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1

INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system  

SciTech Connect

This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are made at the time the alarm is activated. Alarming areas are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer-generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

Niper, E.D.

1983-07-01

2

INEL central alarm monitoring and assessment system  

SciTech Connect

This paper concerns the design and development of a centrally located security monitoring and assessment system for processing alarms at several remote facilities. The system provides both live and recorded CCTV assessment of alarmed areas. Computer controlled video disc recordings are displayed on a color graphics monitor and an operator interacts through an overlying transparent touch panel. Computer generated messages are also displayed to assist and inform the operator. A bidirectional, frequency-multiplexed cable system provides digital alarm information, video control commands, and several channels of video from each remote facility.

Niper, E.D.

1983-01-01

3

Remote Monitor Alarm System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

4

An Expert System for Monitor Alarm Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intensive care and operating room monitors generate data that are not fully utilized. False alarms are so frequent that attending personnel tends to disconnect them. We developed an expert system that could select and validate alarms by integration of seven vital signs monitored on-line from cardiac surgical patients. Methods. The system uses fuzzy logic and is able to work

Christian Oberli; Jorge Urzua; Claudia Saez; Marcello Guarini; Aldo Cipriano; Bernardita Garayar; Guillermo Lema; Roberto Canessa; Carla Sacco; Manuel Irarrazaval

1999-01-01

5

Evaluation criteria for Security Alarm Monitoring System software  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to evaluate the software for three alarm monitoring systems (AMSs) that have been developed by SNL: the Security Alarm Control System (SACS), Safeguards Control and Communication System (SCCS), and Site Independent Configurable Alarm Display System (SICADS). This report provides the basis to perform independent evaluation of the three AMSs. 6 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

DeLisle, G.V.; Acree, C.D.; Johnson, L.E.

1988-12-01

6

Development of medical equipment alarm monitoring system.  

PubMed

In a hospital, we use a large number of medical equipment. In these use, I support the safe use by the alarm such as errors from medical equipment. There is the instrument notifying of alarm in communication, but there is the instrument by a sound and the light. For the medical safety management, confirmation of the alarm is important. We thought that stability was improved by integrating alarm from the instrument of the different type. Therefore, we thought that we integrated alarm from medical equipment. We decided to transmit an alarm signal from medical equipment by adding radio module program unit. The type of the radio used IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) at a point of view of low power, International Standard, simple radio equipment. This system deals with only alarm information from medical equipment and does not handle the data. However, we understood that we were helpful very much even if it was only alarm information. We were able to in this way reduce the number of incidents. PMID:23920969

Yamashita, Yoshinori; Ogaito, Tatoku; Kasamatsu, Shingo

2013-01-01

7

A SCINTILLATION NUCLEAR INCIDENT ALARM MONITOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a scintillation nuclear incident alarming gamma field ; intensity from one mr\\/hr to greater than ten r\\/hr is described. Aa inexpensive ; high-voltage supply, an inexpensive terphenyl-in-Wlyvinyltoluene crystal, a ; multiplier phototube, and a meter relay are the basic components. An addenda two-; transistor booster amplifler can be used if necessary for very low-level ; triggering. The

1959-01-01

8

Results of security alarm monitoring system software evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to present the results of an evaluation of software requested for three alarm monitoring systems (AMS) that were developed by SNL; the security alarm control system (SACS), safeguards control and communications system (SCCS), and site-independent configurable alarm display system (SICADS). The evaluation was conducted by using the results of studying three different user types: operator, system engineer, and system analyst. The evaluations are based on field experience and ``hands on`` exercising of the systems. 2 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

DeLisle, G.V.; Acree, C.D.; Johnson, L.E.

1988-12-01

9

Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

2005-12-01

10

Results of security alarm monitoring system software evaluation: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared at the request of the Hanford Site Security Applications Center (SAC) in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) at Albuquerque, New Mexico. An independent evaluation of software was requested for three Alarm Monitoring Systems (AMS) that were developed by SNL; the Security Alarm Control System (SACS), Safeguards Control and Communications System (SCCS), and Site-Independent Configurable Alarm Display System (SICADS). This report contains the results of the evaluation based on criteria established in DeLisle et al. (1988). The SICADS system was not thoroughly evaluated due to the unavailability of information at the time the evaluations were conducted. The evaluation consists of the results of studies by three different user types: operator, system engineer, and system analyst. The results are treated separately within this report. Each evaluator contributed unique experiences with operating, maintaining, and developing systems of a similar type and complexity. The evolutions are based on field experience, ``hands on`` exercising of the systems and modern industry accepted practices. 3 refs.

DeLisle, G.V.; Acree, C.D.; Johnson, L.E.; Winkelman, W.D.

1989-04-01

11

Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring  

DOEpatents

The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

12

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2013-04-01

13

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2012-04-01

14

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2014-04-01

15

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower...

2011-04-01

16

21 CFR 870.2300 - Cardiac monitor (including cardiotachometer and rate alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cardiotachometer and rate alarm) is a device used to measure the heart rate from an analog signal produced by an electrocardiograph...blood pressure monitor. This device may sound an alarm when the heart rate falls outside preset upper and lower limits. (b)...

2010-04-01

17

ALARM-LEVEL MONITOR FOR SO2 EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

A field prototype, alarm-level monitor for SO2 emissions from stationary sources was designed, fabricated and tested. The monitor was designed to be inexpensive, simple to operate and easily maintained. The monitoring system is an extractive type that employs an air aspirator to ...

18

Real-time analysis of physiological data and development of alarm algorithms for patient monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit  

E-print Network

The lack of effective data integration and knowledge representation in patient monitoring limits its utility to clinicians. Intelligent alarm algorithms that use artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to ...

Zhang, Ying, 1976-

2003-01-01

19

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

20

[Remote sensing monitoring and pre-alarming of algal blooms in Taihu Lake].  

PubMed

The explosive growth of algae in inland water bodies is one of the major water environmental problems in China, and it's very important to monitor the dynamic of algae in both temporal and spatial scales. In the present paper, a model, which was used to extract the algae information from the water body of Taihu Lake using MODIS data, was established based on the remote sensing index and image false color composite methods. Using this model, we studied the algae explosive growth formation process between March and May in 2007. Through the analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution features of the algae outbreak between the spring and summer seasons, an early warning method of algal blooms was proposed, that is, when the MODIS green index mainly concentrated in the range between 0. 6 and 0. 8, the water body of Taihu Lake can be considered to have been in the early alarming stage of algal blooms. PMID:21595233

Song, Yu; Song, Xiao-dong; Guo, Qing-hai; Tang, Li-na

2011-03-01

21

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...iv) Provide for normal equipment starting and operating transients and vessel motions, as applicable, without actuating the...devices and instrumentation to allow visual assessment of system response to control input. (2) Visual alarms and...

2011-10-01

22

Coupling of H1 to a central laboratory computer, automated evaluation of instrument alarms.  

PubMed

Everyone who has worked with an H1 from Technicon knows that it pours out a vast number of asterisks and error flags and that the same information is hidden in different places. After comparing a great number of samples from H1 with manual methods, we found that we could reduce the number of alarms of medical significance to about 20. So we built a microcomputer which sends the test results, the asterisks and 20 user defined alarm flags to the host computer where the verification takes place. The verification program automatically approves of tests where no alarms, asterisks or high or low values occur. Tests with any kind of alarm or asterisk are displayed. Doubtful results are automatically deleted following specified rules, the meaning of the asterisks can be studied on a switch-screen like on H1, and the technician can take the appropriate action, microscopy, rerun or checking H1. PMID:2279557

Barth-Magnus, K

1990-01-01

23

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

2012-10-01

24

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems ...such a selector, provided there is no off position. (5) Automation alarms must be separate and independent of the...

2013-10-01

25

A critical assessment of monitoring practices, patient deterioration, and alarm fatigue on inpatient wards: a review  

PubMed Central

Approximately forty million surgeries take place annually in the United States, many of them requiring overnight or lengthier post operative stays in the over five thousand hospitals that comprise our acute healthcare system. Leading up to this Century, it was common for most hospitalized patients and their families to believe that being surrounded by well-trained nurses and physicians assured their safety. That bubble burst with the Institute of Medicine’s 1999 report: To Err Is Human, followed closely by its 2001 report: Crossing the Quality Chasm. This review article discusses unexpected, potentially lethal respiratory complications known for being difficult to detect early, especially in postoperative patients recovering on hospital general care floors (GCF). We have designed our physiologic explanations and simplified cognitive framework to give our front line clinical nurses a thorough, easy-to-recall understanding of just how these events evolve, and how to detect them early when most amenable to treatment. Our review will also discuss currently available practices in general care floor monitoring that can both improve patient safety and significantly reduce monitor associated alarm fatigue. PMID:25093041

2014-01-01

26

Insights into the Problem of Alarm Fatigue with Physiologic Monitor Devices: A Comprehensive Observational Study of Consecutive Intensive Care Unit Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose Physiologic monitors are plagued with alarms that create a cacophony of sounds and visual alerts causing “alarm fatigue” which creates an unsafe patient environment because a life-threatening event may be missed in this milieu of sensory overload. Using a state-of-the-art technology acquisition infrastructure, all monitor data including 7 ECG leads, all pressure, SpO2, and respiration waveforms as well as user settings and alarms were stored on 461 adults treated in intensive care units. Using a well-defined alarm annotation protocol, nurse scientists with 95% inter-rater reliability annotated 12,671 arrhythmia alarms. Results A total of 2,558,760 unique alarms occurred in the 31-day study period: arrhythmia, 1,154,201; parameter, 612,927; technical, 791,632. There were 381,560 audible alarms for an audible alarm burden of 187/bed/day. 88.8% of the 12,671 annotated arrhythmia alarms were false positives. Conditions causing excessive alarms included inappropriate alarm settings, persistent atrial fibrillation, and non-actionable events such as PVC's and brief spikes in ST segments. Low amplitude QRS complexes in some, but not all available ECG leads caused undercounting and false arrhythmia alarms. Wide QRS complexes due to bundle branch block or ventricular pacemaker rhythm caused false alarms. 93% of the 168 true ventricular tachycardia alarms were not sustained long enough to warrant treatment. Discussion The excessive number of physiologic monitor alarms is a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patient conditions, and algorithm deficiencies. Device solutions should focus on use of all available ECG leads to identify non-artifact leads and leads with adequate QRS amplitude. Devices should provide prompts to aide in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. Atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia and delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms should be configurable. Because computer devices are more reliable than humans, an opportunity exists to improve physiologic monitoring and reduce alarm fatigue. PMID:25338067

Drew, Barbara J.; Harris, Patricia; Zegre-Hemsey, Jessica K.; Mammone, Tina; Schindler, Daniel; Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Tinoco, Adelita; Ding, Quan; Hu, Xiao

2014-01-01

27

Medical audible alarms: a review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

Edworthy, Judy

2013-01-01

28

Reaction time of a health care team to monitoring alarms in the intensive care unit: implications for the safety of seriously ill patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the characteristics and measure the reaction time of a health care team monitoring alarms in the intensive care unit. Methods A quantitative, observational, and descriptive study developed at the coronary care unit of a cardiology public hospital in Rio de Janeiro state (RJ). Data were obtained from the information collected on the patients, the monitoring used, and the measurement of the team's reaction time to the alarms of multi-parameter monitors during a non-participatory field observation. Results Eighty-eight patients were followed (49 during the day shift and 39 during the night shift). During the 40 hours of observation (20 hours during the day shift and 20 hours during the night shift), the total number of monitoring alarms was 227, with 106 alarms during the day shift and 121 during the night shift, an average of 5.7 alarms/hour. In total, 145 alarms unanswered by the team were observed, with 68 occurring during the day shift (64.15%) and 77 during the night shift (63.64%). This study demonstrated that the reaction time was longer than 10 minutes in more than 60% of the alarms, which were considered as unanswered alarms. The median reaction time of the answered alarms was 4 minutes and 54 seconds during the day shift and 4 minutes and 55 seconds during the night shift. The respiration monitoring was activated in only nine patients (23.07%) during the night shift. Regarding the alarm quality of these variables, the arrhythmia alarm was qualified in only 10 (20.40%) of the day-shift patients and the respiration alarm in four night-shift patients (44.44%). Conclusion The programming and configuration of the physiological variables monitored and the parameters of alarms in the intensive care unit were inadequate; there was a delay and lack of response to the alarms, suggesting that relevant alarms may have been ignored by the health care team, thus compromising the patient safety. PMID:24770686

Bridi, Adriana Carla; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra; de Farias, Carolina Correa Pinto; Franco, Andrezza Serpa; dos Santos, Viviane de Lima Quintas

2014-01-01

29

Terrestrial predator alarm vocalizations are a valid monitor of stress in captive brown capuchins (Cebus apella)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vocal behavior of captive animals is increasingly exploited as an index of well-being. Here we show that the terrestrial predator alarm (TPA) vocalization, a robust and acoustically distinctive anti-predation vocal response present in many mammal and bird species, offers useful information on the relative well-being and stress levels of captive animals. In a 16-week experiment evaluating the effects of varying levels of physical environmental enrichment (control < toys < foraging box < foraging box and toys) in the cages of eight singly housed adult male brown capuchins, we quantified the 1) emission rate of TPAs, 2) proportions of normal and abnormal behavior sample intervals, and 3) fecal and plasma cortisol levels. Variation in TPA emission across the experimental conditions was significant. We found significant reductions in the mean TPA production rate by the group in the enriched (toys, foraging box, and foraging box and toys) compared to the control condition; pre-and post-experimental conditions, however, did not differ from the control condition. Mean TPA production by the group was also significantly positively correlated to mean group levels of fecal cortisol and proportion of abnormal behavior sample intervals, and significantly negatively correlated to the average proportion of normal behavior sample intervals in the group. Based on group means, plasma cortisol levels were positively, but not significantly, related to increasing TPA rate. At the level of the responses of an individual subject, however, the covariation between the vocal and non-vocal behavioral measures and the cortisol assays seldom attained significance. Nevertheless, the direction of the relationships among these parameters within individual subjects typically mirrored those correlations based on group means. At both the group mean and individual levels, our results are consistent with the.

Boinski, S.; Gross, T. S.; Davis, J. K.

1999-01-01

30

Managing the false alarms: A framework for assurance and verification of surveillance monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses methods to support assurance of surveillance monitoring and compliance verification knowledge management\\u000a (CV-KM). The discussion includes aspects of primary monitoring systems, the different environments in which they operate,\\u000a the verification problem solving and decision making tasks, the problem structure, and the coordination of the review process\\u000a to facilitate truth maintenance and regulatory Meta rules. Based on the

Peter Goldschmidt

2007-01-01

31

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1988-04-22

32

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01

33

Rack Protection Monitor  

SciTech Connect

A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

Orr, Stanley G.

1998-10-21

34

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2014-04-01

35

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2011-04-01

36

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2012-04-01

37

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2010-04-01

38

21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis alarm is a...

2013-04-01

39

Hidden Alarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent a device that will make their friends and family ask, "What's buzzing?" Learners design an alarm with an on/off switch that is small enough to hide. This activity is a fun, hands-on way for learners to get a taste for the design process and experiment with circuitry.

Wgbh

2010-01-01

40

Wasabi Alarm  

E-print Network

. The chemists invented an alarm that harnesses the power of wasabi fumes to alert people to fire. It seems the fumes contain an irritant active enough to work even when you're asleep. Plus the food/warning system fusion has the advantage of being effective even...

Hacker, Randi

2011-11-23

41

The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Chen, Xihui [ORNL; Danilova, Katia [ORNL

2009-01-01

42

Learn about Smoke Alarms  

MedlinePLUS

... volt battery or a non-replaceable 10-year lithium (“long-life”) battery. Alarms that get power from ... years. Smoke alarm powered by a 10-year lithium (or “long-life”) battery Test the alarm monthly. ...

43

Multisensor Fireproof Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to present situation and unsaved problems of home fireproof alarm system, the intelligent fireproof alarm system based on public telephone net is introduced. In the system, flammable gas sensor, temperature sensor and smoke sensor are used as the detection devices; the Single Chip Microprocessor (SCM) is used as the control core unit; and the intelligent alarm function is accomplished

Lin Jiang; Jian Xun Jin; Yan Xia Wang

2011-01-01

44

Rack Protection Monitor - A Simple System  

SciTech Connect

The Rack Protection Monitor is a simple, fail-safe device to monitor smoke, temperature and ventilation sensors. It accepts inputs from redundant sensors and has a hardwired algorithm to prevent nuisance power trips due to random sensor failures. When a sensor is triggered the Rack Protection Monitor latches and annunicates the alarm. If another sensor is triggered, the Rack Protection Monitor locally shuts down the power to the relay rack and sends alarm to central control.

Orr, S.

1997-12-01

45

The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

2014-07-01

46

Spacecraft operations automation: Automatic alarm notification and web telemetry display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In these times of Faster, Better, Cheaper (FBC) spacecraft, Spacecraft Operations Automation is an area that is targeted by many Operations Teams. To meet the challenges of the FBC environment, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Operations Team designed and quickly implemented two new low-cost technologies: one which monitors spacecraft telemetry, checks the status of the telemetry, and contacts technical experts by pager when any telemetry datapoints exceed alarm limits, and a second which allows quick and convenient remote access to data displays. The first new technology is Automatic Alarm Notification (AAN). AAN monitors spacecraft telemetry and will notify engineers automatically if any telemetry is received which creates an alarm condition. The second new technology is Web Telemetry Display (WTD). WTD captures telemetry displays generated by the flight telemetry system and makes them available to the project web server. This allows engineers to check the health and status of the spacecraft from any computer capable of connecting to the global internet, without needing normally-required specialized hardware and software. Both of these technologies have greatly reduced operations costs by alleviating the need to have operations engineers monitor spacecraft performance on a 24 hour per day, 7 day per week basis from a central Mission Support Area. This paper gives details on the design and implementation of AAN and WTD, discusses their limitations, and lists the ongoing benefits which have accrued to MGS Flight Operations since their implementation in late 1996.

Short, Owen G.; Leonard, Robert E.; Bucher, Allen W.; Allen, Bryan

1999-11-01

47

Make an Alarm!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After reading the story "Dear Mr. Henshaw" by Beverly Cleary, student groups create alarm systems to protect something in the classroom, just as the main character Leigh does to protect his lunchbox from thieves. Students learn about alarms and use their creativity to devise multi-step alarm systems to protect their lockers, desk, pets or classroom door. Note: This activity can also be done without reading the Cleary book.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

48

Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality.  

PubMed

Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language. PMID:24146908

Schel, Anne Marijke; Townsend, Simon W; Machanda, Zarin; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slocombe, Katie E

2013-01-01

49

Alarm handler for the advanced photon source control system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory, will have a control system employing graphics workstations at the operator interface level and VME-based microprocessors operating with a distributed database at the field level. The alarm handler is an application utilizing X-Windows running on one or more operator interface workstations which monitors alarms generated by the VME-based microprocessors. Alarms can be grouped in a hierarchical manner. The operator can monitor, acknowledge, and mask alarms either individually or aggregately. Alarm changes of state and all operator modifications are logged. When alarms occur, display windows are automatically generated conveying system and subsystem relationships and severity. Menus are used to modify the alarm action configuration files and to obtain help. Since alarm groups are defined via an alarm configuration file, the alarm handler is a general purpose application which can be customized to monitor a single subsystem or configured to monitor the entire accelerator complex. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Kraimer, M.R.; Cha, B.K.; Anderson, M.

1991-01-01

50

FundAlarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FundAlarm is a "a free, non-commercial Website [which provides] objective information to help individual investors make the mutual fund 'sell' decision." Highlighted on this site is the FundAlarm database, which contains over 3,400 stock and balanced mutual funds. The database may be browsed by name of fund, or users can browse only fidelity and Vanguard funds, as well as search by up to five ticker symbols. The site also explains its benchmarking system of ranking funds, offers shop talk in its Highlights and Commentary section, and includes a discussion board. Interested users may sign up for free email notification of FundAlarm updates.

51

Design change No. 3418 Criticality Alarm System (CAS) 105 N  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes, within the last ten years, in regulatory criteria for concept and design of a Criticality Alarm System (CAS) mandates the installation of a new measurement and alarm system to replace those channels previously assigned to the N-Reactor Tracerlab Area Radiation Monitoring System. The areas to be monitored for a criticality event will be the green fuel storage area,

Blackaby

1976-01-01

52

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

53

Video systems for alarm assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Greenwoll, D.A.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Ebel, P.E. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

1991-09-01

54

Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

1995-03-01

55

A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

1994-06-10

56

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

CHANDLER, L.T.

57

Criticality accident alarm system at the Fernald Environmental Management Project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) presently installed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for monitoring areas requiring criticality controls, and some of the concerns associated with the operation of this system. The system at the FEMP is known as the Radiation Detection Alarm (RDA) System.

Marble, R.C.; Brown, T.D.; Wooldridge, J.C.

1994-06-01

58

Developing an Alarm Manager Based on Web Services 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alarm manager aimed at monitoring students' activities in online courses over the Internet. The goal is to show an alarm manager to give more support to distance teaching, and help the teacher to have a thorough follow-up of distance students, thus minimizing the teacher's task of looking for information in long reports or complex graphs. Besides,

Daniela Leal Musa; Marcel Weschenfelder; José Palazzo; Moreira de Oliveira

59

Monitoring surging glaciers of the Pamirs, central Asia, from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of surging glaciers of the Pamirs, central Asia, has been studied using repeat remote-sensing surveys in the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, since the early 1970s. We use images obtained from national Resurs-F satellites (1972-91), as well as Landsat 7 and Terra (1999-2006), to provide a basis for monitoring of surging glaciers, aimed at developing their inventory, studying the causes and mechanisms of surges and examining the timing and extent of glacial catastrophes. The inventory from the early 1990s allows identification of 215 glaciers with a dynamically unstable regime. We discovered 51 surging glaciers. Up until 2006, 10 more surges had occurred. We use stereoscopic deciphering and photogrammetric processing of consecutive satellite images to study the morphology and ice-velocity changes of several compound surging glaciers. We analyze the results of monitoring of Bivachny and Oktyabr'sky glaciers from 1972 to 1991 and Sugran glacier from 1972 to 2006. Two surges of Sugran glacier occurred during this time: an internal surge in 1976-80, and a surge with glacier tongue advance as far as 4.5 km in 2000-05. The role of damming in compound glacier systems is examined. Satellite-based monitoring is now the only method for obtaining initial information about the state and fluctuations of such glaciers.

Kotlyakov, V. M.; Osipova, G. B.; Tsvetkov, D. G.

60

Dynamic alarm response procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

2006-07-01

61

Alarm communications for a FITL system remote power source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bellcore has worked with its clients to define a cost-effective solution for providing an alarm capability for centralized power sources not co-located with host digital terminals (HDTs). This capability considered several constraints (simplicity, economics, and mix-and-match capability). After evaluating several possible methods, it was proposed that a remote centralized power source should communicate alarms to the “closest” optical network unit

H. R. Salloum; M. A. Seely; R. E. Willis

1993-01-01

62

Hospital Study Offers Solutions to 'Alarm Fatigue'  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital Study Offers Solutions to 'Alarm Fatigue' 2.5 ... million alarms in one month at a U.S. hospital, a new study of "alarm fatigue" shows. Alarm ...

63

D0 Cryo System ODH and Cryo Alarm System Response  

SciTech Connect

The D0 Cryo System is monitored by a computerized process control system and an ODH safety system. During steady state operations the cryo system will be unmanned and system experts will depend on communication systems for notification of system problems. The FIRUS system meets the minimum communication requirement and is supplemented with an autodialer which attempts to contact cryo operators by pager or phone. The RD/Safety Department requires the ODH monitor system to be connected to the labwide FIRUS system. which enables the Communications Center to receive alarms and notify the proper experts of the condition. The ODH system will have two alarm points. One for an ODH alarm and one for a system trouble alarm. The autodialer system has replaced a former cryo operations summation alarm point in the FIRUS system. This has freed space on the FIRUS system and has allowed the cryo experts more flexibility in setting up their own communication link. The FIRUS and the autodialer systems receive alarms and access lists of experts to call for notification of problems. Attempts to contact these experts will continue until the alarm or alarms is acknowledged.

Urbin, J.; Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

1990-04-05

64

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1987-04-13

65

Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

Chen, Xiao

2009-07-01

66

Alarm toe switch  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1982-01-01

67

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

68

Lower thermocouple estimation Alarm signal  

E-print Network

Lower thermocouple estimation +_ Model Alarm signal Algorithm Casting speed Alarm signal in continuous casting L. Bazart (ArcelorMittal R&D), A. Khelassi (ArcelorMittal R&D), D. Maquin (Centre de advanced diagnosis tools for the detection of abnormal events and operating mode changing in steel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Mobilising around a risk : from alarm raisers to alarm carriers  

E-print Network

the question of alarm raisers. We have been able to show how the configuration that we have labelled "vigilance French agency for food safety. #12;risk (BSE, GMO), previously "political" dangers are re

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.  

PubMed

False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity. PMID:22851230

Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

2013-01-01

71

A system identification approach to non-invasive central cardiovascular monitoring  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a new system identification approach to non-invasive central cardiovascular monitoring problem. For this objective, this thesis will develop and analyze blind system identification and input signal ...

Hahn, Jin-Oh, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

72

Development of net cage acoustic alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

2001-05-01

73

SYSTEM FOR CENTRAL MONITORING, CONTROL, DATA ACQUISITION, AND AUTOMATIC REGULATION FOR ARWQM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with construction of device for water quality monitoring on open water flows and connection of devices on individual river basins into central system for monitoring and supervision through GPRS modem. The device was tested on the WWTP (Waste Water Treatment Plant) in coal mine Citluk, Sokobanja, and laboratory of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Nis.

FACTA UNIVERSITATIS

74

Remote and Centralized Monitoring of PV Power Csaba Kopacz, Sergiu Spataru, Dezso Sera, and Tamas Kerekes  

E-print Network

Remote and Centralized Monitoring of PV Power Plants Csaba Kopacz, Sergiu Spataru, Dezso Sera-cost and flexible monitoring system for PV plants. Compared to classical solutions which can require dedicated (PV) power is continuously increasing [1], the need for management and optimal energy harvesting from

Sera, Dezso

75

Knowledge Discovery from Telecommunication Network Alarm Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A telecommunication network produces daily large amounts of alarm data. The data contains hidden valuable knowledge about the behavior of the network. This knowledge can be used in filtering redundant alarms, locating problems in, the network, and possibly in predicting severe faults. We describe the TASA (Telecommunication Network Alarm Sequence Analyzer) system for discovering and browsing knowledge from large alarm

Kimmo Hätönen; Mika Klemettinen; Heikki Mannila; Pirjo Ronkainen; Hannu Toivonen

1996-01-01

76

EPN Status, Monitoring and Network Management at the Central Bureau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) is a network of more than 210 continuously operating GPS and GPS+GLONASS reference stations maintained on a voluntary basis by the EUREF members. Depending on the station data policy, daily (mandatory), hourly RINEX, 15min high-rate RINEX and real-time data are made available. The EPN Central Bureau is responsible for the day-to-day management of the EPN

C. Bruyninx; J. Legrand; N. Bergeot; E. Pottiaux

2009-01-01

77

46 CFR 78.47-13 - Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm...47-13 Fire detecting and manual alarm, automatic sprinkler, and smoke detecting alarm...The fire detecting and manual alarm automatic sprinklers, and smoke detecting...

2010-10-01

78

RIS-M-2511 FUNCTIONAL ALARMING AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL  

E-print Network

RISÃ?-M-2511 FUNCTIONAL ALARMING AND INFORMATION RETRIEVAL L . P . G o o d s t e i n A b s t r a c PLANTS; INFORMATION NEEDS; INFORMATION RETRIEVAL; MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS; MONITORING; POWER PLANTS. August DISPLAY 11 INFORMATION RETRIEVAL 13 EVALUATION 14 CONCLUDING REMARKS 14 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 17 REFERENCES 17

79

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

80

Integrating Multiple Alarms & Driver Situation Awareness  

E-print Network

This study addresses this gap in CAS and intelligent alarm research by examining whether or not a single master alarm warning versus multiple warnings for the different collision warning systems conveys adequate information ...

Cummings, M. L.

2006-01-01

81

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2012-10-01

82

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2013-10-01

83

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2011-10-01

84

46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms. (a) Each alarm required by § 130.460 of this...

2010-10-01

85

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

86

Habitat use during the aquatic phase of the newts Triturus vulgaris (L.) and T. cristatus (Laurenti) in central Norway: proposition for a conservation and monitoring area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphibian populations are declining at an alarming pace in many parts of the world. Consequently, as part of the strategy for establishing a 360 km2 conservation and reference area for amphibians in central Norway, 341 lentic water bodies were surveyed to investigate and briefly describe their hydrography and the occurrence of the newts Triturus vulgaris (L.) and T. cristatus (Laurenti)

Jon K. Skei; Dag Dolmen; Lars Rønning; Thor H. Ringsby

2006-01-01

87

Centralized remote structural monitoring and management of real-time data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural health monitoring (SHM) activities in civil engineering are increasing at a rapid pace in both research and field applications. This paper addresses the specific issue of incorporating internet technology into a structural health monitoring program. The issue of data volume versus communication speed is discussed along with a practical solution employed by ISIS Canada. The approach is illustrated through reference to several current case studies which include two bridges and a statue. It is seen that although the specifics of the projects and monitoring needs are different, the manner in which on-line monitoring can be conducted is very similar and easily allows for centralized monitoring. A general framework for website construction integrating sensing data and web camera options are presented. Issues related to simple real-time performance indices versus more comprehensive complex data analysis are discussed. Examples of on-line websites which allow visualization of new and historic data are presented. The paper also discusses future activities and research needs related to centralized remote structural monitoring and management of real-time data.

Han, Liting; Newhook, John P.; Mufti, Aftab A.

2004-07-01

88

NASA LCLUC Program: An Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Central Africa has the second largest unfragmented block of tropical rain forest in the world; it is also one of the largest carbon and biodiversity reservoirs. With nearly one-third of the forest currently allocated for logging, the region is poised to undergo extensive land-use change. Through the mapping of the forests, our Integrated Forest Monitoring System for Central Africa (INFORMS) project aims to monitor habitat alteration, support biodiversity conservation, and promote better land-use planning and forest management. Designed as an interdisciplinary project, its goal is to integrate data acquired from satellites with field observations from forest inventories, wildlife surveys, and socio-economic studies to map and monitor forest resources. This project also emphasizes on collaboration and coordination with international, regional, national, and local partners-including non-profit, governmental, and commercial sectors. This project has been focused on developing remote sensing products for the needs of forest conservation and management, insuring that research findings are incorporated in forest management plans at the national level. The societal impact of INFORMS can be also appreciated through the development of a regional remote sensing network in central Africa. With a regional office in Kinshasa, (www.OSFAC.org), the contribution to the development of forest management plans for 1.5 million hectares of forests in northern Republic of Congo (www.tt-timber.com), and the monitoring of park encroachments in the Albertine region (Uganda and DRC) (www.albertinerift.org).

Laporte, Nadine; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Elkan, Paul; Desmet, Olivier; Paget, Dominique; Pumptre, Andrew; Gouala, Patrice; Honzack, Miro; Maisels, Fiona

2004-01-01

89

46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1365 Audible and visual alarms. (a) Each audible alarm must have an arrangement that allows it to be turned off after sounding. For remote group alarms this arrangement must not interrupt the alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each...

2010-10-01

90

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2010-10-01

91

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2012-10-01

92

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2013-10-01

93

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2011-10-01

94

Making ICU alarms meaningful: a comparison of traditional vs. trend-based algorithms.  

PubMed Central

Much of the work in the ICU revolves around information that is recorded by electronic devices. Such devices typically incorporate simple alarm functions that trigger when a value exceeds predefined limits. Depending on the parameter followed, these "boundary based" alarms tend to produce vast numbers of false alarms. Some are the result of false reading and some the result of true but clinically insignificant readings. We present a computerized module that analyzes real-time data from multiple monitoring devices using a customizable logic engine. The module was tested on 6 intensive care unit patients over 5 days, running alarm algorithms for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as arterial oxygen saturation. Results show a ten-fold increase in positive predictive value of alarms from 3% using monitor alarms to 32% using the module. The module's overall sensitivity was 82%, failing to detect 18% of significant alarms as defined by the ICU staff. The results suggests that implementation of such methodology may assist in filtering false and insignificant alarms in the ICU setting. PMID:10566385

Schoenberg, R.; Sands, D. Z.; Safran, C.

1999-01-01

95

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

96

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

97

Sewage Monitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

1987-01-01

98

Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless underground nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) was accepted by the state regulator and the environmental remediation efforts at the site have progressed to the stages of model validation and long-term monitoring design. This report discusses the long-term monitoring strategy developed for CNTA. Subsurface monitoring is an expensive and time-consuming process, and the design approach should be based on a solid foundation. As such, a thorough literature review of monitoring network design is first presented. Monitoring well networks can be designed for a number of objectives including aquifer characterization, parameter estimation, compliance monitoring, detection monitoring, ambient monitoring, and research monitoring, to name a few. Design methodologies also range from simple hydrogeologic intuition-based tools to sophisticated statistical- and optimization-based tools. When designing the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA, a number of issues are carefully considered. These are the uncertainty associated with the subsurface environment and its implication for monitoring design, the cost associated with monitoring well installation and operation, the design criteria that should be used to select well locations, and the potential conflict between different objectives such as early detection versus impracticality of placing wells in the vicinity of the test cavity. Given these considerations and the literature review of monitoring design studies, a multi-staged approach for development of the long-term monitoring well network for CNTA is proposed. This multi-staged approach will proceed in parallel with the validation efforts for the groundwater flow and transport model of CNTA. Two main stages are identified as necessary for the development of the final long-term monitoring well network for the site. The first stage is to use hydrogeologic expertise combined with model simulations and probability based approaches to select the first set of monitoring wells that will serve two purposes. The first is to place the wells in areas likely to encounter migration pathways thereby enhancing the probability of detecting radionuclide migration in the long run. The second objective is crucial in the short run and is aimed at using this set of wells to collect validation data for the model. The selection criteria should thus balance these two objectives. Based on the results of the validation process that progresses concurrently with the first monitoring stage, either more wells will be needed in this first stage or the second stage will be initiated. The second monitoring design stage will be based on an optimum design methodology that uses a suitable statistical approach, combined with an optimization approach, to augment the initial set of wells and develop the final long-term monitoring network. The first-stage probabilistic analysis conducted using the CNTA model indicates that the likelihood of migration away from the test cavity is very low and the probability of detecting radionuclides in the next 100 years is extremely low. Therefore, it is recommended to place one well in the downstream direction along the model longitudinal centerline (i.e., directly north of the working point), which is the location with the highest probability of encountering the plume. Lack of significant plume spreading, coupled with the extremely low velocities, suggests that this one well is sufficient for the first stage. Data from this well, and from additional wells located with validation as the prime objective, will benefit the model validation process. In the long run, this first monitoring well is going to be crucial for the long-term monitoring of the site (assuming that the flow model is validated), as it will be the most likely place to detect any plume migration away from the cavity.

A. Hassan

2003-09-02

99

Usefulness of central venous oxygen saturation monitoring during bidirectional Glenn shunt.  

PubMed

A PediaSat™ oximetry catheter (PediaSat: Edwards Lifesciences Co., Ltd., Irvine, CA, U. S. A.), which facilitates continuous measurement of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), may be useful for surgery for pediatric congenital heart disease. We used PediaSat during a bidirectional Glenn shunt. The patient was a 13-month-old boy. Under a diagnosis of left single ventricle (pulmonary atresia, right ventricular hypoplasia, atrial septal defect) and residual left aortic arch/left superior vena cava, a modified right Blalock-Taussig shunt was performed. Cyanosis deteriorated, so a bidirectional Glenn shunt was scheduled. After anesthesia induction, a 4.5 Fr double-lumen (8 cm) PediaSat was inserted through the right internal jugular vein for continuous ScvO2 monitoring. Furthermore, the probe of a near-infrared, mixed blood oxygen saturation-measuring monitor was attached to the forehead for continuous monitoring of the regional brain tissue mixed blood oxygen saturation (rSO2) (INVOS™ 5100C, Covidien; Boulder, CO, U. S. A.). Blockage of the right pulmonary artery and right superior vena cava decreased the oxygen saturation, ScvO2, and rSO2, but increased the central venous pressure. Although changes in ScvO2 were parallel to those in rSO2, the former showed more marked changes. A combination of ScvO2 and rSO2 for monitoring during Glenn shunt may be safer. PMID:24190047

Kakuta, Nami; Kawahito, Shinji; Mita, Naoji; Kambe, Noriko; Kasai, Asuka; Wakamatsu, Narutomo; Katayama, Toshiko; Soga, Tomohiro; Tada, Fumihiko; Kitaichi, Takashi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Kitahata, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

100

Large-scale application of seismic steamflood monitoring in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - progress report  

SciTech Connect

After a successful single-pattern field trial, an endeavor to apply seismic steamflood monitoring technology on a scale designed to meet the requirements of heat management programs has commenced in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - one of the largest heavy oil enhanced recovery projects in the world. A baseline 3-D seismic survey was acquired in April, 1995, just prior to the start of steam injection in a 31 pattern area. The first of four monitor 3-D seismic surveys was acquired 8 months later. Differences between the two seismic surveys were used to monitor steamflood evolution and optimize EOR and heat management processes. This paper will address a wide range of topics including expected economic benefits, planning, seismic acquisition and processing, modeling and analysis, and impact on EOR and heat management processes. A special emphasis will be given to value resulting from interdisciplinary synergy.

Waite, M.; Setyiadi, B.; Primadi, H.; Gross, S. [PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia)

1996-12-31

101

Large-scale application of seismic steamflood monitoring in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - progress report  

SciTech Connect

After a successful single-pattern field trial, an endeavor to apply seismic steamflood monitoring technology on a scale designed to meet the requirements of heat management programs has commenced in Duri Field, Central Sumatra - one of the largest heavy oil enhanced recovery projects in the world. A baseline 3-D seismic survey was acquired in April, 1995, just prior to the start of steam injection in a 31 pattern area. The first of four monitor 3-D seismic surveys was acquired 8 months later. Differences between the two seismic surveys were used to monitor steamflood evolution and optimize EOR and heat management processes. This paper will address a wide range of topics including expected economic benefits, planning, seismic acquisition and processing, modeling and analysis, and impact on EOR and heat management processes. A special emphasis will be given to value resulting from interdisciplinary synergy.

Waite, M.; Setyiadi, B.; Primadi, H.; Gross, S. (PT Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Sumatra (Indonesia))

1996-01-01

102

2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

None

2009-03-01

103

Development of real time alarm/surveillance system  

SciTech Connect

PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

1987-07-01

104

Neural Mechanisms of Alarm Pheromone Signaling  

PubMed Central

Alarm pheromones are important semiochemicals used by many animal species to alert conspecifics or other related species of impending danger. In this review, we describe recent developments in our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the ability of fruit flies, zebrafish and mice to mediate the detection of alarm pheromones. Specifically, alarm pheromones are detected in these species through specialized olfactory subsystems that are unique to the chemosensitive receptors, second messenger-signaling and physiology. Thus, the alarm pheromones appear to be detected by signaling mechanisms that are distinct from those seen in the canonical olfactory system. PMID:23471444

Enjin, Anders; Suh, Greg Seong-Bae

2013-01-01

105

Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

Berger, J.F.

1995-03-01

106

ABCDE - Alarm Basic Correlations Discovery Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarms generated by telecommunication network are processed by network personnel who are required to respond within a reasonable time interval. When a global network problem occurs, it is represented as a sequence of alarms coming from one or more different network elements. That sequence is typically not recognized as a global problem, or the presence of global problem is detected,

Oliver Jukic; Marijan Kunstic

2010-01-01

107

ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements  

E-print Network

ICE Pulse Oximeter Smart Alarm App Requirements 6 March 2012 Revision 0-5 sentences stating the nature of the app (e.g., MDDS, derived alarm, app panel of the app and the functionality that the app provides that advances the current

Huth, Michael

108

CFN Bldg 735 Safety Awareness Fire Alarms  

E-print Network

being the normal ringing in the event of a fire. The second one is a temporal 3 (distinct ring) followedCFN Bldg 735 Safety Awareness Fire Alarms: There are 2 different fire alarms in the CFN. The first, Pyrophoric gases, flammable gases #12;CFN Bldg 735 Safety Awareness If you discover a fire, you should

Ohta, Shigemi

109

T-Farm complex alarm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

Roberts, J.B.

1995-01-01

110

Centralized video monitoring for patient safety: a Denver Health Lean journey.  

PubMed

The demand for certified nursing assistant (CNA) staff used as 1:1 sitters for safety enhancement and fall prevention can be costly. Through Lean thinking and tools and brainstorming, leaders at Denver Health conceptualized the centralized video monitoring (CVM) program for patient safety. The CVM program reallocated the underutilized talents of CNA sitters as video monitoring technicians (VMT) to meet the challenge of delivering high-quality, cost-effective patient care. Implementing the CVM program required tight connections and collaboration with a multidisciplinary team of individuals. Actual program performance exceeded the initial projected benefits. The CVM program supports the high level of vigilance required by nursing staff to ensure patient safety and quality. PMID:24592534

Jeffers, Sharon; Searcey, Phebe; Boyle, Kathy; Herring, Carol; Lester, Kathleen; Goetz-Smith, Hillarie; Nelson, Polly

2013-01-01

111

Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench  

E-print Network

ESL-TR-92/05-05 Monitoring the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner under Degraded Conditions on a Test Bench Manivannan Palani, Research Assistant Dennis O'Neal Ph. D., P.E. Dr. Jeff Haberl Ph. D., P.E. May 1992 DRAFT ABSTRACT... This report presents the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under degraded conditions. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three- ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion device...

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D. L.; Haberl, J. S.

1992-01-01

112

2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

None

2013-04-01

113

2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

None

2010-09-01

114

Essays on remote monitoring as an emerging tool for centralized management of decentralized wastewater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the United States Environmental Protections Agency (USEPA), nearly one in four households in the United States depends on an individual septic system (commonly referred as an onsite system or a decentralized wastewater system) to treat and disperse wastewater. More than half of these systems are over 30 years old, and surveys indicate at least 10 to 20% might not be functioning properly. The USEPA concluded in its 1997 report to Congress that adequately managed decentralized wastewater systems (DWS) are a cost-effective and long-term option for meeting public health and water quality goals, particularly in less densely populated areas. The major challenge however is the absence of a guiding national regulatory framework based on consistent performance-based standards and lack of proper management of DWS. These inconsistencies pose a significant threat to our water resources, local economies, and public health. This dissertation addresses key policy and regulatory strategies needed in response to the new realities confronting decentralized wastewater management. The two core objectives of this research are to demonstrate the centralized management of DWS paradigm and to present a scientific methodology to develop performance-based standards (a regulatory shift from prescriptive methods) using remote monitoring. The underlying remote monitoring architecture for centralized DWS management and the value of science-based policy making are presented. Traditionally, prescriptive standards using conventional grab sampling data are the norm by which most standards are set. Three case studies that support the potential of remote monitoring as a tool for standards development and system management are presented. The results revealed a vital role for remote monitoring in the development of standardized protocols, policies and procedures that are greatly lacking in this field. This centralized management and remote monitoring paradigm fits well and complements current USEPA policy (13 elements of management); meets the growing need for qualitative data (objective and numerical); has better time efficiencies as real-time events are sampled and translated into machine-readable signals in a short period of time; allows cost saving rapid response to system recovery and operation; produces labor and economic efficiencies through targeted responses; and, improves the quality and operational costs of any management program. This project was funded by the USEPA grant # C-82878001 as part of the National Onsite Demonstration Project (NODP), West Virginia University.

Solomon, Clement

115

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

2013-01-01

116

Conditioned Alarm Behavior in Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas ) Resulting from Association of Chemical Alarm Pheromone with a Nonbiological Visual Stimulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) adopt antipredator (alarm) behavior when they detect alarm pheromone released from an injured conspecific. This is an adaptive response since alarm pheromone is generally released only in the context of a predation event. Alarm reactions may also occur in response to chemical and visual stimuli that minnows learn to associate with release of alarm pheromone. Here,

Warren K. Yunker; Dan E. Wein; Brian D. Wisenden

1999-01-01

117

The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers  

SciTech Connect

The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

PASSELL, HOWARD D.; BARBER, DAVID S.; BETSILL, J. DAVID; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.; MOHAGHEGHI, AMIR H.; SHANKS, SONOYA T.; YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV,BAJGABYL; VALENTINA,ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN,VLADIMIR; POZNIAK,VICTOR

2002-04-02

118

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2010-04-01

119

46 CFR 113.43-3 - Alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...113.43-3 Section 113.43-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Steering Failure Alarm Systems § 113.43-3 Alarm...

2010-10-01

120

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2010-10-01

121

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 97.37-9 Section 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified:...

2011-10-01

122

Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

2014-03-01

123

Giving radioiodine? Think about airport security alarms.  

PubMed

An increased sensitivity of airport detectors, a growing number of isotopic tests, and globalization of the society have raised a number of false positive radioactive alarms at airports and public places. This paper presents two new cases of patients who triggered airport security alarms after receiving 740MBq of (131)I for non-toxic goitre and attempts to compare surprisingly limited literature concerning this problem. A 57-year-old man triggered a security alarm at three different airports on the 17th, 28th, and 31st day after radioiodine exposure. Interestingly enough, in the meantime, on the 18th and 22nd day, no radiation was detected in him at the airport where he was twice detained as a source of radiation later on. The second case presents a 45-year-old woman who activated security alarm detectors while crossing a border on her coach trip 28 days after radioiodine administration. PMID:22226338

Kaniuka-Jakubowska, S; Lewczuk, A; Mizan-Gross, K; Obo?o?czyk, L; Lass, P; Sworczak, K

2012-01-01

124

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives for the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research program was to investigate new methods for immobilizing the enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, on selected supports suitable for use in enzyme alarms. Various coupling procedures were developed for glass, nylon and urethane suppo...

H. W. Levin, E. S. Erenrich

1976-01-01

125

LASL Upgraded Alarm System Functional Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document defines and describes the functional requirements to successfully provide Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with a combined security and fire alarm system that will satisfy the operational needs of various users and provide compliance with ap...

B. L. Hartway, E. N. Shaskey

1977-01-01

126

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2010-10-01

127

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2012-10-01

128

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2011-10-01

129

46 CFR 130.470 - Fire alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.470 Fire alarms. (a) Each fire detector and control unit must be of a...

2013-10-01

130

Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates obtained for the years 1993, 2000 and 2011, were subjected to a trend analysis (Theil-Sen) to assess changes in the series. The results showed that in the semi-arid central Plateau, since 1993 to 2011, the forests and thornscrub have lost 10% of their surface. In stark contrast, urban areas have been increased in 5%. The desertification map showed that 30% of the analyzed surface presents a low desertification condition, 40% half, 20% high and 10% extreme. Forests and thornscrub are the most vulnerable areas to deforestation and hence desertification. Results themselves, suggests that desertification process must be examined in spatiotemporal scale and remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor and analyze this phenomena.

Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

2013-05-01

131

[Development of a wrist wearing and remote heart rate alarm apparatus].  

PubMed

We have developed a new wrist wearing heart rate monitoring alarm apparatus, which can detect the patients' real-time pulse waves. When the abnormal heart rate appears or pulse disappears, the monitoring alarm will sound and dial the remote telephone for help simultaneously. This apparatus uses the switch circuit to control the keyboard of mobile phone, and dials remote telephone in the help of mature technology and communication platform of mobile phones. The intelligent program can distinguish digital pulse signal, pick out the correct cycle of heartbeat intelligently. The new wrist wearing heart rate monitoring alarm apparatus will calculate an average heart rate when it captures consecutively five correct electrocardiograph waveforms. It really provides a simple, inexpensive and effective way for the patients with heart disease. PMID:23858750

Zhao, Ruibin; Meng, Yanjun; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Yanru; Zhang, Jingjing; Fan, Zhenzhong

2013-04-01

132

Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 - 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification. PMID:23645993

Fuller, Christina H; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L; Spengler, John D

2012-09-01

133

Centralized and decentralized process and sensor fault monitoring using data fusion based on adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated design framework to utilize multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) techniques for process monitoring enhancement to detect and diagnose sensor and process faults. Two different distributed and centralized architectures are presented to integrate the multi-sensor data based on extended Kalman filter (EKF) data fusion algorithm. The distributed integration architecture uses the state-vector fusion method, while the centralized

Karim Salahshoor; Mohsen Mosallaei; Mohammadreza Bayat

2008-01-01

134

Determinants of false alarms in staging flocks of semipalmated sandpipers  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarms occur when animals flee abruptly upon detection of a threat that subsequently proved harmless. False alarms are common in many species of birds and mammals and account for a surprisingly high proportion of all alarms. False alarms are expected to be more frequent in larger groups, where the odds of misclassifying threats are higher, and under environmental conditions

Guy Beauchamp

2010-01-01

135

Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals?  

E-print Network

NOTE Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals? Anca S. Petrescu, Edward B. Mondor, and Bernard D. Roitberg Abstract: When attacked by a predator, pea to disperse from the area. However, herbivore-damaged plants also emit (E)-- farnesene. We hypothesized

Mondor, Ed

136

Rockfall hazard alarm strategy based on FBG smart passive net structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize working state remote monitoring for a passive net, alarm timely and correctly for the rockfall invasion, and solve the disadvantages in the existing means, such as needing power supply in situ, vulnerability to electromagnetic interference and environmental climate impact, a smart passive net structure based on the optical fiber sensing technology was designed which equipped with intercepting and sensing functions. The wire rope net as one part of the smart passive net was weaved with two kinds of optical fiber sensing elements, namely, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) perimeter severity sensors and optical fiber monitoring net with each end of the tail fiber containing an FBG probe. Based on the proposed smart structure, a combination alarm strategy for rockfall was proposed, which can distinguish transmission bug, whether the rockfall invasion or net broken occurs. Through a designed simulation test, the effectiveness of the proposed alarm strategy was certificated.

Li, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Hu, Jun

2014-09-01

137

The ERS-1 Central Africa Mosaic: a new perspective in radar remote sensing for the global monitoring of vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Africa Mosaic Project (CAMP) is an attempt to bring spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing into an entirely new perspective for tropical forest monitoring, this goal represents a drastic change in the use of radar data, as it brings high-resolution SAR from the role of gap-filler and local hot spot analysis to the role of global mapping

Gianfranco De Grandi; Jean-Paul Malingreau; Marc Leysen

1999-01-01

138

Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia. Therefore, the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities, and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research. This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period. The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s, TM images from the early 1990s, ETM + images in the late 1990s, and TM images in 2007. The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area, from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007. As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part, the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east. There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions. The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions. Most significantly, the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975. The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007. The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types. The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%, and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%. Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period. Due to global climate warming, vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked, resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000. The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff. Consequently, the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.

Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

2012-06-01

139

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

SciTech Connect

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder`s making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, D.W.

1994-12-31

140

The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (Central Europe) - Five Years of Seismo-Hydrological Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone - generally a NW-SE striking reverse fault - is a major fault zone forming the NE border of the Bohemian Massif. The zone is located in the center of the SE part of the important central European tectonic structure - the Elbe Fault system. The Bohemian Massif in general is a region with a weak intraplate seismicity. Two areas are exceptions - the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region and the Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (HPFZ). The HPFZ is a result of long-lasting evolution since the late Paleozoic with several tectonic phases. The contemporary HPFZ consist of a main reverse fault (thrust) accompanied by parallel or oblique normal or reverse faults. The fault zone is still tectonically active, the relatively frequent weak local earthquakes being one of the proofs of this activity. The strongest earthquake registered within the HPFZ was the January 1901 earthquake with the magnitude of 4.6. Another proof of the mobility is a presence of CO2-rich mineral springs in the area. The hydrogeological and seismic monitoring in the area aims to find possible connections between changes in the ground water level and seismic events. The hydrological changes are monitored in four wells by water level sensors. The ground water level is measured every 10 minutes, the air pressure every hour. The sesimicity is monitored by four broadband seismic stations (CHVC, DPC, OSTC and UPC) with sampling frequency of 100 or 250 Hz. The recorded data are automatically scanned for possible local earthquakes which are then reviewed by seismologists and further processed. Several distinct ground water level changes were observed on one well before some of the local earthquakes. Very distinct ground water level changes were also observed on one well before the Tohoku M 9.0 earthquake. In addition to a simple examination of variations in a ground water level we also compute a phase shift (delay) between the band-passed filtered water level and theoretical tides. Changes in the delay could indicate changes in stress conditions of the rock massif. In the period of increased seismic activity the phase shift on one of the wells significantly increases compared to the period of seismic inactivity. However, the possible connections between changes in water levels and earthquakes still could not be satisfactorily proved and explained.

Valenta, J.; Kolinsky, P.; Gazdova, R.

2013-12-01

141

Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.  

PubMed

Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ? 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed. PMID:25224606

Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

2014-12-01

142

Central blood pressure by EIT Page nr. 1 of 14 Non-invasive monitoring of central blood  

E-print Network

and costs, while improving patient comfort and safety. In recent years, electrocardiograms, intermittent the way towards the monitoring of cardiac and vascular parameters in hospitals and out-patients [8 4 Department of Anesthesioloy, Hospital privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina Corresponding

Adler, Andy

143

Groundwater Age in Multi-Level Water Quality Monitor Wells on California Central Valley Dairies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dairy farming in California's Central Valley is a significant source of nitrate to underlying aquifers. One approach to mitigation is to implement farm-scale management plans that reduce nutrient loading to groundwater while sustaining crop yield. While the effect of different management practices on crop yield is easily measured, their effect on groundwater quality has only infrequently been evaluated. Documenting and predicting the impact of management on water quality requires a quantitative assessment of transport (including timescale and mixing) through the vadose and saturated zones. In this study, we measured tritium, helium isotopic composition, and noble gas concentrations in groundwater drawn from monitor wells on several dairies in the Lower San Joaquin Valley and Tulare Lake Basin of California's Central Valley in order to predict the timescales on which changes in management may produce observable changes in groundwater quality. These dairies differ in age (from <10 to >100 years old), thickness of the vadose zone (from <10 to 60 m), hydrogeologic setting, and primary source of irrigation water (surface or groundwater). All of the dairies use manure wastewater for irrigation and fertilization. Three of the dairies have implemented management changes designed to reduce nutrient loading and/or water usage. Monitor wells in the southern Tulare Lake Basin dairies were installed by UC-Davis as multi-level nested wells allowing depth profiling of tritium and noble gases at these sites. Tritium/helium-3 groundwater ages, calculated using a simple piston-flow model, range from <2 to >50 years. Initial tritium (the sum of measured tritium and tritiogenic helium-3) is close to or slightly above precipitation in the calculated recharge year for young samples; and significantly above the precipitation curve for older samples. This pattern is consistent with the use of 20-30 year old groundwater recharged before 1980 for irrigation, and illustrates how irrigation with groundwater can complicate the use of tritium alone for age dating. The presence of radiogenic helium-4 in several samples with measurable tritium provides evidence of mixing between pre-modern and younger groundwater. Groundwater age-depth relationships are complicated, consistent with transient flow patterns in shallow agricultural groundwaters affected by irrigation pumping and recharge. For the multi-level installations in the southern dairies, both depth profiles and re-sampling after significant changes in groundwater elevation emphasize the need to sample groundwater within 3 meters of the water table to obtain "first-encounter" groundwater with a tritium/helium-3 age of less than 5 years, and to use age tracers to identify wells and groundwater conditions suitable for monitoring and assessment of best management practice impacts on underlying groundwater quality. This work was carried out with funding from Sustainable Conservation and the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with UC-Davis, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Esser, B. K.; Visser, A.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Singleton, M. J.; Moran, J. E.; Harter, T.

2011-12-01

144

ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE  

SciTech Connect

Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

2012-07-01

145

Using agents to build a practical implementation of the INCA (intelligent community alarm) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an agent system to demonstrate the practically of the INCA (Intelligent Community Support for the Elderly) architecture. This architecture is intended to integrate a number of autonomous systems; home monitoring, community alarms, care management systems and emergency systems command and control systems using agent technology to build effective coordinated care systems. A range of different autonomous bodies

Martin D. Beer; Iain Anderson; Wei Huang

2001-01-01

146

Network video capture and short message service alarm system design based on embedded Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the structure of video capture system based on S3C2440 processor is presented. And the embedded system, video capture, short message service (SMS) alarm, and client video monitor are introduced. Video 4 Linux is used to get the camera video data, which is transferred to the Web Server, and the data is displayed on the client browser or

Duanchun Zhou; Guangxing Tan

2010-01-01

147

Enzyme Immobilization Alternatives For the Enzyme Alarm.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples of glass beads, modified starch urethane pads, nylon and urethane enzyme products which passed wash-out resistance were sent to Edgewood Arsenal. Glass bead products and nylon products do not seem suitable for the alarm. Urethane pads including ch...

H. W. Levin, E. S. Erenrich

1975-01-01

148

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

149

Ambient Ammonia Monitoring in the Central United States Using Passive Diffusion Samplers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental scientists and governmental authorities are increasingly aware of the need for more comprehensive measurements of ambient ammonia in urban, rural and remote locations. As the predominant alkaline gas, ammonia plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry by reacting readily with acidic gases and particles. Ammonium salts often comprise a major portion of the aerosols that impair visibility, not only in urban areas, but also in national parks and other Class I areas. Ammonia is also important as a plant nutrient that directly or indirectly affects terrestrial and aquatic biomes. Successful computer simulations of important environmental processes require an extensive representative data set of ambient ammonia measurements in the range of 0.1 ppbv or greater. Generally instruments with that level of sensitivity are not only expensive, but also require electrical connections, an enclosed shelter and, in many instances, frequent attention from trained technicians. Such requirements significantly restrict the number and locations of ambient ammonia monitors that can be supported. As an alternative we have employed simple passive diffusion samplers to measure ambient ammonia at 9 monitoring sites in the central U.S. over the past 3 years. Passive samplers consist of a layer of an acidic trapping medium supported at a fixed distance behind a microporous barrier for which the diffusive properties are known. Ammonia uptake rates are determined by the manufacturer under controlled laboratory conditions. (When practical, field results are compared against those from collocated conventional samplers, e.g., pumped annular denuders.) After a known exposure time at the sampling site, the sampler is resealed in protective packaging and shipped to the analytical laboratory where the ammonia captured in the acidic medium is carefully extracted and quantified. Because passive samplers are comparatively inexpensive and do not require electricity or other facilities they can be left unattended, even in remote locations. In the extreme case of winter at a background level site in the Boundary Waters Wilderness Area, our 14-day deployments of triplicate samplers achieved reproducible sub-ppbv detection limits.

Caughey, M.; Gay, D.; Sweet, C.

2008-12-01

150

Photographic monitoring of soiling and decay of roadside walls in central Oxford, England  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Environmental Monitoring of Integrated Transport Strategies (EMITS) project, which examined the impact of the Oxford Transport Strategy (OTS) on the soiling and decay of buildings and structures in central Oxford, England, a simple photographic survey of a sample of roadside walls was carried out in 1997, with re-surveys in 1999 and 2003. Thirty photographs were taken each time, covering an area of stonework approximately 30 × 30 cm in dimensions at 1-1.3 m above pavement level. The resulting images have been used to investigate, both qualitatively as well as quantitatively, the progression of soiling and decay. Comparison of images by eye reveals a number of minor changes in soiling and decay patterns, but generally indicates stability except at one site where dramatic, superficial damage occurred over 2 years. Quantitative analysis of decay features (concavities resulting from surface blistering, flaking, and scaling), using simple techniques in Adobe Photoshop, shows variable pixel-based size proportions of concavities across 6 years of survey. Colour images (in Lab Color) generally have a reduced proportion of pixels, representing decay features in comparison to black and white (Grayscale) images. The study conveys that colour images provide more information both for general observations of soiling and decay patterns and for segmentation of decay-produced concavities. The study indicates that simple repeat photography can reveal useful information about changing patterns of both soiling and decay, although unavoidable variation in external lighting conditions between re-surveys is a factor limiting the accuracy of change detection.

Thornbush, Mary J.; Viles, Heather A.

2008-12-01

151

A Next Generation Alarm Processing Algorithm Incorporating Recommendations and Decisions  

E-print Network

, there is a trend of perform- ing wide area control and monitoring activities in a centralized fashion by having Research Center under a grant from the Na- tional Science Foundation, EEC-0001880 in the Industry

152

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

2012-07-01

153

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employee alarm systems. 1910.165 Section 1910.165 Labor...STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee alarm systems. (a) Scope and application....

2013-07-01

154

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2011-10-01

155

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2013-10-01

156

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2012-10-01

157

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

...means of reporting emergencies. Where a communication system also serves...alarm system, all emergency messages shall have...procedures for sounding emergency alarms in the workplace...workplace, direct voice communication is an...

2014-07-01

158

Bonneville Power Administration Communication Alarm Processor expert system:  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Communications Alarm Processor (CAP), a prototype expert system developed for the Bonneville Power Administration by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system is designed to receive and diagnose alarms from Bonneville's Microwave Communications System (MCS). The prototype encompasses one of seven branches of the communications network and a subset of alarm systems and alarm types from each system. The expert system employs a backward chaining approach to diagnosing alarms. Alarms are fed into the expert system directly from the communication system via RS232 ports and sophisticated alarm filtering and mailbox software. Alarm diagnoses are presented to operators for their review and concurrence before the diagnoses are archived. Statistical software is incorporated to allow analysis of archived data for report generation and maintenance studies. The delivered system resides on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 3200 workstation and utilizes Nexpert Object and SAS for the expert system and statistical analysis, respectively. 11 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

Goeltz, R.; Purucker, S.; Tonn, B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Wiggen, T. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); MacGregor, D. (MacGregor-Bates, Inc., Eugene, OR (USA))

1990-06-01

159

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2012-10-01

160

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

161

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2011-10-01

162

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2013-10-01

163

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.318 Use of alarm signals....

2011-10-01

164

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures § 80.318 Use of alarm signals....

2010-10-01

165

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm...wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical system using manually operated fire alarm...

2010-10-01

166

46 CFR 120.550 - General alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 120.550 Section 120...ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 120.550 General alarm systems. (a) All vessels with...

2010-10-01

167

46 CFR 183.550 - General alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 183.550 Section 183...VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.550 General alarm systems. All vessels with...

2010-10-01

168

46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Sprinkler alarm system. 113.20-1 Section 113...HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler...

2010-10-01

169

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2013-10-01

170

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2010-10-01

171

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2013-10-01

172

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2011-10-01

173

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2011-10-01

174

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2010-10-01

175

46 CFR 97.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2012-10-01

176

46 CFR 78.47-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-7 General alarm...lettering at least 1/2 inch high: “GENERAL ALARM—WHEN BELL RINGS GO TO YOUR STATION.” (b)...

2012-10-01

177

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2013-10-01

178

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2011-10-01

179

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2010-10-01

180

46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must...

2012-10-01

181

21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alarm when the respiratory rate, averaged over time, is outside operator settable alarm limits. This device does not include the apnea monitor classified in § 868.2377. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [47 FR 31142,...

2010-04-01

182

21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alarm when the respiratory rate, averaged over time, is outside operator settable alarm limits. This device does not include the apnea monitor classified in § 868.2377. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [47 FR 31142,...

2013-04-01

183

21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.  

...alarm when the respiratory rate, averaged over time, is outside operator settable alarm limits. This device does not include the apnea monitor classified in § 868.2377. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [47 FR 31142,...

2014-04-01

184

21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alarm when the respiratory rate, averaged over time, is outside operator settable alarm limits. This device does not include the apnea monitor classified in § 868.2377. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [47 FR 31142,...

2012-04-01

185

21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alarm when the respiratory rate, averaged over time, is outside operator settable alarm limits. This device does not include the apnea monitor classified in § 868.2377. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [47 FR 31142,...

2011-04-01

186

Integrating monitoring networks to obtain estimates of ground-level ozone concentrations — A proof of concept in Tuscany (central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to 2000 a network of conventional ozone (O3) analysers existed in the Province of Firenze (Tuscany, central Italy). Between 2000 and 2004 the network was extended to incorporate a newly designed bioindicator network of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum Bel W3). The objective was to set-up an integrated monitoring system to obtain estimates of ground-level O3 concentrations over the whole

Marco Ferretti; Sara Andrei; Gabriella Caldini; Daniele Grechi; Cristina Mazzali; Emilio Galanti; Marco Pellegrini

2008-01-01

187

Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide Levels Monitored in an Urban Area (Ciudad Real) in central-southern Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the evolution of NO2 and O3 levels from January to December of 2007, covering the four seasonal periods in the urban air of Ciudad Real in the central-southern\\u000a Spain. The measurements were carried out by means of passive samplers (Radiello® samplers). Eleven samples were collected\\u000a weekly, placed at different monitoring site locations. The data indicate that the

Pilar Martin; Beatriz Cabañas; Florentina Villanueva; Maria Paz Gallego; Inmaculada Colmenar; Sagrario Salgado

2010-01-01

188

Visual Problem-Solving Support for New Event Triage in Centralized Network Security Monitoring: Challenges, Tools and Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations that provide centralized security monitoring of the net- works of multiple third-party organizations are faced with a challenging task. The amount of security event data to be processed presents not only a technical chal- lenge, but also a problem-solving challenge to operators. We present a model of the problem-solving process and discuss how visual support tools can facilitate the

Markus Stolze; René Pawlitzek; Andreas Wespi

2003-01-01

189

Functional Alarms for Systems of Interoperable Medical Devices  

PubMed Central

Alarms are essential for medical systems in order to ensure patient safety during deteriorating clinical situations and inevitable device malfunction. As medical devices are connected together to become interoperable, alarms become crucial part in making them high-assurance, in nature. Traditional alarm systems for interoperable medical devices have been patientcentric. In this paper, we introduce the need for an alarm system that focuses on the correct functionality of the interoperability architecture itself, along with several considerations and design challenges in enabling them.

Venkatasubramanian, Krishna K.; Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Sokolsky, Oleg; Lee, Insup

2014-01-01

190

Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear  

E-print Network

KEY: NORTH CHDD-South Floor 1 Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear Room #CD11A on Basement Level Evacuation Route Exit Restroom Fire Extinguisher Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Control Panel Symbol of Accessibility L A K E WA S H I N G T O N S H I P C A N A L IF THERE IS AN EMERGENCY: · Sound fire alarm

191

Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

Hunteman, W.

1997-05-01

192

Alarm pheromone in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris.  

PubMed

Noxious stimulation of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris elicits secretion of a mucus that is aversive to other members of the species, as well as to the stimulated animal when it is encountered later. This alarm pheromone is not readily soluble in water and retains its aversive properties for at least several months if not disturbed. Its influence may be responsible for some features of the data on instrumental learning in earthworms. PMID:5663305

Ressler, R H; Cialdini, R B; Ghoca, M L; Kleist, S M

1968-08-01

193

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Zubovich, A.

2012-06-01

194

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

2013-02-01

195

Chemistry of ash-leachates to monitor volcanic activity: An application to Popocatépetl volcano, central Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring volcanic activity and assessing volcanic risk in an on-going eruption is a problem that requires the maximum possible independent data to reduce uncertainty. A quick, relatively simple and inexpensive method to follow the development of an eruption and to complement other monitoring parameters is the chemical analysis of ash leachates, particularly in the case of eruptions related to dome

M. A. Armienta; S. De la Cruz-Reyna; A. Soler; O. Cruz; N. Ceniceros; A. Aguayo

2010-01-01

196

A programme of monitoring sediment transport in north central Luzon, the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring sediment transport through the 4000km2 Magat catchment in Luzon, the Philippines, between 1986 and 1988, is described. Three catchments nested one within the next were monitored, each being an order of magnitude greater, the smallest being 20km2. Sediment measurements were taken daily at each catchment outlet, by means of pump sampling systems. Wash load and bed material load were

A DICKINSON; P BOLTON

197

Human Factors in Annunciator/Alarm Systems: Annunciator Experiment Plan 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents a plan for the experimental evaluation of alarm reduction techniques include suppression of irrelevant alarms based on plant mode, time delay of alarm groups, and separation of component status annunciators from alarms. The performance...

B. J. Roscoe, L. M. Weston

1986-01-01

198

Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 25, No. 12, 1999 CONDITIONED ALARM BEHAVIOR IN FATHEAD  

E-print Network

(Pimephales promelas) RESULTING FROM ASSOCIATION OF CHEMICAL ALARM PHEROMONE WITH A NONBIOLOGICAL VISUAL--Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) adopt antipredator (alarm) behavior when they detect alarm pheromone, Pimephales promelas, alarm pheromone, Schreckstoff, learned recognition of predation risk, red light. #12

Wisenden, Brian D.

199

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2010-10-01

200

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2011-10-01

201

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2013-10-01

202

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2012-10-01

203

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for manned... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-25 General emergency alarm systems for...

2010-10-01

204

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2012-10-01

205

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2011-10-01

206

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2013-10-01

207

Centralized Data Engineering for the Monitoring of the CERN Electrical Network  

E-print Network

The monitoring and control of the CERN electrical network consists of a great variety of devices and software: it spans from low level acquisition devices to high level data concentrators, supervision systems as well as power network simulation tools.

Kiourkos, A; Gonzalez-Berges, M; Infante, S; Tournier, J-C

2014-01-01

208

Indoor and Outdoor Social Alarms: Understanding Users' Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The elderly population is increasing and there is a need to provide care and safety at a high level with limited resources. New social alarm solutions may contribute to safety and independence for many elderly. However, it is important to understand the needs within the user group. This work studied social alarms in a broad sense and from several user perspectives. In the first study, social alarm use and its aspects were investigated. To understand where there may be problems and weaknesses, users, caregivers, managers of municipalities, and personnel at alarm centers were interviewed. The interviews helped identify a number of problems. For municipalities, the processes of procuring new alarms and managing their organization were found to be complex. The effect of this was that the same social alarm systems had been ordered over and over again without taking into account new user needs or new technical solutions. For alarm users, one large problem was that the alarms had very limited reach and were designed for indoor use only. This has resulted in users hesitating to leave their homes, which in turn has negative effects due to lack of physical activity and fewer social contacts. One important result from the first study was the need for a social alarm solution that worked outdoors. In a second study, needs regarding outdoor social alarms were investigated. The results from this study showed that wearable outdoor alarms must be easy to use, provide communication, and be well designed. Finally, these alarms must work both indoors and outdoors, and the user should not have to worry about where he/she is or who is acting on an alarm. PMID:25099060

2014-01-01

209

False alarm reduction during landmine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrupole Resonance sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives from buried, plastic-cased antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The chemical specificity of this radio-frequency technique provides the potential to deliver remarkably low false alarm rates during landmine detection. This is of particular importance to deminers, who frequently come across numerous clutter items before uncovering a mine. Quadrupole Resonance is typically utilized in a confirmation mode; preceded by rapid primary scans carried out by, for example, metal detectors, ground penetrating radars or a fusion of these. Significant technical and scientific advances have resulted in the fabrication of handheld and vehicle mounted Quadrupole Resonance landmine detectors in compact, power-efficient configurations. The development work is focused on baseline sensitivity increase, as well as the achievement of high detection performance under field conditions. The mine detection capability of Quadrupole Resonance detectors has been evaluated during various blind tests. A modular handheld unit, combining primary and confirmation sensors, was designed to be operated by a single person. A series of field tests demonstrate the unique capability of Quadrupole Resonance for significant false alarm reduction.

Prado, P. J.; Chongpison, A.; Doraisamy, L.

2007-04-01

210

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

1993-01-01

211

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

1993-05-01

212

Integrated centralized electric current monitoring system using wirelessly enabled non-intrusive AC current sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an electric current monitoring system that can be used to non-intrusively measure individual loads on a circuit breaker panel in residential and commercial settings. The proximity-based piezoelectromagnetic (PEM) sensor uses permanent magnets to couple to the electric current in the circuit to be measured, and hence requires no galvanic connection to the circuits. This paper describes the theory

Qiliang Xu; Michael Seidel; Igor Paprotny; Richard M. White; Paul K. Wright

2011-01-01

213

Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Earth Crust of Central Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present methods of monitoring are widely used and implemented in the different fields of science to receive non stop information about the observed object in time. The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust is developed in Garny Geophysical Observatory. It is based on the abilities of geophysical and hydrogeological indicators to react to the changes of stressedly deformative state of earth crust. The study of variations of magnetic observations connected with the deformation processes which took place during the preparation of earthquake source or of other tectonic movements will significantly increase the informational and effective character of monitoring. The changes of hydrogeological indicators depending on the deformation of water-bearing rocks are defined by the parameters of deformational fields and by the elastic and filtration characters of rocks. Methodological means of monitoring are brought to the signal appearing which reflects the deformation of rock massive. The methods of noise elimination and singling out 'deformational signals' allow to delete or mention the trend, to compensate the influence of variations on atmospheric pressure on time rows of geophysical rows and underground water level, to allocate earth tide induced fluctuations of level. But not all the noise may be deleted by calculation. The following is included in the group of non-controlled noise: the influence of infiltration on atmospheric precipitations, effects of certain technogenic influences. Deformation indicators may be not only the deflection of geophysical indicators from certain phone values but also the parametres of variations of these indicators. There exists data on the changes of parameters of barometric effectiveness and saw tooth fluctuations of underground water level before seismic events. In some cases the noise which hinders the appearance of deformational signal may itself carry useful information. Method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was applied which allows with the help of hydrogeodynamic observations, observations of geochemistry of underground water, module of full vector of magnetic field and seismic regime of the region to carry out the monitoring of modern geodynamic processes of Armenia. The character of distribution of hydrogeodeformational processes in time and space was studied. The character of time-spatial distribution of geodynamic stress was defined. Key Words: Deformation , Geophysical Monitoring, Earthqukae Source

Pashayan, R.

2012-12-01

214

Real-Time Development of Patient-Specific Alarm Algorithms for Critical Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state-of-the-art monitoring systems for critical care measure vital signs and generate alerts based on the logic of general patient population models, but they lack the capabilities of accurately correlating physiological data with clinical events and of adapting to individual patient's characteristics that do not fit the population models. This research examines the feasibility of developing patient-specific alarm algorithms in

Ying Zhang

2007-01-01

215

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI\\/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; B. McGinnis

1990-01-01

216

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. CABLE STRAND ALARM: Photocopy of December 1966 photograph showing cable strand alarm located at Beach and Hyde Streets. A strand in the cable (see CA-12-7) forces the fork forward, alerting the powerhouse to the strand by means of an electrical warning device. This strand alarm operates in essentially the same manner as those first used in the 1880s. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

217

Dual sensitivity mode system for monitoring processes and sensors  

DOEpatents

A method and system for analyzing a source of data. The system and method involves initially training a system using a selected data signal, calculating at least two levels of sensitivity using a pattern recognition methodology, activating a first mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source, activating a second mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source and generating a first alarm signal upon the first mode of sensitivity detecting an alarm condition and a second alarm signal upon the second mode of sensitivity detecting an associated alarm condition. The first alarm condition and second alarm condition can be acted upon by an operator and/or analyzed by a specialist or computer program.

Wilks, Alan D. (Mount Prospect, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL)

2000-01-01

218

Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Northwest side, northeast part, looking southeast, note fire alarm box at right - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

219

Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site Task 2 Potential Applications at the Central Plateau Remediation Project  

SciTech Connect

This report is the second of two studies on potential applications for vadose zone monitoring (VZM) at the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed to perform the studies in a letter from M. S. Schlender, DOE, to M. L. Goldstein, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and M. A. Wilson, Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), subject ''Vadose Zone Monitoring Study,'' 02-ERD-0055, dated March 11, 2002. The first study evaluated the potential for performance monitoring at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) and was published as ''Study of Vadose Zone Monitoring at the Hanford Site, Task I . Use in New Cells at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility'', dated May 2003 (DOE/RL-2003-31). This report is Task 2 and examines the potential for VZM at waste sites and tank farms in the 200 East and West Areas of the Central Plateau Remediation Project (Central Plateau). The potential benefits of VZM are discussed in the introduction, as well as the objectives of the study. A summary of the hydrogeology of the central plateau is presented. This includes a discussion of the stratigraphy, vadose zone transport, and groundwater characteristics. A chapter on the regulatory framework is presented in the context of the anticipated remediation, Environmental Protection Agency regulations, and the regulations of other western states. While the previous Task I study presented a survey of commercial sites in the western part of the United States, this report surveys vadose zone monitoring at other government sites in the western United States. Most of the significant Department of Energy Sites are discussed and compared. Since the western part of the United States contains many of the DOE research facilities, a discussion is presented on the vadose zone research and development activities at these facilities. The ongoing development and use of VZM by the Air Force, Navy, and Army is presented. A summary is presented of the planned remediation on the Central Plateau in order to identify the relevant types of remediations that would be candidates for VZM. A short discussion of the existing groundwater plumes is given to complete the picture of how vadose zone contamination eventually becomes groundwater contamination. The technology is surveyed and categorized by type. These types include moisture change methods, moisture sampling methods, geophysical techniques, and remote sensing techniques. Future trends are identified. The probable course will be the development of methods that can integrate the information over larger volumes, particularly those that will use less invasive or remote sensing technologies. A discussion of deployment methods is given. These include basin lysimeters, access tubes, sensors placed inside landfills, and cover monitoring. In order to match the technologies with the planned remedies the current technologies are discussed in the context of specific types of site remediations. These include waste sites such as cribs and trenches, tank farm sites, and other facilities. Conclusions are reached, which include an analysis of the different types of conditions appropriate for VZM, considerations in the selections of the appropriate technologies, and issues associated with adapting to the development of new technologies. Also, a short discussion is given of the operational facilities that will be used during the cleanup efforts.

FOGWELL, T.W.

2003-10-30

220

Perioperative monitoring of circulating and central blood volume in cardiac surgery by pulse dye densitometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine perioperative changes in circulating (BVI) and central blood volume (CBVI) by a new dye dilution technique using pulse dye densitometry.Design and settingProspective observational study in the cardiac anesthesia and intensive care unit of a university hospital.PatientsSixty-six patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.Measurements and resultsHemodynamic measurements by the dye dilution method using pulse dye densitometry were performed prior to

Frank Bremer; Albert Schiele; Jan Sagkob; Thomas Palmaers; Klaus Tschaikowsky

2004-01-01

221

Use of Electrical Conductivity Instead of Soluble Salts for Soil Salinity Monitoring in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USSR classifications of soil salinity used in Central Asiawas based on laboratory measurement of the total dissolved(toxic) salts or the chloride ion concentration in the soil waterextracts (soil:water = 1:5). Current practices, however, startto differ between the republics because of different levels ofacceptance of international literature. This change in practiceis triggered partly by the cost of the laboratory measurements.The

Y. Shirokova; I. Forkutsa; N. Sharafutdinova

2000-01-01

222

The low-technology monitoring of atmospheric metal pollution in central Scotland.  

PubMed

In epidemiological studies covering relationships of disease patterns and patterns of atmospheric pollution, conventional filtering equipment is normally used for monitoring the pollution. For various reasons, however, this type of approach often results in levels of pollution being obtained for only a few sites within an extensive fieldwork area. Hence, alternative monitoring techniques, which allow a high density of sampling sites in an area, have been of interest to an increasing number of investigators. The monitors used, known as low-technology monitors, fall into two main categories; indigenous; and transplants. In our own surveys of atmospheric metal pollutants in industrial communities in Scotland, the indigenous sample materials have included: Hypnum cupressiforme, Lecanora conizaeoides, Agropyron repens and surface soils. In our transplant surveys a variety of different low-technology samplers have been deployed, the most frequently used being: spherical and flat moss bags, Hypogymnia physodes, 'Tak' (synthetic fabric), and total deposition collectors. The data obtained from the various surveys have been plotted on a variety of types of computer map to minimize any systematic bias resulting from the use of a single technique. The pollution patterns found in one particular town were partly unexpected, in view of the dominant wind direction in the locality concerned. Hence it was decided to carry out a wind tunnel experiment to investigate the situation further. The wind tunnel experiment produced results which were consistent with the patterns of pollution derived from the metal surveys, and revealed that the meteorological dispersal of the pollution was unexpectedly influenced by local topography. Because pulmonary pathology was the main focus of the complementary epidemiological study, an investigation of the size, shape and roughness of the metal particles was considered relevant. This investigation involved the examination of samplers and their particles by means of the electron microscope. To complete the study of the methodology of low-technology samplers in this town, their uptake is also being compared to that of filtering equipment (high-technology samplers). The information gained from the present survey at this early stage has indicated that several of the low-technology monitors could have considerable value in the provision of continuous, but low-cost, surveillance of the air quality of wide areas of industrial communities. PMID:6532984

Yule, F A; Lloyd, O L

1984-01-01

223

The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm, and deceit.  

PubMed Central

Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids since eggs are frequently deposited on nearby plants soon after mating. When the larval stages of insects or other arthropods are the targets, a different foraging strategy is employed. The larvae are often chemically inconspicuous, but when they feed on plants the injured plants respond by producing and releasing defensive chemicals. These plant chemicals may also serve as "alarm signals" that are exploited by predators and parasitoids to locate their victims. There is considerable evidence that the volatile "alarm signals" are induced by interactions of substances from the herbivore with the damaged plant tissue. A very different strategy is employed by several groups of spiders that remain stationary and send out chemical signals that attract prey. Some of these spiders prey exclusively on male moths. They attract the males by emitting chemicals identical to the sex pheromones emitted by female moths. These few examples indicate the diversity of foraging strategies of arthropod predators and parasitoids. It is likely that many other interesting chemically mediated interactions between arthropod hunters and their victims remain to be discovered. Increased understanding of these systems will enable us to capitalize on natural interactions to develop more ecologically sound, environmentally safe methods for biological control of insect pests of agriculture. PMID:7816823

Stowe, M K; Turlings, T C; Loughrin, J H; Lewis, W J; Tumlinson, J H

1995-01-01

224

Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

225

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very disruptive to UW operations. The alarms  

E-print Network

disruptive to UW operations. The alarms interrupt classes and lab experiments causing the occupants to stop protection devices and upgrading old fire protection equipment with current technology. How construction

Wilcock, William

226

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found

Daniel T. Blumstein; Laure Verneyre; Janice C. Daniel

2004-01-01

227

You Cannot Always Blame the Equipment for False Alarms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for school administrators to establish definite security objectives before shopping for an electronic alarm system and points out that most problems with alarm systems result from people problems, rather than faulty equipment. (For availability see EA 507 081.) (JG)

Smith, Ray T.

1976-01-01

228

MULTIPLE ALARMS AND DRIVING SITUATIONAL ANGELA W.L. HO  

E-print Network

.1.1 MULTIPLE VS. SINGLE MASTER WARNING ALARM 19 4.1.2 DRIVING UNDER DISTRACTION 20 4.1.3 DIFFERENT WARNINGMULTIPLE ALARMS AND DRIVING SITUATIONAL AWARENESS ANGELA W.L. HO MARY L. CUMMINGS MASSACHUSETTS IMPRESSION 23 4.3 EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COGNITIVE LOAD TASK AS A DISTRACTION TOOL 23 5 FUTURE WORK 24 5

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

229

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

230

33 CFR 127.201 - Sensing and alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sensing and alarm systems. 127.201 Section 127.201 Navigation...Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.201 Sensing and alarm systems. (a) Fixed sensors must have...

2010-07-01

231

Fire alarm system based-on video processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is one of the disasters that often occur in everyday life and causing losses both in terms of material and non-material. There has been much research done to build a field alarm system. One way to build a fire alarm system is base on fire detection on video data; this is done with digital image processing techniques and machine-

W. Tjokorda Agung Budi; Iping Supriana Suwardi

2011-01-01

232

46 CFR 34.15-30 - Alarms-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alarms-T/ALL. 34.15-30 Section 34.15-30 Shipping COAST...Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-30 Alarms—T/ALL. (a) Spaces required to have a delayed discharge...

2011-10-01

233

The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake of Central Chile, monitored by GPS.  

PubMed

Large earthquakes produce crustal deformation that can be quantified by geodetic measurements, allowing for the determination of the slip distribution on the fault. We used data from Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in Central Chile to infer the static deformation and the kinematics of the 2010 moment magnitude (M(w)) 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake. From elastic modeling, we found a total rupture length of ~500 kilometers where slip (up to 15 meters) concentrated on two main asperities situated on both sides of the epicenter. We found that rupture reached shallow depths, probably extending up to the trench. Resolvable afterslip occurred in regions of low coseismic slip. The low-frequency hypocenter is relocated 40 kilometers southwest of initial estimates. Rupture propagated bilaterally at about 3.1 kilometers per second, with possible but not fully resolved velocity variations. PMID:21527673

Vigny, C; Socquet, A; Peyrat, S; Ruegg, J-C; Métois, M; Madariaga, R; Morvan, S; Lancieri, M; Lacassin, R; Campos, J; Carrizo, D; Bejar-Pizarro, M; Barrientos, S; Armijo, R; Aranda, C; Valderas-Bermejo, M-C; Ortega, I; Bondoux, F; Baize, S; Lyon-Caen, H; Pavez, A; Vilotte, J P; Bevis, M; Brooks, B; Smalley, R; Parra, H; Baez, J-C; Blanco, M; Cimbaro, S; Kendrick, E

2011-06-17

234

[Monitoring human African trypanosomiasis in Central Africa in 2001 and cartography: results and perspectives].  

PubMed

Cases of human African trypanosomiasis are distributed in changing geographical "outbreak areas" that can be visualized over time and space. Because of these variations in distribution, cartography and spatial analysis provide powerful tools for planning surveillance and control strategies. In 1996, the WHO in collaboration with the 15 most endemic countries in Central Africa undertook a program to develop a standardized inter-regional map of trypanosomiasis. This article provides a brief overview of the value of geomatic tools in public health followed by a description of the WHO program and its preliminary results. Also presented in this article is the Trypinfo site being development on the internet to increase the surveillance response-time and improve the feedback system. PMID:11803827

Lucas, P; Fanchey, G; Mouton, C; Jannin, J

2001-01-01

235

Monitoring of green areas in the central part of Plovdiv city using high resolution satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information updating for the biggest municipality's green areas' size and position is a problem related with two main characteristics of the municipality's ecosystem status. The green area and plantation system is an important space structure and functional part of the inside and outside of Plovdiv city's residential territory. It serves as a basis in the decision-making process on environmental improvement, recreation, and their connection with city architecture. The normalization of the green area system, which performs various functions is of basic importance for all residential areas in Plovdiv city, which experience aggravated microclimatic conditions. The paper provides brief description of the methodology and the results of a scientific study of the central part of Plovdiv city. The study was carried out based on aerospace, ground-based, and GPS data.

Nedkov, Rumen; Roumenina, Eugenia; Jelev, Georgi

236

Calibrating a FDR sensor for soil moisture monitoring in a wetland in Central Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent transformation of wetlands into farmland in East Africa is accelerating due to growing food-demand, land shortages, and an increasing unpredictability of climatic conditions for crop production in uplands. However, the conversion of pristine wetlands into sites of production may alter hydrological attributes with negative effects on production potential. Particularly the amount and the dynamics of plant available soil moisture in the rooting zone of crops determine to a large extent the agricultural production potential of wetlands. Various methods exist to assess soil moisture dynamics with Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) being among the most prominent. However, the suitability of FDR sensors for assessing plant available soil moisture has to date not been confirmed for wetland soils in the region. We monitored the seasonal and spatial dynamics of water availability for crop growth in an inland valley wetland of the Kenyan highlands using a FDR sensor which was site-specifically calibrated. Access tubes were installed within different wetland use types and hydrological situations along valley transects and soil properties affecting soil moisture (organic C, texture, and bulk density) were investigated. There was little variation in soil attributes between physical positions in the valley, and also between topsoil and subsoil attributes with the exception of organic C contents. With a root mean squared error of 0.073 m3/m3, the developed calibration function of the FDR sensor allows for reasonably accurate soil moisture prediction for both within-site comparisons and the monitoring of temporal soil moisture variations. Applying the calibration equation to a time series of profile probe readings over a period of one year illustrated not only the temporal variation of soil moisture, but also effects of land use.

Böhme, Beate; Becker, Mathias; Diekkrüger, Bernd

237

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using

Shkelzen Shabani; Michiya Kamio; Charles D. Derby

2008-01-01

238

The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports  

SciTech Connect

The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

2002-09-01

239

Transoesophageal Doppler compared to central venous pressure for perioperative hemodynamic monitoring and fluid guidance in liver resection  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Major hepatic resections may result in hemodynamic changes. Aim is to study transesophageal Doppler (TED) monitoring and fluid management in comparison to central venous pressure (CVP) monitoring. A follow-up comparative hospital based study. Methods: 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients (CHILD A) undergoing major hepatotomy. CVP monitoring only (CVP group), (n=30) and TED (Doppler group), (n=29) with CVP transduced but not available on the monitor. Exclusion criteria include contra-indication for Doppler probe insertion or bleeding tendency. An attempt to reduce CVP during the resection in both groups with colloid restriction, but crystalloids infusion of 6 ml/kg/h was allowed to replace insensible loss. Post-resection colloids infusion were CVP guided in CVP group (5-10 mmHg) and corrected flow time (FTc) aortic guided in Doppler group (>0.4 s) blood products given according to the laboratory data. Results: Using the FTc to guide Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 significantly decreased intake in TED versus CVP (1.03 [0.49] versus 1.74 [0.41] Liter; P<0.05). Nausea, vomiting, and chest infection were less in TED with a shorter hospital stay (P<0.05). No correlation between FTc and CVP (r=0.24, P > 0.05). Cardiac index and stroke volume of TED increased post-resection compared to baseline, 3.0 (0.9) versus 3.6 (0.9) L/min/m2, P<0.05; 67.1 (14.5) versus 76 (13.2) ml, P<0.05, respectively, associated with a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) 1142.7 (511) versus 835.4 (190.9) dynes.s/cm5, P<0.05. No significant difference in arterial pressure and CVP between groups at any stage. CVP during resection in TED 6.4 (3.06) mmHg versus 6.1 (1.4) in CVP group, P=0.6. TED placement consumed less time than CVP (7.3 [1.5] min versus 13.2 [2.9], P<0.05). Conclusion: TED in comparison to the CVP monitoring was able to reduced colloids administration post-resection, lower morbidity and shorten hospital stay. TED consumed less time to insert and was also able to present significant hemodynamic changes. Advanced surgical techniques of resection play a key role in reducing blood loss despite CVP more than 5 cm H2O. TED fluid management protocols during resection need to be developed. PMID:24348287

El Sharkawy, Osama A.; Refaat, Emad K.; Ibraheem, Abdel Elmoniem M.; Mahdy, Wafiya R.; Fayed, Nirmeen A.; Mourad, Wesam S.; Abd Elhafez, Hanaa S.; Yassen, Khaled A.

2013-01-01

240

Long term and seasonal ground deformation monitoring of Larissa Plain (Central Greece) by persistent scattering interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land subsidence which occurs at the Larissa Basin (Thessaly Plain, Central Greece) is due to various causes including aquifer system compaction. Deformation maps of high spatial resolution deduced by the Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) technique (using radar scenes from ERS and ENVISAT satellites) for the period 1992-2006 were produced to study the spatial and temporal ground deformation. A developed GIS database (including geological, tectonic, morphological, hydrological, meteorological and watertable variation from wells in the area) offered the possibility of studying in detail the intense subsidence. The PSI based average deformation image clearly shows that subsidence generally takes place inside the Larissa Plain ranging from 5-250 mm. The largest amplitude rates (-25 mm/yr) are observed around the urban area of Larissa City (especially at Gianouli and Nikea villages), while the Larissa City center appears to be relatively stable with a tendency to subside. The rest of the plain regions seem to subside at moderate rates (about 5-10 mm/yr). The surrounding mountainous area is stable, or has slightly been uplifted with respect to the NE located reference point. It was found that there is a correlation between the seasonal water-table variation (deduced from wells data), the seasonal water demand for irrigation associated with specific types of cultivation (cotton fields), the monthly rainfall, and the observed subsidence rate in the rural regions of the Thessaly Plain.

Vassilopoulou, Spyridoula; Sakkas, Vasileios; Wegmuller, Urs; Capes, Ren

2013-03-01

241

New stereoscopic video camera and monitor system with central high resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new stereoscopic video system (the Q stereoscopic video system), which has high resolution in the central area, has been developed using four video cameras and four video displays. The Q stereoscopic camera system is constructed using two cameras with wide-angle lenses, which are combined as the stereoscopic camera system, and two cameras with narrow-angle lenses, which are combined (using half mirrors) with each of the wide-angle cameras to have the same optical center axis. The Q stereoscopic display system is composed of two large video displays that receive images from the wide-angle stereoscopic cameras, and two smaller displays projecting images from the narrow-angle cameras. With this system, human operators are able to see the stereoscopic images of the smaller displays inserted in the images of the larger displays. Completion times for the pick-up task of a remote controlled robot were shorter when using the Q stereoscopic video system rather than a conventional stereoscopic video system.

Matsunaga, Katsuya; Nose, Yasuhiro; Minamoto, Masahiko; Shidoji, Kazunori; Ebuchi, Kazuhisa; Itoh, Daisuke; Inoue, Tomonori; Hayami, Taketo; Matsuki, Yuji; Arikawa, Yuko; Matsubara, Kenjiro

1998-04-01

242

High Resolution Monitoring of Algal Growth Dynamics in a Hypereutrophic River in the Central Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower San Joaquin River in California's Central Valley experiences periods of hypoxia during the late summer and fall that is detrimental to aquatic organisms and migration of fall-run chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Hypoxia is attributable, in part, to excess nutrients from urban waste water and agricultural runoff, which contribute to growth of high concentrations of phytoplankton. This study examined spatial and temporal growth patterns that control algal loading using continuous fluorescence measurements at three sites along a 50 km section of the lower San Joaquin River between April and October. A strong diel fluorescence signal was observed and associated grab samples verified that fluorescence was an accurate measure of chlorophyll. Peak chlorophyll concentrations occurred between 18:00 and 20:00 and minimum concentrations between 10:00 and 12:00. Maximum concentrations were nearly two times greater than minimum concentrations although this ratio varied temporally and spatially. Although the mechanism for the diel chlorophyll signal is not very well understood several parameters including temperature, irradiance, turbidity, residence time, stream depth, and zooplankton grazing were considered within the scope of this study. This study highlights the importance of considering high resolution sampling on algal loading rates within heavily impacted riverine systems.

Henson, S. S.; Dahlgren, R.; van Nieuwenhuyse, E.; O'Geen, A. T.; Gallo, E. L.; Ahearn, D. S.

2005-05-01

243

A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels are found on the NTS which are potential roost sites for bats. Multiple technqiues are being used to inventory and monitor the bat fauna on the NTS. These techniques include mistnetting at water sources with concurrent use of the Anabat II bat detection system, conducting road surveys with the Anabat II system, and conducting exit surveys at mine and tunnel entrances using the Anabat II system. To date, a total of 13 species of bats has been documented on the NTS, of which six are considered species of concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These include Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), spotted bat (Euderma maculatum), small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum), long-eared myotis (M. evotis), fringed myotis (M. thysanodes), and long-legged myotis (M. volans). Results from mistnet and Anabat surveys reveal that all bat species of concern except for the long-legged myotis are found exclusively in the Great Basin Desert portion of the NTS. The long-legged myotis is found throughout the NTS. The Anabat II system has greatly facilitated the monitoring of bats on the NTS, and allowed biologists to cost effectively survey large areas for bat activity. Information obtained from bat monitoring will be used to develop and update guidelines for managing bats on the NTS.

Hall, D.

2000-01-01

244

Ground-water modeling and the installation of deep multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing regional study of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California has iteratively combined the drilling of deep multiple-well monitoring sites with groundwater modeling. The monitoring sites are generally between 1,000 and 1,500 ft in depth and consist of 4-6 piezometers installed within a single borehole that provide depth-dependent geohydrologic

E. G. Reichard; T. A. Johnson; M. Land; R. R. Everett; D. J. Ponti; B. D. Edwards; S. M. Crawford; T. Kulshan

2002-01-01

245

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

246

Nuclear Power Plant Alarm Prioritization (NPPAP) Program Status Report, January 1, 1983 to September 31, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the status of a research project directed toward nuclear power plant alarm prioritization. Criteria for modified alarm activation are being developed and studied. Also being developed are measures to regulate the alarm rate at some d...

B. J. Roscoe

1984-01-01

247

30 CFR 75.352 - Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals.  

... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. 75.352 Section... Actions in response to AMS malfunction, alert, or alarm signals. (a) When a malfunction, alert, or alarm signal is received at the...

2014-07-01

248

Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

2005-10-01

249

Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

Jacques Hugo

2012-07-01

250

On-line blood viscosity monitoring in vivo with a central venous catheter, using electrical impedance technique.  

PubMed

Blood viscosity is an important determinant of microvascular hemodynamics and also reflects systemic inflammation. Viscosity of blood strongly depends on the shear rate and can be characterized by a two parameter power-law model. Other major determinants of blood viscosity are hematocrit, level of inflammatory proteins and temperature. In-vitro studies have shown that these major parameters are related to the electrical impedance of blood. A special central venous catheter was developed to measure electrical impedance of blood in-vivo in the right atrium. Considering that blood viscosity plays an important role in cerebral blood flow, we investigated the feasibility to monitor blood viscosity by electrical bioimpedance in 10 patients during the first 3 days after successful resuscitation from a cardiac arrest. The blood viscosity-shear rate relationship was obtained from arterial blood samples analyzed using a standard viscosity meter. Non-linear regression analysis resulted in the following equation to estimate in-vivo blood viscosity (Viscosity(imp)) from plasma resistance (R(p)), intracellular resistance (R(i)) and blood temperature (T) as obtained from right atrium impedance measurements: Viscosity(imp)=(-15.574+15.576R(p)T)SR ((-.138RpT-.290Ri)). This model explains 89.2% (R(2)=.892) of the blood viscosity-shear rate relationship. The explained variance was similar for the non-linear regression model estimating blood viscosity from its major determinants hematocrit and the level of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (R(2)=.884). Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias between the in-vitro viscosity measurement and the in-vivo impedance model of .04 mPa s at a shear rate of 5.5s(-1) with limits of agreement between -1.69 mPa s and 1.78 mPa s. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the proof of principle to monitor blood viscosity continuously in the human right atrium by a dedicated central venous catheter equipped with an impedance measuring device. No safety problems occurred and there was good agreement with in-vitro measurements of blood viscosity. PMID:23089327

Pop, Gheorghe A M; Bisschops, Laurens L A; Iliev, Blagoy; Struijk, Pieter C; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W E

2013-03-15

251

Influence of Human Activity Patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM 2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data  

EPA Science Inventory

Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that in¿uence personal exposures to ambient ¿ne-particulate matter (PM2.5). We describe and compare different ambient PM2.5 exposure estimation...

252

Development of a Distance-to-Roadway Proximity Metric to Compare Near-Road Pollutant Levels to a Central Site Monitor  

EPA Science Inventory

The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or commun...

253

Monitoring unrest in a large silicic caldera, the long Valley-inyo craters volcanic complex in east-central California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent patterns of geologic unrest in long Valley caldera in east-central California emphasize that this large, silicic volcanic system and the adjacent, geologically youthful Inyo-Mono Craters volcanic chain are still active and capable of producing locally hazardous volcanic eruptions. A series of four magnitude -6 earthquakes in May 1980 called attention to this current episode of unrest, and subsequent activity has included numerous earthquake swarms in the south moat of the caldera accompanied by inflation of the resurgent dome by more than 50 cm over the last five years. The seismicity associated with this unrest is currently monitored by a network of 31 telemetered seismic stations with an automatic processing system that yelds hypocentral locations and earthquake magnitudes in near-real time. Deformation of the ground is monitored by a) a series of overlapping trilateration networks that provide coverage ranging from annual measurements of regional deformation to daily measurements of deformation local to the active, southern section of the caldera, b) a regional network of level lines surveyed annually, c) a regional network of precise gravity stations occupied annually, d) local, L-shaped level figures surveyed every few months, and e) a network of fourteen borehole tiltmeter clusters (two instruments in each cluster) and a borehole dilatometer, the telemetered signals from which provide continuous data on deformation rates. Additional telemetered data provide continuous information on fluctuations in the local magnetic field, hydrogen gas emission rates at three sites, and water level and temperatures in three wells. Continuous data on disharge rates and temperatures from hot springs and fumaroles are collected by several on-site recorders within the caldera, and samples for liquid and gas chemistry are collected several times per year from selected hot springs and fumaroles. ?? 1984 Intern. Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior.

Hill, D. P.

1984-01-01

254

Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

Qi, Yaobin

2007-09-01

255

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alarm system shall provide warning for necessary emergency action as called for in the emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area, or both. (2) The employee...

2011-07-01

256

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alarm system shall provide warning for necessary emergency action as called for in the emergency action plan, or for reaction time for safe escape of employees from the workplace or the immediate work area, or both. (2) The employee...

2010-07-01

257

18. DETAIL VIEW OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEM BOARD THAT LISTS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. DETAIL VIEW OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEM BOARD THAT LISTS AREAS IN SHOPS COMPLEX. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

258

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-27

259

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms...

2010-10-01

260

46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler...

2013-10-01

261

46 CFR 196.37-7 - General alarm bells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 196.37-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-7 General alarm bells. (a)...

2010-10-01

262

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Tayloe, R.W. Jr. (Battelle Columbus (USA)); McGinnis, B. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (USA))

1990-08-31

263

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

2007-01-01

264

46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...constructed of wood must, in addition to paragraph (a), provide bilge level alarms in all watertight compartments except small buoyancy chambers. (c) A visual indicator must be provided at the operating station to indicate when any automatic bilge pump...

2013-10-01

265

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

266

46 CFR 28.240 - General alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...individual in any accommodation space or work space where they may normally be employed. (c) In a work space where background noise makes a general alarm system difficult to hear, a flashing red light must also be installed. (d) Each...

2010-10-01

267

Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of fire alarm boxes located adjacent to the entrance of the northwest wing - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

268

Alarm responses in the crayfish Orconectes virilis and Orconectes propinquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of two species of crayfish (Orconectes virilis andO. propinquus) were tested in the laboratory for responses to chemicals released from physically damaged conspecifics. Individuals ofO. propinquus did not show an alarm response to crushed conspecifics. Individuals ofO. virilis responded to a water-borne substance released from crushed conspecifics by assuming an intermediate posture and ceasing movement. Similar alarm responses were

Brian A. Hazlett

1994-01-01

269

Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

2010-11-01

270

Do Aphid Colonies Amplify their Emission of Alarm Pheromone?  

PubMed Central

When aphids are attacked by natural enemies, they emit alarm pheromone to alert conspecifics. For most aphids tested, (E)-?-farnesene (EBF) is the main, or only, constituent of the alarm pheromone. In response to alarm pheromone, alerted aphids drop off the plant, walk away, or attempt to elude predators. However, under natural conditions, EBF concentration might be low due to the low amounts emitted, to rapid air movement, or to oxidative degradation. To ensure that conspecifics are warned, aphids might conceivably amplify the alarm signal by emitting EBF in response to EBF emitted by other aphids. To examine whether such amplification occurs, we synthesized deuterated EBF (DEBF), which allowed us to differentiate between applied and aphid-derived chemical. Colonies of Acyrthosiphon pisum were treated with DEBF, and headspace volatiles were collected and analyzed for evidence of aphid-derived EBF. No aphid-derived EBF was detected, suggesting that amplification of the alarm signal does not occur. We discuss the disadvantages of alarm signal reinforcement. PMID:18704588

Hatano, Eduardo; Kunert, Grit; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm; Gershenzon, Jonathan

2008-01-01

271

Monitoring  

DOEpatents

The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Calderbridge, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Calderbridge, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Calderbridge, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-11-23

272

Scanning seismic intrusion detection method and apparatus. [monitoring unwanted subterranean entry and departure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intrusion monitoring system includes an array of seismic sensors, such as geophones, arranged along a perimeter to be monitored for unauthorized intrusion as by surface movement or tunneling. Two wires lead from each sensor to a central monitoring station. The central monitoring station has three modes of operation. In a first mode of operation, the output of all of the seismic sensors is summed into a receiver for amplification and detection. When the amplitude of the summed signals exceeds a certain predetermined threshold value an alarm is sounded. In a second mode of operation, the individual output signals from the sensors are multiplexed into the receiver for sequentially interrogating each of the sensors.

Lee, R. D. (inventor)

1983-01-01

273

Hazing Incidents at Sororities Alarm Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College administrators say, although sorority hazing is more likely to involve emotional/psychological abuse than physical violence, it is a growing problem. On some campuses, because traditionally black sororities pledge members at different times of year than traditionally white ones, their rush periods are not necessarily monitored as closely.…

Geraghty, Mary

1997-01-01

274

Alarm Pheromone Processing in the Ant Brain: An Evolutionary Perspective  

PubMed Central

Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons (PNs), to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive PNs are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system. PMID:20676235

Mizunami, Makoto; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Nishino, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

275

A mutual understanding? Interspecific responses by birds to each other's aerial alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals are likely to benefit from responding to the alarm signals of other species with similar predators, and mutual interspecific responses to aerial (hawk) alarms are thought to be common in birds, in part because similarity in alarm call structure among species might facilitate detection or interpretation. However, there has been no test of whether interspecific responses to aerial alarm

Robert D. Magrath; Benjamin J. Pitcher; Janet L. Gardner

2007-01-01

276

Reciprocal recognition of sifaka ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi ) and redfronted lemur ( Eulemur fulvus rufus ) alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redfronted lemurs ( Eulemur fulvus rufus) and Verreaux's sifakas ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) occur sympatrically in western Madagascar. Both species exhibit a so-called mixed alarm call system with functionally referential alarm calls for raptors and general alarm calls for carnivores and raptors. General alarm calls also occur in other contexts associated with high arousal, such as inter-group encounters. Field playback

Claudia Fichtel

2004-01-01

277

Spatial and temporal distribution of the dust deposition in Central Asia - results from a long term monitoring program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aeolian transport of dust is an important process in Central Asia. Anthropogenic desertification and the desiccation of the Aral Sea have increased the overall dust emission and transport from this region and the local dust storm frequency during the last decades. Reliable ground data, however, are collected only sporadically, so the knowledge about the spatial and temporal distribution and dynamics of the dust deposition in the Aral Sea basin is fragmented and inconsistent at best. A long-term monitoring program was installed and sustained by three research projects. The results included in this article cover the dust deposition between 2003 and 2010 from 21 stations in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan. They confirm that the aeolian dust transport occurs mainly in the Southern direction. The highest average monthly deposition rate was registered in Uzbekistan (56.2 g m-2), while the percentage of months with a very intense (and potentially harmful) dust deposition flux was highest in Turkmenistan (36.4%). A majority of samples were collected during months with a dust deposition of less than 10.0 g m-2, while only 6% of all samples showed high monthly deposition intensities of more than 100 g m-2. The Kyzyl Kum, Kara Kum, and Aral Kum were identified as the main sources for aeolian dust in the Aral Sea basin. The impact of the Aral Kum as the dominant source of aeolian dust is limited to a region of approximately 500,000 km2 surrounding the former Aral Sea. The Kara Kum is characterized by a very high frequency of dust storms of a local and regional magnitude, and close to the Kyzyl Kum, monthly dust deposition rates of up to 9,600 g m-2 were registered. An analysis of the temporal distribution of the dust deposition showed a slight increase in the dust deposition activity and intensity between 2003 and 2010, with a strong inter-annual and seasonal dynamic. The highest average dust deposition was registered in June, and a second phase of intense dust deposition was identified in February. As this research covers less than a decade, a continuous monitoring program is strongly advised for a better understanding of the processes of aeolian dust transport and the impact of aeolian dust on arable land and human health.

Groll, M.; Opp, Chr.; Aslanov, I.

2013-06-01

278

Seismo-hydrological monitoring in the area of the Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone, Northern Czech Republic, Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bohemian Massif - the Central European Variscan structure - is an area with a weak intraplate seismicity. Only its marginal parts are affected by young (up to Early Quaternary) tectonic movements responsible for uplift of mountain chains on the borders. A part of this natural boundary is the Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (HPFZ) on the NE of the Czech Republic. The HPFZ is a result of long-lasting evolution since the late Paleozoic with several tectonic phases. The contemporary HPFZ consist of a main reverse fault (thrust) accompanied by parallel or oblique normal or reverse faults. The seismic activity of broader area of the HPFZ - a proof of present day mobility of the area - is characterized by relatively frequent local earthquakes. The strongest earthquake in January 1901 reached the magnitude of 4.6. Another proof of the mobility is a presence of CO2-rich mineral springs in the area. The seismic activity of the area is monitored by four seismic stations - CHVC, DPC, OSTC and UPC. They are equipped with broadband seismometres and the sampling frequency is 100 or 250 Hz. A methodology for automated picking of local event arrival times (similar to STA/LTA ratios plus requirement for a candidate event to be located on certain number of stations) was developed to enable us processing of large datasets. The recorded data are automatically scanned for possible local earthquakes which are then reviewed by seismologists and further processed. This procedure increased the number of detected events more than twenty times. Hydrological changes are monitored in three boreholes by water-level sensors. The sensors take readings every 10 minutes. The air pressure values are recorded every hour. The ground water levels obviously follow the seasonal changes in aquifers which are replenished after heavy rains and snow melting. However, distinct step-like water level changes (rise +6 and +15 cm) were observed on one of the wells before the 2005 earthquakes (M = 2.4 and M = 3.3). The first one was observed 11-15 hours before the event while the other one was observed 29-32 hours before the earthquake. We interpret this behavior as a possible precursory phenomena.

Valenta, J.; Gazdova, R.; Kolinsky, P.

2011-12-01

279

FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

2012-10-01

280

Evaluation of voltage-sensitive fluorescence dyes for monitoring neuronal activity in the embryonic central nervous system.  

PubMed

Using an optical imaging technique with voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs), we investigated the functional organization and architecture of the central nervous system (CNS) during embryogenesis. In the embryonic nervous system, a merocyanine-rhodanine dye, NK2761, has proved to be the most useful absorption dye for detecting neuronal activity because of its high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), low toxicity and small dye bleaching. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of fluorescence VSDs for optical recording in the embryonic CNS. We screened eight styryl (hemicyanine) dyes in isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations from 7-day-old chick embryos. Measurements of voltage-related optical signals were made using a multiple-site optical recording system. The signal size, S/N, photobleaching, effects of perfusion and recovery of neural responses after staining were compared. We also evaluated optical responses with various magnifications. Although the S/N was lower than with the absorption dye, clear optical responses were detected with several fluorescence dyes, including di-2-ANEPEQ, di-4-ANEPPS, di-3-ANEPPDHQ, di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA, di-2-AN(F)EPPTEA and di-2-ANEPPTEA. Di-2-ANEPEQ showed the largest S/N, whereas its photobleaching was faster and the recovery of neural responses after staining was slower. Di-4-ANEPPS and di-3-ANEPPDHQ also exhibited a large S/N but required a relatively long time for recovery of neural activity. Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA, di-2-AN(F)EPPTEA and di-2-ANEPPTEA showed smaller S/Ns than di-2-ANEPEQ, di-4-ANEPPS and di-3-ANEPPDHQ; but the recovery of neural responses after staining was faster. This study demonstrates the potential utility of these styryl dyes in optical monitoring of voltage changes in the embryonic CNS. PMID:23975337

Habib-E-Rasul Mullah, Saad; Komuro, Ryo; Yan, Ping; Hayashi, Shihori; Inaji, Motoki; Momose-Sato, Yoko; Loew, Leslie M; Sato, Katsushige

2013-09-01

281

Evaluation of voltage-sensitive fluorescence dyes for monitoring neuronal activity in the embryonic central nervous system  

PubMed Central

Using an optical imaging technique with voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs), we have been investigating the functional organization and architecture of the central nervous system (CNS) during embryogenesis. In the embryonic nervous system, a merocyanine-rhodanine dye, NK2761, has proved to be the most useful absorption dye for detecting neuronal activity because of its high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), low toxicity, and small dye bleaching. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of voltage-sensitive fluorescence dyes for optical recording in the embryonic CNS. We screened eight styryl (hemicyanine) dyes in isolated brainstem-spinal cord preparations from 7-day old chick embryos. Measurements of voltage-related optical signals were made using a multiple-site optical recording system. The signal size, S/N, photobleaching, effects of perfusion, and recovery of neural responses after staining were compared. We also evaluated optical responses with various magnifications. Although the S/N was lower than with the absorption dye, clear optical responses were detected with several fluorescence dyes, including di-2-ANEPEQ, di-4-ANEPPS, di-3-ANEPPDHQ, di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA, di-2-AN(F)EPPTEA, and di-2-ANEPPTEA. Di-2-ANEPEQ showed the largest S/N, whereas its photobleaching was faster and the recovery of neural responses after staining was slower. Di-4-ANEPPS and di-3-ANEPPDHQ also exhibited a large S/N, but required a relatively long time for recovery of neural activity. Di-4-AN(F)EPPTEA, di-2-AN(F)EPPTEA, and di-2-ANEPPTEA showed smaller S/Ns than di-2-ANEPEQ, di-4-ANEPPS, and di-3-ANEPPDHQ, but the recovery of neural responses after staining was faster. This study demonstrates the potential utility of these styryl dyes in optical monitoring of voltage changes in the embryonic CNS. PMID:23975337

Mullah, Saad Habib-E-Rasul; Komuro, Ryo; Yan, Ping; Hayashi, Shihori; Inaji, Motoki; Momose-Sato, Yoko; Loew, Leslie M.; Sato, Katsushige

2014-01-01

282

Modulation of alarm pheromone perception in the honey bee: evidence for division of labor based on hormonall regulated response thresholds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of 1-day-old worker honey bees with the juvenile hormone analog methoprene prematurely reduced their behavioral threshold sensitivity to alarm pheromones. Electroantennogram assays indicated that peripheral perception was not affected; the effects apparently occurred in the central nervous system. These results support a model (Robinson 1987) of division of labor based on the hormonal regulation of response thresholds to task-associated

Gene E. Robinson

1987-01-01

283

Alarm substance induced behavioral responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish (zebra danio) are becoming increasingly popular in behavioral neuroscience and behavior genetics. This small vertebrate may be utilized in modeling human brain disorders. One of the major neuropsychiatric conditions still not well understood is abnormally increased fear and anxiety. Zebrafish may be an appropriate organism with which these human diseases can be modeled and their biological mechanisms investigated. Predator induced anxiety paradigms have been suggested as useful methods in translational research. Shoaling fish, such as zebrafish, are known to respond to alarm substances with antipredatory or alarm reactions. However, these responses are not well characterized in zebrafish. In the current paper, we investigate the behavioral responses of zebrafish elicited by its alarm substance. Using observation-based as well as video-tracking aided behavior quantification methods we demonstrate significant alarm substance-induced behavioral changes that are independent of the presence of a predatory fish stimulus. The results suggest that, once refined, the use of alarm substance with zebrafish will allow the development of high throughput behavioral paradigms for drug and mutation screening aimed at the analysis of the biological mechanisms of fear in vertebrates. PMID:18054804

Speedie, Natasha; Gerlai, Robert

2009-01-01

284

Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

Halsey, D.J.

1982-04-01

285

ACTIVE system for monitoring volcanic activity: A case study of the Izu-Oshima Volcano, Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system is proposed for the monitoring of changes in the underground structure of an active volcano over time by applying a transient electromagnetic method. The monitoring system is named ACTIVE, which stands for Array of Controlled Transient-electromagnetics for Imaging Volcano Edifice. The system consists of a transmitter dipole used to generate a controlled transient electromagnetic (EM) field and an array of receivers used to measure the vertical component of the transient magnetic field at various distances, with automatic operation of both units. In order to verify the performance of the proposed system, numerical and field experiments were carried out by application of the system to the Izu-Oshima volcano, where a remarkable change in the apparent DC resistivity over time had been detected in association with the eruption in 1986. Assuming that the next eruption will follow a scenario similar to that of 1986, an array of five receivers was constructed around the summit crater of the central cone, Mihara-yama (Mt. Mihara) and a transmitter dipole with a 700 m long grounded cable was installed approximately 1 km southeast of the summit crater in 2002. A long-term field experiment was then carried out. With the transmitter and receivers both synchronized by a global positioning system (GPS) clock, this field experiment has shown that over approximately 4 years, the daily value of the accuracy of the system was as high as 1% or better, while the accuracy of the monthly mean of the response functions was approximately 0.1%. Many problems with the instruments, the device software, and/or the electronic circuits have also been solved during this field experiment. For data interpretation, a three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling code was built to calculate theoretical responses. By applying this forward code, a sensitivity analysis was performed for a realistic 3-D conductivity distribution model, which showed that the receiver array of the ACTIVE system in Izu-Oshima has a relatively high sensitivity to conductivity changes below the summit crater. A simple and rapid imaging method based on the Born approximation was developed for monitoring purposes, and a numerical test showed that the change in conductivity over time, supposed to have occurred before the 1986 eruption, could be imaged by the present system, which features improved spatial resolution. During the 4-year-long field experiment, changes in the response function over time of up to 7% were observed, from which two source regions, R1 and R2, were imaged at a shallower part of the caldera between the transmitter and the crater, and at approximately 500 m below the crater, respectively. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the present receiver array does not have resolution for R1, although the time-lapse change due to R1 is statistically significant, while the time-lapse change due to R2 is shown to be statistically insignificant, even though the receiver array has sufficient resolution for recording the time-lapse change.

Utada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Yuji; Morita, Yuichi; Koyama, Takao; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi

2007-08-01

286

10 CFR 37.49 - Monitoring, detection, and assessment.  

...will alert nearby facility personnel; or (iii) A monitored video surveillance system; or (iv) Direct visual surveillance...sensors linked to an alarm; or (B) Continuous monitored video surveillance; or (C) Direct visual surveillance....

2014-01-01

287

Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms  

PubMed Central

Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject’s future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject’s continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection. PMID:22865931

Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K.; Quinn, Lauretta

2012-01-01

288

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places  

PubMed Central

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

2010-01-01

289

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.  

PubMed

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

2010-12-01

290

Effect of fire and high temperatures on alarm signals.  

PubMed

Firefighters use an acoustic alarm to recognize and locate other firefighters that need rescue. The alarm, codified under NFPA 1982 : Standard for Personal Alert Safety System (PASS), is typically implemented in firefighter's SCBA (self-contained breathing apparatus) and is carried by a majority of firefighter in the United States. In the past, the standard specified certain frequency tones and other parameters and left implementation up to manufacturers, leading to an infinite number of possibilities that could satisfy the standard. However, there is a move to converge the standard to a single alarm sound. The research presented provides science-based guidance for the next generation of PASS signal. In the two previous ASA meetings, a number of experimental and numerical studies were presented regarding the effect of temperature stratification on room acoustics. The present work uses models developed under those studies to quantify the effect of various signal parameters (frequency ranges, time delay between successive alarms, temporal envelope etc.) on the signal heard by a firefighter. Understanding the effect of these parameters will allow us to formulate a signal more resistant to distortion caused by the fire. [Work supported by U.S. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to Firefighters Grants Program.]. PMID:25235893

Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Preston S; Ezekoye, Ofodike A

2014-04-01

291

FIRE & BUILDING EVACUATION Activate the nearest fire alarm  

E-print Network

FIRE & BUILDING EVACUATION PROCEDURES Activate the nearest fire alarm and call 911. Confine ECU Police (Health Sciences) at 744-2246. Notify your supervisor and/or your Safety Representative. Stay in the area until released. Emergency Procedures Quick Reference Health Science Division at East

292

Verification of criticality accident alarm system for environmental restoration activities  

SciTech Connect

This work analyzes the optimal placement of a criticality accident alarm system (CAAS) necessitated by an unexpected accumulation of fissile materials in the filtration system of an idled experimental nuclear reactor. Results using multidimensional deterministic and Monte Carlo methods confirmed the suitability of an existing CAAS placement located in the adjacent reactor building.

Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Hopper, C.M.

1995-09-01

293

46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 4 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? General alarm bell. ? 108.625 ? Section 108.625 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS ? DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT ? Equipment Markings and Instructions ? § 108.625 ? General...

2010-10-01

294

Tinnitus as an Alarm Bell: Stress Reaction Tinnitus Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is a significant factor influencing the clinical course of tinnitus. Auditory system is particularly sensitive to the effects of different stress factors (chemical, oxidative, emotional, etc.). Different stages of reaction (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) lead to different characteristics of tinnitus and different therapeutic approaches. Individual characteristics of stress reaction may explain different aspects of tinnitus in various patients with different

D. Alpini; A. Cesarani

2006-01-01

295

46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1) A space with a through-hull fitting below the deepest load waterline, such as a...

2010-10-01

296

Rawls' Fairness, Income Distribution and Alarming Level of Gini Coefficient  

E-print Network

The argument that the alarming level of Gini coefficient is 0.4 is very popular, especially in the media industry, all around the world for a long time. Although the 0.4 standard is widely accepted, the derivation of the value lacks rigid theoretical foundations. In fact, to the best of our knowledge, it is not based on any prevalent and convincing economic theories. In this paper, we incorporate Rawls' principle of fair equality of opportunity into Arrow-Debreu's framework of general equilibrium theory with heterogeneous agents, and derive the alarming level of Gini coefficient formally. Our theory reveals that the exponential distribution of income not only satisfies Pareto optimality, but also obeys social fairness in Rawls' sense. Therefore, we specify the maximal value of the Gini coefficient when income follows exponential distribution as a possible alarming level. Our computations show that the alarming level should be specified at least equal or larger than 0.5 rather than 0.4. We empirically investig...

Tao, Yong; Li, Changshuai

2014-01-01

297

A Fire-Alarming Method Based on Video Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fire-alarming method based on video processing. We propose a system that uses color and motion information extracted from video sequences to detect fire. Flame can be recognized according to its color which is a primary element of fire images. Thus choosing a suitable color model is the key to detect flames from fire images. An effective

Ping-He Huang; Jing-Yong Su; Zhe-Ming Lu; Jeng-Shyang Pan

2006-01-01

298

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa pheromone / repellen / compound / Varroa jacobsonl INTRODUCTION Several honey bee hormones and phero- mones trigger for the mite to start egg laying (Hänel, 1983). Honey bee Nasonov pheromone decreas- es

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Automatic diagnosis of multiple alarms for reactor-control rooms  

SciTech Connect

A system has been developed at the Savannah River Plant to help reactor operators respond to multiple alarms in a developing incident situation. The need for such systems has become evident in recent years, particularly after the three Mile Island incident.

Gimmy, K.L.; Nomm, E.

1981-01-01

300

Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

1993-10-01

301

West Nile Virus activity in central Iowa bird populations and the utility of wildlife rehabilitation centers in monitoring wildlife disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the frequency or occurrence of West Nile Virus (WNV) in many Iowa wildlife species, including birds. The lack of knowledge about WNV in Iowa birds is partially due to difficulties associated with monitoring wildlife health. We evaluated the utility of wildlife rehabilitation centers for providing information about wildlife health and disease monitoring, and assessed where on

Natalie Randall

2011-01-01

302

A rule-based approach for the correlation of alarms to support Disaster and Emergency Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key words: Simple Event Correlator, Agent Platform, Ontology, Semantic Web, Distributed Systems, Emergency Management The importance of recognition of emergency's typology to control the critical situation for security of citizens has been always recognized. It follows this aspect is very important for proper management of a hazardous event. In this work we present a solution for the recognition of emergency's typology adopted by an Italian research project, called CI6 (Centro Integrato per Servizi di Emergenza Innovativi). In our approach, CI6 receives alarms by citizen or people involved in the work (for example: police, operator of 112, and so on). CI6 represents any alarm by a set of information, including a text that describes it and obtained when the user points out the danger, and a pair of coordinates for its location. The system realizes an analysis of text and automatically infers information on the type of emergencies by means a set of parsing rules and rules of inference applied by a independent module: a correlator of events based on their log and called Simple Event Correlator (SEC). SEC, integrated in CI6's platform, is an open source and platform independent event correlation tool. SEC accepts input both files and text derived from standard input, making it flexible because it can be matched to any application that is able to write its output to a file stream. The SEC configuration is stored in text files as rules, each rule specifying an event matching condition, an action list, and optionally a Boolean expression whose truth value decides whether the rule can be applied at a given moment. SEC can produce output events by executing user-specified shell scripts or programs, by writing messages to files, and by various other means. SEC has been successfully applied in various domains like network management, system monitoring, data security, intrusion detection, log file monitoring and analysis, etc; it has been used or integrated with many application as CiscoWorks, HP OpenView NNM and Operation, BMC Patrol, etc. Analysis of text of an alarm can detect some keywords that allow to classify the particular event. The inference rules were developed by means an analysis about news regard real emergency found by web reaserches. We have seen that often a kind of emergency is characterized by more keyword. Keywords are not uniquely associated with a specific emergency, but they can be shared by different types of emergencies (such as. keyword "landslide" can be associated both emergency "landslide" and emergency "Flood"). However, the identification of two or more keywords associated with a particular type of emergency identified in most cases the correct type of emergency. So, for example, if text contains words as "water", "flood", "overflowing", "landslide" o other words belonging to the set of defined keywords or words that have some root of keywords, the system "decides" that this alarm belongs to specific typology, in this case "flood typology". The system has the memory of this information, so if a new alarm is reported and belongs to one of the typology already identified, it proceeds with the comparison of coordinates. The comparison between the centers of the alarms allows to see if they describe an area inscribed in an ideal circle that has centered on the first alarm and radius defined by the typology above mentioned. If this happens the system CI6 creates an emergency that has centered on the centre of that area and typology equal to that of the alarms. It follows that an emergency is represented by at least two alarms. Thus, the system suggests to manager (CI6's user) the possibility that most alarms can concern same events and makes a classification of this event. It is important to stress that CI6 is a system of decision support, hence also this service is limited to providing advice to the user to facilitate his task, leaving him the decision to accept it or not. REFERENCES SEC (Simple Event Correlator), htt

Gloria, M.; Minei, G.; Lersi, V.; Pasquariello, D.; Monti, C.; Saitto, A.

2009-04-01

303

Machine Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a printing press jams, damage is extensive, repairs are costly, and time and production loss can be expensive. James River Corporation requested G.W. Shelton, a design engineer with Logical Control Systems to solve this problem. Shelton found the solution in a NASA Tech Brief article describing a system of pulley and belt drives. This led to the design of a system that monitors drive components for changes in relative speed that would indicate belt slippage and jam probability. When a combination of variables is not met, an emergency "stop" signal is sent to the press and an alarm is triggered.

1994-01-01

304

Stable isotopes as indicators of sources and processes influencing nitrate distributions in dairy monitoring wells and domestic supply wells in the Central Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate concentrations above the 10 mg/L NO3-N maximum contaminant level (MCL) have been found in many wells throughout the Central Valley, California. This area contains many possible anthropogenic nitrate sources including current and historic agriculture, private septic systems, municipal waste water, and confined animal feeding operations (primarily dairies). In order to better understand the potential contributions of dairy manure derived nitrate to both shallow and deep groundwater, we used a combined chemical, stable isotope, and age-dating approach for water samples collected from a network of shallow groundwater monitoring wells located on seven different dairies, and from a survey of approximately 200 deeper domestic supply wells (used for drinking water and dairy operations). Groundwater from shallow monitoring wells and deep supply wells was collected in two geographic regions. In the northern region, the lower San Joaquin Valley, the water table is shallow (2- 5 m below surface) and therefore considered highly vulnerable to contamination, while in the southern region, the Tulare Lake Basin, the water table is much deeper (20 - 30 m). Mean ?15N of nitrate in dairy monitoring wells in both the north and south regions was significantly higher than the mean ?15N measured in the deeper supply wells, and also showed greater variability. Mean ?15N and ?18O values measured in the deep supply wells were not significantly different between the north and south regions. Mean nitrate concentrations, ?15N, and ?18O were significantly higher in the northern (lower San Joaquin Valley) monitoring wells in comparison to the southern (Tulare Lake Basin) monitoring wells. Nitrate isotope measurements indicated that many of the northern monitoring wells had consistently high contributions of manure-derived nitrate to the shallow groundwater during the 16 month study. Monitoring wells located in relatively new dairies in the south region showed little evidence of manure-derived nitrate, while those located in much older dairies in the south region showed a very wide range of nitrate isotope values, indicating significant nitrate contributions from multiple sources including manure and industrial fertilizer and biological processing effects. Combined nitrate concentration and isotopic data from all the monitoring wells showed very little evidence of significant saturated-zone denitrification. Monitoring well networks within individual dairies showed wide ranges of nitrate concentrations, nitrate isotopic compositions, and geochemical compositions, confirming the heterogeneity of the nitrate loading across dairy facilities and indicating that measurements from any single monitoring well may not be representative of general groundwater quality downgradient of an individual dairy.

Young, M. B.; Harter, T.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S. R.; Esser, B. K.; Singleton, M. J.; Holstege, D.; Lockhart, K.; Applegate, O.

2011-12-01

305

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

306

How Safe Is Our Campus? Does every student's room have a smoke alarm?  

E-print Network

to the University Emergency Communications Center. How many false alarms have occurred in the residence halls? We is activated? Yes, the alarm systems are tied into the Emergency Communications Center and the University Fire

Wagner, Diane

307

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

308

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

309

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

310

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

311

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

312

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

313

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

314

46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

2012-10-01

315

46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

2010-10-01

316

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

...false What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? 149.414...CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements...414 What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?...

2014-07-01

317

76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION...NRC-2011-0251] Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing...Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...require installation of radiation alarms for rooms housing...December 2011. For the Nuclear Regulatory...

2011-12-07

318

Preclinical evidence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an effective alarm parameter under hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10 min. As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided.

Shi, Hua; Sun, Nannan; Mayevsky, Avraham; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming

2014-01-01

319

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area, surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in June 2009. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new fractures were identified in the soil cover and were filled with bentonite chips during the inspection. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations

None

2009-10-01

320

Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

2012-06-01

321

Home monitor for SIDS with telecommunications capability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of home monitors for the detection and prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in infants has experienced limited success and substantial controversy. The usefulness of home apnea monitors has been plagued with false positive alarms and lack of alarm during apneic episodes. The cause of the alarm is generally not known which increases the anxiety of the parent while lowering confidenca in the monitor. An 87 5 1H microcontroller based respiration and heart rates monitor has been developed to combine the benefits of inexpensive home monitoring with professional data analysis and alarm parameter adjustment. The microcontroller retains heart and respiration rate data (including mean and standard deviation) preceding to and during an apparent Jfe-threatening event (ALTE). The data are stored in a circular buffer as to keep the latest data. The buffer size can be adjisted by the physician depending upon the ALTEs required for further analysis. The home monitor is equipped with telecommunications capability. The stored data and alarm parameters can be transferred at the request of the physidan or parent through an IntErnal telephone modem to a personal computer at the physician''s office or hospital. The monitor retains the cost-effectiveness of home monitoring while providing data collection and analysis by a trained speciaJist.

Kirkpatrick, William; Kejariwal, Murari; Leach, Harley

1990-06-01

322

Hydrologic monitoring of selected streams in coal fields of central and southern Utah; summary of data collected, August 1978-September 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a coal-hydrology monitoring program in coal-field areas of central and southern Utah during August 1978-September 1984 to determine possible hydrologic impacts of future mining and to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal resource areas monitored. Data were collected at 19 gaging stations--18 stations in the Price, San Rafael, and Dirty Devil River basins, and 1 in the Kanab Creek Basin. Streamflow data were collected continuously at 11 stations and seasonally at 5 stations. At the other three stations streamflow data were collected continuously during the 1979 water year and then seasonally for the rest of their periods of record. Types of data collected at each station included quantity and quality of streamflow; suspended sediment concentrations; and descriptions of stream bottom sediments, benthic invertebrate, and phytoplankton samples. Also, base flow measurements were made annually upstream from 12 of the gaging stations. Stream bottom sediment sampled at nearly all the monitoring sites contained small to moderate quantities of coal, which may be attributed chiefly to pre-monitoring mining. Streamflow sampled at several sites contained large concentrations of sulfate and dissolved solids. Also, concentrations of various trace elements at 10 stations, and phenols at 18 stations, exceeded the criteria of the EPA for drinking water. This may be attributed to contemporary (water years 1979-84) mine drainage activities. The data collected during the complete water years (1979-84) of monitoring do provide a better understanding of the hydrologic systems of the coal field areas monitored. The data also provide a definite base by which to evaluate hydrologic impacts of continued or increased coal mining in those areas. (Author 's abstract)

Price, Don; Plantz, G.G.

1987-01-01

323

The U's Facilities Management Department (FM) conducted an internal review of its fire alarm testing  

E-print Network

alarm testing. Moving to standardized testing methods and record keeping, along with inspections alarm testing process in 2009 that resulted in annual savings of approximately $578,000. The fire alarm systems, which cover the vast majority of campus buildings, were traditionally tested, maintained

Webb, Peter

324

Design of the Intelligent Test Equipment of Airplane Fire Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airplane fire alarm system is a piece of the most important equipment influencing the flight security. Due to the factors of design and working condition, the reliability of the system is poor, especially the high rate of false alarm. So the test equipment of airplane fire alarm system, an intelligent synthesis test system allowing multiple parameters and digital data

Xu Hengcheng; Zeng Xianlin; Liu Xiangqun

2010-01-01

325

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2010-10-01

326

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2011-10-01

327

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2012-10-01

328

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2013-10-01

329

46 CFR 154.1325 - Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1325 Liquid level alarm system: All cargo tanks...1330, each cargo tank must have a high liquid level alarm system that: (a) Is...

2014-10-01

330

Soundness by Static Analysis and False-alarm Removal by Statistical Analysis  

E-print Network

and their credible sets. Depending on the user- provided ratio of the risk of silencing true alarms to that of false of Information and Communication. 1 Buffer overruns happen when an index value is out of the target buffer size-provided ratio of the risk of silencing true alarms to that of raising false alarms. 2. Airac, a Sound Analyzer

Yi, Kwangkeun "Kwang"

331

Chair Alarm for patient fall prevention based on Gesture Recognition and Interactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The

Heather Knight; Jae-Kyu Lee; Hongshen Ma

2008-01-01

332

Spiny lobsters detect conspecific blood-borne alarm cues exclusively through olfactory sensilla.  

PubMed

When attacked by predators, diverse animals actively or passively release molecules that evoke alarm and related anti-predatory behavior by nearby conspecifics. The actively released molecules are alarm pheromones, whereas the passively released molecules are alarm cues. For example, many insects have alarm-signaling systems that involve active release of alarm pheromones from specialized glands and detection of these signals using specific sensors. Many crustaceans passively release alarm cues, but the nature of the cues, sensors and responses is poorly characterized. Here we show in laboratory and field experiments that injured Caribbean spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, passively release alarm cues via blood (hemolymph) that induce alarm responses in the form of avoidance and suppression of feeding. These cues are detected exclusively through specific olfactory chemosensors, the aesthetasc sensilla. The alarm cues for Caribbean spiny lobsters are not unique to the species but do show some phylogenetic specificity: P. argus responds primarily with alarm behavior to conspecific blood, but with mixed alarm and appetitive behaviors to blood from the congener Panulirus interruptus, or with appetitive behaviors to blood from the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. This study lays the foundation for future neuroethological studies of alarm cue systems in this and other decapod crustaceans. PMID:18689413

Shabani, Shkelzen; Kamio, Michiya; Derby, Charles D

2008-08-01

333

46 CFR 27.201 - What are the requirements for general alarms on towing vessels?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...engine room. (3) Has installed, in the engine room and any other area where background noise makes a general alarm hard to hear, a supplemental flashing red light that is identified with a sign that reads: Attention General Alarm—When Alarm...

2010-10-01

334

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section...Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm...

2012-10-01

335

46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 169.732 Section...Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. (a) Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm...

2013-10-01

336

Social enviroment influences aphid production of alarm pheromone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most aphid species, the volatile sesquiterpene (E)-?-farnesene (E?f) is released as an alarm pheromone in response to predation and is also emitted continuously at low levels. Some aphid predators use E?f as a foraging cue, suggesting that the benefits to aphids of signaling via E?f must be weighed against the cost of increasing apparency to natural enemies. To determine

François J. Verheggen; Eric Haubruge; Consuelo M. De Moraes; Mark C. Mescher

2009-01-01

337

ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest version of ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2 will help keep users' computers free from phishing devices and other such pesky intruders. The application takes about 5 minutes to setup, and it can now also stop program spoofing, which is when a malicious program pretends to be a good one. The program also has an extensive interactive help feature, which can be useful for new users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP, Vista, and 7.

2010-01-01

338

Evaluation of criticality alarm response at the WEMCO Fernald site  

SciTech Connect

This work quantifies the expected dose rates at a series of criticality alarm locations due to several postulated criticality accidents at the Westinghouse Environmental MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF OHIO (WEMCO) Fernald site. One- and two-dimensional discrete- ordinates calculations were performed for seven different shielding configurations using leakage spectra corresponding to two specific postulated critical events. In addition, an estimate of the gaseous fission products released during the hypothetical accident was made using ORIGEN-S point-depletion code.

Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Westfall, R.M.; Parks, C.V.

1992-11-01

339

A 13-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p...

340

The analysis of the specific situationof Romania in the public policy making, implementation, monitorization and evaluationprocess at central level  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyzed the public policy planning and making process at central level in Romania. In recent years, significant progresses concerning this process which is coordinated by the General Secretariat of the Government were made. These regarded the consolidation of government's capacity to better follow up its politic priorities and to provide a more efficient environment for regulation

George MOLDOVEANU; Mihaela PACESILA

2009-01-01

341

A THIRTEEN-WEEK COMPARISON OF PASSIVE AND CONTINUOUS OZONE MONITORS AT FORESTED SITES IN NORTH-CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Ogawa passive 03 samplers were used in a 13-233k study (June 1-September 1, 1999) involving 11 forested and mountaintop sites in north-central Pennsylvania. Four of the sites were collocated with TECO model 49 O3 analyzers. A significant correlation (p...

342

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

343

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

344

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspections conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2011 and July 2012. The annual post-closure site inspections included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspections conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new fractures or extension of existing fractures were observed and no issues with the fence or gate were identified. The vegetation on the cover continues to look healthy, but the biennial vegetation survey conducted during the 2012 inspection indicated that the total foliar cover was slightly higher in 2009 than in 2012. This may be indicative of a decrease in precipitation observed during the 2-year monitoring period. The precipitation totaled 9.9 inches from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and 5 inches from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. This decrease in precipitation is also evident in the soil moisture data obtained from the time domain reflectometry sensors. Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 cover is performing as designed, and evapotranspiration is effectively removing water from the cover.

None

2013-03-01

345

National Estuarine Research Reserve System Centralized Data Management Office in Support of the NERR System-wide Monitoring Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1972 through the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), the National Estuarine Research Reserve System (NERR) is a network of protected areas representing different types of estuaries and biogeographic regions. Operated by coastal states with input from local communities and regional groups, NERR studies address coastal watershed management issues. For reserve data and data on water quality (and associated metadata), see the NERR Centralized Data Management homepage.

346

A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels

Hall

2000-01-01

347

Intelligent monitoring system for intensive care units.  

PubMed

We address in the present paper a medical monitoring system designed as a multi-agent based approach. Our system includes mainly numerous agents that act as correlated multi-agent sub-systems at the three layers of the whole monitoring infrastructure, to avoid non informative alarms and send effective alarms at time. The intelligence in the proposed monitoring system is provided by the use of time series technology. In fact, the capability of continuous learning of time series from the physiological variables allows the design of a system that monitors patients in real-time. Such system is a contrast to the classical threshold-based monitoring system actually present in the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) which causes a huge number of irrelevant alarms. PMID:21505862

Nouira, Kaouther; Trabelsi, Abdelwahed

2012-08-01

348

Monitoring adherence to the international code of conduct: highly hazardous pesticides in central Andean agriculture and farmers' rights to health.  

PubMed

The WHO has advocated monitoring adherence to the Food and Agriculture Organization's Code of Conduct to reduce use of highly hazardous pesticides in lower and middle income countries. We re-framed Code articles in terms of farmers' rights and drew on survey data, farmer focus group results, and direct observations of agrochemical stores in Ecuador and Peru to construct indicators reflecting respect for such rights. Use of highly (Ia and Ib) and moderately (II) hazardous pesticides was common. Worse indicators were observed in places with lower education, greater poverty, and more use of indigenous languages. Limited government enforcement capacity, social irresponsibility of the pesticide industry, and lack of farmers' knowledge of the Code were all factors impeding respect for farmers' rights. Addressing the power imbalance among social actors requires informed farmer and farmworker participation in monitoring adherence and active involvement of non-governmental organizations and municipal governments. PMID:19650580

Orozco, Fadya A; Cole, Donald C; Forbes, Greg; Kroschel, Jürgen; Wanigaratne, Susitha; Arica, Denis

2009-01-01

349

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2013-10-01

350

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2011-10-01

351

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2012-10-01

352

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2010-10-01

353

Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-09-01

354

Experiences from near-real-time satellite-based volcano monitoring in Central America: case studies at Fuego, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, remote sensing has been used increasingly in the study of active volcanoes and their associated hazards. Ground?based remote sensing techniques, such as those aimed at the analysis of volcanic gases or fumarole temperatures, are now part of routine monitoring operations with additional satellite?based remote sensing methods. It is likely that the use of satellite?based systems will

P. W. Webley; M. J. Wooster; W. Strauch; J. A. Saballos; K. Dill; P. Stephenson; J. Stephenson; R. Escobar Wolf; O. Matias

2008-01-01

355

Automatic radio-transmission monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System continuously monitors radio transmissions stored in memory. If spectrum deviates beyond present limits, alarm is tripped and spectrum is transferred to long-term storage for later analysis. Monitor can be useful in ensuring proper power level and spectral quality and in finding cause of failure. It might also be used to monitor radio-frequency interference or power levels of citizen's-band transmitters.

Bernstein, A. J.

1978-01-01

356

Development of a distance-to-roadway proximity metric to compare near-road pollutant levels to a central site monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or community monitor. One of the EMAs was located near a busy freeway (annual average daily traffic (AADT) of ˜130,000) so that impacts of mobile sources could be examined. Air pollution concentrations from the roadway-proximate sites were compared to the central site monitor. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) selected (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p- and o-xylene, 1,3 butadiene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and 4-ethyltoluene) are typically associated with mobile sources. Gradients were also evident that demonstrated the amplification of pollutant levels near the roadway compared to the community monitor. A novel distance-to-roadway proximity metric was developed to plot the measurements and model these gradients. Effective distance represents the actual distance an air parcel travels from the middle of a roadway to a site and varies as a function of wind direction, whereas perpendicular distance is a fixed distance oriented normal to the roadway. Perpendicular distance is often used as a proxy for exposures to traffic emissions in epidemiological studies. Elevated concentrations of all the compounds were found for both a summer and winter season. Effective distance was found to be a statistically significant ( p < 0.05) univariate predictor for concentrations of toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene and o-xylene for summer 2005. For each of these pollutants, effective distance yielded lower p-values than the corresponding perpendicular distance models, and model fit improved. Results demonstrate that this near-road EMA had elevated levels of traffic-related VOCs compared to the community monitor, and that effective distance was a more accurate predictor of the degree to which they were elevated as a function of distance. Effective distance produced a range of distance-to-roadway values for a single site based on wind direction, thus increasing the number and range of values that could be used to plot and predict relative differences in pollutant concentrations between two sites.

Barzyk, Timothy M.; George, Barbara Jane; Vette, Alan F.; Williams, Ronald W.; Croghan, Carry W.; Stevens, Carvin D.

357

Agricultural nitrate monitoring in a lake basin in Central Italy: a further step ahead towards an integrated nutrient management aimed at controlling water pollution.  

PubMed

Water pollution from point sources has been considerably reduced over the last few decades. Nevertheless, some water quality problems remain, which can be attributed to non-point pollution sources, and in particular to agriculture. In this paper the results of a study intended to assess the consequences, in terms of NO3 water pollution, of growing a crop, whose impact in terms of P pollution is already well known, are presented. The potential consequences, in terms of water pollution from nitrates of a BMP expressly applied to reduce P pollution are also discussed. The study site is the Lake Vico basin, Central Italy, which has suffered a shift in trophic state since the mid 1990s, caused by P compounds used for intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees. The results of the monitoring campaign described in this paper allow to assert that hazelnut tree cropping has probably caused a considerable increase in nitrate concentration in the groundwater, although not in the lake water, because of the specific hydrogeological characteristics of the basin. The main conclusion is that monitoring is essential to single out environmental characteristics peculiar of a specific area, which even the most sophisticated model would not have been able to highlight. This is why monitoring and model simulations should be integrated. PMID:19911291

Garnier, Monica; Recanatesi, Fabio; Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio

2010-11-01

358

Design of a cardiac monitor in terms of parameters of QRS complex.  

PubMed

Objective. To design a portable cardiac monitor system based on the available ordinary ECG machine and works on the basis of QRS parameters. Method. The 80196 single chip microcomputer was used as the central microprocessor and real time electrocardiac signal was collected and analyzed [correction of analysized] in the system. Result. Apart from the performance of an ordinary monitor, this machine possesses also the following functions: arrhythmia analysis, HRV analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic papering. Convenient in carrying, the system is powered by AC or DC sources. Stability, low power and low cost are emphasized in the hardware design; and modularization method is applied in software design. Conclusion. Popular in usage and low cost made the portable monitor system suitable for use under simple conditions. PMID:12422858

Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Su, Ke-ping; Wang, Hong-yan; Jiang, Da-zong

2002-08-01

359

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable vegetation cover on the site. It is suggested that future vegetation surveys be conducted once every 2 years or as needed to help monitor the health of the vegetation.

None

2008-09-01

360

Flights of fear: a mechanical wing whistle sounds the alarm in a flocking bird  

PubMed Central

Animals often form groups to increase collective vigilance and allow early detection of predators, but this benefit of sociality relies on rapid transfer of information. Among birds, alarm calls are not present in all species, while other proposed mechanisms of information transfer are inefficient. We tested whether wing sounds can encode reliable information on danger. Individuals taking off in alarm fly more quickly or ascend more steeply, so may produce different sounds in alarmed than in routine flight, which then act as reliable cues of alarm, or honest ‘index’ signals in which a signal's meaning is associated with its method of production. We show that crested pigeons, Ocyphaps lophotes, which have modified flight feathers, produce distinct wing ‘whistles’ in alarmed flight, and that individuals take off in alarm only after playback of alarmed whistles. Furthermore, amplitude-manipulated playbacks showed that response depends on whistle structure, such as tempo, not simply amplitude. We believe this is the first demonstration that flight noise can send information about alarm, and suggest that take-off noise could provide a cue of alarm in many flocking species, with feather modification evolving specifically to signal alarm in some. Similar reliable cues or index signals could occur in other animals. PMID:19726481

Hingee, Mae; Magrath, Robert D.

2009-01-01

361

Adaptive differences in response to two types of parental alarm call in altricial nestlings  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate alarm calls can contain information about the type of predator and the degree of danger, but young animals often respond to alarm calls differently from adults. The distinct behaviour of young may reflect an imperfect stage in the gradual development of the adult response, or a response adapted to specific risks faced by young. In this study, we tested whether nestling white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, responded to different alarm calls according to their specific risks of predation. As predators on the ground pose a danger to scrubwren nestlings, whereas flying predators do not, we predicted that they would respond to ground alarm calls but not to aerial alarm calls. In a field playback experiment, we tested the response of young to aerial and ground alarm calls, each presented in a shorter (less urgent) and longer (more urgent) form. We found that both 5- and 11-day-old nestlings responded to ground alarm calls, and did so more strongly to the more urgent playback. By contrast, the response to aerial alarm calls started to develop only towards the end of the nestling stage. Thus, scrubwren nestlings can distinguish between different types of alarm calls and react more strongly to calls warning of a predator posing greater danger, appropriate to the nestling stage of development. Furthermore, they use the length of ground alarm calls as an indicator of the degree of danger. PMID:16024370

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D

2005-01-01

362

Are heat stroke patients fluid depleted? Importance of monitoring central venous pressure as a simple guideline for fluid therapy.  

PubMed

During pilgrimage season (Hajj) in Saudi Arabia 34 patients with heat stroke (HS) were centrally cannulated to assess their state of hydration and fluid requirement during cooling period. Central venous pressure (C.V.P.) measurements indicated that most victims of heat stroke had normal C.V.P. on arrival at heat stroke centres and may not be fluid depleted. Twenty-two patients (64.7%) had normal or above normal C.V.P. Twelve patients (35.3%) had zero or below zero C.V.P. Six patients (17.6%) had above 10 cmH2O (range 10-26 cmH2O) and could have developed acute congestive heat failure and pulmonary edema if they had been transfused at the standard recommended rate of 3-4 litres of fluid during an average cooling time of 1 h as has been practiced in the heat stroke centres to date. This study also showed that heat stroke patients should not be briskly transfused because the heart may be affected by heat stroke per se and an unmonitored challenge by brisk i.v. therapy during cooling (which on its own increases preload on the heart due to peripheral vasoconstriction) can lead to acute overload problems. An average of 1 litre of normal saline or Ringer's lactate (crystalloids) was sufficient to normalize C.V.P. during the cooling period and to restore an optimal state of hydration without predisposing to congestive cardiac failure and pulmonary edema--the potential to develop disastrous adult respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. PMID:1852063

Seraj, M A; Channa, A B; al Harthi, S S; Khan, F M; Zafrullah, A; Samarkandi, A H

1991-02-01

363

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C.

2004-01-01

364

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C

2004-09-01

365

Encountering bird alarms in full-stare IRSTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds are a potential source of frequent false alarms in Infrared Search and Track (IRST) systems. One reason is that the signals, generated by birds at short ranges (1-2 km) in IR sensors may be of the same magnitude as the signals generated by real targets (missiles) at long ranges (10-20 km). Another reason is that new generations of IRSTs have more sensitivity which brings more birds within the detection range. Furthermore military operations tend to be held more and more in coastal zones, where the frequency of occurrence of birds is greater than in the open ocean. Finally, the variety in type of birds and their flight characteristics and signature is larger. In the paper attention is spent on the IR signatures of birds in various backgrounds, including rapid variations in signature due to wing motions. Basically, these fluctuations and the flight pattern of a bird provide opportunities to encounter bird alarms in next generation IRSTs, using multiple Focal Plan Array cameras with high frame rates. One has to take into account in this process the difference between signal variations due to wing motions and scintillation for long range targets above the horizon.

de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans; Kemp, Rob A. W.

2000-12-01

366

Measuring the performance of audible alarms for anaesthesia.  

PubMed

The ergonomic performance of an integrated set of 17 audible alarm sounds, divided into low, medium and high priority classes has been undertaken. The sounds were tested for their ease of learning/recall, and how closely their intrinsic perceived urgency matched to a clinical assessment of urgency. The tests were computer-administered and performed on 21 volunteers aged from 18 to 52, in two sessions a few days apart. Session 1 taught the meanings of the alarm sounds and session 2 measured the performance of the sounds. The mean correct identification rate for the sounds was 48.4% (range 10.3-90.0%) with 97.5% of misidentifications within sound priority class. The urgency correlation was statistically significant (r=0.85, p<0.001) with all priority classes included but within priority class correlations were not statistically significant. Poor within priority class performances were ascribable to a priori aspects of the design of the sound system. PMID:16127831

Williams, Sarah; Beatty, Paul C W

2005-08-01

367

Central Venous-to-Arterial CO2 Gap Is a Useful Parameter in Monitoring Hypovolemia-Caused Altered Oxygen Balance: Animal Study  

PubMed Central

Monitoring hypovolemia is an everyday challenge in critical care, with no consensus on the best indicator or what is the clinically relevant level of hypovolemia. The aim of this experiment was to determine how central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide difference (CO2 gap) reflect hypovolemia-caused changes in the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Anesthetized, ventilated Vietnamese minipigs (n = 10) were given a bolus followed by a continuous infusion of furosemide. At baseline and then in five stages hemodynamic, microcirculatory measurements and blood gas analysis were performed. Oxygen extraction increased significantly, which was accompanied by a significant drop in ScvO2 and a significant increase in CO2 gap. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen extraction and ScvO2 and significant positive correlation between oxygen extraction and CO2 gap. Taking ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg values together to predict an oxygen extraction >30%, the positive predictive value?is?100%; negative predicted value?is?72%. Microcirculatory parameters, capillary perfusion rate and red blood cell velocity, decreased significantly over time. Similar changes were not observed in the sham group. Our data suggest that ScvO2 < 73% and CO2 gap >6?mmHg can be complementary tools in detecting hypovolemia-caused imbalance of oxygen extraction. PMID:24069537

Demeter, Gabor; Erces, Daniel; Nagy, Eniko; Kaszaki, Jozsef

2013-01-01

368

Combination of multi-sensor PSI monitoring data with a landslide damage inventory: the Tena Valley case study (Central Spanish Pyrenees) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work illustrates the usefulness of integrating multi-sensor DInSAR monitoring data and landslide damage inventories for risk analysis. The approach has been applied in the Tena Valley (Central Spanish Pyrenees), where active landslides have caused significant damage on human structures over the last decade. Slope instability in this glacial trough is mainly related to very slow deep-seated slide-flows developed in Paleozoic slates. The PSI processing of ascending orbit ALOS PALSAR images (2006-2010), and descending orbit ERS & Envisat (2001-2007) and TerraSAR-X (2008) datasets, has provided heterogeneous displacement velocity measurements. The geometrical differences introduced by each satellite have been homogenized through the projection of the LOS displacements along the steepest slope gradient. Additionally, conventional DInSAR analysis of ALOS PALSAR images has permitted the detection of faster movements (up to 145cm yr-1) from 46 day interferograms (, increasing the number of detected landslides. Overall, the number of monitored landslides increased from 4% and 19%, using C- and X- band data, to 38% of the total (294) using L-band. In a subsequent phase, the multi-sensor velocities measured for the landslides are classified with respect to the magnitude of the road damage occurred in the 2008-2010 period. According to available measurements, minor or no damages are produced for landslide velocities smaller than 21 mm yr-1, moderate damages occurred between 21 and 160 mm yr-1, and major damages between 160 and 1450 mm yr-1.

Herrera, G.; Gutierrez, F.; García-Davalillo, J.; Galve, J.; Fernández-Merodo, J.; Cooksley, G.; Guerrero, J.; Duro, J.

2013-12-01

369

Fiberoptic monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation (PediaSat) in small children undergoing cardiac surgery: continuous is not continuous  

PubMed Central

Background: Monitoring of superior vena cava saturation (ScvO 2) has become routine in the management of pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of our study was to evaluate the correlation between continuous ScvO 2 by the application of a fiber-optic oximetry catheter (PediaSat) and intermittent ScvO 2 by using standard blood gas measurements. These results were compared to those obtained by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (cNIRS). Setting: Tertiary pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). Methods and main results: A retrospective study was conducted in consecutive patients who were monitored with a 4.5 or 5.5 F PediaSat catheter into the right internal jugular vein. An  in vivo calibration was performed once the patient was transferred to the PCICU and re-calibration took place every 24 hours thereafter. Each patient had a NIRS placed on the forehead. Saturations were collected every 4 hours until extubation. Ten patients with a median age of 2.2 (0.13-8.5) years and a weight of 12.4 (3.9-24) kg were enrolled. Median sampling time was 32 (19-44) hours: 64 pairs of PediaSat and ScVO2 saturations showed a poor correlation (r=0.62, 95% CI 44-75; p<0.0001) and Bland Altman analysis for repeated measures showed an average difference of 0.34 with a standard deviation of 7,9 and 95% limits of agreement from -15 to 16. Thirty-six pairs of cNIRS and ScVO2 saturations showed a fair correlation (r=0.79, 95% CI 0.60-0.89; p<0.0001) an average difference of -1.4 with a standard deviation of 6 and 95% limits of agreement from -13 to 10. Analysis of median percentage differences between PediaSat and ScvO2 saturation over time revealed that, although not statistically significant, the change in percentage saturation differences was clinically relevant after the 8th hour from calibration (from -100 to +100%). Conclusion: PediaSat catheters showed unreliable performance in our cohort. It should be further investigated whether repeating calibrations every 8 hours may improve the accuracy of this system. CNIRS may provide similar results with a lower invasiveness. PMID:24741439

Ricci, Zaccaria

2014-01-01

370

Towards a closed-loop cochlear implant system: application of embedded monitoring of peripheral and central neural activity.  

PubMed

Although the cochlear implant (CI) is widely considered the most successful neural prosthesis, it is essentially an open-loop system that requires extensive initial fitting and frequent tuning to maintain a high, but not necessarily optimal, level of performance. Two developments in neuroscience and neuroengineering now make it feasible to design a closed-loop CI. One development is the recording and interpretation of evoked potentials (EPs) from the peripheral to the central nervous system. The other is the embedded hardware and software of a modern CI that allows recording of EPs. We review EPs that are pertinent to behavioral functions from simple signal detection and loudness growth to speech discrimination and recognition. We also describe signal processing algorithms used for electric artifact reduction and cancellation, critical to the recording of electric EPs. We then present a conceptual design for a closed-loop CI that utilizes in an innovative way the embedded implant receiver and stimulators to record short latency compound action potentials ( ~1 ms), auditory brainstem responses (1-10 ms) and mid-to-late cortical potentials (20-300 ms). We compare EPs recorded using the CI to EPs obtained using standard scalp electrodes recording techniques. Future applications and capabilities are discussed in terms of the development of a new generation of closed-loop CIs and other neural prostheses. PMID:22328183

Mc Laughlin, Myles; Lu, Thomas; Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Zeng, Fan-Gang

2012-07-01

371

A knowledge-based approach to automatic alarm interpretation using computer vision, on image sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a knowledge- based system which will be used to automate the interpretation of an alarm event resulting from a perimeter intrusion detection system. The knowledge-based system analyses a sequence of digital images captured before, during and after the alarm is generated. Additional data, pertaining to the alarm sensor, prevailing weather conditions and time-of-day are

T. J. Ellis; P. Rosin; P. Moukas; P. Golton

1989-01-01

372

Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

Martin, Rodney Alexander

2009-01-01

373

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

374

The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

375

Automated alarm to detect antigen excess in serum free immunoglobulin light chain kappa and lambda assays.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Antigen excess causing a falsely low concentration result may occur when measuring serum free immunoglobulin light chains (SFLC). Automated antigen excess detection methods are available only with some analyzers. We have now developed and verified such a method. Methods. Residuals of sera with known SFLC-? and -? concentrations were analyzed using Binding Site reagents and methods adapted to the Roche Cobas(®) c.501 analyzer. Results. We analyzed 117 sera for SFLC-? and -? and examined how the absorbance increased with time during the 7 minutes of reaction (absorbance reading points 12-70). From this an antigen excess alarm factor (ratio of absorbance increases between reading points 68-60 and 20-12, multiplied by 100) was defined. Upon our request, Roche added to our two SFLC assays a program which calculated this antigen excess alarm factor and triggered an alarm when the factor was below a defined value. We verified this antigen excess alarm function by analyzing serum from 325 persons of whom 143 were multiple myeloma patients. All samples with a known concentration above 30 mg/L triggered either an antigen excess alarm, an 'above test' alarm or both. Also, all samples above 200 mg/L (SFLC-?) and 300 mg/L (SFLC-?) triggered the antigen excess alarm and all but one triggered the above test alarm. Conclusions. The antigen excess alarm function presented here detected all known antigen excess samples at no increased time of analysis, a reduced workload and reduced reagent cost. PMID:25007050

Urdal, Petter; Amundsen, Erik K; Toska, Karin; Klingenberg, Olav

2014-10-01

376

Cryospheric Dynamics in the Central Chilean Andes: Multi-decadal Reconstruction and Multi-annual Monitoring of Rock Glaciers and a Debris-covered Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the semiarid Central Chilean Andes at 33.5°S, permafrost is widely present above 3500-4000 m a.s.l., especially in the form of ice-rich debris accumulations such as rock glaciers. While Chilean rock glacier are among the largest known rock glaciers, glaciers are mostly restricted to the highest summits and are affected by a significant retreat during the last decades. Rock glaciers display a characteristic morphology produced by the deep-seated steady-state creeping of their permafrost body, and they are of great geomorphic and hydrological importance in poorly glaciated mountains. Their response to Global Warming is however still poorly understood. Our study area in the Laguna Negra catchment provides up to two-thirds of the drinking water supplies to Chile's capital Santiago (5.5 million inhabitants) during the dry summer months. We investigate the multi-decadal and multi-annual dynamics of a complex cryospheric system composed of a rock glacier and debris-covered glacier. We use aerial photogrammetry to produce diachronic orthophotos and high-resolution digital elevation models of 1956 and 1996, and to detect changes in cryospheric features such as glacier retreat, thermokarst development and rock glacier creep. Surface dynamics on rock glacier transects are furthermore analyzed using differential GPS measurements (2004-2008), indicating horizontal surface displacement rates between 20 and 130 cm/yr. Ground temperatures monitored in 2003/04 with miniature data loggers between 2500 and 4000 m a.s.l. in combination with regional meteorological measurements provide further insight into periglacial process environments in the Andes of Santiago, including information on frost penetration depth, influence of snow cover, and altitudinal gradients. Ongoing research in the Laguna Negra area include a spatially distributed ground thermal monitoring program and, for the first time in the Andes, terrestrial laser scanning of rock glaciers. The cryospheric monitoring network at Laguna Negra constitutes one of the first in the Andes. Ground temperatures are monitored with 45 two-channel data loggers placed in a wide range of topoclimatic and geomorphic contexts in order to statistically assess the influence of relevant parameters (snow depth, solar radiation, surface type, etc.) on the ground thermal regime. Geodetic networks on rock glaciers and the debris-covered glacier have also been enhanced. GPS and laser surveys will be repeated in annual to multi-annual intervals.

Bodin, X.; Rojas, F.; Brenning, A.

2009-05-01

377

When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms  

PubMed Central

Objective: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Design, setting, and subjects: Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Main outcome measures: Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Results: Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. Conclusion: These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed. PMID:16326772

Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

2005-01-01

378

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...50, and 112.45. (4) Sequential interlocks provided in control systems to ensure safe operation, such as boiler programing control or reversing of propulsion diesels, must have summary indicators in the machinery spaces and at the cognizant...

2010-10-01

379

CENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF SMALL TREATMENT PLANTS USING INSTRUMENTS AND REMOTE ALARMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The operation and maintenance of small treatment plants and associated lift stations pose unique and difficult problems to the authority responsible for their performance. Due to financial and manpower limitations, they must operate unattended the majority of the time. Undetected...

380

LEMON - LHC Era Monitoring for Large-Scale Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time computer centres are facing a massive rise in virtualization and cloud computing as these solutions bring advantages to service providers and consolidate the computer centre resources. However, as a result the monitoring complexity is increasing. Computer centre management requires not only to monitor servers, network equipment and associated software but also to collect additional environment and facilities data (e.g. temperature, power consumption, cooling efficiency, etc.) to have also a good overview of the infrastructure performance. The LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system is addressing these requirements for a very large scale infrastructure. The Lemon agent that collects data on every client and forwards the samples to the central measurement repository provides a flexible interface that allows rapid development of new sensors. The system allows also to report on behalf of remote devices such as switches and power supplies. Online and historical data can be visualized via a web-based interface or retrieved via command-line tools. The Lemon Alarm System component can be used for notifying the operator about error situations. In this article, an overview of the Lemon monitoring is provided together with a description of the CERN LEMON production instance. No direct comparison is made with other monitoring tool.

Marian, Babik; Ivan, Fedorko; Nicholas, Hook; Hector, Lansdale Thomas; Daniel, Lenkes; Miroslav, Siket; Denis, Waldron

2011-12-01

381

Intelligent video monitoring system based on 3G  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the effect of video monitoring and decrease the rate of false alarm, an intelligent video monitoring system is designed based on 3G telecommunication technology and face recognition teleology. Taking AMR9 as its core, this system involves a 3G telecommunication module centered on MU103 and a protocol of safe command transmission. Thus, this intelligent video monitoring system

Han Yun; Pan Ai hua; Zheng Shang zhi

2010-01-01

382

Monitor assures availability and quality of communication channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System monitors a communication channel for proper circuit parameters and energizes an alarm if these parameters do not fall within allowable limits. It comprises a monitor-signal transmitter at the transmitting end of the channel and a monitor-signal receiver at the receiving end.

Smith, G. P.

1967-01-01

383

Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) to chemical alarm cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of

Douglas P. Chivers; Joseph M. Kiesecker; Michael T. Anderson; Erica L. Wildy; Andrew R. Blaustein

1996-01-01

384

Information use by an Invading Species: Do Invaders Respond More to Alarm Odors than Native Species?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of crayfish were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the hypothesis that successful invaders use a broader range of chemical information than do displaced native species. The invasive species Orconectes rusticus reduced responses to food odors just as strongly when heterospecific (O. propinquus, O. virilis) alarm odors were introduced with food odors as they did when conspecific alarm

Brian A. Hazlett

2000-01-01

385

Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brood parasites and predators pose unique threats that may favour the evolution of enemy-specific defence strategies. We considered whether reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, have a specific alarm call for com- mon cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, and whether their alarms attract mates and neighbours. Mounts of cuckoos (threat to nest but harmless to adults) were significantly more likely to be mobbed and

J. A. Welbergen; N. B. Davies

2008-01-01

386

Dine or Dash?: Ontogenetic Shift in the Response of Yellow Perch to Conspecific Alarm Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their first year of growth yellow perch, Perca flavescens, undergo an ontogenetic niche shift from invertebrate feeding to piscivory. They also undergo a similar shift in their response to heterospecific alarm cues, switching from anti-predator to foraging behaviour. We conducted laboratory trials to determine whether yellow perch experience a comparable ontogenetic shift in their response to conspecific alarm cues.

Mark C. Harvey; Grant E. Brown

2004-01-01

387

Production of chemical alarm cues in convict cichlids: the effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much is known regarding the role of chemical alarm cues in the mediation of predator-prey dynamics within aquatic ecosystems, little is known regarding the production of these critically important information sources. In a series of labora- tory experiments, we tested the possible effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny on the production of chemical alarm cues in juvenile convict

Grant E. Brown; Patricia E. Foam; Hilary E. Cowell; Palestina Guevara Fiore; Douglas P. Chivers

388

Alarm calling behavior of the thirteen-lined ground squirrel, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm calling in a population of thirteenlined ground squirrels, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, was studied over a three-year period. Data on ground squirrel reactions to human and canine approaches and to the approach or presence of avian predators were used to quantify alarm calling behavior.

P. L. Schwagmeyer

1980-01-01

389

On correlation analysis of bivariate alarm signals Zijiang Yang and Jiandong Wang.  

E-print Network

@ece.ualberta.ca Abstract-- This paper studies the correlation analysis for bivariate alarm signals in order to indicate and distribution of the correlation delay. An industrial case study is provided to illustrate the proposed sequential alarms and unneces- sary operations. Yang et al. [12] generated pseudo continuous time series from

Wang, Jiandong

390

Response of pumpkinseed sunfish to conspecific chemical alarm cues: an interaction between ontogeny and stimulus concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that juvenile centrachids undergo ontogenetic shifts in their behavioural response towards conspecific and heterospecific chemical alarm cues based on threat-sensitive trade-offs between the benefits as - sociated with predator avoidance and foraging. We conducted laboratory studies to test the hypothesis that the relative concentration of conspecific alarm cues provides relevant information, allowing individuals to maximize these

Jason P. Marcus; Grant E. Brown

2003-01-01

391

Chemical labeling of northern pike ( Esox lucius ) by the alarm pheromone of fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous experiments, chemical stimuli from northern pike (Esox lucius) elicited fright responses from pike-naive fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) only if the pike had recently eaten conspecific minnows. We used a behavioral assay to determine if the fright response is the result of the incorporation of the minnow alarm pheromone into the chemical signature of the pike. Because the alarm

Alicia Mathis; R. Jan F. Smith

1993-01-01

392

Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm  

E-print Network

1 Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm: Weather alarm for severe thunderstorms Method: Model output statistics (MOS) Data used in MOS system for (severe) thunderstorms Illustration of statistical method Definitions of predictands Case (8 June 2007

Schmeits, Maurice

393

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus , produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans).

ERICK GREENE; TOM MEAGHER

1998-01-01

394

Evaluation and comparison of alarm reset modes in advanced control room of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The alarm system of fourth nuclear power plant (FNPP) in Taiwan is also going to be developed with automatic technology that is expected to support the operators’ performance and reduce the number of alarms. In this study, an experiment with a training simulator as

Fei-Hui Huang; Sheue-Ling Hwang; Tzu-Chung Yenn; Yuan-Chang Yu; Chong-Cheng Hsu; Hao-Wu Huang

2006-01-01

395

Investigation of hearing protection effects in an extreme noise environment with an alarm location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine optimum locations of alarm devices and the effects of hearing protection in an extremely noisy environment. A machining facility has been selected as a working environment because it usually generates extremely high noise level. First, an analytical model is presented for predicting the optimal number of alarm devices, their locations, and their

Jun-Seok Lee; Dongjoon Kong

2006-01-01

396

Alarm symptoms of soft-tissue and bone sarcoma in patients referred to a specialist center.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - The Danish Cancer Patient Pathway for sarcoma defines a set of alarm symptoms as criteria for referral to a sarcoma center. This may exclude cancer patients without alarm symptoms, so we investigated the presence of alarm symptoms (defined as being indicative of a sarcoma) in patients who had been referred to the Aarhus Sarcoma Center. Patients and methods - We reviewed the medical records of all 1,126 patients who had been referred, with suspected sarcoma, from other hospitals in the period 2007-2010 for information on symptoms, clinical findings, and diagnosis. Alarm symptoms were analyzed for predictive values in diagnosing sarcoma. Results - 179 (69%) of 258 sarcoma patients were referred with alarm symptoms (soft-tissue tumor > 5 cm or deep-seated, fast-growing soft-tissue tumor, palpable bone tumor, or deep persisting bone pain). The remaining 79 sarcomas were found accidentally. "Size over 5 cm" for soft-tissue tumors, and "deep persisting bone pain" for bone tumors had the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value. Of the 79 sarcoma patients who were referred without alarm symptoms, 7 were found accidentally on imaging, 5 were referred with suspected recurrence of a sarcoma, 64 were referred with a confirmed histological diagnosis, and 3 were referred for other reasons. Interpretation - Defined alarm symptoms are predictive of sarcoma, but one-third of the patients were found accidentally. Further studies on presenting symptoms in primary care are needed to assess the true value of alarm symptoms. PMID:25175662

Dyrop, Heidi B; Vedsted, Peter; Safwat, Akmal; Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Hansen, Bjarne H; Jørgensen, Peter H; Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Keller, Johnny

2014-12-01

397

Alarm calls as costly signals of antipredator vigilance: the watchful babbler game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarm-calling behaviour is common in many species that suffer from predation. While kin selection or reciprocal altruism are typically invoked to explain such behaviours, several authors have conjectured that some alarm calls may instead be costly signals sent by prey to inform approaching predators that they have been detected. We develop a general game-theoretical model, the watchful babbler game, in

CARL T. BERGSTROM; MICHAEL LACHMANN

2000-01-01

398

46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping COAST...ALL § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms—T/ALL. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire...

2012-10-01

399

Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs 6-1 6. Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs  

E-print Network

Reservation 6-2 Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs Fig. 6.1. Total curies of uranium discharged from the Y RADIO- LOGICAL AIRBORNE EFFLUENT MONITORING The release of radiological contaminants, primarily uranium with the greatest potential to emit significant amounts of uranium are equipped with alarmed breakthrough detectors

Pennycook, Steve

400

ED accreditation update. Hospitals put on notice: alarm management is a top priority for 2014.  

PubMed

Establishing alarm management as a new National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG), The Joint Commission (TJC) is calling on hospitals to make the issue a safety priority, and to begin establishing policies and procedures designed to minimize alarm fatigue among clinical staff. Beginning on January 1,2014, hospitals need to begin identifying the most important alarm signals to manage based on input from staff as well as factors such as patient risk, and the potential for harm as demonstrated by the device's history. By January 1,2016, hospitals need to have policies and procedures in place for managing alarms identified in the first phase of the NPSG's requirements. Also, staff and independent licensed practitioners need to be educated about the purpose and proper operation of alarm systems that they are responsible for. PMID:24058949

2013-09-01

401

Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage for Land Surface Modeling and Drought Monitoring: a Case Study in Western and Central Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were assimilated into the NASA's Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother (EnKS) which was designed to disaggregate GRACE observations vertically and horizontally while nudging modeled TWS towards GRACE TWS. Validation against gauged stream flow data showed that GRACE data assimilation improved runoff correlations in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the foot print of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture are less conclusive primarily due to the short in situ data period. In addition to improving temporal correlation, GRACE data assimilation also corrected the large increasing trend in monthly TWS and runoff, which was initiated by inaccurate trends in monthly precipitation forcing data and the model's response to the trend of increasing precipitation. The assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS exhibited significant changes in their dryness ranks, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Comparisons of GRACE TWS with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) showed that GRACE TWS identified droughts with more clarity and persistency than NDVI whose detection of water shortage may be affected by seasons. While both sources detected the same droughts, they may disagree in severity and recovery time.

Li, B.; Rodell, M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Reichle, R. H.; Koster, R. D.; van Dam, T. M.

2011-12-01

402

Bladder Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

1993-01-01

403

Patient Monitoring in the Operating Room: Validation of Instrument Readings by Artificial Intelligence Methods  

PubMed Central

Physiological monitoring in the operating room is needed to follow the patient's state of ventilation, circulation, etc. Parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory gas content are observed with devices of uncertain reliability. These provide speedy information in the form of cautions and alarms, which may indicate that corrective action is needed. In practice the large number of alarms when there is no hazard to the patient (false alarms) is a considerable problem. We describe a method of comparing and validating instrument readings in this situation involving a knowledge base whose core is a set of 36 rules. This was applied to 7803 warnings (6287 cautions and 1516 alarms) from 68 day surgery patients undergoing 115 hours of surgery. Most of the cautions were validated by our analysis, but 734 of the 1516 alarms were invalidated while 419 were validated and 363 left indeterminate. This translates to a potential reduction from one alarm every 4 minutes to one every 16 minutes.

Garfinkel, D.; Matsiras, P.V.; Mavrides, T.; McAdams, J.; Aukburg, S.J.

1989-01-01

404

Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release  

SciTech Connect

MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time.Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation--but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications.The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above.Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

Streil, T.; Oeser, V. [SARAD GmbH, Wiesbadener Str. 10-20, D-01159 Dresden (Germany); Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W. [SARAD GmbH, Wiesbadener Str. 10-20, D-01159 Dresden (Germany); Armed Forces Scientific Institute for Protection Technologies-NBC Protection PO.Box 1142, 29633 Munster (Germany)

2008-08-07

405

Hawk calls elicit alarm and defensive reactions in captive Geoffroy's marmosets (Callithrix geoffroyi).  

PubMed

Most descriptions of callitrichid antipredator behavior have come from observations of visual encounters with predators, but there is also anecdotal evidence suggesting that callitrichids may use auditory cues associated with raptors for the early detection of potential danger. In the present study, Geoffroy's marmosets consistently reacted to the tape-recorded calls of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with high-intensity antipredator behaviors. Compared to the taped calls of a raven (Corvus corax) and the taped sound of a power drill, the hawk calls elicited more startle reactions, more alarm calls, longer freeze times, increased use of safe areas of their enclosure and greater disruption in ongoing behavior. Once in a relatively safe location in the enclosure, the marmosets visually monitored the site of origin of the calls for 10 min and minimized locomotion for 30 min, but resumed baseline levels of other activities that had been disrupted by the hawk calls. Marmosets may use the auditory cues associated with predators for early detection, and subsequent avoidance, of a potential predator in the vicinity. PMID:12826731

Searcy, Yvonne M; Caine, Nancy G

2003-01-01

406

[Pre-alarming apparatus for earthquake based on mid-infrared trace methane detection].  

PubMed

With the rapid development of gas observation technology in seismic fracture zone, in order to accurately predict the earthquake, and reduce the people's lives and property losses caused by earthquake, a mid-infrared methane sensor was designed and developed, which is based on the microscopic relation between methane release and earthquake fissures on the crustal rocks. This instrument utilizes quantum cascaded laser (QCL) operating at 7.65 ?m, combined with MIR multipass herriott cell with 76 m absorption path length to obtain low detection sensitivity down to 40 nmol x mol(-1) level in 4s acquisition time. Meanwhile, to decrease the primary noise source (1/f noise), semiconductor laser frequency modulation of direct absorption technology was utilized to obtain gas detection limitation as low as 5 nmol x mol(-1) (40 s acquiring time). In field experiments, controllable vibrator was used as vibration source, a number of trace methane detectors were placed with 100 m distance interval to carry out the dynamic measurement of methane concentration on the ground surface at different distances from the vibration source. Experimental results show that the instrument can monitor the release of underground methane before the earthquake and provide a novel measure as a pre-alarming for earthquake. PMID:25358158

Qiu, He; Liu, Ming-jun; Tian, Xiao-feng

2014-06-01

407

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2010-07-01

408

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2013-07-01

409

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2012-07-01

410

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2011-07-01

411

The SAMGrid monitoring service and its integration with MonALISA  

SciTech Connect

The SAMGrid team is in the process of implementing a monitoring and information service, which fulfills several important roles in the operation of the SAMGrid system, and will replace the first generation of monitoring tools in the current deployments. The first generation tools are in general based on text log-files and represent solutions which are not scalable or maintainable. The roles of the monitoring and information service are: (1) providing diagnostics for troubleshooting the operation of SAMGrid services; (2) providing support for monitoring at the level of user jobs; (3) providing runtime support for local configuration and other information which currently must be stored centrally (thus moving the system toward greater autonomy for the SAMGrid station services, which include cache management and job management services); (4) providing intelligent collection of statistics in order to enable performance monitoring and tuning. The architecture of this service is quite flexible, permitting input from any instrumented SAMGrid application or service. It will allow multiple backend storage for archiving of (possibly) filtered monitoring events, as well as real time information displays and active notification service for alarm conditions. This service will be able to export, in a configurable manner, information to higher level Grid monitoring services, such as MonALISA. We describe our experience to date with using a prototype version together with MonALISA.

Lyon, A.; Vokac, P.; Zimmler, M.; Baranovski, G.; Garzoglio, G.; Loebel-Carpenter, L.; Herber, R.; Illingworth, R.; Kennedy, R.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Lueking, L.; Merritt, W.; Terekhov, I.; Trumbo, J.; White, S.; Veseli, S.; /Fermilab; Burgon-Lyon, M.; St. Denis, R.; /Glasgow U.; Belforte, S.; /INFN, Trieste; Kerzel, U.; /Karlsruhe U. /Oxford

2004-12-01

412

Using the exhibited generalization approach to evaluate a carbon monoxide alarm ordinance.  

PubMed

Current interests in enhancing the focus of external validity or transferability call for developing practical evaluation approaches and illustrating their applications in this area for meeting the need. This study takes the challenge by introducing an innovative evaluation approach, named the exhibited generalization approach, and applying it in evaluating the carbon monoxide (CO) alarm ordinance passed by Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The stakeholders specifically asked evaluators to determine the answers to the following two questions: (1) Does the alarm ordinance work? (2) What generalizable information can the Mecklenburg experience provide to other jurisdictions trying to decide if the alarm ordinance's planning, implementation, adoption, and outcomes are transferable to their communities? This study illustrates how to apply the exhibited generalization approach to provide the stakeholders with answers to these questions. Our results indicate that the alarm ordinance was effective in increasing CO alarm ownerships and reducing CO poisoning cases. The evaluation provides potential users and other interested parties with the necessary information on contextual factors and the causal mechanism underlying the CO alarm ordinance, so that these parties and users could decide whether the Mecklenburg alarm ordinance would be transferable to their own communities. Discussions include implications of this study for contributing in further advancing evaluation theory in addressing transferability or external validity issues. PMID:25105583

Chen, Huey T; Yip, Fuyuen; Lavonas, Eric J; Iqbal, Shahed; Turner, Nannette; Cobb, Bobby; Garbe, Paul

2014-12-01

413

A passive positioning alarm used by persons with dementia and their spouses - a qualitative intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, information and communication technology is being used to support persons with dementia living at home and their relatives. The aim of the present intervention study was to describe and explore the use and experiences of using a passive positioning alarm, over time, in daily life among persons with dementia and their spouses. Methods Using an ethnographically inspired approach, five couples, each including a person with Alzheimer´ s disease and his/her spouse living in their own home, were repeatedly observed and interviewed regarding their experiences of using a passive positioning alarm. Interview text transcripts and field notes were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The main findings show changes over time, where testing and checking the passive positioning alarm successively led to trust in the alarm and in one own´s ability to use it. These components were a prerequisite for the couples to perceive the value of the alarm. Conclusions A passive positioning alarm for persons with dementia and their spouses needs to be packaged as a “service” with flexibility for each user and based on user needs, abilities, knowledge and skills. Using a passive positioning alarm can be a valuable support that allows persons with dementia to be alone outdoors and can increase safety and security for them and their spouses. The present study contributes to our understanding of what prerequisites need to be in place and what barriers need to be dealt with before successful implementation can occur. PMID:23384329

2013-01-01

414

Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

415

African elephant alarm calls distinguish between threats from humans and bees.  

PubMed

The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The "Samburu alarm rumble" is acoustically distinct from the previously described "bee alarm rumble." The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats. PMID:24586753

Soltis, Joseph; King, Lucy E; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Vollrath, Fritz; Savage, Anne

2014-01-01

416

Microprocessor-based multichannel flutter monitor using dynamic strain gage signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two microprocessor-based multichannel monitors for monitoring strain gage signals during aerodynamic instability (flutter) testing in production type turbojet engines were described. One system monitors strain gage signals in the time domain and gives an output indication whenever the signal amplitude of any gage exceeds a pre-set alarm or abort level for that particular gage. The second system monitors the strain

R. R. Smalley

1976-01-01

417

Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders  

PubMed Central

Background The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an alarm signal in critical cases, especially in senior people. PMID:24648724

Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Birsan, Cristina; Goriuc, Ancuta; Solovan, Caius

2014-01-01

418

Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots  

SciTech Connect

Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

1999-07-14

419

Research of pulse signal processing based on sleep-monitoring alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From pulse diagnosis of Chinese herbalist doctor to the research of cardiovascular system by modem iatrology,they all have showed and proved that human pulse has a good affinity with diseases,especially cardiovascular diseases. Human pulse contains much physical information, and it will be propitious to know the human healthy state early so as to get therapy and recovery early when pulse signal is often detected and analyzed. study how to use the embedded microcontroller to transmit physiological signal from human to personal computer by infrared communication, and the normal sphygmic parameter in one's sleeping is compared with the one measured in order to judge whether one's sleeping condition is normal, finally ascertain the best control plan.

Zhang, Kaisheng; Zeng, Yuan

2009-07-01

420

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots.  

PubMed

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls. PMID:17148318

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2006-03-22

421

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots  

PubMed Central

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls. PMID:17148318

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2005-01-01

422

S&E Ph.D. Unemployment Trends: Cause for Alarm?  

NSF Publications Database

... Trends: Cause For Alarm? (August 14, 1997) This Issue Brief compares information trends in the ... and engineering population with similar trends in the unemployment rates for other segments of the U ...

423

Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acoustic structure of calls within call types can vary as function of individual identity, sex, and social group membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) produce alarm chirps that function in predator avoidance but little is known about the acoustic variability of these alarm chirps. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the acoustic structure of alarm chirps with respect to individual differences (e.g., signature information) from eight Belding's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm chirps are individually distinctive, and that acoustic similarity among individuals may correspond to genetic similarity and thus dispersal patterns in this species. These data suggest, on a preliminary basis, that the acoustic structure of calls might be used as a bioacoustic tool for tracking individuals, dispersal, and other population dynamics in Belding's ground squirrels, and perhaps other vocal species.

McCowan, Brenda; Hooper, Stacie L.

2002-03-01

424

33 CFR 155.380 - Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval standards.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oily water separating equipment and bilge alarm approval...Section 155.380 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

2014-07-01

425

Alarm communication and display systems for high security department of energy facilities  

SciTech Connect

An Alarm Communication and Display System collects alarm data, presents information to security operators, and enables the operators to enter commands affecting security operations; the ultimate goal of the system is to provide rapid assessment of alarms. This paper presents an overview of the architecture and operating principles used for alarm communication and display systems developed for application at several Department of Energy facilities. Although facilities have unique requirements and procedures, the architecture and operating principles of the ACDS presented in this paper have allowed site-specific implementations at several Department of Energy facilities. In addition, this technology has been transferred to other DOE facilities for adaptation to their requirements. Further efforts to enhance ACDS technology include the use of local area network technology to assist in peripheral switching, a distributed CCTV video switching system, and state-of-the-art hardware changes which improve system performance and effectiveness.

Williams, J.S.

1987-01-01

426

46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) Steering gear, whistles, general alarm bells, and means of communication between the bridge or control room and the engine room on self propelled units are inspected and tested— (1) Within 12 hours before getting under way;...

2011-10-01

427

46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Steering gear, whistles, general alarm bells, and means of communication between the bridge or control room and the engine room on self propelled units are inspected and tested— (1) Within 12 hours before getting under way;...

2010-10-01

428

Alarm responses in the crayfishOrconectes virilis andOrconectes propinquus.  

PubMed

Individuals of two species of crayfish (Orconectes virilis andO. propinquus) were tested in the laboratory for responses to chemicals released from physically damaged conspecifics. Individuals ofO. propinquus did not show an alarm response to crushed conspecifics. Individuals ofO. virilis responded to a water-borne substance released from crushed conspecifics by assuming an intermediate posture and ceasing movement. Similar alarm responses were shown by individuals ofO. virilis to crushed congeneric individuals (O. propinquus), and these responses were not eliminated by either freeze-thawing the crayfish used to prepare the signal or by treating freshly crushed crayfish with the enzyme trypsin. Individuals ofO. virilis showed strong feeding responses to solutions prepared from frozen fish flesh but showed a mixture of alarm and feeding responses to freshly killed fish. These results indicate that the alarm substance used byO. virilis is widespread. PMID:24242649

Hazlett, B A

1994-07-01

429

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

2010-10-01

430

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto...

2011-10-01

431

46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 196.37-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact...

2010-10-01

432

Advances in software development for intelligent interfaces for alarm and emergency management consoles  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in technology allow features like voice synthesis, voice and speech recognition, image understanding, and intelligent data base management to be incorporated in computer driven alarm and emergency management information systems. New software development environments make it possible to do rapid prototyping of custom applications. Three examples using these technologies are discussed. 1) Maximum use is made of high-speed graphics and voice synthesis to implement a state-of-the-art alarm processing and display system with features that make the operator-machine interface efficient and accurate. 2) An application generator which has the capability of ''building'' a specific alarm processing and display application in a matter of a few hours, using the site definition developed in the security planning phase to produce the custom application. 3) A software tool, is described which permits rapid prototyping of human-machine interfaces for a variety of applications including emergency management, alarm display and process information display.

Moseley, M.R.; Olson, C.E.

1986-01-01

433

Time Analyzer for Time Synchronization and Monitor of the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software package has been developed to measure, monitor, and archive the performance of timing signals distributed in the NASA Deep Space Network. Timing signals are generated from a central master clock and distributed to over 100 users at distances up to 30 kilometers. The time offset due to internal distribution delays and time jitter with respect to the central master clock are critical for successful spacecraft navigation, radio science, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) applications. The instrument controller and operator interface software is written in LabView and runs on the Linux operating system. The software controls a commercial multiplexer to switch 120 separate timing signals to measure offset and jitter with a time-interval counter referenced to the master clock. The offset of each channel is displayed in histogram form, and "out of specification" alarms are sent to a central complex monitor and control system. At any time, the measurement cycle of 120 signals can be interrupted for diagnostic tests on an individual channel. The instrument also routinely monitors and archives the long-term stability of all frequency standards or any other 1-pps source compared against the master clock. All data is stored and made available for

Cole, Steven; Gonzalez, Jorge, Jr.; Calhoun, Malcolm; Tjoelker, Robert

2003-01-01

434

Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

2008-09-01

435

Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots,Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels,Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely

WALTER McKEE SHRINER

1998-01-01

436

Fathead Minnows, Pimephales promelas , Learn to Recognize Chemical Alarm Cues of Introduced Brook Stickleback, Culaea inconstans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments conducted over a 6-year period, we investigated whether fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, could acquire the ability to recognize chemical alarm cues of introduced brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans. A laboratory experiment documented that stickleback-naïve minnows did not exhibit an anti-predator response when exposed to the chemical alarm cues of stickleback. In a laboratory experiment conducted 5 years after

Michael S. Pollock; Douglas P. Chivers; Reehan S. Mirza; Brian D. Wisenden

2003-01-01

437

Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) to chemical alarm cues.  

PubMed

Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of stimuli from injured conspecifics could represent avoidance of a chemical alarm cue or, alternatively, avoidance of a territorial pheromone or conspecific predator odor. Consequently, we also tested whether salamanders avoided stimuli from noninjured conspecifics. Salamanders avoided stimuli from injured but not from noninjured conspecifics. Therefore, we concluded that the response to injured conspecifics represents avoidance of a chemical alarm cue and not avoidance of a territorial pheromone or predator cue. This is the first clear demonstration of chemical alarm signaling by a terrestrial amphibian and the first report of chemical alarm signaling in an ambystomatid salamander. By avoiding an area containing stimuli from injured conspecifics, long-toed salamanders may lower their risk of predation by avoiding areas where predators are foraging. PMID:24226482

Chivers, D P; Kiesecker, J M; Anderson, M T; Wildy, E L; Blaustein, A R

1996-09-01

438

Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) spontaneously associate alarm calls with snakes appearing in the left visual field.  

PubMed

Many socially living animals are sensitive to a potential predator as part of their antipredator strategy. Alarm calls function to deter predators and to help other group members detect danger. The left visual field is involved in detection of potential threats or predators in many vertebrates, but it is unclear how alarm calls influence visual detection of a potential predator. Here, we experimentally examined how alarm calls spontaneously influence the search for pictures of a potential predator in captive Japanese macaques. We used an audiovisual preferential-looking paradigm by presenting pictures of a snake and a flower simultaneous with either a recording of alarm calls or contact calls. We found no difference in gaze duration between the 2 picture types when playing back contact calls. Monkeys looked significantly longer at pictures of snakes than at those of flowers when alarm calls were played back if the snake pictures were presented on the left side of the monkey's visual field, indicating right hemispheric bias during processing of predator representations. This is the first laboratory demonstration of auditory enhancement of visual detection of predators in the left visual field in animals, which will contribute to a better understanding of alarm call studies conducted in the wild. PMID:24611644

Shibasaki, Masahiro; Nagumo, Sumiharu; Koda, Hiroki

2014-08-01

439

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

PubMed

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans). The alarm call produced in response to aerial danger is acoustically convergent on the 'seet' alarm call produced by many species of passerine birds in response to raptors. The squirrels' 'seet' alarm is a short, low-amplitude, high-frequency call. These characteristics make the call difficult to localize, and is in a frequency range that is poorly perceived by raptors. Red squirrels produce much louder, wide-bandwidth bark calls in response to terrestrial danger. This is the first demonstration of predator-class specific alarm calls of red squirrels. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514668

Greene; Meagher

1998-03-01

440

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics  

PubMed Central

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

2012-01-01

441

SILENE Benchmark Critical Experiments for Criticality Accident Alarm Systems  

SciTech Connect

In October 2010 a series of benchmark experiments was conducted at the Commissariat a Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE [1] facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the French CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems (CAASs). This presentation will discuss the geometric configuration of these experiments and the quantities that were measured and will present some preliminary comparisons between the measured data and calculations. This series consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. During the first experiment the reactor was bare (unshielded), but during the second and third experiments it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. During each experiment several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor, and some of these detectors were themselves shielded from the reactor by high-density magnetite and barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond. All the concrete was provided by CEA Saclay, and the BoroBond was provided by Y-12 National Security Complex. Figure 1 is a picture of the SILENE reactor cell configured for pulse 1. Also included in these experiments were measurements of the neutron and photon spectra with two BICRON BC-501A liquid scintillators. These two detectors were provided and operated by CEA Valduc. They were set up just outside the SILENE reactor cell with additional lead shielding to prevent the detectors from being saturated. The final detectors involved in the experiments were two different types of CAAS detectors. The Babcock International Group provided three CIDAS CAAS detectors, which measured photon dose and dose rate with a Geiger-Mueller tube. CIDAS detectors are currently in use at Y-12 in the newly constructed Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility. The second CAAS detector used a {sup 6}LiF TLD to absorb neutrons and a silicon detector to count the charge particles released by these absorption events. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory provided four of these detectors, which had formerly been used at the Rocky Flats facility in the United States.

Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL] [ORNL; Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex] [Y-12 National Security Complex

2011-01-01

442

Monitors: an operating system structuring concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops Brinch-Hansen's concept of a monitor as a method of structuring an operating system. It introduces a form of synchronization, describes a possible method of implementation in terms of sema- phores and gives a suitable proof rule. Illustrative examples include a single resource scheduler, a bounded buffer, an alarm clock, a buffer pool, a disk head optimizer, and

C. A. R. Hoare

1974-01-01

443

X-ray monitoring of classical novae in the central region of M 31 III. Autumn and winter 2009/10, 2010/11, and 2011/12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Classical novae (CNe) represent the major class of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) in the central region of our neighbouring galaxy M 31. Aims: We performed a dedicated monitoring of the M 31 central region, which aimed to detect SSS counterparts of CNe, with XMM-Newton and Chandra between Nov. and Mar. of the years 2009/10, 2010/11, and 2011/12. Methods: We systematically searched our data for X-ray counterparts of CNe and determined their X-ray light curves and also their spectral properties in the case of XMM-Newton data. Additionally, we determined luminosity upper limits for all previously known X-ray emitting novae, which are not detected anymore, and for all CNe in our field of view with recent optical outbursts. Results: In total, we detected 24 novae in X-rays. Seven of these sources were known from previous observations, including the M 31 nova with the longest SSS phase, M31N 1996-08b, which was found to fade below our X-ray detection limit 13.8 yr after outburst. Of the new discoveries, several novae exhibit significant variability in their short-term X-ray light curves with one object showing a suspected period of about 1.3 h. We studied the SSS state of the most recent outburst of a recurrent nova, which had previously shown the shortest time ever observed between two outbursts (~5 yr). The total number of M 31 novae with X-ray counterpart was increased to 79, and we subjected this extended catalogue to detailed statistical studies. Four previously indicated correlations between optical and X-ray parameters could be confirmed and improved. Furthermore, we found indications that the multi-dimensional parameter space of nova properties might be dominated by a single physical parameter, and we provide interpretations and suggest implications. We studied various outliers from the established correlations and discuss evidence of a different X-ray behaviour of novae in the M 31 bulge and disk. Conclusions: Exploration of the multi-wavelength parameter space of optical and X-ray measurements is shown to be a powerful tool for examining properties of extragalactic nova populations. While there are hints that the different stellar populations of M 31 (bulge vs. disk) produce dissimilar nova outbursts, there is also growing evidence that the overall behaviour of an average nova might be understood in surprisingly simple terms. Partly based on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.Tables 1-9 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A2

Henze, M.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Della Valle, M.; Sala, G.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Hofmann, F.; Hernanz, M.; Hartmann, D. H.; Greiner, J.

2014-03-01

444

Air Pollution Monitoring System based on Geosensor Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environment Observation and Forecasting System(EOFS) is a application for monitoring and providing a forecasting about environmental phenomena. We design an air pollution monitoring system which involves a context model and a flexible data acquisition policy. The context model is used for understanding the status of air pollution on the remote place. It can provide an alarm and safety guideline depending

Young Jin Jung; Yang Koo Lee; Dong Gyu Lee; Keun Ho Ryu; Silvia Nittel

2008-01-01

445

Interspecific Semantic Alarm Call Recognition in the Solitary Sahamalaza Sportive Lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis  

PubMed Central

As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This “eavesdropping” was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species’ and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect predators early, and that the lemurs’ reactions are based on experience and learning. PMID:23825658

Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W.

2013-01-01

446

Arrangements of the intravenous parallel infusions with anti-reflux valves decreasing occlusion alarm delay  

PubMed Central

Background The methods of arrangement of combined intravenous parallel infusions using anti-reflux valve (ARV), with and without anti-syphon valve (ASV) that could decrease occlusion alarm delay were investigated. Methods Occlusion challenge tests were mainly performed as bench experiments of four kinds of multiple parallel infusions (10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusions), which were connected at the proximal or distal portion of ARV, with or without ASV. Alarm threshold was set to 1000 mmHg. Occlusion alarm delays and the compliances of the infusion systems were compared among groups. Results Without ASV, compared to 10 ml/h infusion alone distal to anti-reflux valve, 50 ml/h infusion distal to anti-reflux valve reduced the mean alarm delay from 416 ± 7 s to 81 ± 3 s (P < 0.001). Compared to 50 ml/h infusion alone, combined 10 ml/h and 50 ml/h infusion distal to ARV prolonged the alarm delay from 81 ± 3 s to 133 ± 6 s (P < 0.001). However, combined infusions distal to ARV with ASV significantly reduced the alarm delay from 133 ± 6 s to 74 ± 5 s (P < 0.001), and also reduced the compliance of the infusion system from 2.31 ± 0.12 to 1.20 ± 0.08 µl/mmHg (P < 0.001). Conclusions The infusion setup of faster infusion rate, lower compliant system using ASV could effectively decrease occlusion alarm delay during multiple intravenous parallel infusions using ARV. PMID:24851166

Joe, Han Bum; Moon, Bong-Ki; Lee, Yeon-Ju

2014-01-01

447

Monitoring apparatus  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is described for monitoring the temperature inside a refrigeration unit that experiences periodic defrost cycles of a known duration, the apparatus including a temperature sensor located within the refrigeration unit for providing an electrical output signal indicative of the temperature level inside the unit, a comparator means for comparing the sensor output signal level with a preset signal level and providing a first output signal when the sensed temperature level is above the preset level and a second output signal when the sensed temperature level is below the preset level, a timer means connected to the output of the comparator means which is enabled when the comparator means produces the first output signal whereby the timer means generates a continuous chain of timing pulses and is disabled when the comparator means produces the second output signal, counter means being coupled to the timer means for counting the number of pulses generated by the timer means and producing a counter output signal when a preset count is reached. The duration of the counter means cycle is greater than the duration of the defrost cycle, and an audio means coupled to the output of both the timer means and the counter means. An audio transducer means provides a first audible alert signal any time the timer means is enabled and a second audible alarm signal when the counter means reaches the preset count.

Adams, W.H.

1986-12-23

448

Study of the origin and fate of air pollutants in California's great central valley: aerometric monitoring. Final report 1978-79  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the aerometric and meterological monitoring performed over three seasons during 1978 and 1979. This monitoring was part of an overall tracer transport study. Three air monitoring trailers were deployed during each of the three intensive study periods to measure: oxone, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, wind speed and temperature. In November and December of 1978 the trailers were located at Lost Hills, Reedley and 26 kilometers south-south-east of Bakersfield. During June through August 1979 the systems were located east of Modesto, Merced, and Madera. During August through October the trailers were located at Reedley, Arvin and Lost Hills.

Schwall, R.J.

1981-05-06

449

Chair alarm for patient fall prevention based on gesture recognition and interactivity.  

PubMed

The Gesture Recognition Interactive Technology (GRiT) Chair Alarm aims to prevent patient falls from chairs and wheelchairs by recognizing the gesture of a patient attempting to stand. Patient falls are one of the greatest causes of injury in hospitals. Current chair and bed exit alarm systems are inadequate because of insufficient notification, high false-alarm rate, and long trigger delays. The GRiT chair alarm uses an array of capacitive proximity sensors and pressure sensors to create a map of the patient's sitting position, which is then processed using gesture recognition algorithms to determine when a patient is attempting to stand and to alarm the care providers. This system also uses a range of voice and light feedback to encourage the patient to remain seated and/or to make use of the system's integrated nurse-call function. This system can be seamlessly integrated into existing hospital WiFi networks to send notifications and approximate patient location through existing nurse call systems. PMID:19163515

Knight, Heather; Lee, Jae-Kyu; Ma, Hongshen

2008-01-01

450

Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed

When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely interact. In a crossed design, marmot and squirrel alarm calls were broadcast to individuals of both species, using the song of a sympatric bird as a control. Individuals of both species responded similarly to conspecific and heterospecific anti-predator calls, and distinguished both types of alarms from the bird song. These results indicate that both marmots and squirrels recognized not only their own species' anti-predator vocalizations, but also the alarm calls of another species, and that these vocalizations were discriminated from an equally loud non-threatening sound. These findings suggest that researchers ought to think broadly when considering the sources of information available to animals in their natural environment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514669

Shriner

1998-03-01

451

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

452

Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community  

PubMed Central

Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities. PMID:22279165

Parejo, Deseada; Aviles, Jesus M.; Rodriguez, Juan

2012-01-01

453

The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls  

PubMed Central

The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

454

Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs 6-1 6. Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs  

E-print Network

Reservation 6-2 Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs Fig. 6.1. Total curies of uranium discharged from the Y The release of radiological contaminants, primarily uranium, into the atmosphere at the Y-12 Plant occurs of uranium are equipped with alarmed breakthrough detectors, which alert operations personnel to process

Pennycook, Steve

455

Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs 6-1 6. Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs  

E-print Network

;Oak Ridge Reservation 6-2 Y-12 Environmental Monitoring Programs Fig. 6.1. Total curies of uranium uranium, into the atmosphere at the Y-12NationalSecurityComplex (Y-12Complex) occurs almost exclusively significant amounts of uranium are equipped with alarmed breakthrough detectors, which alert operations

Pennycook, Steve

456

[The design of a cardiac monitoring and analysing system with low power consumption].  

PubMed

The paper deals with a portable analyzing monitor system with liquid crystal display (LCD), which is low in power consumption and suitable for China's specific conditions. Apart from the development of the overall scheme of the system, the paper introduces the design of the hardware and the software. The 80196 single chip microcomputer is used as the central microprocessor to process and real-time electrocardiac signal data. The system have the following functions: five types of arrhythmia analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic paperfeeding. The portable system can be operated by alternate-current (AC) or direct-current (DC). Its hardware circuit is simplified and its software structure is optimized. Multiple low power consumption and LCD unit are adopted in its modular designs. PMID:16104273

Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Zhu, Yan-gao; Wang, Hong-yan; Ma, Yan

2002-07-01

457

Survey of the reliability of carbon monoxide alarms deployed in domestic homes and efficacy of use by consumers.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) alarms are extensively used in domestic premises in the UK to help protect against CO poisoning. Their expected lifetime has been increasing, and some current models now have a replacement period of more than 6 years under normal operation. However, concerns have been expressed as to the reliability of alarms over an extended period. In this study, 110 households with a CO alarm were surveyed, during which the alarm was uninstalled and replaced and a household survey questionnaire administered. Alarm reliability was assessed under laboratory conditions by testing conformity to the alarm condition gas tests in either the British (European) standard, BS EN 50291 for UK certified models, or the US standard, UL 2034 for US certified models. The questionnaire recorded the alarm make and model, its age, its location, whether it was correctly sited, and how often it was tested. General information on the property was also collected. Results of laboratory testing suggest that the reliability of the most common models of CO alarms used by UK consumers has improved over the last 7 years. However, findings from the household survey suggest that the way alarms are used in many homes may not maximize their ability to detect abnormal levels CO. PMID:23227910

Naylor, S; Walsh, P T; Dowker, K P

2013-08-01

458

Performance of the Chemcatcher (R) passive sampler when used to monitor 10 polar and semi-polar pesticides in 16 Central European streams, and comparison with two other sampling methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the performance of the Chemcatcher (R), an aquatic\\u000a passive sampling device consisting of a sampler body and an Empore (R)\\u000a disk as receiving phase, when used to monitor acetochlor, alachlor,\\u000a carbofuran, chlorfenvinphos, alpha-endosulfan, fenpropidin, linuron,\\u000a oxadiazon, pirimicarb and tebuconazole in 16 Central European streams.\\u000a The Chemcatcher (R), equipped with an SDB-XC Empore (R) disk, detected\\u000a seven of the

Ralf Bernhard Schaefer; Albrecht Paschke; Branislav Vrana; Ralf Mueller; Matthias Liess

2008-01-01

459

Optimal Sensor Location Design for Reliable Fault Detection in Presence of False Alarms  

PubMed Central

To improve fault detection reliability, sensor location should be designed according to an optimization criterion with constraints imposed by issues of detectability and identifiability. Reliability requires the minimization of undetectability and false alarm probability due to random factors on sensor readings, which is not only related with sensor readings but also affected by fault propagation. This paper introduces the reliability criteria expression based on the missed/false alarm probability of each sensor and system topology or connectivity derived from the directed graph. The algorithm for the optimization problem is presented as a heuristic procedure. Finally, a boiler system is illustrated using the proposed method. PMID:22291524

Yang, Fan; Xiao, Deyun; Shah, Sirish L.

2009-01-01

460

An evaluation of various types of fire detection alarm systems to awaken the elderly  

E-print Network

AN EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF FIRE DETECTION ALARM SYSTEMS TO AWAKEN THE ELDERLY A Thesis by 1'IMOTHY EDWARD TOWNLEY Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas ASM University in partia1 fu1fi1 1ment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 198S major Sub?'ect: Safety Engineering AN EVALUATION OF VARIOUS TYPES Of FIRE DETECTION ALARM SYSTEMS TO AWAKEN THE ELDERLY A Thesis by TIMOTHY EDWARD TOWNLEY Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm n of Committee...

Townley, Timothy Edward

2012-06-07

461

Design for Vibration Monitoring: A Methodology for Reliable and Cost-Effective Vibration Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of health monitoring systems is to detect failures or defects for increased safety and performance and to provide on-condition maintenance with reduced costs. The problems associated with health monitoring systems include high rates of false alarms and missed failures, which make monitoring an unreliable and costly task. The reason for this is that unaccounted variations invalidate signal modeling assumptions. Our approach was to focus on vibration monitoring of rotating components. We analyzed baseline signals to determine statistical variations, identify and model factors that influence vibrations (pre-production vs. post-production variations), determine hit and false alarm rates with baseline flight data, model and predict effects of defects and variations on vibrations, and develop algorithms and metrics for failure and anomaly detection in the presence of variations.

Tumer, Irem Y.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

462

Personal Cabin Pressure Monitor and Warning System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cabin pressure altitude monitor and warning system provides a warning when a detected cabin pressure altitude has reached a predetermined level. The system is preferably embodied in a portable, pager-sized device that can be carried or worn by an individual. A microprocessor calculates the pressure altitude from signals generated by a calibrated pressure transducer and a temperature sensor that compensates for temperature variations in the signals generated by the pressure transducer. The microprocessor is programmed to generate a warning or alarm if a cabin pressure altitude exceeding a predetermined threshold is detected. Preferably, the microprocessor generates two different types of warning or alarm outputs, a first early warning or alert when a first pressure altitude is exceeded. and a second more serious alarm condition when either a second. higher pressure altitude is exceeded, or when the first pressure altitude has been exceeded for a predetermined period of time. Multiple types of alarm condition indicators are preferably provided, including visual, audible and tactile. The system is also preferably designed to detect gas concentrations and other ambient conditions, and thus incorporates other sensors, such as oxygen, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and ammonia sensors, to provide a more complete characterization and monitoring of the local environment.

Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

463

The synthetic substance hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide elicits alarm reactions in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish, one of the preferred study species of geneticists, is gaining increasing popularity in behavioral neuroscience. This small and prolific species may be an excellent tool with which the biological mechanisms of vertebrate brain function and behavior are investigated. Zebrafish has been proposed as a model organism in the analysis of fear responses and human anxiety disorders. Species-specific cues signaling the presence of predators have been successfully utilized in such research. Zebrafish has been shown to respond to its natural alarm substance with species-typical fear reactions. However, the extraction of this alarm substance and ascertaining its consistent dosing has been problematic. A synthetic substance with a known chemical identity and molecular weight would allow precise dosing and experimental control. Previously, the chemical component, hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide, common to several fish alarm substances has been identified and has been shown to elicit alarm reactions in fish species belonging to the Osteriophysan superorder. In the current study we investigate the effect of hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide by exposing zebrafish to three different concentrations of this synthetic substance. Our results show that the substance efficaciously induces species-typical fear reactions increasing the number of erratic movement episodes and jumps in zebrafish. We discuss the translational relevance of our findings and conclude that hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide will have utility to elicit fear responses in the laboratory in a precisely controlled manner in zebrafish. PMID:19583985

Parra, Kevin V.; Adrian, James C.; Gerlai, Robert

2009-01-01

464

CURRENT ISSUES -PERSPECTIVES AND REVIEWS Ontogenetic and Sex Differences Influence Alarm Call  

E-print Network

responses and the develop- ment of alarm calling behavior (reviewed in Hollen & Radford 2009). Young experience and phys- iological development to attain appropriate, adult- like responses, and differences between adults and juveniles are owing to errors that juveniles make while developing their antipredator

Blumstein, Daniel T.

465

Recognition of other species' aerial alarm calls: speaking the same language or learning another?  

PubMed Central

Alarm calls given by other species potentially provide a network of information about danger, but little is known about the role of acoustic similarity compared with learning in recognition of heterospecific calls. In particular, the aerial ‘hawk’ alarm calls of passerines provide a textbook example of signal design because many species have converged on a design that thwarts eavesdropping by hawks, and call similarity might therefore allow recognition. We measured the response of fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) to playback of acoustically similar scrubwren (Sericornis frontalis) aerial alarm calls. First, if call similarity prompts escape independent of learning, then fairy-wrens should flee to playback of scrubwren calls outside their geographical range. However, fairy-wrens fled only in sympatry. Second, if call similarity is necessary for learning heterospecific calls, then fairy-wrens should not respond to sympatric species with different calls. We found, on the contrary, that fairy-wrens fled to the very different aerial alarm calls of a honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae). Furthermore, response to the honeyeater depended on the specific structure of the call, not acoustic similarity. Overall, call similarity was neither sufficient nor necessary for interspecific recognition, implying learning is essential in the complex task of sifting the acoustic world for cues about danger. PMID:19004753

Magrath, Robert D.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Janet L.

2008-01-01