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1

Development of Radiation Alarm Monitors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KEPRI developed a portable (gamma) radiation alarm monitor with a measuring range of 0.01-100 mR/h, which can give off both audible and visible alarm signal at a preset level. Dose rate, accumulated dose, etc can be retrieved at a personal computer for th...

C. Y. Lee D. W. Kang M. J. Song S. J. Maeng S. W. Son

1996-01-01

2

Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment.

Miller, G.C.

1987-05-01

3

Monitor alarm fatigue: an integrative review.  

PubMed

Alarm fatigue is a national problem and the number one medical device technology hazard in 2012. The problem of alarm desensitization is multifaceted and related to a high false alarm rate, poor positive predictive value, lack of alarm standardization, and the number of alarming medical devices in hospitals today. This integrative review synthesizes research and non-research findings published between 1/1/2000 and 10/1/2011 using The Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice model. Seventy-two articles were included. Research evidence was organized into five main themes: excessive alarms and effects on staff; nurse's response to alarms; alarm sounds and audibility; technology to reduce false alarms; and alarm notification systems. Non-research evidence was divided into two main themes: strategies to reduce alarm desensitization, and alarm priority and notification systems. Evidence-based practice recommendations and gaps in research are summarized. PMID:22839984

Cvach, Maria

4

Alarm criteria in radiation portal monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. These detectors collect counts that are used to determine whether to trigger an alarm. Several candidate alarm rules are evaluated, with attention to background suppression caused by the vehicle. Because the count criterion leads to many nuisance alarms and because background suppression by the vehicle is smaller for

Tom Burr; James R. Gattiker; Kary Myers; George Tompkins

2007-01-01

5

A Standards-Based Alarms Service for Monitoring Federated Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operators of federated networks require timely detection and diagnosis of networking problems. For detection of such problems, access to monitoring data that exists in multiple organisations is necessary. This paper presents an ongoing work on an Alarms Service which uses a standards-based access mechanism to obtain monitoring data from multiple organisations and then raises alarms based on pre-defined conditions. It

Charaka Palansuriya; Jeremy Nowell; Florian Scharinger; Kostas Kavoussanakis; Arthur Trew

2009-01-01

6

Air pollution monitoring for on-line warning and alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication deals with a concept on air pollution monitoring. The Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) has been involved in the establishment of air pollution monitoring and modeling for warning and alarm systems during accidental releases and ...

B. Sivertsen

1994-01-01

7

A remote sleep-monitoring medical alarm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring sleep state and sending out alarm signal according to the state and the acute disease belong to the area of sleep basic research and prediction of outbreaks of diseases. The system includes: monitoring and analyzing the sleeper pulse's physiological parameters, the embedded computer judge whether or not the sleeper suffers acute disease(heart disease, cerebral haemorrhage, etc). If so, the

Panfeng Zhang; Kaisheng Zhang

2010-01-01

8

An Alarms Service for Monitoring Multi-domain Grid Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Effective monitoring of multi-domain Grid networks is essential to support large operational Grid infrastructures. Timely\\u000a detection of network problems is an essential part of this monitoring. In order to detect the problems, access to network\\u000a monitoring data that exists in multiple organisations is necessary. This paper presents an Alarms Service that supports monitoring\\u000a of such multi-domain Grid networks. The service

Charaka Palansuriya; Jeremy Nowell; Florian Scharinger; Kostas Kavoussanakis; Arthur S. Trew

2010-01-01

9

Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

2012-12-01

10

Web-based integrated alarm monitoring system in the ICU.  

PubMed

A web-based monitoring system for the alarm of equipment has developed for the conventional environment of Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The system communicates with equipment using Data Collection Interface (DCI) that converts the protocol of the output of equipment from RS-232C to TCP/IP. The system creates a web-document that can be referred from any internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using the system, a staff can easily monitor the state of the patient and the equipment. If the system is installed in the ICU, monitoring and management for the equipment will be highly improved. PMID:17281636

Murakami, Akitsugu; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Akutagawa, Masatake; Ohnishi, Yoshiaki; Kuroda, Yasuhiro

2005-01-01

11

A novel embedded sleep-monitoring alarm equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel sleep-monitoring alarm equip-ment based on embedded technology and ARM chips is designed in this paper. The data of sphygmic signal was measured by piezo-film sphygmo-transducers and processed by an embedded microcontroller. The sphygmic data of a person's sleeping in normal case is compared with those detected by the transducer designed in this paper to judge whether the person's

Kaisheng Zhang; Jiaan Zhang

2009-01-01

12

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and...Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2300 Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm). (a) Identification. A cardiac monitor (including...

2010-04-01

13

Predictive combinations of monitor alarms preceding in-hospital code blue events.  

PubMed

Bedside monitors are ubiquitous in acute care units of modern healthcare enterprises. However, they have been criticized for generating an excessive number of false positive alarms causing alarm fatigue among care givers and potentially compromising patient safety. We hypothesize that combinations of regular monitor alarms denoted as SuperAlarm set may be more indicative of ongoing patient deteriorations and hence predictive of in-hospital code blue events. The present work develops and assesses an alarm mining approach based on finding frequent combinations of single alarms that are also specific to code blue events to compose a SuperAlarm set. We use 4-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate the influence of four algorithm parameters on the performance of the data mining approach. The results are obtained from millions of monitor alarms from a cohort of 223 adult code blue and 1768 control patients using a multiple 10-fold cross-validation experiment setup. Using the optimal setting of parameters determined in the cross-validation experiment, final SuperAlarm sets are mined from the training data and used on an independent test data set to simulate running a SuperAlarm set against live regular monitor alarms. The ANOVA shows that the content of a SuperAlarm set is influenced by a subset of key algorithm parameters. Simulation of the extracted SuperAlarm set shows that it can predict code blue events one hour ahead with sensitivity between 66.7% and 90.9% while producing false SuperAlarms for control patients that account for between 2.2% and 11.2% of regular monitor alarms depending on user-supplied acceptable false positive rate. We conclude that even though the present work is still preliminary due to the usage of a moderately-sized database to test our hypothesis it represents an effort to develop algorithms to alleviate the alarm fatigue issue in a unique way. PMID:22465785

Hu, Xiao; Sapo, Monica; Nenov, Val; Barry, Tod; Kim, Sunghan; Do, Duc H; Boyle, Noel; Martin, Neil

2012-03-24

14

ANESTHESIA MONITORING, ALARM PROLIFERATION, AND ECOLOGICAL INTERFACE DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating theatre is a noisy place with many un informative and redundant alarms. Using data from a recent observational study, we demonstrate that anaestheti sts actively respond to only 3.4% of all alarms. We outline a range of possible solutions to the alarm problem. E cological Interface Design (EID) helps to outline t he requirements for an information environment

Marcus Watson; John Russell; MBBS FRANZCA; Penelope Sanderson

15

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2009-04-01

16

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits. (b)...

2013-04-01

17

Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Real-Time Algorithms for Calibration, Filtering, and Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algorithms for real-time use in continuous glucose monitors are reviewed, including calibration, filtering of noisy signals, glucose predictions for hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic alarms, compensation for capillary blood glucose to sensor time lags, and fault detection for sensor degradation and dropouts. A tutorial on Kalman filtering for real-time estimation, prediction, and lag compensation is presented and demonstrated via simulation examples. A

B. Wayne Bequette

2010-01-01

18

Research on the meter's pulse signal processing based on sleep-monitoring alarm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to study pulse signal processing while researching the embedded sleep-monitoring alarm system. Through the improvement of thin-film pulse sensor, the sensor location-related issues are solved. At the same time, low frequency filtering, second-level enlargement, and multiple analysis by using an embedded microprocessor are involved. Comparing the pulse parameters during human sleep under normal circumstances and the actual

Kaisheng Zhang; Jiaan Zhang

2009-01-01

19

Continuous glucose monitoring: real-time algorithms for calibration, filtering, and alarms.  

PubMed

Algorithms for real-time use in continuous glucose monitors are reviewed, including calibration, filtering of noisy signals, glucose predictions for hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic alarms, compensation for capillary blood glucose to sensor time lags, and fault detection for sensor degradation and dropouts. A tutorial on Kalman filtering for real-time estimation, prediction, and lag compensation is presented and demonstrated via simulation examples. A limited number of fault detection methods for signal degradation and dropout have been published, making that an important area for future work. PMID:20307402

Bequette, B Wayne

2010-03-01

20

Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Real-Time Algorithms for Calibration, Filtering, and Alarms  

PubMed Central

Algorithms for real-time use in continuous glucose monitors are reviewed, including calibration, filtering of noisy signals, glucose predictions for hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic alarms, compensation for capillary blood glucose to sensor time lags, and fault detection for sensor degradation and dropouts. A tutorial on Kalman filtering for real-time estimation, prediction, and lag compensation is presented and demonstrated via simulation examples. A limited number of fault detection methods for signal degradation and dropout have been published, making that an important area for future work.

Bequette, B. Wayne

2010-01-01

21

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

22

A CONTINUOUSLY RECORDING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON MONOXIDE MONITORING SYSTEM WITH FULLY AUTOMATIC ALARMS IN A BLAST FURNACE AREA  

PubMed Central

A continuously recording carbon monoxide monitoring system with fully automatic alarms is described for use in blast furnace areas. The equipment comprised the Mines Safety Appliances Model 200 infra-red analyser, pumping system, recorder, extension meter, and alarm unit. Use of the apparatus showed that concentrations of carbon monoxide in the blast furnace area studied were mostly in the range of 0 to 49 p.p.m. Readings of 200 p.p.m. and over generally indicated that some abnormal and potentially dangerous incident had occurred. Examples of such incidents are given. A visual alarm was set at 200 p.p.m., a level at which work could safely continue for a limited period, and an auditory alarm at 500 p.p.m., at which level immediate action was necessary. The theoretical reasons for selecting these levels are discussed, and practical results are quoted to confirm their suitability. Images

Davies, G. M.; Jones, J. Graham; Warner, C. G.

1965-01-01

23

Reducing False Alarms of Intensive Care Online-Monitoring Systems: An Evaluation of Two Signal Extraction Algorithms  

PubMed Central

Online-monitoring systems in intensive care are affected by a high rate of false threshold alarms. These are caused by irrelevant noise and outliers in the measured time series data. The high false alarm rates can be lowered by separating relevant signals from noise and outliers online, in such a way that signal estimations, instead of raw measurements, are compared to the alarm limits. This paper presents a clinical validation study for two recently developed online signal filters. The filters are based on robust repeated median regression in moving windows of varying width. Validation is done offline using a large annotated reference database. The performance criteria are sensitivity and the proportion of false alarms suppressed by the signal filters.

Borowski, M.; Siebig, S.; Wrede, C.; Imhoff, M.

2011-01-01

24

Nuclear incident monitor criticality alarm instrument for the Savannah River Site: Technical manual  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site is a Department of Energy facility. The facility stores, processes, and works with fissionable material at a number of locations. Technical standards and US Department of Energy orders, require these locations to be monitored by criticality alarm systems under certain circumstances. The Savannah River Site calls such instruments Nuclear Incident Monitors or NIMs. The Sole purpose of the Nuclear Incident Monitor is to provide an immediate evacuation signal in the case of an accidental criticality in order to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The new unit is the third generation Nuclear Incident Monitor at the Savannah River Site. The second generation unit was developed in 1979. It was designed to eliminate vacuum-tube circuits, and was the first solid state NIM at SRS. The major design objectives of the second generation NIM were to improve reliability and reduce maintenance costs. Ten prototype units have been built and tested. This report describes the design of the new NIM and the testing that took place to verify its acceptability.

Jenkins, J.B.

1996-05-21

25

PC Based Alarm System for the HERA machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new HERA Alarm System is based on the TINE data exchange protocol, and consists of three levels: the Local Alarm Server (LAS), a Central Alarm Server (CAS) and an Alarm Console. Alarms are generated by the Local Alarm Server running on each of the approximately 50 front-end computers used for machine control. The CAS gathers and filters the alarms

M. Bieler; P. Duval; S. Herb; F. Willeke; Germany A. Kurakin; V. Soloviev; V. Yarygin

26

Design and development of a personal alarm monitor for use by first responders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and development of a small, portable alarm device that can be used by first responders to an emergency event to warn of the presence of low levels of a toxic nerve gas. The device consists of a rigid reusable portion and a consumable packet that is sensitive to the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as

Daniel J. Ehntholt; Alan S. Louie; Ingrid G. Marenchic; Ronald J. Forni

2004-01-01

27

Design and development of a personal alarm monitor for use by first responders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and development of a small, portable alarm device that can be used by first responders to an emergency event to warn of the presence of low levels of a toxic nerve gas. The device consists of a rigid reusable portion and a consumable packet that is sensitive to the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as the nerve gases Sarin or Soman. The sensitivity level of the alarm is set to be at initial physiological response at the meiosis level, orders of magnitude below lethal concentrations. The AChE enzyme used is specific for nerve-type toxins. A color development reaction is used to demonstrate continued activity of the enzyme over its twelve-hour operational cycle.

Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Louie, Alan S.; Marenchic, Ingrid G.; Forni, Ronald J.

28

Rack protection monitor  

DOEpatents

A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

Orr, Stanley G. (Wheaton, IL)

2000-01-01

29

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01

30

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01

31

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2013-04-01

32

Hidden Alarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent a device that will make their friends and family ask, "What's buzzing?" Learners design an alarm with an on/off switch that is small enough to hide. This activity is a fun, hands-on way for learners to get a taste for the design process and experiment with circuitry.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

33

Short-term event recording as a measure to rule out false alarms and to shorten the duration of home monitoring in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Zusammenfassung  Apnoe- und Herzatem-Monitore werden häufig zur Überwachung von Säuglingen verwendet. Diese Monitore neigen zu häufigen Fehlalarmen\\u000a und verursachen dadurch Stress bei Eltern und führen häufig zu einer unnötigen Verlängerung des Heimmonitorings im Säuglingsalter.\\u000a \\u000a Für den ambulanten Einsatz stehen Geräte zur Verfügung (Eventmonitore), mit denen solche Alarme retrospektiv analysiert und\\u000a objektiviert werden können.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Ziel der Studie war es, durch den Kurzeinsatz

Heinz Zotter; Renate Schenkeli; Ronald Kurz; Reinhold Kerbl

2003-01-01

34

Intelsat SSTDMA central control and monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the design of a central control and monitoring system for Intelsat SSTDMA networks. The overall requirements and objectives are discussed briefly, followed by a brief description of the system level design. The focus of the paper is on discussing applications specific to SSTDMA. These include operational data base management, on-board Timing Source Oscillator (TSO) frequency correction, synchronuous Burst Time Plan (BTP) change management, and a ground based system utilizing expert system techniques for fault diagnosis in the SSTDMA network.

Tamboli, S.; Lunsford, J.; Bedford, R.; Luz, F.

35

Combating Nuisance Alarms Caused by the Ship Effect in 3He Based Neutron Detection Radiation Portal Monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ship effect neutrons can present unique challenges in ongoing efforts to interdict illicit nuclear trafficking at border crossings. 3He neutron proportional counters can generate false positives due to these neutron spikes, leading to cumbersome secondary radiation scans. This work explores methods to mitigate these nuisance alarms through a better understanding of how this effect is manifested in different materials, the

A. Oliveri; E. Buckley; J. Borgardt; R. Kouzes; E. Siciliano; A. Seifert; L. Windsor

2007-01-01

36

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement...a) Identification. The arrhythmia detector and alarm device monitors an...

2013-04-01

37

Nurses' reactions to alarms in a neonatal intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), like other intensive care units, are intended to provide immediate responses to any change in the patient’s condition. Patient-monitoring alarms and alarms from other medical equipment are very common in these units, and most alarms have no clinical significance. This study addresses the question of how alarms affect nurses’ actions by measuring the occurrence of

Yuval Bitan; Joachim Meyer; David Shinar; Ehud Zmora

2004-01-01

38

AUDITORY ALARMS: FROM ALERTING TO INFORMING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current alarm and warning systems in medical domains are integrated into patient monitoring devices and are centered around the concept of alerting operators to potential problems without specifying the specific nature of the problem. In contrast, informative auditory alarms and warning systems have been proposed for next-generation monitoring equipment, These \\

F. Jacob Seagull; Yan Xiao; Cohn F. Mackenzie; Christopher D. Wickens

2000-01-01

39

Evaluation of minimum detectable activity and false alarm rate relationships for the eberline alpha-6 continuous air monitors at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy rule for Occupational Radiation Protection and the DOE Radiological Control Manual (the RCM) (DOE/EH-0256T, Rev 1, April 1994) require the use of continuous air monitors (CAMs) in normally occupied areas there an individual is likely to be exposed to a concentration of airborne radioactivity exceeding the derived air concentration (DAC) or where there is need to alert potentially exposed individuals to unexpected increases in airborne radioactivity levels. The DAC is the airborne concentration that equals the annual limit on intake divided by the volume of air breathed by an average worker for a working year of 2,000 h (assuming a breathing volume of 2,400 m{sup 3}). It is equivalent to the airborne concentration to which a worker could be exposed for an entire year (2,000 h) without exceeding the annual limit on intake. The rule and the RCM further require that real-time air monitors have an alarm capability and sufficient sensitivity to alert potentially exposed individuals that immediate action is necessary in order to minimize or terminate inhalation exposures. The RCM also recommends that real-time air monitors should be capable of measuring 1 DAC when averaged over 8 h (8 DAC) under laboratory conditions. This report was prepared jointly with actual data from the CAMs in use at the WIPP by ITRI, WID, and EEG and provides an evaluation of minimum detectable activity (MDA) or concentration and false alarm rate relationships. The methodology used in this report is adapted from Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute Annual Report for 1993-1994, ITRI-144, pp 18-22, December 1994.

Cox, M. [Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Santa Fe, NM (United States); Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

1996-06-01

40

Adjustable Electronic Load-Alarm Relay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an ac motor or other electrical load is described. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of th...

C. H. Mason R. S. Sitton

1974-01-01

41

Rack Protection Monitor - A Simple System  

SciTech Connect

The Rack Protection Monitor is a simple, fail-safe device to monitor smoke, temperature and ventilation sensors. It accepts inputs from redundant sensors and has a hardwired algorithm to prevent nuisance power trips due to random sensor failures. When a sensor is triggered the Rack Protection Monitor latches and annunicates the alarm. If another sensor is triggered, the Rack Protection Monitor locally shuts down the power to the relay rack and sends alarm to central control.

Orr, S.

1997-12-01

42

D0 Cryogenic Auto Dialing Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automatic Dialing system purchased by D0 is intended to help make the D0 cryogenic system operate unattended by cryogenic operating personnel. The auto dialer is completely programmable and is voice synthesized. The auto dialer was purchased with 32 bistable inputs, but is expandable to 64 bistable inputs with the purchase of more electronic cards at an approximate cost of $260 per card (8 bistable inputs). The auto dialer also has the capability for analog inputs, analog outputs, and bistable outputs none of which D0 uses or intends to use. The auto dialer can be called on its operating phone line to describe current alarms with the proper password. The Auto Dialer can dial lab extensions, lab pagers, and any number outside the lab. It cannot dial a long distance pager. The auto dialer monitors alarms and alarm conditions via the T1565 PLC, upon an alarm condition it initiates a phone calling sequence of preprogrammed lists with assigned priorities. When someone is reached, the auto dialer describes the individual alarm it is calling for, by a preprogrammed set of words for that individual alarm, spoken by a female voice. The called person then has a chance to acknowledge the alarm over the telephone, if the alarm is not acknowledged the auto dialer will disconnect and call the next person on the list. The auto dialer will continue to cycle through the list until it is acknowledged, reset, or the alarm condition no longer exists.

Markely, D.; /Fermilab

1992-08-03

43

Major reduction in alarm frequency with a new pulse oximeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir: Intensive care monitor alarms are a major burden on both nurses and patients. Between 44 and 63 % of alarms are caused by pulse oximeters, with 94 % of these being non-significant [1, 2]. Pulse oximeters should, therefore, be the prime target when aiming to reduce alarm rates in the intensive care unit (]CU), Recently, a new technique for

B. Bohnhorst; C. F. Poets

1998-01-01

44

Spacecraft operations automation: Automatic alarm notification and web telemetry display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these times of Faster, Better, Cheaper (FBC) spacecraft, Spacecraft Operations Automation is an area that is targeted by many Operations Teams. To meet the challenges of the FBC environment, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Operations Team designed and quickly implemented two new low-cost technologies: one which monitors spacecraft telemetry, checks the status of the telemetry, and contacts technical experts by pager when any telemetry datapoints exceed alarm limits, and a second which allows quick and convenient remote access to data displays. The first new technology is Automatic Alarm Notification (AAN). AAN monitors spacecraft telemetry and will notify engineers automatically if any telemetry is received which creates an alarm condition. The second new technology is Web Telemetry Display (WTD). WTD captures telemetry displays generated by the flight telemetry system and makes them available to the project web server. This allows engineers to check the health and status of the spacecraft from any computer capable of connecting to the global internet, without needing normally-required specialized hardware and software. Both of these technologies have greatly reduced operations costs by alleviating the need to have operations engineers monitor spacecraft performance on a 24 hour per day, 7 day per week basis from a central Mission Support Area. This paper gives details on the design and implementation of AAN and WTD, discusses their limitations, and lists the ongoing benefits which have accrued to MGS Flight Operations since their implementation in late 1996.

Short, Owen G.; Leonard, Robert E.; Bucher, Allen W.; Allen, Bryan

1999-11-01

45

Rocky Flats Criticality Alarm Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rocky Flats Criticality Alarm Systems consist of neutron-sensitive detectors coupled to individual building central logic and display systems. A new detector design is described. This detector includes a ⁶LiF neutron alpha particle converter, as in previous units, but uses ion-implanted silicon devices for the alpha particle sensor. A thick-film hybrd, low-input impedance, bipolar amplifier with CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide

Tyree

1985-01-01

46

Make an Alarm!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, students create an alarm system for something in the classroom, just as the main character Leigh does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to devise an alarm system to protect their lockers, desk, or classroom door. Note: this activity can also be done without reading "Dear Mr. Henshaw."

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

47

Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality  

PubMed Central

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W.; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E.

2013-01-01

48

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-10-16

49

Firearm safety with alarm  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A safety device for cooperation with the internal safety mechanism of a firearm to provide an audible signal to the shooter when the safety is off and the weapon is ready to fire. A main body member located adjacent the firearm trigger guard at the location of the conventional safety defines a chamber within which an alarm system is housed including a power source as well as signal generating means. A switch closing member is disposed so as to contact the trigger guard when the safety is off to close a signal generating circuit of the alarm. The alarm system is of modular construction for removable disposition within the main body chamber.

Laing; Jerry R. (Eugene, OR)

1984-10-16

50

FundAlarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FundAlarm is a "a free, non-commercial Website [which provides] objective information to help individual investors make the mutual fund 'sell' decision." Highlighted on this site is the FundAlarm database, which contains over 3,400 stock and balanced mutual funds. The database may be browsed by name of fund, or users can browse only fidelity and Vanguard funds, as well as search by up to five ticker symbols. The site also explains its benchmarking system of ranking funds, offers shop talk in its Highlights and Commentary section, and includes a discussion board. Interested users may sign up for free email notification of FundAlarm updates.

51

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

52

Video systems for alarm assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

1991-09-01

53

[Multi-bed & multi-parameter central monitoring system based on TCP/IP protocol].  

PubMed

Communication is one of the key problems to a central monitoring system. In this paper we put forward a central monitoring system using TCP/IP as the network protocol, Windows NT4.0 as the platform, forming a Intranet in a hospital. We also discussed the communication problem between the bed-side monitoring station and the central monitoring station in detail and then put forward a new protocol--Hospital Central Monitor Protocol (HCMP) based on TCP/IP to transfer monitoring data. It is easy to achieve tele-monitoring through the current communication subsystem. PMID:12583091

Lian, S J; Hu, D K; Zhao, M H; Tang, L H

2000-02-01

54

Monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America.  

PubMed

We established methods for monitoring pesticide use and associated health hazards in Central America. With import data from Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama for 2000-2004, we constructed quantitative indicators (kg active ingredient) for general pesticide use, associated health hazards, and compliance with international regulations. Central America imported 33 million kg active ingredient per year. Imports increased 33% during 2000-2004. Of 403 pesticides, 13 comprised 77% of the total pesticides imported. High volumes of hazardous pesticides are used; 22% highly/extremely acutely toxic, 33% moderately/severely irritant or sensitizing, and 30% had multiple chronic toxicities. Of the 41 pesticides included in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Dirty Dozen, and the Central American Dirty Dozen, 16 (17% total volume) were imported, four being among the 13 most imported pesticides. Costa Rica is by far the biggest consumer. Pesticide import data are good indicators of use trends and an informative source to monitor hazards and, potentially, the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:21905395

Bravo, Viria; Rodríguez, Teresa; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Canto, Nonato; Calderón, Gloria Ruth; Turcios, Miguel; Menéndez, Luis Armando; Mejía, Winston; Tatis, Anabel; Abrego, Federico Z; de la Cruz, Elba; Wesseling, Catharina

55

Design and Implementation of Automatic Fire Alarm System based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Fire disaster is a ,great threat to lives and property. Automatic fire alarm system provides real-time surveillance, monitoring and automatic alarm. It sends early alarm when the fire occurs and helps to reduce the fire damage. Wireless sensor network has become the most important technology in environmental monitoring and home or factory automation in recent years. In this paper, anautomatic

Lei Zhang; Gaofeng Wang

2009-01-01

56

Communication Strategies and Timeliness of Response to Life Critical Telemetry Alarms  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: A centralized electrocardiogram telemetry monitoring system (TMS) facilitates early identification of critical arrhythmias and acute medical decompensation. Timely intervention can only be performed if abnormalities are communicated rapidly to the direct caregiver. The study objectives were to measure effectiveness of bi-directional voice communication badges versus one-way alphanumeric pagers for telemetry alarm response and communication loop closure. Methods: A sequential observational pilot study of nursing response to TMS alarms compared communication technologies on four nursing units in a 1,061 bed tertiary care hospital with 264 TMS channels of telemetry over a 2-year period. Subsequently, the communication technologies were compared in a randomized fashion on a 68-bed progressive cardiac care unit. Caregivers were blinded to the protocol. All alarm responses were recorded during two periods using either pagers or voice communication devices. Alarm response time and closure of the communication loop were analyzed in a blinded fashion. Results: The direct communication functionality of the badge significantly shortened the time to first contact, time to completion, and rate of closure of the communication loop in both the pilot and study phases. Median time to first contact with the communication badge was 0.5?min, compared to 1.6?min with pager communication (p?alarms using the badge versus 19% with the pager (p?alarm time to first contact and completion as well as facilitated communication loop closures. Immediate two-way communication significantly impacted practice, alarm management, and resulted in faster bedside care.

Bonzheim, Kimberly A.; Gebara, Rani I.; O'Hare, Bridget M.; Ellis, R. Darin; Brand, Monique A.; Balar, Salil D.; Stockman, Rita; Sciberras, Annette M.

2011-01-01

57

A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

1994-06-10

58

Associative Data Mining for Alarm Groupings in Chemical Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex industrial processes such as nuclear power plants, chemical plants and petroleum refineries are usually equipped with alarm systems capable of monitoring thousands of process variables and generating tens of thousands of alarms which are used as mechanisms for alerting operators to take actions to alleviate or prevent an abnormal situation. Overalarming and a lack of configuration management practices have

Savo Kordic; Chiou Peng Lam; Jitian Xiao; Huaizhong Li

2007-01-01

59

Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) presently installed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for monitoring areas requiring criticality controls, and some of the concerns associated with the operation of this system. The system at the FEMP is known as the Radiation Detection Alarm (RDA) System.

Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

1994-06-01

60

Monitoring surging glaciers of the Pamirs, central Asia, from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of surging glaciers of the Pamirs, central Asia, has been studied using repeat remote-sensing surveys in the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, since the early 1970s. We use images obtained from national Resurs-F satellites (1972-91), as well as Landsat 7 and Terra (1999-2006), to provide a basis for monitoring of surging glaciers, aimed at developing their inventory, studying the causes and mechanisms of surges and examining the timing and extent of glacial catastrophes. The inventory from the early 1990s allows identification of 215 glaciers with a dynamically unstable regime. We discovered 51 surging glaciers. Up until 2006, 10 more surges had occurred. We use stereoscopic deciphering and photogrammetric processing of consecutive satellite images to study the morphology and ice-velocity changes of several compound surging glaciers. We analyze the results of monitoring of Bivachny and Oktyabr'sky glaciers from 1972 to 1991 and Sugran glacier from 1972 to 2006. Two surges of Sugran glacier occurred during this time: an internal surge in 1976-80, and a surge with glacier tongue advance as far as 4.5 km in 2000-05. The role of damming in compound glacier systems is examined. Satellite-based monitoring is now the only method for obtaining initial information about the state and fluctuations of such glaciers.

Kotlyakov, V. M.; Osipova, G. B.; Tsvetkov, D. G.

61

Summary of Pre-2011 Seismic Monitoring Results for the Central Virginia Seismic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M 5.7 earthquake affecting Louisa county, Virginia on September 23, 2011 occurred in the central Virginia seismic zone, in the Piedmont physiographic province of Virginia. The largest previous shock occurred on December 22, 1875 with magnitude 5.0 estimated from intensity reports. Other events causing minor damage and widespread alarm occurred in 1774, 1833, 1852, 1907, 1929, 1984 (mbLg 4.2) and 2003 (M 4.3). Previous studies have documented that the seismic zone overlies a major change in crustal thickness and that the seismogenic upper crust is comprised of Appalachian thrust sheets. However, the area was affected by early Mesozoic extensional tectonics and includes several Triassic fault-bounded basins (Culpepper, Scottsville, Farmville, and Richmond). Local network stations have operated in central Virginia since the mid-1970's, although hypocenter location capability has declined since the mid-1990's. The monitoring indicates a mean focal depth of 8 km and maximum depth of approximately 13 km: approximately 75% of the well-located shocks have focal depths above 10 km, and most events are in allochthonous rocks above the Blue Ridge thrust (resolved on seismic reflection profiles). This is in contrast to the situation west of the Blue Ridge province in the Southern Appalachians, where earthquakes generally occur in Grenville basement. The central Virginia seismicity occurs on multiple seismogenic structures. Focal mechanisms of the pre-2011 events exhibit a mixture of strike-slip and reverse faulting on steeply dipping planes showing variable strike. The seismicity has exhibited both temporal and spatial clustering. The M 4.3 December 9, 2003 compound earthquake occurred at a depth of 10 km, and probably represented reverse faulting on a steeply dipping (69 deg) N190E-striking nodal plane, although no aftershocks were recorded to confirm actual fault orientation. The epicenter of the August 23, 2011 shock was only 20 km to the north-northeast of the 2003 event, along the strike of major Paleozoic structure mapped at the surface. The early focal mechanism solution for the 2011 mainshock shows reverse motion on planes trending north-northeast, with dip to either the northwest or southeast. The depth estimate was 6 km, and preliminary focal depths for many early aftershocks are at shallower depths. An important question that may be addressed with data from aftershocks involves the orientation and extent of the mainshock rupture, and whether or not the fault is a Mesozoic or Paleozoic structure.

Chapman, M. C.

2011-12-01

62

21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable...current between any two points of an electrical system and to sound an alarm if the current...

2013-04-01

63

Bed-exit alarm effectiveness.  

PubMed

This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure-sensitive combined with infrared (IR) beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1636.5h; an average of 18.3+/-22.3 (+/-S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4+/-1.2 h/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means (LSM) show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (NTP) (mean/S.E.M.=0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive versus dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p=0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher NTP. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure-sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed. PMID:18508138

Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U; Secic, Michelle

2008-06-03

64

Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay  

DOEpatents

This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

Mason, Charles H. (Paducah, KY); Sitton, Roy S. (Kevil, KY)

1976-01-01

65

MINED GEOLOGIC DISPOSAL SYSTEM (MGDS) MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEMS CENTRALIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to identify and document Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) requirements for centralized command and control. Additionally, to further develop the MGDS monitoring and control functions. This monitoring and control report provides the following information: (1) Determines the applicable requirements for a monitoring and control system for repository operations and construction (excluding Performance Confirmation). (2) Makes a determination as to whether or not centralized command and control is required.

M.J. McGrath

1998-03-31

66

A WebGIS-based system model of vehicle monitoring central platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vehicle monitoring central platform is establishing a uniform information portal on vehicle monitoring in China. Rather than elaborating sophisticated vehicle monitoring and management approaches, the WebGIS-based system model is striving to develop a technical umbrella for the distributed and Web-based vehicle management systems, which employs several technologies, including communication technology - SMS (short message services), vehicle position technology -

Yong Wang; Dafang Zhuang; Runhe Shi; Su Li

2005-01-01

67

Telephone alarm ASIC CTH936  

Microsoft Academic Search

CTH936 is a n-well CMOS LSI which is specifically designed for alarming automatically by telephone. When one needs help in an emergency, CTH936 dials out the telephone number of the police and transmits speech alarm information automatically that was stored in the EPROM. It can be used in banks, jewelry shops etc. for safety or in a health environment such

Zhi-Liang Chen; Jian-Ren Zhang; Yong-Feng Wang

1995-01-01

68

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

69

46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells...detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells...fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting alarm bells in...

2012-10-01

70

Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.  

PubMed

Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety. PMID:24153215

Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

71

The proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreases as patient clinical severity decreases in intensive care units: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine (1) the proportion and number of clinically relevant alarms based on the type of monitoring device; (2) whether patient clinical severity, based on the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, affects the proportion of clinically relevant alarms and to suggest; (3) methods for reducing clinically irrelevant alarms in an intensive care unit (ICU). Design A prospective, observational clinical study. Setting A medical ICU at the University of Tokyo Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Participants All patients who were admitted directly to the ICU, aged ?18?years, and not refused active treatment were registered between January and February 2012. Methods The alarms, alarm settings, alarm messages, waveforms and video recordings were acquired in real time and saved continuously. All alarms were annotated with respect to technical and clinical validity. Results 18 ICU patients were monitored. During 2697 patient-monitored hours, 11?591 alarms were annotated. Only 740 (6.4%) alarms were considered to be clinically relevant. The monitoring devices that triggered alarms the most often were the direct measurement of arterial pressure (33.5%), oxygen saturation (24.2%), and electrocardiogram (22.9%). The numbers of relevant alarms were 12.4% (direct measurement of arterial pressure), 2.4% (oxygen saturation) and 5.3% (electrocardiogram). Positive correlations were established between patient clinical severities and the proportion of relevant alarms. The total number of irrelevant alarms could be reduced by 21.4% by evaluating their technical relevance. Conclusions We demonstrated that (1) the types of devices that alarm the most frequently were direct measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation and ECG, and most of those alarms were not clinically relevant; (2) the proportion of clinically relevant alarms decreased as the patients’ status improved and (3) the irrelevance alarms can be considerably reduced by evaluating their technical relevance.

Inokuchi, Ryota; Sato, Hajime; Nanjo, Yuko; Echigo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Aoi; Ishii, Takeshi; Matsubara, Takehiro; Doi, Kent; Gunshin, Masataka; Hiruma, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kensuke; Shinohara, Kazuaki; Kitsuta, Yoichi; Nakajima, Susumu; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yahagi, Naoki

2013-01-01

72

Ultrasonic Technology in Duress Alarms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides the pros and cons of the most commonly used technologies in personal duress alarm systems in the school environment. Discussed are radio frequency devices, infrared systems, and ultrasonic technology. (GR)|

Lee, Martha A.

2000-01-01

73

Knowledge Discovery from Telecommunication Network Alarm Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A telecommunication network produces daily large amounts of alarm data. The data contains hidden valuable knowledge about the behavior of the network. This knowledge can be used in filtering redundant alarms, locating problems in, the network, and possibly in predicting severe faults. We describe the TASA (Telecommunication Network Alarm Sequence Analyzer) system for discovering and browsing knowledge from large alarm

Kimmo Hätönen; Mika Klemettinen; Heikki Mannila; Pirjo Ronkainen; Hannu Toivonen

1996-01-01

74

False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

2012-09-01

75

Alarms and Alarm Systems: Audible, Visual, Specialized and Sensory, and Personal Signalling Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is summarized on alarms and alarm systems in four areas: auditory, visual, sensory, and other specialized equipment, and personal signaling. The paper concludes that it is more technologically feasible to provide information by means of alarm ...

F. Bowe

1984-01-01

76

Fiscal-monetary Interactions: The Effect of Fiscal Restraint and Public Monitoring on Central Bank Credibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers new insights into the interactions between private agents, the government, and a central bank, and their\\u000a effect on the outcomes of monetary policy. In a simple game theoretic model we show that, unless there is public monitoring,\\u000a impatient governments will be tempted to override or outmaneuver the central bank and create surprise inflation to boost output.\\u000a This

Andrew Hughes Hallett; Jan Libich

2007-01-01

77

Designing Effective Alarms for Radiation Detection in Homeland Security Screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this correspondence, the human factors involved in the de- sign of effective homeland security threat detection systems are described and illustrated for radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems deployed at U.S. ports of entry. Due to the occurrence of nuisance alarms based on naturally occurring radioactive material and the low base rate of nu- clear smuggling incidents, it is shown

Thomas F. Sanquist; Raja Parasuraman

2008-01-01

78

Xcel Energy implements an alarm management strategy  

SciTech Connect

Not so long ago, Xcel Energy's Pawnee Station, a 505 MW coal-fired generating station in Brush, Colorado, USA was commonly generating 300 to 400 alarms per 8-hour shift. The article describes how the alarm system was revised and improved by tackling alarm dead-bands, and rationalising alarms for routine events. Operators are trained to understand the functions of alarm management components, their use and response, and obtain feedback. Today the power station reports about one alarm per hour. 3 photos.

Bass, J.; Abreu, G. [Xcel Energy (United States)

2007-11-15

79

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

80

Large-scale application of seismic steamflood monitoring in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a successful single-pattern field trial, an endeavor to apply seismic steamflood monitoring technology on a scale designed to meet the requirements of heat management programs has commenced in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - one of the largest heavy oil enhanced recovery projects in the world. A baseline 3-D seismic survey was acquired in April, 1995, just prior to the

M. Waite; B. Setyiadi; H. Primadi; S. Gross

1996-01-01

81

46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system shutdown occurs. A visible indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by the flame safety system. (b) Means must be provided to silence the...

2012-10-01

82

46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Alarms. (a) An audible alarm must automatically sound when a flame safety system shutdown occurs. A visible indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by the flame safety system. (b) Means must be provided to silence the...

2011-10-01

83

Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.  

PubMed Central

Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses.

Rainey, Hugo J; Zuberbuhler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J B

2004-01-01

84

Locating Fire Alarm Sounders for Audibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods are provided for calculating sound levels from fire alarm sounders (bells and sirens) at various positions within a building. The simple estimating procedure enables the optimum positioning of fire alarms, based on specifications given in British ...

H. Butler A. Bowyer J. Kew

1981-01-01

85

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

86

[Digital acoustic burglar alarm system using infrared radio remote control].  

PubMed

Using butt emission infrared sensors, radio receiving and sending modules, double function integrated circuit with code and code translation, LED etc, a digital acoustic burglar alarm system using infrared radio to realize remote control was designed. It uses infrared ray invisible to eyes, composing area of radio distance. Once people and objects shelter the infrared ray, a testing signal will be output by the tester, and the sender will be triggered to work. The radio coding signal that sender sent is received by the receiver, then processed by a serial circuit. The control signal is output to trigger the sounder to give out an alarm signal, and the operator will be cued to notice this variation. At the same time, the digital display will be lighted and the alarm place will be watched. Digital coding technology is used, and a number of sub alarm circuits can joint the main receiver, so a lot of places can be monitored. The whole system features a module structure, with the property of easy alignment, stable operation, debug free and so on. The system offers an alarm range reaching 1 000 meters in all directions, and can be widely used in family, shop, storehouse, orchard and so on. PMID:19455843

Wang, Song-De; Zhao, Yan; Yao, Li-Ping; Zhang, Shuan-Ji

2009-03-01

87

Knowledge-based alarm surveillance for TMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm surveillance (AS) and alarm correlation (AC) are important functions in telecommunications management network (TMN) especially in heterogeneous communication networks such as public switching systems. This paper focuses on a new methodology for alarm correlation and alarm surveillance by using the deductive model-based and the inductive case-based reasoning technique. This approach is based on the object-oriented description of a network

A. Lehmannl; T. Diessell; C. Seiboldi; R. Deters; M. Sevcik; H. Uhde; D. Schmid; Mutter-Feldbusch; K. P. Huber; H. Szczerbicka; M. Syrjakow; P. Ziegler

1996-01-01

88

Anesthesia Alarms in Context: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current work on the design of alarms for anesthesia environments and notes some of the problems arising from the need to interpret alarms in context. Anesthetists' responses to audible alarms in the operating room were observed across four types of surgical procedure (laparoscopic, arthroscopic, cardiac, and intracranial) and across three phases of a procedure (induction, maintenance, and

F. Jacob Seagull; Penelope M. Sanderson

2001-01-01

89

NILECJ Standard for Magnetic Switches for Burglar Alarm Systems. Law Enforcement Standards Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical publication describes test methods and establishes performance criteria for magnetically actuated electrical switches intended for use in protective intrusion alarm circuits to monitor the position of doors, windows, etc. The switches initi...

1973-01-01

90

Insider tamper detection; Alarm communications  

SciTech Connect

There are many areas within our security systems where an insider can tamper with the components of the system and cause a deficiency. A survey conducted of some DOE facilities identified several types of deficiencies associated with the alarm communications system. The seriousness of these deficiencies depends to a large extent on the total security system. Sandia has initiated an effort to identify systems and concepts which appear promising for protection against insider tampering. An area of particular attention is in the development of techniques to increase the protection of information within the alarm communications system. In particular, techniques are being evaluated to provide enhanced line security (ELS) between the sensors and the multiplexers (MUX). A technique that appears to be particularly promising and which will be discussed in more detail in this paper utilizes modules at the sensors and MUXs.

Jaeger, C.D. (Facility Systems Engineering Div., Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (US))

1991-01-01

91

Continuous and less invasive central hemodynamic monitoring by blood pressure waveform analysis  

PubMed Central

Blood pressure waveform analysis may permit continuous (i.e., automated) and less invasive (i.e., safer and simpler) central hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit and other clinical settings without requiring any instrumentation beyond what is already in use or available. This practical approach has been a topic of intense investigation for decades and may garner even more interest henceforth due to the evolving demographics as well as recent trends in clinical hemodynamic monitoring. Here, we review techniques that have appeared in the literature for mathematically estimating clinically significant central hemodynamic variables, such as cardiac output, from different blood pressure waveforms. We begin by providing the rationale for pursuing such techniques. We then summarize earlier techniques and thereafter overview recent techniques by our collaborators and us in greater depth while pinpointing both their strengths and weaknesses. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions in the field and a description of some potential clinical applications of the techniques.

Xu, Da

2010-01-01

92

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

93

Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) was accepted by the state regulator and the environmental remediation efforts at the site have progressed to the stages of model validation and long-term monitoring design. This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for CNTA. Subsurface monitoring is an expensive and time-consuming process, and the design approach should be based on a solid foundation. As such, a thorough literature review of monitoring network design is first presented. Monitoring well networks can be designed for a number of objectives including aquifer characterization, parameter estimation, compliance monitoring, detection monitoring, ambient monitoring, and research monitoring, to name a few. Design methodologies also range from simple hydrogeologic intuition-based tools to sophisticated statistical- and optimization-based tools. When designing the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA, a number of issues are carefully considered. These are the uncertainty associated with the subsurface environment and its implication for monitoring design, the cost associated with monitoring well installation and operation, the design criteria that should be used to select well locations, and the potential conflict between different objectives such as early detection versus impracticality of placing wells in the vicinity of the test cavity. Given these considerations and the literature review of monitoring design studies, a multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed. This multi-staged approach will proceed in parallel with the validation efforts for the groundwater flow and transport model of CNTA. Two main stages are identified as necessary for the development of the final long-term monitoring well network for the site. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells that will serve two purposes. The first is to place the wells in areas likely to encounter migration pathways thereby enhancing the probability of detecting radionuclide migration in the long run. The second objective is crucial in the short run and is aimed at using this set of wells to collect validation data for the model. The selection criteria should thus balance these two objectives. Based on the results of the validation process that progresses concurrently with the first monitoring stage, either more wells will be needed in this first stage or the second stage will be initiated. The second monitoring design stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network. The first-stage probabilistic analysis conducted using the CNTA model indicates that the likelihood of migration away from the test cavity is very low and the probability of detecting radionuclides in the next 100 years is extremely low. Therefore, it is recommended to place one well in the downstream direction along the model longitudinal centerline (i.e., directly north of the working point), which is the location with the highest probability of encountering the plume. Lack of significant plume spreading, coupled with the extremely low velocities, suggests that this one well is sufficient for the first stage. Data from this well, and from additional wells located with validation as the prime objective, will benefit the model validation process. In the long run, this first monitoring well is going to be crucial for the long-term monitoring of the site (assuming that the flow model is validated), as it will be the most likely place to detect any plume migration away from the cavity.

A. Hassan

2003-09-02

94

Large-scale application of seismic steamflood monitoring in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - progress report  

SciTech Connect

After a successful single-pattern field trial, an endeavor to apply seismic steamflood monitoring technology on a scale designed to meet the requirements of heat management programs has commenced in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - one of the largest heavy oil enhanced recovery projects in the world. A baseline 3-D seismic survey was acquired in April, 1995, just prior to the start of steam injection in a 31 pattern area. The first of four monitor 3-D seismic surveys was acquired 8 months later. Differences between the two seismic surveys were used to monitor steamflood evolution and optimize EOR and heat management processes. This paper will address a wide range of topics including expected economic benefits, planning, seismic acquisition and processing, modeling and analysis, and impact on EOR and heat management processes. A special emphasis will be given to value resulting from interdisciplinary synergy.

Waite, M.; Setyiadi, B.; Primadi, H.; Gross, S. (PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia))

1996-01-01

95

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

96

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

97

Integrated approach to urban facilities maintenance and alarm management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach to the development of a computer system for urban facilities maintenance is proposed. In this paper we consider every-day operations and alarm management for gas-, heat-, water-supply and sewage urban networks. Growth of towns results in the necessity for computer-aided processing of the geographical and attributive information, facilities networks simulations and simulation results analysis, real-time process monitoring.

L. Berner; N. Bogoyavlenskaya; S. A. Iliushin; E. Kitaitseva; A. Kovalev; A. Rochtchin

1995-01-01

98

A novel portable seizure detection alarm system: preliminary results.  

PubMed

The unpredictable and random occurrence of seizures is of the most distressful issue affecting patients and their families. Unattended seizures can have serious consequences including injury or death. The objective of this study is to develop a small, portable, wearable device capable of detecting seizures and alerting patients and families on recognition of specific seizures' motor activity. Ictal data were prospectively obtained in consecutive patients admitted to two video-EEG units. This study included patients with a history of motor seizures, clonic or tonic, or tonic-clonic seizures or patients with complex partial seizures with frequent secondary generalization. A "Motion Sensor" unit mounted on a bracelet was attached to one wrist. The "Sensor" contains a three-axis accelerometer and a transmitter. The three-axis movements' data were transmitted to a portable computer. Algorithm specially developed for this purpose analyzed the recorded data. Seizures' alerts were compared with the video-EEG data. Ictal data were acquired in 15 of the 31 recruited patients. The algorithm correctly identified 20 of 22 (91%) captured seizures and generated an alarm within a median period of 17 seconds. All events lasting >30 seconds (i.e., 19 events) were identified. The system failed to identify 2 of 22 seizures (9%). There were eight false alarms during 1,692 hours of monitoring. Preliminary data suggest that this motion detection device/alarm system can identify most motor seizures with high sensitivity and with a low false alarm rate. PMID:21221012

Kramer, Uri; Kipervasser, Svetlana; Shlitner, Arie; Kuzniecky, Ruben

2011-02-01

99

Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

1995-05-01

100

Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

Berger, J.F.

1995-03-01

101

Dosimetric Properties of the Pocket Alarm Dosimeter Type Alnor RAD 21L, RAD 21H, RAD 22.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In personnel monitoring pocket dosimeters with build-in alarm devices are increasingly in use. The report presents results of a test performed at Karlsruhe for the pocket dose and alarm meter type Alnor RAD 21L, RAD 21H, RAD 22. The properties investigate...

M. Hauser B. Burgkhardt E. Piesch

1981-01-01

102

Alarm management : mining for groups of co-occuring alarm tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and profitability of chemical plants depend on the performance of alarm systems. However, a variety of contributing factors such as over-alarming, a lack of configuration management practices and a reduction in staffing levels due to budget constraints, has often led to the degradation of these systems. Consequently, in many emergency situations excessive numbers of inappropriate alarms are generated,

Savo Kordic

2011-01-01

103

Rapid decrease of malaria morbidity following the introduction of community-based monitoring in a rural area of central Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite a successful control programme, malaria has not completely disappeared in Vietnam; it remains endemic in remote areas of central Vietnam, where standard control activities seem to be less effective. The evolution of malaria prevalence and incidence over two and half years in a rural area of central Vietnam, after the introduction of community-based monitoring of malaria cases, is

Ngo Duc Thang; Annette Erhart; Le Xuan Hung; Le Khanh Thuan; Nguyen Xuan Xa; Nguyen Ngoc Thanh; Pham Ky; Marc Coosemans; Nico Speybroeck; Umberto D'Alessandro

2009-01-01

104

IDS RainStorm: Visualizing IDS Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive amount of alarm data generated from intrusion detec- tion systems is cumbersome for network system administrators to analyze. Often, important details are overlooked and it is difficult to get an overall picture of what is occurring in the network by man- ually traversing textual alarm logs. We have designed a novel visu- alization to address this problem by

Kulsoom Abdullah; Christopher P. Lee; Gregory J. Conti; John A. Copeland; John T. Stasko

2005-01-01

105

The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discourse on climate change is in part divided between a sense of alarm and a sense of alarmism in assessments of the magnitude and urgency of the problem. The divide in the discourse among climatologists relates to tensions in the use of key phrases to describe climate change. This article reviews evidence to support claims that climate change can

James S. Risbey

2008-01-01

106

Source Injection Distribution Functions for Alarm Algorithm Testing  

SciTech Connect

The development and testing of improved alarm algorithms is an ongoing priority of the Radiation Portal Monitor Project (RPMP) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Improved algorithms have the potential to reduce the impediments that radiation screening presents to the flow of commerce, without affecting the detection sensitivity to sources of interest. However, assessing alarm-algorithm performance involves careful calculation of detection probabilities and nuisance/false alarm rates for any algorithm that may be used in the field. To establish statistical confidence, such a task requires a large amount of data from drive-through (or “dynamic”) scenarios both with, and without, radioactive sources of interest present; but obtaining actual field data to meet this need is not feasible. Instead, an “injection-study” procedure is being used to approximate how the profiles of actual drive-through commercial data would change with the presence of sources of interest. This procedure adds net-counts from a pre-defined set of simulated sources to raw, gross-count drive-through data randomly selected from archived cargo data collected from deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs). (PIET-43741-TM-480)

Robinson, Sean M.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Schweppe, John E.

2008-05-15

107

A pan-European social alarm system.  

PubMed

SAFE 21 is a pan-European research and development project which will take social alarms into the twenty-first century. It is run by a consortium of eight organizations, with financial support from the European Commission. SAFE 21 will use existing infrastructure to deliver a much broader range of services and extend availability to users who are currently excluded. The project aims: to develop a social alarm that will work from anywhere inside the home, using a neck-worn speech-pendant and outside the home making use of radio cellphone and global positioning technology; to demonstrate how telemedicine can be incorporated at marginal costs, by exploiting the existing social alarm infrastructure; to demonstrate a shared control centre that facilitates emergency services, medical, welfare and social professionals working together to support a broad-based social alarm system; to provide access to social alarms for deaf users, who are currently excluded. PMID:9640739

Thie, J

1998-01-01

108

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor (CAP). Final report  

SciTech Connect

Power systems operations and maintenance currently face an ever-increasing need for a high level of computerized support. This paper is the final report of a research and development effort undertaken by the Bonneville Power Administration to develop a computerized decision support system to aid operations and maintenance personnel isolate and diagnose faults on a microwave communication system used for centralized dispatch operations. The system, called CAP for Communication Alarm Processor, provides statistical analysis of microwave communication system alarms, as well as an expert system capability for fault isolation and diagnosis. CAP is implemented on a DEC VAX Station 3100 computer, utilizing both knowledge-based programming principles as well as conventional programming techniques.

MacGregor, D.G. [MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (United States); Goeltz, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-01-01

109

The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers  

SciTech Connect

The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

PASSELL, HOWARD D.; BARBER, DAVID S.; BETSILL, J. DAVID; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.; MOHAGHEGHI, AMIR H.; SHANKS, SONOYA T.; YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV,BAJGABYL; VALENTINA,ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN,VLADIMIR; POZNIAK,VICTOR

2002-04-02

110

Sequence and batch language programs and alarm related C Programs for the 242-A MCS  

SciTech Connect

A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades. This control system, called the Monitor and Control system (MCS), was installed in the 242-A evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme.

Berger, J.F.

1996-04-15

111

Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect: a case for central venous pressure and oxygen saturation monitoring.  

PubMed Central

A 21-year-old patient with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) was admitted to the hospital for tubal ligation. Invasive arterial and central venous (CVP) pressure, pulse oximetric oxygen saturation (SpO2), and (from the tip of oximetric central venous catheter) central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and oxygen extraction rate (ExO2) were continuously monitored. Heart rate (range: 68-75 beat/min), mean arterial pressure (80-90 mmHg), CVP (7-10 mmHg), SpO2 (79-90 percent), ScvO2 (57-70 percent), and ExO2 (21-30 percent) remained stable during epidural anesthesia and transvaginal sterilization. Following an overnight stay (peak SpO2 92 percent; peak ScvO2 71 percent; through ExO2 21 percent), the oxygen data returned to baseline on awakening (SpO2 < 80 percent, ScvO2 < 55 percent, ExO2 > 35 percent), and the patient was discharged. In PA-VSD, a single-outlet double-ventricle anomaly, CVP reflects the preload of systemic ventricle. As the mixed venous oxygen saturation cannot be defined, ScvO2 is the best available indicator of the whole body oxygen consumption. Continuous monitoring of CVP, ScvO2 and ExO2 in the superior vena cava may provide more insight into the response to anesthesia and surgery in patients with PA-VSD. Images Figure 1

Weiss, B. M.; Atanassoff, P. G.; Jenni, R.; Walder, B.; Wight, E.

1998-01-01

112

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...25-12 Section 113.25-12 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-12 Alarm...

2012-10-01

113

Evaluation of automatically learned intelligent alarm systems.  

PubMed

In this contribution it is investigated whether a combination of mathematical simulation and inductive machine learning can replace the usual knowledge elicitation techniques. To test this a domain was selected for which knowledge based systems had a high performance: intelligent alarm systems. A mathematical model of a breathing circuit and ventilated patient was implemented in PSpice. Airway pressure, gas flows and CO2 concentration were simulated with this model, during normal functioning of the breathing circuit and during several mishaps, for a wide range of simulated patients. With an inductive machine learning program, classification trees were created from the simulated patient data. The classification trees described each breathing circuit mishap in terms of changes in signal feature values with respect to the normal situation and were implemented as alarm system knowledge bases. The alarm systems were tested with data measured at 17 mechanically ventilated animals. During ventilation of the animals several mishaps were introduced. For each animal, 93-100% of all mishaps could be detected correctly by the alarm systems. The false alarm rate ranged on average from one false alarm per h to one false alarm every 2.5 h. It was concluded that the suggested approach to knowledge elicitation was successful. PMID:9421666

Müller, B; Hasman, A; Blom, J A

1997-11-01

114

Triggering of systolic arterial pressure alarms using statistics-based versus threshold alarms.  

PubMed

Threshold systolic arterial pressure alarms often use pre-operative values as a guide for intra-operative values. Recently, two systems (normalisation and principal component analysis) have been described that use the 'current' systolic arterial pressure and the change in systolic arterial pressure over a preceding time interval to generate an alarm based on units of standard deviation. Normalisation and principal component analysis techniques should prioritize alarms for clinically significant changes and hence reduce overall activation of alarms. Our aim was to measure the change in alarm activation using these techniques compared with standard threshold alarms. Systolic blood pressure data, collected from 10 patients (a total of 2177 min at 100 Hz), were cleaned and submitted to analysis using threshold alarms, normalisation and principal component analysis. With the threshold alarms set at 100 mmHg (low) and 140 mmHg (high), and a 5-min window, the alarms were activated for 557 min; using statistics-based thresholds the alarms were activated for 169 min (normalisation) and 155 min (principal component analysis), a reduction of approximately 70-72%. PMID:19143688

Connor, C W; Gohil, B; Harrison, M J

2009-02-01

115

46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Bilge alarm: Design specification. 162.050-33 Section...CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention... Bilge alarm: Design specification. (a) This...

2011-10-01

116

[Development of a wrist wearing and remote heart rate alarm apparatus].  

PubMed

We have developed a new wrist wearing heart rate monitoring alarm apparatus, which can detect the patients' real-time pulse waves. When the abnormal heart rate appears or pulse disappears, the monitoring alarm will sound and dial the remote telephone for help simultaneously. This apparatus uses the switch circuit to control the keyboard of mobile phone, and dials remote telephone in the help of mature technology and communication platform of mobile phones. The intelligent program can distinguish digital pulse signal, pick out the correct cycle of heartbeat intelligently. The new wrist wearing heart rate monitoring alarm apparatus will calculate an average heart rate when it captures consecutively five correct electrocardiograph waveforms. It really provides a simple, inexpensive and effective way for the patients with heart disease. PMID:23858750

Zhao, Ruibin; Meng, Yanjun; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yanru; Zhang, Jingjing; Fan, Zhenzhong

2013-04-01

117

10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm...licensee's fundamental nuclear material control plan...operations will adversely affect the ability to...

2013-01-01

118

Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.  

PubMed

An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration. PMID:22226338

Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obo?o?czyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

2012-01-04

119

Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

Varela Rodriguez, F.

2011-12-01

120

Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 – 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification.

Fuller, Christina H.; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L.; Spengler, John D.

2012-01-01

121

Re-establishment of long-term glacier monitoring in Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacier mass balance is an important indicator of climate change. The internationally recommended multi-level strategy for monitoring mountain glaciers combines in-situ measurements (mass balance, front variations) with remote sensing (inventories) and numerical modelling. This helps to bridge the gap between detailed local process-oriented studies and global coverage. Several glaciers in Central Asia, i.e. Abramov and Golubina Glacier were some of the most important reference glaciers in the world-wide glacier monitoring program representing important mountain ranges, such as the Pamir-Alay and the Tien Shan mountains. For these glaciers long-term series of more than 20 years are available. After the break-down of the former Soviet Union, most of the measurements were abandoned. In a cooperative effort between the countries Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Germany and Switzerland, the measurement series are currently re-initiated and will be continued within the next years. This study shows the measurement strategy and network, and discusses new installations, which have been set up at Abramov in summer 2011 and Golubina Glacier in summer 2010. The research strategy is composed of three main components. The first component is based on mass balance measurements using the glaciological method, the second relies on snow line observations with installed automatic cameras taking several pictures per day in order to document the snow line evolution on the glaciers during the summer months. The third is the application of a mass balance model driven by a nearby automatic weather station. The advantage of this strategy is that the three different components can be used to test them against each other, or to use them for calibration purposes. A second objective of the re-established glacier monitoring programs is to reconstruct the mass balance for the time period, where no measurements are available. Continuous mass balance series for each glacier will be derived based on a well calibrated mass balance model.

Hoelzle, M.; Azisov, E.; Barandun, M.; Hagg, W.; Huss, M.; Kriegel, D.; Machguth, H.; Mandychev, A.; Merkushkin, A.; Moldobekov, B.; Schöne, T.; Thoss, H.; Vorogushyn, S.; Zemp, M.

2012-04-01

122

Pulmonary Artery Versus Central Venous Catheter Monitoring in the Outcome of Patients Undergoing Bilateral Total Knee Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral total knee replacement (BTKR) has been associated with a higher incidence of fat embolism (FES) compared to single\\u000a knee replacement. Consequently, intraoperative monitoring with a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) has been recommended. This\\u000a study compares clinical outcome in BTKR patients monitored with central venous pressure versus PAC. A retrospective chart\\u000a review of 249 consecutive patients undergoing BTKR, 132 of

Kethy M. Jules-Elysee; Jacques T. YaDeau; Michael K. Urban

2009-01-01

123

Age-dependent fitness costs of alarm signaling in aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an alarm signal to evolve, the benefits to the signaler must outweigh the costs of sending the signal. Research has largely focused on the benefits of alarm signaling, and the costs to an organism of sending an alarm signal are not well known. When attacked by a predator, aphids secrete cornicle droplets, containing an alarm pheromone, for individual protection

Edward B. Mondor; Bernard D. Roitberg

2003-01-01

124

Optimization of cardiac preload during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: A preliminary study of central venous pressure versus esophageal doppler monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While the popularity of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has increased, concern persists about the potential deleterious effects of pneumoperitoneum on renal function. Thus, preload optimization with vigorous intravenous hydration has been recommended. The purpose of this study was to compare central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring with a noninvasive measure of cardiac preload (esophageal Doppler) during LDN. Methods: Thirteen patients

L. S. Feldman; M. Anidjar; P. Metrakos; D. Stanbridge; G. M. Fried; F. Carli

2004-01-01

125

An evaluation of some drought indices in the monitoring and prediction of agricultural drought impact in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of the performances of some drought indices in monitoring and predicting sunflower and sorghum crop yield in Central Italy is carried out. Considered drought indices include: Palmer drought indices (PDSI, Z, CMI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and a severity index (RS) derived from a Run theory applied to the soil water content time series. The indices were

F. Todisco; L. Vergni; F. Mannocchi

126

The ERS-1 Central Africa Mosaic: a new perspective in radar remote sensing for the global monitoring of vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Africa Mosaic Project (CAMP) is an attempt to bring spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing into an entirely new perspective for tropical forest monitoring, this goal represents a drastic change in the use of radar data, as it brings high-resolution SAR from the role of gap-filler and local hot spot analysis to the role of global mapping

Gianfranco De Grandi; Jean-Paul Malingreau; Marc Leysen

1999-01-01

127

Low Voltage Alarm Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 7.1-26.10 Alarm Basics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet of 70 learning modules on alarm basics is 1 of 8 such packets developed for apprenticeship training for low voltage alarm. Introductory materials are a complete listing of all available modules and a supplementary reference list. Each module contains some or all of these components: goal, performance indicators, study guide (a check…

Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

128

Two-wave pattern shift aberration monitor for centrally obscuredoptical systems  

SciTech Connect

An aberration monitoring technique based on lateral shifts of two-wave interference patterns in centrally obscured optical systems is presented, and simulations are used to evaluate the performance of such a technique. The technique is being explored as a convenient means for monitoring the aberration level in the 0.3-NA Micro Exposure Tool (MET) optic over time. A binary mask was designed for observing phase differences across the MET optic on cut-lines at 0, 45, 90 and 135 degrees across the pupil. The mask consists of 5 line-and space patterns in a dark field that measure the side-to-side phase difference across the pupil at 7 equally spaced radial points extending from 35% to 95% of the pupil radius. For near on-axis illumination the blockage of the zero-order creates a two-wave, interferometric pattern at the wafer with half of the period expected under normal imaging conditions. The optical path difference between the two orders produces an image shift of one full period of the (frequency doubled) interference pattern per 360 degrees of side-to-side path difference. Shifts on the order of 5 to 20 nm are expected and are measured using a reference target of an array of 5 medium sized dots. Aerial image simulation is being utilized to predict the expected performance and to improve the initial design. The aberrations measured by interferometry are being used for this purpose. Also the quality of images at low partial coherence with the wavefront convergence present in the MET illumination is being studied. In addition to theory and simulation results, practical considerations in implementing this technique on actual lithography tools based upon MET-type optics are addressed, including pattern design, illumination characteristics, and data analysis.

Cain, Jason P.; McIntyre, Gregory; Naulleau, Patrick; Pawloski,Adam; La Fontaine, Bruno; Wood, Obert; Spanos, Costas; Neureuther, AndrewR.

2005-01-11

129

Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia. Therefore, the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities, and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research. This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period. The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s, TM images from the early 1990s, ETM + images in the late 1990s, and TM images in 2007. The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area, from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007. As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part, the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east. There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions. The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions. Most significantly, the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975. The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007. The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types. The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%, and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%. Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period. Due to global climate warming, vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked, resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000. The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff. Consequently, the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.

Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

2012-06-01

130

Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratoryof Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation inNuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NMdepartments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collectedinformation about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on thewrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q andHp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses alwayswere absorbed by those staff members who were involved insources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time period was 4.22 mSv for Hp(10)a and 67.7 mSv for Hp(0.07)a. In 2011 no case of exceeding the allowed dose limits was noted. PMID:24068634

Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, S?awomir; Krajewski, Pawe?

2013-01-01

131

Evaluation of continuous air monitor placement in a plutonium facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of Energy appraisers found continuous air monitors at Department of Energy plutonium facilities alarmed less than 30% of the time when integrated room plutonium air concentrations exceeded 500 DAC-hours. Without other interventions, this alarm percentage suggests the possibility that workers could be exposed to high airborne concentrations without continuous air monitor alarms. Past research has shown that placement of

Jeffrey J. Whicker; John C. Rodgers; Charles I. Fairchild; Ronald C. Scripsick; Ricky C. Lopez

1997-01-01

132

Coincidence logic modules for criticality alarming  

SciTech Connect

A coincidence Logic Module and a companion contact closure Relay Module utilizing the NIM Standard have been developed for criticality alarming. The units provide an ALARM whenever two or more out of N detectors become activated. In addition, an ALERT is generated whenever one or more detectors is activated or when certain electronic component failures occur. The number of detector inputs (N) can be expanded in groups of six by adding modules. Serial and parallel redundancy were used to reduce the probability of system failure.

Schaief, C.C. III

1977-04-01

133

A temperature off-limit alarm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a battery operated temperature alarm which senses any departure beyond preset high or low temperature limits and sounds an audible warning is discussed. Current drain is very small, so a battery life of at least two years is predicted. Low battery voltage triggers a special warning signal. The device is built around a national semiconductor LM1801, and contains a high input impedance operational amplifier, a regulator for controlling the voltage supplied to a thermistor bridge, a low battery voltage detector and warning circuit, provision for signalling to other alarms and a current consumption guaranteed to be 9 microamps or less.

Knight, R. B. D.

1980-05-01

134

Using agents to build a practical implementation of the INCA (intelligent community alarm) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an agent system to demonstrate the practically of the INCA (Intelligent Community Support for the Elderly) architecture. This architecture is intended to integrate a number of autonomous systems; home monitoring, community alarms, care management systems and emergency systems command and control systems using agent technology to build effective coordinated care systems. A range of different autonomous bodies

Martin D. Beer; Iain Anderson; Wei Huang

2001-01-01

135

Network video capture and short message service alarm system design based on embedded Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the structure of video capture system based on S3C2440 processor is presented. And the embedded system, video capture, short message service (SMS) alarm, and client video monitor are introduced. Video 4 Linux is used to get the camera video data, which is transferred to the Web Server, and the data is displayed on the client browser or

Duanchun Zhou; Guangxing Tan

2010-01-01

136

Comparative utility of centrally versus peripherally transduced venous pressure monitoring in the perioperative period in spine surgery patients  

PubMed Central

Study Objective To compare central venous pressure (CVP) with peripheral venous pressure (PVP) monitoring during the intraoperative and postoperative periods in patients undergoing spine surgery. Design Prospective observational study. Setting University-affiliated teaching hospital. Patients 35 ASA physical status 1, 2, and 3 patients. Interventions A peripheral catheter in the forearm or hand and a central catheter into the internal jugular vein were placed for PVP and CVP monitoring, respectively. Measurements CVP and PVP values were collected simultaneously and recorded electronically at 5-minute intervals throughout surgery and in the recovey room. The number of attempts for catheter placement, ease of use, maintenance, and interpretation were recorded. Patient comfort, frequency of complications, and cost were analyzed. Main results The correlation coefficient between CVP and PVP was 0.650 in the operating room (P < 0.0001) and 0.388 in the recovery room (P < 0.0001). There was no difference between groups in number of attempts to place either catheter, maintenance, and interpretation with respect to PVP and CVP monitoring in the operating room. In the recovery room, the nurses reported a higher level of difficulty in interpretation of PVP than CVP, but no differences were noted in ease of maintenance. There were no complications related to either central or peripheral catheter placement. Patient comfort and cost efficiency were higher with a peripheral than a central catheter. Conclusion During clinically relevant conditions, there was limited correlation between PVP and CVP in the prone position during surgery and postoperatively in the recovery room.

Bombardieri, Anna Maria; Beckman, James; Shaw, Pamela; Girardi, Federico P.; Ma, Yan; Memtsoudis, Stavros G

2012-01-01

137

Monitoring of the Micro-seismic Activity along the Salt Lake Fault Zone: Central Anatolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Konya and Salt Lake basins are evident morphological trace in the Central Anatolia. Salt Lake Basin is NW-SE trending sediment basin and generally restricted by NW-SE trending strike-slip faults. The Salt Lake Fault Zone (SLFZ) is the biggest faulting zone with 200 km length in the Central Anatolia. SLFZ did not produce strong earthquakes last a couple of hundred years. Salt Lake is surrounded by Aksaray Fault and Karacadag volcanic rise. Salt Lake is one of the biggest tectonic lakes in Turkey. Seismicity in Salt Lake and surrounding region is quite low because of inland deformation of Anatolian microplate. However recent years several moderate earthquakes (M>5) and aftershocks in the region show that the rim of SLFZ and especially secondary faults in Bala-Kulu are active parts of the SLFZ. Due to these activities along the SLFZ it is decided to monitor micro-seismic activity (M<2.5) by establishing low-magnitude threshold seismic network. In this context, 6 broadband stations were installed around the Salt Lake. After installation 1050 events were located and analyzed in this region. 2005-2007 Afsar-Bala earthquakes (Mw=5.7) were significant events last couple of years. NW rim of the Salt Lake (SE of Ankara, between Bala-Kulu districts), NE rim of the Salt Lake and Konya vicinity were affected by these earthquake activities. Focal mechanisms of earthquakes (M>4) are calculated using moment tensor inversion from broadband stations. Fault plane solutions exhibit that NW-SE and NE-SW trending strike slip faulting with dip slip components are dominant. These faults cut each other in cross section. Aftershock locations are correlated with fault plane orientations. Stress tensors are calculated from focal mechanisms. Direction of T and P axes show NE-SW and NW-SE trending strike-slip deformations and stress regimes, respectively. In this study micro-seismic activity is analyzed using new broadband stations in the Salt Lake. The one of the biggest outcome by this project that there is a significant micro-seismic activity (M<2.5) at the southern SLFZ which was not seen from prior studies and long-term seismicity catalogues from permanent network (M>2.5).

Kalafat, D.; K?vaç Kekovali, Zafer; Ö?ütcü, Yavuz; Güne?, Mehmet; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Kara, Ethem; Görgün, Mustafa; Çomo?lu, Selda A.; Poyraz, P?nar; Deniz, M. Feyza; Öcal, Didem; Somut, Kadriye; Kiliç, Ay?egül; Küsmezer, Murat; Suvarikli, Muzaffer; Gül, Özkan Çok

2010-12-01

138

Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily cycle in radon concentration, with minina occurring in the afternoon, around 19h00 (local time) and maxima in the morning (around 7h00). No significant changes in soil-gas radon concentrations were observed for any of the stations at the moment of the explosions or in the following minutes. The most probable explanation for this fact is the absence of a progressive stress field affecting the rock, as likely occurs before an earthquake.

Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio

2010-05-01

139

Ambient Ammonia Monitoring in the Central United States Using Passive Diffusion Samplers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental scientists and governmental authorities are increasingly aware of the need for more comprehensive measurements of ambient ammonia in urban, rural and remote locations. As the predominant alkaline gas, ammonia plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry by reacting readily with acidic gases and particles. Ammonium salts often comprise a major portion of the aerosols that impair visibility, not only in urban areas, but also in national parks and other Class I areas. Ammonia is also important as a plant nutrient that directly or indirectly affects terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Successful computer simulations of important environmental processes require an extensive representative data set of ambient ammonia measurements in the range of 0.1 ppbv or greater. Generally instruments with that level of sensitivity are not only expensive, but also require electrical connections, an enclosed shelter and, in many instances, frequent attention from trained technicians. Such requirements significantly restrict the number and locations of ambient ammonia monitors that can be supported. As an alternative we have employed simple passive diffusion samplers to measure ambient ammonia at 9 monitoring sites in the central U.S. over the past 3 years. Passive samplers consist of a layer of an acidic trapping medium supported at a fixed distance behind a microporous barrier for which the diffusive properties are known. Ammonia uptake rates are determined by the manufacturer under controlled laboratory conditions. (When practical, field results are compared against those from collocated conventional samplers, e.g., pumped annular denuders.) After a known exposure time at the sampling site, the sampler is resealed in protective packaging and shipped to the analytical laboratory where the ammonia captured in the acidic medium is carefully extracted and quantified. Because passive samplers are comparatively inexpensive and do not require electricity or other facilities they can be left unattended, even in remote locations. In the extreme case of winter at a background level site in the Boundary Waters Wilderness Area, our 14-day deployments of triplicate samplers achieved reproducible sub-ppbv detection limits.

Caughey, M.; Gay, D.; Sweet, C.

2008-12-01

140

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

141

Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

2008-12-01

142

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a type...for the engine room may contain a fire detector for any other space. (c) The number and placement of fire detectors must be approved by the cognizant...

2012-10-01

143

Automatic Fire Alarm System Based on MCU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduced an automatic warehouse fire a1arm system based on MCU. The system was mainly made up of ATmega16, temperature sensors, smoke sensors, and EX-1 auto dialed alarm module. In the system, temperature signals were transformed to serial data, and smoke signals were transformed to voltage signals. All the data were processed by MCU. When the surveillance system checked

Zhang Kun; Hu Shunbin; Li Jinfang

2010-01-01

144

CPS (Collective Protective System) Alarm System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An improved collective protection system (CPS) alarm is generally comprised of an electronic circuit board terminal box that is readily connectable to any selected point of a ship power bus system. The system is provided with a plurality of pressure trans...

B. A. Repp A. M. Wurm A. J. Simonoff S. R. Courtney

1988-01-01

145

Intelligent residential security alarm and remote control system based on single chip computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents intelligent residential burglar alarm, emergency alarm, fire alarm, toxic gas leakage remote automatic sound alarm and remote control system, which is based on 89C51 single chip computer. The system can be automatic alarm, automatic calling the police hotline number. It can be used voice alarm and show alarm occurred address. It can set up and modify user

Liu Zhen-ya; Wang Zhen-dong; Chen Rong; Wu Xiao-feng

2008-01-01

146

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2012-10-01

147

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...audible fire and trouble alarms, and fire alarm circuits as required originating from the control unit...stations superimposed on and connected as an integral part of the fire detector circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection...

2011-10-01

148

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...means of reporting emergencies. Where a communication system also serves...alarm system, all emergency messages shall have...procedures for sounding emergency alarms in the workplace...workplace, direct voice communication is an...

2013-07-01

149

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

1990-06-01

150

Advanced Alarm Processing Facilities Installed on Eskom's Energy Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eskom's Transmission division is commissioning a new Energy Management System (EMS) known as TEMSE. This EMS included requirements for advanced alarm processing facilities and enhanced Human Machine Interface functionality. The requirements covered alarm data reduction and the provision of \\

Richard Candy; J. Taisne

2007-01-01

151

Building intelligent alarm systems by combining mathematical models and inductive machine learning techniques Part 2--sensitivity analysis.  

PubMed

In an earlier study an approach was described to generate intelligent alarm systems for monitoring ventilation of patients via mathematical simulation and machine learning. However, ventilator settings were not varied. In this study we investigated whether an alarm system could be created with which a satisfactory classification performance could be obtained under a wide variety of ventilator settings, by varying inspiratory to expiratory time (I:E) ratio, tidal volume and respiratory rate. In a first experiment three patient data sets were modeled, each with a different I:E ratio. A part of each data set was used to construct an alarm system for each I:E ratio. The remaining part was used to test the performance of the alarm systems. The three training sets were also combined to construct one alarm system, which was tested with the three test sets. Finally, all alarm systems were tested with data generated by a patient simulator. Similar experiments were performed for the tidal volume and the respiratory rate. It was concluded that an optimally functioning alarm system should contain a library of rule sets, one for each set of ventilator settings. A second best alternative is to take all possible settings into consideration when constructing the training set. Classification performance of the trees that were trained with multiple ventilator settings ranged from 98 to 100% for all test sets. When tested with the independent patient simulator data the classification performance of these trees ranged from 80 to 100%. PMID:8894773

Müller, B; Hasman, A; Blom, J A

1996-08-01

152

Nesting Habit and Alarm Pheromones in Polistes gallicus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm pheromones are used in many social insects to elicit an alarm response of nestmates towards disturbances. This chemical\\u000a alarm channel is especially used by species nesting in closed environments. Polistes gallicus paper wasps typically found their nests on open substrates where visual and vibrational stimuli could be more important than\\u000a the chemical one to alarm the colony. We investigated,

C. Bruschini; R. Cervo; S. Turillazzi

2008-01-01

153

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Zubovich, A.

2012-06-01

154

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

2013-02-01

155

Self-Monitoring in Social Interaction: The Centrality of Self-Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we examine the role of self-monitoring in social interaction. We first note that the presumed ease with which self- monitors adapt to new social contexts is more apparent than real, being the self-conscious outcome of (1) high self-monitors' preference for clear- ly defined situations, (2) their use of scripts regarding typical situations, (3) their ability to formulate

William Ickes; Renee Holloway; Linda L. Stinson; Tiffany Graham Hoodenpyle

2006-01-01

156

Communicating about danger: urgency alarm calling in a bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate flee alarm calls can provide information about the type of predator, and some mammalian alarm calls also appear to communicate the degree of danger and therefore urgency of escape. However, because predators are usually rare, it has proved difficult to obtain observations differing only in the degree of danger, or to record sufficient naturally provoked alarm calls for fully

Adam J. Leavesley; Robert D. Magrath

2005-01-01

157

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2012-10-01

158

46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409...Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table 1 refers to this...cargo's containment system must have a high level alarm: (a) That gives an...

2011-10-01

159

Improved correlation analysis and visualization of industrial alarm data.  

PubMed

The problem of multivariate alarm analysis and rationalization is complex and important in the area of smart alarm management due to the interrelationships between variables. The technique of capturing and visualizing the correlation information, especially from historical alarm data directly, is beneficial for further analysis. In this paper, the Gaussian kernel method is applied to generate pseudo continuous time series from the original binary alarm data. This can reduce the influence of missed, false, and chattering alarms. By taking into account time lags between alarm variables, a correlation color map of the transformed or pseudo data is used to show clusters of correlated variables with the alarm tags reordered to better group the correlated alarms. Thereafter correlation and redundancy information can be easily found and used to improve the alarm settings; and statistical methods such as singular value decomposition techniques can be applied within each cluster to help design multivariate alarm strategies. Industrial case studies are given to illustrate the practicality and efficacy of the proposed method. This improved method is shown to be better than the alarm similarity color map when applied in the analysis of industrial alarm data. PMID:22503464

Yang, F; Shah, S L; Xiao, D; Chen, T

2012-04-12

160

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell switch. 108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping...Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch. Each general alarm bell switch must be marked âGENERAL ALARMâ on a...

2012-10-01

161

Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

Hunteman, W.

1997-05-01

162

Expert system constant false alarm rate processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for high detection probability and low false alarm probability in modern wide area surveillance radars are rarely met due to spatial variations in clutter characteristics. Many filtering and CFAR detection algorithms have been developed to effectively deal with these variations; however, any single algorithm is likely to exhibit excessive false alarms and intolerably low detection probabilities in a dynamically changing environment. A great deal of research has led to advances in the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and numerous areas have been identified for application to radar signal processing. The approach suggested here, discussed in a patent application submitted by the authors, is to intelligently select the filtering and CFAR detection algorithms being executed at any given time, based upon the observed characteristics of the interference environment. This approach requires sensing the environment, employing the most suitable algorithms, and applying an appropriate multiple algorithm fusion scheme or consensus algorithm to produce a global detection decision.

Baldygo, William J.; Wicks, Michael C.

1993-10-01

163

A programme of monitoring sediment transport in north central Luzon, the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring sediment transport through the 4000km2 Magat catchment in Luzon, the Philippines, between 1986 and 1988, is described. Three catchments nested one within the next were monitored, each being an order of magnitude greater, the smallest being 20km2. Sediment measurements were taken daily at each catchment outlet, by means of pump sampling systems. Wash load and bed material load were

A DICKINSON; P BOLTON

164

Alarm annunciation in a graphical environment  

SciTech Connect

Well-designed graphical user interfaces, such as Microsoft Windows{trademark} or UNIX{trademark} -- based X-Windows, provide a capability for enhanced display of security alarm information. Conversely, a poorly designed interface can quickly overwhelm an operator. This paper describes types of graphical information that can be displayed and offers guidance on how to best display that information. Limits are proposed for the complexity of the user interface, and guidelines are suggested for the display of maps and sensors.

Adams, D.G.

1994-08-01

165

ZoneAlarm 8.0.065  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ZoneAlarm is a piece of firewall software designed to protect computers from hackers. It features four interlocking security services, including an application control, an Internet lock, and a firewall. The program also includes an easy-to-use wizard device which will help less-experienced users with setting up the program. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP and newer.

2009-01-01

166

Self-monitoring in social interaction: the centrality of self-affect.  

PubMed

In this review, we examine the role of self-monitoring in social interaction. We first note that the presumed ease with which self-monitors adapt to new social contexts is more apparent than real, being the self-conscious outcome of (1) high self-monitors' preference for clearly defined situations, (2) their use of scripts regarding typical situations, (3) their ability to formulate effective plans of action before social encounters, and (4) their ability to use other people's behavior as a guide. We then examine the strong motive of high self-monitors to express and evoke high levels of positive affect in their interpersonal relationships. Two recent unstructured dyadic interaction studies lead us to argue that the primary concern of high self-monitors during social interaction is to regulate their own self-affect through effective impression management. In this sense, it really is the self that is closely monitored whenever self-monitoring processes influence social interaction. PMID:16684249

Ickes, William; Holloway, Renee; Stinson, Linda L; Hoodenpyle, Tiffany Graham

2006-06-01

167

[Combined monitoring of the central and autonomic nervous system during operations on the liver and pancreas].  

PubMed

Thirty patients from 3 groups that differed only in the scope of monitoring were examined to study the efficiency of combined neurophysiological and autonomic nervous monitoring in the assess of the quality of anesthesiological protection during highly traumatic surgical interventions made in abdominal patients under combined general anesthesia based on long-term graded epidural naropine (3 mg/ml) infusion at the thoracic level Addition of the Harvard standard with monitoring the information saturation of EEG made it possible to maintain the depth of anesthesia, by reducing the dose of dormicum by 20% (p < 0.05). The use of combined monitoring of EEG information saturation and the tension index after R. M. Bayevsky could reduce the dose of fentanyl by 2.3-2.7 times (p < 0.05) and the incidence of critical cardiovascular incidents by 39% (p < 0.05). PMID:15938087

Ovezov, A M; Likhvantsev, V V; Petrov, O V

168

[Monitoring of the levels of metals in the bottom sediments of rivers in the central area of the Orenburg Region].  

PubMed

Among the pollutants of the biosphere, heavy metals present the greatest hazard since they show a high stability and toxicity and are able to migrate in the water ecosystems and to accumulate in the bottom sediments and hydrocoles, by impairing the stability of hydrobiocenoses. Chemical monitoring of the level of bottom sediments of rivers was made in the Central district of the Orenburg Region. Samples were taken at 11 stations of the Central district of the region and 5 stations in a district of Orenburg. The analysis of the findings indicated that the content of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium in the bottom sediment samples was not greater than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) at any station and that of nickel did not exceed MPC by 1.3-2.6 times. PMID:20143493

Solovykh, G N; Golinskaia, L V; Shustova, N V

169

A hierarchical architecture of centralized monitoring and controlling system and its high-performance and interoperability protocol.  

PubMed

This paper describes a hierarchical architecture and a high-performance and interoperability protocol for centralized monitoring and controlling systems (CMCS). The protocol we proposed can interoperate different monitoring and controlling systems constructed by different companies, each with different functions and communication protocols. The protocol reduces the amount of traffic and has real-time and high-performance advantages. The protocol was implemented in CMCS for telecommunication power supply and air-conditioner used by the Telecommunication Bureau of Zhejiang Province. This paper deals with the hierarchical architecture and function of CMCS and packet format, command ID, and SDL description of its protocol. We also discuss the properties of the interoperability and performance of the protocol in this paper. PMID:14663848

Huang, Li-can; Wu, Zhao-hui; Pan, Yun-he

2004-01-01

170

Dual sensitivity mode system for monitoring processes and sensors  

DOEpatents

A method and system for analyzing a source of data. The system and method involves initially training a system using a selected data signal, calculating at least two levels of sensitivity using a pattern recognition methodology, activating a first mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source, activating a second mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source and generating a first alarm signal upon the first mode of sensitivity detecting an alarm condition and a second alarm signal upon the second mode of sensitivity detecting an associated alarm condition. The first alarm condition and second alarm condition can be acted upon by an operator and/or analyzed by a specialist or computer program.

Wilks, Alan D. (Mount Prospect, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL)

2000-01-01

171

Do smoke alarms still function a year after installation? A follow-up of the get-alarmed campaign.  

PubMed

The Get-Alarmed Campaign Follow-up Study was the second phase of an initiative to assure that homes of families at high risk of fire-related injury and death had functioning smoke alarms. Smoke alarms and/or batteries were installed in over 94 percent of 454 participating households in Schley and Henry Counties, Georgia, in 2000. Before the study began, 60.6 percent of these homes had smoke alarms, but only 36.6 percent had functioning smoke alarms. The follow-up study was designed to determine the experiences of participants with smoke alarms and whether participating households had functioning smoke alarms a year after baseline. Participants were phoned or visited and asked about their experiences with smoke alarms since the baseline study. During the interview, they were asked to test a smoke alarm, the results of which could frequently be heard. Respondents included 237 from Schley County and 113 from Henry County, for an overall 77.1 percent response rate. While 80.3 percent of respondents had a smoke alarm that was heard by the interviewer when it was tested, 6.6 percent reported that their smoke alarm had been disabled or had a dead battery. Over 75 percent of respondents had smoke alarm sound offs in the prior year, predominately due to cooking smoke, but only about 5 percent reported removing the battery or otherwise disabling it to prevent sound offs. However, the measures taken may render a household unprotected at a critical time. Efforts to increase protection with smoke alarms should be augmented with programs to insure adequate and timely testing and maintenance of existing smoke alarms. PMID:15065735

Thompson, Corleen J; Jones, Alma R; Davis, Mary Kidd; Caplan, Lee S

2004-04-01

172

False Alarm Probability in the Multiperiodicity Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the False Alarm Probability analysis, (FAP), to the multiperiodicity search. Then we show the necessity of using the FAP method in the analysis of the astronomical time-series. We present the results obtained for 153 stars supposed or known to be pulsating variables. We examine the statistical properties of the excited frequencies and find a relation between the parameters of the fitted sine-curves and the FAP. Finally we show the application of our results to the individual stars and large samples of stars.

Molenda-?akowicz, J.

2001-12-01

173

Acid Rain Monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to Present.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at bot...

B. C. Madsen T. Kheoh C. R. Hinkle T. W. Dreschel

1990-01-01

174

NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to u...

N. Laporte J. LeMoigne P. Elkan O. Desmet D. Paget A. Pumptre P. Gouala M. Honzack F. Maisels

2004-01-01

175

DESIGN OF BELL ALARM METER FOR PERSONAL MONITOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meter is designed for personal protection at highlevel gamma or x-; ray field, such as nuclear reactors in an emergency. Therefore, the maximum dose ; setting is 2.4 roentgens. A second model is designed for personal protection in ; general isotope treatment. The electronic circuit is the same one as used in ; the higher-level dose model, except for

K. Minami; T. Oshima

1961-01-01

176

Recharge in Karst Shrublands of Central Texas: Monitoring Drip Rates in Shallow Caves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exceedingly complex subsurface hydrology of karst landscapes presents formidable challenges to understanding recharge rates and the relationships between rainfall and recharge. In this study, we have established a network of drip collectors and monitoring stations in shallow caves in the Edwards Plateau to better understand the dynamics of recharge and eventually for determining the effect of woody plants on recharge rates. Understanding recharge rates has direct relevance for management of the Edwards Aquifer, which serves as the main source of fresh water for the city of San Antonio and surrounding communities, As population around San Antonio continues to grow so does the demand for water, in turn, a need to address the supply exists. We have instrumented two caves that lie within the Camp Bullis Training Facility north of San Antonio, Texas. Data collected at each site record precipitation on the surface and measure recharge inside the caves. Monitoring of natural rainfall events at these sites began in October 2004. To date, all monitoring and data collection has occurred with the juniper canopy in place. Results have shown that cave recharge is influenced by 1) rainfall intensity and duration, 2) antecedent soil moisture condition, 3) depth of soil, and 4) surface geology. We plan to remove the tree canopy in the summer of 2008 and continue monitoring cave recharge in response to natural and re-created rainfall events. Comparing data collected with and without juniper cover in place will allow us to determine if recharge may be increased by reducing tree cover.

Bazan, R. A.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, K.; Shade, B.

2007-12-01

177

Distributed Guarding and Alarming System Based on Telephone Automatical Dialing and Remote Communication Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumstance data of building such as fire accident smoke, robberpsilas body information, temperature and humidity signal, etc is acquired by different kinds of sensor unit. Single chip microprocessor (SCM) AT89C51 processes data signal collection and realize telephone automatically dialing-alarming when there is unusual condition, as well as it controls wireless transceiver chip nRF905 to complete data transmission between monitor controller

Yu Chen

2009-01-01

178

Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs  

SciTech Connect

Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

Justus, Alan Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

179

Neural network false alarm filter, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This effort identified, developed, and demonstrated a set of approaches for applying neural network learning techniques to the development of a real-time built-in test (BIT) capability to filter out false-alarms from the BIT output. Following a state-of-the-art assessment, a decision space of 19 neural network models, 9 fault report causes, and 12 common groups of BIT techniques was identified. From this space, four unique, high-potential combinations were selected for further investigation. These techniques were subsequently simulated for application to a MILSATCOM system. Detailed analyses of their strengths and weaknesses were performed along with cost/benefit analyses. This study concluded that the best candidates for neural network insertion are new systems where neural network requirements can be included in the initial system design and that a major challenge is the availability of real data for training of the networks. Volume 1 of this report documents the activities and findings of the effort, including an extensive, annotated bibliography. Volume 2 contains a tutorial overview of the neural networks, BIT techniques, and false alarm causes utilized in the final phases of this study.

Aylstock, F.; Elerin, L.; Hintz, J.; Learoyd, C.; Press, R.

1994-12-01

180

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

1993-05-01

181

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

1993-01-01

182

Framework for analyzing safeguards alarms and response decisions  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a quantitative approach to help evaluate and respond to safeguards alarms. These alrms may be generated internally by a facility's safeguards systems or externally by individuals claiming to possess stolen Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This approach can be used to identify the most likely cause of an alarm - theft, hoax, or error - and to evaluate alternative responses to alarms. Possible responses include conducting investigations, initiating measures to recover stolen SNM, and replying to external threats. Based on the results of each alarm investigation step, the evaluation revises the likelihoods of possible causes of an alarm, and uses this information to determine the optimal sequence of further responses. The choice of an optimal sequence of responses takes into consideration the costs and benefits of successful thefts or hoaxes. These results provide an analytical basis for setting priorities and developing contingency plans for responding to safeguards alarms.

Al-Ayat, R.A.; Judd, B.R.; McCord, R.K.

1982-06-11

183

Use of Electrical Conductivity Instead of Soluble Salts for Soil Salinity Monitoring in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USSR classifications of soil salinity used in Central Asiawas based on laboratory measurement of the total dissolved(toxic) salts or the chloride ion concentration in the soil waterextracts (soil:water = 1:5). Current practices, however, startto differ between the republics because of different levels ofacceptance of international literature. This change in practiceis triggered partly by the cost of the laboratory measurements.The

Y. Shirokova; I. Forkutsa; N. Sharafutdinova

2000-01-01

184

Acid rain monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at both locations. The weighted average pH at each site is 4.58; however, annual weighted average pH has been

B. C. Madsen; T. Kheoh; C. R. Hinkle; T. W. Dreschel

1990-01-01

185

Real-time analysis of alarm pheromone emission by the pea aphid (acyrthosiphon pisum) under predation.  

PubMed

Upon attack by predators or parasitoids, aphids emit volatile chemical alarm signals that warn other aphids of a potential risk of predation. Release rate of the major constituent of the alarm pheromone in pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum), (E)-b-farnesene (EBF), was measured for all nymphal and the adult stage as aphids were attacked individually by lacewing (Chrysoperla carnae) larvae. Volatilization of EBF from aphids under attack was quantified continuously for 60 min at 2-min intervals with a rapid gas chromatography technique (zNose) to monitor headspace emissions. After an initial burst, EBF volatilization declined exponentially, and detectable amounts were still present after 30 min in most cases. Total emission of EBF averaged 16.33 +/- 1.54 ng and ranged from 1.18 to 48.85 ng. Emission was higher in nymphs as compared to adults. No differences between pea aphid life stages were detected for their speed of alarm signal emission in response to lacewing larvae attack. This is the first time that alarm pheromone emission from single aphids has been reported. PMID:18092189

Schwartzberg, Ezra G; Kunert, Grit; Stephan, Claudia; David, Anja; Röse, Ursula S R; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2007-12-19

186

An Experimental Examination of Dead Air Space for Smoke Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American smoke-alarm installation standards and manufacturer’s recommendations require that smoke alarms be installed\\u000a not less than 100 mm from any adjoining wall if mounted on a flat ceiling, and not closer than 100 mm and not farther than\\u000a 300 mm from the adjoining ceiling surface if mounted on walls. The aim of this prescriptive rule is to avoid installation\\u000a of smoke alarms

Joseph Z. Su; George P. Crampton

2009-01-01

187

Learnability and discriminability of melodic medical equipment alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Melodic alarms proposed in the IEC 60601-1-8 standard for medical electrical equipment were tested for learnability and discriminability. Thirty-three non-anaesthetist participants learned the alarms over two sessions of practice, with or without mnemonics suggested in the standard. Fewer than 30% of participants could identify the alarms with 100% accuracy at the end of practice. Confusions persisted between pairs of

P. M. Sanderson; A. Wee; P. Lacherez

2006-01-01

188

Application of water quality indices and analysis of the surface water quality monitoring network in semiarid North-Central Chile.  

PubMed

Surface water quality has increasing importance worldwide and is particularly relevant in the semiarid North-Central Chile, where agriculture and mining activities are imposing heavy pressure on limited water resources. The current study presents the application of a water quality index in four watersheds of the 29°-33°S realm for the period 1999-2008, based on the Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment approach and the Chilean regulation for irrigation water quality. In addition, two modifications to the index are tested and a comprehensive characterization of the existing monitoring network is performed through cluster analysis. The basins studied show fairly good water quality in the overall, specially the Limarí basin. On the other hand, the lower index values were obtained for the headwaters of Elqui, associated with the El Indio mining district. The first modification of the indicator (i.e., to consider parameters differentially according to their effect on human health or the environment) did not produce major differences with respect to the original index, given the generally good water quality. The second modification (i.e., to consider as threshold values the more restrictive figures derived from a set of regulations) yielded important differences in the indicator values. Finally, an adequate characterization of the monitoring network was obtained. The results presented spatial coherence and the information can be used as a basis for the optimization of the monitoring network if required. PMID:21938385

Espejo, Lesly; Kretschmer, Nicole; Oyarzún, Jorge; Meza, Francisco; Núñez, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Oyarzo, Paula; Garrido, Marcela; Suckel, Felipe; Amezaga, Jaime; Oyarzún, Ricardo

2011-09-21

189

The low-technology monitoring of atmospheric metal pollution in central Scotland.  

PubMed

In epidemiological studies covering relationships of disease patterns and patterns of atmospheric pollution, conventional filtering equipment is normally used for monitoring the pollution. For various reasons, however, this type of approach often results in levels of pollution being obtained for only a few sites within an extensive fieldwork area. Hence, alternative monitoring techniques, which allow a high density of sampling sites in an area, have been of interest to an increasing number of investigators. The monitors used, known as low-technology monitors, fall into two main categories; indigenous; and transplants. In our own surveys of atmospheric metal pollutants in industrial communities in Scotland, the indigenous sample materials have included: Hypnum cupressiforme, Lecanora conizaeoides, Agropyron repens and surface soils. In our transplant surveys a variety of different low-technology samplers have been deployed, the most frequently used being: spherical and flat moss bags, Hypogymnia physodes, 'Tak' (synthetic fabric), and total deposition collectors. The data obtained from the various surveys have been plotted on a variety of types of computer map to minimize any systematic bias resulting from the use of a single technique. The pollution patterns found in one particular town were partly unexpected, in view of the dominant wind direction in the locality concerned. Hence it was decided to carry out a wind tunnel experiment to investigate the situation further. The wind tunnel experiment produced results which were consistent with the patterns of pollution derived from the metal surveys, and revealed that the meteorological dispersal of the pollution was unexpectedly influenced by local topography. Because pulmonary pathology was the main focus of the complementary epidemiological study, an investigation of the size, shape and roughness of the metal particles was considered relevant. This investigation involved the examination of samplers and their particles by means of the electron microscope. To complete the study of the methodology of low-technology samplers in this town, their uptake is also being compared to that of filtering equipment (high-technology samplers). The information gained from the present survey at this early stage has indicated that several of the low-technology monitors could have considerable value in the provision of continuous, but low-cost, surveillance of the air quality of wide areas of industrial communities. PMID:6532984

Yule, F A; Lloyd, O L

1984-01-01

190

Structural Damage Alarm Utilizing Modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage alarm is an important step among structure damage identification. Its objective is to evaluate the structure health. The existing damage alarm methods are mostly based on Back-Propagation Neural Networks without thinking over testing noise. Therefore, in order to avoid the disadvantages of conventional Back-Propagation Neural Networks, a modified Back-Propagation Neural Networks was proposed for structure damage alarm system in this paper. The experiment results of steel truss girder bridge show that the improved method is better than BPNN for structural damage alarm.

Dong, Xiaoma

191

Monitoring and Assessing Environmental Controls on Blowing Dust in Dryland Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral aerosols are an important component of the Earth's climate system and potentially a major forcing mechanism for climate change. Monitoring aeolian dust dynamics and improving our understanding of the major environmental controls influencing dust storm occurrence is therefore a key scientific challenge. Meteorological records are regularly used to calculate wind erosion indices for modelling conditions conducive to dust storm occurrence and remote sensing (e.g. TOMS) is increasingly being used as a method for monitoring regional atmospheric aerosol loading. Given that direct measurements of dust concentrations and deposition rates are very limited in number, very few studies have investigated the associations between wind erosion indices, satellite monitoring of aerosol loadings and actual dust flux. In this paper we report the findings of a study aiming to validate correlations between measured dust deposition, meteorological conditions and TOMS aerosol index in the region adjacent to the southern shore of the Aral Sea. Monthly measurements of dust deposition were collected from May 2000 to May 2001 at 7 sites in Karakalpakstan. Daily meteorological data from these sites were used to calculate a climatic index of wind erosion parameterised using a variety of measures of available soil moisture (P-E, mean rainfall, number of rain days) and a range of measures of wind erosivity (mean wind speed, dimensionless vector units, frequency over threshold). Additionally, monthly N7 TOMS and EP TOMS AI data were extracted for a coincident period for 3 areas covering the SW, S and SE regions adjacent to the Aral Sea. Regression analysis was used to identify relationships between direct measurements of dust deposition, various adaptations of the wind erosion index and the TOMS AI data. Findings from the study indicate strong negative (and exponential) relationships between rates of dust deposition flux and various measures of soil moisture availability at the annual and monthly temporal scale. Surprisingly, relationships between dust flux and all measures of wind power were poor. These results suggest that the occurrence of dust storms in the region is strongly controlled by seasonally changing surface erodibility parameters (surface crusting, vegetation growth, damp sediment) rather than erosivity factors. Time lags associated with the dynamics of these erodibility parameters resulted in only weak associations between dust flux and environmental controls over time periods less than one month and discussion highlights the complex role of such surface characteristics in modelling of dust emissions. Particularly strong associations between TOMS AI and dust flux were found suggesting that at temporal scales greater than one month satellite monitoring can provide a useful tool for describing regional dust occurrence.

Weaver, C. M.; Wiggs, G. F.; Bryant, R. G.; O'Hara, S. L.; Wegerdt, J.; Hubbard, R.

2004-12-01

192

Lichens as bio-monitors of trace-elements in Central and Eastern France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lichens (105 samples, mainly P. sulcata and X. parietina) have been used to monitor As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu. Mg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Burgundy and in the East of France. When the industrial environment seemed to justify it, other elements were also looked for, such as Ag, Sn and V. Research was carried out on areas with little or moderate pollution and supplemented by studies on three “hot spots” with health problems. Record and background concentrations in lichens are presented as well as the ratios between those values. In the case of lead, the concentrations in lichens are compared with the results in blood tests.

Daillant, O.; Beltramo, J.-L.; Tillier

2003-05-01

193

Smoke alarm installation and function in inner London council housing  

PubMed Central

AIM—To determine the prevalence of and predictors for installed, functioning smoke alarms in council (public) housing in a low income, multi-ethnic urban area.?DESIGN—Cross sectional study.?SETTING—40 materially deprived electoral wards in two inner London boroughs.?PARTICIPANTS—Occupants of 315 addresses randomly selected from council housing lists, with 75% response rate.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Installation and function of smoke alarms based on inspection and testing.?RESULTS—39% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33% to 46%) of council tenants owned a smoke alarm, 31% (95% CI 25% to 38%) had an installed alarm (of which 54% were correctly installed), and 16% (95% CI 12% to 22%) had at least one installed, functioning alarm. Alarms most commonly failed because they lacked batteries (72%). In multivariate modelling, having an installed, functioning alarm was most strongly associated with living in a house versus a flat (apartment) (odds ratio (OR) 3.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0), having two resident adults versus one (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 6.5), and recognising stills from a Home Office television smoke alarm campaign (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.5).?CONCLUSIONS—Fires are a leading cause of child injury and death, particularly among those younger than 5 years of age and those in social classes IV and V. Smoke alarms are associated with a significantly reduced risk of death in residential fires, and are more protective in households with young children. Few council properties in a multi-ethnic, materially deprived urban area had any installed, functioning smoke alarms, despite a high risk of residential fires and fire related injuries in such areas. Effective methods to increase the prevalence of installed and functioning alarms must be identified.??

DiGuiseppi, C.; Roberts, I.; Speirs, N.

1999-01-01

194

The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake of Central Chile, monitored by GPS.  

PubMed

Large earthquakes produce crustal deformation that can be quantified by geodetic measurements, allowing for the determination of the slip distribution on the fault. We used data from Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in Central Chile to infer the static deformation and the kinematics of the 2010 moment magnitude (M(w)) 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake. From elastic modeling, we found a total rupture length of ~500 kilometers where slip (up to 15 meters) concentrated on two main asperities situated on both sides of the epicenter. We found that rupture reached shallow depths, probably extending up to the trench. Resolvable afterslip occurred in regions of low coseismic slip. The low-frequency hypocenter is relocated 40 kilometers southwest of initial estimates. Rupture propagated bilaterally at about 3.1 kilometers per second, with possible but not fully resolved velocity variations. PMID:21527673

Vigny, C; Socquet, A; Peyrat, S; Ruegg, J-C; Métois, M; Madariaga, R; Morvan, S; Lancieri, M; Lacassin, R; Campos, J; Carrizo, D; Bejar-Pizarro, M; Barrientos, S; Armijo, R; Aranda, C; Valderas-Bermejo, M-C; Ortega, I; Bondoux, F; Baize, S; Lyon-Caen, H; Pavez, A; Vilotte, J P; Bevis, M; Brooks, B; Smalley, R; Parra, H; Baez, J-C; Blanco, M; Cimbaro, S; Kendrick, E

2011-04-28

195

Estimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in eastern and central North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dry deposition of speciated mercury, i.e., gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), was estimated for the year 2008–2009 at 19 monitoring locations in eastern and central North America. Dry deposition estimates were obtained by combining monitored two- to four-hourly speciated ambient concentrations with modeled hourly dry deposition velocities (Vd) calculated using forecasted meteorology. Annual dry deposition of GOM+PBM was estimated to be in the range of 0.4 to 8.1 ?g m?2 at these locations with GOM deposition being mostly five to ten times higher than PBM deposition, due to their different modeled Vd values. Net annual GEM dry deposition was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 26 ?g m?2 at 18 sites and 33 ?g m?2 at one site. The estimated dry deposition agrees very well with limited surrogate-surface dry deposition measurements of GOM and PBM, and also agrees with litterfall mercury measurements conducted at multiple locations in eastern and central North America. This study suggests that GEM contributes much more than GOM+PBM to the total dry deposition at the majority of the sites considered here; the only exception is at locations close to significant point sources where GEM and GOM+PBM contribute equally to the total dry deposition. The relative magnitude of the speciated dry deposition and their good comparisons with litterfall deposition suggest that mercury in litterfall originates primarily from GEM, which is consistent with the limited number of previous field studies. The study also supports previous analyses suggesting that total dry deposition of mercury is equal to, if not more important than, wet deposition of mercury on a regional scale in eastern North America.

Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Gay, D. A.; Prestbo, E. M.; Risch, M. R.; Johnson, D.; Narayan, J.; Zsolway, R.; Holsen, T. M.; Miller, E. K.; Castro, M. S.; Graydon, J. A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Dalziel, J.

2012-01-01

196

C-band and L-band InSAR for recognition and monitoring of landslides in Taleghan, Central Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides are one of the most commonly occurring natural hazards in Iran that threaten people’s lives and property, causing millions of dollars in damage and losses each year. Knowledge about surface deformation at landslides is important for better understanding the cause and mechanism of mass movement, and for mitigating hazard associated to it. In this paper we use the remote sensing technique of SAR Interferometry (INSAR) for recognition and monitoring of landslides in Taleghan, Central Iran. Taleghan is a mountainous region in Central Iran - ~ 100 km northwest of Tehran, the capital state of Iran. It is among the most landslide-prone areas in the country due to a number of reasons including its special type of earth lithology, relatively high rainfall, the presence of excess soil moisture and relatively sharp slopes. In order to understand the spatio-temporal characteristics of slope movements in this region we applied the technique of SAR Interferometry. We selected 23 C-band ASAR images, acquired by the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) spacecraft on a descending orbit between 2003 and 2009, and 10 PALSAR images, acquired by the Japanese ALOS satellite between 2007 and 2009, and processed them using the Small Baseline (SBAS) approach. We present a number of mass movement cases in Taleghan, where InSAR observations revealed several new active landslides in the region, previously unidentified in published geologic and landslide inventory maps. We compare Envisat and ALOS INSAR in our study area and discuss about the achievements and benefits that can be obtained by combined observations of these sensors to create an opertional and effective monitoring system for mass movement studies.

Khavaninzadeh, N.; Motagh, M.; Sharifi, M.; Alipour, S.

2010-12-01

197

Comparison of two generalized transfer functions for measuring central systolic blood pressure by an oscillometric blood pressure monitor.  

PubMed

Central aortic systolic blood pressure (SBP-C) can be estimated from a cuff oscillometric waveform derived during the pulse volume plethysmography (PVP) by applying a device-specific aortic pressure-to-PVP waveform-generalized transfer function (A2P(GTF)). The present study compared the performance of an aortic-to-brachial pressure waveforms generalized transfer function (A2B(GTF)), which is independent of any PVP devices, with an A2P(GTF). Generalized transfer function of aortic-to-brachial (A2B(GTF)) and aortic-to-PVP (A2P(GTF)) were generated from the simultaneously obtained central aortic and brachial pressure waveforms recorded by a high-fidelity dual pressure sensor catheter, and the PVP waveform recorded by a customized noninvasive blood pressure monitor during cardiac catheterization in 40 patients, and were then applied in another 100 patients with simultaneously recorded invasive aortic pressure and noninvasively calibrated (using cuff SBP and diastolic blood pressures) PVP waveforms. The mean difference±s.d. between the noninvasively estimated and invasively recorded SBP-C was -2.1±7.7 mm Hg for A2B(GTF), which was not greater than that of -3.0±7.7 mm Hg for A2P(GTF) (P<0.01). In conclusion, SBP-C can be measured reliably using a noninvasive blood pressure monitor by applying either an A2P(GTF) or A2B(GTF) to a noninvasively calibrated PVP waveform. The performance of an A2B(GTF) is not inferior to that of an A2P(GTF). PMID:22551938

Shih, Y-T; Cheng, H-M; Sung, S-H; Hu, W-C; Chen, C-H

2012-05-03

198

Estimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in eastern and central North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of speciated mercury, i.e., gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), was estimated for the year 2008-2009 at 19 monitoring locations in eastern and central North America. Dry deposition estimates were obtained by combining monitored two- to four-hourly speciated ambient concentrations with modeled hourly dry deposition velocities (Vd) calculated using forecasted meteorology. Annual dry deposition of GOM+PBM was estimated to be in the range of 0.4 to 8.1 ?g m-2 at these locations with GOM deposition being mostly five to ten times higher than PBM deposition, due to their different modeled Vd values. Net annual GEM dry deposition was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 26 ?g m-2 at 18 sites and 33 ?g m-2 at one site. The estimated dry deposition agrees very well with limited surrogate-surface dry deposition measurements of GOM and PBM, and also agrees with litterfall mercury measurements conducted at multiple locations in eastern and central North America. This study suggests that GEM contributes much more than GOM+PBM to the total dry deposition at the majority of the sites considered here; the only exception is at locations close to significant point sources where GEM and GOM+PBM contribute equally to the total dry deposition. The relative magnitude of the speciated dry deposition and their good comparisons with litterfall deposition suggest that mercury in litterfall originates primarily from GEM, which is consistent with the limited number of previous field studies. The study also supports previous analyses suggesting that total dry deposition of mercury is equal to, if not more important than, wet deposition of mercury on a regional scale in eastern North America.

Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Gay, D. A.; Prestbo, E. M.; Risch, M. R.; Johnson, D.; Narayan, J.; Zsolway, R.; Holsen, T. M.; Miller, E. K.; Castro, M. S.; Graydon, J. A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Dalziel, J.

2012-05-01

199

Estimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in Eastern and Central North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry deposition of speciated mercury, i.e., gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate bound mercury (PBM), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), was estimated for the year 2008-2009 at 19 monitoring locations in Eastern and Central North America. Dry deposition estimates were obtained by combining monitored 2-4 hourly speciated ambient concentration with modeled hourly dry deposition velocities (Vd) calculated using forecasted meteorology. Annual dry deposition of GOM + PBM was estimated to be in the range of 0.4 to 8.1 ?g m-2 at these locations with GOM deposition being mostly 5 to 10 times higher than PBM deposition, due to their different Vd values. Net annual GEM dry deposition was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 26 ?g m-2 at 18 sites and 33 ?g m-2 at one site. The estimated dry deposition agrees very well with limited surrogate-surface dry deposition measurements of GOM and PBM, and also agrees with litterfall mercury measurements conducted at multiple locations in Eastern and Central North America. This study suggests that GEM contributes much more than GOM + PBM to the total dry deposition at the majority of sites considered here; the only exception is at locations close to significant point sources where GEM and GOM + PBM contribute equally to the total dry deposition. The relative magnitude of the speciated dry deposition and their good comparison with litterfall deposition suggest that mercury in litterfall primarily originates from GEM, consistent with previous limited field studies. The study also supports previous analyses suggesting that total dry deposition of mercury is equally if not more important as wet deposition of mercury on a regional scale in Eastern North America.

Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Gay, D. A.; Prestbo, E. M.; Risch, M. R.; Johnson, D.; Narayan, J.; Zsolway, R.; Holsen, T. M.; Miller, E. K.; Castro, M. S.; Graydon, J. A.; St. Louis, V. L.; Dalziel, J.

2012-01-01

200

Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

1995-01-01

201

Advanced fire detection using multi-signature alarm algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to assess the feasibility of reducing false alarms while increasing sensitivity through the use of combined conventional smoke detectors with carbon monoxide (CO) sensors. This was accomplished through an experimental program using both real (fire) and nuisance alarm sources. A broad selection of sources was used ranging from smoldering wood and flaming fabric to

Daniel T. Gottuk; Michelle J. Peatross; Richard J. Roby; Craig L. Beyler

2002-01-01

202

Inducible defenses: The relevance of chemical alarm cues in Daphnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aquatic organisms use chemical cues to recognize predators and to activate inducible defenses. In zooplankton, most of these cues are thought to be kairomones released by specific predators. However, in several other organisms, e.g., fish and amphibians, alarm signals from conspecifics also provide reliable cues. We tested whether alarm substances also act as chemical cues in Daphnia and assessed

Christian Laforsch; Laura Beccara; Ralph Tollrian

2006-01-01

203

46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530...Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...

2011-10-01

204

46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530...Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at...operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally...

2012-10-01

205

Plant Experience with an Expert System for Alarm Diagnosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expert system called Diagnosis of Multiple Alarms (DMA) is in routine use at four nuclear reactors operated by the DuPont Company. The system is wired to plant alarm annunciators and does event-tree analysis to see if a pattern exists. Any diagnosis is...

K. L. Gimmy

1986-01-01

206

Oral contraceptives and compliance: reaction to cardiovascular alarm among users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of oral contraceptives (OC) is dependent on correct daily intake as well as continuous use. The latest cardiovascular alarm in 1995 led to discontinuations, presumably due to concerns about the long-term safety of OCs. The aim of this study was to investigate women's experiences and concerns about OCs in general as well as after the latest cardiovascular alarm.

T. Tydén; K. Bingefors; V. Odlind

1999-01-01

207

Successful use of the nocturnal urine alarm for diurnal enuresis.  

PubMed Central

We report the effects of using a urine alarm, typically employed for nocturnal enuresis, to treat chronic diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female resident at Boys' Town. The results of an ABAB reversal design indicate that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up.

Friman, P C; Vollmer, D

1995-01-01

208

Fire alarm system based-on video processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is one of the disasters that often occur in everyday life and causing losses both in terms of material and non-material. There has been much research done to build a field alarm system. One way to build a fire alarm system is base on fire detection on video data; this is done with digital image processing techniques and machine-

W. Tjokorda Agung Budi; Iping Supriana Suwardi

2011-01-01

209

46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each general alarm bell and flashing red light must be identified with red lettering...Attention General AlarmâWhen Alarm Sounds Go to Your Station. (e) A...

2011-10-01

210

46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

2010-10-01

211

46 CFR 108.445 - Alarm and means of escape.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Alarm and means of escape. 108.445 Section 108...EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.445 Alarm and means of escape. (a) Each CO2...

2009-10-01

212

Industry Sector Analysis, Hong Kong: Electrical Burglar Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Demand for sophisticated burglar alarm systems increases as crime rate in both Hong Kong and China has reached a record high. The industry as a whole will grow at 20-25% annually for the next three years. US-made alarm systems are well received and compet...

1993-01-01

213

Burglar Alarm Design. USMES Teacher's Resource Book, Preliminary Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This USMES unit challenges students to build a burglar alarm which will give adequate warning. The teacher resource book for the Burglar Alarm Design unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real problems, including a discussion of the nature of the USMES "challenges" and…

Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

214

Uranyl nitrate source characterization for criticality alarm placement analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work concerns the development of an equivalent point source to represent the radiation release from a highly enriched uranyl nitrate criticality accident. This source will be used in a subsequent deep penetration criticality alarm placement analysis. It is more efficient to separate the source characterization analysis from the alarm placement analysis because (a) the industry standard tools for doing

C. T. Scott; R. E. Pevey; P. L. Angelo

2000-01-01

215

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

216

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false High water alarms. 28.250 Section 28.250...the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet (11...at the operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...

2012-10-01

217

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

218

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped withâ (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2013-07-01

219

33 CFR 157.440 - Autopilot alarm or indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...without automatic manual override has an audible and visual alarm, which is distinct from other required bridge alarms, that will activate if the helm is manually moved while the autopilot is engaged. (b) A tank barge owner or operator shall ensure...

2013-07-01

220

46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...record date, time, alarm status, and operating status of the 15 ppm bilge separator. The recording device must also store data for at least 18 months and be able to display or print a protocol. In the event the 15 ppm bilge alarm is...

2009-10-01

221

46 CFR 162.050-33 - Bilge alarm: Design specification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...record date, time, alarm status, and operating status of the 15 ppm bilge separator. The recording device must also store data for at least 18 months and be able to display or print a protocol. In the event the 15 ppm bilge alarm is...

2010-10-01

222

The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports  

SciTech Connect

The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

2002-09-01

223

High Resolution Monitoring of Algal Growth Dynamics in a Hypereutrophic River in the Central Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower San Joaquin River in California's Central Valley experiences periods of hypoxia during the late summer and fall that is detrimental to aquatic organisms and migration of fall-run chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Hypoxia is attributable, in part, to excess nutrients from urban waste water and agricultural runoff, which contribute to growth of high concentrations of phytoplankton. This study examined spatial and temporal growth patterns that control algal loading using continuous fluorescence measurements at three sites along a 50 km section of the lower San Joaquin River between April and October. A strong diel fluorescence signal was observed and associated grab samples verified that fluorescence was an accurate measure of chlorophyll. Peak chlorophyll concentrations occurred between 18:00 and 20:00 and minimum concentrations between 10:00 and 12:00. Maximum concentrations were nearly two times greater than minimum concentrations although this ratio varied temporally and spatially. Although the mechanism for the diel chlorophyll signal is not very well understood several parameters including temperature, irradiance, turbidity, residence time, stream depth, and zooplankton grazing were considered within the scope of this study. This study highlights the importance of considering high resolution sampling on algal loading rates within heavily impacted riverine systems.

Henson, S. S.; Dahlgren, R.; van Nieuwenhuyse, E.; O'Geen, A. T.; Gallo, E. L.; Ahearn, D. S.

2005-05-01

224

Acid rain monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to present  

SciTech Connect

Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at both locations. The weighted average pH at each site is 4.58; however, annual weighted average pH has been equal to or above the 12 year average during six of the past eight years. Nitrate concentrations have increased slightly during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 12 year weighted average during six of the past seven years. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 20 to 50 meg/(m(exp 2) year) and 100 to 180 cm/year, respectively. Sea salt comprises at least 25 percent of the total ionic composition.

Madsen, B.C.; Kheoh, T.; Hinkle, C.R.; Dreschel, T.W.

1990-01-01

225

Long term and seasonal ground deformation monitoring of Larissa Plain (Central Greece) by persistent scattering interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land subsidence which occurs at the Larissa Basin (Thessaly Plain, Central Greece) is due to various causes including aquifer system compaction. Deformation maps of high spatial resolution deduced by the Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) technique (using radar scenes from ERS and ENVISAT satellites) for the period 1992-2006 were produced to study the spatial and temporal ground deformation. A developed GIS database (including geological, tectonic, morphological, hydrological, meteorological and watertable variation from wells in the area) offered the possibility of studying in detail the intense subsidence. The PSI based average deformation image clearly shows that subsidence generally takes place inside the Larissa Plain ranging from 5-250 mm. The largest amplitude rates (-25 mm/yr) are observed around the urban area of Larissa City (especially at Gianouli and Nikea villages), while the Larissa City center appears to be relatively stable with a tendency to subside. The rest of the plain regions seem to subside at moderate rates (about 5-10 mm/yr). The surrounding mountainous area is stable, or has slightly been uplifted with respect to the NE located reference point. It was found that there is a correlation between the seasonal water-table variation (deduced from wells data), the seasonal water demand for irrigation associated with specific types of cultivation (cotton fields), the monthly rainfall, and the observed subsidence rate in the rural regions of the Thessaly Plain.

Vassilopoulou, Spyridoula; Sakkas, Vasileios; Wegmuller, Urs; Capes, Ren

2013-03-01

226

A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels are found on the NTS which are potential roost sites for bats. Multiple technqiues are being used to inventory and monitor the bat fauna on the NTS. These techniques include mistnetting at water sources with concurrent use of the Anabat II bat detection system, conducting road surveys with the Anabat II system, and conducting exit surveys at mine and tunnel entrances using the Anabat II system. To date, a total of 13 species of bats has been documented on the NTS, of which six are considered species of concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These include Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), spotted bat (Euderma maculatum), small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum), long-eared myotis (M. evotis), fringed myotis (M. thysanodes), and long-legged myotis (M. volans). Results from mistnet and Anabat surveys reveal that all bat species of concern except for the long-legged myotis are found exclusively in the Great Basin Desert portion of the NTS. The long-legged myotis is found throughout the NTS. The Anabat II system has greatly facilitated the monitoring of bats on the NTS, and allowed biologists to cost effectively survey large areas for bat activity. Information obtained from bat monitoring will be used to develop and update guidelines for managing bats on the NTS.

Hall, D.

2000-01-01

227

Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.  

PubMed

Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. PMID:9405329

Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

1997-12-01

228

Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State.  

PubMed Central

Children up to 6 years of age who lived with pesticide applicators were monitored for increased risk of pesticide exposure: 48 pesticide applicator and 14 reference families were recruited from an agricultural region of Washington State in June 1995. A total of 160 spot urine samples were collected from 88 children, including repeated measures 3-7 days apart. Samples were assayed by gas chromatography flame photometric detector for dimethylphosphate metabolites. Dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) was the dominant metabolite. DMTP levels were significantly higher in applicator children than in reference children (p = 0.015), with median concentrations of 0.021 and 0.005 microg/ml, respectively; maximum concentrations were 0.44 and 0.10 microg/ml, respectively. Percentages of detectable samples were 47% for applicator children and 27% for reference children. A marginally significant trend of increasing concentration was observed with decreasing age among applicator children (p = 0.060), and younger children within these families had significantly higher concentrations when compared to their older siblings (p = 0.040). Applicator children living less than 200 feet from an orchard were associated with higher frequency of detectable DMTP levels than nonproximal applicator children (p =0.036). These results indicate that applicator children experienced higher organophosphorus pesticide exposures than did reference children in the same community and that proximity to spraying is an important contributor to such exposures. Trends related to age suggest that child activity is an important variable for exposure. It is unlikely that any of the observed exposures posed a hazard of acute intoxication. This study points to the need for a more detailed understanding of pesticide exposure pathways for children of agricultural workers. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.

Loewenherz, C; Fenske, R A; Simcox, N J; Bellamy, G; Kalman, D

1997-01-01

229

Alarm signals of the great gerbil: acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group.  

PubMed

The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire. PMID:16266190

Randall, Jan A; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C; Hooper, Stacie L; Rogovin, Konstantin

2005-10-01

230

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2013-07-01

231

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

232

Field verification of predator attraction to minnow alarm substance.  

PubMed

Fishes such as minnows in the superorder Ostariophysi possess specialized alarm substance cells (ASC) that contain an alarm cue. Alarm substance can only be released by damage to the epidermis; thus, the release of alarm substance is a reliable indicator of predation risk. When nearby minnows detect the cue, they adopt a range of antipredator behaviors that reduce their probability of predation. Predator-predator interactions afford prey an opportunity to escape and, thus, a fitness benefit that maintains alarm substance calls over evolutionary time. Here, we present data from a simple field experiment verifying that nearby predators are attracted to minnow alarm substance because it signals an opportunity to pirate a meal. Fishing lures were baited with sponge blocks scented with either (1) water (control for sponge odor and appearance), (2) skin extract from non-ostariophysan convict cichlids (superorder Acanthopterygii, Archocentrus "Cichlasoma" nigrofasciatus) to control for general injury-released cues from fish, or (3) skin extract from fathead minnows (superorder Ostariophysi, Pimephales promelas). Predator strike frequency on each sponge type was 1, 1, and 7 for water, cichlid, and minnow cues, respectively. These data provide the first field test using fish predators of the predator-attraction hypothesis for the evolution of Ostariophysan alarm substance cells. PMID:11925077

Wisenden, Brian D; Thiel, Travis A

2002-02-01

233

The volatility of an alarm pheromone in male rats.  

PubMed

The volatility of an alarm pheromone in male rats. PHYSIOL BEHAV 00(0) 000-000, 2008. We previously reported that an alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats is perceived by the vomeronasal organ and evokes stress-induced hyperthermia and defensive and risk assessment behavior. In addition, we recently reported that the alarm pheromone enhances the acoustic startle reflex (ASR). However, in contrast to our knowledge about such biological aspects of the pheromone, information concerning the physical character of the alarm pheromone is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the volatility of the alarm pheromone using enhancement of the ASR as an index of the pheromone effect. The alarm pheromone enhanced the ASR when it was presented at a distance of 10 mm but not at 200 mm. In addition, the pheromone effect was observed even after the pheromone was trapped in the adsorbent (Tenax) and then extracted using purified water. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone is both volatile and water soluble. PMID:19135073

Inagaki, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kayo; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2008-12-24

234

Association between Central Obesity and Circadian Parameters of Blood Pressure from the Korean Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry: Kor-ABP Registry  

PubMed Central

Central obesity has been reported as a risk for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. The influence of central obesity on diurnal blood pressure (BP) has not been established. In this study, we investigated the influence of central obesity on the circadian parameters of BP by 24 hr ambulatory BP monitoring. Total 1,290 subjects were enrolled from the Korean Ambulatory BP registry. Central obesity was defined as having a waist circumference?90 cm in males and ?85 cm in females. The central-obese group had higher daytime systolic BP (SBP), nighttime SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) than the non-obese group (all, P<0.001). There were no differences in nocturnal dipping (ND) patterns between the groups. Female participants showed a higher BP mean difference (MD) than male participants with concerns of central obesity (daytime SBP MD 5.28 vs 4.27, nighttime SBP MD 6.48 vs 2.72) and wider pulse pressure (PP). Central obesity within the elderly (?65 yr) also showed a higher BP MD than within the younger group (daytime SBP MD 8.23 vs 3.87, daytime DBP 4.10 vs 1.59). In conclusion, central obesity has no influence on nocturnal dipping patterns. However, higher SBP and wider PP are associated with central obesity, which is accentuated in women.

Kang, In Sook; Shin, Jinho; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

2013-01-01

235

Development of a Distance-to-Roadway Proximity Metric to Compare Near-Road Pollutant Levels to a Central Site Monitor  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or commun...

236

Monitoring of ventilation during the early part of cardiopulmonary exercise testing: The first step to detect central sleep apnoea in chronic heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purposeTo evaluate the prediction of nocturnal central sleep apnoea (CSA) syndrome from the presence of periodic breathing (PB) on diurnal monitoring of pre-exercise (cardiopulmonary exercise test [CPX]) parameters. CSA syndrome is commonly found in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients and has several prognostic and therapeutic implications but is frequently undiagnosed. Awake PB pattern is sometimes observed during the

Frédéric Roche; Delphine Maudoux; Yann Jamon; Jean-Claude Barthelemy

2008-01-01

237

HPLC-DAD and Q-TOF MS techniques identify cause of Daphnia biomonitor alarms in the River Meuse.  

PubMed

Several water companies in The Netherlands use a combination of specifically targeted compound analysis (HPLC-UV and GC-MS) and effect monitoring (continuous biotests) to monitor source water quality and to screen for unknown compounds. In spring 2004, the Daphnia biomonitor at Keizersveer monitoring station alongside the River Meuse recorded several alarms. In this study, the combination of HPLC-DAD and Q-TOF MS techniques was used to identify the so-far unknown microcontaminant related to this Daphnia alarm as 3-cyclohexyl-1,1-dimethylurea. The maximum concentration of this compound in the River Meuse at the time of the alarm was estimated to be 5 microg/L. The response of the waterfleas to this compound was confirmed with a short-term and a long-term verification test. The origin of the pollutant is still unknown. This paper shows that the combined application of on-line continuous biotests and advanced chemical analysis is an effective tool for the detection and identification of unknown, potentially hazardous compounds for surface water quality monitoring. Biological effect monitoring and specific compound analysis complement each other and together provide the best possible insight in rapid surface water quality changes. PMID:16683608

De Hoogh, Corina J; Wagenvoort, Arco J; Jonker, Frank; Van Leerdam, Jan A; Hogenboom, Ariadne C

2006-04-15

238

Monitoring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-11-23

239

Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

2011-01-01

240

Analysis of constant false alarm rate sidelobe canceller criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this final report, the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criterion for a sidelobe canceller (SLC) system, introduced in the last quarterly progress report, is found completely and analyzed. This new detection test for radar exhibits the desirable CFAR property that its probability of a false alarm (PFA) is functionally independent of the covariance of the actual noise field encountered. As a consequence, such a CFAR SLC system is ideally suited to cope with the newly evolving smart jammer threat to radar. An important objective, set in the last quarterly progress report, was to find both the false alarm and signal detection probabilities of this test. The first and most important of these two goals has been met. The probability of a false alarm (or PFA) of this CFAR SLC detection criterion is derived in closed form in this report. The success in finding the PFA is due primarily to the use of a generalization of Cochran's theorem.

Reed, I. S.; Brennan, L. E.

1985-05-01

241

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...not equipped with a mixture pump, the mixture flow rate is reduced to one-half of the alarm's maximum design flow rate. After reduction of pressure or flow rate, the oil content in the mixture is...

2011-10-01

242

46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse, clearly and permanently identified by lettering on a metal plate or with a sign in red letters on a suitable background: âGENERAL...

2011-10-01

243

46 CFR 169.730 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...over there must be a general alarm bell switch in the pilothouse, clearly and permanently identified by lettering on a metal plate or with a sign in red letters on a suitable background: âGENERAL...

2012-10-01

244

46 CFR 131.805 - General alarm bell, switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in the pilothouse that activates the general alarm bell must be clearly and permanently identified either by letters on a metal plate or with a sign in red letters on a suitable background that state the following: âGENERAL...

2012-10-01

245

46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...makers. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with the requirements in subchapter J (Electrical Engineering Regulations) of this chapter. [CGD 74-125A, 47 FR 15232, Apr. 4,...

2011-10-01

246

How to design plant evacuation alarms: Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Using new guidelines, safety managers can evaluate plant emergency alarms and decide if their systems meet OSHA requirements. Under OSHA's CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) and 29 CFR 1910.120 Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) directives, employers must develop, implement and maintain alarm systems to protect and evacuate all employees during an emergency. The paper discusses OSHA requirements; information sources and availability; and performance over time. Part 2 will examine how alarm signals are interpreted by workers. Using the Do's and Don'ts for alarms, safety engineers can effectively design around signaling problems so that employees are able to see, hear or feel emergency signals and respond quickly and correctly.

Kruger, D.A. (Webb, Murray and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

247

46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167...40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all...operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the...

2012-10-01

248

46 CFR 167.40-5 - Alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NAUTICAL SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Certain Equipment Requirements § 167...40-5 Alarm bells. All nautical school ships over 100 gross tons shall have all...operate from a continuous source of electric energy capable of supplying the...

2011-10-01

249

Industry Sector Analysis Canada: Residential Security Alarm Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report analyzes the residential security alarm systems market in Canada. It contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Canadian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation (Canadian p...

A. D. George

1992-01-01

250

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-19

251

47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.317 Radiotelegraph...attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The international radiotelephone...

2012-10-01

252

Male rats respond to their own alarm pheromone.  

PubMed

Pheromones are defined as substances released from an individual (donor) that influence a second individual (recipient) of the same species. However, it is unclear whether mammalian pheromones can affect the donor itself. To address this question, the effect of self-exposure to an alarm pheromone was examined. Exposure to the alarm pheromone resulted in an enhanced anxiety response, which was not different between recipients that perceived their own pheromone and those that perceived another individual's pheromone. The present results suggest that the alarm pheromone influences the emotional system of the recipient as well as induces similar anxiogenic effects on the donor rat that released the alarm pheromone. This is the first evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of mammalian pheromone self-exposure. PMID:21836378

Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2011-08-12

253

Analysis of Alarm Sequences in a Chemical Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil and gas industries need secure and cost-effective alarm systems to meet safety requirements and to avoid problems that\\u000a lead to plant shutdowns, production losses, accidents and associated lawsuit costs. Although most current distributed control\\u000a systems (DCS) collect and archive alarm event logs, the extensive quantity and complexity of such data make identification\\u000a of the problem a very labour-intensive and

Savo Kordic; Peng Lam; Jitian Xiao; Huaizhong Li

2008-01-01

254

User-oriented approach to improving alarm annunciation  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive R&D program to improve CANDU alarm annunciation has been established. The project has reached the stage where improvements to alarm processing, presentation, and human-system interaction are being evaluated by station staff. Based on the initial evaluations, these staff indicate that the implementation of the concepts could result in potential savings of over $2 million a year per unit in reduced unplanned outages and improved equipment protection.

Feher, M.P.; Davey, E.C.; Lupton, L.R.

1994-12-31

255

Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.  

PubMed

The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species. PMID:17911047

Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

2007-12-22

256

Burglar and Fire Alarms.: Costs and Benefits to the Locality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alarm industry has been estimated at 8-11 billion dollars in 1993. There are approximately 17 million alarms installed nationwide. The annual growth of installations has been 8 percent over the last five years. At the same time, the number of false activations per system is 1.1 to 1.4 per year, with 20 to 30 percent of police manpower devoted

Simon Hakim; George F. Rengert; Yochanan Shachmurove

1995-01-01

257

Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

2010-11-01

258

Do aphid colonies amplify their emission of alarm pheromone?  

PubMed

When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-beta-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement. PMID:18704588

Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Weisser, Wolfgang W

2008-08-14

259

Influence of human activity patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data.  

PubMed

Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that influence personal exposures to ambient fine-particulate matter (PM(2.5)). We describe and compare different ambient PM(2.5) exposure estimation approaches that incorporate human activity patterns and time-resolved location-specific particle penetration and persistence indoors. Four approaches were used to estimate exposures to ambient PM(2.5) for application to the New Jersey Triggering of Myocardial Infarction Study. These include: Tier 1, central-site PM(2.5) mass; Tier 2A, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model using literature-based air exchange rates (AERs); Tier 2B, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Aerosol Penetration and Persistence (APP) and Infiltration models; and Tier 3, the SHEDS model where AERs were estimated using the LBNL Infiltration model. Mean exposure estimates from Tier 2A, 2B, and 3 exposure modeling approaches were lower than Tier 1 central-site PM(2.5) mass. Tier 2A estimates differed by season but not across the seven monitoring areas. Tier 2B and 3 geographical patterns appeared to be driven by AERs, while seasonal patterns appeared to be due to variations in PM composition and time activity patterns. These model results demonstrate heterogeneity in exposures that are not captured by the central-site monitor. PMID:23321856

Baxter, Lisa K; Burke, Janet; Lunden, Melissa; Turpin, Barbara J; Rich, David Q; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Hodas, Natasha; Ökaynak, Halûk

2013-01-16

260

Spatial and temporal distribution of the dust deposition in Central Asia - results from a long term monitoring program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aeolian transport of dust is an important process in Central Asia. Anthropogenic desertification and the desiccation of the Aral Sea have increased the overall dust emission and transport from this region and the local dust storm frequency during the last decades. Reliable ground data, however, are collected only sporadically, so the knowledge about the spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics of the dust deposition in the Aral Sea basin is fragmented and inconsistent at best. A long-term monitoring program was installed and sustained by three research projects. The results included in this article cover the dust deposition between 2003 and 2010 from 21 stations in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. They confirm that the aeolian dust transport occurs mainly in the Southern direction. The highest average monthly deposition rate was registered in Uzbekistan (56.2 g m-2), while the percentage of months with a very intense (and potentially harmful) dust deposition flux was highest in Turkmenistan (36.4%). A majority of samples were collected during months with a dust deposition of less than 10.0 g m-2, while only 6% of all samples showed high monthly deposition intensities of more than 100 g m-2. The Kyzyl Kum, Kara Kum, and Aral Kum were identified as the main sources for aeolian dust in the Aral Sea basin. The impact of the Aral Kum as the dominant source of aeolian dust is limited to a region of approximately 500,000 km2 surrounding the former Aral Sea. The Kara Kum is characterized by a very high frequency of dust storms of a local and regional magnitude, and close to the Kyzyl Kum, monthly dust deposition rates of up to 9,600 g m-2 were registered. An analysis of the temporal distribution of the dust deposition showed a slight increase in the dust deposition activity and intensity between 2003 and 2010, with a strong inter-annual and seasonal dynamic. The highest average dust deposition was registered in June, and a second phase of intense dust deposition was identified in February. As this research covers less than a decade, a continuous monitoring program is strongly advised for a better understanding of the processes of aeolian dust transport and the impact of aeolian dust on arable land and human health.

Groll, M.; Opp, Chr.; Aslanov, I.

2013-06-01

261

The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

Hayashi, S.; Teige and, S.; Quick, R.

2012-12-01

262

Visual and Olfactory Stimuli in Learned Release of Alarm Reactions by Zebra Danio Fish ( Brachydanio rerio)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm reactions, innately organized antipredator defensive behavior, are precipitated in zebra danio fish (Brachydanio rerio) by a pheromone, alarm substance, passively exuded from injured skin of conspecific fish. Control over inducement of alarm reactions from fish can be transferred to other stimuli that do not initially provoke alarm. This was first found when an olfactory stimulus (morpholine) presented to fish

D. Hall; M. D. Suboski

1995-01-01

263

A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

2007-01-01

264

Silent Alarm software optimizes membrane plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overview Since the advent of membrane technology applications in commercial and industrial water desalination and purification plants utilizing RO, NF, UF & MF processes, membrane manufacturers, system suppliers and end-users alike have been facing two major problems: how to adequately and reliably monitor membrane system performance and how to detect membrane fouling and scaling development in real time and before

Mohamad Amin Saad

265

The UK Infrared Telescope M33 monitoring project - III. Feedback from dusty stellar winds in the central square kiloparsec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK Infrared Telescope, of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 (Triangulum). The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less evolved giant stars that continue to increase in luminosity. In this third paper of the series, we measure the dust production and rates of mass-loss by the pulsating asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and red supergiants. To this aim, we combined our time-averaged near-IR photometry with the multi-epoch mid-IR photometry obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The mass-loss rates are seen to increase with increasing strength of pulsation and with increasing bolometric luminosity. Low-mass stars lose most of their mass through stellar winds, but even super-AGB stars and red supergiants lose ˜40 per cent of their mass via a dusty stellar wind. More than three-quarters of the dust return is oxygenous. We construct a 2D map of the mass-return rate, showing a radial decline but also local enhancements due to agglomerations of massive stars. We estimate a total mass-loss rate of 0.004-0.005 M? yr-1 kpc-2, increasing to ˜0.006 M? yr-1 kpc-2 when accounting for eruptive mass-loss (e.g., supernovae); comparing this to the current star formation rate of ˜0.03 M? yr-1 kpc-2 we conclude that star formation in the central region of M33 can only be sustained if gas is accreted from further out in the disc or from circumgalactic regions.

Javadi, Atefeh; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Khosroshahi, Habib; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

2013-07-01

266

Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

2010-06-08

267

Modulation of alarm pheromone perception in the honey bee: evidence for division of labor based on hormonall regulated response thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of 1-day-old worker honey bees with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene prematurely reduced their behavioral threshold sensitivity to alarm pheromones. Electroantennogram assays indicated that peripheral perception was not affected; the effects apparently occurred in the central nervous system. These results support a model (Robinson 1987) of division of labor based on the hormonal regulation of response thresholds to task-associated

Gene E. Robinson

1987-01-01

268

Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

Halsey, D.J.

1982-04-01

269

Determining minimum alarm activities of orphan sources in scrap loads; Monte Carlo simulations, validated with measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portal monitoring radiation detectors are commonly used by steel industries in the probing and detection of radioactivity contamination in scrap metal. These portal monitors typically consist of polystyrene or polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillating detectors, one or more photomultiplier tubes (PMT), an electronic circuit, a controller that handles data output and manipulation linking the system to a display or a computer with appropriate software and usually, a light guide. Such a portal used by the steel industry was opened and all principal materials were simulated using a Monte Carlo simulation tool (MCNP4C2). Various source-detector configurations were simulated and validated by comparison with corresponding measurements. Subsequently an experiment with a uniform cargo along with two sets of experiments with different scrap loads and radioactive sources (137Cs, 152Eu) were performed and simulated. Simulated and measured results suggested that the nature of scrap is crucial when simulating scrap load-detector experiments. Using the same simulating configuration, a series of runs were performed in order to estimate minimum alarm activities for 137Cs, 60Co and 192Ir sources for various simulated scrap densities. The minimum alarm activities as well as the positions in which they were recorded are presented and discussed.

Takoudis, G.; Xanthos, S.; Clouvas, A.; Potiriadis, C.

2010-02-01

270

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004  

SciTech Connect

This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

2005-04-01

271

Pulse register phonation in Diana monkey alarm calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adult male Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce predator-specific alarm calls in response to two of their predators, the crowned eagles and the leopards. The acoustic structure of these alarm calls is remarkable for a number of theoretical and empirical reasons. First, although pulsed phonation has been described in a variety of mammalian vocalizations, very little is known about the underlying production mechanism. Second, Diana monkey alarm calls are based almost exclusively on this vocal production mechanism to an extent that has never been documented in mammalian vocal behavior. Finally, the Diana monkeys' pulsed phonation strongly resembles the pulse register in human speech, where fundamental frequency is mainly controlled by subglottal pressure. Here, we report the results of a detailed acoustic analysis to investigate the production mechanism of Diana monkey alarm calls. Within calls, we found a positive correlation between the fundamental frequency and the pulse amplitude, suggesting that both humans and monkeys control fundamental frequency by subglottal pressure. While in humans pulsed phonation is usually considered pathological or artificial, male Diana monkeys rely exclusively on pulsed phonation, suggesting a functional adaptation. Moreover, we were unable to document any nonlinear phenomena, despite the fact that they occur frequently in the vocal repertoire of humans and nonhumans, further suggesting that the very robust Diana monkey pulse production mechanism has evolved for a particular functional purpose. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural evolution of Diana monkey alarm calls and suggest that the restricted variability in fundamental frequency and robustness of the source signal gave rise to the formant patterns observed in Diana monkey alarm calls, used to convey predator information.

Riede, Tobias; Zuberbühler, Klaus

2003-05-01

272

False alarm analysis (preliminary) horizon infrared surveillance sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of the HISS (horizon infrared surveillance sensor) program and signal processing are given. The false alarm rate (FAR) is defined. A summary of the statistics for all the data analyzed, is presented. An examination of parts of the image that caused the most significant false alarms is provided. For each clutter type, the steps that could be taken to further reduce the FAR, are discussed. Clutter cases considered included sky with and without clouds, solar sea glint ranging from mild to moderate, land with structures, and a flock of birds. A summary of the impact of the clutter observed during testing is provided.

Hepfer, Kenneth

1994-09-01

273

Evaluation of canopy estimation techniques and repeatability of the Monitoring Protocols for Central Pine Barrens Field Plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Pine Barrens of Long Island is an important and unique region of an ecosystem of which little is known. Due to anthropogenic disturbance, however, there is an ever-decreasing amount of this important community type. The Central Pine Barrens of Long Island is instrumental for maintaining a proper functioning aquifer essential for Long Island and thus merits study. A

Matthew Kull; Robert Anderson

274

Alarm timing, trust and driver expectation for forward collision warning systems.  

PubMed

In order to improve road safety, automobile manufacturers are now developing Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS). However, there has been insufficient consideration of how drivers may respond to FCWS. This driving simulator study focused on alarm timing and its impact on driver response to alarm. The experimental investigation considered driver perception of alarm timings and its influence on trust at three driving speeds (40, 60 and 70 mile/h) and two time headways (1.7 and 2.2 s). The results showed that alarm effectiveness varied in response to driving conditions. Alarm promptness had a greater influence on ratings of trust than improvements in braking performance enabled by the alarm system. Moreover, alarms which were presented after braking actions had been initiated were viewed as late alarms. It is concluded that drivers typically expect alarms to be presented before they initiate braking actions and when this does not happen driver trust in the system is substantially decreased. PMID:16364231

Abe, Genya; Richardson, John

2005-12-20

275

Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms  

PubMed Central

Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject’s future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject’s continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection.

Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K.; Quinn, Lauretta

2012-01-01

276

Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system consists of instrument and control equipment and components necessary to provide human operators with sufficient information to monitor and control the operation of the repository in an efficient and safe manner. The system consists of operator consoles and workstations, multiple video display terminals, communications and interfacing equipment, and instrument and control software with customized configuration to meet the needs of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Process and logic controllers and the associated input/output units of each system interfaced with this system will be configured into Remote Terminal Units (RTU) and located close to the systems to be monitored and controlled. The RTUs are configured to remain operational should communication with CCC operations be lost. The system provides closed circuit television to selectively view systems, operations, and equipment areas and to aid in the operation of mechanical systems. Control and monitoring of site utility systems will be located in the CCC. Site utilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment; plant compressed air; plant water; firewater; electrical systems; and inert gases, such as nitrogen, if required. This system interfaces with surface and subsurface systems that either generate output data or require remote control input. The system interfaces with the Site Communications System for bulk storage of operational data, on-site and off-site communication, and a plant-wide public announcement system. The system interfaces with the Safeguards and Security System to provide operational status and emergency alarm indications. The system interfaces with the Site Operation System to provide site wide acquisition of data for analysis and reports, historical information for trends, utility information for plant operation, and to receive operating plans and procedures.

E.F. Loros

2000-06-29

277

A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many application as CiscoWorks, HP OpenView NNM and Operation, BMC Patrol, etc. Analysis of text of an alarm can detect some keywords that allow to classify the particular event. The inference rules were developed by means an analysis about news regard real emergency found by web reaserches. We have seen that often a kind of emergency is characterized by more keyword. Keywords are not uniquely associated with a specific emergency, but they can be shared by different types of emergencies (such as. keyword "landslide" can be associated both emergency "landslide" and emergency "Flood"). However, the identification of two or more keywords associated with a particular type of emergency identified in most cases the correct type of emergency. So, for example, if text contains words as "water", "flood", "overflowing", "landslide" o other words belonging to the set of defined keywords or words that have some root of keywords, the system "decides" that this alarm belongs to specific typology, in this case "flood typology". The system has the memory of this information, so if a new alarm is reported and belongs to one of the typology already identified, it proceeds with the comparison of coordinates. The comparison between the centers of the alarms allows to see if they describe an area inscribed in an ideal circle that has centered on the first alarm and radius defined by the typology above mentioned. If this happens the system CI6 creates an emergency that has centered on the centre of that area and typology equal to that of the alarms. It follows that an emergency is represented by at least two alarms. Thus, the system suggests to manager (CI6's user) the possibility that most alarms can concern same events and makes a classification of this event. It is important to stress that CI6 is a system of decision support, hence also this service is limited to providing advice to the user to facilitate his task, leaving him the decision to accept it or not. REFERENCES SEC (Simple Event Correlator), htt

Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

2009-04-01

278

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs.

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

279

Reduction of nuisance alarms in exterior sensors using ESP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rain has always been a big problem for outdoor intrusion systems, making it necessary to choose between nuisance alarms and poor detection. The author reports on extensive environmental tests and describes a signal processing technique called ESP (enhanced signature processing). This effort produced a detection improvement of approximately 10 dB while suppressing the effects of rain-induced noise by an additional

E. J. Foley

1993-01-01

280

Personal miner's carbon monoxide alarm. Information Circular/1989  

SciTech Connect

Underground miners may be exposed to hazardous quantities of toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide (CO), generated from mine fires or explosions. Every underground miner is required to carry a filter self-rescuer (FSR), which when operated will remove CO from the miner's breathing air. In addition, every underground miner must have a self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) near the worksite that will supply breathing oxygen. In many situations, miners do not know when to do either rescuer since they do not know if there is a fire in the mine nor do they carry instrumentation necessary for the detection of the toxic, colorless, and odorless fire product CO. If each miner carried a personal CO alarm, which would respond to high concentrations of CO, the miner would then be alerted when to do either the FSR or SCSR and exit the mine. A prototype personal miner's CO alarm called PEMCOAL unit is small enough to be carried on a miner's belt, has a flash lamp visual alarm, requires no calibration for use, and uses a chemical sensor that changes color by reaction with trace quantities of CO. The chemical sensor was tested at concentrations of CO from 10 to 1,000 ppm, at temperatures from 5 to 40 C, and with several potential mine gas interferents. The PEMCOAL alarm times were sufficiently fast to warn miners before they are exposed to hazardous quantities of CO.

Chilton, J.E.; Carpenter, C.R.

1989-01-01

281

Tinnitus as an Alarm Bell: Stress Reaction Tinnitus Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is a significant factor influencing the clinical course of tinnitus. Auditory system is particularly sensitive to the effects of different stress factors (chemical, oxidative, emotional, etc.). Different stages of reaction (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) lead to different characteristics of tinnitus and different therapeutic approaches. Individual characteristics of stress reaction may explain different aspects of tinnitus in various patients with different

D. Alpini; A. Cesarani

2006-01-01

282

A Fire-Alarming Method Based on Video Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fire-alarming method based on video processing. We propose a system that uses color and motion information extracted from video sequences to detect fire. Flame can be recognized according to its color which is a primary element of fire images. Thus choosing a suitable color model is the key to detect flames from fire images. An effective

Ping-He Huang; Jing-Yong Su; Zhe-Ming Lu; Jeng-Shyang Pan

2006-01-01

283

A methodology of alarm filtering using dynamic fault tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a new approach for filtering the faults, thanks to the defined dynamic fault tree (DFT). The proposed methodology includes the dependencies between fault events in the models. Two problems must thus be solved: they relate to the filtering of false alarms, and the reduction of the size of the ambiguity of fault isolation related to the occurrence

Zineb Simeu-Abazi; Arnaud Lefebvre; Jean-Pierre Derain

2011-01-01

284

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designed for sleeping. (iii) On the ceiling of the upper level near the top or above each stairway, other than a basement...3282 of this chapter. The alarm must be located so that smoke rising in the stairway cannot be prevented from reaching the...

2013-04-01

285

MULTIPLE FUNCTIONS OF THE FIRE ANT, SOLENOPSIS INVICTA, ALARM PHEROMONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As with most social insects, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, utilizes complex chemical signals to regulate the activities of the colony. Several of these pheromones, including the trail pheromone and queen recognition pheromones, have been identified. However, the alarm pheromone has ...

286

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents.  

PubMed

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger. PMID:23487748

Brechbühl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-03-04

287

Improved Variable Index constant false alarm rate radar processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cases when the statistical distribution of range return samples are not known, constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processors can be used. Cell Averaging (CA) CFAR radar processors which have the best performance in Gaussian homogeneous environments, exhibits performance degradation in the presence of an interfering target or in regions of abrupt change in the backround clutter power. The

Y. C. U?n; K. M. U?ner

2010-01-01

288

46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FIRE BREAK GLASS.â Existing boxes not so marked with the same or...shall be identified either on the box or adjacent bulkhead in at least...BREAK GLASS.â All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in red on the adjacent bulkhead with...

2012-10-01

289

46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FIRE BREAK GLASS.â Existing boxes not so marked with the same or...shall be identified either on the box or adjacent bulkhead in at least...BREAK GLASS.â All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered in red on the adjacent bulkhead with...

2011-10-01

290

Mouse alarm pheromone shares structural similarity with predator scents  

PubMed Central

Sensing the chemical warnings present in the environment is essential for species survival. In mammals, this form of danger communication occurs via the release of natural predator scents that can involuntarily warn the prey or by the production of alarm pheromones by the stressed prey alerting its conspecifics. Although we previously identified the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion as the sensory organ through which mammalian alarm pheromones signal a threatening situation, the chemical nature of these cues remains elusive. We here identify, through chemical analysis in combination with a series of physiological and behavioral tests, the chemical structure of a mouse alarm pheromone. To successfully recognize the volatile cues that signal danger, we based our selection on their activation of the mouse olfactory Grueneberg ganglion and the concomitant display of innate fear reactions. Interestingly, we found that the chemical structure of the identified mouse alarm pheromone has similar features as the sulfur-containing volatiles that are released by predating carnivores. Our findings thus not only reveal a chemical Leitmotiv that underlies signaling of fear, but also point to a double role for the olfactory Grueneberg ganglion in intraspecies as well as interspecies communication of danger.

Brechbuhl, Julien; Moine, Fabian; Klaey, Magali; Nenniger-Tosato, Monique; Hurni, Nicolas; Sporkert, Frank; Giroud, Christian; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2013-01-01

291

Nurses’ compliance with alarm limits for pulse oximetry: qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Monthly audits for the multicenter Canadian Oxygen Trial have shown that our neonatal team has consistently maintained study participants within the intended pulse oximetry alarm limits between 68 and 79% of the time during the first 3 days of life while infants were receiving supplemental oxygen. This good performance prompted us to explore our nurses’ perceptions of what makes them

J Armbruster; B Schmidt; C F Poets; D Bassler

2010-01-01

292

Substance Use by Adolescents on an Average Day Is Alarming  

MedlinePLUS

... 2130 Substance use by adolescents on an average day is alarming On an average day, 881,684 teenagers aged 12 to 17 smoked ... SAMHSA). The report also says that on average day 646,707 adolescents smoked marijuana and 457,672 ...

293

Application of the dynamic calibration method to international monitoring system stations in Central Asia using natural seismicity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic calibration method (DCM), using natural seismicity data and initially elaborated in [Kedrov, 2001; Kedrov et al., 2001; Kedrov and Kedrov, 2003], is applied to International Monitoring System (IMS) stations in Central Asia. The algorithm of the method is refined and a program is designed for calibrating diagnostic parameters (discriminants) that characterize a seismic source on the source-station traces. The DCM calibration of stations in relation to the region under study is performed by the choice of attenuation coefficients that adapt the diagnostic parameters to the conditions in a reference region. In this method, the stable Eurasia region is used as the latter. The calibration used numerical data samples taken from the archive of the International Data Centre (IDC) for the IMS stations MKAR, BVAR, EIL, ASF, and CMAR. In this paper, we used discriminants in the spectral and time domains that have the form D_i = X_i - a_m m_b - b_? log ? and are independent of the magnitude m b and the epicentral distance ?; these discriminants were elaborated in [Kedrov et al., 1990; Kedrov and Lyuke, 1999] on the basis of a method used for identification of events at regional distances in Eurasia. Prerequisites of the DCM are the assumptions that the coefficient a m is regionindependent and the coefficient b ? depends only on the geotectonic characteristics of the medium and does not depend on the source type. Thus, b ? can be evaluated only from a sample of earthquakes in the region studied; it is used for adapting the discriminants D( X i ) in the region studied to the reference region. The algorithm is constructed in such a way that corrected values of D( X i) are calculated from the found values of the calibration coefficients b ?, after which natural events in the region under study are selected by filtering. Empirical estimates of the filtering efficiency as a function of a station vary in a range of 95 100%. The DCM was independently tested using records obtained at the IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) stations BRVK and MAKZ from explosions detonated in India on May 11, 1998, and Pakistan on May 28, 1998; these stations are similar in location and recording instrumentation characteristics to the IMS stations BVAR and MKAR. This test resulted in correct recognition of the source type and thereby directly confirmed the validity of the proposed calibration method of stations with the use of natural seismicity data. It is shown that the calibration coefficients b ? for traces similar in the conditions of signal propagation (e.g., the traces from Iran to the stations EIL and ASF) are comparable for nearly all diagnostic parameters. We arrive at the conclusion that the method of dynamic calibration of stations using natural seismicity data in a region where no explosions were detonated can be significant for a rapid and inexpensive calibration of IMS stations. The DCM can also be used for recognition of industrial chemical explosions that are sometimes erroneously classified in regional catalogs as earthquakes.

Kedrov, O. K.; Kedrov, E. O.; Sergeyeva, N. A.; Zabarinskaya, L. P.; Gordon, V. R.

2008-05-01

294

Evaluation of groundwater storage monitoring with the GRACE satellite: Case study of the High Plains aquifer, central United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water scarcity is a critical issue in semiarid regions; however, regional groundwater monitoring is extremely limited. This study evaluates the ability of the GRACE satellites to monitor groundwater storage in the semiarid High Plains aquifer, United States (450,000 km2 area), which is subjected to intense irrigation. GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) is highly correlated with the sum of soil moisture

Gil Strassberg; Bridget R. Scanlon; Don Chambers

2009-01-01

295

Stable isotopes as indicators of sources and processes influencing nitrate distributions in dairy monitoring wells and domestic supply wells in the Central Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate concentrations above the 10 mg/L NO3-N maximum contaminant level (MCL) have been found in many wells throughout the Central Valley, California. This area contains many possible anthropogenic nitrate sources including current and historic agriculture, private septic systems, municipal waste water, and confined animal feeding operations (primarily dairies). In order to better understand the potential contributions of dairy manure derived nitrate to both shallow and deep groundwater, we used a combined chemical, stable isotope, and age-dating approach for water samples collected from a network of shallow groundwater monitoring wells located on seven different dairies, and from a survey of approximately 200 deeper domestic supply wells (used for drinking water and dairy operations). Groundwater from shallow monitoring wells and deep supply wells was collected in two geographic regions. In the northern region, the lower San Joaquin Valley, the water table is shallow (2- 5 m below surface) and therefore considered highly vulnerable to contamination, while in the southern region, the Tulare Lake Basin, the water table is much deeper (20 - 30 m). Mean ?15N of nitrate in dairy monitoring wells in both the north and south regions was significantly higher than the mean ?15N measured in the deeper supply wells, and also showed greater variability. Mean ?15N and ?18O values measured in the deep supply wells were not significantly different between the north and south regions. Mean nitrate concentrations, ?15N, and ?18O were significantly higher in the northern (lower San Joaquin Valley) monitoring wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) monitoring wells. Nitrate isotope measurements indicated that many of the northern monitoring wells had consistently high contributions of manure-derived nitrate to the shallow groundwater during the 16 month study. Monitoring wells located in relatively new dairies in the south region showed little evidence of manure-derived nitrate, while those located in much older dairies in the south region showed a very wide range of nitrate isotope values, indicating significant nitrate contributions from multiple sources including manure and industrial fertilizer and biological processing effects. Combined nitrate concentration and isotopic data from all the monitoring wells showed very little evidence of significant saturated-zone denitrification. Monitoring well networks within individual dairies showed wide ranges of nitrate concentrations, nitrate isotopic compositions, and geochemical compositions, confirming the heterogeneity of the nitrate loading across dairy facilities and indicating that measurements from any single monitoring well may not be representative of general groundwater quality downgradient of an individual dairy.

Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Holstege, D.; Lockhart, K.; Applegate, O.

2011-12-01

296

40 CFR 64.3 - Monitoring design criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...owner or operator shall design the monitoring to meet...and handling, alarm sensor, or manual log entries...owner or operator shall design the period over which...analyzer or an alarm sensor). (iii) For other...to satisfy the general design criteria in...

2009-07-01

297

40 CFR 64.3 - Monitoring design criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...owner or operator shall design the monitoring to meet...and handling, alarm sensor, or manual log entries...owner or operator shall design the period over which...analyzer or an alarm sensor). (iii) For other...to satisfy the general design criteria in...

2010-07-01

298

Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

1994-06-01

299

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT...loudspeaker installation. Other audible devices, such as electronic alarm transducers, are permitted. [CGD 74-125A,...

2012-10-01

300

33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...protection is required under § 150.615 of this chapter; and (4) Be distinguishable from the general alarm. (c) Tankers calling on unmanned deepwater ports must be equipped with a transfer system alarm described in this...

2013-07-01

301

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...25-25 Section 113.25-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25...

2012-10-01

302

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a)...

2012-10-01

303

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a)...

2011-10-01

304

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

305

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2009-10-01

306

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

307

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

308

Trail-Marking and Alarm Pheromones of Some Ants of the Genus Atta.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory studies on two ant species of the Genus Atta, Atta texana and Atta cephalotes have resulted in the isolation and identification of several organic compounds which demonstrate either trail-marking or alarm activity. The alarm pheromones of Atta ...

R. G. Riley R. M. Silverstein

1973-01-01

309

Vocal Emergency Alarms in Hospitals and Nursing Facilities: Practice and Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews current usage of voice emergency alarms in nursing homes and hospitals, and recommends guidelines for the development of alarm messages, which should facilitate effective personnel response to fires in health care facilities. The seven ...

J. P. Keating E. F. Loftus

1977-01-01

310

Monitoring deterioration of vegetation cover in the vicinity of smelting industry, using statistical methods and TM and ETM(+) imageries, Sarcheshmeh copper complex, Central Iran.  

PubMed

Simple statistical methods on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and bands 3 and 4 data of relatively coarse resolution Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM(+)) imageries were used to investigate the impacts of air pollution on the deterioration of the vegetation cover in the Sarcheshmeh copper complex of central Iran. Descriptive statistics and k-means cluster analysis indicated that vegetation deterioration had already started in the prevailing wind directions. The results show that combination of simple statistical methods and satellite imageries can be used as effective monitoring tools to indicate vegetation stress even in regions of sparse vegetation. Despite various possible perturbing factors upon NDVI, this index remains to be a valuable quantitative vegetation monitoring tool. PMID:19296230

Rastmanesh, F; Moore, F; Kharrati-Kopaei, M; Behrouz, M

2009-03-19

311

Observational monitoring of clinical signs during the last stage of habituation in a wild western gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.  

PubMed

Anthropozoonotic disease transmission to great apes is a critical conservation concern, and has raised ethical doubts regarding ape habituation. We monitored over a 3-year period clinical signs within a group of wild western gorillas (G. gorilla) undergoing habituation at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. The majority of observations consisted of singular coughs and sneezes among the gorillas. These were the only clinical signs that significantly and positively increased over the years. No changes in the demography of the study group were observed. While clinical signs are not necessarily indicative of 'disease' or other health-related problems, we discuss how long-term records of clinical signs provide useful information when health monitoring, and the importance of the rigid application of preventive disease transmission protocols. PMID:23736676

Morton, F Blake; Todd, Angelique F; Lee, Phyllis; Masi, Shelly

2013-05-30

312

Alarm and status processing and display in the Nuplex 80+ Advanced Control Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a nuclear power advanced control room includes the improvement of previous generation alarm system designs. The Nuplex 80+ Advanced Control Complex alarm methodology utilizes redundant and diverse fixed-location and CRT alarms. These alarms are grouped by panels and presented on system and function display pages to support operator tasks. Plant operational mode-dependency, prioritization, signal-validation and equipment status

D. L. Harmon; T. M. Starr

1992-01-01

313

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2012-10-01

314

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2011-10-01

315

46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1330 Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Independent tanks type C need not have the high liquid level alarm system under §...

2012-10-01

316

46 CFR 154.1330 - Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1330 Liquid level alarm system: Independent tank...Independent tanks type C need not have the high liquid level alarm system under §...

2011-10-01

317

Performance Evaluation of Two Data Mining Techniques of Network Alarms Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large telecommunication networks, alarms are usually useful for identifying faults and, therefore solving them. However, for large systems the number of alarms produced is so large that the current management systems are overloaded. One way of overcoming this problem is to analyse and interpret these alarms before faults can be located. Two different techniques were developed and setup to

Jacques-H. Bellec; M. Tahar Kechadi; Joe Carthy

2006-01-01

318

Is there a Fish Alarm Pheromone? A Wild Study and Critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1938 von Frisch reported that European minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus, displayed a marked fright reaction to conspecific skin extract. This was attributed to the presence of an alarm substance or Schreckstoff. Later, Schreckstoff was viewed as a classic example of an alarm pheromone. However, Williams (1964, 1992) argued that there are considerable problems in explaining the evolution of an alarm

A. E. Magurran; P. W. Irving; P. A. Henderson

1996-01-01

319

Alarm response to venom by social wasps Polistes exclamans and P. fuscatus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The venoms ofPolistes exclamans andP. fuscatus elicit alarm behavior and attract attacking wasps. The response is not species specific, for both hetero- and conspecific venoms elicit similar responses in both species. A test in a wind tunnel provided no support for the hypothesis that alarmed wasps release an alarm pheromone on the nest.

David C. Post; Holly A. Downing; Robert L. Jeanne

1984-01-01

320

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2009-10-01

321

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2010-10-01

322

Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices.

Scott, M.V.

1995-01-01

323

Family guard against theft and alarm system based on GSM Modem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The System is made up of MCU and GSM Modem. It will display the alarm content in Chinese directly at your mobile screen, and it recurs to the most reliable GSM mobile network. The system adopted initiative infrared sensor to detect, and it turned the traditional alarm net and alarm windows to immateriality. Besides, the system equipped the smog sensor

Zhou Yu; Zhisong Hou; Gaoli Zhao; Xiangang Zuo

2011-01-01

324

33 CFR 149.135 - What should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? 149.135 Section 149.135 Navigation and...should be marked on the cargo transfer system alarm switch? Each switch for activating an alarm, and each audio or visual...

2013-07-01

325

COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a

MCDONALD JP

2011-01-01

326

A THIRTEEN-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p...

327

A 13-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p...

328

A centralized condition monitoring system for MV power cables based on on-line partial discharge detection and location  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the principles and the first results of a new and unique on-line partial discharge (PD) based diagnostic system for medium-voltage power cables, which enables monitoring the condition of complete cable connections up to several kilometers in length over a long period of time. It allows locating the weak spots along the cable connection and identifying the development

P. C. J. M. van der Wielen; E. F. Steennis

2008-01-01

329

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

330

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

331

Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site Task 2 Potential Applications at the Central Plateau Remediation Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is the second of two studies on potential applications for vadose zone monitoring (VZM) at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to perform the studies in a letter from M. S. Schlender, DOE, to M. L. Goldstein, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and M. A. Wilson, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), subject ''Vadose Zone

2003-01-01

332

Uranyl nitrate source characterization for criticality alarm placement analysis  

SciTech Connect

This work concerns the development of an equivalent point source to represent the radiation release from a highly enriched uranyl nitrate criticality accident. This source will be used in a subsequent deep penetration criticality alarm placement analysis. It is more efficient to separate the source characterization analysis from the alarm placement analysis because (a) the industry standard tools for doing the two analyses are different (criticality safety code versus deep penetration shielding code), (b) the industry standard libraries commonly used for the two analyses are different (neutron library versus coupled neutron/photon library), and (c) the calculational approaches for the two analyses are different (neutronic critical {kappa}{sub eff} eigenvalue search versus deep penetration dose determination).

Scott, C.T.; Pevey, R.E.; Angelo, P.L.

2000-07-01

333

["Alarm substances" as biological markers indicating emotional state before death].  

PubMed

This scientific project presents the results of preliminary examinations aimed to identify alarm pheromones secreted by mammals. Wistar male rats were used for the experiment. Animals were treated by aversive sensoric stimuli and fear conditioning procedures. The animals' behaviour was registered. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of air samples taken from their environment was conducted with the use of GC-FID and GC-MSD technics. In the rhinocephalon structures (olfactory bulb, olfactory tract) the concentration of glutamate was measured. During the progress of the experiment increasing behavioral reactions of anxiety were observed in the rats. In their atmosphere organic compounds were identified. Some of them can be considered to be alarm substances. In the examined structures of the rhinocephalon on increased concentration of glutamate in each individual was revealed. PMID:14669674

Hauser, Roman; Gos, Tomasz; Marczak, Marcin; Janicki, Jerzy; Wiergowski, Marek; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Karaszewski, Bartosz; ?uczak, Natalia; Krzyzanowski, Maciej; Wodniak-Ochoci?ska, ?ucja

334

Grueneberg ganglion cells mediate alarm pheromone detection in mice.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones (APs) are widely used throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Species such as fish, insects, and mammals signal danger to conspecifics by releasing volatile alarm molecules. Thus far, neither the chemicals, their bodily source, nor the sensory system involved in their detection have been isolated or identified in mammals. We found that APs are recognized by the Grueneberg ganglion (GG), a recently discovered olfactory subsystem. We showed with electron microscopy that GG neurons bear primary cilia, with cell bodies ensheathed by glial cells. APs evoked calcium responses in GG neurons in vitro and induced freezing behavior in vivo, which completely disappeared when the GG degenerated after axotomy. We conclude that mice detect APs through the activation of olfactory GG neurons. PMID:18719286

Brechbühl, Julien; Klaey, Magali; Broillet, Marie-Christine

2008-08-22

335

A new ICPP portal monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of beta and\\/or gamma contamination as well as gram quantities of special nuclear materials can be detected by a portal-mounted monitor even though the monitor is located in the presence of varying background levels of radiation. The detector consists of 14 area-wide gas proportional detectors, an occupancy monitor, an electronic system for signal and alarm logic, and support

M. A. Georgeson; C. E. Nichols

1981-01-01

336

Recent and proposed changes in criticality alarm system requirements  

SciTech Connect

Various changes in criticality alarm system (CAS) requirements of American Nuclear Society (ANS) standards, US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations and guidance, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards or regulations were approved or proposed in the last 5 yr. Many changes interpreted or clarified existing requirements or accommodated technological or organizational developments. However, some changes could substantively affect CAS programs, including several changes originally thought to be editorial. These changes are discussed here.

Putman, V.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

1998-09-01

337

ZoneAlarm 5.5.094.000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest application from ZoneLabs is intended to assist users who wish to protect their DSL- or cable-connected personal computer from marauding hackers. The program includes four interlocking security services, including a firewall and Internet lock, and an application control. The Interlock is particularly handy, as it effectively blocks Internet traffic while your computer is unattended. This version of ZoneAlarm is compatible with Windows 98 or newer.

338

ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest version of ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2 will help keep users' computers free from phishing devices and other such pesky intruders. The application takes about 5 minutes to setup, and it can now also stop program spoofing, which is when a malicious program pretends to be a good one. The program also has an extensive interactive help feature, which can be useful for new users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP, Vista, and 7.

2010-01-01

339

Comparative monitoring by means of diatoms, macroinvertebrates and chemical parameters of an Apennine watercourse of central Italy: The river Tenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WFD\\/60\\/2000\\/EC establishes the use of different biological indicators to assess the ecological status of rivers, in addition to chemical, physical and bacteriological parameters. At this purpose, the present study concerning the river Tenna, a central Apennine watercourse (Italy), aimed to analyse and discuss the information given by two biological indices: the Extended Biotic Index or E.B.I. that uses benthic

Mariacristina Torrisi; Stefania Scuri; Antonio Dell’Uomo; Mario Cocchioni

2010-01-01

340

Monitoring of aquatic macroinvertebrates as bioindicator for assessing the health of wetlands: A case study in the Central Himalayas, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present contribution encompasses the first case study on the aquatic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators for assessing the health of Asan wetland (area 3.2km2), located in the foothills of Central Himalayas, India. Monthly sampling from all the sampling sites in five replicates was made for a period of 12 months (July 2002–June 2003) at 9:00–11:00h. A total of 32 species of

Ramesh C. Sharma; Jitendra S. Rawat

2009-01-01

341

Lichen Diversity and Lichen Transplants as Monitors of Air Pollution in a Rural Area of Central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a biomonitoring study carried out in the Municipality of Colle di Val d'Elsa (central Italy), using the diversity\\u000a of epiphytic lichens and the accumulation of selected elements in thalli of the lichen Evernia prunastri transplanted in two urban sites are reported. The results indicate that the survey area suffers from different types of pollution.\\u000a The main air

Stefano Loppi; Luisa Frati

2006-01-01

342

The UK Infrared Telescope M33 monitoring project - II. The star formation history in the central square kiloparsec  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a near-infrared monitoring campaign at the UK Infrared Telescope, of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33 (Triangulum). The main aim was to identify stars in the very final stage of their evolution, and for which the luminosity is more directly related to the birth mass than the more numerous less-evolved giant stars that continue to increase in

Atefeh Javadi; Jacco Th. van Loon; Mohammad Taghi Mirtorabi

2011-01-01

343

Experiences from near-real-time satellite-based volcano monitoring in Central America: case studies at Fuego, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, remote sensing has been used increasingly in the study of active volcanoes and their associated hazards. Ground?based remote sensing techniques, such as those aimed at the analysis of volcanic gases or fumarole temperatures, are now part of routine monitoring operations with additional satellite?based remote sensing methods. It is likely that the use of satellite?based systems will

P. W. Webley; M. J. Wooster; W. Strauch; J. A. Saballos; K. Dill; P. Stephenson; J. Stephenson; R. Escobar Wolf; O. Matias

2008-01-01

344

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

345

Development of a distance-to-roadway proximity metric to compare near-road pollutant levels to a central site monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or community monitor. One of the EMAs was located near a busy freeway (annual average daily traffic (AADT) of ˜130,000) so that impacts of mobile sources could be examined. Air pollution concentrations from the roadway-proximate sites were compared to the central site monitor. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) selected (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p- and o-xylene, 1,3 butadiene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 4-ethyltoluene) are typically associated with mobile sources. Gradients were also evident that demonstrated the amplification of pollutant levels near the roadway compared to the community monitor. A novel distance-to-roadway proximity metric was developed to plot the measurements and model these gradients. Effective distance represents the actual distance an air parcel travels from the middle of a roadway to a site and varies as a function of wind direction, whereas perpendicular distance is a fixed distance oriented normal to the roadway. Perpendicular distance is often used as a proxy for exposures to traffic emissions in epidemiological studies. Elevated concentrations of all the compounds were found for both a summer and winter season. Effective distance was found to be a statistically significant ( p < 0.05) univariate predictor for concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene for summer 2005. For each of these pollutants, effective distance yielded lower p-values than the corresponding perpendicular distance models, and model fit improved. Results demonstrate that this near-road EMA had elevated levels of traffic-related VOCs compared to the community monitor, and that effective distance was a more accurate predictor of the degree to which they were elevated as a function of distance. Effective distance produced a range of distance-to-roadway values for a single site based on wind direction, thus increasing the number and range of values that could be used to plot and predict relative differences in pollutant concentrations between two sites.

Barzyk, Timothy M.; George, Barbara Jane; Vette, Alan F.; Williams, Ronald W.; Croghan, Carry W.; Stevens, Carvin D.

346

Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution.  

PubMed

Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms of P pollution is already well known, are presented. The potential consequences, in terms of water pollution from nitrates of a BMP expressly applied to reduce P pollution are also discussed. The study site is the Lake Vico basin, Central Italy, which has suffered a shift in trophic state since the mid 1990s, caused by P compounds used for intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees. The results of the monitoring campaign described in this paper allow to assert that hazelnut tree cropping has probably caused a considerable increase in nitrate concentration in the groundwater, although not in the lake water, because of the specific hydrogeological characteristics of the basin. The main conclusion is that monitoring is essential to single out environmental characteristics peculiar of a specific area, which even the most sophisticated model would not have been able to highlight. This is why monitoring and model simulations should be integrated. PMID:19911291

Garnier, Monica; Recanatesi, Fabio; Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio

2009-11-13

347

Human probability matching behaviour in response to alarms of varying reliability.  

PubMed

The goals of this research were to substantiate the existence of the cry-wolf effect for alarm responses, quantifying its effect on operator performance. A total of 138 undergraduate students performed two blocks of a cognitively demanding psychomotor primary task; at the same time, they were presented with alarms of varying reliabilities (25, 50 and 75% true alarms) and urgencies (green, yellow and red visual alarms presented concurrently with low-, medium- and high-urgency auditory civilian aircraft cockpit alarms). Alarm response frequencies were observed and analysed, and t-tests and repeated-measures MANOVAs were used to assess the effects of increasing alarm reliability on alarm response frequencies, speed and accuracy. The results indicate that most subjects (about 90%) do not respond to all alarms but match their response rates to the expected probability of true alarms (probability matching). About 10% of the subjects responded in the extreme, utilizing an all-or-none strategy. Implications of these results for alarm design instruction and further research are discussed. PMID:7498189

Bliss, J P; Gilson, R D; Deaton, J E

1995-11-01

348

Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

349

New Containment and Surveillance Portal Monitor Data Analysis Methed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new containment and surveillance portal monitor data analysis method has been developed. Current approaches use only the data from a single passage and an average background interval for alarm determination. The new method improves performance by summin...

C. N. Henry J. C. Pratt

1979-01-01

350

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.  

PubMed

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first examples of animal pheromones identified, primarily because of the large amount of chemical produced and the distinctive responses of ants to the pheromone. However, the alarm pheromone of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eluded identification for over four decades. We identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of S. invicta. Worker fire ants detect the pyrazine alarm pheromone at 30 pg/ml, which is comparable to alarm pheromone sensitivities reported for other ant species. The source of this alarm pheromone are the mandibular glands, which, in fire ants, are not well developed and contain only about 300 pg of the compound, much less than the microgram quantities of alarm pheromones reported for several other ant species. Female and male sexuals and workers produce the pyrazine, which suggests that it may be involved in fire ant mating flight initiation, as well as the typical worker alarm response. This is the first report of 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine from a Solenopsis species and the first example of this alkaloid functioning as an alarm pheromone. PMID:20145982

Vander Meer, Robert K; Preston, Catherine A; Choi, Man-Yeon

2010-02-10

351

Extending Waveform Correlation Techniques to Broad Regional Monitoring Using IMS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveform correlation techniques are of great interest for nuclear explosion monitoring because they provide a robust means to significantly lower detection thresholds while maintaining acceptably low false alarm rates. In previous work, using our research group's distributed computing system, we have demonstrated the ability to monitor 3 years of seismicity in central Asia using our waveform correlation detector processing continuous data from the array MKAR. In the work presented here, we extend our processing to include multiple IMS stations processed together. Using data from multiple stations both greatly increases the number of templates that can be correlated and provides a means to further lower event detection thresholds by allowing more marginal detections, if they can be corroborated by more than one station. We show results for processing 3+ years of data from multiple IMS stations with a combined set of master events numbering in the thousands. Optimal detection thresholds for each template are determined using Schaff's (2010) time reversal methodology to establish a null distribution and allow selection of a threshold for a desired false alarm rate. To establish the completeness of our catalog, we compare our output event lists against the IDC LEB as well as regional catalogs from central Asia. We present our results along with discussion of the practical aspects of engineering a robust correlation system, including automatic template library creation, multi-station integration, and computational requirements.

Slinkard, Megan; Heck, Stephen; Richards, Paul; Schaff, David; Rowe, Charlotte; Mikhailova, Natalya; Young, Christopher

2013-04-01

352

RESULTS OF RECENT INFRASOUND AVALANCHE MONITORING STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of recent infrasound avalanche monitoring studies have advanced technological capabilities and provided further understanding of technological challenges. Avalanche identification performance of single sensor monitoring systems varies according to ambient noise and signal levels. While single sensor signal processing algorithms can identify avalanche activity, uncertainties (missed detections and false alarms) increase with increasing wind noise, and as signal levels decrease

Ernest D. Scott; Christopher T. Hayward; Robert F. Kubichek; Jerry C. Hamann; John W. Pierre

353

Central Venous-to-Arterial CO2 Gap Is a Useful Parameter in Monitoring Hypovolemia-Caused Altered Oxygen Balance: Animal Study.  

PubMed

Monitoring hypovolemia is an everyday challenge in critical care, with no consensus on the best indicator or what is the clinically relevant level of hypovolemia. The aim of this experiment was to determine how central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (CO2 gap) reflect hypovolemia-caused changes in the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Anesthetized, ventilated Vietnamese minipigs (n = 10) were given a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of furosemide. At baseline and then in five stages hemodynamic, microcirculatory measurements and blood gas analysis were performed. Oxygen extraction increased significantly, which was accompanied by a significant drop in ScvO2 and a significant increase in CO2 gap. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen extraction and ScvO2 and significant positive correlation between oxygen extraction and CO2 gap. Taking ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg values together to predict an oxygen extraction >30%, the positive predictive value?is?100%; negative predicted value?is?72%. Microcirculatory parameters, capillary perfusion rate and red blood cell velocity, decreased significantly over time. Similar changes were not observed in the sham group. Our data suggest that ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg can be complementary tools in detecting hypovolemia-caused imbalance of oxygen extraction. PMID:24069537

Kocsi, Szilvia; Demeter, Gabor; Erces, Daniel; Nagy, Eniko; Kaszaki, Jozsef; Molnar, Zsolt

2013-08-29

354

Central Venous-to-Arterial CO2 Gap Is a Useful Parameter in Monitoring Hypovolemia-Caused Altered Oxygen Balance: Animal Study  

PubMed Central

Monitoring hypovolemia is an everyday challenge in critical care, with no consensus on the best indicator or what is the clinically relevant level of hypovolemia. The aim of this experiment was to determine how central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (CO2 gap) reflect hypovolemia-caused changes in the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Anesthetized, ventilated Vietnamese minipigs (n = 10) were given a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of furosemide. At baseline and then in five stages hemodynamic, microcirculatory measurements and blood gas analysis were performed. Oxygen extraction increased significantly, which was accompanied by a significant drop in ScvO2 and a significant increase in CO2 gap. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen extraction and ScvO2 and significant positive correlation between oxygen extraction and CO2 gap. Taking ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg values together to predict an oxygen extraction >30%, the positive predictive value?is?100%; negative predicted value?is?72%. Microcirculatory parameters, capillary perfusion rate and red blood cell velocity, decreased significantly over time. Similar changes were not observed in the sham group. Our data suggest that ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg can be complementary tools in detecting hypovolemia-caused imbalance of oxygen extraction.

Demeter, Gabor; Erces, Daniel; Nagy, Eniko; Kaszaki, Jozsef

2013-01-01

355

Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging  

SciTech Connect

Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10{sup {minus}8} M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

Wang, Ziqiang

1999-12-10

356

Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.  

PubMed

Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01) during summer whereas the TEC and PCV showed higher OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season. PMID:11020365

Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

2000-10-01

357

Prevalence of working smoke alarms in local authority inner city housing: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify which type of smoke alarm is most likely to remain working in local authority inner city housing, and to identify an alarm tolerated in households with smokers. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two local authority housing estates in inner London. Participants 2145 households. Intervention Installation of one of five types of smoke alarm (ionisation sensor with a zinc battery; ionisation sensor with a zinc battery and pause button; ionisation sensor with a lithium battery and pause button; optical sensor with a lithium battery; or optical sensor with a zinc battery). Main outcome measure Percentage of homes with any working alarm and percentage in which the alarm installed for this study was working after 15 months. Results 54.4% (1166/2145) of all households and 45.9% (465/1012) of households occupied by smokers had a working smoke alarm. Ionisation sensor, lithium battery, and there being a smoker in the household were independently associated with whether an alarm was working (adjusted odds ratios 2.24 (95% confidence interval 1.75 to 2.87), 2.20 (1.77 to 2.75), and 0.62 (0.52 to 0.74)). The most common reasons for non-function were missing battery (19%), missing alarm (17%), and battery disconnected (4%). Conclusions Nearly half of the alarms installed were not working when tested 15 months later. Type of alarm and power source are important determinants of whether a household had a working alarm. What is already known on this topicFunctioning smoke alarms can reduce the risk of death in the event of a house fireMany local authorities install smoke alarms in their propertiesSeveral different types of smoke alarm are availableWhat this study addsOnly half of the smoke alarms installed in local authority housing were still working 15 months laterIonising smoke alarms with long life lithium batteries were most likely to remain functioningInstalling smoke alarms may not be an effective use of resources

Rowland, Diane; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Roberts, Ian; Curtis, Katherine; Roberts, Helen; Ginnelly, Laura; Sculpher, Mark; Wade, Angela

2002-01-01

358

Monitoring of ozone effects on the vitality and increment of Norway spruce and European beech in the Central European forests.  

PubMed

The ozone effect on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was studied on 48 monitoring plots in 2005-2008. These plots represent two major forest tree species stands of different ages in eight regions of the Czech Republic. The forest conditions were represented by defoliation and the annual radial increment of individual trees. The ozone exposure was assessed by using modeled values of mean annual O(3) concentration and the AOT40 index. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the foliage was analysed and used as an indicator of oxidative stress. The correlation analysis showed a significant relation of Norway spruce defoliation to the AOT40 exposure index, and European beech defoliation to the MDA level. The radial increment response to ozone was significant only for the European beech: (a) the correlation analysis showed its decrease with increasing AOT40; (b) the regression model showed its decrease with increasing mean annual ozone concentration only at lower altitudes (<700 m a.s.l.). PMID:22534676

rámek, Vít; Novotný, Radek; Vejpustková, Monika; H?nová, Iva; Uhlí?ová, Hana

2012-04-25

359

New technologies for item monitoring  

SciTech Connect

This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

Abbott, J.A. [EG & G Energy Measurements, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Waddoups, I.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-01

360

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities.

Blumstein, Daniel T; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C

2004-01-01

361

COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

MCDONALD JP

2011-09-08

362

X-ray monitoring of classical novae in the central region of M 31. II. Autumn and winter 2007/2008 and 2008/2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Classical novae (CNe) represent the major class of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) in the central region of the galaxy M 31. Aims: We performed a dedicated monitoring of the M 31 central region with XMM-Newton and Chandra between Nov. 2007 and Feb. 2008 and between Nov. 2008 and Feb. 2009, respectively, to find SSS counterparts of CNe, determine the duration of their SSS phase, and derive physical outburst parameters. Methods: We systematically searched our data for X-ray counterparts of CNe, determined their X-ray light curves and characterised their spectra using blackbody fits and white dwarf (WD) atmosphere models. Additionally, we determined luminosity upper limits for all previously known X-ray emitting novae that are not detected any more and for all CNe in our field of view with optical outbursts between one year before the start of the X-ray monitoring (Oct. 2006) and its end (Feb. 2009). Results: We detected 17 X-ray counterparts of CNe in M 31, only four of which were previously known. These latter sources are still active 12.5, 11.0, 7.4 and 4.8 years after the optical outburst. In addition, we detected three known SSSs without a nova counterpart. Four novae displayed short SSS phases (<100 d). Based on these results and previous studies we compiled a catalogue of all novae with SSS counterparts in M 31 known so far. We used this catalogue to derive correlations between the following X-ray and optical nova parameters: turn-on time, turn-off time, blackbody temperature (X-ray), t2 decay time and expansion velocity of the ejected envelope (optical). Temperatures derived from blackbody fits and WD atmosphere models were found to characterise the effective SSS temperatures almost equally well. Furthermore, we found a first hint for the existence of a difference between SSS parameters of novae associated with the stellar populations of the M 31 bulge and disk. Additionally, we conducted a Monte Carlo Markov chain simulation on the intrinsic fraction of novae with SSS phase. This simulation showed that the high fraction of novae without detected SSS emission might be explained by the inevitably incomplete coverage with X-ray observations in combination with a large part of novae with short SSS states, as expected from the WD mass distribution. Conclusions: Our results confirm that novae are the major class of SSSs in the central region of M 31. The catalogue of novae with X-ray counterpart, mainly based on our X-ray monitoring, contains valuable insight into the physics of the nova process. In order to verify our results with an increased sample, more monitoring observations are needed. Partly based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.All tables are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable 9 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/533/A52

Henze, M.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Hernanz, M.; Sala, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Della Valle, M.; Rau, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Burwitz, V.

2011-09-01

363

Alarm pheromone increases defensive and risk assessment behaviors in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we reported that alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the vomeronasal pathway and stress-related nuclei in pheromone-recipient rats. However, the alarm property of this pheromone in terms of behavior modification is still unclear. We recently found that this alarm pheromone could be trapped in water. Based on

Yasushi Kiyokawa; Michito Shimozuru; Takefumi Kikusui; Yukari Takeuchi; Yuji Mori

2006-01-01

364

A cross-phyla response to Daphnia chemical alarm substances by an aquatic oligochaete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although chemical alarm substances from damaged heterospecifics have been well documented to induce defense mechanisms in\\u000a potential prey, data about antipredator responses to alarm cues from prey organisms of a distinct phylum are scarce. In this\\u000a study, we analyze the response of an oligochaete to chemical alarm substances from distantly related cladocerans. We conducted\\u000a laboratory experiments to investigate whether the

Anita Kaliszewicz; Janusz Uchma?ski

2009-01-01

365

The development of alarm-call response behaviour in free-living juvenile Belding's ground squirrels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of and responses to alarm calls by adult ground-dwelling squirrels has been widely documented, yet the development of alarm-call behaviours has not been systematically addressed. The responses of free-living Belding's ground squirrels,Spermophilus beldingi, to playbacks of conspecific (three alarm calls and juvenile squeals) and heterospecific (wren song) vocalizations were observed from natal emergence until the age of dispersal.

JILL M. MATEO

1996-01-01

366

Field verification of the use of chemical alarm cues in a coral reef fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical alarm cues function as early indicators of a predation threat and influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions in the favour of the prey animal. The tropical goby, Asterropteryx semipunctatus, responded with a stereotypical alarm response, including reduced movement and feeding, following exposure to water that contained chemical cues from injured conspecifics under natural field conditions. Gobies did not exhibit an alarm response when challenged with extracts from damaged fish from a different taxonomic family. The behavioural response in the field was similar to that observed in laboratory experiments. This study verifies the use of chemical alarm cues in a marine fish in their natural environment.

McCormick, M. I.; Larson, J. K.

2007-09-01

367

Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food  

PubMed Central

Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication.

Flower, Tom

2011-01-01

368

Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness.

Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

2010-01-01

369

The use of energy windowing to discriminate SNM from NORM in radiation portal monitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy windowing is an algorithmic alarm method that can be applied to plastic scintillator-based radiation portal monitor (RPM) systems to improve operational sensitivity to certain threat sources while reducing the alarm rates from naturally occurring radioactive material. Various implementations of energy windowing have been tested and documented by industry and at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and are available in commercial

James H. Ely; Richard T. Kouzes; John E. Schweppe; Edward R. Siciliano; Denis M. Strachan; Dennis R. Weier

2006-01-01

370

Monitor circuit for a control rod drive mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitor circuit for a control rod drive mechanism (crdm) that is adapted to detect erroneous stator phase sequences and generate a visible and audible alarm. The monitor circuit has particular application for use in connection with the control element assembly of a nuclear reactor. The monitor circuit includes an interface circuit for each stator phase winding of the drive

1982-01-01

371

Intelligent video monitoring system based on 3G  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the effect of video monitoring and decrease the rate of false alarm, an intelligent video monitoring system is designed based on 3G telecommunication technology and face recognition teleology. Taking AMR9 as its core, this system involves a 3G telecommunication module centered on MU103 and a protocol of safe command transmission. Thus, this intelligent video monitoring system

Han Yun; Pan Ai hua; Zheng Shang zhi

2010-01-01

372

When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

2005-01-01

373

False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-29

374

Evaluation and comparison of alarm reset modes in advanced control room of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The alarm system of fourth nuclear power plant (FNPP) in Taiwan is also going to be developed with automatic technology that is expected to support the operators’ performance and reduce the number of alarms. In this study, an experiment with a training simulator as

Fei-Hui Huang; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Tzu-Chung Yenn; Yuan-Chang Yu; Chong-Cheng Hsu; Hao-Wu Huang

2006-01-01

375

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus , produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans).

ERICK GREENE; TOM MEAGHER

1998-01-01

376

Economic justification of tsunami research: A specific example based on reduction of false alarms in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant potential improvement to the Tsunami Warning System, at least as it affects Hawaii, and one of the more important practical justifications of tsunami research, is the reduction in false alarms. There are both immediate and deferred costs of tsunami false alarms. The immediate costs are the costs of responding to tsunami warnings, false or not. The deferred

Doak C. Cox

1979-01-01

377

Alarm calling behavior of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm calling in a population of thirteenlined ground squirrels, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, was studied over a three-year period. Data on ground squirrel reactions to human and canine approaches and to the approach or presence of avian predators were used to quantify alarm calling behavior.

P. L. Schwagmeyer

1980-01-01

378

Efficacy of a new pressure-sensitive alarm for clinical use in orthopaedics.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated a new pressure alarm and compared the ability of subjects to limit weightbearing to 20 lb with and without the alarm. The 28 subjects were divided into four groups (Group 1, n = 7, mean age, 33 years, with normal sensation; Group 2, n = 7, mean age, 59 years, with normal sensation; Group 3, n = 6, mean age, 56 years, without protective lower limb sensation, and Group 4, n = 8, mean age, 39 years, with transtibial amputation). All subjects were instructed in partial weightbearing ambulation and then practiced weight shifting onto a scale set at 20 lb for 2 minutes. Average peak force was measured using the F-scan in-shoe sensor while subjects ambulated in two trials: one with a deactivated pressure alarm and the other with an activated alarm. Data were analyzed using two-tailed t tests. In Groups 1, 2, and 4, significantly lower average peak force with the activated alarm versus deactivated alarm occurred in 43%, 86%, and 100% of subjects, respectively. Weightbearing was limited to less than 20 lb with the activated alarm in 86%, 57%, 33%, and 38% of subjects versus 71%, 14%, 0%, and 0% of subjects with the deactivated alarm, respectively. PMID:15232455

Schon, Lew C; Short, Kelly W; Parks, Brent G; Kleeman, T Jay; Mroczek, Kenneth

2004-06-01

379

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm...APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm...used in approval testing of oil content meters and...

2011-10-01

380

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm...APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm...used in approval testing of oil content meters and...

2012-10-01

381

46 CFR 27.201 - What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...background noise makes a general alarm hard to hear, a supplemental flashing red light that is identified with a sign that reads: Attention General AlarmâWhen Alarm Sounds or Flashes Go to Your Station. (4) Is tested at least once each...

2011-10-01

382

Emergency Vehicle Alarm System for Deaf Drivers by Using LEDs and Vibration Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing the emergency vehicle alarm system for deaf drivers by using LEDs and vibration devices. In order to design the alarm for deaf drivers, we have conducted basic experiment in order to evaluate perceptual characteristic on visibility of LED.

Kuwahara, Noriaki; Morimoto, Kazunari; Kozuki, Kazumasa; Kawamura, Tomonori

383

Localized defecation by pike: a response to labelling by cyprinid alarm pheromone?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) that have never encountered a predatory pike (Esox lucius), are able to detect conspecific alarm pheromone in a pike's diet if the pike has recently consumed minnows. It remains unclear how this minnow alarm pheromone is secreted by pike and if a pike is able to avoid being labelled as a potential predator by localizing these

Grant E. Brown; Douglas P. Chivers; R. Jan F. Smith

1995-01-01

384

Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

385

Design of Alarm Sound of Home Care Equipment Based on Age-related Auditory Sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of home care equipment has been developed to support the independent lifestyle and care taking of elderly persons. Almost all of the equipment has an alarm designed to alert a care person or to sound a warning in case of an emergency. Due to the fact that aging human beings' senses physiologically, weaken and deteriorate, each alarm's

Jun-Ichi Shibano; Shigeru Tadano; Hirotaka Kaneko

2002-01-01

386

Empirical mode decomposition based reducing false alarm filter for built-in test signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm is the phenomenon that built-in test or other detection module indicates fault problem but actually no fault exists. High false alarm rate severely restricts the development of built-in test system. This paper reveals that doing extra processing on the intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition, we can establish a filter with good performance in reducing false

Miao Zhang; Yi Shen; Xin Li; Zhibo Wang; Xiaolei Zhang; Yanchao Gao; Yanju Ji

2011-01-01

387

Modelling alarm management workflow in healthcare according to IHE framework by coloured Petri Nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring patient safety in medical device networks by managing alarms and related clinical data is a life-critical issue. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative emerged to discuss and solve the interoperability and integration problems among medical information systems, vendors and users in order to improve patient care and healthcare system dependability. This paper models and analyzes the IHE Alarm

Maria Pia Fanti; Stefano Mininel; Walter Ukovich; Federica Vatta

388

Isolation of a pyrazine alarm pheromone component from the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alarm pheromones in social insects are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality. The alarm pheromones of ants were among the first chemical ecology examples, primarily due to the large amount of pheromone produced a...

389

Exploitation of an Ant Chemical Alarm Signal by the Zodariid Spider Habronestes bradleyi Walckenaer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific signals are vulnerable to exploitation by predators that are not the targets of the signal. This cost has been documented for several acoustic, visual and chemical signals, but not for chemical alarm pheromones. We reveal a novel form of exploitation of an ant alarm pheromone by the cursorial spider Habronestes bradleyi (Zodariidae), a specialist predator of the highly territorial

Rachel A. Allan; Mark A. Elgar; Robert J. Capon

1996-01-01

390

An examination of a prototype LED fire-alarm signaling appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of the Americans With Disabilities Act in 1990, the number of visual fire alarm signals installed in the United States has grown exponentially. Virtually all of these fire alarm visual signals consist of the Xenon gas flashtube type. This technology offers high intensity along with moderate cost in a relatively small package. Typical intensities offered range from

John W. Curran; Shawn P. Keeney

2004-01-01

391

The use of simulation in the development of human factors guidelines for alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance was developed based on a broad review and analysis of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance developed were identified. Experimental research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. This paper provides an overview of the approach to guidance development and discusses the role of simulation in the development approach. Finally, the current simulator-based experiment is described to illustrate how the alarm system design features are being studied.

O`Hara, J.; Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

1997-07-01

392

System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions  

DOEpatents

A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

2011-01-04

393

System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions  

DOEpatents

A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

2011-01-25

394

Systematic review of controlled trials of interventions to promote smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

AIMS—To evaluate the effects of promotion of residential smoke alarms.?METHODS—Electronic databases, conference proceedings, and bibliographies were systematically searched, and investigators and organisations were contacted, in order to identify controlled trials evaluating interventions designed to promote residential smoke alarms. The following were assessed: smoke alarm acquisition, ownership, and function; fires; burns; and fire related injuries. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by meta analysis of randomised trials.?RESULTS—A total of 26 trials were identified, of which 13 were randomised. Overall, counselling and educational interventions had only a modest effect on the likelihood of owning an alarm (OR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87 to 1.81) or having a functional alarm (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.66). Counselling as part of primary care child health surveillance had greater effects on ownership (OR = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.04 to 3.58) and function (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 0.78 to 3.78). Results were sensitive to trial quality, however, and effects on fire related injuries were not reported. In two non-randomised trials, direct provision of free alarms significantly increased functioning alarms and reduced fire related injuries. Media and community education showed little benefit in non-randomised trials.?CONCLUSION—Counselling as part of child health surveillance may increase smoke alarm ownership and function, but its effects on injuries are unevaluated. Community smoke alarm give away programmes apparently reduce fire related injuries, but these trials were not randomised and results must be interpreted cautiously. Further efforts to promote smoke alarms in primary care or through give away programmes should be evaluated by adequately designed randomised controlled trials measuring injury outcomes.??

DiGuiseppi, C.; Higgins, J.

2000-01-01

395

Determination of the response function for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm system neutron detectors  

SciTech Connect

Neutron-sensitive radiation detectors are used in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s (PORTS) criticality accident alarm system (CAAS). The CAAS is composed of numerous detectors, electronics, and logic units. It uses a telemetry system to sound building evacuation horns and to provide remote alarm status in a central control facility. The ANSI Standard for a CAAS uses a free-in-air dose rate to define the detection criteria for a minimum accident-of-concern. Previously, the free-in-air absorbed dose rate from neutrons was used for determining the areal coverge of criticality detection within PORTS buildings handling fissile materials. However, the free-in-air dose rate does not accurately reflect the response of the neutron detectors in use at PORTS. Because the cost of placing additional CAAS detectors in areas of questionable coverage (based on a free-in-air absorbed dose rate) is high, the actual response function for the CAAS neutron detectors was determined. This report, which is organized into three major sections, discusses how the actual response function for the PORTS CAAS neutron detectors was determined. The CAAS neutron detectors are described in Section 2. The model of the detector system developed to facilitate calculation of the response function is discussed in Section 3. The results of the calculations, including confirmatory measurements with neutron sources, are given in Section 4.

Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Brown, A.S.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.E. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1997-03-01

396

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2013-07-01

397

Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release  

SciTech Connect

MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time.Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation--but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications.The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above.Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

Streil, T.; Oeser, V. [SARAD GmbH, Wiesbadener Str. 10-20, D-01159 Dresden (Germany); Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W. [SARAD GmbH, Wiesbadener Str. 10-20, D-01159 Dresden (Germany); Armed Forces Scientific Institute for Protection Technologies-NBC Protection PO.Box 1142, 29633 Munster (Germany)

2008-08-07

398

A mobile phone based alarm system for supervising vital parameters in free moving rats  

PubMed Central

Background Study protocols involving experimental animals often require the monitoring of different parameters not only in anesthetized, but also in free moving animals. Most animal research involves small rodents, in which continuously monitoring parameters such as temperature and heart rate is very stressful for the awake animals or simply not possible. Aim of the underlying study was to monitor heart rate, temperature and activity and to assess inflammation in the heart, lungs, liver and kidney in the early postoperative phase after experimental cardiopulmonary bypass involving 45 min of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in rats. Besides continuous monitoring of heart rate, temperature and behavioural activity, the main focus was on avoiding uncontrolled death of an animal in the early postoperative phase in order to harvest relevant organs before autolysis would render them unsuitable for the assessment of inflammation. Findings We therefore set up a telemetry-based system (Data Science International, DSI™) that continuously monitored the rat's temperature, heart rate and activity in their cages. The data collection using telemetry was combined with an analysis software (Microsoft excel™), a webmail application (GMX) and a text message-service. Whenever an animal's heart rate dropped below the pre-defined threshold of 150 beats per minute (bpm), a notification in the form of a text message was automatically sent to the experimenter's mobile phone. With a positive predictive value of 93.1% and a negative predictive value of 90.5%, the designed surveillance and alarm system proved a reliable and inexpensive tool to avoid uncontrolled death in order to minimize suffering and harvest relevant organs before autolysis would set in. Conclusions This combination of a telemetry-based system and software tools provided us with a reliable notification system of imminent death. The system's high positive predictive value helped to avoid uncontrolled death and facilitated timely organ harvesting. Additionally we were able to markedly reduce the drop out rate of experimental animals, and therefore the total number of animals used in our study. This system can be easily adapted to different study designs and prove a helpful tool to relieve stress and more importantly help to reduce animal numbers.

2012-01-01

399

Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots  

SciTech Connect

Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

1999-07-14

400

DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance.  

SciTech Connect

Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible, detection system deployments are being supported at national and local levels. Detection systems include both, highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by state and local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for local and state authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. This paper will provide details of the RRE3 program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

Bowerman,B.; Archer, D.; Young, J.; Monetti, M.; Savage, B.

2008-07-13

401

Hormone replacement therapy: real concerns and false alarms.  

PubMed

From 2002 to 2008, reports from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) claimed that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) significantly increased the risks of breast cancer development, cardiac events, Alzheimer disease, and stroke. These claims alarmed the public and health professionals alike, causing an almost immediate and sharp decline in the numbers of women receiving HRT. However, the actual data in the published WHI articles reveal that the findings reported in press releases and interviews of the principal investigators were often distorted, oversimplified, or wrong. This review highlights the history of research on HRT, including a timeline of studies that have or have not found a link between HRT and breast cancer; discusses how to distinguish important, robust findings from those that are trivial; closely examines the WHI findings on HRT and breast cancer, most of which are weak or statistically insignificant; reviews the current thinking about possible links of HRT with cardiovascular disease and cognitive functioning; and reports research on the benefits of HRT, notably relief of menopausal symptoms, that affect a woman's quality of life. On these complicated matters, physicians and the public must be cautious about accepting "findings by press release" in determining whether to prescribe or take HRT. PMID:19390302

Bluming, Avrum Z; Tavris, Carol

402

A Retrospective Analysis to Validate the Alarm Signs Used in the CEDAP-Plus Study.  

PubMed

Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to validate the alarm signs used in the 2007 German CEDAP-Plus study for indicating capsule endoscopy in patients who have idiopathic chronic abdominal pain. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent capsule endoscopy at our institution between August 2007 and August 2009 for chronic hitherto undiagnosed abdominal pain, despite previous investigations. The demographic data, indications, findings, and diagnoses were recorded, as were the alarm signs (i.e., 10% loss of weight within 3 months, suspected small intestinal bleed or chronic anemia, and laboratory indications of inflammation). Results. Alarm signs were found in only 4 of the 62 included patients. Capsule endoscopy revealed findings that led to diagnoses of Crohn's disease (n = 4), tuberculosis (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 3), and hookworm (n = 1); these diagnoses included 100% (4/4) of the patients with alarm signs, but only 8.6% (5/58) of patients without them. However, 55.6% (5/9) of patients with clinically capsule endoscopy findings reported no alarm signs. Conclusions. Although selecting patients based on the alarm signs may increase the yield of capsule endoscopy, the alarm sign criteria appear to have low sensitivity. PMID:21991500

Zhang, Hou-De; Lin, Mu-Xian; Zhang, Qu

2011-06-16

403

Integrating the CERN LASER Alarm System with the ALMA Common Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alarm system is a cornerstone service in every computer controlled environment. Its purpose is the notification of exceptional conditions in the system requiring an intervention from the staff. The specifications for the alarm system in the Alma Common Software (ACS) require not only that each alarm has to be shown to operators in a short time, but also that correlated alarms must be "reduced" and presented in compact form in such a way that operators are able to easily identify the root cause for an abnormal condition. In the development of ACS we always investigate the availability of adequate implementations before writing a service from scratch. Such an implementation, the CERN Laser Alarm System, developed for the Large Hadron Collider, was fulfilling and exceeding our requirements. We have therefore started a pilot collaboration project to verify the possibility of integrating Large Hadron Collider Alarm Service (LASER) into ACS. A test suite was developed to demonstrate that the full chain of events starting from the publication of new alarms from a set of sources to their representation in a GUI happened as expected. Particular attention was given to the reduction mechanism for its importance in helping the operators in finding the real cause of each problem in a short time. The project showed that it is possible to integrate two different software systems if they are written with well defined interface and have a similar infrastructure. In this paper we describe the modifications we introduce to integrate CERN LASER into ACS.

Caproni, A.; Sigerud, K.; Zagar, K.

2006-07-01

404

A passive positioning alarm used by persons with dementia and their spouses - a qualitative intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, information and communication technology is being used to support persons with dementia living at home and their relatives. The aim of the present intervention study was to describe and explore the use and experiences of using a passive positioning alarm, over time, in daily life among persons with dementia and their spouses. Methods Using an ethnographically inspired approach, five couples, each including a person with Alzheimer´ s disease and his/her spouse living in their own home, were repeatedly observed and interviewed regarding their experiences of using a passive positioning alarm. Interview text transcripts and field notes were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The main findings show changes over time, where testing and checking the passive positioning alarm successively led to trust in the alarm and in one own´s ability to use it. These components were a prerequisite for the couples to perceive the value of the alarm. Conclusions A passive positioning alarm for persons with dementia and their spouses needs to be packaged as a “service” with flexibility for each user and based on user needs, abilities, knowledge and skills. Using a passive positioning alarm can be a valuable support that allows persons with dementia to be alone outdoors and can increase safety and security for them and their spouses. The present study contributes to our understanding of what prerequisites need to be in place and what barriers need to be dealt with before successful implementation can occur.

2013-01-01

405

A Retrospective Analysis to Validate the Alarm Signs Used in the CEDAP-Plus Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to validate the alarm signs used in the 2007 German CEDAP-Plus study for indicating capsule endoscopy in patients who have idiopathic chronic abdominal pain. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent capsule endoscopy at our institution between August 2007 and August 2009 for chronic hitherto undiagnosed abdominal pain, despite previous investigations. The demographic data, indications, findings, and diagnoses were recorded, as were the alarm signs (i.e., 10% loss of weight within 3 months, suspected small intestinal bleed or chronic anemia, and laboratory indications of inflammation). Results. Alarm signs were found in only 4 of the 62 included patients. Capsule endoscopy revealed findings that led to diagnoses of Crohn's disease (n = 4), tuberculosis (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 3), and hookworm (n = 1); these diagnoses included 100% (4/4) of the patients with alarm signs, but only 8.6% (5/58) of patients without them. However, 55.6% (5/9) of patients with clinically capsule endoscopy findings reported no alarm signs. Conclusions. Although selecting patients based on the alarm signs may increase the yield of capsule endoscopy, the alarm sign criteria appear to have low sensitivity.

Zhang, Hou-De; Lin, Mu-Xian; Zhang, Qu

2011-01-01

406

Alarm pheromone increases defensive and risk assessment behaviors in male rats.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the vomeronasal pathway and stress-related nuclei in pheromone-recipient rats. However, the alarm property of this pheromone in terms of behavior modification is still unclear. We recently found that this alarm pheromone could be trapped in water. Based on this finding, we developed an experimental paradigm to assess the effect of alarm pheromone on recipient behavior. Male Wistar rats were acclimatized for 5 min to an open field, where two pieces of filter paper soaked with 750 microl of either pheromone-containing water or vehicle water were attached to the wall. Then, a small "hiding box" was placed in one corner of the field and the behavioral responses of the subject rat were recorded for 10 subsequent minutes. Exposure to alarm pheromone significantly increased defensive and risk assessment behaviors and decreased exploratory and grooming behaviors compared to the vehicle control group, indicating the alarm property of the pheromone. In addition, the comparison with previous results suggests that the alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of the male rat increases anxiety in recipients, rather than evoking a stereotyped autonomic response. PMID:16337975

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Shimozuru, Michito; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2005-12-09

407

Continual monitoring of intraocular pressure: effect of central venous pressure, respiration, and eye movements on continual recordings of intraocular pressure in the rabbit, dog, and man.  

PubMed Central

A new method has been devised for continual monitoring of intraocular pressure by radiotelemetry. The use of this instrument for monitoring intraocular pressure by a variety of ophthalmic conditions is described. Images

Cooper, R. L.; Beale, D. G.; Constable, I. J.; Grose, G. C.

1979-01-01

408

A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a\\u000asatisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence\\u000acyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system\\u000aestablishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP\\/IP) through GPRS\\/CDMA\\/3G.\\u000aIt achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human\\u000amachine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile

Longhua Ma; Tengkai Yuan; Feng Xia; Ming Xu; Jun Yao; Meng Shao

2010-01-01

409

Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

2008-09-01

410

Optimal estimation applications to continuous glucose monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 1 diabetics must frequently monitor their blood glucose to avoid hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. In this paper a Kalman filter is developed to estimate blood glucose concentration from noisy continuous subcutaneous sensor signals. The Kalman filter formulation leads to a natural blood glucose predictor that can be used to alarm patients to take corrective action to avoid hypoglycemia.

B. Wayne Bequette

2004-01-01

411

DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance  

SciTech Connect

Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible or even likely, detection system deployments are being supported at National and local levels. Detection systems include highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present, and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The US Department of Homeland Security initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by State and Local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for Local and state Authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. Contact with RRB is through the DHS Joint Analysis Center (JAC), which functions as a fusion node for data correlation, transmittal, and analysis. After initial phone contacts, State/Local authorities transmit spectral data and incident information via e-mail or secure website. The JAC alerts the on-call RRB specialists, who are expected to provide an analysis within 30 minutes. This paper will provide details of the RRB program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

Bowerman, Biasys [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Archer, Daniel E [ORNL; Young, John [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); Monetti, Matthew [Environmental Measurements Laboratory; Brian, Savage [U.S. Department of Homeland Security

2008-01-01

412

Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.  

PubMed

A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention. PMID:14519407

Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

2003-09-01

413

Research of pulse signal processing based on sleep-monitoring alarm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

From pulse diagnosis of Chinese herbalist doctor to the research of cardiovascular system by modem iatrology,they all have showed and proved that human pulse has a good affinity with diseases,especially cardiovascular diseases. Human pulse contains much physical information, and it will be propitious to know the human healthy state early so as to get therapy and recovery early when pulse

Kaisheng Zhang; Yuan Zeng

2009-01-01

414

The Monitoring System Design of Harmful Gas Inside Special Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality of special vehicle after long-distance road or special operations will deteriorate. The types of gas sensors are determined based on analysis of main pollutants in the air inside vehicle. The sound and light alarm circuit of monitoring system and starting guarantee of devices which improve air quality are determined with reference to relevant industry standards. The monitoring of

MingHua Yang; SiJie Shao; XiaoYan Wang

2012-01-01

415

Wireless Geophone Network for remote monitoring and detection of landslides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have shown an alarmous increase in rain fall induced landslides. This has facilitated the need for having a monitoring system to predict the landslides which could eventually reduce the loss of human life. We have developed and deployed a Wireless Sensor Network to monitor rainfall induced landslide, in Munnar, South India. A successful landslide warning was issued in

Abishek Thekkeyil Kunnath; Maneesha V Ramesh

2011-01-01

416

Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic structure of calls within call types can vary as function of individual identity, sex, and social group membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) produce alarm chirps that function in predator avoidance but little is known about the acoustic variability of these alarm chirps. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the acoustic structure of alarm chirps with respect to individual differences (e.g., signature information) from eight Belding's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm chirps are individually distinctive, and that acoustic similarity among individuals may correspond to genetic similarity and thus dispersal patterns in this species. These data suggest, on a preliminary basis, that the acoustic structure of calls might be used as a bioacoustic tool for tracking individuals, dispersal, and other population dynamics in Belding's ground squirrels, and perhaps other vocal species.

McCowan, Brenda; Hooper, Stacie L.

2002-03-01

417

ALARM 2.0 User Manual: Minimizing Compliance Costs of the Life Safety Code for Prisons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ALARM, Alternative Life Safety Analysis for Retrofit Cost Minimization, is a software tool that helps prison facility managers and fire safety engineers achieve cost-effective compliance with the widely-used Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protectio...

S. F. Weber L. I. Schultz

2001-01-01

418

S&E Ph.D. Unemployment Trends: Cause for Alarm?  

NSF Publications Database

S&E S&E Ph.D. Unemployment Trends: Cause For Alarm? (August 14, 1997) This Issue Brief compares ... population with similar trends in the unemployment rates for other segments of the U.S. population ...

419

46 CFR 32.25-1 - General alarm systems for tankships and manned tank barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alarm system must be installed on tankships and manned tank barges which meets the requirements in subchapter J (Electrical Engineering Regulations) of this chapter. [CGD 74-125A, 47 FR 15230, Apr. 8,...

2011-10-01

420

46 CFR 162.050-20 - Separator and bilge alarm test fluids.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Pollution Prevention Equipment § 162.050-20 Separator and bilge alarm test...

2011-10-01

421

Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. 1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. 2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. 3) A software tool, is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display.

Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

1986-01-01

422

Two sympatric species of passerine birds imitate the same raptor calls in alarm contexts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While some avian mimics appear to select sounds randomly, other species preferentially imitate sounds such as predator calls that are associated with danger. Previous work has shown that the Greater Racket-tailed Drongo ( Dicrurus paradiseus) incorporates predator calls and heterospecific alarm calls into its own species-typical alarm vocalizations. Here, we show that another passerine species, the Sri Lanka Magpie ( Urocissa ornata), which inhabits the same Sri Lankan rainforest, imitates three of the same predator calls that drongos do. For two of these call types, there is evidence that magpies also use them in alarm contexts. Our results support the hypothesis that imitated predator calls can serve as signals of alarm to multiple species.

Ratnayake, Chaminda P.; Goodale, Eben; Kotagama, Sarath W.

2010-01-01

423

Alerting the Apathetic and Reassuring the Alarmed: Communicating About Radon Risk in Three Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public reaction to the risk from radon varied widely in three communities chosen for qualitative analysis. In Boyertown, PA, some residents were very alarmed but most were apathetic toward this newly identified environmental risk. In Clinton, NJ, resident...

C. Chess B. J. Hance

1988-01-01

424

Arousal from Sleep by Emergency Alarms: Implications from the Scientific Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the sleep research and other scientific literature pertaining to the arousal of sleeping individuals by external stimuli is reported. This effort was undertaken to provide information about the characteristics of emergency alarms which will re...

V. J. Pezoldt H. P. Van Cott

1978-01-01

425

An expert system with temporal reasoning for alarm processing in power system control centers  

SciTech Connect

The alarm lists presented to Control Center operators are usually of difficult interpretation. When a disturbance occurs in the Power System, several thousands alarms may arrive in a short period of time. Human operators are not able to process all the information and, in this situation, an important alarm may be ignored causing serious difficulties to the fault diagnosis and power restoration. In this paper the authors present an Expert System that processes the alarm lists in Portuguese Control Centers. This system makes an intelligent synthesis of the available information and presents it in a more flexible and structured way. It uses an original approach to deal with temporal reasoning and real-time constraints. The system incorporates an explanation module that enables its use as a tutor for novice operators.

Vale, Z.A.; Machado e Moura, A. (Univ. of Porto (Portugal))

1993-08-01

426

The alarm pheromone in male rats as a unique anxiety model: psychopharmacological evidence using anxiolytics.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released from male donor Wistar rats evoked anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses in recipient rats. Thus, we believe that this pheromone may increase anxiety levels in rats. In the current study, we evaluated the predictive validity of this alarm pheromone-induced anxiogenic effect in detail by investigating whether six types of human anxiolytics, each of which has a different mechanism of action, were efficacious in reducing anxiety, using changes in the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) as an index. The alarm pheromone-enhanced ASR was not affected by vehicle pretreatment but was dose-dependently attenuated by pretreatment with midazolam, phenelzine, propranolol, clonidine, and CP-154,526-although not buspirone. These results may reflect some aspects of the predictive validity of the alarm pheromone-induced anxiety in rats as an animal model of human anxiety. PMID:19969015

Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2009-12-05

427

Environment Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A supervisory system used to monitor over 200 inputs from temperature and humidity sensors and various items of a plant is described. The plant includes three main and one subsidiary computer halls and several plant rooms, all operated from one central ar...

R. A. H. Methuen

1991-01-01

428

Two Odorant-Binding Proteins Mediate the Behavioural Response of Aphids to the Alarm Pheromone (E)-ss-farnesene and Structural Analogues  

PubMed Central

Background Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E)-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E)-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E)-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone. Conclusions Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila) that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests.

Qiao, Hui Li; Iovinella, Immacolata; Yang, Shao Xiang; Ling, Yun; Riviello, Lea; Battaglia, Donatella; Falabella, Patrizia; Yang, Xin Ling; Pelosi, Paolo

2012-01-01

429

Conspecific and heterospecific alarm substance induces behavioral responses in piau fish Leporinus piau  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ostariophysan fish, the detection of alarm substance released from the skin of a conspecific or a sympatric heterospecific\\u000a may elicit alarm reactions or antipredator behavioral responses. In this study, experiments were performed to characterize\\u000a and quantify the behavioral response threshold of Leporinus piau, both individually and in schools, to growing dilutions of conspecific (CAS) and heterospecific skin extract (HAS).

Augusto Barbosa Júnior; Elisângela Jaqueline Magalhães; Anette Hoffmann; Liliam Midori Ide

2010-01-01

430

Non-awakening in children in response to a smoke detector alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which children will awaken to a smoke detector alarm in the standard hallway location has not previously been investigated. Twenty juniors aged 6–17yr and their parents (aged 30–59yr) participated. Sleeping participants were exposed, on two different nights in their own homes, to an alarm which was received at 60dBA at the pillow. Sleep\\/wake behaviour was determined objectively

Dorothy Bruck

1999-01-01

431

Criticality alarm system verification at the Los Alamos critical experiments facility: Past experience and present capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) has been involved in the testing and evaluation of criticality accident alarm systems since 1980. At that time we designed and built the solution critical assembly SHEBA for this purpose. The response of the alarms to neutron pulses was done using the GODIVA-IV Burst Assembly. Currently, SHEBA and a new fast assembly, SKUA, are being modified for burst operation. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Plassmann, E.A.; Spriggs, G.D.

1988-01-01

432

Effectiveness of Alarm–Distress Calls for Frightening Herons from a Fish Rearing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of using alarm-distress calls of the black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax and the great blue heron Ardea herodias for frightening these piscivorous bird species from a rearing unit for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heron alarm–distress calls reduced black-crowned night heron numbers 48% during the 11-d treatment period, compared with the pretreatment period, but did not affect

William F. Andelt; Stuart N. Hopper

1996-01-01

433

Alarm symptoms and identification of non-cancer diagnoses in primary care: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the predictive value of alarm symptoms for specified non-cancer diagnoses and cancer diagnoses in primary care.Design Cohort study using the general practice research database.Setting 128 general practices in the UK contributing data, 1994-2000.Participants 762 325 patients aged 15 or older.Main outcome measures Up to 15 pre-specified, non-cancer diagnoses associated with four alarm symptoms (haematuria, haemoptysis, dysphagia, rectal

Roger Jones; Judith Charlton; Radoslav Latinovic; Martin C Gulliford

2009-01-01

434

False alarm control of CFAR algorithms with experimental bistatic radar data  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm control performance of different constant false alarm rate (CFAR) algorithms is experimentally investigated using bistatic radar data. The CFARs under investigation include cell-averaging (CA-CFAR), smaller-of (SO-CFAR), greater-of (GO-CFAR), ordered-statistic (OS-CFAR), censored cell-averaging (CCA-CFAR), and the homogeneity detector mean-to-mean ratio (MMR) test. The experimental data was collected using an Illuminator of Opportunity (IOO) bistatic radar that is under ongoing

Tri-Tan V. Cao; James Palmer; Paul E. Berry

2010-01-01

435

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species.

Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

436

Design of Alarm Sound of Home Care Equipment Based on Age-related Auditory Sense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of home care equipment has been developed to support the independent lifestyle and care taking of elderly persons. Almost all of the equipment has an alarm designed to alert a care person or to sound a warning in case of an emergency. Due to the fact that aging human beings' senses physiologically, weaken and deteriorate, each alarm's sound must be designed to account for the full range of elderly person's hearing loss. Since the alarms are usually heard indoors, it is also necessary to evaluate the relationship between the basic characteristics of the sounds and living area's layout. In this study, we investigated the sounds of various alarms of the home care equipment based on both the age-related hearing characteristics of elderly persons and the propagation property of the sounds indoors. As a result, it was determined that the hearing characteristics of elderly persons are attuned to sounds which have a frequency from 700Hz to 1kHz, and it was learned that the indoor absorption ratio of sound is smallest when the frequency is 1kHz. Therefore, a frequency of 1kHz is good for the alarm sound of home care equipment. A flow chart to design the alarm sound of home care equipment was proposed, taking into account the extent of age-related auditory sense deterioration.

Shibano, Jun-Ichi; Tadano, Shigeru; Kaneko, Hirotaka

437

Chemical alarm and defence in the oribatid mite Collohmannia gigantea (Acari: Oribatida).  

PubMed

The multicomponent oil gland secretion of Collohmannia gigantea, a middle-derivative mixonomatan oribatid mite, is demonstrated to possess alarm pheromonal and allomonal properties. Four components of the secretion, namely the monoterpenes neryl formate, neral, geranial and the aromatic 2-hydroxy- 6-methyl-benzaldehyde (2,6-HMBD), showed moderate to strong alarm pheromonal activity in adult mites. Naturally elicited response is due to neral (about 50% of the secretion) and probably 2,6-HMBD (only 5% of the secretion, but strong alarm pheromonal activity). This is the second report of an alarm pheromone in Oribatida. Tridecane and pentadecane (=the hydrocarbon fraction of the secretion) did not evoke evident behavioural reactions, and most likely serve as solvents and spreading agents for the pheromonal-active components. Alarm reactions were characterized by a short recognition phase (waving movements with legs I), followed by shrinking back and panic escape from the scent source. In addition, all six components of the oil gland secretion, including the hydrocarbons, exhibited strong allomonal properties against a model oribatid predator, the scydmaenid beetle, Euconnus (Tetramelus) oblongus. Considering the widespread semiochemical properties of oil gland secretions in astigmatid mites (=a highly derivative oribatid group), these results furnish evidence for a phylogenetically early origin of defensive and communicative roles of oil gland secretions in oribatids. These roles include alarm communication, defence and the production of anti-fungal compounds. PMID:16897567

Raspotnig, Günther

2006-08-03

438

Enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex by an alarm pheromone in male rats.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported that an alarm pheromone released from the perianal region of male rats aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased defensive and risk assessment behaviors in recipient male rats. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the primary effect of the alarm pheromone is to increase anxiety; however, there is still no clear evidence for this pheromone effect. Therefore, we examined this issue by assessing the effect of the alarm pheromone on the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), which is a useful index for studying negative emotions such as anxiety in rats. The alarm pheromone enhanced the ASR for 105-dB auditory stimuli, but not for those of 90 and 120 dB, when these three intensities of sound were used randomly. The same results were obtained when one of these three intensities was used repeatedly. In addition, pretreatment with diazepam (i.p.) at doses of 0.7 and 2.0 mg/kg suppressed the ASR of the pheromone recipients, whereas the lower dose (0.2 mg/kg) slightly attenuated the pheromone effect and the control injection (vehicle) had no effect. These results indicate that the alarm pheromone enhances the ASR by increasing anxiety in recipient rats, suggesting that the primary effect of the alarm pheromone is to increase the anxiety level. PMID:18061219

Inagaki, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2007-11-01

439

Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of coloured indicator lights and coloured print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm colour scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the colour blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing set-ups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered. PMID:20858682

Tinker, M

2010-10-01

440

Cost-benefit analysis of an emergency alarm and response system: a case study of a long-term care program.  

PubMed Central

Cost-benefit analyses are routinely included in evaluations of acute care programs. In the case of long-term care, it is frequently alleged that cost-benefit analysis cannot be fruitfully applied. This article demonstrates the utility of applying cost-benefit analysis to evaluations of long-term care programs. A case study is presented in which cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate an emergency alarm and response system developed to monitor the safety of vulnerable and disabled persons in their home environment.

Ruchlin, H S; Morris, J N

1981-01-01

441

Radiation monitor for surveillance of moving vehicles  

SciTech Connect

A radiation monitor has been developed that will scan each vehicle leaving the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility site. If an increase in radiation level is sensed, an alarm light and a Klaxon horn are activated, inviting the driver to return to the Health Physics office for check. A photograph showing the vehicle license number is also taken. A radiation source that doubles the detector count rate when stationary will cause an alarm at vehicle speeds up to about 24 km/h (15 mph). The technique used to prevent false alarms because of radiations from nearby buildings or from plumes of low-level radioactive gas is described. 9 figs.

Dvorak, R.F.

1985-09-01

442

Impact of spectral smoothing on gamma radiation portal alarm probabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma detector counts are included in radiation portal monitors (RPM) to screen for illicit nuclear material. Gamma counts are sometimes smoothed to reduce variance in the estimated underlying true mean count rate, which is the “signal” in our context. Smoothing reduces total error variance in the estimated signal if the bias that smoothing introduces is more than offset by the

T. Burr; M. Hamada; N. Hengartner

443

Effects of an Intervention to Increase Bed Alarm Use to Prevent Falls in Hospitalized Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Bed alarm systems intended to prevent hospital falls have not been formally evaluated. Objective To investigate whether an intervention aimed at increasing bed alarm use decreases hospital falls and related events. Design Pair-matched, cluster randomized trial over 18 months. Nursing units were allocated by computer-generated randomization on the basis of baseline fall rates. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to unit assignment; outcome assessors may have become unblinded. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00183053) Setting 16 nursing units in an urban community hospital. Patients 27 672 inpatients in general medical, surgical, and specialty units. Intervention Education, training, and technical support to promote use of a standard bed alarm system (intervention units); bed alarms available but not formally promoted or supported (control units). Measurements Pre–post difference in change in falls per 1000 patient-days (primary end point); number of patients who fell, fall-related injuries, and number of patients restrained (secondary end points). Results Prevalence of alarm use was 64.41 days per 1000 patient-days on intervention units and 1.79 days per 1000 patient-days on control units (P = 0.004). There was no difference in change in fall rates per 1000 patient-days (risk ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.53]; difference, 0.41 [CI, ?1.05 to 2.47], which corresponds to a greater difference in falls in control vs. intervention units) or in the number of patients who fell, injurious fall rates, or the number of patients physically restrained on intervention units compared with control units. Limitation The study was conducted at a single site and was slightly underpowered compared with the initial design. Conclusion An intervention designed to increase bed alarm use in an urban hospital increased alarm use but had no statistically or clinically significant effect on fall-related events or physical restraint use. Primary Funding Source National Institute on Aging.

Shorr, Ronald I.; Chandler, A. Michelle; Mion, Lorraine C.; Waters, Teresa M.; Liu, Minzhao; Daniels, Michael J.; Kessler, Lori A.; Miller, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

444

Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.  

PubMed

As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect predators early, and that the lemurs' reactions are based on experience and learning. PMID:23825658

Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W

2013-06-25

445

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups.

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

446

Bed-exit alarms. A component (but only a component) of fall prevention.  

PubMed

Patient falls are a common cause of morbidity, nonfatal injuries, and trauma-related hospitalizations in the United States. Sometimes, they're even fatal. Falls typically occur either while the patient is getting into or out of bed or shortly after the patient has exited the bed. One means of helping to reduce the number of patient falls is the bed-exit alarm. Such alarms can be either built-in devices incorporated into the beds themselves or stand-alone units consisting of a portable control unit and a pressure- or position-sensitive sensor. They can serve as an "early warning system" alerting nursing staff when patients attempt to leave their beds unassisted. However, bed-exit alarms do not themselves prevent falls--a fact that is not always clearly understood. To be effective, they need to be implemented with care and with a clear understanding of their limitations. In this article, we describe the types of stand-alone bed-exit alarms currently available on the market and provide guidance to facilities on how to implement them effectively. We also review the elements of an effective fall-prevention program and recount one hospital's success in reducing patient falls. We are in the process of conducting a comparative evaluation of a number of bed-exit alarms, which will be published in an upcoming issue of Health Devices. PMID:15202335

2004-05-01

447

Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

2013-05-01

448

Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community.  

PubMed

Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities. PMID:22279165

Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M; Rodríguez, Juan

2012-01-25

449

Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. (1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. Although very functional, this system is not portable or flexible; the software would have to be substantially rewritten for other applications. (2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. This package is based on a standardized choice of hardware, within which it is capable of building a system to order, automatically constructing graphics, data tables, alarm prioritization rules, and interfaces to peripherals. (3) A software tool, the User Interface Management System (UIMS), is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display. The object-oriented software of the UIMS achieves rapid prototyping of a new interface by standardizing to a class library of software objects instead of hardware objects.

Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

1986-01-01

450

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring.  

PubMed

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A; Cocroft, Reginald B

2012-07-11

451

c-Fos expression during the modulation of sexual behavior by an alarm pheromone.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by male Wistar rats evokes several physiological and behavioral responses in other rats. In addition to these responses, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts needed for an ejaculation and decreased the hit rate (number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions). These effects were blocked by pretreatment by a corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of sexual behavior by this pheromone remain unknown. In this study, we measured c-Fos expression in 22 brain sites in pheromone-exposed male rats 60 min after their first ejaculation. The paraventricular nucleus was double-stained for c-Fos and CRH to determine which neurons were activated by the pheromone. The alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts, decreased the hit rate, and increased the number of cells double-labeled for c-Fos and CRH in the paraventricular nucleus. These results indicate that the alarm pheromone is a stressor. Pheromone-exposed rats also showed significantly increased c-Fos expression in the anterior division medial group, anterior division lateral group, and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the anterior part of the medial and the basolateral region of the amygdala, and the nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results and previous findings, we propose that the alarm pheromone modifies sexual behavior by inducing CRH release that indirectly activates the nucleus paragigantocellularis. PMID:23026375

Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2012-09-28

452

Alarm pheromone that aggravates stress-induced hyperthermia is soluble in water.  

PubMed

We previously reported that stressed male Wistar rats released alarm pheromone from the perianal region, which aggravated stress-induced hyperthermia and increased Fos expression in the mitral/tufted cell layer of the accessory olfactory bulb in recipient rats. In this study, we attempted to obtain this pheromone in water using these responses as bioassay parameters. Water droplets were collected from the ceiling of a box in which no animal was placed, or from a box in which an anesthetized donor rat was given electrical stimulation to either the neck or perianal regions in order to induce neck odor or alarm pheromone release, respectively. Then we placed one of the three kinds of water-containing filter papers on the wall of a recipient's home cage and observed heart rate, body temperature and behavioral responses, as well as Fos expression in the main and accessory olfactory bulbs of the recipient. The water collected from the box containing the alarm pheromone was found to generate a reproduction of all of the responses seen in the animal that had been directly exposed to alarm pheromone in our previous studies. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone is soluble in water. PMID:15961520

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kikusui, Takefumi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2005-06-16

453

Emission of alarm pheromone in aphids: a non-contagious phenomenon.  

PubMed

In response to attack by natural enemies, most aphid species release an alarm pheromone that causes nearby conspecifics to cease feeding and disperse. The primary component of the alarm pheromone of most species studied is (E)-beta-farnesene. We recently demonstrated that the production and accumulation of (E)-beta-farnesene during development by juvenile aphids is stimulated by exposure to odor cues, most likely by (E)-beta-farnesene emitted by other colony members. Here, we tested whether the release of (E)-beta-farnesene can be triggered by exposure to the alarm pheromone of other individuals, thereby amplifying the signal. Such contagious emission might be adaptive under some conditions because the amount of (E)-beta-farnesene released by a single aphid may not be sufficient to alert an appropriate number of individuals of the colony to the presence of a potential threat. By using a push-pull headspace collection system, we quantified (E)-beta-farnesene released from Acyrthosiphon pisum aphids exposed to conspecific alarm signals. Typical avoidance behavior was observed following exposure to (E)-beta-farnesene (i.e., aphids ceased feeding and dropped from host-plant); however, no increase in alarm pheromone amount was detected, suggesting that contagious release of (E)-beta-farnesene does not occur. PMID:18704587

Verheggen, F J; Mescher, M C; Haubruge, E; Moraes, C M; Schwartzberg, E G

2008-08-14

454

Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community  

PubMed Central

Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities.

Parejo, Deseada; Aviles, Jesus M.; Rodriguez, Juan

2012-01-01

455

Anti-predator behavior of group-living Malagasy primates: mixed evidence for a referential alarm call system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Many mammals warn conspecifics with alarm calls about detected predators. These alarm calls are either functionally referential,\\u000a urgency based, or they can have multiple functions, including predator deterrence. The taxonomic distribution of these alarm\\u000a call systems is uneven, with primates providing the best-known examples for a functionally referential system and rodents\\u000a most examples of an urgency-based system. Reports of

Claudia Fichtel; Peter M. Kappeler

2002-01-01

456

Impact of spectral smoothing on gamma radiation portal alarm probabilities.  

PubMed

Gamma detector counts are included in radiation portal monitors (RPM) to screen for illicit nuclear material. Gamma counts are sometimes smoothed to reduce variance in the estimated underlying true mean count rate, which is the "signal" in our context. Smoothing reduces total error variance in the estimated signal if the bias that smoothing introduces is more than offset by the variance reduction. An empirical RPM study for vehicle screening applications is presented for unsmoothed and smoothed gamma counts in low-resolution plastic scintillator detectors and in medium-resolution NaI detectors. PMID:21612936

Burr, T; Hamada, M; Hengartner, N

2011-05-17

457

Development of ultrasonic motor and application to silent alarm analog quartz watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasonic motor was developed for use in new generation watches and portable information devices. This motor shows promise as a new principle actuator. Measuring 10 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm thick, this ultrasonic motor is the world's smallest for practical use. Powered by a single lithium coin battery, this motor is expected to be applied to a broad range of miniature devices, including watches. The structure of the motor makes it possible to reduce its size and drive frequency. This motor was used to incorporate a silent alarm into an analog quartz watch. Unlike conventional electronic alarm watches, an eccentric weight rotates intermittently at high speed generating gentle vibration which notifies the wearer. The silent alarm analog quartz watch which incorporates the new ultrasonic motor, as well as the influence of design parameters on the performance of the ultrasonic motor, are described.

Kasuga, Masao; Satoh, Takashi; Hirotomi, Jun; Kawata, Masayuki