L. P. Goodstein

1985-01-01

145

Non-invasive monitoring of central blood pressure by electrical impedance tomography: first experimental evidence.  

PubMed

There is a strong clinical demand for devices allowing continuous non-invasive monitoring of central blood pressure (BP). In the state of the art a new family of techniques providing BP surrogates based on the measurement of the so-called pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been proposed, eliminating the need for inflation cuffs. PWV is defined as the velocity at which pressure pulses propagate along the arterial wall. However, no technique to assess PWV within central arteries in a fully unsupervised manner has been proposed so far. In this pilot study, we provide first experimental evidence that electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is capable of measuring pressure pulses directly within the descending aorta. To obtain a wide range of BP values, we administrated noradrenalin and nitroglycerine to an anesthetized pig under mechanical ventilation. An arterial line was inserted into the ascending aorta for measuring reference BP. EIT images were generated from 32 impedance electrodes placed around the chest at the level of the axilla. Regions of Interest (ROI) such as the descending aorta and the lungs were automatically identified by a novel time-based processing algorithm as the respective EIT pixels representing these structures. The correct positions of these ROIs were confirmed by bolus injections of highly conductive concentrated saline into the right heart and into the ascending aorta. Aortic pulse transit time (PTT) values were determined as the delay between the opening of the aortic valve (obtained from arterial line) and the arrival of pressure pulses at the aortic ROI within the EIT plane. For 11 experimental conditions, with mean BP ranging from 73 to 141 mmHg, strongly significant correlation (r = -0.97, P < 0.00001) between central BP and aortic PTT was observed, suggesting that EIT-derived aortic PTT is a potential non-invasive surrogate of central BP. PMID:21404079

Solà, Josep; Adler, Andy; Santos, Arnoldo; Tusman, Gerardo; Sipmann, Fernando Suárez; Bohm, Stephan H

2011-04-01

146

LIDAR monitoring of mass wasting processes: The Radicofani landslide, Province of Siena, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radicofani Basin, stretching about 30 km NW-SE, is an intra-Central Apennine basin connected to Pliocene-Pleistocene extensional tectonics. It consists of an Early to Middle Pliocene succession including essentially shelf pelites. In the Radicofani area, province of Siena (Tuscany region), morphodynamic processes are very frequent with widespread badlands and rapidly evolving mudflows. In order to evaluate the general instability of the Radicofani area, geological and geomorphological surveys were carried out. The 1954, 1990 and 2003 aerial surveys allowed a comparison of the changes in the various morphological aspects of the study area, which suggested an increase in slope instability with time. A new complex translational landslide evolving into mudflows, activated during the winter of 2003, was monitored using an experimental system based on terrestrial LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies. This system allowed the monitoring of the morphologic and volumetric evolution of the landslide. A comparison of the monitoring data of October 2004, June 2005, May 2006 and May 2007 points out that the evolution is characterised by the sliding of displaced materials. A volume of about 1300 m 3 of materials was removed during the period 2004-2005, 300 m 3 for 2005-2006, and 400 m 3 for 2006-2007. The greater initial mass movement probably reflects a greater static imbalance during the early period of landslide movement and increased rainfall. Therefore, the proposed monitoring system methodology allows the numerical evaluation of the landslide morphological evolution and to validate the landslide evolution model based on geological and geomorphological field surveys.

Baldo, Marco; Bicocchi, Claudio; Chiocchini, Ugo; Giordan, Daniele; Lollino, Giorgio

2009-04-01

147

Structural damage alarming using auto-associative neural network technique: Exploration of environment-tolerant capacity and setup of alarming threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the intention of avoiding false-positive and false-negative alarms in structural damage alarming using the auto-associative neural network (AANN) technique, two issues pertaining to this technique are addressed in this study. The first issue explored is the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN. Efforts have been made to seek a generalization technique to enhance the environment-tolerant capacity. First, a baseline AANN model is formulated using the conventional training algorithm. Generalization techniques including AIC and FPE, early stopping, and Bayesian regularization are then investigated, resulting in three new AANN models. Their environment-tolerant capacity is evaluated as per their capability to avoid false-positive and false-negative alarms. The other issue addressed is the setup of alarming threshold, with intent to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming. A procedure based on the probability analysis of the novelty index is proposed for this purpose. First, the novelty index characterizing the intact structure is analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test to obtain its best-fit continuous probability distribution. A confidence interval is then defined in consideration of the compromise between type I and type II errors. The alarming threshold of the novelty index is consequently set at the upper limit of the confidence interval. The above explorations are examined by using the long-term monitoring data on modal properties of the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. The capability to eliminate false-positive alarm is verified by using unseen testing data which were not used in formulating the AANN models, while the capability to alleviate false-negative alarm is examined by using simulated data from the 'damaged' bridge with the help of a precise finite element model. The study indicates that the early stopping technique performs best in improving the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN, and the alarming threshold set by the proposed procedure helps to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming.

Zhou, H. F.; Ni, Y. Q.; Ko, J. M.

2011-07-01

148

Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates obtained for the years 1993, 2000 and 2011, were subjected to a trend analysis (Theil-Sen) to assess changes in the series. The results showed that in the semi-arid central Plateau, since 1993 to 2011, the forests and thornscrub have lost 10% of their surface. In stark contrast, urban areas have been increased in 5%. The desertification map showed that 30% of the analyzed surface presents a low desertification condition, 40% half, 20% high and 10% extreme. Forests and thornscrub are the most vulnerable areas to deforestation and hence desertification. Results themselves, suggests that desertification process must be examined in spatiotemporal scale and remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor and analyze this phenomena.

Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

2013-05-01

149

Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

150

New data mining technique to enhance IDS alarms quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrusion detection systems (IDSs) generate large number of alarms most of which are false positives. Fortunately, there\\u000a are reasons for triggering alarms where most of these reasons are not attacks. In this paper, a new data mining technique\\u000a has been developed to group alarms and to produce clusters. Hereafter, each cluster abstracted as a generalized alarm. The\\u000a generalized alarms

Safaa O. Al-Mamory; Hongli Zhang

2010-01-01

151

Impact of the introduction of fetal central monitoring on hospital expenses with cardiotocographic paper.  

PubMed

Digital storage of cardiotocographic (CTG) tracings by fetal central monitoring systems (fCMS) obviates the need for printing, or alternatively, the tracings can be printed in regular paper instead of CTG thermal paper. We aimed at evaluating the impact of the introduction of the Omniview-SisPorto(®) system on CTG paper costs in a large university hospital. After introduction of the fCMS, there was an 87% reduction in median annual expenses with CTG paper in the labour ward (p = 0.011) and a 78% decrease in the prenatal clinic (p = 0.017), despite a more than 40% increase in the median number of observed women. Routine use of fCMS may provide an important reduction in hospital expenses associated with the use of thermal CTG paper, thus reducing the investment made in their acquisition and maintenance. PMID:24359058

Amorim-Costa, C; Ayres-de-Campos, D; Costa-Santos, C; Bernardes, J

2014-01-01

152

Vibration monitoring for predictive maintenance in central energy plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Equipment maintenance and unexpected downtime resulting from equipment failure can make up a significant part of the cost of running a central heating plant (CHP). As with most rotating equipment, the machinery in CHPs often suffers from the effects of vibration. A predictive maintenance program uses vibrational analysis to deal with potential vibration problems by monitoring vibration electronically, and by using regular measurements to distinguish between normal and exceptional vibration signals. Since vibrational analysis can help predict component failure, those parts identified as defective can be scheduled for repair or replacement during planned equipment shutdowns, rather than during costly emergency downtime due to equipment failure. Vibrational analysis can also be used as a tuning device for rotating equipment, as a way to pinpoint and reduce machine inefficiencies, thus reducing operating costs. This study identified specific CHP plant equipment that could benefit from a predictive maintenance program that uses vibration analysis, and outlined the steps to implement such a program for Army CHPS. This report also lists vendors and equipment specifications for predictive maintenance systems. Vibration analysis, Central heating plants, Predictive maintenance.

Moshage, R.; Bowman, L.; Bethea, C.; Chesser, R.; Burch, D.

1993-09-01

153

Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

Varela Rodriguez, F.

2011-12-01

154

Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 ?m) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1-3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification.

Fuller, Christina H.; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige L.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Durant, John L.; Spengler, John D.

2012-09-01

155

Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 - 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification. PMID:23645993

Fuller, Christina H; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L; Spengler, John D

2012-09-01

156

Re-establishment of long-term glacier monitoring in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier mass balance is an important indicator of climate change. The internationally recommended multi-level strategy for monitoring mountain glaciers combines in-situ measurements (mass balance, front variations) with remote sensing (inventories) and numerical modelling. This helps to bridge the gap between detailed local process-oriented studies and global coverage. Several glaciers in Central Asia, i.e. Abramov and Golubina Glacier were some of the most important reference glaciers in the world-wide glacier monitoring program representing important mountain ranges, such as the Pamir-Alay and the Tien Shan mountains. For these glaciers long-term series of more than 20 years are available. After the break-down of the former Soviet Union, most of the measurements were abandoned. In a cooperative effort between the countries Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Germany and Switzerland, the measurement series are currently re-initiated and will be continued within the next years. This study shows the measurement strategy and network, and discusses new installations, which have been set up at Abramov in summer 2011 and Golubina Glacier in summer 2010. The research strategy is composed of three main components. The first component is based on mass balance measurements using the glaciological method, the second relies on snow line observations with installed automatic cameras taking several pictures per day in order to document the snow line evolution on the glaciers during the summer months. The third is the application of a mass balance model driven by a nearby automatic weather station. The advantage of this strategy is that the three different components can be used to test them against each other, or to use them for calibration purposes. A second objective of the re-established glacier monitoring programs is to reconstruct the mass balance for the time period, where no measurements are available. Continuous mass balance series for each glacier will be derived based on a well calibrated mass balance model.

Hoelzle, M.; Azisov, E.; Barandun, M.; Hagg, W.; Huss, M.; Kriegel, D.; Machguth, H.; Mandychev, A.; Merkushkin, A.; Moldobekov, B.; Schöne, T.; Thoss, H.; Vorogushyn, S.; Zemp, M.

2012-04-01

157

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOEpatents

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

158

ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE  

SciTech Connect

Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

2012-07-01

159

Determination of the response function for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm system neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron-sensitive radiation detectors are used in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s (PORTS) criticality accident alarm system (CAAS). The CAAS is composed of numerous detectors, electronics, and logic units. It uses a telemetry system to sound building evacuation horns and to provide remote alarm status in a central control facility. The ANSI Standard for a CAAS uses a free-in-air dose rate

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; A. S. Brown; M. C. Dobelbower; J. E. Woollard

1997-01-01

160

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives For the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of glass beads, modified starch urethane pads, nylon and urethane enzyme products which passed wash-out resistance were sent to Edgewood Arsenal. Glass bead products and nylon products do not seem suitable for the alarm. Urethane pads including ch...

H. W. Levin E. S. Erenrich

1975-01-01

161

EARTHQUAKE ALARM SYSTEMS IN JAPAN RAILWAYS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a history of research and development concerning earthquake disaster prevention systems in Japan railways. Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) has established a new algorithm in evaluating quickly seismic source parameters (magnitude and epicenter location) from the initial part of P waves and developed a new earthquake quick alarm system (EQAS) which utilizes prompt earthquake information that will

Kimitoshi ASHIYA

162

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

163

The ERS-1 Central Africa Mosaic: a new perspective in radar remote sensing for the global monitoring of vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Africa Mosaic Project (CAMP) is an attempt to bring spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing into an entirely new perspective for tropical forest monitoring, this goal represents a drastic change in the use of radar data, as it brings high-resolution SAR from the role of gap-filler and local hot spot analysis to the role of global mapping

Gianfranco De Grandi; Jean-Paul Malingreau; Marc Leysen

1999-01-01

164

The monitor and control system for the grain depot based on the algorithm of flexible logic centralized fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the storage of grain, its quality can be influenced by temperature, humidity, oxygen, microorganisms, insects and other factors. It is necessary to protect the storage quality of grain through real-time monitoring these parameters and analyzing their influences. An algorithm is proposed based on flexible logic centralized fusion to study the evaluation method of overall temperature in grain heap. According

Xingxing Cheng; Zhixiao Yang; Dexian Zhang

2010-01-01

165

Volcanic unrest of the Colli Albani (central Italy) detected by GPS monitoring test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colli Albani volcanic complex, located in central Italy about 15 km SE of Rome, has been dominated by periodic eruptive histories started about 561 ka and ending with the most recent and voluminous activity of the Albano maar (<70 ka) phase. Earthquakes of moderate intensity, gas emissions and significant ground deformations are the recent evidences of a residual activity. We decided to start a monitoring test by installing as first step three GPS permanent stations on the volcanic structure, in sites easily accessible. The analysis of about 2 years of GPS observations has evidenced a peculiar velocity pattern of the Colli Albani stations with respect to those located nearby, but outside the volcano edifice. With respect to Eurasia, the horizontal velocities are NE directed with magnitudes of 2.2 ± 1.4 mm/year (RDPI), 3.0 ± 0.8 mm/year (RMPO) and 3.3 ± 1.2 mm/year (NEMI). The uplift rates are determined with minor accuracy and range from 3.3 and 6.0 mm/year. We used a non-linear inversion algorithm to determine the best-fit parameters for a Mogi spherical source based on the Levenberg-Marquardt least squares approach. The best-fit is obtained with a source at 4.6 km depth beneath the western flank of the volcano and a volume variation of 3.6 × 10 -4 km 3/year. This result is in agreement with the volume rate retrieved by PS-InSAR technique and rather different from the rate inferred from leveling surveys. Consequently, non-linear trends of the hydrothermal system charge cannot be excluded apriori and the continuous GPS monitoring should be considered a priority in assessing the hazard of the Colli Albani.

Riguzzi, F.; Pietrantonio, G.; Devoti, R.; Atzori, S.; Anzidei, M.

2009-11-01

166

The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (Central Europe) - Five Years of Seismo-Hydrological Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone - generally a NW-SE striking reverse fault - is a major fault zone forming the NE border of the Bohemian Massif. The zone is located in the center of the SE part of the important central European tectonic structure - the Elbe Fault system. The Bohemian Massif in general is a region with a weak intraplate seismicity. Two areas are exceptions - the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region and the Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (HPFZ). The HPFZ is a result of long-lasting evolution since the late Paleozoic with several tectonic phases. The contemporary HPFZ consist of a main reverse fault (thrust) accompanied by parallel or oblique normal or reverse faults. The fault zone is still tectonically active, the relatively frequent weak local earthquakes being one of the proofs of this activity. The strongest earthquake registered within the HPFZ was the January 1901 earthquake with the magnitude of 4.6. Another proof of the mobility is a presence of CO2-rich mineral springs in the area. The hydrogeological and seismic monitoring in the area aims to find possible connections between changes in the ground water level and seismic events. The hydrological changes are monitored in four wells by water level sensors. The ground water level is measured every 10 minutes, the air pressure every hour. The sesimicity is monitored by four broadband seismic stations (CHVC, DPC, OSTC and UPC) with sampling frequency of 100 or 250 Hz. The recorded data are automatically scanned for possible local earthquakes which are then reviewed by seismologists and further processed. Several distinct ground water level changes were observed on one well before some of the local earthquakes. Very distinct ground water level changes were also observed on one well before the Tohoku M 9.0 earthquake. In addition to a simple examination of variations in a ground water level we also compute a phase shift (delay) between the band-passed filtered water level and theoretical tides. Changes in the delay could indicate changes in stress conditions of the rock massif. In the period of increased seismic activity the phase shift on one of the wells significantly increases compared to the period of seismic inactivity. However, the possible connections between changes in water levels and earthquakes still could not be satisfactorily proved and explained.

Valenta, J.; Kolinsky, P.; Gazdova, R.

2013-12-01

167

Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation in Nuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NM departments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collected information about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on the wrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q and Hp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses always were absorbed by those staff members who were involved in sources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time period was 4.22 mSv for Hp(10)a and 67.7 mSv for Hp(0.07)a. In 2011 no case of exceeding the allowed dose limits was noted. PMID:24068634

Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, S?awomir; Krajewski, Pawe?

2013-01-01

168

Studying the NDVI dynamics features for vegetation monitoring method development in the south of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of vegetation state can be based on studying their dynamics features. Effective methods of satellite data interpretation using spectral feature distinctions should be applied for this purpose. Studying the time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during growth period is one of such approaches. The analysis of NDVI temporal profile shape allows to identify vegetation objects on satellite image. The NDVI curve transformation regularities during growth period are studied in the process of study carried out. Growth rate in specific phenological phases (growth of vegetative organs; maturation and fruiting) and extreme NDVI values during total growth period are detected. Growth rate is calculated as a NDVI curve slope. The NDVI dynamics of different vegetation types (agricultural crops - wheat, oats, buckwheat; abandoned fields of different age, meadow steppe, stony steppe, feather-grass steppe, flood meadow etc.), located in the south of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai, Khakasia), has been derived and analyzed. Results of this study are as the basis for developed software, which produces the automatic identification of canopy using Terra Modis satellite measurement data.

Pugacheva, Irina

169

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2013-10-01

170

46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 169.730 Section 169.730 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.730 General alarm bell switch. On vessels...

2013-10-01

171

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2013-10-01

172

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

173

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

1990-06-01

174

Alarm fatigue: a roadmap for mitigating the cacophony of beeps.  

PubMed

The phenomenon known as alarm fatigue is the direct result of excessive alarms in hospitals. This article highlights the effects of alarm fatigue and reviews current clinical recommendations and guidelines to raise nurse awareness and provide tools to combat the problem. PMID:24310707

Purbaugh, Thomas

2014-01-01

175

46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

2013-10-01

176

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2010-10-01

177

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2009-10-01

178

Alarm Clustering for Intrusion Detection Systems in Computer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, network administrators manually arranged alarms produced by Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to attain a high- level description of threats. As the number of alarms is increasingly grow- ing, automatic tools for alarm clustering have been proposed to provide such a high level description of the attack scenario. In addition, it has been shown that eectiv e threat analysis

Giorgio Giacinto; Roberto Perdisci; Fabio Roli

2005-01-01

179

Improved correlation analysis and visualization of industrial alarm data.  

PubMed

The problem of multivariate alarm analysis and rationalization is complex and important in the area of smart alarm management due to the interrelationships between variables. The technique of capturing and visualizing the correlation information, especially from historical alarm data directly, is beneficial for further analysis. In this paper, the Gaussian kernel method is applied to generate pseudo continuous time series from the original binary alarm data. This can reduce the influence of missed, false, and chattering alarms. By taking into account time lags between alarm variables, a correlation color map of the transformed or pseudo data is used to show clusters of correlated variables with the alarm tags reordered to better group the correlated alarms. Thereafter correlation and redundancy information can be easily found and used to improve the alarm settings; and statistical methods such as singular value decomposition techniques can be applied within each cluster to help design multivariate alarm strategies. Industrial case studies are given to illustrate the practicality and efficacy of the proposed method. This improved method is shown to be better than the alarm similarity color map when applied in the analysis of industrial alarm data. PMID:22503464

Yang, F; Shah, S L; Xiao, D; Chen, T

2012-07-01

180

A personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm  

SciTech Connect

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer(SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to don either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine, nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to don either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. The authors report on the development of a prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL.

Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

1989-01-01

181

ZoneAlarm 8.0.065  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ZoneAlarm is a piece of firewall software designed to protect computers from hackers. It features four interlocking security services, including an application control, an Internet lock, and a firewall. The program also includes an easy-to-use wizard device which will help less-experienced users with setting up the program. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP and newer.

2009-01-01

182

Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily cycle in radon concentration, with minina occurring in the afternoon, around 19h00 (local time) and maxima in the morning (around 7h00). No significant changes in soil-gas radon concentrations were observed for any of the stations at the moment of the explosions or in the following minutes. The most probable explanation for this fact is the absence of a progressive stress field affecting the rock, as likely occurs before an earthquake.

Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio

2010-05-01

183

Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

2008-12-01

184

Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms  

DOEpatents

An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

2013-06-11

185

Army Heart Monitor -- Model Iv.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Model IV of the Army Heart Monitor is an electronic device that monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG); sounds an alarm on diagnosing a high or low heart rate, excess electrical noise, cardiac arrest, or ventricular fibrillation; and displays the diagnosis ...

C. W. Ragsdale

1970-01-01

186

Clinical alarm hazards: a "top ten" health technology safety concern.  

PubMed

For the past several years ECRI Institute has published a list of Top Ten Health Technology Hazards. This list is based on ECRI's extensive research in health technology safety and on data provided to its problemreporting systems. For every year that the Top Ten list has been published, Alarm Hazards have been at or near the top of the list. Improving alarm safety requires a systematic review of a hospital's alarm-based technologies and analysis of alarm management policies like alarm escalation strategies and staffing patterns. It also requires careful selection of alarm setting criteria for each clinical care area. This article will overview the clinical alarm problems that have been identified through ECRI Institute's research and analysis of various problem reporting databases, including those operated by ECRI Institute. It will also highlight suggestions for improvement, particularly from a technology design and technology management perspective. PMID:23022300

Keller, James P

2012-01-01

187

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

2013-02-01

188

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Zubovich, A.

2012-06-01

189

Modeling human false alarms using clutter metrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TSSIM clutter metrics correlate amazingly well to both the experimental detection probabilities and the mean detection time. Based on the analysis of both probabilities of the correct detections and of the total (correct and false) number of detections made by human observers, a mathematical formula for predicting the probability of false alarms as a function of clutter metrics is presented in this paper. Comparing real experimental data with the predicted products reveal very good agreement, which is very helpful in understanding human behavior mechanisms regarding target detection tasks. It is concluded that the human observer behaves as fixed threshold signal processor /Non-CFAR.

Chang, Honghua; Zhang, Jianqi; Liu, Delian

2007-11-01

190

Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a good basis for successful functioning of the equipment.

Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

2012-12-01

191

Hypoxia: an alarm signal during intestinal inflammation  

PubMed Central

Intestinal epithelial cells that line the mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract are positioned between an anaerobic lumen and a highly metabolic lamina propria. As a result of this unique anatomy, intestinal epithelial cells function within a steep physiologic oxygen gradient relative to other cell types. Furthermore, during active inflammatory disease such as IBD, metabolic shifts toward hypoxia are severe. Studies in vitro and in vivo have shown that the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) serves as an alarm signal for the resolution of inflammation in various murine disease models. Amelioration of disease occurs, at least in part, through transcriptional up-regulation of non-classical epithelial barrier genes. There is much recent interest in harnessing hypoxia-inducible pathways, including targeting the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and the proyl-hydroxylase enzyme (which stabilizes HIF), for therapy of IBD. Here, we review the signaling pathways involved and define how hypoxia may serve as an endogenous alarm signal for mucosal inflammatory disease. We also discuss the upside and potential downsides of targeting these pathways to treat patients with IBD.

Colgan, Sean P.; Taylor, Cormac T.

2014-01-01

192

Monitoring of Bashkara glacial lakes (the Central Caucasus) and modelling of their potential outburst.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades due to glacier retreat the glacial lakes in the Central Caucasus, as well as in other high-mountainous areas of the world, have expanded intensively. As result the risk of lake outbursts and destructive floods is raising. In this paper we present one of the most potentially hazardous lakes of this region - a group of glacial lakes near the Bashkara glacier in the upper Adylsu river valley, to the southeast of Mt. Elbrus. Total area of these lakes is about 100,000m2, and a total volume exceeds 1,000,000 m3. The biggest of them - the Bashkara lake has formed in late 1930s - early 1940s and the small Lapa lake has appeared in the end of 1980s. The Bashkara lake outburst occurred twice in the end of 1950s and produced devastating debris flows of ca. 2 million m3. We have monitored these lakes since 1999. Our work includes detailed field research: constant measurements of water level during warm period, annually repeated bathymetric surveys, geodetic surveys, observations on dam condition and some special measurements (i.e. water temperature distribution, current velocity). Also we use aerial and satellite images to obtain data about dynamic of areas for the lakes. From 2001 to 2006 years volume of the Lapa lake has increased 5 times (from 30,000 m3 to 140,000 m3), the Bashkara lake in this period was quasi-stable. In 2006-2008 volume of the Lapa lake has decreased due to sedimentation, however, rapid growth of water level in Bashkara lake (more than 20 sm. per day) has suddenly begun. As a result, volume of the Bashkara lake exceeded 1,000000 m3 in July 2008 whereas in 2001 -2007 year it was about 800,000 m3. Previous maximum of water level was exceeded on 3,5 m, moraine dam with ice core was overtopped and overflow has started. Thus, Bashkara glacier lakes are unstable and risk of outburst is increasing. To assess parameters and zones of potential outburst flood in the Adylsu River valley we have carried out hydrodynamic simulation. Two computer models, based on solving of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations -"River" (the Russia, author V.Belikov) and "Flo-2D" (the USA, authors J.S.O'Brien, R.Garcia) were used. The "River" model is based on the irregular triangular grid, therefore it is possible to calculate flow in details. On the other hand there is no debris flow block in this model yet and "Flo-2D" was applied to calculate potential debris flow parameters, because transformation of flood into debris flow is likely here. Input data for simulation were following: digital terrain model of Adylsu valley, made on the on the basis of map with scale 1:25000, outburst hydrograph, calculated for case of englacial drainage channels formation (Vinogradov's model, Russia), some empirical relationships between volume of the glacial lake and maximum discharge of outburst (i.e. Clague and Mathews, Walder and Costa) were also applied. The mean value of the maximum discharge for potential outburst obtained by different methods was about 150 m3 /c. According to results of hydrodynamic modelling, movement of flood wave downstream the valley will be fast, peak of flood will cover distance from upper part of valley to lowest (8 km) for about half an hour. The depth of the flow on the floodplain is about 1-1.5 m and could reach 6 m in some sites. There are hotel, large camping site and several bridges in the hazardous zone. In 2008 early warning system was designed and installed at the Bashkara lake.

Krylenko, I.; Norin, S.; Petrakov, D.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.

2009-04-01

193

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

194

Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs  

SciTech Connect

Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

Justus, Alan Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

195

Real-time analysis of alarm pheromone emission by the pea aphid (acyrthosiphon pisum) under predation.  

PubMed

Upon attack by predators or parasitoids, aphids emit volatile chemical alarm signals that warn other aphids of a potential risk of predation. Release rate of the major constituent of the alarm pheromone in pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), (E)-b-farnesene (EBF), was measured for all nymphal and the adult stage as aphids were attacked individually by lacewing (Chrysoperla carnae) larvae. Volatilization of EBF from aphids under attack was quantified continuously for 60 min at 2-min intervals with a rapid gas chromatography technique (zNose) to monitor headspace emissions. After an initial burst, EBF volatilization declined exponentially, and detectable amounts were still present after 30 min in most cases. Total emission of EBF averaged 16.33 +/- 1.54 ng and ranged from 1.18 to 48.85 ng. Emission was higher in nymphs as compared to adults. No differences between pea aphid life stages were detected for their speed of alarm signal emission in response to lacewing larvae attack. This is the first time that alarm pheromone emission from single aphids has been reported. PMID:18092189

Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Kunert, Grit; Stephan, Claudia; David, Anja; Röse, Ursula S R; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2008-01-01

196

Structural Damage Alarm Utilizing Modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage alarm is an important step among structure damage identification. Its objective is to evaluate the structure health. The existing damage alarm methods are mostly based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks without thinking over testing noise. Therefore, in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional Back-Propagation Neural Networks, a modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks was proposed for structure damage alarm system in this paper. The experiment results of steel truss girder bridge show that the improved method is better than BPNN for structural damage alarm.

Dong, Xiaoma

197

Clinical engineering's role in managing clinical alarm risk.  

PubMed

This manuscript highlights the role that clinical engineering can play to minimize the risk of problems associated with clinical alarms. AAMI held a town meeting on clinical alarm management and integration during its 2005 Annual Conference & Expo. The meeting highlighted some excellent suggestions on how the whole concept of improving clinical alarm design and implementation must be addressed in a systematic way. Examples of how the clinical engineering profession can contribute to this effort include participation in more AAMI town hall meetings and other conferences, providing design suggestions to medical device manufacturers, and participation in the development of alarm-related standards. PMID:16544791

Keller, Jim

2006-01-01

198

Dual sensitivity mode system for monitoring processes and sensors  

DOEpatents

A method and system for analyzing a source of data. The system and method involves initially training a system using a selected data signal, calculating at least two levels of sensitivity using a pattern recognition methodology, activating a first mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source, activating a second mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source and generating a first alarm signal upon the first mode of sensitivity detecting an alarm condition and a second alarm signal upon the second mode of sensitivity detecting an associated alarm condition. The first alarm condition and second alarm condition can be acted upon by an operator and/or analyzed by a specialist or computer program.

Wilks, Alan D. (Mount Prospect, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL)

2000-01-01

199

[Monitoring of the levels of metals in the bottom sediments of rivers in the central area of the Orenburg Region].  

PubMed

Among the pollutants of the biosphere, heavy metals present the greatest hazard since they show a high stability and toxicity and are able to migrate in the water ecosystems and to accumulate in the bottom sediments and hydrocoles, by impairing the stability of hydrobiocenoses. Chemical monitoring of the level of bottom sediments of rivers was made in the Central district of the Orenburg Region. Samples were taken at 11 stations of the Central district of the region and 5 stations in a district of Orenburg. The analysis of the findings indicated that the content of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium in the bottom sediment samples was not greater than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) at any station and that of nickel did not exceed MPC by 1.3-2.6 times. PMID:20143493

Solovykh, G N; Golinskaia, L V; Shustova, N V

2009-01-01

200

Community social alarm network in Slovenia.  

PubMed

The article deals with a case report on the technology transfer of the Lifeline community social alarm system to Slovenia. The main reason the project was initiated is the ageing of the Slovenian population (11% of the population is 65 or over). With this system we intend to support the public's wish to allow the elderly to remain in their own homes for as long as possible instead of placing them in institutional care. Between 1992 and 1995 the following results were achieved: the acceptability of the system in the social environment was increased; a pilot control centre in Ljubljana was established and has been operational for two-and-a-half years; a national dissemination plan was prepared; the integration of the programme into other information systems has been started. One of the main conclusions is that for the successful transfer of a technology which also affects social values in society, a social innovation must support the process. PMID:8997529

Premik, M; Rudel, D

1996-12-01

201

Some comments on GMTI false alarm rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A typical Ground Moving Target Indicator (GMTI) radar specification includes the parameters Probability of Detection (PD) - typically on the order of 0.85, and False Alarm Rate (FAR) - typically on the order of 0.1 Hz. The PD is normally associated with a particular target 'size', such as Radar Cross Section (RCS) with perhaps some statistical description (e.g. Swerling number). However, the concept of FAR is embodied at a fundamental level in the detection process, which traditionally employs a Constant-FAR (CFAR) detector to set thresholds for initial decisions on whether a target is present or not. While useful, such a metric for radar specification and system comparison is not without some serious shortcomings. In particular, when comparing FAR across various radar systems, some degree of normalization needs to occur to account for perhaps swath width and scan rates. This in turn suggests some useful testing strategies.

Doerry, A. W.

2011-05-01

202

The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.  

PubMed Central

Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture.

Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

1995-01-01

203

X-ray monitoring of classical novae in the central region of M 31. II. Autumn and winter 2007\\/2008 and 2008\\/2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Classical novae (CNe) represent the major class of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) in the central region of the galaxy M 31. Aims: We performed a dedicated monitoring of the M 31 central region with XMM-Newton and Chandra between Nov. 2007 and Feb. 2008 and between Nov. 2008 and Feb. 2009, respectively, to find SSS counterparts of CNe, determine the

M. Henze; W. Pietsch; F. Haberl; M. Hernanz; G. Sala; D. Hatzidimitriou; M. Della Valle; A. Rau; D. H. Hartmann; V. Burwitz

2011-01-01

204

Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required; They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

Dzhunov, I.; Andreeva, J.; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P.

2014-06-01

205

Establishing a monitoring system for black rhinos in the Solio Game Reserve, central Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solio Game Reserve in central Kenya was the first black rhino (Diceros bicornis) sanctuary in the country. In 1970 five remnant individuals were moved into it for safekeeping against poachers. Eighteen further intro- ductions and subsequent births in good habitat with no human interference led to rapid population increase, and the reserve has since become the source of 67 rhinos

Felix Patton; Petra Campbell; Edward Parfet

206

NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to u...

N. Laporte J. LeMoigne P. Elkan O. Desmet D. Paget A. Pumptre P. Gouala M. Honzack F. Maisels

2004-01-01

207

Monitoring the Monsoon in the Himalayas: Observations in Central Nepal, June 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monsoon Himalayan Precipitation Experiment (MOHPREX) occurred during June 2001 along the south slopes of the Himalayas in central Nepal. Radiosondes were launched around the clock from two sites, one in the Marsyandi River basin on the eastern footslopes of the Annapurna range, and one farther to the southwest near the border with India. The flights supported rainfall and other

Ana P. Barros; Timothy J. Lang

2003-01-01

208

Volcanic unrest of the Colli Albani (central Italy) detected by GPS monitoring test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colli Albani volcanic complex, located in central Italy about 15km SE of Rome, has been dominated by periodic eruptive histories started about 561ka and ending with the most recent and voluminous activity of the Albano maar (<70ka) phase. Earthquakes of moderate intensity, gas emissions and significant ground deformations are the recent evidences of a residual activity. We decided to

F. Riguzzi; G. Pietrantonio; R. Devoti; S. Atzori; M. Anzidei

2009-01-01

209

A New Automatic Subsurface Gas Monitoring System for Seismogeochemical Studies, Installed in Haruno Borehole, Shizuoka Prefecture, Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of subsurface gas monitoring by application of gas chromatography (GC) to the gas composition of bubbles associated with groundwater for seismogeochemical studies are reported. An automated gas monitoring system was used to determine gas compositions in a 500-m borehole at the Haruno Crustal Movement Observation Site (HOS), central Japan during period 1, from December 1999 to December 2000. The average ± two standard deviation (2SD) compositions of gases in this period were He = 82 ± 29 ppmV, H2 = 170 ± 62 ppmV, Ar = 0.05 ± 0.07%, N2 = 50 ± 8%, and CH4 = 45 ± 6%. A new automated gas monitoring system equipped with a micro-GC was installed in the borehole at the HOS, and gas bubbles from the borehole were monitored during period 2, from December 2006 to March 2007. The average ± two standard deviation (2SD) compositions of gases in this period were He = 8 ± 7 ppmV, H2 = 13 ± 15 ppmV, Ar = 0.6 ± 0.3%, N2 = 66 ± 7%, and CH4 = 14 ± 14%. The gas concentration ratios (He/Ar, H2/Ar, N2/Ar, and CH4/Ar) fluctuated significantly over time and repeatedly showed abrupt spike-like increases during period 2. The gas compositions obtained in period 1 and 2 were markedly different. Over the period from 2006 to 2007, the gas bubbles were depleted in He, H2, and CH4 of deep origin, but enriched in Ar and N2 of atmospheric origin. This difference can be interpreted as being due to an irreversible change of the aquifer/gas system. The present deep component in the HOS gas is estimated to have composition He = 63 ppmV, H2 = 37 ppmV, Ar = 0.17%, N2 = 63%, and CH4 = 37%. The new monitoring system is able to analyze the gas composition using a smaller volume of sample gas and with greater precision than the previous system. During the 3-month monitoring period 2, the separation capacity of the capillary column of the micro-GC was sufficiently maintained to determine gas-chromatographic peak areas for the five gaseous species examined. This study confirms that the new monitoring system with micro-GC is promising for continuous subsurface gas monitoring for earthquake prediction studies.

Miyakawa, Kazuya; Takama, Ruka; Kawabe, Iwao; Kariya, Shinnichi; Yamauchi, Tsuneo

2010-12-01

210

Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations,

Sanjeev Agarwal; Shivakar Vulli; Neil J. Malloy; Elizabeth M. Lord; Josh R. Fairley; Bruce M. Sabol; Wesley Johnson; Richard Ess; Anh H. Trang

2009-01-01

211

False alarm effects on estimation in multitarget trackers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of false alarm effects on tracking filter performance in multitarget track-while-scan radars, using variable correlation gates, is presented. The false alarms considered originate from noise, clutter, and crossing targets. The dimensions of the correlation gates are determined by filter prediction and measurement error variances. Track association is implanted either by means of a distance weighted average of the

Arie Berman; Amnon Hammer

1991-01-01

212

46 CFR 131.810 - General alarm bell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell. 131.810 Section 131.810 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.810 General alarm bell. Each general...

2013-10-01

213

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

214

E-Alarm: An Anomaly Detection System on Large Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several worms attacked the Internet and caused serious global damage. We consider that if we can detect the worm in its early spreading stage and perform the access control policy on the related routers immediately, the disaster may be alleviated or even avoided. E-Alarm makes use of network topology information, analyzes anomaly alarms using clustering method, and

Min Sun; Yuanzhi Wang; Yun Luo

2009-01-01

215

Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

Mallonee, Sue

2000-01-01

216

Advanced fire detection using multi-signature alarm algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of reducing false alarms while increasing sensitivity through the use of combined conventional smoke detectors with carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. This was accomplished through an experimental program using both real (fire) and nuisance alarm sources. A broad selection of sources was used ranging from smoldering wood and flaming fabric to

Daniel T. Gottuk; Michelle J. Peatross; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

2002-01-01

217

Diagnostic et évaluation de l'alarme des incubateurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm bell on au incubator can be harmful for neonates if its noise level inside the incubator is quite high, and can be a potential risk if it is not perceptible by the nurses. The objective of this study is to evaluate the alarm bells of different incubator models and to analyze their performances. For the whole of the

M Abdiche; G Farges; J. M Ville; J. P Libert

2001-01-01

218

Policy Manual - Emergency Management - Clarification of Alarms & Codes  

Cancer.gov

Fire Alarm Pull Station Manually operated fire alarm pull stations are located in the corridors throughout the LP and should be used by anyone to report fires, the odor of smoke, electrical arc, and other major hazardous incidents. The pull stations should NOT be used to report bomb threats.

219

Comparison of desmopressin and enuresis alarm for nocturnal enuresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty children with primary nocturnal enuresis were randomised for a study comparing desmopressin (DDAVP) and enuresis alarm. Forty six completed the trial, 24 of whom were treated with 20 micrograms intranasal desmopressin nightly and 22 with enuresis alarm for three months. Failures were crossed over and relapses were continued on the same treatment for a further three months. The improvement

S Wille

1986-01-01

220

Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

1995-01-01

221

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm sign...

R. W. Tayloe B. McGinnis

1990-01-01

222

Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

223

Deception by flexible alarm mimicry in an African bird.  

PubMed

Deception is common in nature, but victims of deception discriminate against and ultimately ignore deceptive signals when they are produced too frequently. Flexible variation of signals could allow evasion of such constraints. Fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) use false alarm calls to scare other species away from food that they then steal. We show that drongos mimic the alarms of targeted species. Further, target species reduce their response to false alarm calls when they are repeated. However, the fear response is maintained when the call is varied. Drongos exploit this propensity by changing their alarm-call type when making repeated theft attempts on a particular species. Our results show that drongos can evade the frequency-dependent constraints that typically limit deception payoffs through flexible variation of their alarm calls. PMID:24786078

Flower, Tom P; Gribble, Matthew; Ridley, Amanda R

2014-05-01

224

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using

Shkelzen Shabani; Michiya Kamio; Charles D. Derby

2008-01-01

225

Use of Electrical Conductivity Instead of Soluble Salts for Soil Salinity Monitoring in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USSR classifications of soil salinity used in Central Asiawas based on laboratory measurement of the total dissolved(toxic) salts or the chloride ion concentration in the soil waterextracts (soil:water = 1:5). Current practices, however, startto differ between the republics because of different levels ofacceptance of international literature. This change in practiceis triggered partly by the cost of the laboratory measurements.The

Y. Shirokova; I. Forkutsa; N. Sharafutdinova

2000-01-01

226

Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site Task 2 Potential Applications at the Central Plateau Remediation Project  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second of two studies on potential applications for vadose zone monitoring (VZM) at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to perform the studies in a letter from M. S. Schlender, DOE, to M. L. Goldstein, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and M. A. Wilson, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), subject ''Vadose Zone Monitoring Study,'' 02-ERD-0055, dated March 11, 2002. The first study evaluated the potential for performance monitoring at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) and was published as ''Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site, Task I . Use in New Cells at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility'', dated May 2003 (DOE/RL-2003-31). This report is Task 2 and examines the potential for VZM at waste sites and tank farms in the 200 East and West Areas of the Central Plateau Remediation Project (Central Plateau). The potential benefits of VZM are discussed in the introduction, as well as the objectives of the study. A summary of the hydrogeology of the central plateau is presented. This includes a discussion of the stratigraphy, vadose zone transport, and groundwater characteristics. A chapter on the regulatory framework is presented in the context of the anticipated remediation, Environmental Protection Agency regulations, and the regulations of other western states. While the previous Task I study presented a survey of commercial sites in the western part of the United States, this report surveys vadose zone monitoring at other government sites in the western United States. Most of the significant Department of Energy Sites are discussed and compared. Since the western part of the United States contains many of the DOE research facilities, a discussion is presented on the vadose zone research and development activities at these facilities. The ongoing development and use of VZM by the Air Force, Navy, and Army is presented. A summary is presented of the planned remediation on the Central Plateau in order to identify the relevant types of remediations that would be candidates for VZM. A short discussion of the existing groundwater plumes is given to complete the picture of how vadose zone contamination eventually becomes groundwater contamination. The technology is surveyed and categorized by type. These types include moisture change methods, moisture sampling methods, geophysical techniques, and remote sensing techniques. Future trends are identified. The probable course will be the development of methods that can integrate the information over larger volumes, particularly those that will use less invasive or remote sensing technologies. A discussion of deployment methods is given. These include basin lysimeters, access tubes, sensors placed inside landfills, and cover monitoring. In order to match the technologies with the planned remedies the current technologies are discussed in the context of specific types of site remediations. These include waste sites such as cribs and trenches, tank farm sites, and other facilities. Conclusions are reached, which include an analysis of the different types of conditions appropriate for VZM, considerations in the selections of the appropriate technologies, and issues associated with adapting to the development of new technologies. Also, a short discussion is given of the operational facilities that will be used during the cleanup efforts.

FOGWELL, T.W.

2003-10-30

227

Tissue hemoglobin monitoring of progressive central hypovolemia in humans using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) measurements of tissue hemoglobin contents that can track progressive reductions in central blood volume in human volunteers. Measurements of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (Q) are obtained in ten healthy human subjects during baseline supine rest and exposure to progressive reductions of central blood volume produced by application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Simultaneous quantitative noninvasive measurements of tissue oxyhemoglobin (OHb), deoxyhemoglobin (RHb), total hemoglobin concentration (THb), and tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) are performed throughout LBNP application using broadband DOS. As progressively increasing amounts of LBNP are applied, HR increases, and MAP, SV, and Q decrease (p<0.001). OHb, StO2, and THb decrease (p <0.001) in correlation with progressive increases in LBNP, while tissue RHb remained relatively constant (p=0.378). The average fractional changes from baseline values in DOS OHb (fOHb) correlate closely with independently measured changes in SV (r2=0.95) and Q (r2=0.98) during LBNP. Quantitative noninvasive broadband DOS measurements of tissue hemoglobin parameters of peripheral perfusion are capable of detecting progressive reductions in central blood volume, and appear to be sensitive markers of early hypoperfusion associated with hemorrhage as simulated by LBNP.

Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Ryan, Kathy L.; Convertino, Victor A.; Rickards, Caroline A.; Osann, Kathryn; Brenner, Matthew

2014-01-01

228

Application of water quality indices and analysis of the surface water quality monitoring network in semiarid North-Central Chile.  

PubMed

Surface water quality has increasing importance worldwide and is particularly relevant in the semiarid North-Central Chile, where agriculture and mining activities are imposing heavy pressure on limited water resources. The current study presents the application of a water quality index in four watersheds of the 29°-33°S realm for the period 1999-2008, based on the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment approach and the Chilean regulation for irrigation water quality. In addition, two modifications to the index are tested and a comprehensive characterization of the existing monitoring network is performed through cluster analysis. The basins studied show fairly good water quality in the overall, specially the Limarí basin. On the other hand, the lower index values were obtained for the headwaters of Elqui, associated with the El Indio mining district. The first modification of the indicator (i.e., to consider parameters differentially according to their effect on human health or the environment) did not produce major differences with respect to the original index, given the generally good water quality. The second modification (i.e., to consider as threshold values the more restrictive figures derived from a set of regulations) yielded important differences in the indicator values. Finally, an adequate characterization of the monitoring network was obtained. The results presented spatial coherence and the information can be used as a basis for the optimization of the monitoring network if required. PMID:21938385

Espejo, Lesly; Kretschmer, Nicole; Oyarzún, Jorge; Meza, Francisco; Núñez, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Oyarzo, Paula; Garrido, Marcela; Suckel, Felipe; Amezaga, Jaime; Oyarzún, Ricardo

2012-09-01

229

The low-technology monitoring of atmospheric metal pollution in central Scotland.  

PubMed

In epidemiological studies covering relationships of disease patterns and patterns of atmospheric pollution, conventional filtering equipment is normally used for monitoring the pollution. For various reasons, however, this type of approach often results in levels of pollution being obtained for only a few sites within an extensive fieldwork area. Hence, alternative monitoring techniques, which allow a high density of sampling sites in an area, have been of interest to an increasing number of investigators. The monitors used, known as low-technology monitors, fall into two main categories; indigenous; and transplants. In our own surveys of atmospheric metal pollutants in industrial communities in Scotland, the indigenous sample materials have included: Hypnum cupressiforme, Lecanora conizaeoides, Agropyron repens and surface soils. In our transplant surveys a variety of different low-technology samplers have been deployed, the most frequently used being: spherical and flat moss bags, Hypogymnia physodes, 'Tak' (synthetic fabric), and total deposition collectors. The data obtained from the various surveys have been plotted on a variety of types of computer map to minimize any systematic bias resulting from the use of a single technique. The pollution patterns found in one particular town were partly unexpected, in view of the dominant wind direction in the locality concerned. Hence it was decided to carry out a wind tunnel experiment to investigate the situation further. The wind tunnel experiment produced results which were consistent with the patterns of pollution derived from the metal surveys, and revealed that the meteorological dispersal of the pollution was unexpectedly influenced by local topography. Because pulmonary pathology was the main focus of the complementary epidemiological study, an investigation of the size, shape and roughness of the metal particles was considered relevant. This investigation involved the examination of samplers and their particles by means of the electron microscope. To complete the study of the methodology of low-technology samplers in this town, their uptake is also being compared to that of filtering equipment (high-technology samplers). The information gained from the present survey at this early stage has indicated that several of the low-technology monitors could have considerable value in the provision of continuous, but low-cost, surveillance of the air quality of wide areas of industrial communities. PMID:6532984

Yule, F A; Lloyd, O L

1984-01-01

230

Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

231

Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanisms, or tunnel shutdown.

Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

1987-01-01

232

Visual display and alarm system for wind tunnel static and dynamic loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel balance monitor and alarm system developed at NASA Ames Research Center will produce several beneficial results. The costs of wind tunnel delays because of inadvertent balance damage and the costs of balance repair or replacement can be greatly reduced or eliminated with better real-time information on the balance static and dynamic loading. The wind tunnel itself will have enhanced utility with the elimination of overly cautious limits on test conditions. The microprocessor-based system features automatic scaling and 16 multicolored LED bargraphs to indicate both static and dynamic components of the signals from eight individual channels. Five individually programmable alarm levels are available with relay closures for internal or external visual and audible warning devices and other functions such as automatic activation of external recording devices, model positioning mechanism, or tunnel shutdown.

Hanly, Richard D.; Fogarty, James T.

1987-01-01

233

Design Principles of a Genetic Alarm Clock  

PubMed Central

Turning genes on and off is a mechanism by which cells and tissues make phenotypic decisions. Gene network motifs capable of supporting two or more steady states and thereby providing cells with a plurality of possible phenotypes are referred to as genetic switches. Modeled on the bases of naturally occurring genetic networks, synthetic biologists have successfully constructed artificial switches, thus opening a door to new possibilities for improvement of the known, but also the design of new synthetic genetic circuits. One of many obstacles to overcome in such efforts is to understand and hence control intrinsic noise which is inherent in all biological systems. For some motifs the noise is negligible; for others, fluctuations in the particle number can be comparable to its average. Due to their slowed dynamics, motifs with positive autoregulation tend to be highly sensitive to fluctuations of their chemical environment and are in general very noisy, especially during transition (switching). In this article we use stochastic simulations (Gillespie algorithm) to model such a system, in particular a simple bistable motif consisting of a single gene with positive autoregulation. Due to cooperativety, the dynamical behavior of this kind of motif is reminiscent of an alarm clock – the gene is (nearly) silent for some time after it is turned on and becomes active very suddenly. We investigate how these sudden transitions are affected by noise and show that under certain conditions accurate timing can be achieved. We also examine how promoter complexity influences the accuracy of this timing mechanism.

Albert, Jaroslav; Rooman, Marianne

2012-01-01

234

Use of central venous saturation monitoring in a patient with pediatric cardiac beriberi.  

PubMed

The patient was a 1-year-and-4-mo-old boy. He had drunk about 1 L of an isotonic drink for infants daily since about 10 mo after birth. He was examined by a local doctor due to anorexia and vomiting, found to have cardiomegaly, and transported to our hospital with suspected myocarditis. After admission, the patient showed polypnea, a decreased level of consciousness, and marked metabolic acidosis and lapsed into circulatory insufficiency, requiring catecholamine administration, endotracheal intubation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Initially, low-output heart failure due to acute myocarditis was suspected, but the central venous oxygen saturation was high, at 82%. Considering high-output heart failure to be more likely, we evaluated its cause and noted, by urinary organic acid analysis, increases in lactate, pyruvate, 3-OH-butyrate, acetoacetate, metabolic products of branched-chain amino acids, 2-ketoglutarate, 2-OH-glutarate, 2-keto-adipate, and 2-OH-adipate. Since the vitamin B1 level was reduced to 12 ng/mL (normally 20-50 ng/mL), a diagnosis of cardiac beriberi due to vitamin B1 deficiency was made. When unexplained heart failure is observed in children, cardiac beriberi must be excluded as a differential diagnosis of myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. The measurement of the central venous oxygen saturation may be useful for the diagnosis. PMID:24303502

Majima, Nozomi; Umegaki, Osamu; Soen, Masako

2013-09-16

235

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2010-07-01

236

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2011-07-01

237

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2012-07-01

238

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2013-07-01

239

Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations, was surveyed by ERDC-WES. This collection of background data, and subsequent survey of the false alarm locations, is unique in that it is likely the first such airborne data collection with ground truthed and documented false alarm locations. A library of signatures for different sources of these false alarms was extracted in the form of image chips and organized into a self-contained database by Missouri S&T. The library contains target chips from airborne mid wave infrared (MWIR) and multispectral imaging (MSI) sensors, representing data for different days, different times of day and different altitudes. Target chips for different surface mines were also added to the database. This database of the target signatures is expected to facilitate evaluation of spectral and shape characteristics of the false alarms, to achieve better false alarm mitigation and improve mine and minefield detection for airborne applications. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize the data collection procedure used, present the currently available database of target chips and make some recommendations regarding future data collections.

Agarwal, Sanjeev; Vulli, Shivakar; Malloy, Neil J.; Lord, Elizabeth M.; Fairley, Josh R.; Sabol, Bruce M.; Johnson, Wesley; Ess, Richard; Trang, Anh H.

2009-05-01

240

Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

2005-10-01

241

Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

Jacques Hugo

2012-07-01

242

Monitoring Yazd subsidence, central Iran, by precise levelling and D-InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D-InSAR technique has been widely adopted to monitor land subsidence caused by withdrawal of water, oil, gas, and other minerals. Many cities in Iran have seriously suffered from land subsidence caused by ground water over-extracting, that some of them detected by repeated first order precise levelling network. We assessed Yazd subsidence with levelling and InSAR data. However, D-InSAR is liable to be contaminated by atmosphere delay, temporal decorrelation and baseline errors. As these errors cannot be removed by SAR data processing, some auxiliary data such as leveling data and DEM data have been introduced into D-InSAR data processing. A linear subsidence detected from InSAR time series. Analysis of groundwater tables of piezometric records at this area indicates that subsidence most likely results from overdrafting of the underground aquifer system.

Amighpey, M.; Arabi, S.; Jamour, Y.

2009-04-01

243

C-band and L-band InSAR for recognition and monitoring of landslides in Taleghan, Central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides are one of the most commonly occurring natural hazards in Iran that threaten people’s lives and property, causing millions of dollars in damage and losses each year. Knowledge about surface deformation at landslides is important for better understanding the cause and mechanism of mass movement, and for mitigating hazard associated to it. In this paper we use the remote sensing technique of SAR Interferometry (INSAR) for recognition and monitoring of landslides in Taleghan, Central Iran. Taleghan is a mountainous region in Central Iran - ~ 100 km northwest of Tehran, the capital state of Iran. It is among the most landslide-prone areas in the country due to a number of reasons including its special type of earth lithology, relatively high rainfall, the presence of excess soil moisture and relatively sharp slopes. In order to understand the spatio-temporal characteristics of slope movements in this region we applied the technique of SAR Interferometry. We selected 23 C-band ASAR images, acquired by the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) spacecraft on a descending orbit between 2003 and 2009, and 10 PALSAR images, acquired by the Japanese ALOS satellite between 2007 and 2009, and processed them using the Small Baseline (SBAS) approach. We present a number of mass movement cases in Taleghan, where InSAR observations revealed several new active landslides in the region, previously unidentified in published geologic and landslide inventory maps. We compare Envisat and ALOS INSAR in our study area and discuss about the achievements and benefits that can be obtained by combined observations of these sensors to create an opertional and effective monitoring system for mass movement studies.

Khavaninzadeh, N.; Motagh, M.; Sharifi, M.; Alipour, S.

2010-12-01

244

The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports  

SciTech Connect

The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

2002-09-01

245

Long term and seasonal ground deformation monitoring of Larissa Plain (Central Greece) by persistent scattering interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land subsidence which occurs at the Larissa Basin (Thessaly Plain, Central Greece) is due to various causes including aquifer system compaction. Deformation maps of high spatial resolution deduced by the Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) technique (using radar scenes from ERS and ENVISAT satellites) for the period 1992-2006 were produced to study the spatial and temporal ground deformation. A developed GIS database (including geological, tectonic, morphological, hydrological, meteorological and watertable variation from wells in the area) offered the possibility of studying in detail the intense subsidence. The PSI based average deformation image clearly shows that subsidence generally takes place inside the Larissa Plain ranging from 5-250 mm. The largest amplitude rates (-25 mm/yr) are observed around the urban area of Larissa City (especially at Gianouli and Nikea villages), while the Larissa City center appears to be relatively stable with a tendency to subside. The rest of the plain regions seem to subside at moderate rates (about 5-10 mm/yr). The surrounding mountainous area is stable, or has slightly been uplifted with respect to the NE located reference point. It was found that there is a correlation between the seasonal water-table variation (deduced from wells data), the seasonal water demand for irrigation associated with specific types of cultivation (cotton fields), the monthly rainfall, and the observed subsidence rate in the rural regions of the Thessaly Plain.

Vassilopoulou, Spyridoula; Sakkas, Vasileios; Wegmuller, Urs; Capes, Ren

2013-03-01

246

Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

Qi, Yaobin

2007-10-01

247

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623...

2013-10-01

248

False alarm effects on estimation in multitarget trackers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of false alarm effects on tracking filter performance in multitarget track-while-scan radars, using variable correlation gates, is presented. The false alarms considered originate from noise, clutter, and crossing targets. The dimensions of the correlation gates are determined by filter prediction and measurement error variances. Track association is implanted either by means of a distance weighted average of the observations or by the nearest neighbor rule. State estimation is performed by means of a second-order discrete Kalman filter, taking into consideration random target maneuvers. Measurements are made in polar coordinates, while target dynamics are estimated in Cartesian coordinates, resulting in coupled linear filter equations. The effect of false alarms on the observation noise covariance matrix, and hence on state estimation errors, is analyzed. A computer simulation example, implementing radar target tracking with a variable correlation gate in the presence of false alarms, is discussed.

Berman, Arie; Hammer, Amnon

1991-07-01

249

Expert System Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Processor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An artificial intelligence system improves radar signal processor performance by increasing target probability of detection and reducing probability of false alarm in a severe radar clutter environment. This utilizes advances in artificial intelligence an...

M. C. Wicks

2006-01-01

250

How to design plant evacuation alarms: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Using new guidelines, safety managers can evaluate plant emergency alarms and decide if their systems meet OSHA requirements. Under OSHA's CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) and 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) directives, employers must develop, implement and maintain alarm systems to protect and evacuate all employees during an emergency. The paper discusses OSHA requirements; information sources and availability; and performance over time. Part 2 will examine how alarm signals are interpreted by workers. Using the Do's and Don'ts for alarms, safety engineers can effectively design around signaling problems so that employees are able to see, hear or feel emergency signals and respond quickly and correctly.

Kruger, D.A. (Webb, Murray and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

251

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))

1990-08-31

252

5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCHTYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DETAIL VIEW OF OLD, PUNCH-TYPE MASTER FIRE ALARM SYSTEM, LOCATED ON S WALL OF ENGINE STORAGE ROOM; LOOKING S. (Ceronie and Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 22, Westervelt Avenue & Buffington Street, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

253

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

254

Verification of criticality accident alarm system for environmental restoration activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work analyzes the optimal placement of a criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) necessitated by an unexpected accumulation of fissile materials in the filtration system of an idled experimental nuclear reactor. Results using multidimensional determ...

B. L. Broadhead R. L. Childs C. M. Hopper

1995-01-01

255

Onsite Portable Alarm System - Its Merit and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently an existence of the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) becomes popular. In general, the EEWS will be installed in a fixed observation site and it may consist of several separated components such as a sensing portion, A/D converter, an information processing potion and so on. The processed information for warning may be transmitted to network via fixed communication line, and therefore this kind of alarm system is called as Network Alarm System. On the other hand, after the severe earthquake damage, it is very important to save the disaster victims immediately. These rescue staffs are also under the risk of aftershocks and need a local alarm not depending on the network, so this kind of alarm can be called as Onsite Alarm. But the common early warning system is too complex to set onsite temporary, and even if possible to install, the alarm is too late to receive at the epicentral area. However, the new generation earthquake early warning system FREQL can issue the P wave alarm by minimum 0.2 seconds after P wave detection. And FREQL is characterized as the unique all-in-one seismometer with power unit. At the time of the 2004 Niigata-Ken-Chuetsu earthquake, a land slide attacked a car just passing. A hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department pulled the survivor, one baby, from the land slide area. During their activity the rescue team was exposed to the risk of secondary hazards caused by the aftershocks. It was clear that it is necessary to use a portable warning system to issue the onsite P wave alarm. Because FREQL was originally developed as portable equipment, Tokyo Fire Department asked us to modify it to the portable equipment with the loud sound and the light signal. In this moment, this portable FREQL has equipped in nation wide. When the hyper rescue team of Tokyo Fire Department was sent to Pakistan as a task force for rescue work of the 2005 Pakistan earthquake, the portable FREQL was used as important onsite portable warning system and P wave alarms was actually issued by three times during the rescue work. Although this is one example for the actual application of portable onsite alarm, it is possible to apply the other field as the construction field. In this presentation, Portable Onsite Alarm is discussed from views of its necessity and application.

Saita, J.; Sato, T.; Nakamura, Y.

2007-12-01

256

Analysis of Alarm Sequences in a Chemical Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas industries need secure and cost-effective alarm systems to meet safety requirements and to avoid problems that\\u000a lead to plant shutdowns, production losses, accidents and associated lawsuit costs. Although most current distributed control\\u000a systems (DCS) collect and archive alarm event logs, the extensive quantity and complexity of such data make identification\\u000a of the problem a very labour-intensive and

Savo Kordic; Peng Lam; Jitian Xiao; Huaizhong Li

2008-01-01

257

Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species. PMID:17911047

Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

2007-12-22

258

Alarm pheromone production by two honeybee (Apis mellifera) types.  

PubMed

Of 12 alarm pheromones assayed in European and Africanized honeybees, nine were found in larger quantities in the Africanized population. Isopentyl and 2-heptanone levels were similar in both; 2-methylbutanol-1 was greater in European workers. These differences were not due to age or geographical location. Significant positive correlations between alarm pheromone levels and defensive behavior, especially numbers of stings, were observed. PMID:24272178

Collins, A M; Rinderer, T E; Daly, H V; Harbo, J R; Pesante, D

1989-06-01

259

Ground-water modeling and the installation of deep multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing regional study of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California has iteratively combined the drilling of deep multiple-well monitoring sites with groundwater modeling. The monitoring sites are generally between 1,000 and 1,500 ft in depth and consist of 4-6 piezometers installed within a single borehole that provide depth-dependent geohydrologic

E. G. Reichard; T. A. Johnson; M. Land; R. R. Everett; D. J. Ponti; B. D. Edwards; S. M. Crawford; T. Kulshan

2002-01-01

260

Monitoring of central retinal artery and vein with color Doppler ultrasound during heart surgery as an alternative to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography: a case report.  

PubMed

Cardiac surgery can have severe neurologic complications. The noninvasive monitoring of intracranial circulation during heart surgery is usually performed with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. We present the case of a 66-year-old man who underwent elective cardiac surgery for aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft, in whom monitoring was performed by simultaneously assessing blood flow velocity in the central retinal artery and vein. PMID:23606604

Venturini, Massimo; Zambon, Massimo; Cristel, Giulia; Agostini, Giulia; Querques, Giulia; Colombo, Michele; Benussi, Stefano; Landoni, Giovanni; Zangrillo, Alberto; Del Maschio, Alessandro

2014-02-01

261

An alarm processing system for a nuclear power plant using artificial intelligence techniques  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on an alarm processing system (APS) developed that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help operators to make decisions. Alarms in nuclear power plants are classified into generalized and special alarms. Generalized alarms are further classified into global and local alarms. For each type of alarm, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The processing for the generalized alarms is based on model-based reasoning. The special alarms are processed by the cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to both the plant state and the consistencies among the alarms. This APS is built on a workstation using the Prolog language.

Yang, J.O.; Chang, S.H. (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box 150 Cheongryang, Seoul (KR))

1991-09-01

262

Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.  

PubMed Central

Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.

Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

1997-01-01

263

Alarm effectiveness in driver-centred collision-warning systems.  

PubMed

The potential use of systems that seek to communicate a warning of impending collision directly to the driver is examined. Technological advances in collision-warning systems include reliable, low-cost radars, sensors with low noise levels, and the development of accurate detection algorithms for particular crash types, e.g. rear-end collisions. However, fundamental practical constraints make perfect sensor detection difficult to achieve. Imperfect detection conflates the false alarm rate and experience with other technologies confirms driver aversion to false warnings. Although sensitive alarm systems with high detection rates and low false alarm rates have been developed, the posterior probability of a collision given an alarm can be quite low because of the low base rate of collision events. As a result, only a small proportion of alarms will represent true collision scenarios. These and other factors can conspire to reduce alarm effectiveness in collision-warning systems. The problem is illustrated analytically and potential solutions are advanced. PMID:9118938

Parasuraman, R; Hancock, P A; Olofinboba, O

1997-03-01

264

Wireless boundary monitor system and method  

DOEpatents

A wireless boundary monitor system used to monitor the integrity of a boundary surrounding an area uses at least two housings having at least one transmitting means for emitting ultrasonic pressure waves to a medium. Each of the housings has a plurality of receiving means for sensing the pressure waves in the medium. The transmitting means and the receiving means of each housing are aimable and communicably linked. At least one of the housings is equipped with a local alarm means for emitting a first alarm indication whereby, when the pressure waves propagating from a transmitting means to a receiving means are sufficiently blocked by an object a local alarm means or a remote alarm means or a combination thereof emit respective alarm indications. The system may be reset either manually or automatically. This wireless boundary monitor system has useful applications in both indoor and outdoor environments.

Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

1997-01-01

265

Wireless boundary monitor system and method  

DOEpatents

A wireless boundary monitor system used to monitor the integrity of a boundary surrounding an area uses at least two housings having at least one transmitting means for emitting ultrasonic pressure waves to a medium. Each of the housings has a plurality of receiving means for sensing the pressure waves in the medium. The transmitting means and the receiving means of each housing are aimable and communicably linked. At least one of the housings is equipped with a local alarm means for emitting a first alarm indication whereby, when the pressure waves propagating from a transmitting means to a receiving means are sufficiently blocked by an object a local alarm means or a remote alarm means or a combination thereof emit respective alarm indications. The system may be reset either manually or automatically. This wireless boundary monitor system has useful applications in both indoor and outdoor environments. 4 figs.

Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

1997-12-09

266

Epidermal 'alarm substance' cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation  

PubMed Central

Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator–prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation.

Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G.W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C.O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

2007-01-01

267

Association between Central Obesity and Circadian Parameters of Blood Pressure from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry: Kor-ABP Registry  

PubMed Central

Central obesity has been reported as a risk for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. The influence of central obesity on diurnal blood pressure (BP) has not been established. In this study, we investigated the influence of central obesity on the circadian parameters of BP by 24 hr ambulatory BP monitoring. Total 1,290 subjects were enrolled from the Korean Ambulatory BP registry. Central obesity was defined as having a waist circumference?90 cm in males and ?85 cm in females. The central-obese group had higher daytime systolic BP (SBP), nighttime SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) than the non-obese group (all, P<0.001). There were no differences in nocturnal dipping (ND) patterns between the groups. Female participants showed a higher BP mean difference (MD) than male participants with concerns of central obesity (daytime SBP MD 5.28 vs 4.27, nighttime SBP MD 6.48 vs 2.72) and wider pulse pressure (PP). Central obesity within the elderly (?65 yr) also showed a higher BP MD than within the younger group (daytime SBP MD 8.23 vs 3.87, daytime DBP 4.10 vs 1.59). In conclusion, central obesity has no influence on nocturnal dipping patterns. However, higher SBP and wider PP are associated with central obesity, which is accentuated in women.

Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

2013-01-01

268

Development of a Distance-to-Roadway Proximity Metric to Compare Near-Road Pollutant Levels to a Central Site Monitor  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or commun...

269

Experimental Studies Using Median Polish Procedure to Reduce Alarm Rates in Data Cubes of Intrusion Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overwhelming number of alarms generated by rule-based net- work intrusion detection systems makes the task of network security opera- tors ineffective. Preliminary results on an approach called EXOLAP shows that false positives alarms can be avoided by detecting changes on the stream of alarms using a data cube and median polish procedure. A data cube aggre- gates alarms by

Jorge Levera; Benjamín Barán; Robert L. Grossman

2004-01-01

270

Small Active Radiation Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the number of particles passing through a unit area. Better still, the monitor can be used anywhere.

Badhwar, Gautam D.

2004-01-01

271

Scanning seismic intrusion detection method and apparatus. [monitoring unwanted subterranean entry and departure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intrusion monitoring system includes an array of seismic sensors, such as geophones, arranged along a perimeter to be monitored for unauthorized intrusion as by surface movement or tunneling. Two wires lead from each sensor to a central monitoring station. The central monitoring station has three modes of operation. In a first mode of operation, the output of all of the seismic sensors is summed into a receiver for amplification and detection. When the amplitude of the summed signals exceeds a certain predetermined threshold value an alarm is sounded. In a second mode of operation, the individual output signals from the sensors are multiplexed into the receiver for sequentially interrogating each of the sensors.

Lee, R. D. (inventor)

1983-01-01

272

FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

2012-10-01

273

Monitoring of hydrogen along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in central California in 1980-1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen (H2) has been monitored continuously at 1.5-m depth at nine sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in central California since December 1980. Site characteristic small noninstrumental diurnal variations were recorded during quiescent periods at most sites. Abrupt H2 changes were observed concurrently at two sites on the Calaveras fault; some of these were correlated with oscillatory fault slips. Large (1000-4000 ppm) H2 increases were recorded at some sites on the San Andreas fault between July 1982 and November 1983, which may be correlated with eleven M ? 5 earthquakes that occurred near Coalinga during this period. We attribute both the H2 increases and the triggering of the earthquakes to a large-scale compressive stress field within the ductile mafic crust near the plate boundary. The stress perhaps caused bulging of the base of the brittle upper crust and thus caused dilation of the San Andreas fault zone, allowing the escape of pent-up H2 generated by hydration reaction of the mafic crust. At the same time, mobile serpentinites may have squeezed into the seismogenic fault beneath the Coalinga area triggering the earthquakes.

Sato, Motoaki; Sutton, A. J.; McGee, K. A.; Russell-Robinson, Susan

1986-11-01

274

Alarm calls elicit predator-specific physiological responses  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids regulate glucose concentrations and responses to unpredictable events, while also modulating cognition. Juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) learn to respond to whistle and trill alarm calls, warning of aerial and terrestrial predators, respectively, shortly after emerging from natal burrows at one month of age. Alarm calls can cause physiological reactions and arousal, and this arousal, coupled with watching adult responses, might help juveniles learn associations between calls and behavioural responses. I studied whether young show differential cortisol responses to alarm and non-alarm calls, using playbacks of U. beldingi whistles, trills, squeals (a conspecific control vocalization) and silent controls. Trills elicited very high cortisol responses, and, using an individual's response to the silent control as baseline, only their response to a trill was significantly higher than baseline. This cortisol increase would provide glucose for extended vigilance and escape efforts, which is appropriate for evading terrestrial predators which hunt for long periods. Although whistles do not elicit a cortisol response, previous research has shown that they do result in bradycardia, which enhances attention and information processing. This is a novel demonstration of two physiological responses to two alarm calls, each appropriate to the threats represented by the calls.

Mateo, Jill M.

2010-01-01

275

Field response of tadpoles to conspecific and heterospecific alarm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many organisms use chemical cues from a variety of sources to mediate predator avoidance. Response to heterospecific alarm cues has been demonstrated for tadpoles within but not among taxa and alarm response behavior has seldom been examined under field conditions. This study examined the response of three sympatric amphibian larvae and predaceous larval Dytiscus sp. (diving beetle) to damage-release signals in natural ponds by using capture rates from treated funnel traps as an index of larval behavior. Hyla regilla (Pacific tree frog) tadpoles avoided traps treated with either crushed conspecifics or with Rana aurora (red-legged frog) tadpoles but the larger ranids and Arabystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander) did not respond to either treatment. H. regilla tadpoles were likely susceptible to any potential predators of ranid tadpoles in these ponds and this result is consistent with the hypothesis that a response to heterospecific alarm occurs in sympatric prey with shared predators.

Adams, M. J.; Claeson, S.

1998-01-01

276

Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2003-05-01

277

Determining minimum alarm activities of orphan sources in scrap loads; Monte Carlo simulations, validated with measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portal monitoring radiation detectors are commonly used by steel industries in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. These portal monitors typically consist of polystyrene or polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillating detectors, one or more photomultiplier tubes (PMT), an electronic circuit, a controller that handles data output and manipulation linking the system to a display or a computer with appropriate software and usually, a light guide. Such a portal used by the steel industry was opened and all principal materials were simulated using a Monte Carlo simulation tool (MCNP4C2). Various source-detector configurations were simulated and validated by comparison with corresponding measurements. Subsequently an experiment with a uniform cargo along with two sets of experiments with different scrap loads and radioactive sources ( 137Cs, 152Eu) were performed and simulated. Simulated and measured results suggested that the nature of scrap is crucial when simulating scrap load-detector experiments. Using the same simulating configuration, a series of runs were performed in order to estimate minimum alarm activities for 137Cs, 60Co and 192Ir sources for various simulated scrap densities. The minimum alarm activities as well as the positions in which they were recorded are presented and discussed.

Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Potiriadis, C.

2010-02-01

278

Spatial and temporal distribution of the dust deposition in Central Asia - results from a long term monitoring program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aeolian transport of dust is an important process in Central Asia. Anthropogenic desertification and the desiccation of the Aral Sea have increased the overall dust emission and transport from this region and the local dust storm frequency during the last decades. Reliable ground data, however, are collected only sporadically, so the knowledge about the spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics of the dust deposition in the Aral Sea basin is fragmented and inconsistent at best. A long-term monitoring program was installed and sustained by three research projects. The results included in this article cover the dust deposition between 2003 and 2010 from 21 stations in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. They confirm that the aeolian dust transport occurs mainly in the Southern direction. The highest average monthly deposition rate was registered in Uzbekistan (56.2 g m-2), while the percentage of months with a very intense (and potentially harmful) dust deposition flux was highest in Turkmenistan (36.4%). A majority of samples were collected during months with a dust deposition of less than 10.0 g m-2, while only 6% of all samples showed high monthly deposition intensities of more than 100 g m-2. The Kyzyl Kum, Kara Kum, and Aral Kum were identified as the main sources for aeolian dust in the Aral Sea basin. The impact of the Aral Kum as the dominant source of aeolian dust is limited to a region of approximately 500,000 km2 surrounding the former Aral Sea. The Kara Kum is characterized by a very high frequency of dust storms of a local and regional magnitude, and close to the Kyzyl Kum, monthly dust deposition rates of up to 9,600 g m-2 were registered. An analysis of the temporal distribution of the dust deposition showed a slight increase in the dust deposition activity and intensity between 2003 and 2010, with a strong inter-annual and seasonal dynamic. The highest average dust deposition was registered in June, and a second phase of intense dust deposition was identified in February. As this research covers less than a decade, a continuous monitoring program is strongly advised for a better understanding of the processes of aeolian dust transport and the impact of aeolian dust on arable land and human health.

Groll, M.; Opp, Chr.; Aslanov, I.

2013-06-01

279

The UK Infrared Telescope M33 monitoring project - III. Feedback from dusty stellar winds in the central square kiloparsec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK Infrared Telescope, of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 (Triangulum). The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In this third paper of the series, we measure the dust production and rates of mass-loss by the pulsating asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants. To this aim, we combined our time-averaged near-IR photometry with the multi-epoch mid-IR photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The mass-loss rates are seen to increase with increasing strength of pulsation and with increasing bolometric luminosity. Low-mass stars lose most of their mass through stellar winds, but even super-AGB stars and red supergiants lose ˜40 per cent of their mass via a dusty stellar wind. More than three-quarters of the dust return is oxygenous. We construct a 2D map of the mass-return rate, showing a radial decline but also local enhancements due to agglomerations of massive stars. We estimate a total mass-loss rate of 0.004-0.005 M? yr-1 kpc-2, increasing to ˜0.006 M? yr-1 kpc-2 when accounting for eruptive mass-loss (e.g., supernovae); comparing this to the current star formation rate of ˜0.03 M? yr-1 kpc-2 we conclude that star formation in the central region of M33 can only be sustained if gas is accreted from further out in the disc or from circumgalactic regions.

Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Khosroshahi, Habib; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

2013-07-01

280

Learning three sets of alarms for the same medical functions: A perspective on the difficulty of learning alarms specified in an international standard.  

PubMed

Three sets of eight alarms supporting eight functions specified in an international medical equipment standard (IEC 60601-1-8) were tested for learnability using non-anaesthetist participants. One set consisted of the tonal alarms specified in the standard. A second set consisted of a set of abstract alarms randomly selected from a database of abstract alarm sounds held by the authors. A third set of alarms was designed as indirect metaphors of the functions. Participants were presented with the alarms and then asked to identify them across ten blocks of eight trials. The results indicated a significant difference in learnability across the three sets of alarms. The indirect metaphors were learned significantly better than both other sets of alarms, and the randomly selected abstract alarms were learned significantly better than the alarms specified in the standard. The results suggest therefore that there are more readily learnable possible designs than those proposed in the standard. The use of auditory icons in particular should be given serious consideration as potential alarms for this application. PMID:24209498

Edworthy, Judy; Page, Rebecca; Hibbard, Andrea; Kyle, Sean; Ratnage, Paul; Claydon, Suzanne

2014-09-01

281

Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms  

PubMed Central

Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject’s future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject’s continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection.

Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K.; Quinn, Lauretta

2012-01-01

282

Miniature Bilevel Alarm for Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines has developed a miniature, portable two-level oxygen-deficiency alarm and produced three prototype models. Each operates from a 4.2-v dc power source, and the highest current drain of any model is 80 ma. An electrochemical cell, which ...

R. A. Bradburn M. L. Bowser

1968-01-01

283

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs.

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

284

AQUAMESH-Fiber Optic Alarmed Underwater Security Barrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pilkington P.E. Limited, United Kingdom, has developed and is marketing an underwater fiber optic alarmed security barrier. The system is designed to deter, delay, and detect an intruder or intrusions into a restricted area. Additionally, the system has a...

1989-01-01

285

Improved Variable Index constant false alarm rate radar processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cases when the statistical distribution of range return samples are not known, constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processors can be used. Cell Averaging (CA) CFAR radar processors which have the best performance in Gaussian homogeneous environments, exhibits performance degradation in the presence of an interfering target or in regions of abrupt change in the backround clutter power. The

Y. C. U?n; K. M. U?ner

2010-01-01

286

Research on rural emergency alarm system based on network  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the huge rural people floating into the cities, for those old men and children who have to live in the village, the safety issues, especially the ones on the alarm and treatment on time during the emergency situation, need to be resolved urgently. The paper demonstrates a system that is composed of software and hardware, constructs its structure model

Fangyan Yang; Lei Jin

2010-01-01

287

Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

2012-01-01

288

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents  

PubMed Central

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

Brechbuhl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-01-01

289

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2013-10-01

290

Clean: A false alarm reduction method for SAR CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Aperture Radar Coherent Change Detection (SAR CCD) is a sensitive change detector capable of finding ground surface height changes on the order of a radar wavelength. While this detector is capable of finding small changes such as tire tracks left on the ground, it is fraught with false alarms. This paper introduces a new algorithm, the Clutter Location, Estimation,

Rhonda D. Phillips

2011-01-01

291

LonWorks-based intelligent train's fire alarming control network  

Microsoft Academic Search

LonWorks Field Bus is introduced. Then one way of using this technology to design intelligent train's fire alarming and controlling network is presented. This way successfully realizes the serial port communication between the neuron chip and PC or ?p. Thus another approach of applying LonWorks to traditional measurement and control system is founded.

Yu Zujun; Shi Hongmei; Ai Li; Guo Baoqing

2002-01-01

292

46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.240 General alarm system. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each...

2013-10-01

293

Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

1993-10-01

294

A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many application as CiscoWorks, HP OpenView NNM and Operation, BMC Patrol, etc. Analysis of text of an alarm can detect some keywords that allow to classify the particular event. The inference rules were developed by means an analysis about news regard real emergency found by web reaserches. We have seen that often a kind of emergency is characterized by more keyword. Keywords are not uniquely associated with a specific emergency, but they can be shared by different types of emergencies (such as. keyword "landslide" can be associated both emergency "landslide" and emergency "Flood"). However, the identification of two or more keywords associated with a particular type of emergency identified in most cases the correct type of emergency. So, for example, if text contains words as "water", "flood", "overflowing", "landslide" o other words belonging to the set of defined keywords or words that have some root of keywords, the system "decides" that this alarm belongs to specific typology, in this case "flood typology". The system has the memory of this information, so if a new alarm is reported and belongs to one of the typology already identified, it proceeds with the comparison of coordinates. The comparison between the centers of the alarms allows to see if they describe an area inscribed in an ideal circle that has centered on the first alarm and radius defined by the typology above mentioned. If this happens the system CI6 creates an emergency that has centered on the centre of that area and typology equal to that of the alarms. It follows that an emergency is represented by at least two alarms. Thus, the system suggests to manager (CI6's user) the possibility that most alarms can concern same events and makes a classification of this event. It is important to stress that CI6 is a system of decision support, hence also this service is limited to providing advice to the user to facilitate his task, leaving him the decision to accept it or not. REFERENCES SEC (Simple Event Correlator), htt

Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

2009-04-01

295

105. DAMAGE CONTROL CENTRAL STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

105. DAMAGE CONTROL CENTRAL - STARBOARD LOOKING TO PORT SHOWING PLOTTING BOARD, FLOODING & FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS AND DRAGE GAUGE. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

296

An investigation of thermal anomalies in the Central American volcanic chain and evaluation of the utility of thermal anomaly monitoring in the prediction of volcanic eruptions. [Central America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Ground truth data collection proves that significant anomalies exist at 13 volcanoes within the test site of Central America. The dimensions and temperature contrast of these ten anomalies are large enough to be detected by the Skylab 192 instrument. The dimensions and intensity of thermal anomalies have changed at most of these volcanoes during the Skylab mission.

Stoiber, R. E. (principal investigator); Rose, W. I., Jr.

1975-01-01

297

False Alarm Control of CFAR Algorithms with Experimental Bistatic Radar Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

False alarm control performance of different constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithms is experimentally investigated using bistatic radar data. The CFARs under investigation include cell-averaging (CA-CFAR), smaller- of (SOCFAR) greater-of (GO-CFAR), o...

J. Palmer P. E. Berry T. V. Cao

2010-01-01

298

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2013-10-01

299

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms....

2013-10-01

300

THE NEW SOFT-IOC-BASED ALARM HANDLER AT THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE  

SciTech Connect

The standard EPICS alarm handler tool (ALH) does not integrate well with other EPICS client applications. At SNS, we wanted the ability to incorporate alarm summaries and alarm controls such as masks and resets into screens in the display manager as well as the ability to call display screens from alarm screens. To achieve these aims, we built a soft-IOC-based alarm handler that runs in Linux soft IOCs. A set of scripts builds EPICS databases, display manager screens, and startup scripts for standard Linux soft IOCs from old EPICS Alarm Handler (ALH) or extensible markup language (XML) configuration files. With this new tool the summaries, masks and latch status can be incorporated into other EPICS client applications. In this paper we describe our experience building and using the soft-IOC-based alarm handler everywhere that alarms are defined in the SNS control system.

Gurd, Pamela A [ORNL] [ORNL; Lawson, Gregory S [ORNL] [ORNL; Munro Jr, John K [ORNL] [ORNL; Strong, William Herb [ORNL] [ORNL; Williams, Jr., Ernest L [ORNL

2007-01-01

301

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2013-07-01

302

Preclinical evidence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an effective alarm parameter under hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10 min. As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided.

Shi, Hua; Sun, Nannan; Mayevsky, Avraham; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming

2014-01-01

303

Effects of a fire alarm strobe light on fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type and location of fire alarms are important considerations in animal facility design. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends minimizing animal exposure to such alarms. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to maintain fire alarms within animal housing or procedural areas. The authors exposed male mice to the flashing strobe light component of a standard

Jerald Silverman; Denice Godfrey

2009-01-01

304

46 CFR 108.627 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 108.627 Section 108.627...OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT... § 108.627 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide alarm...

2013-10-01

305

46 CFR 35.40-5 - General alarm bells-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General alarm bells-TB/ALL. 35.40-5 Section 35.40-5 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-5 General alarm bellsâTB/ALL. General alarm bells must be marked...

2013-10-01

306

46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL § 35.40-1 General alarm contact makerâTB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker...

2013-10-01

307

Chair Alarm for patient fall prevention based on Gesture Recognition and Interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The

Heather Knight; Jae-Kyu Lee; Hongshen Ma

2008-01-01

308

Design of large space fire alarm controller based on intelligent video surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ARM embedded fire alarm controller is designed and applied to the fire intelligent video surveillance system of large space. Based on the Modbus communication protocol, the fire alarm controller receive the information from video surveillance platform, sending out alarm signal of voice and light when fire happened, and then the fire sprinkler system are controlled to

Shuangye Chen; Chen Luo; Yawei Chen; Weijing Zhang; Jie Hou; Jiaru Qian

2011-01-01

309

46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37-5...Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

2013-10-01

310

46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196.37-5...etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with...

2013-10-01

311

Context-Aided False Alarm Reduction for SAR Automatic Target Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces techniques for context-aided false alarm reduction for automatic target recognition (ATR) in airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Candidate target pixels are identified using constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection. If only a single radar image is available, a 2-D site model is constructed and used to determine regions inhospitable to targets. In multipass imagery, false alarm

Sandrine Mathieu-Marni; Shyam Kuttikkad; Rama Chellappa

1997-01-01

312

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2009-10-01

313

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2010-10-01

314

Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer, distributed between developed and undeveloped parts of the basin. Water samples collected should be analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including physical properties, nutrients, suspended sediment, and constituents associated with increased urban development such as pesticides, other trace organic compounds associated with domestic and industrial waste, and trace elements.

Kroening, Sharon E.

2008-01-01

315

The double slit experiment and the time reversed fire alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When both slits of the double slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to ``understand'' such a puzzling feature only draws us into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double slit experiment and a time reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double slit experiment with a time reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow.

Halabi, Tarek

2011-03-01

316

The information that receivers extract from alarm calls in suricates.  

PubMed Central

Field observations and acoustic analyses have shown that suricate (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls vary in their acoustic structure depending on predator type. In this study, we tested whether receivers respond appropriately when hearing a call in the absence of a predator. Although the only way for suricates to escape from predators is to retreat to boltholes, responses to playbacks could be divided into distinct categories. The subjects responded differently to alarm calls given in response to aerial or terrestrial predators and to recruitment calls emitted in response to snakes and deposits on the ground. Suricates also showed rather distinct responses to low, medium and high urgency aerial calls. Differences in the responses were less obvious for different levels of urgency in the terrestrial and recruitment calls. Suricate receivers thus gain information about both the predator type and level of urgency from the acoustic structures of their calls.

Manser, M B; Bell, M B; Fletcher, L B

2001-01-01

317

ZoneAlarm 5.5.094.000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest application from ZoneLabs is intended to assist users who wish to protect their DSL- or cable-connected personal computer from marauding hackers. The program includes four interlocking security services, including a firewall and Internet lock, and an application control. The Interlock is particularly handy, as it effectively blocks Internet traffic while your computer is unattended. This version of ZoneAlarm is compatible with Windows 98 or newer.

318

False-alarm probability of conventional and logarithmic CFAR receivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a radar system, it is well known that the conventional and logarithmic CFAR techniques after a square-law detector are effective for Rayleigh clutter. In order to apply CFAR techniques to practical radar systems with a linear detector, false-alarm probability was calculated by a Monte Carlo simulation on computer for a finite number of samples N. It is concluded that the conventional CFAR receiver is superior to the logarithmic CFAR receiver.

Tatsukawa, S.; Sekine, M.; Musha, T.

1984-10-01

319

Recent and proposed changes in criticality alarm system requirements  

SciTech Connect

Various changes in criticality alarm system (CAS) requirements of American Nuclear Society (ANS) standards, US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and guidance, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards or regulations were approved or proposed in the last 5 yr. Many changes interpreted or clarified existing requirements or accommodated technological or organizational developments. However, some changes could substantively affect CAS programs, including several changes originally thought to be editorial. These changes are discussed here.

Putman, V.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

1998-09-01

320

Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying ar...

S. E. Kroening

2008-01-01

321

Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report  

SciTech Connect

The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-02-01

322

SETI pulse detection algorithm: Analysis of false-alarm rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

Levitt, B. K.

1983-01-01

323

Application of the dynamic calibration method to international monitoring system stations in Central Asia using natural seismicity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic calibration method (DCM), using natural seismicity data and initially elaborated in [Kedrov, 2001; Kedrov et al., 2001; Kedrov and Kedrov, 2003], is applied to International Monitoring System (IMS) stations in Central Asia. The algorithm of the method is refined and a program is designed for calibrating diagnostic parameters (discriminants) that characterize a seismic source on the source-station traces. The DCM calibration of stations in relation to the region under study is performed by the choice of attenuation coefficients that adapt the diagnostic parameters to the conditions in a reference region. In this method, the stable Eurasia region is used as the latter. The calibration used numerical data samples taken from the archive of the International Data Centre (IDC) for the IMS stations MKAR, BVAR, EIL, ASF, and CMAR. In this paper, we used discriminants in the spectral and time domains that have the form D_i = X_i - a_m m_b - b_? log ? and are independent of the magnitude m b and the epicentral distance ?; these discriminants were elaborated in [Kedrov et al., 1990; Kedrov and Lyuke, 1999] on the basis of a method used for identification of events at regional distances in Eurasia. Prerequisites of the DCM are the assumptions that the coefficient a m is regionindependent and the coefficient b ? depends only on the geotectonic characteristics of the medium and does not depend on the source type. Thus, b ? can be evaluated only from a sample of earthquakes in the region studied; it is used for adapting the discriminants D( X i ) in the region studied to the reference region. The algorithm is constructed in such a way that corrected values of D( X i) are calculated from the found values of the calibration coefficients b ?, after which natural events in the region under study are selected by filtering. Empirical estimates of the filtering efficiency as a function of a station vary in a range of 95 100%. The DCM was independently tested using records obtained at the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) stations BRVK and MAKZ from explosions detonated in India on May 11, 1998, and Pakistan on May 28, 1998; these stations are similar in location and recording instrumentation characteristics to the IMS stations BVAR and MKAR. This test resulted in correct recognition of the source type and thereby directly confirmed the validity of the proposed calibration method of stations with the use of natural seismicity data. It is shown that the calibration coefficients b ? for traces similar in the conditions of signal propagation (e.g., the traces from Iran to the stations EIL and ASF) are comparable for nearly all diagnostic parameters. We arrive at the conclusion that the method of dynamic calibration of stations using natural seismicity data in a region where no explosions were detonated can be significant for a rapid and inexpensive calibration of IMS stations. The DCM can also be used for recognition of industrial chemical explosions that are sometimes erroneously classified in regional catalogs as earthquakes.

Kedrov, O. K.; Kedrov, E. O.; Sergeyeva, N. A.; Zabarinskaya, L. P.; Gordon, V. R.

2008-05-01

324

Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

1994-06-01

325

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

326

Stable isotopes as indicators of sources and processes influencing nitrate distributions in dairy monitoring wells and domestic supply wells in the Central Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate concentrations above the 10 mg/L NO3-N maximum contaminant level (MCL) have been found in many wells throughout the Central Valley, California. This area contains many possible anthropogenic nitrate sources including current and historic agriculture, private septic systems, municipal waste water, and confined animal feeding operations (primarily dairies). In order to better understand the potential contributions of dairy manure derived nitrate to both shallow and deep groundwater, we used a combined chemical, stable isotope, and age-dating approach for water samples collected from a network of shallow groundwater monitoring wells located on seven different dairies, and from a survey of approximately 200 deeper domestic supply wells (used for drinking water and dairy operations). Groundwater from shallow monitoring wells and deep supply wells was collected in two geographic regions. In the northern region, the lower San Joaquin Valley, the water table is shallow (2- 5 m below surface) and therefore considered highly vulnerable to contamination, while in the southern region, the Tulare Lake Basin, the water table is much deeper (20 - 30 m). Mean ?15N of nitrate in dairy monitoring wells in both the north and south regions was significantly higher than the mean ?15N measured in the deeper supply wells, and also showed greater variability. Mean ?15N and ?18O values measured in the deep supply wells were not significantly different between the north and south regions. Mean nitrate concentrations, ?15N, and ?18O were significantly higher in the northern (lower San Joaquin Valley) monitoring wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) monitoring wells. Nitrate isotope measurements indicated that many of the northern monitoring wells had consistently high contributions of manure-derived nitrate to the shallow groundwater during the 16 month study. Monitoring wells located in relatively new dairies in the south region showed little evidence of manure-derived nitrate, while those located in much older dairies in the south region showed a very wide range of nitrate isotope values, indicating significant nitrate contributions from multiple sources including manure and industrial fertilizer and biological processing effects. Combined nitrate concentration and isotopic data from all the monitoring wells showed very little evidence of significant saturated-zone denitrification. Monitoring well networks within individual dairies showed wide ranges of nitrate concentrations, nitrate isotopic compositions, and geochemical compositions, confirming the heterogeneity of the nitrate loading across dairy facilities and indicating that measurements from any single monitoring well may not be representative of general groundwater quality downgradient of an individual dairy.

Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Holstege, D.; Lockhart, K.; Applegate, O.

2011-12-01

327

Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

328

Intelligent monitoring system for intensive care units.  

PubMed

We address in the present paper a medical monitoring system designed as a multi-agent based approach. Our system includes mainly numerous agents that act as correlated multi-agent sub-systems at the three layers of the whole monitoring infrastructure, to avoid non informative alarms and send effective alarms at time. The intelligence in the proposed monitoring system is provided by the use of time series technology. In fact, the capability of continuous learning of time series from the physiological variables allows the design of a system that monitors patients in real-time. Such system is a contrast to the classical threshold-based monitoring system actually present in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which causes a huge number of irrelevant alarms. PMID:21505862

Nouira, Kaouther; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed

2012-08-01

329

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

330

Evaluation of groundwater storage monitoring with the GRACE satellite: Case study of the High Plains aquifer, central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity is a critical issue in semiarid regions; however, regional groundwater monitoring is extremely limited. This study evaluates the ability of the GRACE satellites to monitor groundwater storage in the semiarid High Plains aquifer, United States (450,000 km2 area), which is subjected to intense irrigation. GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) is highly correlated with the sum of soil moisture (SM) and groundwater storage (GWS) (R = 0.96 for in situ measured SM from 78 stations and R = 0.95 for simulated SM with the Noah land surface model with root-mean-square difference of 38 mm and 36 mm, respectively). Correlation between seasonal GWS changes calculated from GRACE TWS minus SM and measured GWS (˜1000 wells per season) is also high (R = 0.73 for in situ SM and R = 0.72 for simulated SM). Variability in SM is mostly restricted to the upper 2 m of the soil. Monitored SM compared favorably with simulated SM (R = 0.82). Study results show the potential for using GRACE gravity measurements to monitor TWS and GWS over large semiarid regions subjected to intense irrigation.

Strassberg, Gil; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Chambers, Don

2009-05-01

331

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone. PMID:20145982

Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

2010-02-01

332

Lichen Diversity and Lichen Transplants as Monitors of Air Pollution in a Rural Area of Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a biomonitoring study carried out in the Municipality of Colle di Val d'Elsa (central Italy), using the diversity\\u000a of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected elements in thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted in two urban sites are reported. The results indicate that the survey area suffers from different types of pollution.\\u000a The main air

Stefano Loppi; Luisa Frati

2006-01-01

333

Monitoring of post-failure landslide deformation by the PS-InSAR technique at Lubietova in Central Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar data from ERS and ENVISAT sensors were utilized in the analysis of the post-failure\\u000a deformations in the area of Lubietova town in Central Slovakia. The catastrophic landslide of 1977 together with surrounding\\u000a landslides in the Lubietova area were analysed with the help of persistent scatterers (PS) technique in order to evaluate\\u000a recent and past deformations of

Vladimir Greif; Jan Vlcko

334

Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, rangeland degradation was accelerated due to increased population and economic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results could help to better understand the interactions between rangeland degradation and climatic and socio-economic change in arid and semi-arid central Asia.

Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

2012-12-01

335

Problems Related to Lichen Transplants to Monitor Trace Element Deposition in Repeated Surveys: A Case Study from Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a transplant experiment with the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri aimed at monitoring the trends of trace elements deposition in a repeated biomonitoring study are reported. Data comparability\\u000a between the two surveys and interpretation of the results were addressed in this study. The ratio between the concentration\\u000a of each element after the exposure and in control samples prior

Luisa Frati; Giorgio Brunialti; Stefano Loppi

2005-01-01

336

Development of a distance-to-roadway proximity metric to compare near-road pollutant levels to a central site monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or community monitor. One of the EMAs was located near a busy freeway (annual average daily traffic (AADT) of ˜130,000) so that impacts of mobile sources could be examined. Air pollution concentrations from the roadway-proximate sites were compared to the central site monitor. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) selected (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p- and o-xylene, 1,3 butadiene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 4-ethyltoluene) are typically associated with mobile sources. Gradients were also evident that demonstrated the amplification of pollutant levels near the roadway compared to the community monitor. A novel distance-to-roadway proximity metric was developed to plot the measurements and model these gradients. Effective distance represents the actual distance an air parcel travels from the middle of a roadway to a site and varies as a function of wind direction, whereas perpendicular distance is a fixed distance oriented normal to the roadway. Perpendicular distance is often used as a proxy for exposures to traffic emissions in epidemiological studies. Elevated concentrations of all the compounds were found for both a summer and winter season. Effective distance was found to be a statistically significant ( p < 0.05) univariate predictor for concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene for summer 2005. For each of these pollutants, effective distance yielded lower p-values than the corresponding perpendicular distance models, and model fit improved. Results demonstrate that this near-road EMA had elevated levels of traffic-related VOCs compared to the community monitor, and that effective distance was a more accurate predictor of the degree to which they were elevated as a function of distance. Effective distance produced a range of distance-to-roadway values for a single site based on wind direction, thus increasing the number and range of values that could be used to plot and predict relative differences in pollutant concentrations between two sites.

Barzyk, Timothy M.; George, Barbara Jane; Vette, Alan F.; Williams, Ronald W.; Croghan, Carry W.; Stevens, Carvin D.

337

Evaluation of flammable gas monitoring options for waste tank intrusive activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This calc note documents an evaluation of three options for monitoring hydrogen during waste tank intrusive activities. The three options are (1) one Combustible Gas Monitor with an operator monitoring the readout, (2) two CGMs with separate operators monitoring each gas monitor, and (3) one CGM with audible alarm, no dedicated operator monitoring readout. A comparison of the failure probabilities

1996-01-01

338

An Earthquake Alarm System for the Marmara Region,Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Earthquake Alarm System For the Marmara Region, Turkey. M.Ekinci, C.Gurbuz, R.M. Allen Marmara region is tectonically very active and destructive earthquakes occurred in the past. Istanbul and other major cities around the Marmara region can face a significant earthquake hazard in the next thirty years the main Marmara Fault can create an earthquake moment magnitude as week as 7.5 A short-term seismic hazard mitigation in the Marmara region can be very useful.Shot-term hazard mitigation requires information on coming groun motion a few seconds to tens of seconds prior to its arrival.A proposed earthquake alarm system using the MARNET and NANOMET seismic networks could issue a warning a few seconds ahead of damaging groun motion.We proposed system uses the frequency content of P arrival to determine earthquake magnitude, an aproach that allows magnitude determination prior to any damaging ground motion. In this study we applied this method to earthquakes with a magnitude range of 3.0 and 5.1 between 2002 and 2003 in the Marmara region.

Ekinci, M.; Gurbuz, C.; Allen, R. M.

2003-12-01

339

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities.

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C.

2004-01-01

340

Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds are a potential source of frequent false alarms in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. One reason is that the signals, generated by birds at short ranges (1-2 km) in IR sensors may be of the same magnitude as the signals generated by real targets (missiles) at long ranges (10-20 km). Another reason is that new generations of IRSTs have more sensitivity which brings more birds within the detection range. Furthermore military operations tend to be held more and more in coastal zones, where the frequency of occurrence of birds is greater than in the open ocean. Finally, the variety in type of birds and their flight characteristics and signature is larger. In the paper attention is spent on the IR signatures of birds in various backgrounds, including rapid variations in signature due to wing motions. Basically, these fluctuations and the flight pattern of a bird provide opportunities to encounter bird alarms in next generation IRSTs, using multiple Focal Plan Array cameras with high frame rates. One has to take into account in this process the difference between signal variations due to wing motions and scintillation for long range targets above the horizon.

de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Kemp, Rob A. W.

2000-12-01

341

Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET's on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO's analyses.

Not Available

1992-05-01

342

Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET`s on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO`s analyses.

Not Available

1992-05-01

343

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Diabetes: From Evidence to Clinical Reality in Central and Eastern Europe--Recommendations from the International Central-Eastern European Expert Group  

PubMed Central

Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is universally considered to be an integral part of type 1 diabetes management and crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of complex insulin regimens. This extends to type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy, and there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that structured SMBG is beneficial for all type 2 diabetes patients, regardless of therapy. However, access to SMBG can be limited in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A consensus group of diabetes experts from 10 countries in this region (with overlapping historical, political, and social environments)—Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine—was formed to discuss the role of SMBG across the spectrum of patients with diabetes. The group considered SMBG to be an essential tool that should be accessible to all patients with diabetes, including those with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. The current article summarizes the evidence put forward by the consensus group and provides their recommendations for the appropriate use of SMBG as part of individualized patient management. The ultimate goal of these evidence-based recommendations is to help patients and providers in Central and Eastern Europe to make optimal use of SMBG in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies, to prevent complications, and to empower the patient to play a more active role in the management of their diabetes.

Barkai, Laszlo; Bolgarska, Svetlana; Bronisz, Agata; Broz, Jan; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Honka, Marek; Janez, Andrej; Krnic, Mladen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Martinka, Emil; Rahelic, Dario; Roman, Gabriela; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Varkonyi, Tamas; Wolnik, Bogumil; Zherdova, Nadia

2014-01-01

344

Combined therapy of enuresis alarm and desmopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight children with primary nocturnal enuresis were blindly allocated at random to a combination of enuresis alarm and 20 µg intranasal desmopressin or alarm and placebo for 2 weeks. Patients received the other therapy after a 2-week treatment-free period. The combined treatment of desmopressin and alarm showed 5.1±0.4 (mean ± SEM) dry nights per week and resulted in significantly more

R. N. Sukhai; J. Mol; A. S. Harris

1989-01-01

345

The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

346

Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication.

Flower, Tom

2011-01-01

347

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

348

False alarm rates of three third-generation pulse oximeters in PACU, ICU and IABP patients.  

PubMed

The objective of this clinical study was to determine alarm rates--in particular the frequency of false positive alarms--of three third-generation pulse oximeters in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), the intensive care unit (ICU), and in patients with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP): Nellcor Symphony N-3000, a Masimo IVY 2000, and Agilent Viridia CMS 2000. All alarms were classified into technical/physiological and false/correct. 235 consecutive ASA physical status I-IV patients after surgery were included into the study. In the PACU false positive alarms were rare: CMS n = 60, N-3000 n = 60, Masimo n = 87. Bland-Altman testing discovered only negligible differences of alarm rates and dropout times. Out of a total of 728 alarms 67.3% were classified as false positive in ICU-patients: 97 alarms by CMS, 176 by N-3000 and 218 by Masimo SET. If IABP was present, CMS indicated a significant smaller number of false positive alarms (n = 35, 7.2%) when compared to Masimo SET (n = 188, 38.9%) and N-3000 (n = 229, 47.4%), consecutively the majority of false positive alarms (76.2%) can be rated as a result of the interference of IABP. Unless IABP (and to a considerably smaller extent cardiac arrhythmia) is present the pulse oximeters do not differ significantly regarding sensitivity and specificity. PMID:11900042

Lutter, Norbert O; Urankar, Sabine; Kroeber, Steffi

2002-01-01

349

A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010  

SciTech Connect

By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

2011-09-01

350

Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

2009-01-01

351

Frost damage of bricks composing a railway tunnel monument in Central Japan: field monitoring and laboratory simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bricks of tunnels and bridges of Usui Pass railway (Japan) exposed to north are subject to frost damage. Average depth of erosion due to detachment of angular blocks is around 1-1.5 cm. In order to assess this weathering and to understand its mechanism, an experimental study was carried out in the field and laboratory. Field monitoring showed the combination of seasonal and diurnal freezing with a maximum of heave when the freezing front reached 5 cm depth. Bricks taken from the site were submitted to unidirectional freezing at capillary and vacuum saturation in the laboratory. Results showed that frost damage of bricks was favoured by high saturation level and repetition of freeze-thaw cycles.

Thomachot, C.; Matsuoka, N.; Kuchitsu, N.; Morii, M.

2005-07-01

352

RESULTS OF RECENT INFRASOUND AVALANCHE MONITORING STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of recent infrasound avalanche monitoring studies have advanced technological capabilities and provided further understanding of technological challenges. Avalanche identification performance of single sensor monitoring systems varies according to ambient noise and signal levels. While single sensor signal processing algorithms can identify avalanche activity, uncertainties (missed detections and false alarms) increase with increasing wind noise, and as signal levels decrease

Ernest D. Scott; Christopher T. Hayward; Robert F. Kubichek; Jerry C. Hamann; John W. Pierre

353

Central Venous-to-Arterial CO2 Gap Is a Useful Parameter in Monitoring Hypovolemia-Caused Altered Oxygen Balance: Animal Study  

PubMed Central

Monitoring hypovolemia is an everyday challenge in critical care, with no consensus on the best indicator or what is the clinically relevant level of hypovolemia. The aim of this experiment was to determine how central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (CO2 gap) reflect hypovolemia-caused changes in the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Anesthetized, ventilated Vietnamese minipigs (n = 10) were given a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of furosemide. At baseline and then in five stages hemodynamic, microcirculatory measurements and blood gas analysis were performed. Oxygen extraction increased significantly, which was accompanied by a significant drop in ScvO2 and a significant increase in CO2 gap. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen extraction and ScvO2 and significant positive correlation between oxygen extraction and CO2 gap. Taking ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg values together to predict an oxygen extraction >30%, the positive predictive value?is?100%; negative predicted value?is?72%. Microcirculatory parameters, capillary perfusion rate and red blood cell velocity, decreased significantly over time. Similar changes were not observed in the sham group. Our data suggest that ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg can be complementary tools in detecting hypovolemia-caused imbalance of oxygen extraction.

Demeter, Gabor; Erces, Daniel; Nagy, Eniko; Kaszaki, Jozsef

2013-01-01

354

Fiberoptic monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation (PediaSat) in small children undergoing cardiac surgery: continuous is not continuous  

PubMed Central

Background: Monitoring of superior vena cava saturation (ScvO 2) has become routine in the management of pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of our study was to evaluate the correlation between continuous ScvO 2 by the application of a fiber-optic oximetry catheter (PediaSat) and intermittent ScvO 2 by using standard blood gas measurements. These results were compared to those obtained by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (cNIRS). Setting: Tertiary pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). Methods and main results: A retrospective study was conducted in consecutive patients who were monitored with a 4.5 or 5.5 F PediaSat catheter into the right internal jugular vein. An  in vivo calibration was performed once the patient was transferred to the PCICU and re-calibration took place every 24 hours thereafter. Each patient had a NIRS placed on the forehead. Saturations were collected every 4 hours until extubation. Ten patients with a median age of 2.2 (0.13-8.5) years and a weight of 12.4 (3.9-24) kg were enrolled. Median sampling time was 32 (19-44) hours: 64 pairs of PediaSat and ScVO2 saturations showed a poor correlation (r=0.62, 95% CI 44-75; p<0.0001) and Bland Altman analysis for repeated measures showed an average difference of 0.34 with a standard deviation of 7,9 and 95% limits of agreement from -15 to 16. Thirty-six pairs of cNIRS and ScVO2 saturations showed a fair correlation (r=0.79, 95% CI 0.60-0.89; p<0.0001) an average difference of -1.4 with a standard deviation of 6 and 95% limits of agreement from -13 to 10. Analysis of median percentage differences between PediaSat and ScvO2 saturation over time revealed that, although not statistically significant, the change in percentage saturation differences was clinically relevant after the 8th hour from calibration (from -100 to +100%). Conclusion: PediaSat catheters showed unreliable performance in our cohort. It should be further investigated whether repeating calibrations every 8 hours may improve the accuracy of this system. CNIRS may provide similar results with a lower invasiveness.

Ricci, Zaccaria

2014-01-01

355

Analysis of the ground vibration generated by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of debris flows using ground vibration sensors has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the signals still presents ambiguity. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain) two different ground vibration stations are installed. At the first station the ground velocity signal is transformed into an impulses-per-second signal (low frequency, 1 Hz). The analysis of the data recorded at this station show that the shape of the impulses signal is one of the key parameters to describe the evolution of the event. At the second station the ground velocity signal is directly recorded at high frequency (250 Hz). The results achieved at this station show that the differences in time series and spectral analysis are helpful to describe the temporal evolution of the events. In addition, some general outcomes were obtained: the attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential; and the assembly of the geophones to the terrain has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task; and that influence of site-specific conditions is notable.

Abancó, C.; Hürlimann, M.; Moya, J.

2014-04-01

356

Analysis of the ground vibration produced by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ground vibration sensors for debris-flow monitoring has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the seismic signals produced by debris flows still presents many uncertainties. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain) two different ground vibration stations with different characteristics in terms of recording systems and site-specific factors have been compared. The shape of the time series has been recognised as one of the key parameters to identify events and to distinguish between different types of torrential processes. The results show that the site-specific factors strongly influence on the ground vibration registered at each geophone. The attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential. In addition, the assembly of the geophones to the terrain also has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task which is clearly influenced by site-specific conditions of the geophones.

Abancó, C.; Hürlimann, M.; Moya, J.

2013-08-01

357

Combination of multi-sensor PSI monitoring data with a landslide damage inventory: the Tena Valley case study (Central Spanish Pyrenees) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work illustrates the usefulness of integrating multi-sensor DInSAR monitoring data and landslide damage inventories for risk analysis. The approach has been applied in the Tena Valley (Central Spanish Pyrenees), where active landslides have caused significant damage on human structures over the last decade. Slope instability in this glacial trough is mainly related to very slow deep-seated slide-flows developed in Paleozoic slates. The PSI processing of ascending orbit ALOS PALSAR images (2006-2010), and descending orbit ERS & Envisat (2001-2007) and TerraSAR-X (2008) datasets, has provided heterogeneous displacement velocity measurements. The geometrical differences introduced by each satellite have been homogenized through the projection of the LOS displacements along the steepest slope gradient. Additionally, conventional DInSAR analysis of ALOS PALSAR images has permitted the detection of faster movements (up to 145cm yr-1) from 46 day interferograms (, increasing the number of detected landslides. Overall, the number of monitored landslides increased from 4% and 19%, using C- and X- band data, to 38% of the total (294) using L-band. In a subsequent phase, the multi-sensor velocities measured for the landslides are classified with respect to the magnitude of the road damage occurred in the 2008-2010 period. According to available measurements, minor or no damages are produced for landslide velocities smaller than 21 mm yr-1, moderate damages occurred between 21 and 160 mm yr-1, and major damages between 160 and 1450 mm yr-1.

Herrera, G.; Gutierrez, F.; García-Davalillo, J.; Galve, J.; Fernández-Merodo, J.; Cooksley, G.; Guerrero, J.; Duro, J.

2013-12-01

358

Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging  

SciTech Connect

Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10{sup {minus}8} M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

Wang, Ziqiang

1999-12-10

359

Towards a closed-loop cochlear implant system: application of embedded monitoring of peripheral and central neural activity.  

PubMed

Although the cochlear implant (CI) is widely considered the most successful neural prosthesis, it is essentially an open-loop system that requires extensive initial fitting and frequent tuning to maintain a high, but not necessarily optimal, level of performance. Two developments in neuroscience and neuroengineering now make it feasible to design a closed-loop CI. One development is the recording and interpretation of evoked potentials (EPs) from the peripheral to the central nervous system. The other is the embedded hardware and software of a modern CI that allows recording of EPs. We review EPs that are pertinent to behavioral functions from simple signal detection and loudness growth to speech discrimination and recognition. We also describe signal processing algorithms used for electric artifact reduction and cancellation, critical to the recording of electric EPs. We then present a conceptual design for a closed-loop CI that utilizes in an innovative way the embedded implant receiver and stimulators to record short latency compound action potentials ( ~1 ms), auditory brainstem responses (1-10 ms) and mid-to-late cortical potentials (20-300 ms). We compare EPs recorded using the CI to EPs obtained using standard scalp electrodes recording techniques. Future applications and capabilities are discussed in terms of the development of a new generation of closed-loop CIs and other neural prostheses. PMID:22328183

Mc Laughlin, Myles; Lu, Thomas; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Zeng, Fan-Gang

2012-07-01

360

New technologies for item monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

Abbott, J.A. [EG & G Energy Measurements, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Waddoups, I.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-01

361

COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

MCDONALD JP

2011-09-08

362

Diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To investigate prospectively abnormalities of brain glucose utilisation in relation to major or minor neuropsychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).?METHODS—Positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose was performed in 28 patients with SLE. Patients were classified as having severe neuropsychiatric manifestations (seizures, focal neurological deficits, acute confusional states, mood disorders) (n=12), or mild neuropsychiatric manifestations (headache, reactive depression, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety disorders) (n=11) and five patients without signs of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls. In 26 patients magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and autoantibodies against CNS tissue, ribosomal P protein and cardiolipin were measured. In 14 patients follow up PET scans were performed after a mean (SD) period of 11.6 (9.5) months.?RESULTS—PET scans showed hypometabolism in at least one brain region in all patients with severe or mild CNS symptoms (100%) as compared with patients without cerebral symptoms (40%) (p<0.0025). Parieto-occipital regions were most commonly affected (96%), followed by parietal regions (32%). In contrast, MRI images were abnormal in only 11 of 22 patients (50%) with neuropsychiatric symptoms and in one of four patients (25%) without symptoms. In 12 of 14 patients examined in follow up PET scans persistence, improvement or worsening of cerebral symptoms were associated with unchanged, decreased or increased brain hypometabolism, respectively. No significant correlation was found between PET or MRI findings and autoantibody profiles.?CONCLUSIONS—PET imaging represents a sensitive tool to detect manifest or subclinical CNS involvement in SLE and PET findings correlate well with the clinical course of disease.??

Weiner, S; Otte, A; Schumacher, M; Klein, R; Gutfleisch, J; Brink, I; Otto, P; Nitzsche, E; Moser, E; Peter, H

2000-01-01

363

X-ray monitoring of classical novae in the central region of M 31. II. Autumn and winter 2007/2008 and 2008/2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Classical novae (CNe) represent the major class of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) in the central region of the galaxy M 31. Aims: We performed a dedicated monitoring of the M 31 central region with XMM-Newton and Chandra between Nov. 2007 and Feb. 2008 and between Nov. 2008 and Feb. 2009, respectively, to find SSS counterparts of CNe, determine the duration of their SSS phase, and derive physical outburst parameters. Methods: We systematically searched our data for X-ray counterparts of CNe, determined their X-ray light curves and characterised their spectra using blackbody fits and white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. Additionally, we determined luminosity upper limits for all previously known X-ray emitting novae that are not detected any more and for all CNe in our field of view with optical outbursts between one year before the start of the X-ray monitoring (Oct. 2006) and its end (Feb. 2009). Results: We detected 17 X-ray counterparts of CNe in M 31, only four of which were previously known. These latter sources are still active 12.5, 11.0, 7.4 and 4.8 years after the optical outburst. In addition, we detected three known SSSs without a nova counterpart. Four novae displayed short SSS phases (<100 d). Based on these results and previous studies we compiled a catalogue of all novae with SSS counterparts in M 31 known so far. We used this catalogue to derive correlations between the following X-ray and optical nova parameters: turn-on time, turn-off time, blackbody temperature (X-ray), t2 decay time and expansion velocity of the ejected envelope (optical). Temperatures derived from blackbody fits and WD atmosphere models were found to characterise the effective SSS temperatures almost equally well. Furthermore, we found a first hint for the existence of a difference between SSS parameters of novae associated with the stellar populations of the M 31 bulge and disk. Additionally, we conducted a Monte Carlo Markov chain simulation on the intrinsic fraction of novae with SSS phase. This simulation showed that the high fraction of novae without detected SSS emission might be explained by the inevitably incomplete coverage with X-ray observations in combination with a large part of novae with short SSS states, as expected from the WD mass distribution. Conclusions: Our results confirm that novae are the major class of SSSs in the central region of M 31. The catalogue of novae with X-ray counterpart, mainly based on our X-ray monitoring, contains valuable insight into the physics of the nova process. In order to verify our results with an increased sample, more monitoring observations are needed. Partly based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.All tables are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable 9 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A52

Henze, M.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Hernanz, M.; Sala, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Della Valle, M.; Rau, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Burwitz, V.

2011-09-01

364

Crime Prevention in Schools: Specification, Installation, and Maintenance of Intruder Alarm Systems. Building Bulletin 69.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Greater use of expensive equipment by schools has also increased the potential for vandalism and theft, giving an increased role to intruder alarm systems. This document provides guidance on the management and technical aspects of forming policies for installing and operating intruder alarm systems in educational buildings. Also provided are…

Haworth-Roberts, A., Ed.

365

Cadmium disrupts behavioural and physiological responses to alarm substance in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm substance is a chemical signal released from fish skin epithelial cells after a predator causes skin damage. When other prey fish detect alarm substance by olfaction, they perform stereotypical predator-avoidance behaviours to decrease predation risk. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of sublethal cadmium (Cd) exposure on the behavioural and physiological responses of juvenile rainbow

Graham R. Scott; Katherine A. Sloman; Claude Rouleau; Chris M. Wood

2003-01-01

366

Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brood parasites and predators pose unique threats that may favour the evolution of enemy-specific defence strategies. We considered whether reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, have a specific alarm call for com- mon cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, and whether their alarms attract mates and neighbours. Mounts of cuckoos (threat to nest but harmless to adults) were significantly more likely to be mobbed and

J. A. Welbergen; N. B. Davies

2008-01-01

367

Empirical mode decomposition based reducing false alarm filter for built-in test signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm is the phenomenon that built-in test or other detection module indicates fault problem but actually no fault exists. High false alarm rate severely restricts the development of built-in test system. This paper reveals that doing extra processing on the intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition, we can establish a filter with good performance in reducing false

Miao Zhang; Yi Shen; Xin Li; Zhibo Wang; Xiaolei Zhang; Yanchao Gao; Yanju Ji

2011-01-01

368

Effects of Fungal Infection on the Alarm Response of Pea Aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum, Homoptera: Aphididae) infected with the fungal pathogen Erynia neoaphidis (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) were less sensitive to the aphid alarm pheromone (E)-?-farnesene than uninfected aphids. Approximately 83% of the healthy aphids and 45% of the infected aphids (2 and 3 days post-inoculation) responded to the alarm pheromone. The percentage of nonresponding aphids increased as the disease progressed. When

H. E. Roy; J. K. Pell; P. G. Alderson

1999-01-01

369

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...interlocks provided in control systems to ensure safe operation, such...clean agent fire extinguishing system, vital machinery, flooding...transfer to required backup or redundant systems or power sources must be...

2013-10-01

370

CENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF SMALL TREATMENT PLANTS USING INSTRUMENTS AND REMOTE ALARMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The operation and maintenance of small treatment plants and associated lift stations pose unique and difficult problems to the authority responsible for their performance. Due to financial and manpower limitations, they must operate unattended the majority of the time. Undetected...

371

[Patient monitoring during anesthesia].  

PubMed

Three functional levels are monitored during anaesthesia: vital functions such as cardiovascular and respiratory systems; metabolic functions; and organs such as brain and muscle. These three levels interact with each other and with the anaesthesia system. Basic monitoring systems include the ECG, noninvasive blood pressure measurement, inspired O2 concentration, tidal volume, airway pressure, and alarm systems for stenosis and disconnection. Other monitors are added to this list, including pulse oximetry, capnography, temperature, and neuromuscular transmission. The type of surgery and anaesthetic risk will determine the extent of the monitoring used during surgery. New and expensive noninvasive monitoring techniques such as transesophageal Doppler echocardiography and somatosensory evoked potentials will increasingly be added. The high costs and the rising number of monitoring systems necessitate a better definition of what is essential and what is optional for each individual case. PMID:3548477

Pasch, T

1986-12-01

372

ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.  

PubMed

Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for. PMID:24058949

2013-09-01

373

Quality improvement in nursing homes: testing of an alarm elimination program.  

PubMed

Falls are the most common cause of injury deaths and nonfatal injuries in older adults. In an effort to detect a resident's movement, many nursing homes use bed or chair alarms to alert staff that the resident may get up and possibly fall. However, there is little evidence that bed or chair alarms prevent falls, and mounting evidence that alarms can impede the functional status and negatively impact feelings of dignity among older adults in nursing homes. The purpose of this article was to describe the development and pilot testing of an alarm elimination program for nursing homes. A program aimed at decreasing or eliminating the use of alarms may enhance quality of life of older adults in nursing homes. PMID:24135950

Crogan, Neva L; Dupler, Alice E

2014-01-01

374

Cortisol influences the antipredator behavior induced by chemical alarm cues in the Frillfin goby.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effect of increased plasma cortisol levels on fish antipredator behavior induced by conspecific chemical alarm cues. The experimental model for the study was the Frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator. We first confirmed that the alarm substance induces typical defensive antipredator responses in Frillfin gobies and described their alarm substance cells (epidermal 'club' cells). Second, we confirmed that intraperitoneal cortisol implants increase plasma cortisol levels in this species. We then demonstrated that exogenous cortisol administration and subsequent exposure to an alarm substance decreased swimming activity to a greater extent than the activity prompted by either stimulus alone. In addition, cortisol did not abolish the sheltering response to the alarm chemical cue even though it decreased activity. As predators use prey movements to guide their first contact with the prey, a factor that decreases swimming activity clearly increases the probability of survival. Consequently, this observation indicates that cortisol helps improve the antipredator response in fish. PMID:24657662

Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barbosa-Júnior, Augusto; Urbinati, Elisabeth Criscuolo; Hoffmann, Anette

2014-04-01

375

Systematic review of controlled trials of interventions to promote smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To evaluate the effects of promotion of residential smoke alarms.?METHODS—Electronic databases, conference proceedings, and bibliographies were systematically searched, and investigators and organisations were contacted, in order to identify controlled trials evaluating interventions designed to promote residential smoke alarms. The following were assessed: smoke alarm acquisition, ownership, and function; fires; burns; and fire related injuries. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by meta analysis of randomised trials.?RESULTS—A total of 26 trials were identified, of which 13 were randomised. Overall, counselling and educational interventions had only a modest effect on the likelihood of owning an alarm (OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87 to 1.81) or having a functional alarm (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.66). Counselling as part of primary care child health surveillance had greater effects on ownership (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.58) and function (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 0.78 to 3.78). Results were sensitive to trial quality, however, and effects on fire related injuries were not reported. In two non-randomised trials, direct provision of free alarms significantly increased functioning alarms and reduced fire related injuries. Media and community education showed little benefit in non-randomised trials.?CONCLUSION—Counselling as part of child health surveillance may increase smoke alarm ownership and function, but its effects on injuries are unevaluated. Community smoke alarm give away programmes apparently reduce fire related injuries, but these trials were not randomised and results must be interpreted cautiously. Further efforts to promote smoke alarms in primary care or through give away programmes should be evaluated by adequately designed randomised controlled trials measuring injury outcomes.??

DiGuiseppi, C.; Higgins, J.

2000-01-01

376

40 CFR 64.3 - Monitoring design criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements applicable to the monitoring in developing appropriate...frequency of conducting the monitoring, the data collection...alarm sensor, or manual log entries based on...this section but the monitoring shall include some...analyzer). (c) Evaluation factors. In...

2010-07-01

377

40 CFR 64.3 - Monitoring design criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements applicable to the monitoring in developing appropriate...frequency of conducting the monitoring, the data collection...alarm sensor, or manual log entries based on...this section but the monitoring shall include some...analyzer). (c) Evaluation factors. In...

2009-07-01

378

Patient Monitoring in the Operating Room: Validation of Instrument Readings by Artificial Intelligence Methods  

PubMed Central

Physiological monitoring in the operating room is needed to follow the patient's state of ventilation, circulation, etc. Parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas content are observed with devices of uncertain reliability. These provide speedy information in the form of cautions and alarms, which may indicate that corrective action is needed. In practice the large number of alarms when there is no hazard to the patient (false alarms) is a considerable problem. We describe a method of comparing and validating instrument readings in this situation involving a knowledge base whose core is a set of 36 rules. This was applied to 7803 warnings (6287 cautions and 1516 alarms) from 68 day surgery patients undergoing 115 hours of surgery. Most of the cautions were validated by our analysis, but 734 of the 1516 alarms were invalidated while 419 were validated and 363 left indeterminate. This translates to a potential reduction from one alarm every 4 minutes to one every 16 minutes.

Garfinkel, D.; Matsiras, P.V.; Mavrides, T.; McAdams, J.; Aukburg, S.J.

1989-01-01

379

Study of False Alarm Reduction in Forest Fire Detection (Onderzoek naar Reductie van vals Alarmen bij Bosbrand Detectie).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

False alarms and missed detections are common problem to any autonomous surveillance system. The present investigation describes the possible causes for the occurrences of false alarms and missed detection in a demonstration system based on an electro-opt...

J. S. De Vries

1993-01-01

380

Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time. Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation-but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications. The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above. Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W.

2008-08-01

381

Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release  

SciTech Connect

MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time.Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation--but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications.The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above.Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

Streil, T.; Oeser, V. [SARAD GmbH, Wiesbadener Str. 10-20, D-01159 Dresden (Germany); Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W. [SARAD GmbH, Wiesbadener Str. 10-20, D-01159 Dresden (Germany); Armed Forces Scientific Institute for Protection Technologies-NBC Protection PO.Box 1142, 29633 Munster (Germany)

2008-08-07

382

Correlation of a novel noninvasive tissue oxygen saturation monitor to serum central venous oxygen saturation in pediatric patients with postoperative congenital cyanotic heart disease.  

PubMed

Using a novel noninvasive, visible-light optical diffusion oximeter (T-Stat VLS Tissue Oximeter; Spectros Corporation, Portola Valley, CA) to measure the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) of the buccal mucosa, the correlation between StOz and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) was examined in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. Paired StO2 and serum ScvO2 measurements were obtained postoperatively and statistically analyzed for agreement and association. Thirteen children (nine male) participated in the study (age range, 4 days to 18 months). Surgeries included Glenn shunt procedures, Norwood procedures, unifocalization procedures with Blalock-Taussig shunt placement, a Kawashima/ Glenn shunt procedure, a Blalock-Taussig shunt placement, and a modified Norwood procedure. A total of 45 paired StO2-ScvO2 measurements was obtained. Linear regression demonstrated a Pearson's correlation of .58 (95% confidence interval [CI], .35-.75; p < .0001). The regression slope coefficient estimate was .95 (95% CI, .54-1.36) with an interclass correlation coefficient of .48 (95% CI, .22-.68). Below a clinically relevant average ScvO2 value, a receiver operator characteristic analysis yielded an area under the curve of .78. Statistical methods to control for repeatedly measuring the same subjects produced similar results. This study shows a moderate relationship and agreement between StO2 and ScvO2 measurements in pediatric patients with a history of congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. This real-time monitoring device can act as a valuable adjunct to standard noninvasive monitoring in which serum SyvO2 sampling currently assists in the diagnosis of low cardiac output after pediatric cardiac surgery. PMID:23691783

Yadlapati, Ajay; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Kelly, Robert B

2013-03-01

383

African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees.  

PubMed

The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The "Samburu alarm rumble" is acoustically distinct from the previously described "bee alarm rumble." The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats. PMID:24586753

Soltis, Joseph; King, Lucy E; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Vollrath, Fritz; Savage, Anne

2014-01-01

384

Judging the urgency of non-verbal auditory alarms: a case study.  

PubMed

When designed correctly, non-verbal auditory alarms can convey different levels of urgency to the aircrew, and thereby permit the operator to establish the appropriate level of priority to address the alarmed condition. The conveyed level of urgency of five non-verbal auditory alarms presently used in the Canadian Forces CH-146 Griffon helicopter was investigated. Pilots of the CH-146 Griffon helicopter and non-pilots rated the perceived urgency of the signals using a rating scale. The pilots also ranked the urgency of the alarms in a post-experiment questionnaire to reflect their assessment of the actual situation that triggers the alarms. The results of this investigation revealed that participants' ratings of perceived urgency appear to be based on the acoustic properties of the alarms which are known to affect the listener's perceived level of urgency. Although for 28% of the pilots the mapping of perceived urgency to the urgency of their perception of the triggering situation was statistically significant for three of the five alarms, the overall data suggest that the triggering situations are not adequately conveyed by the acoustic parameters inherent in the alarms. The pilots' judgement of the triggering situation was intended as a means of evaluating the reliability of the alerting system. These data will subsequently be discussed with respect to proposed enhancements in alerting systems as it relates to addressing the problem of phase of flight. These results call for more serious consideration of incorporating situational awareness in the design and assignment of auditory alarms in aircraft. PMID:15204277

Arrabito, G Robert; Mondor, Todd; Kent, Kimberley

2004-06-22

385

A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a\\u000asatisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence\\u000acyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system\\u000aestablishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP\\/IP) through GPRS\\/CDMA\\/3G.\\u000aIt achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human\\u000amachine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile

Longhua Ma; Tengkai Yuan; Feng Xia; Ming Xu; Jun Yao; Meng Shao

2010-01-01

386

System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions  

DOEpatents

A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA), Gentile; Ann C. (Dublin, CA), Marzouk; Youssef M. (Oakland, CA), Hale; Darrian J. (San Jose, CA), Thompson; David C. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

2010-07-13

387

The GTN-P Data Management System: A central database for permafrost monitoring parameters of the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Permafrost is a direct indicator of climate change and has been identified as Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the global observing community. The monitoring of permafrost temperatures, active-layer thicknesses and other parameters has been performed for several decades already, but it was brought together within the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) in the 1990's only, including the development of measurement protocols to provide standardized data. GTN-P is the primary international observing network for permafrost sponsored by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), and managed by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). All GTN-P data was outfitted with an "open data policy" with free data access via the World Wide Web. The existing data, however, is far from being homogeneous: it is not yet optimized for databases, there is no framework for data reporting or archival and data documentation is incomplete. As a result, and despite the utmost relevance of permafrost in the Earth's climate system, the data has not been used by as many researchers as intended by the initiators of the programs. While the monitoring of many other ECVs has been tackled by organized international networks (e.g. FLUXNET), there is still no central database for all permafrost-related parameters. The European Union project PAGE21 created opportunities to develop this central database for permafrost monitoring parameters of GTN-P during the duration of the project and beyond. The database aims to be the one location where the researcher can find data, metadata, and information of all relevant parameters for a specific site. Each component of the Data Management System (DMS), including parameters, data levels and metadata formats were developed in cooperation with the GTN-P and the IPA. The general framework of the GTN-P DMS is based on an object oriented model (OOM), open for as many parameters as possible, and implemented into a spatial database. To ensure interoperability and enable potential inter-database search, field names are following international metadata standards and are based on a control vocabulary registry. Tools are developed to provide data processing, analysis capability, and quality control. Our system aims to be a reference model, improvable and reusable. It allows a maximum top-down and bottom-up data flow, giving scientists one global searchable data and metadata repository, the public a full access to scientific data, and the policy maker a powerful cartographic and statistical tool. To engage the international community in GTN-P, it was essential to develop an online interface for data upload. Aim for this was that it is easy-to-use and allows data input with a minimum of technical and personal effort. In addition to this, large efforts will have to be produced in order to be able to query, visualize and retrieve information over many platforms and type of measurements. Ultimately, it is not the layer in itself that matter, but more the relationship that these information layers maintain with each other.

Lanckman, Jean-Pierre; Elger, Kirsten; Karlsson, Ævar Karl; Johannsson, Halldór; Lantuit, Hugues

2013-04-01

388

Bladder Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

1993-01-01

389

Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an alarm signal in critical cases, especially in senior people.

Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Birsan, Cristina; Goriuc, Ancuta; Solovan, Caius

2014-01-01

390

NRL'S Central Atmosphere Monitor Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To meet the operational requirement of having submarines remain submerged for periods up to 90 days, it is necessary to have a pure atmosphere for the survivability of the crew. This requires some method for analyzing the submarine atmosphere. The current...

F. E. Saalfeld J. R. Wyatt

1976-01-01

391

Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

2012-01-01

392

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots  

PubMed Central

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls.

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2005-01-01

393

Fuel handling exclusion zone established to prevent spurious alarms to CAS neutron detectors in the IFSF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental and calculational study has been performed to understand and prevent inadvertent activation of the criticality alarm system (CAS) from fuel-handling operations at the Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility. In conjunction with the study, the CAS...

S. S. Kim J. W. Sterbentz

2000-01-01

394

Performance Comparison of Cell Averaging and 'Greatest-of' Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radar system detection procedures involve the comparison of a received signal to a threshold value. A fixed threshold is not successful in controlling the false alarms because of changing interference conditions such as noise, clutter, and jammers. Conseq...

N. B. Lawrence

1981-01-01

395

Parametric Study of a Nonsuppressing CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a parametric analysis of a modified conventional constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector. The modified CFAR detector is nonsuppressing in the sense that targets or other interfering signals in the reference cells of the detector wi...

J. D. Wilson

1983-01-01

396

ALARM 2.0 User Manual: Minimizing Compliance Costs of the Life Safety Code for Prisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ALARM, Alternative Life Safety Analysis for Retrofit Cost Minimization, is a software tool that helps prison facility managers and fire safety engineers achieve cost-effective compliance with the widely-used Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protectio...

S. F. Weber L. I. Schultz

2001-01-01

397

Microprocessor-based multichannel flutter monitor using dynamic strain gage signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two microprocessor-based multichannel monitors for monitoring strain gage signals during aerodynamic instability (flutter) testing in production type turbojet engines were described. One system monitors strain gage signals in the time domain and gives an output indication whenever the signal amplitude of any gage exceeds a pre-set alarm or abort level for that particular gage. The second system monitors the strain

R. R. Smalley

1976-01-01

398

Development of an on-line fuzzy expert system for integrated alarm processing in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

An on-line fuzzy expert system, called alarm filtering and diagnostic system (AFDS), was developed to provide the operator with clean alarm pictures and system-wide failure information during abnormal states through alarm filtering and diagnosis. In addition, it carries out alarm prognosis to warn the operator of process abnormalities. Clean alarm pictures that have no information overlapping are generated from multiple activated alarms at the alarm filtering stage. The meta rules for dynamic filtering were established on the basis of the alarm relationship network. In the case of alarm diagnosis, the relations between alarms and abnormal states are represented by means of fuzzy relations, and the compositional inference rule of fuzzy logic is utilized to infer abnormal states from the fuzzy relations. The AFDS offers the operator related operating procedures as well as diagnostic results. At the stage of alarm prognosis, the future values of some important critical safety parameters are predicted by means of Levinson algorithm selected from the comparative experiments, and the global trends of these parameters are estimated using data smoothing and fuzzy membership. This information enables early failure detection and is also used to supplement diagnostic symptoms.

Choi, S.S.; Kang, K.S.; Kim, H.G.; Chang, S.H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-08-01

399

Application study of mine alarm system based on ZigBee technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing the wireless network communication technology ZigBee and the features, advantages and application rule of the wireless single chip microcomputer cc2430, which is a true system-on-chip (SOC) loading ZigBee technology, the article introduced the design method of mine alarm system based on ZigBee technology. The composition of the mine alarm system and the design features of hardware and software

Qingzhu Wang; Rongchang Liu; Yuquan Ma; Jinchuan Zhao; Lizhen Feng; Shiguang Liu

2008-01-01

400

Modulation of aphid alarm pheromone emission of pea aphid prey by predators.  

PubMed

Recent studies on animal alarm signaling have shown that alarm calls generally are not uniform, but may vary depending on the type and intensity of threat. While alarm call variability has been studied intensively in birds and mammals, little is known about such variation in insects. We investigated variability in alarm signaling in aphids, group-living insect herbivores. Under attack, aphids release droplets containing a volatile alarm pheromone, (E)-?-farnesene (EBF), that induces specific escape behavior in conspecifics. We used a handheld gas chromatograph (zNose™), which allows real-time volatile analysis, to measure EBF emission by pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, under attack from different predators, lacewing or ladybird larvae. We demonstrate that aphid alarm signaling is affected by the predator species attacking. Ladybirds generally elicited smaller EBF emission peaks and consumed aphids more quickly, resulting in lower total EBF emission compared to lacewing attacks. In 52 % of the replicates with lacewings and 23 % with ladybirds, no EBF was detectable in the headspace, although aphids secreted cornicle droplets after attack. We, therefore, examined EBF amounts contained in these droplets and the aphid body. While all aphid bodies always contained EBF, many secreted droplets did not. Our experiments show that alarm signaling in insects can be variable, and both the attacker as well as the attacked may affect alarm signal variation. While underlying mechanisms of such variation in aphid-predator interactions need to be investigated in more detail, we argue that at least part of this variation may be adaptive for the predator and the aphid. PMID:23686467

Joachim, Christoph; Hatano, Eduardo; David, Anja; Kunert, Maritta; Linse, Cornelia; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2013-06-01

401

Variability Index Constant False Alarm Rate (VI-CFAR) for Sonar Target Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sonar background environment is not homogeneous at all times but is often filled with in-homogeneities like multiple targets and reverberation edges. Cell Averaging Constant False Alarm Rate (CA-CFAR) gives optimum performance in a homogeneous environment but its performance degrades in presence of in-homogeneities. Greatest Of CFAR (GO-CFAR) has been designed to control false alarms during reverberation edges while Smallest

A. K. Verma

2008-01-01

402

False alarm control of CFAR algorithms with experimental bistatic radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm control performance of different constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithms is experimentally investigated using bistatic radar data. The CFARs under investigation include cell-averaging (CA-CFAR), smaller-of (SO-CFAR), greater-of (GO-CFAR), ordered-statistic (OS-CFAR), censored cell-averaging (CCA-CFAR), and the homogeneity detector mean-to-mean ratio (MMR) test. The experimental data was collected using an Illuminator of Opportunity (IOO) bistatic radar that is under ongoing

Tri-Tan V. Cao; James Palmer; Paul E. Berry

2010-01-01

403

Probability of false alarm in CA-CFAR device downstream from linear-law detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

With coherent and digital signal processing, the amplitude is easier to obtain in modern radars than the squared amplitude. Thus, it may be useful to have a relationship between the false alarm probability P(fa), the constant of the adaptive threshold, and the number of reference samples for a cell-averaging constant false alarm rate (CA-CFAR) device downstream from a linear-law detector.

A. di Vito; G. Moretti

1989-01-01

404

Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

405

Estimating performance limits for an intelligent scene monitoring system (ISM) as a perimeter intrusion detection system (PIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Scene Monitoring (ISM) is an evolutionary next step beyond basic Video Motion Detection. An ISM system takes video imagery as an input and is expected to alarm only when a specific user-defined event or sequence of events occurs in the scene. It is expected to work in “busy” scenes, alarming only on the target patterns of behaviour, to the

K. H. Sage; K. M. Wickham; J. F. Boyce; S. J. Gornall; D. L. Toulson

1994-01-01

406

Research of pulse signal processing based on sleep-monitoring alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From pulse diagnosis of Chinese herbalist doctor to the research of cardiovascular system by modem iatrology,they all have showed and proved that human pulse has a good affinity with diseases,especially cardiovascular diseases. Human pulse contains much physical information, and it will be propitious to know the human healthy state early so as to get therapy and recovery early when pulse signal is often detected and analyzed. study how to use the embedded microcontroller to transmit physiological signal from human to personal computer by infrared communication, and the normal sphygmic parameter in one's sleeping is compared with the one measured in order to judge whether one's sleeping condition is normal, finally ascertain the best control plan.

Zhang, Kaisheng; Zeng, Yuan

2009-07-01

407

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure.

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Kathy T.; Martin, Julien G. A.

2013-01-01

408

Effects of a fire alarm strobe light on fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations in mice.  

PubMed

The type and location of fire alarms are important considerations in animal facility design. The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends minimizing animal exposure to such alarms. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to maintain fire alarms within animal housing or procedural areas. The authors exposed male mice to the flashing strobe light component of a standard fire alarm and evaluated mouse fecal corticosterone concentration, which is known to be an indicator of stress. Mice were exposed to the strobe light for 5 min during either the light or the dark phase of the light:dark cycle. The authors collected fecal samples every 6 h for 24 h before exposing mice to the alarm and every 6 h for 24 h after exposure. Fecal samples taken before exposure (baseline samples) showed a normal circadian pattern of corticosterone metabolite excretion. In fecal samples taken after mice were exposed to the fire alarm, metabolite concentrations did not significantly differ from baseline concentrations over time. PMID:19165194

Godfrey, Denice; Silverman, Jerald

2009-02-01

409

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.  

PubMed

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

2012-03-01

410

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species.

Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

411

Alarm pheromone is detected by the vomeronasal organ in male rats.  

PubMed

It is widely known that a stressed animal releases specific pheromones, possibly for alarming nearby conspecifics. We previously investigated an alarm pheromone in male rats and found that this alarm pheromone evokes several responses, including increases in the defensive and risk assessment behaviors in a modified open-field test, and enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex. However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in these pheromone effects remains unclear. To clarify this point, vomeronasal organ-excising or sham surgeries were performed in male rats for use in 2 experimental models, after which they were exposed to alarm pheromone. We found that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery blocked the effects of this alarm pheromone in both the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. In addition, the results of habituation/dishabituation test and soybean agglutinin binding to the accessory olfactory bulb suggested that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery completely ablated the vomeronasal organ while preserving the functioning of the main olfactory system. From the above results, we showed that the vomeronasal organ plays an important role in alarm pheromone effects in the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. PMID:23821727

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Kubota, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2013-10-01

412

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls.  

PubMed

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure. PMID:23466987

Blumstein, Daniel T; Nguyen, Kathy T; Martin, Julien G A

2013-05-01

413

Two Odorant-Binding Proteins Mediate the Behavioural Response of Aphids to the Alarm Pheromone (E)-ss-farnesene and Structural Analogues  

PubMed Central

Background Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E)-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E)-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E)-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone. Conclusions Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila) that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests.

Qiao, Hui Li; Iovinella, Immacolata; Yang, Shao Xiang; Ling, Yun; Riviello, Lea; Battaglia, Donatella; Falabella, Patrizia; Yang, Xin Ling; Pelosi, Paolo

2012-01-01

414

SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems  

SciTech Connect

In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in use at Y-12 in the newly constructed Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility. The second CAAS detector used a {sup 6}LiF TLD to absorb neutrons and a silicon detector to count the charge particles released by these absorption events. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory provided four of these detectors, which had formerly been used at the Rocky Flats facility in the United States.

Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex

2011-01-01

415

Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots  

SciTech Connect

Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

1999-07-14

416

Study of the origin and fate of air pollutants in California's great central valley: aerometric monitoring. Final report 1978-79  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the aerometric and meterological monitoring performed over three seasons during 1978 and 1979. This monitoring was part of an overall tracer transport study. Three air monitoring trailers were deployed during each of the three intensive study periods to measure: oxone, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, wind speed and temperature. In November and December of

Schwall

1981-01-01

417

Time Analyzer for Time Synchronization and Monitor of the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software package has been developed to measure, monitor, and archive the performance of timing signals distributed in the NASA Deep Space Network. Timing signals are generated from a central master clock and distributed to over 100 users at distances up to 30 kilometers. The time offset due to internal distribution delays and time jitter with respect to the central master clock are critical for successful spacecraft navigation, radio science, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) applications. The instrument controller and operator interface software is written in LabView and runs on the Linux operating system. The software controls a commercial multiplexer to switch 120 separate timing signals to measure offset and jitter with a time-interval counter referenced to the master clock. The offset of each channel is displayed in histogram form, and "out of specification" alarms are sent to a central complex monitor and control system. At any time, the measurement cycle of 120 signals can be interrupted for diagnostic tests on an individual channel. The instrument also routinely monitors and archives the long-term stability of all frequency standards or any other 1-pps source compared against the master clock. All data is stored and made available for

Cole, Steven; Gonzalez, Jorge, Jr.; Calhoun, Malcolm; Tjoelker, Robert

2003-01-01

418

Operational requirements for the Remote maintenance Monitoring System (RMMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This operational requirements document was prepared for use in support of the development and implementation of a Remote Maintenance Monitoring System (RMMS) for the National Airspace System (NAS). Fundamental concepts of RMMS operation and the system description have been previously developed by the Airway Facilities Service (AAF). The information generated by the Remote Monitoring Subsystem (RMS) at the equipment site shall be directly available to the responsible maintenance personnel at their work center. Initially, a Maintenance Processor Subsystem (MPS) will be installed at the ARTCC where communication lines with enroute equipment and major airports presently exist. Future MPSs shall be located at sector offices, or major workcenters. The MPS shall monitor the status of all equipment for a specific geographical area and shall automatically notify the monitoring facilities of the equipment alarms. The monitoring facility shall be alerted of an alarm by both visual and aural signals describing where alarm has occurred, the type of alarm, and which equipment is alarming. The MPS shall serve as the primary collection point, processor, and distribution center for all RMM and Maintenance Management System (MMS) data. The RMMS will remote many routine maintenance functions currently performed at the remote equipment sites and will permit them to be accomplished at any suitably equipped work center.

1984-06-01

419

Ultrasonic Device Monitors Fullness Of The Bladder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic device monitors fullness of bladder is self-contained, lightweight, portable, powered by battery, and tailored for specific patient through software modified as patient's behavior changes. Essentially quantifies amount of urine in bladder by measuring relative distension of bladder and gives suitable alarm telling patient to eliminate. Intended for use in training people who are incontinent and cannot identify when elimination necessary.

Heyman, Joseph S.; Blalock, Travis; Companion, John A.; Cavalier, AL; Mineo, Beth A.

1991-01-01

420

Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes

D. McCann; D. White

1992-01-01

421

Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.  

PubMed

A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention. PMID:14519407

Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

2003-09-01

422

Arrangements of the intravenous parallel infusions with anti-reflux valves decreasing occlusion alarm delay  

PubMed Central

Background The methods of arrangement of combined intravenous parallel infusions using anti-reflux valve (ARV), with and without anti-syphon valve (ASV) that could decrease occlusion alarm delay were investigated. Methods Occlusion challenge tests were mainly performed as bench experiments of four kinds of multiple parallel infusions (10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusions), which were connected at the proximal or distal portion of ARV, with or without ASV. Alarm threshold was set to 1000 mmHg. Occlusion alarm delays and the compliances of the infusion systems were compared among groups. Results Without ASV, compared to 10 ml/h infusion alone distal to anti-reflux valve, 50 ml/h infusion distal to anti-reflux valve reduced the mean alarm delay from 416 ± 7 s to 81 ± 3 s (P < 0.001). Compared to 50 ml/h infusion alone, combined 10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusion distal to ARV prolonged the alarm delay from 81 ± 3 s to 133 ± 6 s (P < 0.001). However, combined infusions distal to ARV with ASV significantly reduced the alarm delay from 133 ± 6 s to 74 ± 5 s (P < 0.001), and also reduced the compliance of the infusion system from 2.31 ± 0.12 to 1.20 ± 0.08 µl/mmHg (P < 0.001). Conclusions The infusion setup of faster infusion rate, lower compliant system using ASV could effectively decrease occlusion alarm delay during multiple intravenous parallel infusions using ARV.

Joe, Han Bum; Moon, Bong-Ki; Lee, Yeon-Ju

2014-01-01

423

Silent emergency alarm system for schools and the like  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An emergency alert system is described. In a school each classroom (or other area) is instrumented with a hidden microphone and receiver tuned to a non-audible frequency. The receivers' outputs are connected to a central display unit in the school's administrative office. Each instructor is provided with a small concealable transmitter which, when hand activated by the instructor upon the occurrance of any emergency, generates a non-audible signal at the receiver's tuned frequency.

Read, W. S.; Roberts, V. W. (inventors)

1973-01-01

424

Development of Test Methods and Draft Standard for Cardiac Monitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains an overview of the work done in developing various versions of a standard for cardiac monitors, heart rate meters and alarms. It includes a summary of tests performed on commercial monitors by UBTL to evaluate the test methods propose...

A. A. Schoenberg A. R. Grahn H. E. Booth

1978-01-01

425

Platform Design for HealthCare Monitoring Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in technology have led to development of various sensing, computing and communication devices that can be woven into the physical environment of our daily lives. Such systems enable on-body and mobile health-care monitoring, can integrate information from different sources, and can initiate actions or trigger alarms when needed. In this paper, we describe the general characteristics of medical monitoring

Roozbeh Jafari; Ruzena Bajcsy; Steven Glaser; Bruce Gnade; Marco Sgroi; Shankar Sastry

2007-01-01

426

Monitoring System of Power Line Icing Based on GPRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPRS-based power line monitoring system for ice. The system is based on the images to monitor the power line monitoring device for ice. System through the use of simplified Sobel algorithm and Hough transform to image edge detection, with DSP high-speed computing performance and optimization of DSP code, and realized the power line ice thickness of the terminal identification and automatic alarm function; using the terminal identification means, is intelligent Monitoring of a new attempt.

Wancheng, Xie

427

Personal continuous air monitor  

DOEpatents

A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

428

Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

2013-05-01

429

Chemical Alarm Cues Are Conserved within the Coral Reef Fish Family Pomacentridae  

PubMed Central

Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

Mitchell, Matthew D.; Cowman, Peter F.; McCormick, Mark I.

2012-01-01

430

Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community  

PubMed Central

Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities.

Parejo, Deseada; Aviles, Jesus M.; Rodriguez, Juan

2012-01-01

431

A Low-Cost, Real-Time Network for Radiological Monitoring Around Nuclear Facilities  

SciTech Connect

A low-cost, real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response has been developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the site perimeter to continuously monitor radiological conditions as part of LLNL's comprehensive environment/safety/health protection program. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These low-power sensors transmit measurement data back to a central command center (CCC) computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio- and computer- based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. This system provides a low-cost real-time radiation monitoring solution that is easily converted to incorporate both a hard-wired interior perimeter with strategically positioned wireless secondary and tertiary concentric remote locations. These wireless stations would be configured with solar voltaic panels that provide current to recharge batteries and power the sensors and radio transceivers. These platforms would supply data transmission at a range of up to 95 km from a single transceiver location. As necessary, using radio transceivers in repeater mode can extend the transmission range. The RTRAM network as it is presently configured at LLNL has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions. With the proposed reconfiguration to a combined hard-wired and wireless network, which incorporates a robust server and modeling software, the system would be a durable and economical radiological monitoring system for nuclear power plants around the world.

Bertoldo, N A

2004-08-13

432

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue quarterly site inspections and the collection of soil moisture data for the UC-1 CMP cove

NONE

2006-04-01

433

Impact of spectral smoothing on gamma radiation portal alarm probabilities.  

PubMed

Gamma detector counts are included in radiation portal monitors (RPM) to screen for illicit nuclear material. Gamma counts are sometimes smoothed to reduce variance in the estimated underlying true mean count rate, which is the "signal" in our context. Smoothing reduces total error variance in the estimated signal if the bias that smoothing introduces is more than offset by the variance reduction. An empirical RPM study for vehicle screening applications is presented for unsmoothed and smoothed gamma counts in low-resolution plastic scintillator detectors and in medium-resolution NaI detectors. PMID:21612936

Burr, T; Hamada, M; Hengartner, N

2011-10-01</