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1

Remote Monitor Alarm System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A remote monitor alarm system monitors discrete alarm and analog power supply voltage conditions at remotely located communications terminal equipment. A central monitoring unit (CMU) is connected via serial data links to each of a plurality of remote terminal units (RTUS) that monitor the alarm and power supply conditions of the remote terminal equipment. Each RTU can monitor and store condition information of both discrete alarm points and analog power supply voltage points in its associated communications terminal equipment. The stored alarm information is periodically transmitted to the CMU in response to sequential polling of the RTUS. The number of monitored alarm inputs and permissible voltage ranges for the analog inputs can be remotely configured at the CMU and downloaded into programmable memory at each RTU. The CMU includes a video display, a hard disk memory, a line printer and an audio alarm for communicating and storing the alarm information received from each RTU.

Stute, Robert A. (Inventor); Galloway, F. Houston (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Swindle, Robert W. (Inventor); Bierman, Tracy A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

2

Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.  

PubMed

False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

2014-01-01

3

Alarms and their limits in monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to incorporate alarms in monitoring systems is related to the growing complexity of monitoring and the large number of variables. For sophisticated alarms, information about the inputs to the patient is of importance; for example, clinical interventions such as drug administration and ventilation readjustment need to be known to the monitoring system. Alarms are triggered by signals or

Jan E. W. Beneken; Jan J. van der Aa

1988-01-01

4

An Expert System for Monitor Alarm Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intensive care and operating room monitors generate data that are not fully utilized. False alarms are so frequent that attending personnel tends to disconnect them. We developed an expert system that could select and validate alarms by integration of seven vital signs monitored on-line from cardiac surgical patients. Methods. The system uses fuzzy logic and is able to work

Christian Oberli; Jorge Urzua; Claudia Saez; Marcello Guarini; Aldo Cipriano; Bernardita Garayar; Guillermo Lema; Roberto Canessa; Carla Sacco; Manuel Irarrazaval

1999-01-01

5

Auditory alarms during anesthesia monitoring with an integrated monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alarms in the operating room remain a major source of annoyance and confusion. A previous study by Kestin et al. utilized\\u000a a specific combination of distinct, separate monitors in 50 pediatric patients. He reported a mean of 10 alarms per case with\\u000a a mean frequency of one alarm every 4.5 minutes. The alarms were classified as spurious (75%), change outside

Frank E. Block; Carl Schaaf

1996-01-01

6

Development of a GLE Alarm System Based Upon Neutron Monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a system that watches for count rate increases recorded in real time by eight neutron monitors, and gives an alarm when a Ground Level Enhancement (GLE) is detected. In this work, we determine optimal strategies for detecting the GLE event at a very early stage, while still keeping the false alarm rate from glitches at a very low level. The January 20, 2005 event will be used to illustrate our methods. A reliable system is developed with an algorithm that produces alarms in three levels according to the number of stations showing an increase. We study past events to optimize appropriate intensity threshold values and a baseline to determine the intensity increase. At the highest level alarm produced by the three stations increase, a false alarm rate expected from the observed data during the past five years become zero. Alarm times of GLEs examined from the most recent nine events are compared with satellite proton data. The GLE alert would precede the earliest alert from GOES (100 MeV or 10 MeV protons) by ~10-20 minutes. For the January 20 event, the GLE alert (3 stations) was generated 12 minutes prior to the earliest GOES alert. The realtime GLE data may be viewed at http://neutronm.bartol.udel.edu/spaceweather. An automated e-mail alert system is under development. Supported by NSF grants ATM-0207196 and ATM-0000315.

Kuwabara, T.; Bieber, J. W.; Clem, J.; Evenson, P.; Pyle, R.

2005-12-01

7

Monitoring techniques and alarm procedures for CMS Services and Sites in WLCG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CMS offline computing system is composed of roughly 80 sites (including most experienced T3s) and a number of central services to distribute, process and analyze data worldwide. A high level of stability and reliability is required from the underlying infrastructure and services, partially covered by local or automated monitoring and alarming systems such as Lemon and SLS; the former collects metrics from sensors installed on computing nodes and triggers alarms when values are out of range, the latter measures the quality of service and warns managers when service is affected. CMS has established computing shift procedures with personnel operating worldwide from remote Computing Centers, under the supervision of the Computing Run Coordinator at CERN. This dedicated 24/7 computing shift personnel is contributing to detect and react timely on any unexpected error and hence ensure that CMS workflows are carried out efficiently and in a sustained manner. Synergy among all the involved actors is exploited to ensure the 24/7 monitoring, alarming and troubleshooting of the CMS computing sites and services. We review the deployment of the monitoring and alarming procedures, and report on the experience gained throughout the first two years of LHC operation. We describe the efficiency of the communication tools employed, the coherent monitoring framework, the proactive alarming systems and the proficient troubleshooting procedures that helped the CMS Computing facilities and infrastructure to operate at high reliability levels.

Molina-Perez, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Gutsche, O.; Sciabà, A.; Flix, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Fajardo, E.; Boccali, T.; Klute, M.; Gomes, D.; Kaselis, R.; Du, R.; Magini, N.; Butenas, I.; Wang, W.

2012-12-01

8

Alarm guided critical function and success path monitoring  

DOEpatents

The use of alarm indication on the overview (IPSO) display to initiate diagnosis of challenges to critical functions or unavailability of success paths, and further alarm-based guidance toward ultimate diagnosis.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

9

ALARM-LEVEL MONITOR FOR SO2 EMISSIONS FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

A field prototype, alarm-level monitor for SO2 emissions from stationary sources was designed, fabricated and tested. The monitor was designed to be inexpensive, simple to operate and easily maintained. The monitoring system is an extractive type that employs an air aspirator to ...

10

False Alarm Reduction in BSN-Based Cardiac Monitoring Using Signal Quality and Activity Type Information.  

PubMed

False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

2015-01-01

11

Analysis and implementation of the city conflagration automatic alarm network monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate the mechanism of the city conflagration automatic alarm network monitoring system, with reference to national standards and successful experience in the developed countries, and with the actual needs fire fighting management of the city conflagration. Based on the WEB search function, this system utilize the public or private networks to realize the comprehensive network monitoring for enterprises automatic

Hong Hong; Liu Fang

2010-01-01

12

[Home cardio-respiratory monitoring with alarm record system in infants at risk of life-threatening events].  

PubMed

In few infants, home monitoring is useful to prevent recurrent apparently life-threatening events. Some devices have an alarm record system. We report our experience of home monitoring with such a device in 22 infants. 43.3% of the recorded events were considered as false alarms and 56.7% as true alarms. Among the alarms relative to abnormal respiratory events (38%), more than half occurred after two min of very low impedance thoracic signal. Among the true alarms relative to cardiac abnormalities (18.7%) more than half occurred during high amplitude fluctuations of the thoracic impedance signal and were relative to obstructive apnea or hypertonic vagal reactivity. Three infants presented an apparent life threatening event during an alarm, and two of them were hospitalized. These results indicate that it is important to define precisely the significance of the alarms during the survey of home monitoring of infants at risk for sudden infant death. PMID:1337780

de Broca, A; Zenatti, I; Dorival, D; Kremp, O; Faltaous, S; Risbourg, B

1992-01-01

13

Design of fault monitoring alarm system for networks based on GSM SMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system is used as detecting server performance in a computer networks. Based on SNMP agreement, it implements data acquisition, processing and chart show using APACHE + PHP + MYSQL. Through serial communication between the GSM module and VB, the GSM SMS including networks facult information is sent to defined mobile and thus build a better fault monitoring alarm system

F.-S. Bai; Y.-L. Liu

2010-01-01

14

Design of a multi-spots temperature monitoring and alarming system based a person computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a multi-spots temperature monitoring and alarming system based on a person computer is designed. The system consists of a person computer as a host and a subsystem as a slave. The host can communicate with the slave by its serial port. The host can also control the slave and receive temperature value from it that can be

Xu Wuxiong

2011-01-01

15

Electromagnetic interference may cause false asystole alarms in certain Philips IntelliVue monitoring products.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) may cause some Philips Healthcare IntelliVue MMS, MP2, MP5, and X2 patient monitoring products to incorrectly display a flat electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform and generate a false asystole alarm. This occurs while the devices' pace pulse rejection feature is enabled. Facilities that suspect such behavior in their inventories should contact Philips to discuss whether installation of firmware version D.02.05 will help address the problem. PMID:23444578

2011-09-01

16

Real-time analysis of physiological data and development of alarm algorithms for patient monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit  

E-print Network

The lack of effective data integration and knowledge representation in patient monitoring limits its utility to clinicians. Intelligent alarm algorithms that use artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to ...

Zhang, Ying, 1976-

2003-01-01

17

Substation alarm multiplexing system (SAMS)  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an on going R&D project to develop, design, install, and assess the field performance of an advanced substation alarm system. SAMS provides a highly fault-tolerant system for the reporting of equipment alarms. SAMS separates and identifies each of the multiple alarm contacts, transmits an alarm condition over existing substation two-wire system, and displays the alarm source, and its associated technical information, on a touch-screen monitor inside the substation control room, and a remote central location and on a hand held terminal which may be carried anywhere within the substation. SAMS is currently installed at the Sherman Creek substation in the Bronx for the purpose of a three month field evaluation.

ElBadaly, H.; Gaughan, J.; Ward, G.; Amengual, S.

1996-03-01

18

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...general or fire alarm purposes. (3) Automatic transfer to...or redundant systems or power sources...Flooding safety, fire, loss of power... (i) The fire detection and alarm systems. (ii...Failure of an automatic control,...

2013-10-01

19

46 CFR 62.25-20 - Instrumentation, alarms, and centralized stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...general or fire alarm purposes. (3) Automatic transfer to...or redundant systems or power sources...Flooding safety, fire, loss of power... (i) The fire detection and alarm systems. (ii...Failure of an automatic control,...

2012-10-01

20

WATCH (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling): A low-cost, secure-item monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has developd a remote sensor package that provides a low-cost, convenient way of monitoring item movement. Originally, the package was intended for use in valve monitoring, but it is now possible to use it in any sensor application where hardware installation is impractical or uneconomical. Full system implementation includes a receiver/controller which correlates the arrival time of rf signals generated by item-monitoring transmitters to increase communication security. Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) is such a system. One important application of WATCH is in storage vaults where there are a number of material containers. Applying WATCH to inventory control reduces inventory workload and employee exposure rates; the system also provides quick access to inventory information by interfacing the system with plant site computer systems.

Sanderson, S.N.

1987-07-01

21

A critical assessment of monitoring practices, patient deterioration, and alarm fatigue on inpatient wards: a review  

PubMed Central

Approximately forty million surgeries take place annually in the United States, many of them requiring overnight or lengthier post operative stays in the over five thousand hospitals that comprise our acute healthcare system. Leading up to this Century, it was common for most hospitalized patients and their families to believe that being surrounded by well-trained nurses and physicians assured their safety. That bubble burst with the Institute of Medicine’s 1999 report: To Err Is Human, followed closely by its 2001 report: Crossing the Quality Chasm. This review article discusses unexpected, potentially lethal respiratory complications known for being difficult to detect early, especially in postoperative patients recovering on hospital general care floors (GCF). We have designed our physiologic explanations and simplified cognitive framework to give our front line clinical nurses a thorough, easy-to-recall understanding of just how these events evolve, and how to detect them early when most amenable to treatment. Our review will also discuss currently available practices in general care floor monitoring that can both improve patient safety and significantly reduce monitor associated alarm fatigue. PMID:25093041

2014-01-01

22

Medical audible alarms: a review  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope The emergence of alarms as a ‘hot topic’; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem. PMID:23100127

Edworthy, Judy

2013-01-01

23

Reaction time of a health care team to monitoring alarms in the intensive care unit: implications for the safety of seriously ill patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To define the characteristics and measure the reaction time of a health care team monitoring alarms in the intensive care unit. Methods A quantitative, observational, and descriptive study developed at the coronary care unit of a cardiology public hospital in Rio de Janeiro state (RJ). Data were obtained from the information collected on the patients, the monitoring used, and the measurement of the team's reaction time to the alarms of multi-parameter monitors during a non-participatory field observation. Results Eighty-eight patients were followed (49 during the day shift and 39 during the night shift). During the 40 hours of observation (20 hours during the day shift and 20 hours during the night shift), the total number of monitoring alarms was 227, with 106 alarms during the day shift and 121 during the night shift, an average of 5.7 alarms/hour. In total, 145 alarms unanswered by the team were observed, with 68 occurring during the day shift (64.15%) and 77 during the night shift (63.64%). This study demonstrated that the reaction time was longer than 10 minutes in more than 60% of the alarms, which were considered as unanswered alarms. The median reaction time of the answered alarms was 4 minutes and 54 seconds during the day shift and 4 minutes and 55 seconds during the night shift. The respiration monitoring was activated in only nine patients (23.07%) during the night shift. Regarding the alarm quality of these variables, the arrhythmia alarm was qualified in only 10 (20.40%) of the day-shift patients and the respiration alarm in four night-shift patients (44.44%). Conclusion The programming and configuration of the physiological variables monitored and the parameters of alarms in the intensive care unit were inadequate; there was a delay and lack of response to the alarms, suggesting that relevant alarms may have been ignored by the health care team, thus compromising the patient safety. PMID:24770686

Bridi, Adriana Carla; da Silva, Roberto Carlos Lyra; de Farias, Carolina Correa Pinto; Franco, Andrezza Serpa; dos Santos, Viviane de Lima Quintas

2014-01-01

24

Both differences in encoding processes and monitoring at retrieval reduce false alarms when distinctive information is studied.  

PubMed

A reduction in false alarms to critical lures is observed in the DRM paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995) when distinctive information is presented at encoding. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this reduction. According to the monitoring theory (e.g., the distinctiveness heuristic), lack of diagnostic recollection serves as a basis for discarding non-presented lures. According to the encoding theory, presenting distinctive information at study leads to impoverished relational processing, which results in a reduction in memorial information elicited by critical lures. In the present study a condition was created in which the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was precluded by associating, within the same study, lures with distinctive information in a context different from the study session. Under that condition reduction in false alarms to distinctive critical lures was still observed. This result supports the predictions of the encoding theory. However, when in the same study the use of the distinctiveness heuristic was not precluded, reductions in false alarms to unrelated lures were also observed when distinctive information was presented at study, indicating that both mechanisms are likely to contribute to the rejection of false memories. PMID:21500088

Hanczakowski, Maciej; Mazzoni, Giuliana

2011-04-01

25

Design and development of a personal alarm monitor for use by first responders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and development of a small, portable alarm device that can be used by first responders to an emergency event to warn of the presence of low levels of a toxic nerve gas. The device consists of a rigid reusable portion and a consumable packet that is sensitive to the presence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as the nerve gases Sarin or Soman. The sensitivity level of the alarm is set to be at initial physiological response at the meiosis level, orders of magnitude below lethal concentrations. The AChE enzyme used is specific for nerve-type toxins. A color development reaction is used to demonstrate continued activity of the enzyme over its twelve-hour operational cycle.

Ehntholt, Daniel J.; Louie, Alan S.; Marenchic, Ingrid G.; Forni, Ronald J.

2004-03-01

26

Rack protection monitor  

DOEpatents

A hardwired, fail-safe rack protection monitor utilizes electromechanical relays to respond to the detection by condition sensors of abnormal or alarm conditions (such as smoke, temperature, wind or water) that might adversely affect or damage equipment being protected. When the monitor is reset, the monitor is in a detection mode with first and second alarm relay coils energized. If one of the condition sensors detects an abnormal condition, the first alarm relay coil will be de-energized, but the second alarm relay coil will remain energized. This results in both a visual and an audible alarm being activated. If a second alarm condition is detected by another one of the condition sensors while the first condition sensor is still detecting the first alarm condition, both the first alarm relay coil and the second alarm relay coil will be de-energized. With both the first and second alarm relay coils de-energized, both a visual and an audible alarm will be activated. In addition, power to the protected equipment will be terminated and an alarm signal will be transmitted to an alarm central control. The monitor can be housed in a separate enclosure so as to provide an interface between a power supply for the protected equipment and the protected equipment.

Orr, Stanley G. (Wheaton, IL)

2000-01-01

27

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1989-01-01

28

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously oupdated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on caussal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action) expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary.

Corsberg, Daniel R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01

29

Functional relationship-based alarm processing system  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the functional relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated or deactivated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). The alarm processing system and method is sensitive to the dynamic nature of the process being monitored and is capable of changing the relative importance of each alarm as necessary. 12 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1988-04-22

30

Hidden Alarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this design challenge activity, learners invent a device that will make their friends and family ask, "What's buzzing?" Learners design an alarm with an on/off switch that is small enough to hide. This activity is a fun, hands-on way for learners to get a taste for the design process and experiment with circuitry.

WGBH

2010-01-01

31

The Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit  

SciTech Connect

Learning from our experience with the standard Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) alarm handler (ALH) as well as a similar intermediate approach based on script-generated operator screens, we developed the Best Ever Alarm System Toolkit (BEAST). It is based on Java and Eclipse on the Control System Studio (CSS) platform, using a relational database (RDB) to store the configuration and log actions. It employs a Java Message Service (JMS) for communication between the modular pieces of the toolkit, which include an Alarm Server to maintain the current alarm state, an arbitrary number of Alarm Client user interfaces (GUI), and tools to annunciate alarms or log alarm related actions. Web reports allow us to monitor the alarm system performance and spot deficiencies in the alarm configuration. The Alarm Client GUI not only gives the end users various ways to view alarms in tree and table, but also makes it easy to access the guidance information, the related operator displays and other CSS tools. It also allows online configuration to be simply modified from the GUI. Coupled with a good "alarm philosophy" on how to provide useful alarms, we can finally improve the configuration to achieve an effective alarm system.

Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Chen, Xihui [ORNL; Danilova, Katia [ORNL

2009-01-01

32

Alarm acknowledgement in a nuclear plant control room  

DOEpatents

Alarm acknowledgment can be made not only at the alarm tile array of a given console but via other touch sensitive alarm indications in the screen displays of the monitoring system at the same or other consoles; also, touching one tile can acknowledge multiple alarm sources.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

33

Panic, Suffocation False Alarms, Separation Anxiety and Endogenous Opioids  

PubMed Central

This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic (Klein, 1993). SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon’s emergency fear response and Selye’s General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attacks. Further, panic sufferers have chronic sighing abnormalities outside of the acute attack. Another basic physiologic distinction between fear and panic is the counter-intuitive lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in panic. Understanding panic as provoked by indicators of potential suffocation, such as fluctuations in pCO2 and brain lactate, as well as environmental circumstances fits the observed respiratory abnormalities. However, that sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of “spontaneous” panic requires an integrative explanation. Because of the opioid system’s central regulatory role in both disordered breathing and separation distress, we detail the role of opioidergic dysfunction in decreasing the suffocation alarm threshold. We present results from our laboratory where the naloxone-lactate challenge in normals produces supportive evidence for the endorphinergic defect hypothesis in the form of a distress episode of specific tidal volume hyperventilation paralleling challenge-produced and clinical panic. PMID:17765379

Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F.

2008-01-01

34

Body Temperature Monitor and Alarm System Used in Hospital Based on 1Wire and Wireless Communication Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body temperature measurement has very important meaning in clinic diagnosis and treatment. Due to traditional artificial measurement style has mangy disadvantages such as long measurement time, and low measurement precision, etc, which is hard to automatically and accurately monitor patient body temperature in real time. Aiming to this problem, paper introduces a kind of body temperature distributed monitor system. Multi-temperature

Yu Chen; Haijun Zhang; Na Wang

2008-01-01

35

A Centralized Display for Mission Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans traditionally experience a vigilance decrement over extended periods of time on reliable systems. One possible solution to aiding operators in monitoring is to use polar-star displays that will show deviations from normal in a more salient manner. The primary objectives of this experiment were to determine if polar-star displays aid in monitoring and preliminary diagnosis of the aircraft state. This experiment indicated that the polar-star display does indeed aid operators in detecting and diagnosing system events. Subjects were able to notice system events earlier and they subjectively reported the polar-star display helped them in monitoring, noticing an event, and diagnosing an event. Therefore, these results indicate that the polar-star display used for monitoring and preliminary diagnosis improves performance in these areas for system related events.

Trujillo, Anna C.

2004-01-01

36

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication sYSTem) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance, perimeter-alarm verification system that, using computer-vision, automatically rejects false alarms. AMETHYST will pass to an operator only those alarms that are caused by an intruder.

S. Mockler; N. Clarke

2002-01-01

37

Central Nevada Test Area Monitoring Report  

SciTech Connect

Water level measurements were performed and water samples collected from the Central Nevada Test Area model validation wells in September 2006. Hydraulic head measurements were compared to previous observations; the MV wells showed slight recovery from the drilling and testing operation in 2005. No radioisotopes exceeded limits set in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan, and no significant trends were observed when compared to previous analyses.

Brad Lyles; Jenny Chapman; John Healey; David Gillespie

2006-09-30

38

An Online Intelligent Alarm-Processing System for Digital Substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flood of alarm messages in an automatic digital substation makes the monitoring task a significant challenge for the operators in a remote control center, especially under fault scenarios. An online intelligent alarm-processing system is developed based on the architecture of the digital substation. First, real-time alarms are classified according to the IEC 61850 standard in order to provide synthesized

Liuhong Wei; Wenxin Guo; Fushuan Wen; Gerard Ledwich; Zhiwei Liao; Jianbo Xin

2011-01-01

39

Major reduction in alarm frequency with a new pulse oximeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir: Intensive care monitor alarms are a major burden on both nurses and patients. Between 44 and 63 % of alarms are caused by pulse oximeters, with 94 % of these being non-significant [1, 2]. Pulse oximeters should, therefore, be the prime target when aiming to reduce alarm rates in the intensive care unit (]CU), Recently, a new technique for

B. Bohnhorst; C. F. Poets

1998-01-01

40

The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

2014-07-01

41

21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable leakage current alarm. (a)...

2013-04-01

42

21 CFR 870.2640 - Portable leakage current alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Monitoring Devices § 870.2640 Portable leakage current alarm. (a)...

2014-04-01

43

A Centralized Monitoring Infrastructure for Improving DNS Security  

E-print Network

A Centralized Monitoring Infrastructure for Improving DNS Security Manos Antonakakis, David Dagon@gtisc.gatech.edu Abstract. Researchers have recently noted (14; 27) the potential of fast poi- soning attacks against DNS servers, which allows attackers to easily manipulate records in open recursive DNS resolvers. A vendor

44

Fire alarm system improvement  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Fire Alarm System Test Procedure for Building 234-5Z, 200-West Area on the Hanford Reservation, Richland, Washington. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems function as required by project criteria. The ATP will test the Fire Alarm Control Panels, Flow Alarm Pressure Switch, Heat Detectors, Smoke Detectors, Flow Switches, Manual Pull Stations, and Gong/Door by Pass Switches.

Hodge, S.G.

1994-10-01

45

Central enhancement of evoked electromyographic monitoring of neuromuscular function.  

PubMed

Central neural influences on neuromuscular transmission may explain the frequent failure of evoked electromyographic (EEMG) responses to return to control values during offset of neuromuscular block. This study, performed in conscious subjects, did not demonstrate any change in EEMG response of either the first dorsal interosseous muscle during onset of ulnar nerve block or the flexor hallucis brevis during onset of subarachnoid block. It is concluded that central enhancement of EEMG response via a neural mechanism does not explain the observed failure of EEMG monitoring of neuromuscular block. PMID:1851627

Smith, D C

1991-05-01

46

FundAlarm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FundAlarm is a "a free, non-commercial Website [which provides] objective information to help individual investors make the mutual fund 'sell' decision." Highlighted on this site is the FundAlarm database, which contains over 3,400 stock and balanced mutual funds. The database may be browsed by name of fund, or users can browse only fidelity and Vanguard funds, as well as search by up to five ticker symbols. The site also explains its benchmarking system of ranking funds, offers shop talk in its Highlights and Commentary section, and includes a discussion board. Interested users may sign up for free email notification of FundAlarm updates.

47

SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M&O 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M&O 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree of difficulty and complexity in determining requirements in adapting existing data communication highways to support the subsurface visual alarm system. These requirements would include such things as added or new communication cables, added Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Inputs and Outputs (I/O), and communication hardware components, and human machine interfaces and their software operating system. (4) Select the best data communication highway system based on this review of adapting or integrating with existing data communication systems.

D.W. Markman

2001-08-06

48

Design and Implementation of Automatic Fire Alarm System based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Fire disaster is a ,great threat to lives and property. Automatic fire alarm system provides real-time surveillance, monitoring and automatic alarm. It sends early alarm when the fire occurs and helps to reduce the fire damage. Wireless sensor network has become the most important technology in environmental monitoring and home or factory automation in recent years. In this paper, anautomatic

Lei Zhang; Gaofeng Wang

2009-01-01

49

Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360` field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator.

Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

1995-03-01

50

[A central monitoring system capturing the screen of an anesthesia monitor].  

PubMed

e have developed a flexible, economically efficient central monitoring system. The system converts RGB analog outputs on the screen of an anesthesia monitor display into digital video signals with TwinPact 100 (Thomson Canopus, Kobe), and depicts them on the screen of Vidi-installed (http://www.mitzpettel.com/ software/vidi.php) personal computers (iMac, Apple, Tokyo), which serve as terminal monitors. These PCs are monitored and administered through Apple Remote Desktop 3 (Apple, Tokyo) on a server computer (Mac Pro, Apple, Tokyo), connected to the LAN, in the office for anesthesiologists. As Bosco's Screen Share (http://www.componentx.com/ScreenShare/) has been installed on computers in every room, we can monitor their screens via a PC in another room using Firefox (http://mozilla.jp/firefox/) and other web browsers.The system, with a screen capturing function, was designed to comply with all monitor display of all medical equipment manufacturers, with possible expansion to the operating rooms. PMID:21077323

Sakaguchi, Hidehiro; Abe, Eiji; Abe, Mari; Anraku, Sakiko; Higuchi, Takushi; Ishida, Takashi

2010-11-01

51

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

CHANDLER, L.T.

52

Summary of Pre-2011 Seismic Monitoring Results for the Central Virginia Seismic Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M 5.7 earthquake affecting Louisa county, Virginia on September 23, 2011 occurred in the central Virginia seismic zone, in the Piedmont physiographic province of Virginia. The largest previous shock occurred on December 22, 1875 with magnitude 5.0 estimated from intensity reports. Other events causing minor damage and widespread alarm occurred in 1774, 1833, 1852, 1907, 1929, 1984 (mbLg 4.2) and 2003 (M 4.3). Previous studies have documented that the seismic zone overlies a major change in crustal thickness and that the seismogenic upper crust is comprised of Appalachian thrust sheets. However, the area was affected by early Mesozoic extensional tectonics and includes several Triassic fault-bounded basins (Culpepper, Scottsville, Farmville, and Richmond). Local network stations have operated in central Virginia since the mid-1970's, although hypocenter location capability has declined since the mid-1990's. The monitoring indicates a mean focal depth of 8 km and maximum depth of approximately 13 km: approximately 75% of the well-located shocks have focal depths above 10 km, and most events are in allochthonous rocks above the Blue Ridge thrust (resolved on seismic reflection profiles). This is in contrast to the situation west of the Blue Ridge province in the Southern Appalachians, where earthquakes generally occur in Grenville basement. The central Virginia seismicity occurs on multiple seismogenic structures. Focal mechanisms of the pre-2011 events exhibit a mixture of strike-slip and reverse faulting on steeply dipping planes showing variable strike. The seismicity has exhibited both temporal and spatial clustering. The M 4.3 December 9, 2003 compound earthquake occurred at a depth of 10 km, and probably represented reverse faulting on a steeply dipping (69 deg) N190E-striking nodal plane, although no aftershocks were recorded to confirm actual fault orientation. The epicenter of the August 23, 2011 shock was only 20 km to the north-northeast of the 2003 event, along the strike of major Paleozoic structure mapped at the surface. The early focal mechanism solution for the 2011 mainshock shows reverse motion on planes trending north-northeast, with dip to either the northwest or southeast. The depth estimate was 6 km, and preliminary focal depths for many early aftershocks are at shallower depths. An important question that may be addressed with data from aftershocks involves the orientation and extent of the mainshock rupture, and whether or not the fault is a Mesozoic or Paleozoic structure.

Chapman, M. C.

2011-12-01

53

Control of ELT false alarms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The statistics of emergency locator transmitter (ELT) alarms are presented. The primary sources of data include ELT Incident Logs, Service Difficulty Reports, and Frequency Interference Reports. The number of reported and unreported alarms is discussed, as are seasonal variations, duration of ELT transmissions, and cost of silencing. Origin, causes, and possible strategies for reducing the impact of alarms on the aviation community are considered.

Toth, S.; Gershkoff, I.

1979-01-01

54

Dynamic alarm response procedures  

SciTech Connect

The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

2006-07-01

55

Wireless intelligent alarm technology with pyroelectric infrared sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the defects of monitoring conducted by man in the conventional practice, we study the passive intelligent automatic alarm technology based on the pyroelectric infrared sensor and wireless communication technology. The designed passive infrared wireless alarm is composed of pyroelectric infrared sensors, infrared special chip BISS0001 and their peripheral circuits. When someone enters into the detecting and monitoring range, the alarm will detect the infrared ray of the human radiation by the contactless form and detect the signals of circuit output. Then it translates them into low frequency signals relative with human sports speed, distance and direction, produce corresponding output signals through amplifying by the back state controller, switch on the work power of the wireless transmitting circuit and make it emit the alarm signals. The system enhances the monitoring level and effects and possesses many advantages such as wide detecting range, long detecting distance and high reliability.

Chen, Xiao

2009-07-01

56

Functional relationship-based alarm processing  

DOEpatents

A functional relationship-based alarm processing system and method analyzes each alarm as it is activated and determines its relative importance with other currently activated alarms and signals in accordance with the relationships that the newly activated alarm has with other currently activated alarms. Once the initial level of importance of the alarm has been determined, that alarm is again evaluated if another related alarm is activated. Thus, each alarm's importance is continuously updated as the state of the process changes during a scenario. Four hierarchical relationships are defined by this alarm filtering methodology: (1) level precursor (usually occurs when there are two alarm settings on the same parameter); (2) direct precursor (based on causal factors between two alarms); (3) required action (system response or action expected within a specified time following activation of an alarm or combination of alarms and process signals); and (4) blocking condition (alarms that are normally expected and are not considered important). 11 figs.

Corsberg, D.R.

1987-04-13

57

Scrub Typhus Complicated by Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Multiorgan Failure; an Unrecognized Alarming Entity in Central India: A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness, distributed throughout the Asia Pacific rim. In India, it has been reported from northern, eastern, and southern India. However, cases of scrub typhus have not been well-documented from Vidarbha, an eastern region of Maharashtra state in central India. We report two cases of complicated scrub typhus from Vidarbha region. These cases admitted in unconscious state with 8-10 days history of fever, body ache, cough, and progressive breathlessness. The diagnosis in both cases was based on presence of eschar, a positive Weil-Felix test, and a positive rapid diagnostic test (immunochromatographic assay). Both cases were complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiorgan failure. Both of them presented in their 2nd week of illness and died during the hospital course in spite of intensive supportive care. The main cause of mortality was delayed referral leading to delay in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24791245

Saxena, Amrish; Khiangte, Benjamine; Tiewsoh, Iadarilang

2014-01-01

58

75 FR 18110 - Antarctic Marine Living Resources; Use of Centralized-Vessel Monitoring System and Importation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Resources; Use of Centralized-Vessel Monitoring System and Importation of Toothfish...participated in the Centralized-Vessel Monitoring System (C-VMS) regardless of where...participated in the Centralized-Vessel Monitoring System (C-VMS) regardless of...

2010-04-09

59

Line supervision of alarm communications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to explain the role and application of alarm communication link supervision in security systems such as for nuclear facilities. The vulnerabilities of the various types of alarm communication links will be presented. Throughout the paper, an effort has been made to describe only those technologies commercially available and to avoid speculative theoretical solutions.

Chritton, M.R. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

1991-01-01

60

Talking Fire Alarms Calm Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new microprocessor-based fire alarm systems can help to control smoke movement throughout school buildings by opening vents and doors, identify the burning section, activate voice alarms, provide firefighters with telephone systems during the fire, and release fire-preventing gas. (KS)

Executive Educator, 1984

1984-01-01

61

Monitoring of cropland practices for carbon sequestration purposes in north central Montana by Landsat remote sensing  

E-print Network

Monitoring of cropland practices for carbon sequestration purposes in north central Montana form 30 March 2009 Accepted 11 April 2009 Keywords: Carbon sequestration validation Tillage type. Cropland producers involved in terrestrial carbon sequestration programs are paid to implement practices

Lawrence, Rick L.

62

The design and implementation of MDF incoming power disturbance alarm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the problems of MDF incoming power disturbance and the redundancy of management personnel in communication computer rooms, the author designed an incoming power disturbance alarm system applied to the computer rooms where nobody is on duty. The system adopts a tertiary host\\/slave structure of the monitoring center, monitoring unit and alarm collectors on each distributing frame. Through the

Li Yang; Changyin Liang; Linfang Yang

2011-01-01

63

Development of net cage acoustic alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the fishery production has been drastically decreased in Taiwan, mainly due to overfishing and coast pollution; therefore, fishermen and corporations are encouraged by government to invest in ocean net cage aquaculture. However, the high-price fishes in the net cage are often coveted, so incidences of fish stealing and net cage breaking were found occasionally, which cause great economical loss. Security guards or a visual monitoring system has limited effect, especially in the night when these intrusions occur. This study is based on acoustic measure to build a net cage alarm system, which includes the sonobuoy and monitor station on land. The sonobuoy is a passive sonar that collects the sounds near the net cage and transmits the suspected signal to the monitor station. The signals are analyzed by the control program on the personal computer in the monitor station, and the alarms at different stages could be activated by the sound levels and durations of the analyzed data. To insure long hours of surveillance, a solar panel is applied to charge the battery, and a photodetector is used to activate the system.

Hong, Shih-Wei; Wei, Ruey-Chang

2001-05-01

64

A distributed approach to alarm management in chronic kidney disease.  

PubMed

This paper presents the feasibility study of using a distributed approach for the management of alarms from chronic kidney disease patients. In a first place, the key issues regarding alarm definition, classification, and prioritization according to available normalization efforts are analyzed for the main scenarios addressed in hemodialysis. Then, the middleware proposed for alarm management is described, which follows the publish/subscribe pattern, and supports the Object Management Group data distribution service (DDS) standard. This standard facilitates the real-time monitoring of the exchanged information, as well as the scalability and interoperability of the solution developed regarding the different stakeholders and resources involved. Finally, the results section shows, through the proof of concept studied, the viability of DDS for the activation of emergency protocols in terms of alarm prioritization and personalization, as well as some remarks about security, privacy, and real-time communication performance. PMID:25014977

Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Roa, Laura M; Naranjo-Hernández, David; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Aresté-Fosalba, Nuria; Milán-Martín, José A

2014-11-01

65

Automated detection of alarm sounds  

PubMed Central

Two approaches to the automated detection of alarm sounds are compared, one based on a change in overall sound level (RMS), the other a change in periodicity, as given by the power of the normalized autocorrelation function (PNA). Receiver operating characteristics in each case were obtained for different exemplars of four classes of alarm sounds (bells/chimes, buzzers/beepers, horns/whistles, and sirens) embedded in four noise backgrounds (cafeteria, park, traffic, and music). The results suggest that PNA combined with RMS may be used to improve current alarm-sound alerting technologies for the hard-of-hearing. PMID:22894310

Lutfi, Robert A.; Heo, Inseok

2012-01-01

66

Automated detection of alarm sounds.  

PubMed

Two approaches to the automated detection of alarm sounds are compared, one based on a change in overall sound level (RMS), the other a change in periodicity, as given by the power of the normalized autocorrelation function (PNA). Receiver operating characteristics in each case were obtained for different exemplars of four classes of alarm sounds (bells/chimes, buzzers/beepers, horns/whistles, and sirens) embedded in four noise backgrounds (cafeteria, park, traffic, and music). The results suggest that PNA combined with RMS may be used to improve current alarm-sound alerting technologies for the hard-of-hearing. PMID:22894310

Lutfi, Robert A; Heo, Inseok

2012-08-01

67

Krohne Flow Indicator and High Flow Alarm Local Indicator and High Flow Alarm of Helium Flow from the SCHe Purge Lines C and D to the Process Vent  

SciTech Connect

Flow Indicators/alarms FI/FSH-5*52 and -5*72 are located in the process vent lines connected to the 2 psig SCHe purge lines C and D. They monitor the flow from the 2 psig SCHe purge going to the process vent. The switch/alarm is non-safety class GS.

MISKA, C.R.

2000-09-03

68

Instrumental lahar monitoring at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 50 volcanic debris flows or lahars were generated around Mt Merapi during the first rainy season following the nuees ardentes of 22 November 1994. The rainfalls that triggered the lahars were analyzed, using such instruments as weather radar and telemetered rain gauges. Lahar dynamics were also monitored, using new non-contact detection instrumentation installed on the slopes of the volcano. These devices include real-time seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM), seismic spectral amplitude measurement (SSAM) and acoustic flow monitoring (AFM) systems. Calibration of the various systems was accomplished by field measurements of flow velocities and discharge, contemporaneously with instrumental monitoring. The 1994–1995 lahars were relatively short events, their duration in the Boyong river commonly ranging between 30 min and 1 h 30 min. The great majority (90%) of the lahars was recognized at Kaliurang village between 13:00 and 17:30 h, due to the predominance of afternoon rainfalls. The observed mean velocity of lahar fronts ranged between 1.1 and 3.4 m/s, whereas the peak velocity of the flows varied from 11 to 15 m/s, under the Gardu Pandang viewpoint location at Kaliurang, to 8–10 m/s at a section 500 m downstream from this site. River slopes vary from 28 to 22 m/km at the two sites. Peak discharges recorded in various events ranged from 33 to 360 m3/s, with the maximum value of peak discharge 360 m3/s, on 20 May 1995. To improve the lahar warning system along Boyong river, some instrumental thresholds were proposed: large and potentially hazardous lahars may be detected by RSAM units exceeding 400, SSAM units exceeding 80 on the highest frequency band, or AFM values greater than 1500 mV on the low-gain, broad-band setting.

Lavigne, F.; Thouret, J.-C.; Voight, B.; Young, K.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Suwa, H.; Sumaryono, A.; Sayudi, D.S.; Dejean, M.

2000-01-01

69

False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

2012-09-01

70

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm with Automatic Fire Sprinkler Protection System  

E-print Network

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm with Automatic Fire Sprinkler Protection System Fire Code: ______________________ _____________________________ Fire Alarm System Monitored by: _____________________________ Fire and Life Safety Systems Your facility is equipped with functional Fire Smoke Detection and an Automatic Fire Sprinkler System Annual

Pawlowski, Wojtek

71

Prototype ventilator and alarm algorithm for the NASA space station  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alarm algorithm was developed to monitor the ventilator on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space station. The algorithm automatically identifies and interprets critical events so that an untrained user can manage the mechanical ventilation of a critically injured crew member. The algorithm was tested in two healthy volunteers by simulating 260 critical events in each volunteer while the

Josef X. Brunner; Dwayne R. Westenskow; Paul Zelenkov

1988-01-01

72

Please do not smoke on the These premises are alarmed  

E-print Network

-55 Philpot Street D College Buildings Garrod Building 1 Library 2 Students' Union Griff Inn 3 AbernethyPlease do not smoke on the campus. These premises are alarmed and monitored by CCTV, please call Post Room 4 Security 1 Students' Union 3 Bicycle parking Whitechapel campus #12;

Chittka, Lars

73

Composition of aphid alarm pheromones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of single cornicle droplets from six species of aphid showed the presence of volatile components in addition to (E)-ß-farnesene. Compounds identified included (Z,E)-a- and (E,E)-a-farnesene forMyzus persicae and a- and ß-pinene forMegoura viciae. WithMegoura viciae, (-)-a-pinene was most important for alarm activity. The major component of the alarm pheromone ofPhorodon humuli was (E)-ß-farnesene even though farnesenes are present in

J. A. Pickett; D. C. Griffiths

1980-01-01

74

An EKG monitor network.  

PubMed

A networkable kardiomonitor CM-3 is described as well as the associated central monitoring device CEMON. CM-3 allows archiving as well as efficient control of all relevant measurements, alarms and trend data in the last 2 years of use of the equipment. This data is easily reviewed, printed or saved on removable media to be included in the hospital patient documentation. The network is based on standard Ethernet bus architecture and PC Ethernet adapters. This high speed medium allows efficient real time control and immediate reaction to each alarm situation. Easy integration with other parts of the hospital information system is possible. In addition, critical monitor files can be efficiently backed up and possibilities are open for hierarchical storage with high security options. PMID:10179601

Komocar, M; Atanaskovic, S; Savic, Z; Ignjatic, D

1997-01-01

75

Security and Fire Alarm Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint from the Convergence Technology Center presents information on security and fire alarm systems. This material would be useful for students learning these concepts for the first time, or as an overview. Topics include home security, zones, subzones, smoke detectors, wireless systems and more.

Carranza, Julian; Harsh, Mike

2013-07-18

76

Attack Detection and Identification in Cyber-Physical Systems -- Part II: Centralized and Distributed Monitor Design  

E-print Network

Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, communication, and physical capabilities to interact with the physical world and humans. Besides failures of components, cyber-physical systems are prone to malicious attacks so that specific analysis tools and monitoring mechanisms need to be developed to enforce system security and reliability. This paper builds upon the results presented in our companion paper [1] and proposes centralized and distributed monitors for attack detection and identification. First, we design optimal centralized attack detection and identification monitors. Optimality refers to the ability of detecting (respectively identifying) every detectable (respectively identifiable) attack. Second, we design an optimal distributed attack detection filter based upon a waveform relaxation technique. Third, we show that the attack identification problem is computationally hard, and we design a sub-optimal distributed attack identification procedure with performance guarantees. Finally, we illustr...

Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bullo, Francesco

2012-01-01

77

Alarm system for a nuclear control complex  

DOEpatents

An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

78

Integrating Multiple Alarms & Driver Situation Awareness  

E-print Network

This study addresses this gap in CAS and intelligent alarm research by examining whether or not a single master alarm warning versus multiple warnings for the different collision warning systems conveys adequate information ...

Cummings, M. L.

2006-01-01

79

Priority coding for control room alarms  

DOEpatents

Indicating the priority of a spatially fixed, activated alarm tile on an alarm tile array by a shape coding at the tile, and preferably using the same shape coding wherever the same alarm condition is indicated elsewhere in the control room. The status of an alarm tile can change automatically or by operator acknowledgement, but tones and/or flashing cues continue to provide status information to the operator.

Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

1994-01-01

80

FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES FOR  

E-print Network

of the Fire Alarm Systems 8 Automatic Activation 8 Manual Activation 9 Results of Fire Systems' Activations 10FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES FOR BUILDING EVACUATION FRED C. FREY COMPUTING SERVICES CENTER CLAIRE M. MOREAU #12;i Table of Contents Page Introduction 1 Fire Alarm Systems B Simplex and FM-200 2

Ullmer, Brygg

81

About automatic fire alarm systems research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires continue to occur in modern architecture, the people's lives and property has brought huge losses. In order to reduce the fire in the building automatic fire alarm equipment placed into a necessity. This paper discusses the automatic fire alarm system, the composition and working principle. The system will be collected through the fire alarm detector to the fire, fault

Huide Liu; Lili Gao; Suwei Li; Tao Wu

2010-01-01

82

Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals?  

E-print Network

NOTE Subversion of alarm communication: Do plants habituate aphids to their own alarm signals? Anca aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, emit an alarm pheromone, (E)--farnesene, which causes nearby conspecifics that plants release farnesene to habituate aphids, i.e., to disrupt their alarm-pheromone re- sponses, perhaps

Mondor, Ed

83

46 CFR 113.25-12 - Alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113... (a) Each general emergency alarm signal must...to produce the general emergency alarm signal must...

2014-10-01

84

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

85

2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

None

2009-03-01

86

HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT  

SciTech Connect

The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

Lamb, Logan M [ORNL

2014-01-01

87

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, James A. (Thornton, CO); Stoddard, Lawrence M. (Arvada, CO)

1986-01-01

88

Alarm sensor apparatus for closures  

DOEpatents

An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

1984-01-31

89

False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, reducing the number of false positive cardiac monitor alarms (FA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become an issue of the utmost importance. In our work, we developed a robust methodology that, without the need for additional non-ECG waveforms, suppresses false positive ventricular tachycardia (VT) alarms without resulting in false negative alarms. Our approach is based on features extracted from the ECG signal 20 seconds prior to a triggered alarm. We applied a multi resolution wavelet transform to the ECG data 20seconds prior to the alarm trigger, extracted features from appropriately chosen scales and combined them across all available leads. These representations are presented to a L1-regularized logistic regression classifier. Results are shown in two datasets of physiological waveforms with manually assessed cardiac monitor alarms: the MIMIC II dataset, where we achieved a false alarm (FA) suppression of 21% with zero true alarm (TA) suppression; and a dataset compiled by UCSF and General Electric, where a 36% FA suppression was achieved with a zero TA suppression. The methodology described in this work could be implemented to reduce the number of false monitor alarms in other arrhythmias. PMID:25172188

Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

2014-01-01

90

Alarm toe switch. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

Ganyard, F.P.

1980-11-18

91

Evaluation of a Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring System Using Central Venous Microdialysis  

PubMed Central

Background Glycemic control in critically ill patients has been shown to be beneficial. In this prospective study, we evaluated the accuracy and technical feasibility of a continuous glucose monitoring system using intravascular microdialysis. Method Fifty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were monitored using a 4 Fr intravenous microdialysis catheter (Eirus SLC™, Dipylon Medical AB, Solna, Sweden) percutaneously placed with the tip of the catheter positioned in the superior vena cava. The catheter was connected to the Eirus™ monitoring system, and the patients were monitored for up to 48 h postoperatively in the intensive care unit (ICU). As reference, arterial blood samples were taken every hour and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Results Data were available from 48 patients. A total of 994 paired (arterial blood gas microdialysis) samples were obtained. Glucose correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.85. Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB, and 99% were in region A. Mean glucose level was 8.3 mmol/liter (149 mg/dl), mean relative difference was 0.2%, and mean absolute relative difference was 5%. A total of 99.2% of the paired samples were correct according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Bland-Altman analysis showed that bias ± limits of agreement were 0.02 ± 1.1 mmol/liter (0.36 ± 20 mg/dl). Conclusions Central venous microdialysis using the Eirus monitoring system is a highly accurate and reliable method for continuous blood glucose monitoring up to 48 h in ICU patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The system may thus be useful in critically ill ICU patients. PMID:23294781

Schierenbeck, Fanny; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

2012-01-01

92

The Establishment of a Centralized Institutional Unit for Job Development, Placement, and Data Monitoring. Occupational Education Research Project. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guilford Technical Community College (GTCC) received a grant to establish a centralized unit for job development, placement, and data monitoring that could serve as a model for the North Carolina Community College System. The first goal of the project was to establish a centralized method for collecting, recording, and maintaining job placement…

Guilford Technical Community Coll., Jamestown, NC.

93

2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

None

2010-09-01

94

2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

None

2011-02-01

95

Passive monitoring of atmospheric heavy metals in a historical city of central India by Lepraria lobificans Nyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an organism living in situ for monitoring is referred as passive monitoring. Lepraria lobificans Nyl., a leprose lichen growing naturally on monuments and buildings in the city Mandav in central India is used for passive\\u000a monitoring of atmospheric metals. Seven metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Samples collected from road\\u000a site exhibit the maximum

Rajesh Bajpai; D. K. Upreti; S. K. Dwivedi

2010-01-01

96

The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers  

SciTech Connect

The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

PASSELL, HOWARD D.; BARBER, DAVID S.; BETSILL, J. DAVID; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.; MOHAGHEGHI, AMIR H.; SHANKS, SONOYA T.; YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV,BAJGABYL; VALENTINA,ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN,VLADIMIR; POZNIAK,VICTOR

2002-04-02

97

T-Farm complex alarm upgrades  

SciTech Connect

The alarm and controls associated with the T, TX, and TY farms are located in the 242-T control room. The design data for replacement and upgrades of the alarm panels is in this document. This task was canceled previous to the 90% design review point.

Roberts, J.B.

1995-01-01

98

LASL upgraded alarm system functional requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document defines and describes the functional requirements to successfully provide Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory with a combined security and fire alarm system that will satisfy the operational needs of various users and provide compliance with applicable codes and Energy Research and Development Administration security and fire protection requirements. The four major subsystems of the upgraded Laboratory alarm system are

B. L. Hartway; E. N. Shaskey

1977-01-01

99

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: becoming a reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms which are likely to

M. Horner; K. Sage; G. Leach

1997-01-01

100

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment becoming a reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (AutoMatic Event auTHentication SYSTems) project is to encourage the development of a high performance perimeter detection system which combines Video Motion Detection (VMD) technology with another type of Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of PIDS alarms and pass to an operator those alarms likely to be caused by an

M. Horner; H. Sage; G. Leach

1998-01-01

101

AMETHYST: automatic alarm assessment: operational experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the AMETHYST (Automatic Event Authentication Systems) project is to encourage the development of a high-performance perimeter detection system by using video assessment to enhance the Perimeter Intrusion Detection System (PIDS). AMETHYST will automatically assess the cause of all PIDS alarms and pass to an operator only those alarms that are likely to be caused by an intruder.

Michael Horner; Graham Leach; T. O'Dwyer

2000-01-01

102

A prison guard Duress alarm location system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss concepts used in developing the CSC (Correctional Services Canada) Duress Alarm Location System (DALS). A block diagram and theory of operation for the system are presented. A sample data and test results for an actual test installation are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that the DALS is able to acknowledge and locate a duress alarm within

T. W. Christ; P. A. Godwin; R. E. Lavigne

1993-01-01

103

Optoacoustic monitoring of central and peripheral venous oxygenation during simulated hemorrhage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circulatory shock may be fatal unless promptly recognized and treated. The most commonly used indicators of shock (hypotension and tachycardia) lack sensitivity and specificity. In the initial stages of shock, the body compensates by reducing blood flow to the peripheral (skin, muscle, etc.) circulation in order to preserve vital organ (brain, heart, liver) perfusion. Characteristically, this can be observed by a greater reduction in peripheral venous oxygenation (for instance, the axillary vein) compared to central venous oxygenation (the internal jugular vein). While invasive measurements of oxygenation are accurate, they lack practicality and are not without complications. We have developed a novel optoacoustic system that noninvasively determines oxygenation in specific veins. In order to test this application, we used lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system, which simulates hemorrhage by exerting a variable amount of suction on the lower body, thereby reducing the volume of blood available for central circulation. Restoration of normal blood flow occurs promptly upon cessation of LBNP. Using two optoacoustic probes, guided by ultrasound imaging, we simultaneously monitored oxygenation in the axillary and internal jugular veins (IJV). LBNP began at -20 mmHg, thereafter was reduced in a step-wise fashion (up to 30 min). The optoacoustically measured axillary oxygenation decreased with LBNP, whereas IJV oxygenation remained relatively constant. These results indicate that our optoacoustic system may provide safe and rapid measurement of peripheral and central venous oxygenation and diagnosis of shock with high specificity and sensitivity.

Petrov, Andrey; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Henkel, S. Nan; Seeton, Roger; Salter, Michael G.; Khan, Muzna N.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

2014-03-01

104

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

Fallow, Pamela M.; Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Magrath, Robert D.

2013-01-01

105

Alarming features: birds use specific acoustic properties to identify heterospecific alarm calls.  

PubMed

Vertebrates that eavesdrop on heterospecific alarm calls must distinguish alarms from sounds that can safely be ignored, but the mechanisms for identifying heterospecific alarm calls are poorly understood. While vertebrates learn to identify heterospecific alarms through experience, some can also respond to unfamiliar alarm calls that are acoustically similar to conspecific alarm calls. We used synthetic calls to test the role of specific acoustic properties in alarm call identification by superb fairy-wrens, Malurus cyaneus. Individuals fled more often in response to synthetic calls with peak frequencies closer to those of conspecific calls, even if other acoustic features were dissimilar to that of fairy-wren calls. Further, they then spent more time in cover following calls that had both peak frequencies and frequency modulation rates closer to natural fairy-wren means. Thus, fairy-wrens use similarity in specific acoustic properties to identify alarms and adjust a two-stage antipredator response. Our study reveals how birds respond to heterospecific alarm calls without experience, and, together with previous work using playback of natural calls, shows that both acoustic similarity and learning are important for interspecific eavesdropping. More generally, this study reconciles contrasting views on the importance of alarm signal structure and learning in recognition of heterospecific alarms. PMID:23303539

Fallow, Pamela M; Pitcher, Benjamin J; Magrath, Robert D

2013-03-01

106

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2012-04-01

107

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2013-04-01

108

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870...Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts...

2010-04-01

109

21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the...

2014-04-01

110

Satellite Remote Sensing Analysis to Monitor Desertification Processes in Central Plateau of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desertification is defined as land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas due to climatic variations and human activities. Therefore there is a need to monitor the desertification process in the spatiotemporal scale in order to develop strategies to fight against desertification (Wu and Ci, 2002). In this sense, data provided by remote sensing is an important source for spatial and temporal information, which allows monitoring changes in the environment at low cost and high effectiveness. In Mexico, drylands hold 65% of the area, with about 1,280,494 km2 (UNESCO, 2010), where is located 46% of the national population (SEMARNAT, 2008). Given these facts, there is interest in monitoring the degradation of these lands, especially in Mexico because no specific studies have identified trends and progress of desertification in the country so far. However, it has been considered land degradation as an indicator of desertification process. Thus, it has been determined that 42% of soils in Mexico present some degradation degree. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial and temporal dynamics of desertification for 1993, 2000 and 2011 in the semiarid central plateau in Mexico based on demographic, climatic and satellite data. It took into consideration: 1) the Anthropogenic Impact Index (HII), based on the spatial population distribution and its influence on the use of resources and 2) the Aridity Index (AI), calculated with meteorological station records for annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration. Mosaics were made with Landsat TM scenes; considering they are a data source that allows evaluate surface processes regionally and with high spectral resolution. With satellite information five indices were estimated to assess the vegetation and soil conditions: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI), Grain Size Index (GSI) and Bare Soil Index (BSI). The rates obtained for the years 1993, 2000 and 2011, were subjected to a trend analysis (Theil-Sen) to assess changes in the series. The results showed that in the semi-arid central Plateau, since 1993 to 2011, the forests and thornscrub have lost 10% of their surface. In stark contrast, urban areas have been increased in 5%. The desertification map showed that 30% of the analyzed surface presents a low desertification condition, 40% half, 20% high and 10% extreme. Forests and thornscrub are the most vulnerable areas to deforestation and hence desertification. Results themselves, suggests that desertification process must be examined in spatiotemporal scale and remote sensing is a useful tool to monitor and analyze this phenomena.

Becerril, R.; González Sosa, E.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Hernández-Tellez, M.

2013-05-01

111

Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 – 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification. PMID:23645993

Fuller, Christina H.; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L.; Spengler, John D.

2012-01-01

112

Estimation of ultrafine particle concentrations at near-highway residences using data from local and central monitors.  

PubMed

Ultrafine particles (UFP; aerodynamic diameter < 0.1 micrometers) are a ubiquitous exposure in the urban environment and are elevated near highways. Most epidemiological studies of UFP health effects use central site monitoring data, which may misclassify exposure. Our aims were to: (1) examine the relationship between distant and proximate monitoring sites and their ability to predict hourly UFP concentration measured at residences in an urban community with a major interstate highway and; (2) determine if meteorology and proximity to traffic improve explanatory power. Short-term (1 - 3 weeks) residential monitoring of UFP concentration was conducted at 18 homes. Long-term monitoring was conducted at two near-highway monitoring sites and a central site. We created models of outdoor residential UFP concentration based on concentrations at the near-highway site, at the central site, at both sites together and without fixed sites. UFP concentration at residential sites was more highly correlated with those at a near-highway site than a central site. In regression models of each site alone, a 10% increase in UFP concentration at a near-highway site was associated with a 6% (95% CI: 6%, 7%) increase at residences while a 10% increase in UFP concentration at the central site was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 2%, 3%) increase at residences. A model including both sites showed minimal change in the magnitude of the association between the near-highway site and the residences, but the estimated association with UFP concentration at the central site was substantially attenuated. These associations remained after adjustment for other significant predictors of residential UFP concentration, including distance from highway, wind speed, wind direction, highway traffic volume and precipitation. The use of a central site as an estimate of personal exposure for populations near local emissions of traffic-related air pollutants may result in exposure misclassification. PMID:23645993

Fuller, Christina H; Brugge, Doug; Williams, Paige; Mittleman, Murray; Durant, John L; Spengler, John D

2012-09-01

113

RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

2014-01-01

114

Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

Varela Rodriguez, F.

2011-12-01

115

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2012-07-01

116

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2013-07-01

117

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2014-07-01

118

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2011-07-01

119

30 CFR 77.311 - Alarm devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.311...Thermal dryer systems shall be equipped with both audible and visual alarm devices which are set to operate when safe dryer...

2010-07-01

120

Alarm Systems: Library Confounds Criminal Capers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tells the story of a small town library faced with the problem of preventing nuisance burglaries of the type becoming more and more common. The problems of selecting the right type of alarm system are discussed. (JPF)

Gjettum, Pamela

1978-01-01

121

46 CFR 63.15-7 - Alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reset. (c) For steam boilers, operation of the lower low water cutoff must automatically sound an audible alarm. A visual indicator must indicate that the shutdown was caused by low water. (d) For a periodically unattended machinery...

2010-10-01

122

Structural damage alarming using auto-associative neural network technique: Exploration of environment-tolerant capacity and setup of alarming threshold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the intention of avoiding false-positive and false-negative alarms in structural damage alarming using the auto-associative neural network (AANN) technique, two issues pertaining to this technique are addressed in this study. The first issue explored is the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN. Efforts have been made to seek a generalization technique to enhance the environment-tolerant capacity. First, a baseline AANN model is formulated using the conventional training algorithm. Generalization techniques including AIC and FPE, early stopping, and Bayesian regularization are then investigated, resulting in three new AANN models. Their environment-tolerant capacity is evaluated as per their capability to avoid false-positive and false-negative alarms. The other issue addressed is the setup of alarming threshold, with intent to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming. A procedure based on the probability analysis of the novelty index is proposed for this purpose. First, the novelty index characterizing the intact structure is analyzed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test to obtain its best-fit continuous probability distribution. A confidence interval is then defined in consideration of the compromise between type I and type II errors. The alarming threshold of the novelty index is consequently set at the upper limit of the confidence interval. The above explorations are examined by using the long-term monitoring data on modal properties of the cable-stayed Ting Kau Bridge. The capability to eliminate false-positive alarm is verified by using unseen testing data which were not used in formulating the AANN models, while the capability to alleviate false-negative alarm is examined by using simulated data from the 'damaged' bridge with the help of a precise finite element model. The study indicates that the early stopping technique performs best in improving the environment-tolerant capacity of the AANN, and the alarming threshold set by the proposed procedure helps to reduce the uncertainty in AANN-based structural damage alarming.

Zhou, H. F.; Ni, Y. Q.; Ko, J. M.

2011-07-01

123

Ovitrap Efficacy Using Plant Infusions to Monitor Vertical Distribution of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in North-Central Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The response of Aedes albopictus to ovitraps containing water, oak or oak-pine was evaluated in four suburban and four sylvatic habitats in North-Central Florida to ascertain potential egg-laying heights. A total of 48 ovitraps were suspended at 1 and 6 meters and monitored weekly for five months....

124

An evaluation of some drought indices in the monitoring and prediction of agricultural drought impact in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of the performances of some drought indices in monitoring and predicting sunflower and sorghum crop yield in Central Italy is carried out. Considered drought indices include: Palmer drought indices (PDSI, Z, CMI), Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and a severity index (RS) derived from a Run theory applied to the soil water content time series. The indices were

F. Todisco; L. Vergni; F. Mannocchi

125

Effect of bladderbox alarms during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in lambs.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of bladderbox alarms during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (va-ECMO) on cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics, six lambs were prospectively treated with va-ECMO and bladderbox alarms were simulated. Changes in concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (deltacO2Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (deltacHHb), and total Hb (deltactHb) were measured using near infrared spectrophotometry. Fluctuations in Hb oxygenation index (deltaHbD) and cerebral blood volume (deltaCBV) were calculated. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood flow in the left carotid artery (Qcar), and central venous pressure (CVP) were registered. Bladderbox alarms were simulated by increasing the ECMO flow or partially clamping the venous cannula and resolved by decreasing the ECMO flow, unclamping the cannula, or intravascular volume administration. CBV, HbD, MAP, and Qcar decreased significantly during bladderbox alarms, whereas HR and CVP increased. After the bladderbox alarms, CBV and HbD increased significantly to values above baseline. For HbD, this increase was higher during intravascular volume administration.MAP, Qcar, and CVP recovered to preexperiment values but increased further with volume administration. HR was increased at the end of our measurements. We conclude that Bladderbox alarms during va-ECMO treatment result in significant fluctuations in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics, a possible risk factor for intracranial lesions. PMID:19707177

de Mol, Amerik C; Gerrits, Luella C; van Heijst, Arno F J; Menssen, Jan; van der Staak, Frans H J M; Liem, Kian D

2009-12-01

126

Rockfall hazard alarm strategy based on FBG smart passive net structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize working state remote monitoring for a passive net, alarm timely and correctly for the rockfall invasion, and solve the disadvantages in the existing means, such as needing power supply in situ, vulnerability to electromagnetic interference and environmental climate impact, a smart passive net structure based on the optical fiber sensing technology was designed which equipped with intercepting and sensing functions. The wire rope net as one part of the smart passive net was weaved with two kinds of optical fiber sensing elements, namely, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) perimeter severity sensors and optical fiber monitoring net with each end of the tail fiber containing an FBG probe. Based on the proposed smart structure, a combination alarm strategy for rockfall was proposed, which can distinguish transmission bug, whether the rockfall invasion or net broken occurs. Through a designed simulation test, the effectiveness of the proposed alarm strategy was certificated.

Li, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Hu, Jun

2015-03-01

127

Rockfall hazard alarm strategy based on FBG smart passive net structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to realize working state remote monitoring for a passive net, alarm timely and correctly for the rockfall invasion, and solve the disadvantages in the existing means, such as needing power supply in situ, vulnerability to electromagnetic interference and environmental climate impact, a smart passive net structure based on the optical fiber sensing technology was designed which equipped with intercepting and sensing functions. The wire rope net as one part of the smart passive net was weaved with two kinds of optical fiber sensing elements, namely, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) perimeter severity sensors and optical fiber monitoring net with each end of the tail fiber containing an FBG probe. Based on the proposed smart structure, a combination alarm strategy for rockfall was proposed, which can distinguish transmission bug, whether the rockfall invasion or net broken occurs. Through a designed simulation test, the effectiveness of the proposed alarm strategy was certificated.

Li, Sheng; Ma, Junjie; Hu, Jun

2014-09-01

128

Intelligent Economic Alarm Processor (IEAP)  

E-print Network

): ?The 21st Substation Design?, and ??Verifying Interoperability and Application Performance of PMUs and PMU-enabled IEDs at the Device and System Level?. The fourth one is funded by Advanced Research Agency- Energy (ARPA-E) through Green Electricity... Digital Fault Recorder vii DPR Digital Protective Relay CBM Circuit Breaker Monitor GPS Global Positioning System PQDIF Power Quality Data Interchange Format PQM Power quality Meter SER Sequence of Event Recorder viii TABLE...

Guan, Yufan

2013-08-06

129

Accuracy, alarm limits and rise times of 12 oxygen analysers.  

PubMed

The Comité Européen de Normalisation recently proposed a new standard for 'the particular requirements of oxygen monitors for medical use'. The feasibility of this proposed standard was tested in respect of (1) accuracy of alarm activation (2) accuracy of oxygen display value during both continuous and cyclical gas flows (3) rise time during rapid changes in oxygen concentration in the following 12 analysers: Datex Capnomac II and Servomex 570A (paramagnetic); Brüel & Kjaer 1304 (magnetoacoustic); Criticare Poet II, Multinex, Dräger Oxydig, Dräger PM 8030, Megamed 046A (part of the Megamed 700 ventilator), Ohmeda 5120, Spacelabs Multigas, Teledyne TED 200 (galvanic); Kontron OM 810 (polarographic). All the analysers tested displayed an oxygen reading which was within +/- 3 vol% of the actual oxygen concentrations of the test gases (15, 21, 40, 60 and 100 vol%). A cyclical pressure of between -1.5 to +8 kPa did not affect the measured oxygen concentration as displayed by the Brüel & Kjaer 1304, Datex Capnomac II and Servomex 570A analysers. The remainder, however, showed, depending on their measuring principle, a display error of between -1 and +6 vol%. After exposure to high pressure all the oximeters functioned normally. Some of the tested devices showed more than 2% of deviation between their alarm activation and the preset alarm limits. Only the Kontron OM 810, the Megamed 046A and the Spacelabs Multigas monitors satisfied the requirements at all the tested oxygen concentrations. The time required by the oxygen analyser to display the rise from 29 to 92 vol % after a sudden change of concentration from 21 to 100 vol % O2 is defined as "rise time" and must not, according to the Comité Européen de Normalisation standard proposal, exceed the manufacturers' specification by more than a factor of 1.15.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7864324

Lauber, R; Steiner, A; Zbinden, A M

1994-12-01

130

The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (Central Europe) - Five Years of Seismo-Hydrological Monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone - generally a NW-SE striking reverse fault - is a major fault zone forming the NE border of the Bohemian Massif. The zone is located in the center of the SE part of the important central European tectonic structure - the Elbe Fault system. The Bohemian Massif in general is a region with a weak intraplate seismicity. Two areas are exceptions - the West Bohemia/Vogtland seismoactive region and the Hronov-Porí?í Fault Zone (HPFZ). The HPFZ is a result of long-lasting evolution since the late Paleozoic with several tectonic phases. The contemporary HPFZ consist of a main reverse fault (thrust) accompanied by parallel or oblique normal or reverse faults. The fault zone is still tectonically active, the relatively frequent weak local earthquakes being one of the proofs of this activity. The strongest earthquake registered within the HPFZ was the January 1901 earthquake with the magnitude of 4.6. Another proof of the mobility is a presence of CO2-rich mineral springs in the area. The hydrogeological and seismic monitoring in the area aims to find possible connections between changes in the ground water level and seismic events. The hydrological changes are monitored in four wells by water level sensors. The ground water level is measured every 10 minutes, the air pressure every hour. The sesimicity is monitored by four broadband seismic stations (CHVC, DPC, OSTC and UPC) with sampling frequency of 100 or 250 Hz. The recorded data are automatically scanned for possible local earthquakes which are then reviewed by seismologists and further processed. Several distinct ground water level changes were observed on one well before some of the local earthquakes. Very distinct ground water level changes were also observed on one well before the Tohoku M 9.0 earthquake. In addition to a simple examination of variations in a ground water level we also compute a phase shift (delay) between the band-passed filtered water level and theoretical tides. Changes in the delay could indicate changes in stress conditions of the rock massif. In the period of increased seismic activity the phase shift on one of the wells significantly increases compared to the period of seismic inactivity. However, the possible connections between changes in water levels and earthquakes still could not be satisfactorily proved and explained.

Valenta, J.; Kolinsky, P.; Gazdova, R.

2013-12-01

131

Studying the NDVI dynamics features for vegetation monitoring method development in the south of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of vegetation state can be based on studying their dynamics features. Effective methods of satellite data interpretation using spectral feature distinctions should be applied for this purpose. Studying the time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during growth period is one of such approaches. The analysis of NDVI temporal profile shape allows to identify vegetation objects on satellite image. The NDVI curve transformation regularities during growth period are studied in the process of study carried out. Growth rate in specific phenological phases (growth of vegetative organs; maturation and fruiting) and extreme NDVI values during total growth period are detected. Growth rate is calculated as a NDVI curve slope. The NDVI dynamics of different vegetation types (agricultural crops - wheat, oats, buckwheat; abandoned fields of different age, meadow steppe, stony steppe, feather-grass steppe, flood meadow etc.), located in the south of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai, Khakasia), has been derived and analyzed. Results of this study are as the basis for developed software, which produces the automatic identification of canopy using Terra Modis satellite measurement data.

Pugacheva, Irina

132

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very disruptive to UW operations. The alarms  

E-print Network

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very emergency. False alarms also have a negative impact on the community. Because police and fire departments vehicles out of service. This negatively impacts the City's ability to service their citizens. False fire

Wilcock, William

133

Pressurized security barrier and alarm system  

DOEpatents

A security barrier for placement across a passageway is made up of interconnected pressurized tubing made up in a grid pattern with openings too small to allow passage. The tubing is connected to a pressure switch, located away from the barrier site, which activates an alarm upon occurrence of a pressure drop. A reinforcing bar is located inside and along the length of the tubing so as to cause the tubing to rupture and set off the alarm upon an intruder's making an attempt to crimp and seal off a portion of the tubing by application of a hydraulic tool. Radial and rectangular grid patterns are disclosed.

Carver, Don W. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01

134

Determination of the response function for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm system neutron detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron-sensitive radiation detectors are used in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant`s (PORTS) criticality accident alarm system (CAAS). The CAAS is composed of numerous detectors, electronics, and logic units. It uses a telemetry system to sound building evacuation horns and to provide remote alarm status in a central control facility. The ANSI Standard for a CAAS uses a free-in-air dose rate

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; A. S. Brown; M. C. Dobelbower; J. E. Woollard

1997-01-01

135

ALARM STRATEGY AND COMPLEXITY: PREDICTIONS OF OPERATOR RESPONSE  

SciTech Connect

Decision support for operators is not new, and much has been written regarding the potential usefulness of digital support systems and alarm filtering strategies. However, determining the appropriate characteristics of decision support tools is difficult, especially when alarms can vary in the manner which diagnostic information is formulated and displayed and when event scenario types are complex and numerous. When first reviewed, the advantages or disadvantages of a particular alarm approach may not be apparent to the designer or analyst. The present research focuses on the review of two particular alarm strategies, binary alarm type (BAT) and likelihood alarm type (LAT), and reviews their influence upon accuracy, bias, and trust for tasks performed at a computer workstation capable of replicating a series of control-room-like alarms. The findings are discussed in terms of the of the performance advantages of likelihood alarm technology and related research as an aid to the alarm design process.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian Dyre; Ronald Boring; David Gertman

2012-07-01

136

Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues  

SciTech Connect

Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

1991-01-01

137

An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

Martini, R. A.; And Others

1988-01-01

138

Automatic Fire Alarm System Based on MCU  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduced an automatic warehouse fire a1arm system based on MCU. The system was mainly made up of ATmega16, temperature sensors, smoke sensors, and EX-1 auto dialed alarm module. In the system, temperature signals were transformed to serial data, and smoke signals were transformed to voltage signals. All the data were processed by MCU. When the surveillance system checked

Zhang Kun; Hu Shunbin; Li Jinfang

2010-01-01

139

Security alarm communication and display systems development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, as lead Department of Energy (DOE) physical security laboratory, developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. This paper briefly describes some of the systems developed and concludes with a discussion of technology relevant to those currently designing, developing, implementing, or procuring such a system. Development

Waddoups

1990-01-01

140

Object-oriented alarm-filtering system  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an alarm-filtering system (AFS) being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ultimate goal of this project is to place AFS into ATR's reactor control room to act as an aid during major plant transients. In addition, methods of alarm analysis are investigated based on functional relationships rather than on a historical approach utilizing cause-consequence trees. Artificial intelligence techniques, including object-oriented programming, are also demonstrated as useful in analyzing alarms and alarm sequences. After a brief description of the problem AFS addresses, this paper discusses the design constraints and human factors that influenced the development of the system. The reader is then presented with operational and architectural descriptions of the system as well as what directions the future development of AFS may take. The fact that AFS is being considered as a partial solution to the problems discussed in the next section demonstrates the viability of its underlying technology and approach. 10 refs.

Corsberg, D.R.; Wilkie, D.

1986-01-01

141

Intelligent residential security alarm and remote control system based on single chip computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents intelligent residential burglar alarm, emergency alarm, fire alarm, toxic gas leakage remote automatic sound alarm and remote control system, which is based on 89C51 single chip computer. The system can be automatic alarm, automatic calling the police hotline number. It can be used voice alarm and show alarm occurred address. It can set up and modify user

Liu Zhen-ya; Wang Zhen-dong; Chen Rong; Wu Xiao-feng

2008-01-01

142

Visual Problem-Solving Support for New Event Triage in Centralized Network Security Monitoring: Challenges, Tools and Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations that provide centralized security monitoring of the net- works of multiple third-party organizations are faced with a challenging task. The amount of security event data to be processed presents not only a technical chal- lenge, but also a problem-solving challenge to operators. We present a model of the problem-solving process and discuss how visual support tools can facilitate the

Markus Stolze; René Pawlitzek; Andreas Wespi

2003-01-01

143

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2014-04-01

144

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2013-04-01

145

21 CFR 870.1025 - Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment measurement and alarm).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1025 Arrhythmia detector and alarm (including ST-segment...

2010-04-01

146

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

2013-02-01

147

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Zubovich, A.

2012-06-01

148

Challenges to Providing a Successful Central Configuration Service to Support CERN’s New Controls Diagnostics and Monitoring System  

E-print Network

The Controls Diagnostic and Monitoring service (DIAMON) provides monitoring and diagnostics tools to the operators in the CERN Control Centre. A recent reengineering presented the opportunity to restructure its data management and to integrate it with the central Controls Configuration Service (CCS). The CCS provides the Configuration Management for the Controls System for all accelerators at CERN. The new facility had to cater for the configuration management of all agents monitored by DIAMON, (>3000 computers of different types), provide deployment information, relations between metrics, and historical information. In addition, it had to be integrated into the operational CCS, while ensuring stability and data coherency. An important design decision was to largely reuse the existing infrastructure in the CCS and adapt the DIAMON data management to it e.g. by using the device/property model through a Virtual Devices framework to model the DIAMON agents. This article will show how these challenging requiremen...

Makonnen, Z; Zaharieva, Z

2014-01-01

149

Orthos, an alarm system for the ALICE DAQ operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion detector studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The DAQ (Data Acquisition System) facilities handle the data flow from the detectors electronics up to the mass storage. The DAQ system is based on a large farm of commodity hardware consisting of more than 600 devices (Linux PCs, storage, network switches), and controls hundreds of distributed hardware and software components interacting together. This paper presents Orthos, the alarm system used to detect, log, report, and follow-up abnormal situations on the DAQ machines at the experimental area. The main objective of this package is to integrate alarm detection and notification mechanisms with a full-featured issues tracker, in order to prioritize, assign, and fix system failures optimally. This tool relies on a database repository with a logic engine, SQL interfaces to inject or query metrics, and dynamic web pages for user interaction. We describe the system architecture, the technologies used for the implementation, and the integration with existing monitoring tools.

Chapeland, Sylvain; Carena, Franco; Carena, Wisla; Chibante Barroso, Vasco; Costa, Filippo; Denes, Ervin; Divia, Roberto; Fuchs, Ulrich; Grigore, Alexandru; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Soos, Csaba; Telesca, Adriana; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; von Haller, Barthelemy

2012-12-01

150

Advanced Alarm Processing Facilities Installed on Eskom's Energy Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eskom's Transmission division is commissioning a new Energy Management System (EMS) known as TEMSE. This EMS included requirements for advanced alarm processing facilities and enhanced Human Machine Interface functionality. The requirements covered alarm data reduction and the provision of \\

Richard Candy; J. Taisne

2007-01-01

151

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2013-10-01

152

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2011-10-01

153

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2014-10-01

154

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2012-10-01

155

46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power semiconductor rectifier must have a high temperature alarm or shutdown, except as...

2010-10-01

156

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2012-07-01

157

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2011-07-01

158

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2013-07-01

159

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sounding emergency alarms in the workplace. For those employers with 10 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all...

2014-07-01

160

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. INTERIOR, FIRE ALARM CONTROL ROOM (NORTH OF MAIN GARAGE), FROM ENTRYWAY, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ADDITIONAL 'GAMEWELL' FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Firehouse, East of Fourth Street, between A & B Streets, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

161

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manual fire alarm systems. 161.002-12 Section...SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Fire-Protective Systems § 161.002-12 Manual fire alarm systems. (a) General. A...

2014-10-01

162

47 CFR 80.317 - Radiotelegraph and radiotelephone alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...special signal is the actuation of automatic devices giving the alarm to attract the attention of the operator when there is no listening watch on the distress frequency. (b) The international radiotelephone alarm signal consists of two substantially...

2010-10-01

163

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2011-10-01

164

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2012-10-01

165

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2010-10-01

166

46 CFR 161.002-12 - Manual fire alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...circuit wiring of an automatic fire detection system. (2) Electrical...manually operated fire alarm boxes. (3) Other...unit. The manual fire alarm system control unit shall be as specified for automatic fire detecting systems...

2013-10-01

167

Self-Monitoring in Social Interaction: The Centrality of Self-Affect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we examine the role of self-monitoring in social interaction. We first note that the presumed ease with which self- monitors adapt to new social contexts is more apparent than real, being the self-conscious outcome of (1) high self-monitors' preference for clear- ly defined situations, (2) their use of scripts regarding typical situations, (3) their ability to formulate

William Ickes; Renee Holloway; Linda L. Stinson; Tiffany Graham Hoodenpyle

2006-01-01

168

Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear  

E-print Network

KEY: NORTH CHDD-South Floor 1 Fire Alarm Control Panel is located in Switchgear Room #CD11A on Basement Level Evacuation Route Exit Restroom Fire Extinguisher Fire Alarm Fire Alarm Control Panel Symbol of Accessibility L A K E WA S H I N G T O N S H I P C A N A L IF THERE IS AN EMERGENCY: · Sound fire alarm

169

Establishment of a cross-European field site network in the ALARM project for assessing large-scale changes in biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field site network (FSN) plays a central role in conducting joint research within all Assessing Large-scale Risks for\\u000a biodiversity with tested Methods (ALARM) modules and provides a mechanism for integrating research on different topics in\\u000a ALARM on the same site for measuring multiple impacts on biodiversity. The network covers most European climates and biogeographic\\u000a regions, from Mediterranean through central

V. C. Hammen; J. C. Biesmeijer; R. Bommarco; E. Budrys; T. R. Christensen; S. Fronzek; R. Grabaum; P. Jaksic; S. Klotz; P. Kramarz; G. Kröel-Dulay; I. Kühn; M. Mirtl; M. Moora; T. Petanidou; J. Pino; S. G. Potts; A. Rortais; C. H. Schulze; I. Steffan-Dewenter; J. Stout; H. Szentgyörgyi; M. Vighi; A. Vujic; C. Westphal; T. Wolf; G. Zavala; M. Zobel; J. Settele; W. E. Kunin

2010-01-01

170

46 CFR 154.1365 - Audible and visual alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...interrupt the alarm's actuation by other faults. (b) Each visual alarm must be one that can be turned off only after the fault that actuated it is corrected. (c...remote group alarms, the location of each fault that actuates it. (d) Each...

2014-10-01

171

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2012-10-01

172

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2011-10-01

173

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2010-10-01

174

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2012-10-01

175

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2010-10-01

176

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2013-10-01

177

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2013-10-01

178

46 CFR 97.37-50 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 97.37-50 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-50 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2011-10-01

179

46 CFR 78.47-75 - Ventilation alarm failure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation alarm failure. 78.47-75 Section...Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-75 Ventilation alarm failure. (a) The alarm...which indicates the loss of required ventilation in spaces specially suitable for...

2014-10-01

180

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2010-07-01

181

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2014-07-01

182

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2011-07-01

183

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2012-07-01

184

30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section...HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

2013-07-01

185

Local Technical Resources for Development of Seismic Monitoring in Caucasus and Central Asia - GMSys2009 Data Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caucasus and Central Asia represents regions of high seismic activity, composing a significant part of Alpine-Himalayan continental collision zone. Natural catastrophic events cause significant damage to the infrastructure worldwide, among these approximately ninety percent of the annual loss is due to earthquakes. Monitoring of Seismic Activity in these regions and adequate assessment of Seismic Hazards represents indispensible condition for safe and stable development. Existence of critical engineering constructions in the Caucasus and Central Asia such as oil and gas pipelines, high dams and nuclear power plants dramatically raises risks associated with natural hazards and eliminates necessity of proper monitoring systems. Our initial efforts were focused on areas that we are most familiar; the geophysical community in the greater Caucuses and Central Asia experiencing many of the same problems with the monitoring equipment. As a result, during the past years GMSys2009 was develop at the Institute of Earth Sciences of Ilia State University. Equipment represents a cost-effective, multifunctional Geophysical Data Acquisition System (DAS) to monitor seismic waves propagating in the earth and related geophysical parameters. Equipment best fits local requirements concerning power management, environmental protection and functionality, the same time competing commercial units available on the market. During past several years more than 30 units were assembled and what is most important installed in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. GMSys2009 utilizes standard MiniSEED data format and data transmission protocols, making it possible online waveform data sharing between the neighboring Countries in the region and international community. All the mentioned installations were technically supported by the group of engineers from the Institute of Earth Sciences, on site trainings for local personnel in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Tajikistan was provided creating a good basis for successful functioning of the equipment.

Chkhaidze, D.; Basilaia, G.; Elashvili, M.; Shishlov, D.; Bidzinashvili, G.

2012-12-01

186

Smart container UWB sensor system for situational awareness of intrusion alarms  

DOEpatents

An in-container monitoring sensor system is based on an UWB radar intrusion detector positioned in a container and having a range gate set to the farthest wall of the container from the detector. Multipath reflections within the container make every point on or in the container appear to be at the range gate, allowing intrusion detection anywhere in the container. The system also includes other sensors to provide false alarm discrimination, and may include other sensors to monitor other parameters, e.g. radiation. The sensor system also includes a control subsystem for controlling system operation. Communications and information extraction capability may also be included. A method of detecting intrusion into a container uses UWB radar, and may also include false alarm discrimination. A secure container has an UWB based monitoring system

Romero, Carlos E.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Leach, Jr., Richard R.; Vigars, Mark L.

2013-06-11

187

Centralized heart rate monitoring telemetry system using ZigBee wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in wireless communication standards and medical monitoring system have made it possible to effectively combine mesh networking with Non-Invasive medical application which is Pulse Oximeter in order to create reliable, large-scale wireless Network. This Mesh networking will enable doctors and nurses to observe and monitor a number of patients simultaneously from one location without being with the patient's

N. S. A. Zulkifli; F. K. Che Harun; N. S. Azahar

2012-01-01

188

Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System  

SciTech Connect

The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

Hunteman, W.

1997-05-01

189

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2011-10-01

190

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2013-10-01

191

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2012-10-01

192

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Location of general emergency alarm signal. 113...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-9 Location of general emergency alarm signal....

2014-10-01

193

Monitoring of Bashkara glacial lakes (the Central Caucasus) and modelling of their potential outburst.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades due to glacier retreat the glacial lakes in the Central Caucasus, as well as in other high-mountainous areas of the world, have expanded intensively. As result the risk of lake outbursts and destructive floods is raising. In this paper we present one of the most potentially hazardous lakes of this region - a group of glacial lakes near the Bashkara glacier in the upper Adylsu river valley, to the southeast of Mt. Elbrus. Total area of these lakes is about 100,000m2, and a total volume exceeds 1,000,000 m3. The biggest of them - the Bashkara lake has formed in late 1930s - early 1940s and the small Lapa lake has appeared in the end of 1980s. The Bashkara lake outburst occurred twice in the end of 1950s and produced devastating debris flows of ca. 2 million m3. We have monitored these lakes since 1999. Our work includes detailed field research: constant measurements of water level during warm period, annually repeated bathymetric surveys, geodetic surveys, observations on dam condition and some special measurements (i.e. water temperature distribution, current velocity). Also we use aerial and satellite images to obtain data about dynamic of areas for the lakes. From 2001 to 2006 years volume of the Lapa lake has increased 5 times (from 30,000 m3 to 140,000 m3), the Bashkara lake in this period was quasi-stable. In 2006-2008 volume of the Lapa lake has decreased due to sedimentation, however, rapid growth of water level in Bashkara lake (more than 20 sm. per day) has suddenly begun. As a result, volume of the Bashkara lake exceeded 1,000000 m3 in July 2008 whereas in 2001 -2007 year it was about 800,000 m3. Previous maximum of water level was exceeded on 3,5 m, moraine dam with ice core was overtopped and overflow has started. Thus, Bashkara glacier lakes are unstable and risk of outburst is increasing. To assess parameters and zones of potential outburst flood in the Adylsu River valley we have carried out hydrodynamic simulation. Two computer models, based on solving of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations -"River" (the Russia, author V.Belikov) and "Flo-2D" (the USA, authors J.S.O'Brien, R.Garcia) were used. The "River" model is based on the irregular triangular grid, therefore it is possible to calculate flow in details. On the other hand there is no debris flow block in this model yet and "Flo-2D" was applied to calculate potential debris flow parameters, because transformation of flood into debris flow is likely here. Input data for simulation were following: digital terrain model of Adylsu valley, made on the on the basis of map with scale 1:25000, outburst hydrograph, calculated for case of englacial drainage channels formation (Vinogradov's model, Russia), some empirical relationships between volume of the glacial lake and maximum discharge of outburst (i.e. Clague and Mathews, Walder and Costa) were also applied. The mean value of the maximum discharge for potential outburst obtained by different methods was about 150 m3 /c. According to results of hydrodynamic modelling, movement of flood wave downstream the valley will be fast, peak of flood will cover distance from upper part of valley to lowest (8 km) for about half an hour. The depth of the flow on the floodplain is about 1-1.5 m and could reach 6 m in some sites. There are hotel, large camping site and several bridges in the hazardous zone. In 2008 early warning system was designed and installed at the Bashkara lake.

Krylenko, I.; Norin, S.; Petrakov, D.; Tutubalina, O.; Chernomorets, S.

2009-04-01

194

Stable isotope ( 2H, 18O and 87Sr\\/ 86Sr) and hydrochemistry monitoring for groundwater hydrodynamics analysis in a karst aquifer (Gran Sasso, Central Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with chemical and isotope analyses of 21 springs, which were monitored 3 times in the course of 2001; the monitoring program was focused on the groundwater of the Gran Sasso carbonate karst aquifer (Central Italy), typical of the mountainous Mediterranean area.Based on the hydrogeological setting of the study area, 6 groups of springs with different groundwater circulation

Maurizio Barbieri; Tiziano Boschetti; Marco Petitta; Marco Tallini

2005-01-01

195

Dual sensitivity mode system for monitoring processes and sensors  

DOEpatents

A method and system for analyzing a source of data. The system and method involves initially training a system using a selected data signal, calculating at least two levels of sensitivity using a pattern recognition methodology, activating a first mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source, activating a second mode of alarm sensitivity to monitor the data source and generating a first alarm signal upon the first mode of sensitivity detecting an alarm condition and a second alarm signal upon the second mode of sensitivity detecting an associated alarm condition. The first alarm condition and second alarm condition can be acted upon by an operator and/or analyzed by a specialist or computer program.

Wilks, Alan D. (Mount Prospect, IL); Wegerich, Stephan W. (Glendale Heights, IL); Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL)

2000-01-01

196

Remote monitoring system of dispatching automation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer technology, multimedia technology, digital communication technology and electronic technology are combined in this paper to realize the temperature, humidity, leach, smoke, UPS power and other environmental parameters real-time monitoring in automation room by the integrated universal alarm equipment. This system can realize real-time data acquisition, state monitoring and display of power grid, remote control and adjustment, accident alarm, above

A. Zhang Xilin; B. Li Zhiqiang; C. Han Xiaojuan

2011-01-01

197

Towards a centralized Grid Speedometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the distributed nature of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid and the way CPU resources are pledged and shared around the globe, Virtual Organizations (VOs) face the challenge of monitoring the use of these resources. For CMS and the operation of centralized workflows, the monitoring of how many production jobs are running and pending in the Glidein WMS production pools is very important. The Dashboard Site Status Board (SSB) provides a very flexible framework to collect, aggregate and visualize data. The CMS production monitoring team uses the SSB to define the metrics that have to be monitored and the alarms that have to be raised. During the integration of CMS production monitoring into the SSB, several enhancements to the core functionality of the SSB were required; They were implemented in a generic way, so that other VOs using the SSB can exploit them. Alongside these enhancements, there were a number of changes to the core of the SSB framework. This paper presents the details of the implementation and the advantages for current and future usage of the new features in SSB.

Dzhunov, I.; Andreeva, J.; Fajardo, E.; Gutsche, O.; Luyckx, S.; Saiz, P.

2014-06-01

198

Volcanic unrest of the Colli Albani (central Italy) detected by GPS monitoring test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Colli Albani volcanic complex, located in central Italy about 15km SE of Rome, has been dominated by periodic eruptive histories started about 561ka and ending with the most recent and voluminous activity of the Albano maar (<70ka) phase. Earthquakes of moderate intensity, gas emissions and significant ground deformations are the recent evidences of a residual activity. We decided to

F. Riguzzi; G. Pietrantonio; R. Devoti; S. Atzori; M. Anzidei

2009-01-01

199

Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs  

SciTech Connect

Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

Justus, Alan Lawrence [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

200

Distributed Guarding and Alarming System Based on Telephone Automatical Dialing and Remote Communication Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circumstance data of building such as fire accident smoke, robberpsilas body information, temperature and humidity signal, etc is acquired by different kinds of sensor unit. Single chip microprocessor (SCM) AT89C51 processes data signal collection and realize telephone automatically dialing-alarming when there is unusual condition, as well as it controls wireless transceiver chip nRF905 to complete data transmission between monitor controller

Yu Chen

2009-01-01

201

Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when parents visit the nest ('begging') and when they are absent ('non-begging'), so we measured effects on both types of vocalization. Playback of parental alarm calls suppressed non-begging vocalization almost completely but only slightly reduced begging calls during a playback of parental feeding calls that followed. The reaction of nestlings was largely independent of age. Our results suggest two reasons why experiments ignoring the role of parents probably overestimate the real cost of nestling vocalizations. Parents can warn young from a distance about the presence of danger and so suppress non-begging vocalizations that might otherwise be overheard, and a parent's presence at the nest presumably indicates when it is safe to beg. PMID:15306351

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

2004-01-01

202

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O'Hara, J.M.

1993-01-01

203

Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues  

SciTech Connect

Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance.

Kim, I.S.; O`Hara, J.M.

1993-05-01

204

40 CFR 64.3 - Monitoring design criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements applicable to the monitoring in developing appropriate...frequency of conducting the monitoring, the data collection...and handling, alarm sensor, or manual log entries...analyzer or an alarm sensor). (iii) For other...this section but the monitoring shall include...

2010-07-01

205

Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity by continuous noninvasive monitoring of peripheral and central aortic pressure.  

PubMed

Noninvasive assessment of baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) facilitates clinical investigation of autonomic function. The spontaneous sequence method estimates BRS using the continuous measurement of arterial pressure in the finger. Since the baroreceptors are centrally located (aortic arch, carotid arteries), this study assessed the use of a continuous aortic pressure signal derived from the peripheral pressure pulse to compute the BRS from changes in systolic pressure (SBP) and pulse interval (PI). BRS computed from central aortic (cBRS) and peripheral pressure (pBRS) was calculated in 12 healthy subjects (25-62 years, 7 females). The difference between pBRS and cBRS was calculated for four levels of pulse lags between changes in SBP and PI. For each lag and for the pooled data for all lags, cBRS was significantly correlated with pBRS (r(2)=0.82). The within subject difference ranged from -41.2% to 59.2%. This difference was not related to age, gender of hemodynamic parameters (systolic or diastolic pressure, heart rate, aortic pulse wave velocity). However 18.2% of the variance was due to the difference in the number of spontaneous pulse sequences used to determine values of cBRS and pBRS. The differences between pBRS and cBRS are in the range of values of BRS as those found, in other studies, to discriminate between patient groups with different levels of autonomic function. Findings of this study suggest that, given the heart rate dependent amplification of the arterial pressure pulse between the central aorta and the peripheral limbs, BRS determined from central aortic pressure derived from the peripheral pulse may provide an improved method for noninvasive assessment of baroreceptor function. PMID:25570607

Kouchaki, Zahra; Butlin, Mark; Qasem, Ahmed; Avolio, Alberto P

2014-08-01

206

Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI\\/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than

R. W. Jr. Tayloe; B. McGinnis

1990-01-01

207

Anti-predator behaviour in response to conspecific chemical alarm cues in an esociform fish, Umbra limi (Kirtland 1840)  

E-print Network

-predator behaviour and reduce their probability of predation. Here, we test central mudminnows, Umbra limi (KirtlandAnti-predator behaviour in response to conspecific chemical alarm cues in an esociform fish, Umbra limi (Kirtland 1840) Brian D. Wisenden Ã? Justin Karst Ã? Jeffrey Miller Ã? Stacey Miller Ã? Linda Fuselier

Wisenden, Brian D.

208

Short-Term Monitoring to Diagnose Comfort Problems in a Residence in Central Texas  

E-print Network

near the fiont of the house in the first floor hallway. This required the return air to rise 25 feet upward through a drywall framed chase, then through an additional 10 feet of the rigid ductboard to the evaporator where it was then conditioned... that there was a large separation in the drywall joints of the chase which allowed hot, humid attic air to be drawn into the air-conditioner system with the return air. The house was then monitored for two weeks using four portable temperature and relative...

Kootin-Sanwu, V.; Sresthaputra, A.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01

209

Early warning, warning or alarm systems for natural hazards? A generic classification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early warning, warning and alarm systems have gained popularity in recent years as cost-efficient measures for dangerous natural hazard processes such as floods, storms, rock and snow avalanches, debris flows, rock and ice falls, landslides, flash floods, glacier lake outburst floods, forest fires and even earthquakes. These systems can generate information before an event causes loss of property and life. In this way, they mainly mitigate the overall risk by reducing the presence probability of endangered objects. These systems are typically prototypes tailored to specific project needs. Despite their importance there is no recognised system classification. This contribution classifies warning and alarm systems into three classes: i) threshold systems, ii) expert systems and iii) model-based expert systems. The result is a generic classification, which takes the characteristics of the natural hazard process itself and the related monitoring possibilities into account. The choice of the monitoring parameters directly determines the system's lead time. The classification of 52 active systems moreover revealed typical system characteristics for each system class. i) Threshold systems monitor dynamic process parameters of ongoing events (e.g. water level of a debris flow) and incorporate minor lead times. They have a local geographical coverage and a predefined threshold determines if an alarm is automatically activated to warn endangered objects, authorities and system operators. ii) Expert systems monitor direct changes in the variable disposition (e.g crack opening before a rock avalanche) or trigger events (e.g. heavy rain) at a local scale before the main event starts and thus offer extended lead times. The final alarm decision incorporates human, model and organisational related factors. iii) Model-based expert systems monitor indirect changes in the variable disposition (e.g. snow temperature, height or solar radiation that influence the occurrence probability of snow avalanches) or trigger events (e.g. heavy snow fall) to predict spontaneous hazard events in advance. They encompass regional or national measuring networks and satisfy additional demands such as the standardisation of the measuring stations. The developed classification and the characteristics, which were revealed for each class, yield a valuable input to quantifying the reliability of warning and alarm systems. Importantly, this will facilitate to compare them with well-established standard mitigation measures such as dams, nets and galleries within an integrated risk management approach.

Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

2013-04-01

210

Lupus nephritis - alarmins may sound the alarm?  

PubMed Central

A growing body of literature has documented the elevated levels of the alarmin HMGB1 in lupus skin and serum. Two recent reports highlight the increased expression of HMGB1 in lupus nephritis, within the diseased kidneys or in the urine. Taken together with previous reports, these findings suggest that the interaction of HMGB1 with a variety of receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors, might play a role in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. These studies introduce urinary HMGB1 as a novel biomarker candidate in lupus nephritis. Whether alarmins would be effective in sounding the alarm at the incipience of renal damage remains to be ascertained. PMID:23270666

2012-01-01

211

Monitoring Yazd subsidence, central Iran, by precise levelling and D-InSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

D-InSAR technique has been widely adopted to monitor land subsidence caused by withdrawal of water, oil, gas, and other minerals. Many cities in Iran have seriously suffered from land subsidence caused by ground water over-extracting, that some of them detected by repeated first order precise levelling network. We assessed Yazd subsidence with levelling and InSAR data. However, D-InSAR is liable to be contaminated by atmosphere delay, temporal decorrelation and baseline errors. As these errors cannot be removed by SAR data processing, some auxiliary data such as leveling data and DEM data have been introduced into D-InSAR data processing. A linear subsidence detected from InSAR time series. Analysis of groundwater tables of piezometric records at this area indicates that subsidence most likely results from overdrafting of the underground aquifer system.

Amighpey, M.; Arabi, S.; Jamour, Y.

2009-04-01

212

Calibrating a FDR sensor for soil moisture monitoring in a wetland in Central Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent transformation of wetlands into farmland in East Africa is accelerating due to growing food-demand, land shortages, and an increasing unpredictability of climatic conditions for crop production in uplands. However, the conversion of pristine wetlands into sites of production may alter hydrological attributes with negative effects on production potential. Particularly the amount and the dynamics of plant available soil moisture in the rooting zone of crops determine to a large extent the agricultural production potential of wetlands. Various methods exist to assess soil moisture dynamics with Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) being among the most prominent. However, the suitability of FDR sensors for assessing plant available soil moisture has to date not been confirmed for wetland soils in the region. We monitored the seasonal and spatial dynamics of water availability for crop growth in an inland valley wetland of the Kenyan highlands using a FDR sensor which was site-specifically calibrated. Access tubes were installed within different wetland use types and hydrological situations along valley transects and soil properties affecting soil moisture (organic C, texture, and bulk density) were investigated. There was little variation in soil attributes between physical positions in the valley, and also between topsoil and subsoil attributes with the exception of organic C contents. With a root mean squared error of 0.073 m3/m3, the developed calibration function of the FDR sensor allows for reasonably accurate soil moisture prediction for both within-site comparisons and the monitoring of temporal soil moisture variations. Applying the calibration equation to a time series of profile probe readings over a period of one year illustrated not only the temporal variation of soil moisture, but also effects of land use.

Böhme, Beate; Becker, Mathias; Diekkrüger, Bernd

213

The Nuvruz Project: Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Transboundary Rivers End of Year One Reports  

SciTech Connect

The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors. The Navruz project has a duration of three years. This document contains the reports from each of the participating institutions following the first year of data collection. While a majority of samples from the Navruz project are within normal limits, a preliminary analysis does indicate a high concentration of selenium in the Kazakhstan samples. Uzbekistan samples contain high uranium and thorium concentrations, as well as elevated levels of chromium, antimony and cesium. Additionally, elevated concentrations of radioactive isotopes have been detected at one Tajikistan sampling location. Further analysis will be published in a subsequent report.

YULDASHEV, BEKHZAD; SALIKHBAEV, UMAR; RADYUK, RAISA; DJURAEV, AKRAM; DJURAEV, ANWAR; VASILIEV, IVAN; TOLONGUTOV, BAJGABYL; VALENTINA, ALEKHINA; SOLODUKHIN, VLADIMIR; POZNIAK, VICTOR; LITTLEFIELD, ADRIANE C.

2002-09-01

214

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2011-07-01

215

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2014-07-01

216

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2012-07-01

217

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2013-07-01

218

33 CFR 401.16 - Propeller direction alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propeller direction alarms. 401.16 Section... Condition of Vessels § 401.16 Propeller direction alarms. Every vessel...more shall be equipped with— (a) Propeller direction and shaft r.p.m....

2010-07-01

219

29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...promptly as possible after each test or alarm. Spare alarm devices and components subject to wear or destruction shall be available...employer shall assure that a test of the reliability and adequacy...device shall be used in each test of a multi-actuation...

2010-07-01

220

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eaves- dropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black- capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of

C. N. Templeton; Erick Greene

2007-01-01

221

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found

Daniel T. Blumstein; Laure Verneyre; Janice C. Daniel

2004-01-01

222

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Photographic copy of fire alarm plan for Control and Recording Center Building 4221/E-22, showing layout of rooms. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering 'Edwards Test Station, Fire Alarm Plan, Bldg. E-22,' drawing no. EFA/11-1, December 15, 1961. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Control & Recording Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

223

A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels are found on the NTS which are potential roost sites for bats. Multiple technqiues are being used to inventory and monitor the bat fauna on the NTS. These techniques include mistnetting at water sources with concurrent use of the Anabat II bat detection system, conducting road surveys with the Anabat II system, and conducting exit surveys at mine and tunnel entrances using the Anabat II system. To date, a total of 13 species of bats has been documented on the NTS, of which six are considered species of concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. These include Townsend's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii), spotted bat (Euderma maculatum), small-footed myotis (Myotis ciliolabrum), long-eared myotis (M. evotis), fringed myotis (M. thysanodes), and long-legged myotis (M. volans). Results from mistnet and Anabat surveys reveal that all bat species of concern except for the long-legged myotis are found exclusively in the Great Basin Desert portion of the NTS. The long-legged myotis is found throughout the NTS. The Anabat II system has greatly facilitated the monitoring of bats on the NTS, and allowed biologists to cost effectively survey large areas for bat activity. Information obtained from bat monitoring will be used to develop and update guidelines for managing bats on the NTS.

Hall, D.

2000-01-01

224

An unusual cause of high peak airway pressure: Interpretation of displayed alarms  

PubMed Central

Airway pressure monitoring is critical in modern day anesthesia ventilators to detect and warn high or low pressure conditions in the breathing system. We report a scenario leading to unexpectedly very high peak inspiratory pressure in the intraoperative period and describe the mechanism for high priority alarm activation. We also discuss the role of a blocked bacterial filter in causing sustained display of increased airway pressure. This scenario is a very good example for understanding the unique safety feature present in the Dräger ventilators and the attending anesthesiologist must have an adequate knowledge of the functioning and safety feature of the ventilators they are using to interpret the alarms in the perioperative to prevent unnecessary anxiety and intervention.

Vinay, Byrappa; Sriganesh, Kamath; Gopalakrishna, Kadarapura Nanjundaiah; Sudhir, Venkataramaiah

2015-01-01

225

Acid rain monitoring in East-Central Florida from 1977 to present  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rainfall has been collected on the University of Central Florida campus and at the Kennedy Space Center over a 12 year period. The chemical composition has been determined and summarized by monthly, annual periods, and for the entire 12 year period at both locations. The weighted average pH at each site is 4.58; however, annual weighted average pH has been equal to or above the 12 year average during six of the past eight years. Nitrate concentrations have increased slightly during recent years while excess sulfate concentrations have remained below the 12 year weighted average during six of the past seven years. Stepwise regression suggests that sulfate, nitrate, ammonium ion and calcium play major roles in the description of rainwater acidity. Annual acid deposition and annual rainfall have varied from 20 to 50 meg/(m(exp 2) year) and 100 to 180 cm/year, respectively. Sea salt comprises at least 25 percent of the total ionic composition.

Madsen, B. C.; Kheoh, T.; Hinkle, C. R.; Dreschel, T. W.

1990-01-01

226

Long term and seasonal ground deformation monitoring of Larissa Plain (Central Greece) by persistent scattering interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land subsidence which occurs at the Larissa Basin (Thessaly Plain, Central Greece) is due to various causes including aquifer system compaction. Deformation maps of high spatial resolution deduced by the Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) technique (using radar scenes from ERS and ENVISAT satellites) for the period 1992-2006 were produced to study the spatial and temporal ground deformation. A developed GIS database (including geological, tectonic, morphological, hydrological, meteorological and watertable variation from wells in the area) offered the possibility of studying in detail the intense subsidence. The PSI based average deformation image clearly shows that subsidence generally takes place inside the Larissa Plain ranging from 5-250 mm. The largest amplitude rates (-25 mm/yr) are observed around the urban area of Larissa City (especially at Gianouli and Nikea villages), while the Larissa City center appears to be relatively stable with a tendency to subside. The rest of the plain regions seem to subside at moderate rates (about 5-10 mm/yr). The surrounding mountainous area is stable, or has slightly been uplifted with respect to the NE located reference point. It was found that there is a correlation between the seasonal water-table variation (deduced from wells data), the seasonal water demand for irrigation associated with specific types of cultivation (cotton fields), the monthly rainfall, and the observed subsidence rate in the rural regions of the Thessaly Plain.

Vassilopoulou, Spyridoula; Sakkas, Vasileios; Wegmuller, Urs; Capes, Ren

2013-03-01

227

Benthic foraminifera for environmental monitoring: a case study in the central Adriatic continental shelf.  

PubMed

A study of benthic foraminifera was carried out in sediment samples collected from the central Adriatic coast of Italy, near the Ancona harbour and the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, in order to validate and support their use as bioindicators of ecosystem quality. On the basis of a principal component analysis (PCA), three biotopes (following the bathymetric gradient) have been documented, showing that the distribution pattern of benthic foraminifera is principally related to riverine inputs, organic matter contents at the seafloor, and sediment grain size. We observed higher abundances of opportunistic, low-oxygen tolerant taxa along the coastline, thus being representative of polluted environmental conditions. Near the Falconara Marittima oil refinery, the microfaunal assemblages is characterized by the absence of living specimens and by a low diversity associated with the dominance of opportunistic species. At this site, aberrant tests were also found. The data point out that Ammonia parkinsoniana and Quinqueloculina seem to be the most sensitive taxa and can be considered as good bioindicators of environmental stress in this area. This study confirms that faunal composition and morphology of benthic foraminifera respond to human-induced environmental perturbations, making their study potentially useful for biomonitoring in coastal-marine areas. PMID:25382496

Capotondi, L; Bergami, C; Orsini, G; Ravaioli, M; Colantoni, P; Galeotti, S

2014-11-11

228

Wireless boundary monitor system and method  

DOEpatents

A wireless boundary monitor system used to monitor the integrity of a boundary surrounding an area uses at least two housings having at least one transmitting means for emitting ultrasonic pressure waves to a medium. Each of the housings has a plurality of receiving means for sensing the pressure waves in the medium. The transmitting means and the receiving means of each housing are aimable and communicably linked. At least one of the housings is equipped with a local alarm means for emitting a first alarm indication whereby, when the pressure waves propagating from a transmitting means to a receiving means are sufficiently blocked by an object a local alarm means or a remote alarm means or a combination thereof emit respective alarm indications. The system may be reset either manually or automatically. This wireless boundary monitor system has useful applications in both indoor and outdoor environments. 4 figs.

Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

1997-12-09

229

Wireless boundary monitor system and method  

DOEpatents

A wireless boundary monitor system used to monitor the integrity of a boundary surrounding an area uses at least two housings having at least one transmitting means for emitting ultrasonic pressure waves to a medium. Each of the housings has a plurality of receiving means for sensing the pressure waves in the medium. The transmitting means and the receiving means of each housing are aimable and communicably linked. At least one of the housings is equipped with a local alarm means for emitting a first alarm indication whereby, when the pressure waves propagating from a transmitting means to a receiving means are sufficiently blocked by an object a local alarm means or a remote alarm means or a combination thereof emit respective alarm indications. The system may be reset either manually or automatically. This wireless boundary monitor system has useful applications in both indoor and outdoor environments.

Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

1997-01-01

230

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2010-10-01

231

78 FR 21567 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron sources. DATES: The docket for the petition...of radiation alarms for rooms housing neutron sources. The petitioner stated that...

2013-04-11

232

47 CFR 80.307 - Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. 80.307 Section 80.307 Telecommunication... § 80.307 Compulsory use of radiotelegraph auto alarm. The radiotelegraph auto alarm required on a cargo ship subject to the...

2011-10-01

233

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153...Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. ...alarm that operates when the cargo's pressure exceeds the vapor pressure described...

2014-10-01

234

Influence of Human Activity Patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM 2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data  

EPA Science Inventory

Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that in¿uence personal exposures to ambient ¿ne-particulate matter (PM2.5). We describe and compare different ambient PM2.5 exposure estimation...

235

Acoustic structures in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs.  

PubMed

Acoustic structures of sound in Gunnison's prairie dog alarm calls are described, showing how these acoustic structures may encode information about three different predator species (red-tailed hawk-Buteo jamaicensis; domestic dog-Canis familaris; and coyote-Canis latrans). By dividing each alarm call into 25 equal-sized partitions and using resonant frequencies within each partition, commonly occurring acoustic structures were identified as components of alarm calls for the three predators. Although most of the acoustic structures appeared in alarm calls elicited by all three predator species, the frequency of occurrence of these acoustic structures varied among the alarm calls for the different predators, suggesting that these structures encode identifying information for each of the predators. A classification analysis of alarm calls elicited by each of the three predators showed that acoustic structures could correctly classify 67% of the calls elicited by domestic dogs, 73% of the calls elicited by coyotes, and 99% of the calls elicited by red-tailed hawks. The different distributions of acoustic structures associated with alarm calls for the three predator species suggest a duality of function, one of the design elements of language listed by Hockett [in Animal Sounds and Communication, edited by W. E. Lanyon and W. N. Tavolga (American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, DC, 1960), pp. 392-430]. PMID:16708970

Slobodchikoff, C N; Placer, J

2006-05-01

236

Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design  

SciTech Connect

The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

Jacques Hugo

2012-07-01

237

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2012-04-01

238

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2011-04-01

239

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2010-04-01

240

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2014-04-01

241

24 CFR 3280.208 - Smoke alarm requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Safety § 3280.208 Smoke alarm...UL 268, Smoke Detectors for Fire Protective Signaling Systems...protect both the living area and kitchen space. Manufacturers are...

2013-04-01

242

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

2010-10-01

243

46 CFR 108.625 - General alarm bell.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...108.625 Section 108.625 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.625 General alarm bell. Each...

2011-10-01

244

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

2013-10-01

245

46 CFR 108.623 - General alarm bell switch.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...108.623 Section 108.623 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.623 General alarm bell switch....

2011-10-01

246

46 CFR 113.20-1 - Sprinkler alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...113.20-1 Section 113.20-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkler Systems § 113.20-1 Sprinkler...

2013-10-01

247

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...

2014-10-01

248

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

Requirements for Documented Vessels That Operate Beyond the Boundary Lines or With More Than 16 Individuals On Board, or for Fish Tender Vessels Engaged in the Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36 feet...

2011-10-01

249

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

250

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific “chick-a-dee” alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N.; Greene, Erick

2007-01-01

251

Nuthatches eavesdrop on variations in heterospecific chickadee mobbing alarm calls.  

PubMed

Many animals recognize the alarm calls produced by other species, but the amount of information they glean from these eavesdropped signals is unknown. We previously showed that black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a sophisticated alarm call system in which they encode complex information about the size and risk of potential predators in variations of a single type of mobbing alarm call. Here we show experimentally that red-breasted nuthatches (Sitta canadensis) respond appropriately to subtle variations of these heterospecific "chick-a-dee" alarm calls, thereby evidencing that they have gained important information about potential predators in their environment. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected level of discrimination in intertaxon eavesdropping. PMID:17372225

Templeton, Christopher N; Greene, Erick

2007-03-27

252

Research on the fire alarming system of fiber grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of fiber grating sensing technology in fire alarming based on temperature detection has the advantages of high accuracy, high reliability and strong immunity from electronic and magnetic fields. It is especially advantageous to use this system in the petroleum and chemistry industry because it can provide an extraordinary safe means for the fire alarm. But due to the traditional optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology is limited by the optic source bandwidth, the number of its multiplexing points is few. In this paper WDM technology will be developed mixing with Identified Bragg, which is called Identified and Wavelength Multiplexing, to build the Fiber Grating (FBG) fire alarm system integrated with computers. Some technologies applied in fire alarming system of fiber grating such as the transmission of test signals which pass through modulate and demodulate, the disposal of software system, the output of control signal and the strong ability of anti-disturbance have been studied and discussed.

Qi, Yaobin

2007-09-01

253

Prairie dog alarm calls encode labels about predator colors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some animals have the cognitive capacity to differentiate between different species of predators and generate different alarm\\u000a calls in response. However, the presence of any addition information that might be encoded into alarm calls has been largely\\u000a unexplored. In the present study, three similar-sized human females walked through a Gunnison’s prairie dog (Cynomys gunnisoni) colony wearing each of three different-colored

C. N. Slobodchikoff; Andrea Paseka; Jennifer L. Verdolin

2009-01-01

254

How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

255

Alarm responses in the crayfish Orconectes virilis and Orconectes propinquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals of two species of crayfish (Orconectes virilis andO. propinquus) were tested in the laboratory for responses to chemicals released from physically damaged conspecifics. Individuals ofO. propinquus did not show an alarm response to crushed conspecifics. Individuals ofO. virilis responded to a water-borne substance released from crushed conspecifics by assuming an intermediate posture and ceasing movement. Similar alarm responses were

Brian A. Hazlett

1994-01-01

256

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sufficient transmission system monitoring and control capability so as...controlled by an automatic transmission system (ATS) that...malfunction. An automatic transmission system consists of monitoring devices, control and alarm...

2013-10-01

257

47 CFR 73.1400 - Transmission system monitoring and control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sufficient transmission system monitoring and control capability so as...controlled by an automatic transmission system (ATS) that...malfunction. An automatic transmission system consists of monitoring devices, control and alarm...

2014-10-01

258

Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

2010-11-01

259

The Application of Multi-thread-based Embedded System in the Fire Monitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper puts forward a strategy of intellectualized fire monitor based on embedded system in terms of problems arising from fire reporting. The monitor is intended to monitor the fire automatic alarm system, realize remote communication between the fire automatic alarm system and the administration center, receive directives from the center, and connect the center through audio and visual means,

Hong Liu; Jianxiang Zheng; Ying Chen

2009-01-01

260

Epidermal ‘alarm substance’ cells of fishes maintained by non-alarm functions: possible defence against pathogens, parasites and UVB radiation  

PubMed Central

Many fishes possess specialized epidermal cells that are ruptured by the teeth of predators, thus reliably indicating the presence of an actively foraging predator. Understanding the evolution of these cells has intrigued evolutionary ecologists because the release of these alarm chemicals is not voluntary. Here, we show that predation pressure does not influence alarm cell production in fishes. Alarm cell production is stimulated by exposure to skin-penetrating pathogens (water moulds: Saprolegnia ferax and Saprolegnia parasitica), skin-penetrating parasites (larval trematodes: Teleorchis sp. and Uvulifer sp.) and correlated with exposure to UV radiation. Suppression of the immune system with environmentally relevant levels of Cd inhibits alarm cell production of fishes challenged with Saprolegnia. These data are the first evidence that alarm substance cells have an immune function against ubiquitous environmental challenges to epidermal integrity. Our results indicate that these specialized cells arose and are maintained by natural selection owing to selfish benefits unrelated to predator–prey interactions. Cell contents released when these cells are damaged in predator attacks have secondarily acquired an ecological role as alarm cues because selection favours receivers to detect and respond adaptively to public information about predation. PMID:17686729

Chivers, Douglas P; Wisenden, Brian D; Hindman, Carrie J; Michalak, Tracy A; Kusch, Robin C; Kaminskyj, Susan G.W; Jack, Kristin L; Ferrari, Maud C.O; Pollock, Robyn J; Halbgewachs, Colin F; Pollock, Michael S; Alemadi, Shireen; James, Clayton T; Savaloja, Rachel K; Goater, Cameron P; Corwin, Amber; Mirza, Reehan S; Kiesecker, Joseph M; Brown, Grant E; Adrian, James C; Krone, Patrick H; Blaustein, Andrew R; Mathis, Alicia

2007-01-01

261

Reciprocal recognition of sifaka ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi ) and redfronted lemur ( Eulemur fulvus rufus ) alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redfronted lemurs ( Eulemur fulvus rufus) and Verreaux's sifakas ( Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi) occur sympatrically in western Madagascar. Both species exhibit a so-called mixed alarm call system with functionally referential alarm calls for raptors and general alarm calls for carnivores and raptors. General alarm calls also occur in other contexts associated with high arousal, such as inter-group encounters. Field playback

Claudia Fichtel

2004-01-01

262

Development strategies of an expert system for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development strategies of a prototype expert system, called ESAPD, for multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants are described. The main objectives of the system are to assist operators in identifying a primary causal alarm among multiple fired alarms and to diagnose the plant malfunction quickly. The overall plant-wide diagnosis is performed at the alarm processing stage

Se Woo Cheon; Soon Heung Chang; Hak Yeong Chung

1993-01-01

263

CRT graphic display system of automatic fire alarm system based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the fire alarm system and the problems that the CRT, puts forward the automatic fire alarm system based on GIS graphic display CRT and discusses its implementation process. Firstly introduces the CRT graphic display system, expounds the necessity and feasibility of CRT graphic display system of automatic fire alarm system based on GIS design. Automatic fire alarm system

Huide Liu; Lili Gao; Suwei Li; Junfu Li

2010-01-01

264

10 CFR 34.47 - Personnel monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...monitoring. 34.47 Section 34.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES...ensure that the alarm functions properly (sounds) before using at the start of each...

2010-01-01

265

ACTIVE system for monitoring volcanic activity: A case study of the Izu-Oshima Volcano, Central Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system is proposed for the monitoring of changes in the underground structure of an active volcano over time by applying a transient electromagnetic method. The monitoring system is named ACTIVE, which stands for Array of Controlled Transient-electromagnetics for Imaging Volcano Edifice. The system consists of a transmitter dipole used to generate a controlled transient electromagnetic (EM) field and an array of receivers used to measure the vertical component of the transient magnetic field at various distances, with automatic operation of both units. In order to verify the performance of the proposed system, numerical and field experiments were carried out by application of the system to the Izu-Oshima volcano, where a remarkable change in the apparent DC resistivity over time had been detected in association with the eruption in 1986. Assuming that the next eruption will follow a scenario similar to that of 1986, an array of five receivers was constructed around the summit crater of the central cone, Mihara-yama (Mt. Mihara) and a transmitter dipole with a 700 m long grounded cable was installed approximately 1 km southeast of the summit crater in 2002. A long-term field experiment was then carried out. With the transmitter and receivers both synchronized by a global positioning system (GPS) clock, this field experiment has shown that over approximately 4 years, the daily value of the accuracy of the system was as high as 1% or better, while the accuracy of the monthly mean of the response functions was approximately 0.1%. Many problems with the instruments, the device software, and/or the electronic circuits have also been solved during this field experiment. For data interpretation, a three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling code was built to calculate theoretical responses. By applying this forward code, a sensitivity analysis was performed for a realistic 3-D conductivity distribution model, which showed that the receiver array of the ACTIVE system in Izu-Oshima has a relatively high sensitivity to conductivity changes below the summit crater. A simple and rapid imaging method based on the Born approximation was developed for monitoring purposes, and a numerical test showed that the change in conductivity over time, supposed to have occurred before the 1986 eruption, could be imaged by the present system, which features improved spatial resolution. During the 4-year-long field experiment, changes in the response function over time of up to 7% were observed, from which two source regions, R1 and R2, were imaged at a shallower part of the caldera between the transmitter and the crater, and at approximately 500 m below the crater, respectively. A preliminary interpretation suggests that the present receiver array does not have resolution for R1, although the time-lapse change due to R1 is statistically significant, while the time-lapse change due to R2 is shown to be statistically insignificant, even though the receiver array has sufficient resolution for recording the time-lapse change.

Utada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Yuji; Morita, Yuichi; Koyama, Takao; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi

2007-08-01

266

FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

2012-10-01

267

An Analytical Alarm Flood Reduction to Reduce Operator’s Workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the domain of process control, an alarm flood is a situation when there are more alarms generated by the automation system\\u000a than can be physically addressed by a single operator. To reduce alarm floods an analytical approach, so called AADA (Automatic\\u000a Alarm Data Analyzer), has been developed to learn these alarm floods by itself. Finally, this behavior can be

Jens Folmer; Dorothea Pantförder; Birgit Vogel-Heuser

268

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004  

SciTech Connect

This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

2005-04-01

269

Alarm calls elicit predator-specific physiological responses.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids regulate glucose concentrations and responses to unpredictable events, while also modulating cognition. Juvenile Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) learn to respond to whistle and trill alarm calls, warning of aerial and terrestrial predators, respectively, shortly after emerging from natal burrows at one month of age. Alarm calls can cause physiological reactions and arousal, and this arousal, coupled with watching adult responses, might help juveniles learn associations between calls and behavioural responses. I studied whether young show differential cortisol responses to alarm and non-alarm calls, using playbacks of U. beldingi whistles, trills, squeals (a conspecific control vocalization) and silent controls. Trills elicited very high cortisol responses, and, using an individual's response to the silent control as baseline, only their response to a trill was significantly higher than baseline. This cortisol increase would provide glucose for extended vigilance and escape efforts, which is appropriate for evading terrestrial predators which hunt for long periods. Although whistles do not elicit a cortisol response, previous research has shown that they do result in bradycardia, which enhances attention and information processing. This is a novel demonstration of two physiological responses to two alarm calls, each appropriate to the threats represented by the calls. PMID:20236965

Mateo, Jill M

2010-10-23

270

Predictive Monitoring With Many Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method of predictive monitoring that prevents large number of sensor data from overwhelming human operator or electronic monitor is subject of continuing research. Predictive-monitoring system concentrates limited monitoring resources on few of many sensor outputs that are most important. Casual importance serves as basis for selection of sensors to verify expected behavior of system. Alarms raised where discrepancies between predicted and actual values are significant.

Doyle, Richard J.

1992-01-01

271

Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System Description Document  

SciTech Connect

The Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System provides supervisory control, monitoring, and selected remote control of primary and secondary repository operations. Primary repository operations consist of both surface and subsurface activities relating to high-level waste receipt, preparation, and emplacement. Secondary repository operations consist of support operations for waste handling and treatment, utilities, subsurface construction, and other selected ancillary activities. Remote control of the subsurface emplacement operations, as well as, repository performance confirmation operations are the direct responsibility of the system. In addition, the system monitors parameters such as radiological data, air quality data, fire detection status, meteorological conditions, unauthorized access, and abnormal operating conditions, to ensure a safe workplace for personnel. Parameters are displayed in a real-time manner to human operators regarding surface and subsurface conditions. The system performs supervisory monitoring and control for both important to safety and non-safety systems. The system provides repository operational information, alarm capability, and human operator response messages during emergency response situations. The system also includes logic control to place equipment, systems, and utilities in a safe operational mode or complete shutdown during emergency response situations. The system initiates alarms and provides operational data to enable appropriate actions at the local level in support of emergency response, radiological protection response, evacuation, and underground rescue. The system provides data communications, data processing, managerial reports, data storage, and data analysis. This system's primary surface and subsurface operator consoles, for both supervisory and remote control activities, will be located in a Central Control Center (CCC) inside one of the surface facility buildings. The system consists of instrument and control equipment and components necessary to provide human operators with sufficient information to monitor and control the operation of the repository in an efficient and safe manner. The system consists of operator consoles and workstations, multiple video display terminals, communications and interfacing equipment, and instrument and control software with customized configuration to meet the needs of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Process and logic controllers and the associated input/output units of each system interfaced with this system will be configured into Remote Terminal Units (RTU) and located close to the systems to be monitored and controlled. The RTUs are configured to remain operational should communication with CCC operations be lost. The system provides closed circuit television to selectively view systems, operations, and equipment areas and to aid in the operation of mechanical systems. Control and monitoring of site utility systems will be located in the CCC. Site utilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment; plant compressed air; plant water; firewater; electrical systems; and inert gases, such as nitrogen, if required. This system interfaces with surface and subsurface systems that either generate output data or require remote control input. The system interfaces with the Site Communications System for bulk storage of operational data, on-site and off-site communication, and a plant-wide public announcement system. The system interfaces with the Safeguards and Security System to provide operational status and emergency alarm indications. The system interfaces with the Site Operation System to provide site wide acquisition of data for analysis and reports, historical information for trends, utility information for plant operation, and to receive operating plans and procedures.

E.F. Loros

2000-06-29

272

The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.  

PubMed

Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

2011-02-23

273

2009 Berea College Residence Hall Fire Protection Systems, Notification Systems and Fire Drill Data Berea College Fire Alarm Partial 1 Full 2 Smoke Fire Evacuations Evacuation  

E-print Network

Berea College Fire Alarm Partial 1 Full 2 Smoke Fire Evacuations Evacuation Residence Halls Monitoring2009 Berea College Residence Hall Fire Protection Systems, Notification Systems and Fire Drill Data* Yes Yes 1 Yes Yes Talcott Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 Yes Yes Yes ** Rooms have battery powered smoke

Baltisberger, Jay H.

274

Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms  

PubMed Central

Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject’s future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject’s continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection. PMID:22865931

Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K.; Quinn, Lauretta

2012-01-01

275

New ICPP portal monitor  

SciTech Connect

A large area gas filled proportional-detector portal monitor mounted in a swinging door frame has been designed and developed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This monitor extends the sensitivity and speed of personnel contamination detection to levels equal to or exceeding that obtained using hand-held portable survey techniques. The new monitor has state-of-the-art electronics which result in rapid response, and use statistical principles in the alarm logic to reduce or eliminate spurious alarms. In addition, the evaluation of this instrument indicates that it will detect small enough quantities of U-235 in shielded containers to meet current special nuclear materials (SNM) detection standards. Simultaneous detection of very low level contamination and small quantities of SNM results in a monitor particularly useful for nuclear installations.

Georgeson, M.A.; Nichols, C.E.

1981-04-01

276

Machine Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When a printing press jams, damage is extensive, repairs are costly, and time and production loss can be expensive. James River Corporation requested G.W. Shelton, a design engineer with Logical Control Systems to solve this problem. Shelton found the solution in a NASA Tech Brief article describing a system of pulley and belt drives. This led to the design of a system that monitors drive components for changes in relative speed that would indicate belt slippage and jam probability. When a combination of variables is not met, an emergency "stop" signal is sent to the press and an alarm is triggered.

1994-01-01

277

Evaluation of fire-safety programs that use 10-year smoke alarms.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE) program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered "10-year" smoke alarms in homes at high risk for fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still present and functional 8-10 years after installation and (2) understand factors related to smoke alarm presence and functionality. Data on a total of 384 homes and 601 smoke alarms in five states were collected and analyzed. Only one-third of alarms were still functional; 37% of installed alarms were missing; and 30% of alarms were present, but not functioning. Alarms were less likely to be functioning if they were installed in the kitchen and if homes had a different resident at follow-up. Of the 351 alarms that were present and had a battery at the time of the evaluation, only 21% contained lithium-powered batteries. Of these, 78% were still functioning. Programs that install lithium-powered alarms should use units that have sealed-in batteries and "hush" buttons. Additionally, education should be given on smoke alarm maintenance that includes a message that batteries in these alarms should not be replaced. Lithium-powered smoke alarms should last up to 10 years if maintained properly. PMID:20177753

Jackson, Mark; Wilson, Jonathan; Akoto, Judith; Dixon, Sherry; Jacobs, David E; Ballesteros, Michael F

2010-10-01

278

Assessment of Water-Quality Monitoring and a Proposed Water-Quality Monitoring Network for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin, East-Central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surface- and ground-water quality data from the Mosquito Lagoon Basin were compiled and analyzed to: (1) describe historical and current monitoring in the basin, (2) summarize surface- and ground-water quality conditions with an emphasis on identifying areas that require additional monitoring, and (3) develop a water-quality monitoring network to meet the goals of Canaveral National Seashore (a National Park) and to fill gaps in current monitoring. Water-quality data were compiled from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's STORET system, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, or from the agency which collected the data. Most water-quality monitoring focused on assessing conditions in Mosquito Lagoon. Significant spatial and/or seasonal variations in water-quality constituents in the lagoon were quantified for pH values, fecal coliform bacteria counts, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total suspended solids. Trace element, pesticide, and ground-water-quality data were more limited. Organochlorine insecticides were the major class of pesticides analyzed. A surface- and ground-water-quality monitoring network was designed for the Mosquito Lagoon Basin which emphasizes: (1) analysis of compounds indicative of human activities, including pesticides and other trace organic compounds present in domestic and industrial waste; (2) greater data collection in the southern part of Mosquito Lagoon where spatial variations in water-quality constituents were quantified; and (3) additional ground-water-quality data collection in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer. Surface-water-quality data collected as part of this network would include a fixed-station monitoring network of eight sites in the southern part of the basin, including a canal draining Oak Hill. Ground-water quality monitoring should be done routinely at about 20 wells in the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer, distributed between developed and undeveloped parts of the basin. Water samples collected should be analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including physical properties, nutrients, suspended sediment, and constituents associated with increased urban development such as pesticides, other trace organic compounds associated with domestic and industrial waste, and trace elements.

Kroening, Sharon E.

2008-01-01

279

ORIGINAL PAPER Sound the alarm: learned association of predation risk  

E-print Network

Ã? Lucia Bonacci Ã? Adam Schumacher Ã? Allison Willett Received: 24 June 2006 / Accepted: 17 November, fishes in the superorder Ostariophysi have been the focus of intense study (Smith 1992; Chivers and Smith the probability of predation (Mathis and Smith 1993a). Prey species use the presence of injury-released alarm cues

Wisenden, Brian D.

280

Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

2012-01-01

281

Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

1993-10-01

282

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 7 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Carbon dioxide alarm. ? 196.37-9 ? Section 196.37-9 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS ? OPERATIONS ? Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. ? § 196.37-9 ?...

2010-10-01

283

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

46 ? Shipping ? 7 ? 2011-10-01 ? 2011-10-01 ? false ? Carbon dioxide alarm. ? 196.37-9 ? Section 196.37-9 ? Shipping ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ? OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS ? OPERATIONS ? Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. ? § 196.37-9 ?...

2011-10-01

284

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2010-10-01

285

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2013-10-01

286

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2012-10-01

287

47 CFR 80.318 - Use of alarm signals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...only be used to announce: (1) That a distress call or message is about to follow; (2) The transmission of an urgent cyclone warning. In this case the alarm signal may only be used by coast stations authorized by the Commission to do so;...

2011-10-01

288

Intelligent alarm processing and fault diagnosis in digital substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the present situation of the traditional substation has many drawbacks, a system of intelligent alarm and fault diagnosis for transmission and transformation equipments in the digital substation is proposed in this work based on the multi-agents structure. According to the architecture of the digital substation, the characteristic of information flow and data flow, the accident handling process, the layered

Jianbo Xin; Zhiwei Liao; Fushuan Wen

2010-01-01

289

Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.  

PubMed

Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

2010-12-01

290

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of honey-bee alarm pheromone compounds on the behaviour of Varroa) Summary — In a simultaneous choice test, bees killed by freezing were more attractive to Varroa than bees stung to death by other bees. The smell of the sting apparatus proved to be repellent for Varroa

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

291

FALCON: Fault Management via Alarm Warehousing and Mining  

E-print Network

FALCON: Fault Management via Alarm Warehousing and Mining Matt Grossglauser AT&T Labs network management operations. In this paper, we describe FALCON, a project underway at AT&T Labs­Research focusing on fault management in IP networks. FALCON's goal is to automate various fault management tasks

Grossglauser, Matthias

292

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2014-10-01

293

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2013-10-01

294

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2011-10-01

295

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2012-10-01

296

46 CFR 162.050-35 - Bilge alarm: Approval tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2) of this section are repeated seven additional times. During the last hour, the alarm must be inclined at an angle of 22.5° with the plane of its normal operating position. [USCG-2004-18939, 74 FR 3391, Jan. 16,...

2010-10-01

297

Intelligent Fire Alarm System Based on Fuzzy Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is a kind of disaster threatening the social wealth and humanity's safety. The fire detection is the special type signal's detection, system must have the ability of automatic adjust the operational parameters to adapt to the environment change. Traditional fire detection systems' intellectualized degree are low, the error alarm and the leakage take place frequently. In order to reduce

Yu Qiongfang; Zheng Dezhong; Fu Yongli; Dong Aihua

2009-01-01

298

Detection system ensures positive alarm activation in digital message loss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lost Word Detection System /LOWDS/ provides special identification for each error detection message transmitted from receiver to transmitter. The message is identified as an original message or an n-times retransmitted message so the receiver can detect where a retransmission request was not fulfilled and activate an alarm.

Bokros, P.; Burstein, A.; Hewitt, E. D.

1966-01-01

299

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...non-watertight hatch on the main...

2013-10-01

300

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...non-watertight hatch on the main...

2012-10-01

301

46 CFR 28.250 - High water alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Aleutian Trade § 28.250 High water alarms. On a vessel 36...operating station to indicate high water level in each of the following...subject to flooding from sea water piping within the space; and...non-watertight hatch on the main...

2010-10-01

302

The irrelevance of individual discrimination in meerkat alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual discrimination is an important element in the evolution of social behaviour and is particularly important in social living species which show intense intragroup interactions. Numerous previous studies, particularly with nonhuman primates, ground squirrels and marmots, demonstrate the widespread ability of various species to signal and perceive individual identity from vocalizations. The function of individu- ally different alarm calls is

Fabian Schibler; Marta B. Manser

2007-01-01

303

Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G Additonal Sampling and Monitor Well Installation Report  

SciTech Connect

The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631-6G was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal and incineration of potentially hazardous substances, such as metals and organic solvents.

Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1995-02-01

304

Health physics monitoring at the Defense Waste Processing Facility  

SciTech Connect

Remote radiation monitoring has been designed into the Vitrification portion of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Local alarms and remote readings are provided for area radiation levels, door alarms, airborne radioactivity, effluent air activity and liquid (process system) activity.

Hogue, M.G.; Priester, H.P.

1994-06-01

305

Observational monitoring of clinical signs during the last stage of habituation in a wild western gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.  

PubMed

Anthropozoonotic disease transmission to great apes is a critical conservation concern, and has raised ethical doubts regarding ape habituation. We monitored over a 3-year period clinical signs within a group of wild western gorillas (G. gorilla) undergoing habituation at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. The majority of observations consisted of singular coughs and sneezes among the gorillas. These were the only clinical signs that significantly and positively increased over the years. No changes in the demography of the study group were observed. While clinical signs are not necessarily indicative of 'disease' or other health-related problems, we discuss how long-term records of clinical signs provide useful information when health monitoring, and the importance of the rigid application of preventive disease transmission protocols. PMID:23736676

Morton, F Blake; Todd, Angelique F; Lee, Phyllis; Masi, Shelly

2013-01-01

306

Preclinical evidence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an effective alarm parameter under hypoxia.  

PubMed

Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10??min. As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided. PMID:24474510

Shi, Hua; Sun, Nannan; Mayevsky, Avraham; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming

2014-01-01

307

ECG signal quality during arrhythmia and its application to false alarm reduction.  

PubMed

An automated algorithm to assess electrocardiogram (ECG) quality for both normal and abnormal rhythms is presented for false arrhythmia alarm suppression of intensive care unit (ICU) monitors. A particular focus is given to the quality assessment of a wide variety of arrhythmias. Data from three databases were used: the Physionet Challenge 2011 dataset, the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, and the MIMIC II database. The quality of more than 33 000 single-lead 10 s ECG segments were manually assessed and another 12 000 bad-quality single-lead ECG segments were generated using the Physionet noise stress test database. Signal quality indices (SQIs) were derived from the ECGs segments and used as the inputs to a support vector machine classifier with a Gaussian kernel. This classifier was trained to estimate the quality of an ECG segment. Classification accuracies of up to 99% on the training and test set were obtained for normal sinus rhythm and up to 95% for arrhythmias, although performance varied greatly depending on the type of rhythm. Additionally, the association between 4050 ICU alarms from the MIMIC II database and the signal quality, as evaluated by the classifier, was studied. Results suggest that the SQIs should be rhythm specific and that the classifier should be trained for each rhythm call independently. This would require a substantially increased set of labeled data in order to train an accurate algorithm. PMID:23335659

Behar, Joachim; Oster, Julien; Li, Qiao; Clifford, Gari D

2013-06-01

308

Preclinical evidence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as an effective alarm parameter under hypoxia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early detection of tissue hypoxia in the intensive care unit is essential for effective treatment. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) has been suggested to be the most sensitive indicator of tissue oxygenation at the mitochondrial level. However, no experimental evidence comparing the kinetics of changes in NADH and other physiological parameters has been provided. The aim of this study is to obtain the missing data in a systematic and reliable manner. We constructed four acute hypoxia models, including hypoxic hypoxia, hypemic hypoxia, circulatory hypoxia, and histogenous hypoxia, and measured NADH fluorescence, tissue reflectance, cerebral blood flow, respiration, and electrocardiography simultaneously from the induction of hypoxia until death. We found that NADH was not always the first onset parameter responding to hypoxia. The order of responses was mainly affected by the cause of hypoxia. However, NADH reached its alarm level earlier than the other monitored parameters, ranging from several seconds to >10 min. As such, we suggest that the NADH can be used as a hypoxia indicator, although the exact level that should be used must be further investigated. When the NADH alarm is detected, the body still has a chance to recover if appropriate and timely treatment is provided.

Shi, Hua; Sun, Nannan; Mayevsky, Avraham; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming

2014-01-01

309

46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. 95.16-45 Section...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system...the protected space to the primary exit. (2) The time delay device must be pneumatically...

2012-10-01

310

46 CFR 95.16-45 - Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. 95.16-45 Section...Pre-discharge alarms and time delay devices. (a) Each system...the protected space to the primary exit. (2) The time delay device must be pneumatically...

2013-10-01

311

46 CFR 113.27-1 - Engineers' assistance-needed alarm.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...113.27-1 Section 113.27-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Engineers' Assistance-Needed Alarm § 113.27-1...

2012-10-01

312

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2011-10-01

313

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2013-10-01

314

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2012-10-01

315

46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438 Section...MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a) Each...

2010-10-01

316

76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...installation of radiation alarms in rooms housing neutron sources. DATES: Submit comments by February...Hamawy is concerned about the security of neutron sources. III. Petition The...

2011-12-07

317

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2014-10-01

318

33 CFR 149.665 - What are the requirements for a general alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a general alarm system? Each pumping platform complex must have a general alarm system...Is audible in all parts of the pumping platform complex, except in areas of high ambient noise levels where hearing protection is required...

2010-07-01

319

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2013-10-01

320

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2011-10-01

321

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2012-10-01

322

46 CFR 113.25-25 - General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. 113.25-25 Section...25-25 General emergency alarm systems for manned ocean and coastwise barges. A manned ocean or coastwise barge of more than 100...

2010-10-01

323

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2014-07-01

324

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2012-07-01

325

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2010-07-01

326

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2013-07-01

327

33 CFR 149.414 - What are the requirements for a fire detection and alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements for a fire detection and alarm system? (a) All accommodation...deepwater port, and all spaces or systems on a manned or unmanned deepwater...natural gas, must have an automatic fire detection and alarm system that: (1) Either...

2011-07-01

328

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

329

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

330

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2014-07-01

331

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2012-07-01

332

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2014-07-01

333

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

334

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

335

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2010-07-01

336

40 CFR 264.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Prevention § 264.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2011-07-01

337

40 CFR 265.34 - Access to communications or alarm system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prevention § 265.34 Access to communications or alarm system. (a...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless...

2013-07-01

338

46 CFR 97.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 97.37-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2014-10-01

339

46 CFR 196.37-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 196...Equipment, etc. § 196.37-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each extinguishing system using carbon dioxide or clean agent complying...

2014-10-01

340

46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2014-10-01

341

46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 78.47-9...Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2012-10-01

342

46 CFR 131.815 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. 131.815...Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.815 Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms. Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing...

2013-10-01

343

Monitoring glacier variations on Geladandong mountain, central Tibetan Plateau, from 1969 to 2002 using remote-sensing and GIS technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote-sensing technologies, we describe quantitative measurements of glacier variations in the Geladandong mountain region of central Tibet. Data from Landsat images at three different times, 1973-76, 1992 and 2002, are compared with glacier areas digitized from a topographic map based on aerial photographs taken in 1969. We find that while some glaciers have advanced

Qinghua Ye; Shichang Kang; Feng Chen; Jinghua Wang

2006-01-01

344

Audibility and identification of auditory alarms in the operating room and intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The audibility and the identification of 23 auditory alarms in the intensive care unit (ICU) and 26 auditory alarms in the operating rooms (ORs) of a 214-bed Canadian teaching hospital were investigated. Digital tape recordings of the alarms were made and analysed using masked-threshold software developed at the Université de Montréal. The digital recordings were also presented to the hospital

KATHRYN MOMTAHAN; RAYMOND HÉTU; BRIAN TANSLEY

1993-01-01

345

46 CFR 35.40-1 - General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false General alarm contact maker-TB/ALL. 35.40-1 Section 35.40-1 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-1 General alarm contact maker—TB/ALL. Each general alarm contact maker...

2010-10-01

346

46 CFR 35.40-5 - General alarm bells-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General alarm bells-TB/ALL. 35.40-5 Section 35.40-5 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-5 General alarm bells—TB/ALL. General alarm bells must be marked...

2010-10-01

347

33 CFR 149.130 - What are the requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for the cargo transfer system alarm? (a) Each cargo transfer system must have an alarm to signal a malfunction or failure in the system. (b) The alarm must sound...activated at the pumping platform complex; (2) Have a signal...

2010-07-01

348

Design of large space fire alarm controller based on intelligent video surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the ARM embedded fire alarm controller is designed and applied to the fire intelligent video surveillance system of large space. Based on the Modbus communication protocol, the fire alarm controller receive the information from video surveillance platform, sending out alarm signal of voice and light when fire happened, and then the fire sprinkler system are controlled to

Shuangye Chen; Chen Luo; Yawei Chen; Weijing Zhang; Jie Hou; Jiaru Qian

2011-01-01

349

Design of the Intelligent Test Equipment of Airplane Fire Alarm System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The airplane fire alarm system is a piece of the most important equipment influencing the flight security. Due to the factors of design and working condition, the reliability of the system is poor, especially the high rate of false alarm. So the test equipment of airplane fire alarm system, an intelligent synthesis test system allowing multiple parameters and digital data

Xu Hengcheng; Zeng Xianlin; Liu Xiangqun

2010-01-01

350

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System  

E-print Network

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance Form Approved by: Ron Flynn Last Revised by: Ron Flynn Revision date: 10/15/2013 FCC_FRM_Door_Placard_No_Automatic_Fire_Alarm_No_Sprinkler_System-code- compliance/Documents/FCC_FRM_Door_Placard_No_Automatic_Fire_Alarm_No_Sprinkler_System_IPDF.pdf Building Name

Pawlowski, Wojtek

351

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System  

E-print Network

Door Placard for No Automatic Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance Form Building with functional Fire Alarm Smoke Detection and there is no Automatic Fire Sprinkler System Annual Fire Safety-8200 Approved by: Ron Flynn Last Revised by: Ron Flynn Revision date: 10/15/2013 FRM_Door_Placard_No_Automatic_Fire_Alarm_No_Sprinkler_System

Pawlowski, Wojtek

352

Door Placard for Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance  

E-print Network

with a fully functional Fire Alarm System and there is no Automatic Fire Sprinkler System Annual Fire SafetyDoor Placard for Fire Alarm and No Sprinkler System Fire Code Compliance Form Approved by: Ron Flynn Last Revised by: Ron Flynn Revision date: 10/15/2013 FCC_FRM_Door_Placard_Fire_Alarm

Pawlowski, Wojtek

353

Project 93L-EWL-097, fire alarm system improvements, 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) which will demonstrate that the modifications to the Fire Protection systems in the 338 Building function as intended. The ATP will test the fire alarm control panel, flow alarm pressure switch, post indicator valve tamper switch, heat detectors, flow switches, and fire alarm signaling devices.

Scott, M.V.

1995-01-01

354

Online root-cause analysis of alarms in discrete Bayesian networks with known structures  

E-print Network

Online root-cause analysis of alarms in discrete Bayesian networks with known structures Jiandong to analyze the root cause of alarms arisen in industrial process variables. The relation among alarm one child node exits so that its abnormal state is caused by one or multiple parent nodes. The root

Wang, Jiandong

355

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspections conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2011 and July 2012. The annual post-closure site inspections included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspections conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new fractures or extension of existing fractures were observed and no issues with the fence or gate were identified. The vegetation on the cover continues to look healthy, but the biennial vegetation survey conducted during the 2012 inspection indicated that the total foliar cover was slightly higher in 2009 than in 2012. This may be indicative of a decrease in precipitation observed during the 2-year monitoring period. The precipitation totaled 9.9 inches from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and 5 inches from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. This decrease in precipitation is also evident in the soil moisture data obtained from the time domain reflectometry sensors. Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 cover is performing as designed, and evapotranspiration is effectively removing water from the cover.

None

2013-03-01

356

Violence Exposure and Drug Use in Central American Youth: Family Cohesion and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between witnessing serious violence and drug use, and the protective influences of family cohesion and parental monitoring, were investigated among 9,840 adolescents (50.5% female, M age=15.29 years, SD=1.76) living in Panama and Costa Rica. After accounting for demographics and parental and sibling substance use, witnessing serious…

Kliewer, Wendy; Murrelle, Lenn; Prom, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Melva; Obando, Patricia; Sandi, Luis; Karenkeris, Maria del Carmen

2006-01-01

357

Benthic foraminifera for heavy metal pollution monitoring: A case study from the central Adriatic Sea coast of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators of pollution in coastal and marginal marine settings. Their community structure provides information on the general characteristics of the environment and some species are sensitive to specific environmental parameters. Among various criteria, the occurrence of test abnormalities may represent a useful bioindicator for monitoring environmental impacts in coastal regions. A study of

F. Frontalini; R. Coccioni

2008-01-01

358

The information that receivers extract from alarm calls in suricates.  

PubMed Central

Field observations and acoustic analyses have shown that suricate (Suricata suricatta) alarm calls vary in their acoustic structure depending on predator type. In this study, we tested whether receivers respond appropriately when hearing a call in the absence of a predator. Although the only way for suricates to escape from predators is to retreat to boltholes, responses to playbacks could be divided into distinct categories. The subjects responded differently to alarm calls given in response to aerial or terrestrial predators and to recruitment calls emitted in response to snakes and deposits on the ground. Suricates also showed rather distinct responses to low, medium and high urgency aerial calls. Differences in the responses were less obvious for different levels of urgency in the terrestrial and recruitment calls. Suricate receivers thus gain information about both the predator type and level of urgency from the acoustic structures of their calls. PMID:11747568

Manser, M B; Bell, M B; Fletcher, L B

2001-01-01

359

Plant experience with an expert system for alarm diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

An expert system called Diagnosis of Multiple Alarms (DMA) is in routine use at four nuclear reactors operated by the DuPont Company. The system is wired to plant alarm annunciators and does event-tree analysis to see if a pattern exists. Any diagnosis is displayed to the plant operator and the corrective procedure to be followed is also identified. The display is automatically superseded if a higher priority diagnosis is made. The system is integrated with operator training and procedures. Operating results have been positive. DMA has diagnosed several hard-to-locate small leaks. There have been some false diagnosis, and realistic plant environments must be considered in such expert systems. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Gimmy, K.L.

1986-01-01

360

ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This latest version of ZoneAlarm Free Firewall 9.2 will help keep users' computers free from phishing devices and other such pesky intruders. The application takes about 5 minutes to setup, and it can now also stop program spoofing, which is when a malicious program pretends to be a good one. The program also has an extensive interactive help feature, which can be useful for new users. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP, Vista, and 7.

2010-01-01

361

Chemical alarm in the termite Termitogeton planus (Rhinotermitidae).  

PubMed

Effective defense is a common characteristic of insect societies. Indeed, the occurrence of specialized defenders, soldiers, has been the first step toward eusociality in several independent lineages, including termites. Among the multitude of defensive strategies used by termite soldiers, defense by chemicals plays a crucial role. It has evolved with complexity in advanced isopteran lineages, whose soldiers are equipped with a unique defensive organ, the frontal gland. Besides direct defense against predators, competitors, and pathogens, the chemicals emitted by soldiers from the frontal gland are used as signals of alarm. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the defensive secretion produced by soldiers of the termite Termitogeton planus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), from West Papua, and the effects of this secretion on the behavior of termite groups. Detailed two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of the soldier defensive secretion revealed the presence of four linear and nine monoterpene hydrocarbons. Soldier head extracts, as well as synthetic mixtures of the monoterpenes found in these extracts, elicited alarm behavior in both soldiers and pseudergates. Our results suggest that the alarm is not triggered by a single monoterpene from the defensive blend, but by a multi-component signal combining quantitatively major and minor compounds. PMID:25355635

Dolejšová, Klára; Krasulová, Jana; Kutalová, Kate?ina; Hanus, Robert

2014-12-01

362

SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

Levitt, B. K.

1983-01-01

363

A comprehensive landscape approach for monitoring bats on the Nevada Test Site in south-central Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in south-central Nevada and encompasses approximately 3,497 square kilometers (1,350 square miles). It straddles both the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts and includes a distinct transition region between these two deserts. Because of its geographical location, a great level of vegetative and physiographic diversity exists on the NTS. Also, numerous mines and tunnels

Hall

2000-01-01

364

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2013-10-01

365

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2014-10-01

366

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2012-10-01

367

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2010-10-01

368

46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false General emergency alarm systems for barges... ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-30 General emergency alarm systems for...

2011-10-01

369

Satellite monitoring the rangeland degradation under the impacts of climatic and socio-economic changes over central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Asia, encompassing the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and China's western Sinkiang, is a typical arid and semi-arid area. The climate in Central Asia is extreme arid, where summer is hot, cloudless and dry, and winter is moist and relatively warm in the south and cold and dry in the north. Rangeland, accounting for 46% of the entire area, is the main vegetation type in this area. Recent findings showed that climate change had caused unprecedented rangeland degradation in Central Asia over the past 30 years. Socio-economical change and environmental change due to the collapse of Soviet Union also accelerated rangeland degradation. Rangeland degradation adversely further deteriorated the environment. With the development of high resolution remote sensing images, an increasing attention has paid to study rangeland degradation in this area. However, previous investigations based on either Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, has not integrate multi-resolution satellite data for investigating vegetation change and its response to climatic and socio-economic change . In this paper, we employed 30 years' remote sensing data, including both AVHRR ( 1982-2006) and MODIS (2000-2011) satellite data, and in-situ meteorological and social data (e.g. population, economic, and land use change data), to investigate rangeland degradation in the central Asia. We 1) analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation changes during the past 30 years, and 2) evaluated the roles of climatic and socio-economic factors as potential causes of observed vegetation changes. The results showed extensive area had statistically significant degradation trends (p<0.05). Precipitation was the main driver of rangeland degradation, while there were relatively weaker relationships between temperature and NDVI, indicating that water deficit largely limited vegetation activity. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, rangeland degradation was accelerated due to increased population and economic changes, but this degraded trend slowed down since the political system became relatively stable in 1991. These results could help to better understand the interactions between rangeland degradation and climatic and socio-economic change in arid and semi-arid central Asia.

Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Dai, L.; Yan, D.

2012-12-01

370

Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect

A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

Greenfield, Bryce A.

2009-12-20

371

A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation  

E-print Network

Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a satisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence cyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system establishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP/IP) through GPRS/CDMA/3G. It achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human machine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile communication network. The CPAS will enable the transformation in alarm mode from traditional one-way alarm to two-way alarm. The system has been successfully applied in practice. The results show that the CPAS could avoid false alarms and satisfy residents' security needs.

Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Shao, Meng

2010-01-01

372

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Diabetes: From Evidence to Clinical Reality in Central and Eastern Europe—Recommendations from the International Central-Eastern European Expert Group  

PubMed Central

Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is universally considered to be an integral part of type 1 diabetes management and crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of complex insulin regimens. This extends to type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy, and there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that structured SMBG is beneficial for all type 2 diabetes patients, regardless of therapy. However, access to SMBG can be limited in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A consensus group of diabetes experts from 10 countries in this region (with overlapping historical, political, and social environments)—Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine—was formed to discuss the role of SMBG across the spectrum of patients with diabetes. The group considered SMBG to be an essential tool that should be accessible to all patients with diabetes, including those with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. The current article summarizes the evidence put forward by the consensus group and provides their recommendations for the appropriate use of SMBG as part of individualized patient management. The ultimate goal of these evidence-based recommendations is to help patients and providers in Central and Eastern Europe to make optimal use of SMBG in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies, to prevent complications, and to empower the patient to play a more active role in the management of their diabetes. PMID:24716890

Barkai, László; Bolgarska, Svetlana; Bronisz, Agata; Broz, Jan; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Honka, Marek; Janez, Andrej; Krnic, Mladen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Martinka, Emil; Rahelic, Dario; Roman, Gabriela; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Várkonyi, Tamás; Wolnik, Bogumi?; Zherdova, Nadia

2014-01-01

373

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2007. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover was observed during the last quarterly inspection in December 2006. This crack was filled with bentonite as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007 and will be monitored during subsequent annual inspections. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate but showing signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. New DOE Office of Legacy Management signs with updated emergency phone numbers were installed as part of this annual inspection, no issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C as part of the maintenance activities conducted in February 2007. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. A vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas was conducted as part of the annual inspection in May 2007. The vegetation survey indicated that revegetation continues to be successful, although stressed due to the area's prevailing drought conditions. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and to identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action to maintain a viable vegetation cover on the site. It is suggested that future vegetation surveys be conducted once every 2 years or as needed to help monitor the health of the vegetation.

None

2008-09-01

374

Comparison of the spectral information content of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Resurs-01 NDVI data for vegetation discrimination and monitoring in central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Resurs-01 satellite data now being made commercially available are bridging the gap between NOAA AVHRR and Landsat TM with a resolution in visible and near-infrared bands of 170 meters and a re-imaging capability of about four days at the equator. The combination of the mid-range ground resolution and the high repeat cycle gives data sets ideal for vegetation mapping and monitoring in scales ranging from 1:250,000 to 1:2,000,000. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has become the primary tool for accurate description of continental land cover and can be calculated both, from the channels of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and from the Resurs-01 MSU-SK instrument. The primary objective of this study was to compare the spectral information content of the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Resurs-01 MSU-SK NDVI data for an agricultural landscape of Central Italy.

Marchetti, Marco; Ricotta, Carlo

1997-01-01

375

Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May of 2008. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection and were immediately filled with bentonite chips. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate, but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in August 2008. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed.

None

2009-01-01

376

Adaptive differences in response to two types of parental alarm call in altricial nestlings  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate alarm calls can contain information about the type of predator and the degree of danger, but young animals often respond to alarm calls differently from adults. The distinct behaviour of young may reflect an imperfect stage in the gradual development of the adult response, or a response adapted to specific risks faced by young. In this study, we tested whether nestling white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, responded to different alarm calls according to their specific risks of predation. As predators on the ground pose a danger to scrubwren nestlings, whereas flying predators do not, we predicted that they would respond to ground alarm calls but not to aerial alarm calls. In a field playback experiment, we tested the response of young to aerial and ground alarm calls, each presented in a shorter (less urgent) and longer (more urgent) form. We found that both 5- and 11-day-old nestlings responded to ground alarm calls, and did so more strongly to the more urgent playback. By contrast, the response to aerial alarm calls started to develop only towards the end of the nestling stage. Thus, scrubwren nestlings can distinguish between different types of alarm calls and react more strongly to calls warning of a predator posing greater danger, appropriate to the nestling stage of development. Furthermore, they use the length of ground alarm calls as an indicator of the degree of danger. PMID:16024370

Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D

2005-01-01

377

Analysis of the ground vibration generated by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of debris flows using ground vibration sensors has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the signals still presents ambiguity. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain) two different ground vibration stations are installed. At the first station the ground velocity signal is transformed into an impulses-per-second signal (low frequency, 1 Hz). The analysis of the data recorded at this station show that the shape of the impulses signal is one of the key parameters to describe the evolution of the event. At the second station the ground velocity signal is directly recorded at high frequency (250 Hz). The results achieved at this station show that the differences in time series and spectral analysis are helpful to describe the temporal evolution of the events. In addition, some general outcomes were obtained: the attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential; and the assembly of the geophones to the terrain has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task; and that influence of site-specific conditions is notable.

Abancó, C.; Hürlimann, M.; Moya, J.

2014-04-01

378

Fast methods for analysis of neurotransmitters from single cell and monitoring their releases in central nervous system by capillary electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and luminescence imaging  

SciTech Connect

Fast methods for separation and detection of important neurotransmitters and the releases in central nervous system (CNS) were developed. Enzyme based immunoassay combined with capillary electrophoresis was used to analyze the contents of amino acid neurotransmitters from single neuron cells. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters from neuron cultures was monitored by laser induced fluorescence imaging method. The release and signal transduction of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in CNS was studied with sensitive luminescence imaging method. A new dual-enzyme on-column reaction method combined with capillary electrophoresis has been developed for determining the glutamate content in single cells. Detection was based on monitoring the laser-induced fluorescence of the reaction product NADH, and the measured fluorescence intensity was related to the concentration of glutamate in each cell. The detection limit of glutamate is down to 10{sup {minus}8} M level, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than the previously reported detection limit based on similar detection methods. The mass detection limit of a few attomoles is far superior to that of any other reports. Selectivity for glutamate is excellent over most of amino acids. The glutamate content in single human erythrocyte and baby rat brain neurons were determined with this method and results agreed well with literature values.

Wang, Ziqiang

1999-12-10

379

Combination of multi-sensor PSI monitoring data with a landslide damage inventory: the Tena Valley case study (Central Spanish Pyrenees) (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work illustrates the usefulness of integrating multi-sensor DInSAR monitoring data and landslide damage inventories for risk analysis. The approach has been applied in the Tena Valley (Central Spanish Pyrenees), where active landslides have caused significant damage on human structures over the last decade. Slope instability in this glacial trough is mainly related to very slow deep-seated slide-flows developed in Paleozoic slates. The PSI processing of ascending orbit ALOS PALSAR images (2006-2010), and descending orbit ERS & Envisat (2001-2007) and TerraSAR-X (2008) datasets, has provided heterogeneous displacement velocity measurements. The geometrical differences introduced by each satellite have been homogenized through the projection of the LOS displacements along the steepest slope gradient. Additionally, conventional DInSAR analysis of ALOS PALSAR images has permitted the detection of faster movements (up to 145cm yr-1) from 46 day interferograms (, increasing the number of detected landslides. Overall, the number of monitored landslides increased from 4% and 19%, using C- and X- band data, to 38% of the total (294) using L-band. In a subsequent phase, the multi-sensor velocities measured for the landslides are classified with respect to the magnitude of the road damage occurred in the 2008-2010 period. According to available measurements, minor or no damages are produced for landslide velocities smaller than 21 mm yr-1, moderate damages occurred between 21 and 160 mm yr-1, and major damages between 160 and 1450 mm yr-1.

Herrera, G.; Gutierrez, F.; García-Davalillo, J.; Galve, J.; Fernández-Merodo, J.; Cooksley, G.; Guerrero, J.; Duro, J.

2013-12-01

380

Real time monitoring and analysis via the medical information bus, Part I.  

PubMed

Because of the complexity of monitored data in modern intensive care units (ICUs), and the risk of information being overlooked if medical staff have to pay attention to a multiplicity of monitoring apparatuses and alarm signals, the data for each patient may well be best presented on a single bedside screen after digestion by expert system techniques. Such central units should be able to deal with data from any monitoring apparatus, not just a predefined set. Furthermore, relay of the information from each bed to a central control station (one per ICU) is desirable for the purposes of permanent storage and for in-depth analysis. The paper describes a comprehensive system for ICU monitoring management and patient data analysis that integrates multiple expert systems and computers. The basic difficulties in applying expert system techniques to monitoring are overcome with the shell OPS/83, which allows calls to sequential C routines and allows time-driven reasoning through appropriate design of the inference engine and rules. Flexibility as regards connectable monitoring apparatus is afforded by basing data acquisition mainly, though not exclusively, on the IEEE Medical Information Bus. PMID:9374059

Taboada, J A; Arcay, B; Arias, J E

1997-09-01

381

Validity of anecdotal reports of suspected adverse drug reactions: the problem of false alarms  

PubMed Central

Suspected adverse drug reactions first reported in 1963 in the “British Medical Journal,” the “Lancet,” the “Journal of the American Medical Association,” and the “New England Journal of Medicine” were reviewed 18 years later to assess their initial validity and subsequent verification. Of 52 first reports, five were deliberate investigations into potential or predictable reactions, and in each case causality was reasonably established; the other 47 reports were essentially anecdotal. Of these 47 reports, 14 related to categories of adverse reaction where false-positive reports were unlikely: immediate reactions, local reactions, and known reactions caused by a different mode of administration or a brand previously thought or claimed to be safe. The problem of false alarms rose in the remaining types of reactions: general reactions that did not occur immediately after administration and arose for the first time with a new chemical entity. Of 33 reports of such suspected adverse reactions, validity was satisfactorily established in 14 cases on the basis of rechallenge, predictability from known pharmacology, or the unique nature of the reaction. Of the remaining 19 reports, further verification still has not been satisfactorily established in 12. Seven of these possible false alarms were haematological reactions. Although 35 of the 47 anecdotal reports were clearly correct, of the 19 reports that were not reasonably validated at the time of the report, only seven were subsequently verified. This suggests that agencies monitoring adverse drug reactions should adopt criteria for assessing the validity of first reports of suspected adverse reactions. Such criteria should include: reactions on rechallenge, a pharmacological basis for the adverse reaction, immediate acute reactions, local reactions at the site of administration, reactions with a new route of administration of a drug known to provoke such reactions by another route, and the repeated occurrence of very rare events. PMID:6799125

Venning, G R

1982-01-01

382

LEMON - LHC Era Monitoring for Large-Scale Infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present time computer centres are facing a massive rise in virtualization and cloud computing as these solutions bring advantages to service providers and consolidate the computer centre resources. However, as a result the monitoring complexity is increasing. Computer centre management requires not only to monitor servers, network equipment and associated software but also to collect additional environment and facilities data (e.g. temperature, power consumption, cooling efficiency, etc.) to have also a good overview of the infrastructure performance. The LHC Era Monitoring (Lemon) system is addressing these requirements for a very large scale infrastructure. The Lemon agent that collects data on every client and forwards the samples to the central measurement repository provides a flexible interface that allows rapid development of new sensors. The system allows also to report on behalf of remote devices such as switches and power supplies. Online and historical data can be visualized via a web-based interface or retrieved via command-line tools. The Lemon Alarm System component can be used for notifying the operator about error situations. In this article, an overview of the Lemon monitoring is provided together with a description of the CERN LEMON production instance. No direct comparison is made with other monitoring tool.

Marian, Babik; Ivan, Fedorko; Nicholas, Hook; Hector, Lansdale Thomas; Daniel, Lenkes; Miroslav, Siket; Denis, Waldron

2011-12-01

383

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C

2004-09-01

384

Reliability and the adaptive utility of discrimination among alarm callers.  

PubMed Central

Unlike individually distinctive contact calls, or calls that aid in the recognition of young by their parents, the function or functions of individually distinctive alarm calls is less obvious. We conducted three experiments to study the importance of caller reliability in explaining individual-discriminative abilities in the alarm calls of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). In our first two experiments, we found that calls from less reliable individuals and calls from individuals calling from a greater simulated distance were more evocative than calls from reliable individuals or nearby callers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marmots assess the reliability of callers to help them decide how much time to allocate to independent vigilance. The third experiment demonstrated that the number of callers influenced responsiveness, probably because situations where more than a single caller calls, are those when there is certain to be a predator present. Taken together, the results from all three experiments demonstrate the importance of reliability in explaining individual discrimination abilities in yellow-bellied marmots. Marmots' assessment of reliability acts by influencing the time allocated to individual assessment and thus the time not allocated to other activities. PMID:15315902

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Verneyre, Laure; Daniel, Janice C.

2004-01-01

385

Application of neural networks to multiple alarm processing and diagnosis in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the feasibility study of multiple alarm processing and diagnosis using neural networks. The back-propagation network (BPN) algorithm is applied to the training of multiple alarm patterns for the identification of faults in a reactor coolant pump (RCP) system. The general mapping capability of the neural network enables one to identify a fault easily. A number of case studies are performed with emphasis on the applicability of the neural network to the pattern recognition of multiple alarms. Based on the case studies, the neural network can identify the cause of multiple alarms well, although untrained, incomplete/sensor-failed or time-varying alarm symptoms are given. Also, multiple faults are easily identified with a given alarm pattern.

Se Woo Cheon; Soon Heung Chang (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)); Hak Yeong Chung; Zeung Nam Bien

1993-02-01

386

COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

MCDONALD JP

2011-09-08

387

Monitor circuit for a control rod drive mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monitor circuit for a control rod drive mechanism (crdm) that is adapted to detect erroneous stator phase sequences and generate a visible and audible alarm. The monitor circuit has particular application for use in connection with the control element assembly of a nuclear reactor. The monitor circuit includes an interface circuit for each stator phase winding of the drive

1982-01-01

388

Diagnosis and monitoring of central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To investigate prospectively abnormalities of brain glucose utilisation in relation to major or minor neuropsychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).?METHODS—Positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose was performed in 28 patients with SLE. Patients were classified as having severe neuropsychiatric manifestations (seizures, focal neurological deficits, acute confusional states, mood disorders) (n=12), or mild neuropsychiatric manifestations (headache, reactive depression, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety disorders) (n=11) and five patients without signs of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Ten clinically and neurologically healthy volunteers served as controls. In 26 patients magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and autoantibodies against CNS tissue, ribosomal P protein and cardiolipin were measured. In 14 patients follow up PET scans were performed after a mean (SD) period of 11.6 (9.5) months.?RESULTS—PET scans showed hypometabolism in at least one brain region in all patients with severe or mild CNS symptoms (100%) as compared with patients without cerebral symptoms (40%) (p<0.0025). Parieto-occipital regions were most commonly affected (96%), followed by parietal regions (32%). In contrast, MRI images were abnormal in only 11 of 22 patients (50%) with neuropsychiatric symptoms and in one of four patients (25%) without symptoms. In 12 of 14 patients examined in follow up PET scans persistence, improvement or worsening of cerebral symptoms were associated with unchanged, decreased or increased brain hypometabolism, respectively. No significant correlation was found between PET or MRI findings and autoantibody profiles.?CONCLUSIONS—PET imaging represents a sensitive tool to detect manifest or subclinical CNS involvement in SLE and PET findings correlate well with the clinical course of disease.?? PMID:10784521

Weiner, S; Otte, A; Schumacher, M; Klein, R; Gutfleisch, J; Brink, I; Otto, P; Nitzsche, E; Moser, E; Peter, H

2000-01-01

389

Evaluation of Fire-Safety Programs that use 10Year Smoke Alarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began funding a Smoke Alarm Installation and Fire Safety Education (SAIFE)\\u000a program in 1998. This program involves the installation of lithium-powered “10-year” smoke alarms in homes at high risk for\\u000a fires and injuries. This study aimed to (1) determine among original SAIFE homes if the lithium-powered alarms were still\\u000a present and functional 8–10 years

Mark Jackson; Jonathan Wilson; Judith Akoto; Sherry Dixon; David E. Jacobs; Michael F. Ballesteros

2010-01-01

390

Recent Results on "Approximations to Optimal Alarm Systems for Anomaly Detection"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An optimal alarm system and its approximations may use Kalman filtering for univariate linear dynamic systems driven by Gaussian noise to provide a layer of predictive capability. Predicted Kalman filter future process values and a fixed critical threshold can be used to construct a candidate level-crossing event over a predetermined prediction window. An optimal alarm system can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability in this particular scenario.

Martin, Rodney Alexander

2009-01-01

391

Construction of Wireless Fire Alarm System Based on ZigBee Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper points out the defect of wired automatic fire alarm system in used, and the necessity and possibility of constructing wireless fire alarm system. ZigBee technology based on IEEE802.15.4 and its characteristics are introduced. We also give out a method of constructing wireless fire alarm system based on ZigBee, including the design of construction, hardware and software.

MA Shu-guang

2011-01-01

392

False-Alarm Regulation in Log-Normal and Weibull Clutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic detection radars require some method of adapting to variations in the background clutter in order to control their false-alarm rate. Conventional cell-averaging techniques designed to maintain a constant false-alarm rate in Rayleigh clutter will fail to control the false-alarm rate in more severe clutter environments such as log-normal or Weibull clutter. A processor is described which is capable of

G. B. Goldstein

1973-01-01

393

The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.  

PubMed

In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional. PMID:22955160

Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

2013-01-01

394

A Human Factors Perspective on Alarm System Research and Development 2000 to 2010  

SciTech Connect

By definition, alarms serve to notify human operators of out-of-parameter conditions that could threaten equipment, the environment, product quality and, of course, human life. Given the complexities of industrial systems, human machine interfaces, and the human operator, the understanding of how alarms and humans can best work together to prevent disaster is continually developing. This review examines advances in alarm research and development from 2000 to 2010 and includes the writings of trade professionals, engineering and human factors researchers, and standards organizations with the goal of documenting advances in alarms system design, research, and implementation.

Curt Braun; John Grimes; Eric Shaver; Ronald Boring (Principal Investigator)

2011-09-01

395

Field verification of the use of chemical alarm cues in a coral reef fish  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical alarm cues function as early indicators of a predation threat and influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions in the favour of the prey animal. The tropical goby, Asterropteryx semipunctatus, responded with a stereotypical alarm response, including reduced movement and feeding, following exposure to water that contained chemical cues from injured conspecifics under natural field conditions. Gobies did not exhibit an alarm response when challenged with extracts from damaged fish from a different taxonomic family. The behavioural response in the field was similar to that observed in laboratory experiments. This study verifies the use of chemical alarm cues in a marine fish in their natural environment.

McCormick, M. I.; Larson, J. K.

2007-09-01

396

Mother knows best: functionally referential alarm calling in white-tailed ptarmigan.  

PubMed

Functionally referential alarm calls have stimulus specificity, distinct acoustic structure, and elicit different escape responses that are appropriate to the threat. The mechanisms by which escape responses are evoked are not fully understood and may range from eliciting innate responses to conveying representational information. White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) are a long-lived alpine tundra grouse, which are preyed upon by aerial and terrestrial predators. We investigated the hypothesis that alarm calls of ptarmigan hens with chicks are functionally referential. We recorded hens' alarm calls in response to naturally occurring and model predators in California's Sierra Nevada alpine tundra for two summer seasons. We conducted playback experiments in the field to determine chick responses to alarm calls. Alarm calls commenced with an extended 'alerting' note followed by a series of staccato notes grouped into elements. Fundamental and dominant frequencies in element notes were significantly higher in terrestrial compared to aerial threat alarm calls. Playbacks of terrestrial threat alarm calls elicited an upright/alert position by chicks (75 % of responses). In response to aerial threat alarm call playbacks, chicks flattened to the ground and froze (80 % of responses). To our knowledge, this study provides the first empirical evidence of functionally referential alarm calling, including the responses of the receivers, in an avian species in the wild. PMID:24132414

Ausmus, Desa M; Clarke, Jennifer A

2014-05-01

397

The research of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the rigorous traffic safety issues resulting from rapid transportation development, as well as the more and more attention paid to the traffic accidents dynamic analysis and pre-alarm methods, combined with the practical needs of the highway safety management, this paper summarizes the experience of traffic safety pre-alarm research both in domestic and abroad, designs the frame of highway traffic accident management and pre-alarm system from the function and software engineering requirement, and refines kernel modules such as accident prone section judgement, traffic safety pre-alarm analysis and perfecting safety measures analysis, in order to guide the exploitation and application of the system.

Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Tiejun; Wan, Jiaonan; Zhang, Juwen; Wang, Rui

398

Alarm substance from adult zebrafish alters early embryonic development in offspring  

PubMed Central

Alarm substances elicit behavioural responses in a wide range of animals but effects on early embryonic development are virtually unknown. Here we investigated whether skin injury-induced alarm substances caused physiological responses in embryos produced by two Danio species (Danio rerio and Danio albolineatus). Both species showed more rapid physiological development in the presence of alarm substance, although there were subtle differences between them: D. rerio had advanced muscle contraction and heart function, whereas D. albolineatus had advanced heart function only. Hence, alarm cues from injured or dying fish may be of benefit to their offspring, inducing physiological responses and potentially increasing their inclusive fitness. PMID:20071391

Mourabit, S.; Rundle, S. D.; Spicer, J. I.; Sloman, K. A.

2010-01-01

399

Fork-tailed drongos use deceptive mimicked alarm calls to steal food.  

PubMed

Despite the prevalence of vocal mimicry in animals, few functions for this behaviour have been shown. I propose a novel hypothesis that false mimicked alarm calls could be used deceptively to scare other species and steal their food. Studies have previously suggested that animals use their own species-specific alarm calls to steal food. However none have shown conclusively that these false alarms are deceptive, or that mimicked alarm calls are used in this manner. Here, I show that wild fork-tailed drongos (Dicrurus adsimilis) make both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls when watching target species handling food, in response to which targets flee to cover abandoning their food. The drongo-specific and mimicked calls made in false alarms were structurally indistinguishable from calls made during true alarms at predators by drongos and other species. Furthermore, I demonstrate by playback experiments that two of these species, meerkats (Suricata suricatta) and pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor), are deceived by both drongo-specific and mimicked false alarm calls. These results provide the first conclusive evidence that false alarm calls are deceptive and demonstrate a novel function for vocal mimicry. This work also provides valuable insight into the benefits of deploying variable mimetic signals in deceptive communication. PMID:21047861

Flower, Tom

2011-05-22

400

Heat Stress Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heavy, cumbersome body protection suits worn by members of hazardous materials response teams cause marked elevation of body temperatures, which can reduce effectiveness and lead to heat stress and injury. The CorTemp System, marketed by Human Technologies, Inc., provides the basis for a body temperature monitoring alarm system. Encased in a three-quarter-inch ingestible capsule, the system includes a mini-thermometer, miniature telemetry system, a microbattery and temperature sensor. It makes its way through the digestive system, continuously monitoring temperature. Findings are sent to the recorder by telemetry, and then displayed and stored for transfer to a computer.

1994-01-01

401

Bladder Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

1993-01-01

402

Technical infrastructure monitoring at CERN  

E-print Network

The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring system (TIM) is used to monitor and control CERN's technical services from the CERN Control Centre (CCC). The system's primary function is to provide CCC operators with reliable real-time information about the state of the laboratory's extensive and widely distributed technical infrastructure. TIM is also used to monitor all general services required for the operation of CERN's accelerator complex and the experiments. A flexible data acquisition mechanism allows TIM to interface with a wide range of technically diverse installations, using industry standard protocols wherever possible and custom designed solutions where needed. The complexity of the data processing logic, including persistence, logging, alarm handling, command execution and the evaluation of datadriven business rules is encapsulated in the system's business layer. Users benefit from a suite of advanced graphical applications adapted to operations (synoptic views, alarm consoles, data analysis tools etc....

Stowisek, Jan; Suwalska, Anna

2006-01-01

403

False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification  

DOEpatents

According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-29

404

Thermoelectric Generator Used in Fire-Alarm Temperature Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present a thermoelectric (TE) generator used in fire-alarm temperature sensing. The TE module, a core component of this generator, has a sandwich-like structure consisting of a Cu/Sn95Ag5/coated Ni/sprayed Ni/TE/sprayed Ni/coated Ni/Sn95Ag5/Cu multilayer that exhibits a low internal resistance of 5.5 ? to 5.9 ? and a contact resistance of 0.51 ? to 0.91 ? at room temperature (RT), enabling the TE generator to attain an open-circuit voltage (V op) of 1.50 V at RT and 2.97 V at ~90°C. Moreover, its maximum output power (p max) was estimated to be 11.6 mW and 428.7 mW, respectively, for a temperature difference (?T) of 9.3°C and 52.9°C. These values are comparable to those for the bulk TE generator developed by Thermonamic. According to these figures, we obtain corresponding power densities of ~7.25 × 103 nW/mm2 and 2.68 × 105 nW/mm2, respectively. Although there is still much room to improve the performance of the generator when the source temperature rises above 90°C, the output voltages and maximum output powers attained in the current testing conditions are large enough to drive small electronic devices such as fire-alarm systems etc. Therefore, it is believed that the fabrication technology and designed structure of the generator are appropriate for such applications.

Wu, Wenchang; Du, Zhengliang; Cui, Jiaolin; Shi, Zhongtao; Deng, Yuan

2015-01-01

405

Monitoring deforestation trend and future outlooks of the aboveground forest carbon stocks in Central Sumatra using ALOS-PALSAR mosaic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, we present methods for monitoring deforestation and examining implication of the forest policies in forest carbon stocks in the future utilizing ALOS-PALSAR data. Riau Province of central Sumatra is selected for the study as it has received worldwide attention due to high forest-related carbon emissions. An aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) model was calibrated with field measurement data and L-band backscatters from high-resolution slope corrected PALSAR mosaic data of 2009 and 2010. A total of 87 plots of field measured AFCS data ranging 1 - 340 t/ha was used. This AFCS model provides the AFCS map with RMSE of +/-45 t/ha. The AFCS modeling results was extrapolated across the province using the mosaic data. The model estimated 315 million tons of AFCS in the province in 2010. A spatial model was used to spatialize three forest policy scenarios. These scenario maps were overlaid with AFCS map for deriving future perspective on AFCS. The future spatial patterns of the AFCS between the policy scenarios are apparent. If the historical trend continues, the forest cover will be consistently disappeared leaving very few small forest patches and releasing 77% of the current AFCS in to the atmosphere by 2030. However, one of the governance scenarios in the province indicates that almost half of the carbon emission can be reduced in the same period.

Thapa, Rajesh B.; Watanabe, Manabu; Motohka, Takeshi; Shimada, Masanobu

2014-10-01

406

Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander ( Ambystoma macrodactylum ) to chemical alarm cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of

Douglas P. Chivers; Joseph M. Kiesecker; Michael T. Anderson; Erica L. Wildy; Andrew R. Blaustein

1996-01-01

407

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2013-10-01

408

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2011-10-01

409

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2012-10-01

410

46 CFR 162.050-19 - Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. 162.050-19...Equipment § 162.050-19 Oil content meter and bilge alarm test rig. (a) This...used in approval testing of oil content meters and meter. A typical test rig is...

2010-10-01

411

Production of chemical alarm cues in convict cichlids: the effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much is known regarding the role of chemical alarm cues in the mediation of predator-prey dynamics within aquatic ecosystems, little is known regarding the production of these critically important information sources. In a series of labora- tory experiments, we tested the possible effects of diet, body condition and ontogeny on the production of chemical alarm cues in juvenile convict

Grant E. Brown; Patricia E. Foam; Hilary E. Cowell; Palestina Guevara Fiore; Douglas P. Chivers

412

Empirical mode decomposition based reducing false alarm filter for built-in test signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarm is the phenomenon that built-in test or other detection module indicates fault problem but actually no fault exists. High false alarm rate severely restricts the development of built-in test system. This paper reveals that doing extra processing on the intrinsic mode functions obtained from empirical mode decomposition, we can establish a filter with good performance in reducing false

Miao Zhang; Yi Shen; Xin Li; Zhibo Wang; Xiaolei Zhang; Yanchao Gao; Yanju Ji

2011-01-01

413

MAPPING IT OUT: REPEAT-ADDRESS BURGLAR ALARMS AND BURGLARIES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the police are trying to cope with large volumes of false- alarm calls, a new direction in crime prevention asserts that preventing repeat victimization of people, property, places, and situations might be more efficient than other traditional crime prevention doctrines. Using graduated circle maps, this study compares the spatial distributions of alarm calls and burglary incidents across Charlotte, NC,

James L. LeBeau; Karen L. Vincent

414

46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide and clean agent alarms-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Each carbon dioxide or clean agent fire extinguishing alarm installed after November 19, 1952, must be conspicuously marked: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS VACATE AT ONCE. [CARBON DIOXIDE/CLEAN AGENT—as appropriate] BEING RELEASED.” [USCG-2006-24797, 77 FR 33874, June 7,...

2012-10-01

415

Ontogeny of Alarm pheromone production in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alarm pheromones are an essential part of a complex of pheromone interactions that contribute to the maintenance of colony integrity and sociality in social insects. Recently, we identified 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine as an alarm pheromone component of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. We continued...

416

Modelling and Application of Secondary Circuit Signals for Power Grid Intelligent Alarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power grid intelligent alarm and fault diagnosis program mainly use breaker and relay action alarms. However, there may be misoperations existed in relays, which could leads to incorrect diagnosis results. With the development of digital substation and application of IEC61850, the secondary circuit signals are available from integrated automation system in substation. These signals may imply control or interlock relationship

Kang Taifeng; Wu Wenchuan; Sun Hongbin; Zhang Boming; Li Jingxiong

2010-01-01

417

Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm  

E-print Network

1 Probabilistic forecasts of (severe) thunderstorms for the purpose of issuing a weather alarm: Weather alarm for severe thunderstorms Method: Model output statistics (MOS) Data used in MOS system for (severe) thunderstorms Illustration of statistical method Definitions of predictands Case (8 June 2007

Schmeits, Maurice

418

Reed warblers discriminate cuckoos from sparrowhawks with graded alarm signals that attract mates and neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brood parasites and predators pose unique threats that may favour the evolution of enemy-specific defence strategies. We considered whether reed warblers, Acrocephalus scirpaceus, have a specific alarm call for com- mon cuckoos, Cuculus canorus, and whether their alarms attract mates and neighbours. Mounts of cuckoos (threat to nest but harmless to adults) were significantly more likely to be mobbed and

J. A. Welbergen; N. B. Davies

2008-01-01

419

Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site  

E-print Network

Radiation Belt Activity Indices and Solar Proton Event Alarm on the CRATERRE Project Web Site D--Two Radiation Belt Activity Indices, based on electron flux measurement >300 keV and >1.6 MeV, and one Solar Proton Event Alarm, based on proton flux measurement >75 MeV, are developed for post events analysis

420

46 CFR 35.40-7 - Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm-T/ALL. 35.40-7 Section 35.40-7 Shipping...OPERATIONS Posting and Marking Requirements-TB/ALL. § 35.40-7 Carbon dioxide alarm—T/ALL. Adjacent to all carbon dioxide fire...

2010-10-01

421

Dine or Dash?: Ontogenetic Shift in the Response of Yellow Perch to Conspecific Alarm Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

During their first year of growth yellow perch, Perca flavescens, undergo an ontogenetic niche shift from invertebrate feeding to piscivory. They also undergo a similar shift in their response to heterospecific alarm cues, switching from anti-predator to foraging behaviour. We conducted laboratory trials to determine whether yellow perch experience a comparable ontogenetic shift in their response to conspecific alarm cues.

Mark C. Harvey; Grant E. Brown

2004-01-01

422

Reduction of false alarm rate in automatic forest fire infrared surveillance systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems related to infrared remote sensing of forest fires by automatic systems concerns the rejection of false alarms. The study of the infrared spectral radiance emitted by a biomass fire has been used to define spectral algorithms that permit to separate fires from other sources considered as false alarms. The different behaviour of the medium (3–5

S Briz; A. J. de Castro; J. M. Aranda; J. Melendez; F. Lopez

2003-01-01

423

Detecting Alarm Sounds Dan Ellis Columbia University dpwe@ee.columbia.edu  

E-print Network

, sirens etc.) carry important information. Automatic systems to detect them in high-noise conditions would · Examples include: Car horns, emergency sirens, fire alarms, doorbells, mechanical and electronic telephones-net system · In this example, 3 randomly-chosen alarm sounds (top panel) are mixed with restaurant noise

Ellis, Dan

424

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2012-10-01

425

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2014-10-01

426

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2013-10-01

427

46 CFR 113.25-8 - Distribution of general emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. 113.25-8 Section 113.25-8...emergency alarm system feeders and branch circuits. (a) Each system must have a...zone feeder is necessary; then a branch circuit distribution panel or feeder...

2011-10-01

428

Alarm symptoms of soft-tissue and bone sarcoma in patients referred to a specialist center  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose — The Danish Cancer Patient Pathway for sarcoma defines a set of alarm symptoms as criteria for referral to a sarcoma center. This may exclude cancer patients without alarm symptoms, so we investigated the presence of alarm symptoms (defined as being indicative of a sarcoma) in patients who had been referred to the Aarhus Sarcoma Center. Patients and methods — We reviewed the medical records of all 1,126 patients who had been referred, with suspected sarcoma, from other hospitals in the period 2007–2010 for information on symptoms, clinical findings, and diagnosis. Alarm symptoms were analyzed for predictive values in diagnosing sarcoma. Results — 179 (69%) of 258 sarcoma patients were referred with alarm symptoms (soft-tissue tumor > 5 cm or deep-seated, fast-growing soft-tissue tumor, palpable bone tumor, or deep persisting bone pain). The remaining 79 sarcomas were found accidentally. “Size over 5 cm” for soft-tissue tumors, and “deep persisting bone pain” for bone tumors had the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value. Of the 79 sarcoma patients who were referred without alarm symptoms, 7 were found accidentally on imaging, 5 were referred with suspected recurrence of a sarcoma, 64 were referred with a confirmed histological diagnosis, and 3 were referred for other reasons. Interpretation — Defined alarm symptoms are predictive of sarcoma, but one-third of the patients were found accidentally. Further studies on presenting symptoms in primary care are needed to assess the true value of alarm symptoms. PMID:25175662

Dyrop, Heidi B; Vedsted, Peter; Safwat, Akmal; Maretty-Nielsen, Katja; Hansen, Bjarne H; Jørgensen, Peter H; Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Keller, Johnny

2014-01-01

429

Using LabVIEW software for a fire and alarm technology lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Houston Downtown in Houston, Texas has a four-year safety and fire engineering technology program with a fire protection course, which in the catalog is the Fire Suppression & Detection Systems. The course is often referred to as the fire alarm system course. The fire alarm system course includes the design and use of detection, signaling and suppression

H. Franz

2005-01-01

430

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus , produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans).

ERICK GREENE; TOM MEAGHER

1998-01-01

431

LEARNED RECOGNITION OF HETEROSPECIFIC ALARM CUES ENHANCES SURVIVAL DURING ENCOUNTERS WITH PREDATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Numerous species of aquatic animals release chemical cues when attacked by a predator. These chemicals serve to warn other conspecié cs, and in some cases heterospecié cs, of danger, and hence have been termed alarm cues. Responses of animals to alarm cues produced by other species often need to be learned, yet mechanisms of learned recognition of heterospecié c

Douglas P. Chivers; Reehan S. Mirza; Jeffery G. Johnston

2002-01-01

432

Underwater Video Reveals Strong Avoidance of Chemical Alarm Cues by Prey Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diversity of fishes release chemical cues upon being attacked by a pre- dator. These cues, commonly termed alarm cues, act as sources of public information warning conspecifics of predation risk. Species which are members of the same prey guild (i.e. syntopic and share predators) often respond to one another's alarm cues. The purpose of this study was to discriminate

Robert G. Friesen; Douglas P. Chivers

2006-01-01

433

Fire Alarm Testing and Inspection Planning and Vendor Check In/Check Out Process  

E-print Network

Fire Alarm Testing and Inspection Planning and Vendor Check In/Check Out Process DOCUMENT PURPOSE This process is used for fire alarm testing and inspection pre-work planning and vendor check in and check out. BUILDING NAME/#: ___________________/_____ VENDOR: ________________________ TECHNICIAN

Webb, Peter

434

System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions  

DOEpatents

A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

2011-01-25

435

System and method for statistically monitoring and analyzing sensed conditions  

DOEpatents

A system and method of monitoring and analyzing a plurality of attributes for an alarm condition is disclosed. The attributes are processed and/or unprocessed values of sensed conditions of a collection of a statistically significant number of statistically similar components subjected to varying environmental conditions. The attribute values are used to compute the normal behaviors of some of the attributes and also used to infer parameters of a set of models. Relative probabilities of some attribute values are then computed and used along with the set of models to determine whether an alarm condition is met. The alarm conditions are used to prevent or reduce the impact of impending failure.

Pebay, Philippe P. (Livermore, CA); Brandt, James M. (Dublin, CA); Gentile, Ann C. (Dublin, CA); Marzouk, Youssef M. (Oakland, CA); Hale, Darrian J. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, David C. (Livermore, CA)

2011-01-04

436

CENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT OF SMALL TREATMENT PLANTS USING INSTRUMENTS AND REMOTE ALARMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The operation and maintenance of small treatment plants and associated lift stations pose unique and difficult problems to the authority responsible for their performance. Due to financial and manpower limitations, they must operate unattended the majority of the time. Undetected...

437

Monitoring of breathing with a segmental air-filled mattress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different ways of monitoring respiration in the neonatal period are compared: Detection of the movements of the thorax\\u000a and abdomen with a mercury-in-rubber strain gauge and the apnoea-alarm mattress.\\u000a \\u000a For routine clinical purposes the apnoea-alarm has proved to be a reliable help for the detection of periods of apnoea. The\\u000a respiration movements are transformed to an audible signal which

J. Gundersen; K. Dahlin

1971-01-01

438

The development of a remote monitoring system for the Nuclear Science Center reactor  

E-print Network

system for many types of facilities, including STAR reactors. This system takes data from reactor cooling systems, power monitoring channels, fuel temperature indicators, control rod drives, security alarm sensors and stores it on local and remote hard...

Jiltchenkov, Dmitri Victorovich

2012-06-07

439

Influence of wildfires on atmospheric composition and carbon uptake of forest ecosystems in Central Siberia: the establishing of a long-term post-fire monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calculations of direct emissions of greenhouse gases from boreal wildfires remain uncertain due to problems with emission factors, available carbon, and imprecise estimates of burned areas. Even more varied and sparse are accurate in situ calculations of temporal changes in boreal forest carbon dynamics following fire. Linking simultaneous instrumental atmospheric observations, GIS-based estimates of burned areas, and ecosystem carbon uptake calculations is vital to fill this knowledge gap. Since 2006 the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org) a research platform for large-scale climatic observations is operational in Central Siberia (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The data of ongoing greenhouse gases measurements at the tower are used in atmospheric inversions studies to infer the distribution of carbon sinks and sources over central Northern Eurasia. We present our contribution to reducing uncertainties in estimates of fire influence on atmospheric composition and post-fire ecosystem carbon uptake deduced from the large-scale fires that happened in 2012 in the tall tower footprint area. The burned areas were estimated from Landsat ETM 5,8 satellite images, while fires were detected from Terra/Aqua MODIS satellite data. The magnitude of ecological change caused by fires ("burn severity") was measured and mapped with a Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index and further calibrated by a complementary field based Composite Burn Index (CBI). Measures of fire radiative power (FRP) index provided information on fire heat release intensity and on the amount and completeness of biomass combustion. Based on the analyzed GIS data, the system of study plots was established in the 5 dominating ecosystem types for a long-term post-fire monitoring. On the plots the comprehensive estimation of ecosystem parameters and carbon pools and their mapping was organized with a laser-based field instrumentation system. The work was supported financially by ISTC Project # 2757p, project of RFBR # 13-05-98053, and grant of president of RF for young scientists MK-1691.2014.5.

Panov, Alexey; Chi, Xuguang; Winderlich, Jan; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Bryukhanov, Alexander; Korets, Mikhail; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Timokhina, Anastasya; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

2014-05-01

440

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2012-07-01

441

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2011-07-01

442

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2013-07-01

443

40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system...access to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or...capable of summoning external emergency assistance, unless not...

2014-07-01

444

Time Analyzer for Time Synchronization and Monitor of the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software package has been developed to measure, monitor, and archive the performance of timing signals distributed in the NASA Deep Space Network. Timing signals are generated from a central master clock and distributed to over 100 users at distances up to 30 kilometers. The time offset due to internal distribution delays and time jitter with respect to the central master clock are critical for successful spacecraft navigation, radio science, and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) applications. The instrument controller and operator interface software is written in LabView and runs on the Linux operating system. The software controls a commercial multiplexer to switch 120 separate timing signals to measure offset and jitter with a time-interval counter referenced to the master clock. The offset of each channel is displayed in histogram form, and "out of specification" alarms are sent to a central complex monitor and control system. At any time, the measurement cycle of 120 signals can be interrupted for diagnostic tests on an individual channel. The instrument also routinely monitors and archives the long-term stability of all frequency standards or any other 1-pps source compared against the master clock. All data is stored and made available for

Cole, Steven; Gonzalez, Jorge, Jr.; Calhoun, Malcolm; Tjoelker, Robert

2003-01-01

445

Tritium Room Air Monitor Operating Experience Review  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.

L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny

2008-09-01

446

DHS Regional Reachback: Rapid Expert Radiation Alarm Assistance.  

SciTech Connect

Following assessments that attacks with radiological and nuclear weapons are possible, detection system deployments are being supported at national and local levels. Detection systems include both, highly sensitive but non-discriminating detectors, as well as detectors and algorithms capable of distinguishing and identifying gamma rays by energy. The latter systems, usually handheld systems based on sodium iodide detectors, also provide analysis of the specific radionuclides present and are referred to as radioisotope identifiers (RIIDs). Studies have shown that sodium iodide based RIIDs fall far short of 100% accurate identifications. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) initiated the Regional Reachback (RRB) Program in 2006 to provide rapid expert interpretation of gamma spectroscopic data from radiation alarms from detection systems deployed by state and local authorities. With expert specialists on call 24/7, RRB provides an avenue for local and state authorities to verify routine results, interpret unknown identifications, and notify national response assets if needed. This paper will provide details of the RRE3 program, an outline of the analysis process, a description of the drills and training systems used to maintain specialists response performance, and examples of drills and incidents from the first full year of operation.

Bowerman,B.; Archer, D.; Young, J.; Monetti, M.; Savage, B.

2008-07-13

447

Web-based remote monitoring of infant incubators in the ICU.  

PubMed

A web-based real-time operating, management, and monitoring system for checking temperature and humidity within infant incubators using the Intranet has been developed and installed in the infant Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We have created a pilot system which has a temperature and humidity sensor and a measuring module in each incubator, which is connected to a web-server board via an RS485 port. The system transmits signals using standard web-based TCP/IP so that users can access the system from any Internet-connected personal computer in the hospital. Using this method, the system gathers temperature and humidity data transmitted from the measuring modules via the RS485 port on the web-server board and creates a web document containing these data. The system manager can maintain centralized supervisory monitoring of the situations in all incubators while sitting within the infant ICU at a work space equipped with a personal computer. The system can be set to monitor unusual circumstances and to emit an alarm signal expressed as a sound or a light on a measuring module connected to the related incubator. If the system is configured with a large number of incubators connected to a centralized supervisory monitoring station, it will improve convenience and assure meaningful improvement in response to incidents that require intervention. PMID:14519407

Shin, D I; Huh, S J; Lee, T S; Kim, I Y

2003-09-01

448

Isolation and characterization of alarm pheromone from electric shock-induced earthworm secretion.  

PubMed

Electric stimulation of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, causes secretion of a yellow mucus which has alarm properties for conspecifics and chemoattractive properties for garter snakes. An alarm pheromone was isolated and purified to homogeneity from the mucus by means of permeation, thin-layer and high performance liquid chromatographies. The purified substance was highly active as an alarm chemosignal to earthworms (L. terrestris), but it did not elicit alarm responses from either sandworms (Nereis virens) or bloodworms (Glycera debranciata). It was not a snake chemoattractant. The alarm pheromone could not be retained with 1 kDa cut-off dialysis tubing, and it was eluted from a Bio-gel P2 column ahead of p-nitrophenol. These data suggest an apparent mass greater than 139 Da but less than 1 kDa. The order of solubility of this alarm pheromone is H2O greater than DMSO greater than MeOH greater than 2-propanol greater than acetone. It was thermostable, and it fully retained activity after heating at 100 degrees C for 1 hour. This alarm pheromone fluoresced under u.v. light, and it showed an optimal excitation wavelength of 420 nm and emission wavelength of 465 nm. PMID:2622977

Jiang, X C; Wang, D; Halpern, M

1989-10-01

449

A passive positioning alarm used by persons with dementia and their spouses – a qualitative intervention study  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, information and communication technology is being used to support persons with dementia living at home and their relatives. The aim of the present intervention study was to describe and explore the use and experiences of using a passive positioning alarm, over time, in daily life among persons with dementia and their spouses. Methods Using an ethnographically inspired approach, five couples, each including a person with Alzheimer´ s disease and his/her spouse living in their own home, were repeatedly observed and interviewed regarding their experiences of using a passive positioning alarm. Interview text transcripts and field notes were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The main findings show changes over time, where testing and checking the passive positioning alarm successively led to trust in the alarm and in one own´s ability to use it. These components were a prerequisite for the couples to perceive the value of the alarm. Conclusions A passive positioning alarm for persons with dementia and their spouses needs to be packaged as a “service” with flexibility for each user and based on user needs, abilities, knowledge and skills. Using a passive positioning alarm can be a valuable support that allows persons with dementia to be alone outdoors and can increase safety and security for them and their spouses. The present study contributes to our understanding of what prerequisites need to be in place and what barriers need to be dealt with before successful implementation can occur. PMID:23384329

2013-01-01

450

Using the exhibited generalization approach to evaluate a carbon monoxide alarm ordinance.  

PubMed

Current interests in enhancing the focus of external validity or transferability call for developing practical evaluation approaches and illustrating their applications in this area for meeting the need. This study takes the challenge by introducing an innovative evaluation approach, named the exhibited generalization approach, and applying it in evaluating the carbon monoxide (CO) alarm ordinance passed by Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The stakeholders specifically asked evaluators to determine the answers to the following two questions: (1) Does the alarm ordinance work? (2) What generalizable information can the Mecklenburg experience provide to other jurisdictions trying to decide if the alarm ordinance's planning, implementation, adoption, and outcomes are transferable to their communities? This study illustrates how to apply the exhibited generalization approach to provide the stakeholders with answers to these questions. Our results indicate that the alarm ordinance was effective in increasing CO alarm ownerships and reducing CO poisoning cases. The evaluation provides potential users and other interested parties with the necessary information on contextual factors and the causal mechanism underlying the CO alarm ordinance, so that these parties and users could decide whether the Mecklenburg alarm ordinance would be transferable to their own communities. Discussions include implications of this study for contributing in further advancing evaluation theory in addressing transferability or external validity issues. PMID:25105583

Chen, Huey T; Yip, Fuyuen; Lavonas, Eric J; Iqbal, Shahed; Turner, Nannette; Cobb, Bobby; Garbe, Paul

2014-12-01

451

A Retrospective Analysis to Validate the Alarm Signs Used in the CEDAP-Plus Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Study Aim. This study aimed to validate the alarm signs used in the 2007 German CEDAP-Plus study for indicating capsule endoscopy in patients who have idiopathic chronic abdominal pain. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of all patients who underwent capsule endoscopy at our institution between August 2007 and August 2009 for chronic hitherto undiagnosed abdominal pain, despite previous investigations. The demographic data, indications, findings, and diagnoses were recorded, as were the alarm signs (i.e., 10% loss of weight within 3 months, suspected small intestinal bleed or chronic anemia, and laboratory indications of inflammation). Results. Alarm signs were found in only 4 of the 62 included patients. Capsule endoscopy revealed findings that led to diagnoses of Crohn's disease (n = 4), tuberculosis (n = 1), gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 3), and hookworm (n = 1); these diagnoses included 100% (4/4) of the patients with alarm signs, but only 8.6% (5/58) of patients without them. However, 55.6% (5/9) of patients with clinically capsule endoscopy findings reported no alarm signs. Conclusions. Although selecting patients based on the alarm signs may increase the yield of capsule endoscopy, the alarm sign criteria appear to have low sensitivity. PMID:21991500

Zhang, Hou-De; Lin, Mu-Xian; Zhang, Qu

2011-01-01

452

The evolution of urgency-based and functionally referential alarm calls in ground-dwelling species.  

PubMed

A major evolutionary force driving functionally referential alarm calls is the need for different strategies to escape various predator types in complex structured habitats. In contrast, a single escape strategy appears to be sufficient in less-structured open habitats, and under such conditions urgency-dependent alarm calls may be favored. Nevertheless, some species, such as meerkats (Suricata suricatta), have evolved functionally referential alarm calls despite living in open areas, using only bolt-holes for retreat. To understand the evolution of different alarm call systems, we investigated the calls of sympatric Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) and compared their antipredator and foraging behavior with that of meerkats. Cape ground squirrels emitted urgency-dependent alarm calls and responded to playbacks depending on urgency, not predator type. Vigilance behavior and habitat use differed between the two species. Meerkats roam widely to find prey and for efficient foraging depend on coordinated predator vigilance and escape behavior. As herbivores with smaller territories, Cape ground squirrels depend less on coordinated antipredator behavior, and urgency-dependent alarm calls encode all essential information. We conclude that habitat complexity does not explain the evolution of functionally referential alarm calls in all species, and other constraints, such as the need to coordinate group movements to maintain foraging efficiency, could be more relevant. PMID:19199527

Furrer, Roman D; Manser, Marta B

2009-03-01

453

Alarm effectiveness in driver-centred collision-warning R. PARASURAMAN, P. A. HANCOCK and O. OLOFINBOBA  

E-print Network

rate and experience with other technologies con® rms driver aversion to false warnings. Although sensitive alarm systems with high detection rates and low false alarm rates have been developed, the posterior probability of a collision given an alarm can be quite low because of the low base rate

Parasuraman, Raja

454

African Elephant Alarm Calls Distinguish between Threats from Humans and Bees  

PubMed Central

The Samburu pastoralists of Northern Kenya co-exist with African elephants, Loxodonta africana, and compete over resources such as watering holes. Audio playback experiments demonstrate that African elephants produce alarm calls in response to the voices of Samburu tribesmen. When exposed to adult male Samburu voices, listening elephants exhibited vigilance behavior, flight behavior, and produced vocalizations (rumbles, roars and trumpets). Rumble vocalizations were most common and were characterized by increased and more variable fundamental frequencies, and an upward shift in the first [F1] and second [F2] formant locations, compared to control rumbles. When exposed to a sequence of these recorded rumbles, roars and trumpets, listening elephants also exhibited vigilance and flight behavior. The same behavior was observed, in lesser degrees, both when the roars and trumpets were removed, and when the second formants were artificially lowered to levels typical of control rumbles. The “Samburu alarm rumble” is acoustically distinct from the previously described “bee alarm rumble.” The bee alarm rumbles exhibited increased F2, while Samburu alarm rumbles exhibited increased F1 and F2, compared to controls. Moreover, the behavioral reactions to the two threats were different. Elephants exhibited vigilance and flight behavior in response to Samburu and bee stimuli and to both alarm calls, but headshaking behavior only occurred in response to bee sounds and bee alarm calls. In general, increasingly threatening stimuli elicited alarm calls with increases in F0 and in formant locations, and increasing numbers of these acoustic cues in vocal stimuli elicited increased vigilance and flight behavior in listening elephants. These results show that African elephant alarm calls differentiate between two types of threat and reflect the level of urgency of threats. PMID:24586753

Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Vollrath, Fritz; Savage, Anne

2014-01-01

455

Monitors: an operating system structuring concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops Brinch-Hansen's concept of a monitor as a method of structuring an operating system. It introduces a form of synchronization, describes a possible method of implementation in terms of sema- phores and gives a suitable proof rule. Illustrative examples include a single resource scheduler, a bounded buffer, an alarm clock, a buffer pool, a disk head optimizer, and

C. A. R. Hoare

1974-01-01

456

Environmental Monitoring and An International Journal Devoted to  

E-print Network

to a contaminant or other abnormal environmental conditions as an alarm to indicate possible perturbations1 23 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment An International Journal Devoted to Progress in the Use of Monitoring Data in Assessing Environmental Risks to Man and the Environment ISSN 0167

Boyer, Edmond

457

21 CFR 880.2400 - Bed-patient monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2400 Bed-patient monitor. (a) Identification. A bed-patient monitor is a battery-powered device placed under a mattress and used to indicate by an alarm or other signal when a patient attempts to leave the bed. (b) Classification....

2014-04-01

458

21 CFR 880.2400 - Bed-patient monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2400 Bed-patient monitor. (a) Identification. A bed-patient monitor is a battery-powered device placed under a mattress and used to indicate by an alarm or other signal when a patient attempts to leave the bed. (b) Classification....

2013-04-01

459

21 CFR 880.2400 - Bed-patient monitor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2400 Bed-patient monitor. (a) Identification. A bed-patient monitor is a battery-powered device placed under a mattress and used to indicate by an alarm or other signal when a patient attempts to leave the bed. (b) Classification....

2012-04-01

460

Personal continuous air monitor  

DOEpatents

A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01

461

Referral to the accident and emergency department following the use of community alarms  

PubMed Central

Objectives—To assess the degree of appropriate referral to the accident and emergency (A&E) department following the use of a community alarm where a mobile warden works in conjunction with the community alarm control centre. Methods—611 consecutive calls using community alarms underwent assessment and the appropriateness of referral to the A&E department was considered. Results—Of 542 requests for help 44 patients were transported to the A&E department (8.1%). Twenty nine patients were admitted (5.3%) and 15 patients (2.8%) discharged home from the A&E department after assessment or treatment, or both. Only three patients (0.55%) had been referred to the A&E department inappropriately. Conclusions—This study shows that where a mobile warden works in conjunction with the community alarm control centre the number of inappropriate referrals to the A&E department should be minimal. PMID:11005406

Youssef, G; Underhill, T; Tovey, C

2000-01-01

462

46 CFR 109.201 - Steering gear, whistles, general alarm, and means of communication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Steering gear, whistles, general alarm bells, and means of communication between the bridge or control room and the engine room on self propelled units are inspected and tested— (1) Within 12 hours before getting under way;...

2010-10-01

463

Does dinoflagellate bioluminescence deter shrimp grazing? An investigation into the Burglar Alarm Hypothesis  

E-print Network

). Investigations into some bioluminescent fungi and bacteria support this hypothesis; there is evidence;4 lignin (Lingle 1993). Similarly, in bacteria, bioluminescence has been linked to oxidation reactions1 Does dinoflagellate bioluminescence deter shrimp grazing? An investigation into the Burglar Alarm

464

S&E Ph.D. Unemployment Trends: Cause for Alarm?  

NSF Publications Database

S&E S&E Ph.D. Unemployment Trends: Cause For Alarm? (August 14, 1997) This Issue Brief compares ... population with similar trends in the unemployment rates for other segments of the U.S. population ...

465

46 CFR 95.05-1 - Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire detecting, manual alarm, and supervised patrol...CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Detecting and Extinguishing Equipment, Where...

2014-10-01

466

46 CFR 113.25-9 - Location of general emergency alarm signal.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING COMMUNICATION AND ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General...maintaining, repairing, or operating equipment, stowing or drawing stores or equipment, or transiting, such as...

2010-10-01

467

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots.  

PubMed

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls. PMID:17148318

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2006-03-22

468

Faecal glucocorticoid metabolites and alarm calling in free-living yellow-bellied marmots  

PubMed Central

When individuals of a variety of species encounter a potential predator, some, but not all, emit alarm calls. To explain the proximate basis of this variation, we compared faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations in live-trapped yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) between occasions when they did and did not emit alarm calls. We found that marmots had significantly higher glucocorticoid levels when they called than when they did not call, suggesting that stress or arousal may play an important role in potentiating alarm calls. Marmots are sensitive to variation in the reliability of callers. The present finding provides one possible mechanism underlying caller variation: physiological arousal influences the propensity to emit alarm calls. PMID:17148318

Blumstein, Daniel T; Patton, Marilyn L; Saltzman, Wendy

2005-01-01

469

An alarming solution: Bedwetting, medicine, and behavioral conditioning in mid-twentieth-century America.  

PubMed

This article explores the history of the bedwetting alarm, invented in 1938 by two psychologists to cure enuresis, or bedwetting, using the principles of classical conditioning. Infused with the optimism of behaviorism, the bedwetting alarm unexpectedly proved difficult to implement in practice, bearing a multitude of unanticipated complications that hindered its widespread acceptance. Introduced as a medical and psychological technology, in practice the alarm was also a child-rearing device, encouraging the kind of behavioristic attitudes that had prompted its initial development, while simultaneously promoting the child-centered approach that would become dominant in the early 1950s. The life story of the bedwetting alarm muddies the traditional account of how childrearing theories progressed in tidy succession, suggesting both that behavioristic approaches did not die out in the 1930s and that elements of permissive child-rearing were being considered earlier than we traditionally assume. PMID:20718274

Doroshow, Deborah Blythe

2010-06-01

470

Alarm responses in the crayfishOrconectes virilis andOrconectes propinquus.  

PubMed

Individuals of two species of crayfish (Orconectes virilis andO. propinquus) were tested in the laboratory for responses to chemicals released from physically damaged conspecifics. Individuals ofO. propinquus did not show an alarm response to crushed conspecifics. Individuals ofO. virilis responded to a water-borne substance released from crushed conspecifics by assuming an intermediate posture and ceasing movement. Similar alarm responses were shown by individuals ofO. virilis to crushed congeneric individuals (O. propinquus), and these responses were not eliminated by either freeze-thawing the crayfish used to prepare the signal or by treating freshly crushed crayfish with the enzyme trypsin. Individuals ofO. virilis showed strong feeding responses to solutions prepared from frozen fish flesh but showed a mixture of alarm and feeding responses to freshly killed fish. These results indicate that the alarm substance used byO. virilis is widespread. PMID:24242649

Hazlett, B A

1994-07-01

471

Two Odorant-Binding Proteins Mediate the Behavioural Response of Aphids to the Alarm Pheromone (E)-ß-farnesene and Structural Analogues  

PubMed Central

Background Aphids are agricultural pests of great economical interest. Alternatives to insecticides, using semiochemicals, are of difficult applications. In fact, sex pheromones are of little use as aphids reproduce partenogenetically most of the time. Besides, the alarm pheromone, (E)-ß-farnesene for a great number of species, is difficult to synthesize and unstable in the environment. The search for novel semiochemicals to be used in population control can be efficiently approached through the study of the olfactory system at the biochemical level. Recently odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have been shown to play a central role in olfactory recognition, thus becoming the target of choice for designing new semiochemicals. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the question of how the alarm message is recognised at the level of OBPs, we have tested 29 compounds, including (E)-ß-farnesene, in binding assays with 6 recombinant proteins and in behaviour experiments. We have found that good repellents bind OBP3 and/or OBP7, while non repellents present different spectra of binding. These results have been verified with two species of aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, both using (E)-ß-farnesene as the alarm pheromone. Conclusions Our results represent further support to the idea (so far convincingly demonstrated only in Drosophila) that OBPs are involved in decoding the chemical information of odorants and pheromones, and for the first time provide such evidence in other insect species and using wild-type insects. Moreover, the data offer guidelines and protocols for the discovery of potential alarm pheromones, using ligand-binding assays as a preliminary screening before subjecting selected compounds to behaviour tests. PMID:22427877

Qiao, Hui Li; Iovinella, Immacolata; Yang, Shao Xiang; Ling, Yun; Riviello, Lea; Battaglia, Donatella; Falabella, Patrizia; Yang, Xin Ling; Pelosi, Paolo

2012-01-01

472

( E,E )-?-Farnesene, an Alarm Pheromone of the Termite Prorhinotermes canalifrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavioral and electroantennographic responses of Prorhinotermes canalifrons to its soldier frontal gland secretion, and two separated major components of the secretion, (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene and (E,E)-?-farnesene, were studied in laboratory experiments. Behavioral experiments showed that both the frontal gland secretion\\u000a and (E,E)-?-farnesene triggered alarm reactions in P. canalifrons, whereas (E)-1-nitropentadec-1-ene did not affect the behavior of termite groups. The alarm reactions

Jan Šobotník; Robert Hanus; Blanka Kalinová; Rafal Piskorski; Josef Cva?ka; Thomas Bourguignon; Yves Roisin

2008-01-01

473

Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots,Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels,Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely

WALTER McKEE SHRINER

1998-01-01

474

Effectiveness of Alarm–Distress Calls for Frightening Herons from a Fish Rearing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of using alarm-distress calls of the black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax and the great blue heron Ardea herodias for frightening these piscivorous bird species from a rearing unit for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heron alarm–distress calls reduced black-crowned night heron numbers 48% during the 11-d treatment period, compared with the pretreatment period, but did not affect

William F. Andelt; Stuart N. Hopper

1996-01-01

475

Fathead Minnows, Pimephales promelas , Learn to Recognize Chemical Alarm Cues of Introduced Brook Stickleback, Culaea inconstans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four experiments conducted over a 6-year period, we investigated whether fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, could acquire the ability to recognize chemical alarm cues of introduced brook stickleback, Culaea inconstans. A laboratory experiment documented that stickleback-naïve minnows did not exhibit an anti-predator response when exposed to the chemical alarm cues of stickleback. In a laboratory experiment conducted 5 years after

Michael S. Pollock; Douglas P. Chivers; Reehan S. Mirza; Brian D. Wisenden

2003-01-01

476

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls.  

PubMed

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure. PMID:23466987

Blumstein, Daniel T; Nguyen, Kathy T; Martin, Julien G A

2013-05-01

477

Alarm pheromone is detected by the vomeronasal organ in male rats.  

PubMed

It is widely known that a stressed animal releases specific pheromones, possibly for alarming nearby conspecifics. We previously investigated an alarm pheromone in male rats and found that this alarm pheromone evokes several responses, including increases in the defensive and risk assessment behaviors in a modified open-field test, and enhancement of the acoustic startle reflex. However, the role of the vomeronasal organ in these pheromone effects remains unclear. To clarify this point, vomeronasal organ-excising or sham surgeries were performed in male rats for use in 2 experimental models, after which they were exposed to alarm pheromone. We found that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery blocked the effects of this alarm pheromone in both the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. In addition, the results of habituation/dishabituation test and soybean agglutinin binding to the accessory olfactory bulb suggested that the vomeronasal organ-excising surgery completely ablated the vomeronasal organ while preserving the functioning of the main olfactory system. From the above results, we showed that the vomeronasal organ plays an important role in alarm pheromone effects in the modified open-field test and acoustic startle reflex test. PMID:23821727

Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Kubota, Takahiro; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

2013-10-01

478

A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics.  

PubMed

Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

Magrath, Robert D; Bennett, Thomas H

2012-03-01

479

Residential carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning risks: correlates of observed CO alarm use in urban households.  

PubMed

The authors conducted a household survey and observation to assess carbon monoxide (CO) knowledge and risks as well as prevalence of CO alarms in an urban community prior to the enactment of a mandatory ordinance requiring CO alarms in one U.S. city. From July to December 2009, household surveys and observations were completed in 603 residences. Participants were mostly African-American (61%), women (70%), 25-54 years in age (66%), and with a high school education or less (51%). Most homes visited contained CO-producing appliances, including gas stoves (86%), gas furnaces (82%), and gas water heaters (79%). Participants' overall mean percentage correct knowledge score was 57%. CO alarms were reported by 33% of participants and observed among 28% of households. Low rates of CO knowledge and CO alarm ownership, combined with high rates of CO-producing sources in homes, suggests the need for widespread campaigns to promote CO alarms. Recommendations are also made to integrate the lessons learned from the public health community's experience promoting smoke alarms. PMID:24288848

McDonald, Eileen M; Gielen, Andrea C; Shields, Wendy C; Stepnitz, Rebecca; Parker, Elizabeth; Ma, Xia; Bishai, David

2013-10-01

480

Red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, produce predator-class specific alarm calls  

PubMed

Red squirrels, can produce alarm calls when they detect a potential predator. Observations of natural interactions between red squirrels and large birds, and predator-presentation experiments in the field, showed that red squirrels produce acoustically different alarm calls in response to aerial danger (live birds and a model hawk flown towards them) versus danger approaching from the ground (dogs and humans). The alarm call produced in response to aerial danger is acoustically convergent on the 'seet' alarm call produced by many species of passerine birds in response to raptors. The squirrels' 'seet' alarm is a short, low-amplitude, high-frequency call. These characteristics make the call difficult to localize, and is in a frequency range that is poorly perceived by raptors. Red squirrels produce much louder, wide-bandwidth bark calls in response to terrestrial danger. This is the first demonstration of predator-class specific alarm calls of red squirrels. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514668

Greene; Meagher

1998-03-01

481

Avoidance response of a terrestrial salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) to chemical alarm cues.  

PubMed

Organisms from a wide variety of taxonomic groups possess chemical alarm cues that are important in mediating predator avoidance. However, little is known about the presence of such alarm cues in most amphibians, and in particular terrestrial salamanders. In this study we tested whether adult long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) showed an avoidance response to stimuli from injured conspecifics. Avoidance of stimuli from injured conspecifics could represent avoidance of a chemical alarm cue or, alternatively, avoidance of a territorial pheromone or conspecific predator odor. Consequently, we also tested whether salamanders avoided stimuli from noninjured conspecifics. Salamanders avoided stimuli from injured but not from noninjured conspecifics. Therefore, we concluded that the response to injured conspecifics represents avoidance of a chemical alarm cue and not avoidance of a territorial pheromone or predator cue. This is the first clear demonstration of chemical alarm signaling by a terrestrial amphibian and the first report of chemical alarm signaling in an ambystomatid salamander. By avoiding an area containing stimuli from injured conspecifics, long-toed salamanders may lower their risk of predation by avoiding areas where predators are foraging. PMID:24226482

Chivers, D P; Kiesecker, J M; Anderson, M T; Wildy, E L; Blaustein, A R

1996-09-01

482

Ontogenetic variation of heritability and maternal effects in yellow-bellied marmot alarm calls  

PubMed Central

Individuals of many species produce distinctive vocalizations that may relay potential information about the signaller. The alarm calls of some species have been reported to be individually specific, and this distinctiveness may allow individuals to access the reliability or kinship of callers. While not much is known generally about the heritability of mammalian vocalizations, if alarm calls were individually distinctive to permit kinship assessment, then call structure should be heritable. Here, we show conclusively for the first time that alarm call structure is heritable. We studied yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) and made nine quantitative measurements of their alarm calls. With a known genealogy, we used the animal model (a statistical technique) to estimate alarm call heritability. In juveniles, only one of the measured variables had heritability significantly different from zero; however, most variables had significant maternal environmental effects. By contrast, yearlings and adults had no significant maternal environmental effects, but the heritability of nearly all measured variables was significantly different from zero. Some, but not all of these heritable effects were significantly different across age classes. The presence of significantly non-zero maternal environmental effects in juveniles could reflect the impact of maternal environmental stresses on call structure. Regardless of this mechanism, maternal environmental effects could permit kinship recognition in juveniles. In older animals, the substantial genetic basis of alarm call structure suggests that calls could be used to assess kinship and, paradoxically, might also suggest a role of learning in call structure. PMID:23466987

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Nguyen, Kathy T.; Martin, Julien G. A.

2013-01-01

483

Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts  

SciTech Connect

There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of colored indicator lights and colored print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm color scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the color blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing setups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

Tinker, Michael R.

2010-10-01

484

Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of coloured indicator lights and coloured print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm colour scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the colour blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing set-ups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered. PMID:20858682

Tinker, M

2010-10-01

485

Cost-benefit analysis of an emergency alarm and response system: a case study of a long-term care program.  

PubMed Central

Cost-benefit analyses are routinely included in evaluations of acute care programs. In the case of long-term care, it is frequently alleged that cost-benefit analysis cannot be fruitfully applied. This article demonstrates the utility of applying cost-benefit analysis to evaluations of long-term care programs. A case study is presented in which cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate an emergency alarm and response system developed to monitor the safety of vulnerable and disabled persons in their home environment. PMID:6453110

Ruchlin, H S; Morris, J N

1981-01-01

486

POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with bentonite during the first quarter of 2006 and monitored during subsequent inspections. The cover vegetation was healthy and well established. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The inspections at UC-3 indicated that the sites are in excellent condition. All monuments and signs showed no displacement, damage, or removal. A small erosion gully from spring rain runoff was observed during the June inspection, but it did not grow to an actionable level during 2005. No other issues or concerns were identified. Inspections performed at UC-4 Mud Pit C cover revealed that erosion rills were formed during March and September exposing the geosynthetic clay liner. Both erosion rills were repaired within 90 days of reporting. Sparse vegetation is present on the cover. The overall condition of the monuments, fence, and gate are in good condition. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other four UC-4 locations. Subsidence surveys were conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in March and September of 2005. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed. The June vegetation survey of the UC-1 CMP cover and adjacent areas indicated that the revegetation has been very successful. The vegetation should continue to be monitored to document any changes in the plant community and identify conditions that could potentially require remedial action in order to maintain a viable vegetative cover on the site. Vegetation surveys should be conducted only as required. Precipitation during 2005 was above average, with an annual rainfall total of 21.79 centimeters (8.58 inches). Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 CMP cover is performing as designed, with evapotranspiration effectively removing water from the cover. It is recommended to continue quarterly site inspections and the collection of soil moisture data for the UC-1 CMP cove

NONE

2006-04-01

487

Sleep: the sound of a local alarm clock.  

PubMed

Besides the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, additional clocks are distributed across the central nervous system and the body. The role of these 'secondary' clocks remains unclear. A new study shows that the lack of an internal clock in histamine neurons profoundly perturbs sleep. PMID:25562304

Adamantidis, Antoine R

2015-01-01

488

An Optimized International Vehicle Monitor  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to evaluate detector configurations to achieve a vehicle monitor that is economical, practical to install, and has adequate sensitivity to be an effective barrier to illegal transportation of special nuclear materials. We designed a new detector configuration that improves the sensitivity of available drive-through vehicle monitors by more than a factor of 5 while not changing the nuisance alarm rate.

York, R.L.; Close, D.A.; Fehlau, P.E.

1999-07-16

489

Interspecific semantic alarm call recognition in the solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis.  

PubMed

As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This "eavesdropping" was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species' and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect predators early, and that the lemurs' reactions are based on experience and learning. PMID:23825658

Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W

2013-01-01

490

Interspecific Semantic Alarm Call Recognition in the Solitary Sahamalaza Sportive Lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis  

PubMed Central

As alarm calls indicate the presence of predators, the correct interpretation of alarm calls, including those of other species, is essential for predator avoidance. Conversely, communication calls of other species might indicate the perceived absence of a predator and hence allow a reduction in vigilance. This “eavesdropping” was demonstrated in birds and mammals, including lemur species. Interspecific communication between taxonomic groups has so far been reported in some reptiles and mammals, including three primate species. So far, neither semantic nor interspecific communication has been tested in a solitary and nocturnal lemur species. The aim of this study was to investigate if the nocturnal and solitary Sahamalaza sportive lemur, Lepilemur sahamalazensis, is able to access semantic information of sympatric species. During the day, this species faces the risk of falling prey to aerial and terrestrial predators and therefore shows high levels of vigilance. We presented alarm calls of the crested coua, the Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial, terrestrial and agitation alarm calls of the blue-eyed black lemur to 19 individual Sahamalaza sportive lemurs resting in tree holes. Songs of both bird species’ and contact calls of the blue-eyed black lemur were used as a control. After alarm calls of crested coua, Madagascar magpie-robin and aerial alarm of the blue-eyed black lemur, the lemurs scanned up and their vigilance increased significantly. After presentation of terrestrial alarm and agitation calls of the blue-eyed black lemur, the animals did not show significant changes in scanning direction or in the duration of vigilance. Sportive lemur vigilance decreased after playbacks of songs of the bird species and contact calls of blue-eyed black lemurs. Our results indicate that the Sahamalaza sportive lemur is capable of using information on predator presence as well as predator type of different sympatric species, using their referential signals to detect predators early, and that the lemurs’ reactions are based on experience and learning. PMID:23825658

Seiler, Melanie; Schwitzer, Christoph; Gamba, Marco; Holderied, Marc W.

2013-01-01

491

CENTRAL AVENUE CENTRAL AVENUE  

E-print Network

., 10 am­4 pm 2 China Moon Restaurant 121 Central Park Sq. 662-2883 Chinese, Thai, and vegetarian. Mon am­3 pm Sat.­Sun., 7 am­3 pm 8 El Parasol 1903 Central Avenue 661-0303 Native New Mexican food. Mon, hamburgers, and New Mexican food. Tues.­Fri., 6 am­1 pm Sat., 7 am­noon Closed Sunday & Monday 11 Sonic Drive

492

CENTRAL AVENUE CENTRAL AVENUE  

E-print Network

Sun., 10 am­4 pm 2 China Moon Restaurant 121 Central Park Sq. 662-2883 Chinese, Thai, and vegetarian Mexican food. Mon.­Fri., 7 am­6 pm Sat., 8 am­2 pm; Sun., 9 am­2 pm 9 Home Run Pizza 1627 Central Avenue-7591 Breakfast burritos, hamburgers, and New Mexican food. Tues.­Fri., 6 am­1 pm Sat., 7 am­noon Closed Sunday

493

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

494

Improved detection and false alarm rejection for chemical vapors using passive hyperspectral imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two AIRIS sensors were tested at Dugway Proving Grounds against chemical agent vapor simulants. The primary objectives of the test were to: 1) assess performance of algorithm improvements designed to reduce false alarm rates with a special emphasis on solar effects, and 3) evaluate performance in target detection at 5 km. The tests included 66 total releases comprising alternating 120 kg glacial acetic acid (GAA) and 60 kg triethyl phosphate (TEP) events. The AIRIS sensors had common algorithms, detection thresholds, and sensor parameters. The sensors used the target set defined for the Joint Service Lightweight Chemical Agent Detector (JSLSCAD) with TEP substituted for GA and GAA substituted for VX. They were exercised at two sites located at either 3 km or 5 km from the release point. Data from the tests will be presented showing that: 1) excellent detection capability was obtained at both ranges with significantly shorter alarm times at 5 km, 2) inter-sensor comparison revealed very comparable performance, 3) false alarm rates < 1 incident per 10 hours running time over 143 hours of sensor operations were achieved, 4) algorithm improvements eliminated both solar and cloud false alarms. The algorithms enabling the improved false alarm rejection will be discussed. The sensor technology has recently been extended to address the problem of detection of liquid and solid chemical agents and toxic industrial chemical on surfaces. The phenomenology and applicability of passive infrared hyperspectral imaging to this problem will be discussed and demonstrated.

Marinelli, William J.; Miyashiro, Rex; Gittins, Christopher M.; Konno, Daisei; Chang, Shing; Farr, Matt; Perkins, Brad

2013-05-01

495

Alarm calls modulate the spatial structure of a breeding owl community  

PubMed Central

Animals should continuously assess the threat of predation. Alarm calls inform on predation risk and are often used as cues to shape behavioural responses in birds and mammals. Hitherto, however, the ecological consequences of alarm calls in terms of organization of animal communities have been neglected. Here, we show experimentally that calls of a resident nocturnal raptor, the little owl Athene noctua, triggered a response in terms of breeding habitat selection and investment in current reproduction in conspecifics and heterospecifics. Little owls preferred to settle in territories where calls of conspecifics, irrespective of their type (i.e. alarm versus contact calls), were broadcasted, indicating that either conspecific attraction exists or calls are interpreted as foreign calls, eliciting settlement as a mode of defence against competitors. Also, we found that little owls seemed to invest more in current reproduction in safe territories as revealed by conspecific calls. Innovatively, we reported that a second owl species, the migratory scops owl Otus scops, preferred to breed in safe territories as indicated by little owls' calls. These results evidence that the emission of alarm calls may have, apart from well-known behavioural effects, ecological consequences in natural communities by inducing species-specific biases in breeding habitat selection. This study demonstrates a previously unsuspected informative role of avian alarm calls which may modulate the spatial structure of species within communities. PMID:22279165

Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M.; Rodríguez, Juan

2012-01-01

496

Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls  

PubMed

When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely interact. In a crossed design, marmot and squirrel alarm calls were broadcast to individuals of both species, using the song of a sympatric bird as a control. Individuals of both species responded similarly to conspecific and heterospecific anti-predator calls, and distinguished both types of alarms from the bird song. These results indicate that both marmots and squirrels recognized not only their own species' anti-predator vocalizations, but also the alarm calls of another species, and that these vocalizations were discriminated from an equally loud non-threatening sound. These findings suggest that researchers ought to think broadly when considering the sources of information available to animals in their natural environment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9514669

Shriner

1998-03-01

497

Chemical Alarm Cues Are Conserved within the Coral Reef Fish Family Pomacentridae  

PubMed Central

Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis. PMID:23094047

Mitchell, Matthew D.; Cowman, Peter F.; McCormick, Mark I.

2012-01-01

498

Impact of spectral smoothing on gamma radiation portal alarm probabilities.  

PubMed

Gamma detector counts are included in radiation portal monitors (RPM) to screen for illicit nuclear material. Gamma counts are sometimes smoothed to reduce variance in the estimated underlying true mean count rate, which is the "signal" in our context. Smoothing reduces total error variance in the estimated signal if the bias that smoothing introduces is more than offset by the variance reduction. An empirical RPM study for vehicle screening applications is presented for unsmoothed and smoothed gamma counts in low-resolution plastic scintillator detectors and in medium-resolution NaI detectors. PMID:21612936

Burr, T; Hamada, M; Hengartner, N

2011-10-01

499

Development of ultrasonic motor and application to silent alarm analog quartz watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasonic motor was developed for use in new generation watches and portable information devices. This motor shows promise as a new principle actuator. Measuring 10 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm thick, this ultrasonic motor is the world's smallest for practical use. Powered by a single lithium coin battery, this motor is expected to be applied to a broad range of miniature devices, including watches. The structure of the motor makes it possible to reduce its size and drive frequency. This motor was used to incorporate a silent alarm into an analog quartz watch. Unlike conventional electronic alarm watches, an eccentric weight rotates intermittently at high speed generating gentle vibration which notifies the wearer. The silent alarm analog quartz watch which incorporates the new ultrasonic motor, as well as the influence of design parameters on the performance of the ultrasonic motor, are described.

Kasuga, Masao; Satoh, Takashi; Hirotomi, Jun; Kawata, Masayuki

500

Monitoring of gully erosion in the Central Ebro Basin by large-scale aerial photography taken from a remotely controlled blimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large deep gullies (Span. barrancos) are some of the most important sediment sources in the semi-arid environment of the Central Ebro Basin. They are incised into the Quaternary valley bottoms (Span. vales), which are characteristic landforms in this area. In the research project EPRODESERT (Evaluation of Processes Leading to Land Degradation and Desertification under Extensified Farming Systems), the development of

J. B. Ries; I. Marzolff

2003-01-01