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Sample records for central domain eastern

  1. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. PMID:26632483

  2. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  3. Prognosis of Central-Eastern Mediterranean waterspouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keul, Alexander G.; Sioutas, Michalis V.; Szilagyi, Wade

    The North American waterspout forecasting methodology by Szilagyi is applied on a sample of 110 waterspout events for the years 2002-2006 over the Central-Eastern Mediterranean (the Adriatic, Ionian and Aegean Sea). First, the geographical distribution and frequency of the phenomena are shown. Four synoptic types of waterspout-prone circulation patterns are considered. For the Adriatic cases, five thermodynamic indices (KI, TT, SWEAT, CAPE, BRN) are used as possible predictors. The testing of the Szilagyi Waterspout Nomogram and Index (SWI), developed for the Great Lakes region, was favorable for the Mediterranean case data, validating its use as a prognostic tool. Results were presented and discussed at the 4th European Conference on Severe Storms ECSS at Trieste. Meteorologists should standardize and evaluate waterspout prognostic tools and implement a visual interface to improve the service for relevant user groups.

  4. Crustal Structure in Central-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, A.; Thybo, H.

    2013-12-01

    We present the seismic structure in the interior of Greenland based on the first measurements by the seismic refraction/wide angle reflection method. Previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up and may not be representative of the interior of the island. Acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The EW-trending profile extends 310 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund across the centre of the ice cap. The planned extension of the profile by use of OBSs and air gun shooting in Scoresbysund Fjord to the east coast of Greenland was unfortunately cancelled, because navigation was prevented by ice drift. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 100 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Two-dimensional velocity model based on forward ray tracing and tomography modelling shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western part to 40 km in the eastern part of the profile. Earlier studies show that crustal thickness further decreases eastward to ca. 30 km below the fjord system, but details of the changes are unknown. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may indicate past collision tectonics or may be related or to the passage of the Iceland mantle plume. The origin of the pronounced circum-Atlantic mountain ranges in Norway and eastern Greenland, which have

  5. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  6. Tectonic architecture of central Georgia Eastern Piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, H.D. Jr.; Brueggemann, M.; Pospisil, M. . Dept. of Geography and Geology); Boland, I.; Pray, J.; Secor, D.T.; Steinke, T.; West, T. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Sacks, P. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Recent work suggests the following for the tectonic architecture of the central Georgia Eastern Piedmont. The Alleghenian-age, Modoc fault zone (MZ), first defined in S. Carolina, continues along strike (c. S60W) at least to the Ocmulgee R. (net length = 250 km), where it converges with the Ocmulgee (OF) and Goat Rock (GR) faults. Diverging to the S from the MZ is a sharp contact between migmatitic amphibolites and gneisses of the Sinclair Lake terrane (SLt) and lower grade metapelites and metapsammites of the Milledgeville terrane (Mt). Both are introduced by post-kinematic granites (likely Alleghanian). A previously undescribed, 10 km long ultramafite belt within SLt, the Shoulderbone zone (Sz), is concordantly foliated with respect to surrounding rocks--hence emplacement is considered as pre- or synkinematic. Numerous smaller ultramafite bodies exist within SLt, Metavolcanic rocks N of SLt and the intervening MZ are interpreted as Carolina slate belt (CSB) rocks extending farther SW than often depicted. Arc volcanism and plutonism, terrane amalgamation and subsequent Alleghanian plutonism, dextral shear zones (some with extensional components), and local tight folding contributed to the present architecture. Locally, accretionary wedge material may exist, but the authors find published views and maps describing the entire area as primarily an accretionary wedge thrust stack to be inappropriate.

  7. INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FROM WESTERN SECTION, THROUGH CENTRAL SECTION, TO EASTERN SECTION, VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Aircraft Storehouse, Between Midway & Card Streets at Enterprise Avenue intersection, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Labour Markets and Training in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesporova, Alena

    1997-01-01

    Economic upheaval in Central and Eastern Europe has led to excessive labor supply, increased unemployment, and enforced economic inactivity. Economic policies promoting growth, efficiency, and education and training to improve the quality and adaptability of the workforce are needed. (SK)

  9. Environment and health in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzman, C.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the influence of environmental pollution on human health in comparison with other determinants of health in Central and Eastern Europe; to summarize current knowledge about locations in Central and Eastern Europe where environmental pollution has influenced human health; and to identify the principal types of environmental exposure which are affecting human health and could be subject to remediation through concerted environmental action.

  10. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  11. Forecasting damaging earthquakes in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishenko, S.P.; Bollinger, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of seismograph network data, earthquake catalogs from 1727 to 1982, and paleoseismic data for the central and eastern United States indicate that the Poisson probability of a damaging earthquake (magnitude ??? 6.0) occurring during the next 30 years is at a moderate to high level (0.4 to 0.6). When differences in seismic wave attenuation are taken into account, the central and eastern United States has approximately two-thirds the likelihood of California to produce an earthquake with comparable damage area and societal impact within the next 30 years.

  12. Forecasting damaging earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nishenko, S P; Bollinger, G A

    1990-09-21

    Analysis of seismograph network data, earthquake catalogs from 1727 to 1982, and paleoseismic data for the central and eastern United States indicate that the Poisson probability of a damaging earthquake (magnitude >/= 6.0) occurring during the next 30 years is at a moderate to high level (0.4 to 0.6). When differences in seismic wave attenuation are taken into account, the central and eastern United States has approximately two-thirds the likelihood of California to produce an earthquake with comparable damage area and societal impact within the next 30 years. PMID:17812170

  13. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  14. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  15. Lessons Learned After Several Years in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Daniel S.

    1995-01-01

    As Western educators help Central and Eastern European institutions develop programs in business and economics education, five areas require attention: (1) team teaching by local and Western faculty; (2) coordination between host and Western institutions; (3) institution building; (4) careful selection and preparation of faculty to provide…

  16. 6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL PIER AND ASSOCIATED SUPERSTRUCTURE, AND CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION. NOTE THE JOIN BETWEEN EYE-BAR (LEFT) AND RIVETED CHANNEL (RIGHT) LOWER BRIDGE CHORDS AT CENTER LEFT OF PHOTOGRAPH. FACING NORTH. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  17. 5. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF THE EASTERN BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING CENTRAL CUT AND MORTARED STONE PIER AND ASSOCIATED STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE (CENTER), AND CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION (RIGHT). FACING NORTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  18. Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Multilingual Matters 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt, Ed.; Peckham, Donald, Ed.

    This collection aims to provide an introductory study of linguistic minorities in Central and Eastern Europe, taking into account historical development, present situation, language maintenance and shifts, as well as language and educational policies of the different countries in the area. The introduction (by Christina Bratt Paulston) discusses a…

  19. Priorities for Higher Education in Central and Eastern European Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaviksoo, Jaak

    1997-01-01

    The Estonian Minister of Education discusses recent higher education trends and developments in Central and Eastern European countries, including the growth of institutional autonomy, expansion of educational opportunity, financial issues and privatization, balancing of academic and vocational education needs, part-time and continuing education,…

  20. A sharp Moho step under Central and Eastern Betics, Western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Aguilera-Molina, Antonio; Heit, Benjamin; Morales, Jose; Yuan, Xiaohui; Stich, Daniel; Martin, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Previous geophysical studies in the northern limit of the western Mediterranean region have showed that the Iberian crust understrusts the Alboran domain under its contact with the External zones. They observe the presence of slab-type feature of Iberian lithosphere at the western Betics and interpret tearing and delamination of this Iberian slab at central and eastern Betics. To map the variations of the lithospheric structure between the different geological domains under central and eastern Betics, we deploy two dense seismic profiles (~120 and ~160 km length). The spacing between stations, around 2-3 km, allows mapping with high accuracy variations of the crustal structure. By interpreting P-receiver functions, we observe sharp Moho steps of ~15-17 km underneath the Internal zones (Alboran domain) at both profiles. The images suggest that the Iberian crust undertrusts the more deformed Alboran crust and terminates sharply under the contact between the Alpujarride and the Nevado-Filabre complexes (Alboran domain). The thickness of the Iberian crust near the edge, ~17 km, and its position along the contact suggest that the breaking of the Iberian slab occurs in the transitional crust of the Iberian Paleomargin.

  1. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań. PMID:26558656

  2. Late Oligocene to early Miocene lateral extrusion at the eastern border of the Lepontine dome of the central Alps (Bergell and Insubric areas, eastern central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciancaleoni, Laurent; Marquer, Didier

    2008-07-01

    How the internal domain of the central Alps deformed during late stages of the continental collision remains poorly understood. To fill this gap in knowledge, we present new data constraining the late Alpine brittle and brittle-ductile tectonics in Oligocene intrusions of the Bergell Alps (eastern central Alps). Syncollisional late normal faulting is widespread at all investigated scales, but part of the deformation observed is also associated with oblique-slip and transcurrent displacements. The faults are explained by stress permutations in space and time implying the three principal stress axes and correspond to different homoaxial states of stress of one single transtensive tectonic event. Motion on these faults accommodated coeval orogen-parallel extension and orogen-perpendicular contraction, during oblique indentation by the Southern alpine crust. Extensional and transcurrent structures likely formed by lateral extrusion of the Bergell Alps via distributed eastward extrusion of imbricated wedge-shaped crustal blocks, during the late Oligocene and lower Miocene. A first-order wedge-shaped crustal block in the Bergell Alps is represented by three coeval segments of the Periadriatic Fault System (namely the Tonale, Engadine, and Forcola faults). The eastern central segment of the Alpine belt appears to have deformed during the late Oligocene and lower Miocene in a similar way to its extremities where lateral escape tectonics occurred at least until the upper Miocene, according to free boundary availabilities.

  3. Surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Dagan, Ron; Sayiner, Abdullah; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Dinleyici, Ener Çağrı; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Kulcsár, Andrea; Mad'arová, Lucia; Pazdiora, Petr; Sidorenko, Sergey; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Tambić-Andrašević, Arjana; Yeraliyeva, Lyazzat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumococcal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease associated with S. pneumoniae is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (e.g. PCV7, PCV13) provide protection from invasive pneumococcal disease as well as non-invasive infection (pneumonia, acute otitis media), and decrease vaccine-type nasopharyngeal colonisation, thus reducing transmission to unvaccinated individuals. PCVs have also been shown to reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal disease. Surveillance for pneumococcal disease is important to understand local epidemiology, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance rates. Surveillance systems also help to inform policy development, including vaccine recommendations, and monitor the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. National pneumococcal surveillance systems exist in a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (such as Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), and some have introduced PCVs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Russia, Slovakia and Turkey). Those countries without established programs (such as Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) may be able to learn from the experiences of those with national surveillance systems. The serotype distributions and impact of PCV13 on pediatric pneumococcal diseases are relatively similar in different parts of the world, suggesting that approaches to vaccination used elsewhere are also likely to be effective in Central and Eastern Europe. This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, presents the latest surveillance data from Central and Eastern Europe, and discusses any similarities and differences in these data as well the potential implications for vaccination policies in the region. PMID:27096714

  4. Population change and environment in central and eastern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Downing, T E; Lezberg, S; Williams, C; Berry, L

    1990-01-01

    "This paper, in compiling a case-study of six districts in Central and Eastern Provinces of Kenya, addresses the two poles of theory regarding population, environment, and economy--restricted growth and degradation versus induced change and intensification. The paper presents data on population change, and explores its relevance for changing patterns of resource use and economic opportunity.... Changes in population density between the 1969 and 1979 censuses are compiled, using regions of agroclimatic potential as surrogates for indicators of economic development.... Trends in urbanization are also analysed, to illuminate the dynamics of rural-urban linkages." PMID:12284155

  5. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  6. Jurassic petroleum trends in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain and central and eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1986-05-01

    Three Jurassic petroleum trends can be delineated in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico. These trends are recognized by characteristic petroleum traps, reservoirs, and hydrocarbon types. The source for the Jurassic hydrocarbons is Smackover algal mudstones. The Jurassic oil trend includes the area north of the regional peripheral fault systems in the tri-state area, and extends into the area north of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs and salt anticlines, with Smackover grainstones and dolostones and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones as reservoirs. This trend has potential for Jurassic oil accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic oil and gas-condensate trend includes the onshore area between the regional peripheral fault systems and Wiggins arch and extends into the area of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs, salt related anticlines, and extensional faults. Cotton Valley fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Haynesville carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Smackover grainstones, packstones, dolostones, and marine sandstones, and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones serve as reservoirs. This trend contains most of the Jurassic fields in the eastern Gulf coastal plain. The trend has high potential for significant petroleum accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic deep natural gas trend includes the onshore area south of the Wiggins arch and extends into the Mississippi-Alabama shelf. Traps are faulted salt anticlines with basement highs as potential traps. Cotton Valley deltaic-strandplain sandstones and Norphlet eolian sandstones are the reservoirs. Several gas discoveries below 20,000 ft have been made in this trend in Mississippi and offshore Alabama. The trend has excellent potential for major gas accumulations in coastal Alabama and central Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Hydrocarbon potential of Central Monagas, Eastern Venezuela Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, F.; Daza, J.; Iusco, G.

    1996-08-01

    The Central Monagas area is part of the foreland sub-basin located on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The sedimentary column of the Central Monagas is at least 7500 in thick and consists of Mesozoic (Cretaceous) and Cenozoic rocks. Interpretations of 60 regional seismic sections have been integrated with data from 12 existing wells, which cover an area of 1200 km{sup 2}. From these interpretations, basin-wide structure and interval isopach maps were constructed in order to aid the depiction of the basin architecture and tectonic history. The sub-basin developed on the southern flank of the Eastern Venezuela Basin is tightly linked to its evolution from a Mesozoic extensional regime into a Cenozoic compressional and strike-slip stage. The basin formed in the Middle Mesozoic by crustal extension of a rifting process. Regional northward tilting of the slab continued during the Late Cretaceous. Finally, the transpression of the Caribbean Plate during the Oligocene-Neogene induced the overprint of compressional deformation associated with the deposition of a foredeep wedge. Geochemical source rock analysis gave an average of 1.2 TOC, and R{sub o} of 0.66 indicating a mature, marine source. The modeling of the hydrocarbon generative history of the basin indicates that the oil migration started in the Middle Miocene, after the trap was formed. Analysis and mapping of reservoir rocks and seal rocks defined the effective area limits of these critical factors. The main play in the area is the extension of the Lower Oficina Formation which is the proven petroleum target in the Eastern Venezuela Basin.

  8. Active shallow extension in central and eastern Betic Cordillera from CGPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Gil, A. J.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Lacy, M. C.; García-Armenteros, J. A.; Ruano, P.; Ruiz, A. M.; Martínez-Martos, M.; Alfaro, P.

    2015-11-01

    The Betic Cordillera is an Alpine belt formed in the western Mediterranean by the westward displacement of the Alboran Domain in between the Eurasian and African convergent plates. New CGPS data from the central and eastern Betic Cordillera and its foreland-obtained mainly from the Topo-Iberia project-allowed us to precisely determine the rate of tectonic deformation. Most of the displacements of the central and eastern Betics are westward, with a variable southwestward component, in relation to the Eurasian stable plate. While in the Iberian foreland the displacements are extremely low, some deformation related to low compressional deformation occurs in the easternmost foreland basin and eastern Betic Cordillera. The displacement increases substantially southwards and westwards in relation to present-day extensional deformation. Major active discontinuities correspond to the NW-SE normal fault zones, which dip westwards; they are located in Almeria-Tabernas; Balanegra, and western Sierra de Gador; whereas the Padul fault zone located west of Sierra Nevada extends northwards to the Granada Basin. NW-SE extensional faults are also observed to the north, in the Baza Basin. Moreover, the activity of dextral faults along the Sorbas-Tabernas-Alpujarras-Guajares band, generally considered as a transfer fault zone, is evidenced by the displacement data. These results come to demonstrate the low activity or inactivity of the large northern E-W oriented folds of the central and eastern Internal Zone, such as the Sierra de Los Filabres antiform. They also point to the possible residual activity of the northern part of the NE-SW Sierra Nevada antiform, where the maximum relief of the Cordillera is found. Altogether, our data support a heterogeneous present-day westward extension that affects the upper crust of the Betic Cordillera and increases towards the thinned continental crust of the Alboran Sea and towards the west, which is compatible with roll-back subduction along

  9. A sharp Moho step under the Central and Eastern Betics, Western Mediterranean region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Heit, Benjamin; Morales, Jose; Heit, Xiaohui; Molina-Aguilera, Antonio; Stich, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    We map the lithospheric structure under the central and eastern Betics (western Mediterranean region) interpreting P-receiver functions obtained from two dense seismic profiles (HIRE and Transcorbe profiles of ~120 km and 160 km of length, respectively). The goal is to study the lithospheric structure and its variations between the different geological domains, from the Alboran domain in the south (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif in the north. One of the profiles (HIRE), North-South oriented, crosses the Sierra Nevada Mountains, one of the prominent features in the Western Mediterranean tectonic region with the highest topography of the Iberia peninsula (~3400 m). The spacing between stations, around 2km, allows mapping with high accuracy of the variations of the crustal structure. We observe a sharp Moho step of ~15 km under the Internal zones of the Alboran domain coinciding the thinner crust with the highest topography along the profile. This agrees with the prior hypothesis about the lack of crustal root underneath Sierra Nevada Mountains and opens a question about the source of the dynamic compensation of its topography. Previous studies showed that the Iberian crust understrust the Alboran domain under its contact with the External zones observing the presence of slab-type feature of Iberian lithosphere at the western Betics while tearing and delamination of this Iberian slab is proposed at eastern Betics. We observe that the Iberian crust undertrust the Alboran domain and terminate sharply under the contact between the Alpujarride and the Nevado-Filabre complexes (Alboran domain).

  10. Mitochondrial control region variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis populations from the central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Giantsis, Ioannis A; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species' inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  11. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Giantsis, Ioannis A.; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J.; Angelidis, Panagiotis; Apostolidis, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    The variable domain 1 (VD1) domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE) Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey). A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece), relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels. PMID:24983478

  12. Pn Tomography of the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Sandvol, E. A.; Liu, M.

    2005-12-01

    Approximately 44,000 Pn phase readings from the ISC and NEIC catalogs and 750 hand picked arrivals were inverted to map the velocity structure of mantle lithosphere in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Overall we have a high density of ray paths within the active seismic zones in the eastern and southern parts of the CEUS, while ray coverage is relatively poor to the west of Great Lakes as well as along the eastern and southern coastlines of the U.S. The average Pn velocity in the CEUS is approximately 8.03 km/s. High Pn velocities (~8.18 km/s) within the northeastern part of the North American shield are reliable, while the resolution of the velocity image of the American shield around the mid-continent rift (MCR) is relatively low due to the poor ray coverage. Under the East Continent Rift (EC), the northern part of the Reelfoot Rift Zone (RRZ), and the South Oklahoma Aulacogen (SO), we also observe high velocity lithospheric mantle (~8.13-8.18 km/s). Typical Pn velocities (~7.98 km/s) are found between those three high velocity blocks. Low velocities are shown in the northern and southern Appalachians (~7.88-7.98 km/s) as well as the Rio Grande Rift (~7.88 km/s). In the portion of our model with the highest ray density, the Pn azimuthal anisotropy seems to be robust. These fast directions appear to mirror the boundaries of the low Pn velocity zone and parallel the Appalachians down to the southwest.

  13. On the annual cycle in the tropical eastern central Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.

    1994-12-01

    In the tropical eastern central Pacific Ocean, the annual cycle in sea surface temperature (SST), surface winds and pressure, and clouds are alternatively dominated by an antisymmetric (with respect to the equator) monsoonal mode in February and August and a quasi-symmetric equatorial-coastal mode in May and November, both having a period of one year. The monsoonal mode is forced by the differential insolation between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The surface wind variation of the monsoonal mode tends to lead SST variation in late spring/fall. The equatorial-coastal mode originates from atmosphere-ocean interaction. Its development is characterized by contemporaneous intensification and spatial expansion (westward and poleward phase propagation). The interaction between the forced monsoonal mode and the coupled equatorial-coastal mode plays a critical role in the annual cycle. From October to February, the decline of the southern winter regime of the monsoonal mode initiates and sustains the amplification of the equatorial-coastal mode, causing annual weakening of the the cold tongue. From April to June, the enhancement of the poleward SST gradient associated with the decay of the equatorial-coastal mode initiates the eastern North Pacific summer monsoon. Atmosphere-ocean interaction is directly responsible for the annual weakening and reestablishment of the cold tongue, whereas the annual cycle in insolation regulates the interaction indirectly through the forced monsoonal mode. 32 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  15. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  16. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  17. An update of Quaternary faults of central and eastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weldon, Ray J., II; Fletcher, D.K.; Weldon, E.M.; Scharer, K.M.; McCrory, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is the online version of a CD-ROM publication. We have updated the eastern portion of our previous active fault map of Oregon (Pezzopane, Nakata, and Weldon, 1992) as a contribution to the larger USGS effort to produce digital maps of active faults in the Pacific Northwest region. The 1992 fault map has seen wide distribution and has been reproduced in essentially all subsequent compilations of active faults of Oregon. The new map provides a substantial update of known active or suspected active faults east of the Cascades. Improvements in the new map include (1) many newly recognized active faults, (2) a linked ArcInfo map and reference database, (3) more precise locations for previously recognized faults on shaded relief quadrangles generated from USGS 30-m digital elevations models (DEM), (4) more uniform coverage resulting in more consistent grouping of the ages of active faults, and (5) a new category of 'possibly' active faults that share characteristics with known active faults, but have not been studied adequately to assess their activity. The distribution of active faults has not changed substantially from the original Pezzopane, Nakata and Weldon map. Most faults occur in the south-central Basin and Range tectonic province that is located in the backarc portion of the Cascadia subduction margin. These faults occur in zones consisting of numerous short faults with similar rates, ages, and styles of movement. Many active faults strongly correlate with the most active volcanic centers of Oregon, including Newberry Craters and Crater Lake.

  18. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. PMID:15046838

  19. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined. PMID:22797238

  20. HTA Implementation Roadmap in Central and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Kaló, Zoltán; Gheorghe, Adrian; Huic, Mirjana; Csanádi, Marcell; Kristensen, Finn Boerlum

    2016-02-01

    The opportunity cost of inappropriate health policy decisions is greater in Central and Eastern European (CEE) compared with Western European (WE) countries because of poorer population health and more limited healthcare resources. Application of health technology assessment (HTA) prior to healthcare financing decisions can improve the allocative efficiency of scarce resources. However, few CEE countries have a clear roadmap for HTA implementation. Examples from high-income countries may not be directly relevant, as CEE countries cannot allocate so much financial and human resources for substantiating policy decisions with evidence. Our objective was to describe the main HTA implementation scenarios in CEE countries and summarize the most important questions related to capacity building, financing HTA research, process and organizational structure for HTA, standardization of HTA methodology, use of local data, scope of mandatory HTA, decision criteria, and international collaboration in HTA. Although HTA implementation strategies from the region can be relevant examples for other CEE countries with similar cultural environment and economic status, HTA roadmaps are not still fully transferable without taking into account country-specific aspects, such as country size, gross domestic product per capita, major social values, public health priorities, and fragmentation of healthcare financing. PMID:26763688

  1. Wolfcampian sequence stratigraphy of eastern Central Basin platform, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Candelaria, M.P.; Entzminger, D.J.; Behnken, F.H. ); Sarg, J.F. ); Wilde, G.L. )

    1992-04-01

    Integrated study of well logs, cores, high-resolution seismic data, and biostratigraphy has established the sequence framework of the Atokan (Early Pennsylvanian)-Wolfcampian (Early Permian) stratigraphic section along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform in the Permian basin. Sequence interpretation of high-resolution, high-fold seismic data through this stratigraphic interval has revealed a complex progradational/retrogradational evolution of the platform margin that has demonstrated overall progradation of at least 12 km during early-middle Wolfcampian. Sequence stratigraphic study of the Wolfcamp interval has revealed details of the internal architecture and morphologic evolution of the contemporaneous platform margin. Two generalized seismic facies assemblages are recognized in the Wolfcampian. Platform interior facies are characterized by high-amplitude, laterally continuous parallel reflections; platform margin facies consist of progradational sigmoidal to oblique clinoforms and are characterized by discontinuous, low-amplitude reflections. Sequence interpretation of carbonate platform-to-basin strata geometries helps in predicting subtle stratigraphic trapping relationships and potential reservoir facies distribution. Moreover, this interpretive method assists in describing complex reservoir heterogeneities that can contribute to significant reserve additions from within existing fields.

  2. Prevention of unsafe abortion in countries of Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Hodorogea, Stelian; Comendant, Rodica

    2010-07-01

    Despite permissive laws and a well-developed network of facilities, the incidence of unsafe abortion and the resulting maternal mortality is unacceptably high in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with one-quarter of all maternal deaths reported to occur as a consequence of abortion. Among the reasons that oblige women to submit themselves to risky procedures are new legislative barriers to accessing pregnancy termination, the unequal distribution of abortion services and healthcare providers, the increased costs of abortion services or unofficial payments, coupled with an increase in the number of impoverished and disadvantaged individuals. The quality of abortion services remains very poor. Safe abortion techniques, including manual vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia and medical abortion, are slowly being implemented. Less safe methods such as dilatation and curettage and general anesthesia are widely used. Unsafe techniques are also practiced extensively in the case of second trimester abortions. Many women from these regions of the world still rely on and accept abortion as a means of fertility control. Although abortions have fallen significantly in Eastern Europe over the last decade, both in absolute numbers and as rates, this region continues to have the highest abortion rates in the world. Concerted efforts by governments, professional associations, and international donors are needed to reduce the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20471645

  3. Jurassic midbaisn platform, central and eastern High Atlas Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Warme, J.E. )

    1988-08-01

    The central and eastern High Atlas ranges of southern Morocco coincide with a Mesozoic 100 {times} 500-km east-west rift. Upper Triassic to lower Liassic continental red beds, evaporites, and basalts, unconformably overlying Paleozoic metasediments, comprise basin-wide initial synrift deposition. These are abruptly overlain by up to 40 m of Hettangian or lower Sinemurian block, laminated, unfossiliferous limestones deposited in a euxinic hypersaline and/or stratified sea. Continued syndepositional transtension differentiated the embryonic seaway into a mosaic of fault blocks comprising an axial midbasin platform symmetrically flanked to the north and south by turbidite troughs, basin-margin shelves, and shores. The midbasin platform serves as an exposed model for structurally analogous platforms in oil-producing basins such as west Texas. It has a unique Liassic upward-shallowing limestone sequence approximately 450 m thick, now widely exposed by en echelon ridges upthrusted over a minimal axial area of 20 {times} 150 km. The basal laminated euxinic facies (potential source rock) becomes interbedded upward with bioturbated limestones, indicating cyclic presence of normal marine bottom waters. Overlying strata are completely bioturbated nodular limestones with rare diminutive shelled benthos and chert nodules resembling sponge morphologies. The upper 250 m of the sequence exhibit increasing bed thickness, abundance and diversity of shelly benthos, and frequency and size of sponge-algal mud mounds (potential reservoirs), indicating overall shallowing but generally below wave base. The sequence culminates in giant sponge-algal buildups with up to 200 m of relief, abruptly capped by a starved surface rich with ammonites related to a late Liassic (Toarcian) eustatic sea level rise.

  4. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  5. Decentralizing Education in Transition Societies: Case Studies from Central and Eastern Europe. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiszbein, Ariel, Ed.

    This book is about education system reform in Central and Eastern Europe, with emphasis on decentralization and management. In the past, local authorities served as implementation arms of the central ministry, while finance and decision-making were controlled by the central government, leaving local communities with little influence. New education…

  6. 75 FR 9576 - Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ....S. companies from across the civil nuclear supply chain, including engineering services; fuel... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe AGENCY... States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration is organizing a Civil Nuclear...

  7. Netherlands to Aid Central, Eastern Europe in Halting Pollution Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Dermot A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are efforts originating in the Netherlands to assist the Soviet Union and Eastern European counties to form and carry out significant air and water pollution improvement policies. Examples of proposals and programs being formed are described. (CW)

  8. 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference and 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference.

    PubMed

    Kovarova, Hana; Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Archakov, Alexander

    2008-02-01

    The 1st Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference was organized together with the 3rd Czech Proteomic Conference in the TOP Hotel, Prague in the Czech Republic from the 29th to the 31st October, 2007. The aim was to strengthen links with scientists from Central and Eastern Europe including Russia, which until now have been weak or nonexistent, and to highlight the emergence of excellent proteomic studies from various countries, which until now were not visible. PMID:18282121

  9. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  10. Active uplift and normal faulting in the eastern flank of Taiwan Central Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chung-Pai; Hsu, Yi-Chun; Kang, Chu-Chun

    2015-04-01

    As the backbone range of Taiwan orogen, the highest peaks of the Central Range have been uplifted to nearly 4 km above sea level. A rapid exhumation rate of about 6 mm/yr over the past several million years has been determined by many previous thermochronological studies in the eastern flank of the Central Range. However, the uplift mechanism of the Central Range is still in debate. Especially, the most important structural component, the Central Range Fault in the eastern boundary of the Central Range, has never been clearly observed in the previous studies. An east-vergent "backthrusting" or "backfolding" was firstly proposed by Ernst in 1977. However, normal faulting and oblique faulting with a normal component were also proposed by the following field workers (e.g., Crespi et al., 1996; Fisher, 1999). In this study, we use the geomorphic, stratigraphic, and structural analyses to figure out the near surface geometry of the Central Range Fault, and as well use the recent earthquake data to understand the deeper structures beneath the Central Range. By combining these results, we propose a doubly vergent model with a roll-back Central Range fault to explain the local structure and the rapid uplift of the eastern flank of the Central Range. The normal faults along the eastern flank of Central Range can also be separated into three segments form the north to the south. This late-stage structure suggests that the rotation-accommodating structure is extensional in nature.

  11. Earthquake relocations, crustal rheology, and active deformation in the central-eastern Alps (N Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Ranalli, Giorgio; Martin, Silvana; Della Vedova, Bruno; Spallarossa, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    A revised seismic catalogue (1994-2007) for the central-eastern Alps (N Italy) is presented. 396 earthquake relocations, for local magnitudes in the 1.2-5.3 range, are performed using a 3D crustal velocity structure and probabilistic locations. The location procedure is validated by computing a set of 41 quarry shot solutions and all the results, both about shots and seismic events, are compared with those obtained using the routine location procedure. Results are shown for five contiguous seismotectonic domains, as supported by geological and geophysical evidence (e.g., fault systems, crustal tomography, focal mechanisms types). Earthquake hypocentres are mostly located in the upper crust (0-15 km of depth), in good agreement with thermo-rheological models about the brittle-ductile transitions (8-9 km of depth) and total crustal strengths (1.0-2.0 TN m- 1). Epicentres are clustered and/or aligned along present-day active geological structures. The proposed seismotectonic model shows dominant compression along the Giudicarie and Belluno-Bassano-Montello thrusts, with strain partitioning along the dominant right-lateral strike-slip faults of the Schio-Vicenza domain. The present-day deformation of the Southern Alps and the internal Alpine chain is compatible with Adria indentation and the related crustal stress distribution.

  12. Geochronologic studies in central New England I: Evidence for pre-Acadian metamorphism in eastern Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Spear, F.S. ); Harrison, T.M. )

    1989-02-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar geochronology on hornblendes from central New England reveals a Grenvillian cooling age (1026 {plus minus} 12 Ma) along the eastern margin of the Green Mountain massif, Acadian ages in east-central Vermont (350-397 Ma) and along the Bronson Hill anticlinorium in New Hampshire and Massachusetts (407-280 Ma), and Late Ordovician to Silurian ages (440-451 Ma) along a belt in eastern Vermont and central Massachusetts. These ages indicate a minimal Acadian overprint in eastern Vermont, the highest degree of Acadian overprint being located along the axis of the domes in the Connecticut Valley synclinorium. These data suggest that the formation of the domes occurred in the Acadian. Moreover, the Late Ordovician to Silurian cooling ages in eastern Vermont suggest that much of the metamorphic mineralogy and fabric observed in the Connecticut Valley synclinorium may be pre-Silurian in age.

  13. Fall harvest management of eastern gamagrass in central Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has suggested that eastern gamagrass (EGG) may be an effective alternative to chopped straw in the blended diets of dairy heifers and cows. Extension materials discussing appropriate fall management of EGG often recommend avoiding harvest within six weeks of first frost. However, pre...

  14. Cigarette Smoking, Friendship Factors, and Social Norm Perceptions among Central and Eastern European High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating smoking behavior among adolescents living in post-communistic Central-European countries are sparse. This study focused on the relationship between cigarette smoking, certain friendship factors, and social norm perceptions among 1,886 Central-Eastern European adolescents from high schools in Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic,…

  15. Entrepreneurial and Vocational Education and Training: Lessons from Eastern and Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    The social, economic and political systems of former communist countries have faced considerable changes since the late 1980s. Most countries in Eastern and Central Europe have undergone their own individual brand of transition from a centrally planned, command system to a more or less liberalized, Western-style market economy. Many observers…

  16. Policy advocacy for female injecting drug users in eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakowicz, Anna

    2010-10-01

    A key reason for hosting AIDS 2010 in Vienna was to highlight the spread of HIV through injecting drug use, something that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In this article, based on a presentation at the conference, Anna Zakowicz discusses the options for promoting policy advocacy for female injecting drug users (IDUs) in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:21413621

  17. Satellite Movie Shows Three Storms in Eastern, Central Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 25 to 27 shows Tropical Storm Kilo in the Central Pacific followed by Hurricane Ignacio and Tropical Storm J...

  18. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  19. Challenges and opportunities in Pan-European collaboration for researchers from Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Decsi, T; Fidler Mis, N; Kolacek, S; Kon, I; Kopecky, J; Penas-Jimenez, I; Socha, P; Szajewska, H

    2005-01-01

    Ten Central and Eastern [NLG4] European countries have recently joined the European Union. This historical enlargement provided a good opportunity to discuss the challenges and opportunities in Pan-European Research Collaboration for researchers from Central/Eastern Europe. This paper summarises examples of productive research collaboration between East and West, current challenges [NLG5], and ideas on how to facilitate better collaboration. A short overview of training, mobility and career development opportunities, covered by the Marie Curie actions, is also presented. PMID:16137107

  20. A seismogenic study of the central and eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockholt, Blaine

    Part 1: A phased array of 19 broadband seismometers was deployed from November 2009 to September 2011 to detect nonvolcanic tremor associated with the Reelfoot fault. An autodetection algorithm using broadband frequencywavenumber analysis was used to search for the recurrence of signals. The original signals, detected in 2006, appeared as short duration, impulsive arrivals with a high phase velocity. We identify thousands of signals during the experiment. Two azimuthal peaks are observed arriving from the west and northeast. The detections are similar to the events seen in 2006 and are inferred to come from very small (ML = --1) microearthquakes occurring in shallow basement faults. Most signals arrive with coherent Swave energy which implies very small local and regional earthquakes. Other signals show distinct changes in slowness and azimuth as a function of time. These events were interpreted as atmospheric acoustic sources. The highfrequency content and impulsive arrivals of the nonacoustic arrivals are not consistent with traditional tectonic tremor but indicate seismic activity in the crust near the Reelfoot thrust fault. Part 2: Waveforms from the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Network are corrected to the nominal WoodAnderson (WA) torsion seismometer to obtain a total of 11,905 amplitudes to determine a local magnitude scale for the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone (ETSZ). We obtain the following distance correction function: - log10(A0) = 0.538 log10(r/17) -- 0.0002516( r -- 17) + 2.0 from our inversion. The -log 10(A0) is very flat at distances > 200km, suggesting low distance attenuation at local and nearregional distances. The bvalues for the currently reported duration magnitude is 0.9. Part 3: Dispersion measurements obtained from ambient noise tomography and earthquake data are combined with radial receiver functions from 134 stations to invert for a high resolution shear-wave velocity model of the ETSZ. We obtain velocities models to depths of 200 km to

  1. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  2. Contrasting serpentinization processes in the eastern Central Alps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhard, D.J.M.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope compositions have been determined for serpentinites from between Davos (Arosa-Platta nappe, Switzerland) and the Valmalenco (Italy). ??D and ??18O values (-120 to -60 and 6-10???, respectively) in the Arosa-Platta nappe indicate that serpentinization took place on the continent at relatively low temperatures in the presence of limited amounts of metamorphic fluids that contained a component of meteoric water. One sample of chrysotile has a ??18O value of 13??? providing evidence of high W/R ratios and low formation temperature of lizardite-chrysotile in this area. In contrast, relatively high ??D values (-42 to -34???) and low ??18O values (4.4-7.4???) for serpentine in the eastern part of the Valmalenco suggest a serpentinization process that took place at moderate temperatures in fluids that were dominated by ocean water. The antigorite in the Valmalenco is the first reported example of continental antigorite with an ocean water signature. An amphibole sample from a metasomatically overprinted contact zone to metasediments (??D=-36???) indicates that the metasomatic event also took place in the presence of ocean water. Lower ??D values (-93 to -60???) of serpentines in the western part of the Valmalenco suggest a different alteration history possibly influenced by fluids associated with contact metamorphism. Low water/rock ratios during regional metamorphism (and metasomatism) have to be assumed for both regions. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  4. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  5. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  6. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  7. MULTEXT-EAST: Multilingual Text Tools and Corpora for Central and Eastern European Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erjavec, Tomaz; Ide, Nancy; Petkevic, Vladimir; Veronis, Jean

    MULTEXT is a European Union project to identify and develop language resources, language-related software, and standards to make the resources maximally usable. MULTEXT-EAST is a spinoff project to develop significant resources for six Central and Eastern European (CEE) languages (Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian, Romanian, Slovenian) and…

  8. Tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Central and Eastern Europe: consequences of political transition.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Sarah E

    2008-03-01

    The variable, often dramatic, upsurge in tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe can best be understood as the result of a multi-factorial system of causes, including abiotic and biotic environmental changes, and human behaviour determined by socio-economic conditions. Many of these stem from the political transition with the end of Soviet rule. PMID:18316221

  9. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  10. Continuing Vocational Training [in Central and Eastern Europe]. Volume 1. Cross Country Analysis. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The current state of continuing vocational training in Central and Eastern European countries and its most important challenges were analyzed. The analysis found that the former continuing vocational training systems in these areas were characterized by generally low training levels and interdependence among the state-owned enterprises that…

  11. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  12. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  13. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  14. Laboratories of Reform? The Europeanization and Internationalization of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowska, Dorota; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article deals with higher education (HE) transformations in Central and Eastern Europe in the context of democratization and globalization. The authors first briefly survey the wider canvas of reform since 1989, particularly probing the extent to which the countries of the region may be treated as a distinctive or a cohesive…

  15. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  16. Central and eastern United States: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    The GEOTHERM sample file contains 119 records for the central and eastern United States. The records contain data on location, sample description, analysis type, collection condition, flow rates, and the chemical and physical properties of the fluid. Stable and radioisotopic data are occasionally available. 7 refs. (ACR)

  17. Key Indicators on Vocational Education and Training. Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badescu, Mircea; Kennedy, Alison

    The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone substantial changes due, in part, to vocational education and training (VET). One of the most important objectives of the European Union (EU) enlargement process is to monitor key indicators of the educational systems and labor markets so that the different skills in demand and…

  18. L tectonites in the eastern-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, W. A.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of L tectonites is little understood and scarcely studied, however, it is likely an important part of penetrative plastic deformation in the crust. To improve our understanding of this strain phenomenon, I present a detailed case study of a km-wide domain of L tectonites developed in and around the ~2.05 Ga Boy Scout Camp Granodiorite (BSCG) in the Laramie Mountains, Wyoming. Detailed mapping and structural analyses allow for the reconstruction of the structural setting of this domain of apparent constrictional strain. Elongation lineations in and around the BSCG, including the L tectonites, are S to SW-trending and moderately plunging. In compositionally heterogeneous rocks (Archean banded gneiss and gneissic granite), hinge lines of minor folds are subparallel with the elongation lineation. The regional fold axes defined by poles to compositional banding and foliation measured from these rocks lies in the center of the lineation measurements from all the rock types in the area. Poles to foliation in the compositionally homogeneous BSCG and metamorphosed diabase dikes cluster in the NW quadrant and define the axial surface of the regional folds. These data show that the elongation lineations in and around the BSCG developed parallel with the local fold hinge lines and regional axes of folds with axial surfaces that strike ENE and dip moderately to the SE. Map- scale folds in this area verge towards the NW. Incorporation of 1) the constraints imposed by the shape fabric orientation data, 2) the constraints imposed by the orientation of the local and regional fold axes and 3) the constraints developed from map patterns and observations shows that the domain of L tectonites in and around the BSCG developed in the hinge zone of a large NW-vergent synform during bulk constrictional deformation as material was extruded from between two relatively ridged blocks. Therefore, L tectonites developed in response to both internal structural heterogeneities (hinge

  19. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core.

    PubMed

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S; Okafor, C Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2'OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  20. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O'Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-02-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2‧OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit.

  1. Ribosomal small subunit domains radiate from a central core

    PubMed Central

    Gulen, Burak; Petrov, Anton S.; Okafor, C. Denise; Vander Wood, Drew; O’Neill, Eric B.; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2016-01-01

    The domain architecture of a large RNA can help explain and/or predict folding, function, biogenesis and evolution. We offer a formal and general definition of an RNA domain and use that definition to experimentally characterize the rRNA of the ribosomal small subunit. Here the rRNA comprising a domain is compact, with a self-contained system of molecular interactions. A given rRNA helix or stem-loop must be allocated uniquely to a single domain. Local changes such as mutations can give domain-wide effects. Helices within a domain have interdependent orientations, stabilities and interactions. With these criteria we identify a core domain (domain A) of small subunit rRNA. Domain A acts as a hub, linking the four peripheral domains and imposing orientational and positional restraints on the other domains. Experimental characterization of isolated domain A, and mutations and truncations of it, by methods including selective 2′OH acylation analyzed by primer extension and circular dichroism spectroscopy are consistent with our architectural model. The results support the utility of the concept of an RNA domain. Domain A, which exhibits structural similarity to tRNA, appears to be an essential core of the small ribosomal subunit. PMID:26876483

  2. Stratigraphy of the Sarkisla area, Sivas basin, eastern central Anatolia

    SciTech Connect

    Bilgic, T.; Sumengen, M.; Terlemez, I.; Unay, E.; Gurbuz, M.; Erkan, E.

    1988-08-01

    The stratigraphy of the Sarkisla area, southeastern Central Anatolian Massif, is characterized by a succession of rock units ranging from late Paleocene to Pliocene in age. The Caldag group mostly consists of deep-water units and forms the base of the Tertiary rocks. However, its relation to the basement rocks is not observed in the area. This group is represented by late Paleocene-Lutetian-age turbiditic pyroclastics and limestones, andesitic lavas and pyroclastics topped with reefal limestones, and turbiditic limestones and pyroclastics alternating with limestone blocks. During Lutetian to early Priabonian time, shallow marine clastics were deposited along the southern margin of the basin, while continental clastics and platform limestones accumulated along the northern margin. Late Priabonian to early Oligocene time is represented by gypsiferous deposits followed by late Oligocene-age fluvial clastics. The gypsiferous deposits conformably overlie the shallow marine formations but rest on the Caldag group unconformably. During early to middle Miocene time, alternating lacustrine limestones, gypsum, and basalts formed on the fluvial clastics; to the north, basalts formed on the platform limestones. The uppermost sequence of the basin, composed of Tortonian-early Pliocene-age fluvial clastics, lacustrine limestones, and fan deposits, unconformably overlies the older formations. The stratigraphy of the study area is similar to the Ulukisla basin, southwestern Central Anatolian Massif. Therefore, this basin can be considered to be the prolongation of the Ulukisla basin offset by the Ecemis fault.

  3. Maximum Magnitude and Recurrence Interval for the Large Earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Hu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Maximum magnitude and recurrence interval of the large earthquakes are key parameters for seismic hazard assessment in the central and eastern United States. Determination of these two parameters is quite difficult in the region, however. For example, the estimated maximum magnitudes of the 1811-12 New Madrid sequence are in the range of M6.6 to M8.2, whereas the estimated recurrence intervals are in the range of about 500 to several thousand years. These large variations of maximum magnitude and recurrence interval for the large earthquakes lead to significant variation of estimated seismic hazards in the central and eastern United States. There are several approaches being used to estimate the magnitudes and recurrence intervals, such as historical intensity analysis, geodetic data analysis, and paleo-seismic investigation. We will discuss the approaches that are currently being used to estimate maximum magnitude and recurrence interval of the large earthquakes in the central United States.

  4. Increasing summer rainfall in arid eastern-Central Asia over the past 8500 years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Bing; Gasse, Françoise; Uchida, Masao; Hong, Yetang; Leng, Xuetian; Shibata, Yasuyuki; An, Ning; Zhu, Yongxuan; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A detailed and well-dated proxy record of summer rainfall variation in arid Central Asia is lacking. Here, we report a long-term, high resolution record of summer rainfall extracted from a peat bog in arid eastern-Central Asia (AECA). The record indicates a slowly but steadily increasing trend of summer rainfall in the AECA over the past 8500 years. On this long-term trend are superimposed several abrupt increases in rainfall on millennial timescales that correspond to rapid cooling events in the North Atlantic. During the last millennium, the hydrological climate pattern of the AECA underwent a major change. The rainfall in the past century has reached its highest level over the 8500-year history, highlighting the significant impact of the human-induced greenhouse effect on the hydrological climate in the AECA. Our results demonstrate that even in very dry eastern-Central Asia, the climate can become wetter under global warming. PMID:24923304

  5. Public health in central and eastern Europe and the role of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Little, R E

    1998-01-01

    The central and eastern European countries that composed the former Eastern Bloc have experienced an alarming decline in public health since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Death rates have increased in most age groups. Life expectancy, especially among males, has decreased in many countries; in Russia, male life expectancy dropped by six years between 1989 and 1994. By 2020, these countries are projected to have smaller increases in life expectancy than any other geographic region. The conditions responsible for the excess mortality are cardiovascular disease, cancer, and injuries among adults. The major factors in the sharp increase are poverty, social disintegration, and crime, overlaid on historically high rates of smoking, alcohol use, and psychosocial stress. Environmental pollution, although common and sometimes severe in the former Eastern Bloc, is another, albeit not the chief, cause of the sharp decline in public health since 1989. PMID:9611616

  6. Multi-Model Ensemble Prediction during Central and Eastern Pacific El Niño Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infanti, J.; Kirtman, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has shown that there are events where SSTA warming peaks in the eastern Pacific (EP El Niño) and where warming peaks in the central Pacific (CP El Niño), and CP events seem to be more prevalent in recent years. From a prediction standpoint, the ability of climate models to predict the differences in events may be important, as differences lead to distinctive climate impacts over regions such as North America. Research using the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) showed a tendency for excess eastern Pacific warming during CP events. Additionally, observed and modeled CP events tend to be weaker than EP events. One might assume that the comparatively weaker CP events would lead to weaker teleconnections and less predictability in regions such as North America. However, large scale, expected impacts are captured in NMME predictions for both types of events. Using ensemble agreement on the sign of the anomaly as a proxy for prediction skill in NMME, the strength of the event in the eastern or central Pacific leads to larger ensemble agreement in some North American regions. Precipitation ensemble agreement in the southeast US demonstrates a strong connection to eastern Pacific warming, and strong warm events lead to larger ensemble agreement. Precipitation ensemble agreement in the northwest US demonstrates a weak connection to central Pacific warming. Other regions, such as Northwestern US 2-meter temperature, do not show any change in ensemble agreement with strength of event. While the strength of event is only important for some North American regions, the ability of model predictions to correctly capture the position of warming for teleconnections is nevertheless of concern. Anomalously high SSTA in the eastern Pacific during CP events could lead to excessive forecast agreement in regions such as the Southeast, where larger NINO3 anomalies lead to larger ensemble agreement.

  7. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, D.S.; Oleksyn, J.

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  8. A modeling study of the role of deforestation on the climate of central and eastern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Semazzi, F.H.M.; Sun, Liqiang; Giorgi, F.

    1997-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of deforestation on the physical climate system of eastern and central Africa. The model used was the regional climate model (RegCM2) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and customized for the region under study. In the anomaly simulation, the land cover was systematically altered to replace the tropical forest with grass and Savannah cover. The RegCM2 realistically simulated the main features of the climate over eastern and central Africas. It was found that: (1) the rainfall dramatically decreased in 2 subregions, decreased in two subregions, increased in 1 subregion, and remained the same in 1 subregion; (2) rainfall deficit mainly happened during night time over the TF subregion and daytime over the LV subregion; and (3) mean surface air temperature increased over 5 subregions and decreased in 1 subregions. Deforestation also increased the diurnal variation of surface air temperature over one subregion. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Nyman, D.J.; Hammond, C.R.

    1992-04-01

    The status of knowledge on the seismic effects and buckling behavior of pipelines in the central and eastern United States is reviewed. Types of ground response to earthquake motions that result in pipeline failure and pipeline response to such motions are discussed. The primary focus is on oil and gas transmission lines constructed of welded steel pipe. Results of vulnerability studies, the need for better determination of the potential for existing pipeline failures, and design procedures for new pipelines are presented.

  10. The development of academic family medicine in central and eastern Europe since 1990

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the early 1990s former communist countries have been reforming their health care systems, emphasizing the key role of primary care and recognizing family medicine as a specialty and an academic discipline. This study assesses the level of academic development of the discipline characterised by education and research in central and eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods A key informants study, using a questionnaire developed on the basis of a systematic literature review and panel discussions, conducted in 11 central and eastern European countries and Russia. Results Family medicine in CEE countries is now formally recognized as a medical specialty and successfully introduced into medical training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Almost all universities have FM/GP departments, but only a few of them are led by general practitioners. The specialist training programmes in all countries except Russia fulfil the recommendations of the European Parliament. Structured support for research in FM/GP is not always available. However specific scientific organisations function in almost all countries except Russia. Scientific conferences are regularly organised in all the countries, but peer-reviewed journals are published in only half of them. Conclusions Family medicine has a relatively strong position in medical education in central and eastern Europe, but research in family practice is less developed. Although the position of the discipline at the universities is not very strong, most of the CEE countries can serve as an example of successful academic development for countries southern Europe, where family medicine is still not fully recognised. PMID:23510461

  11. Estimation of Interplate Coupling in the Central and Eastern of Java trench from CGPS Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwan, Meilano; Endra, Gunawan; Susilo, Susilo; Joni, Effendi; Hasanuddin Z., Abidin; Dina, Sarsito

    2015-04-01

    We used three-component surface velocities in the Central and Eastern Java to estimate plate coupling on the subduction interface at the Java subduction zone. The observation period starting from 2009 to 2013 with more than 40 CGPS observation stations. The results show a heterogeneous distribution of interplate coupling from Central to the East of Java trench. Strong coupling at a depth of 10-30 km with rate 3-4 cm/yr is estimated at the south of East Java. The downdip limits of the coupled areas is estimated at 50km. This slip deficit on subduction interface has important implication for seismic hazard of Java Island.

  12. Dedicated energy crops and crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in the Central and Eastern U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dedicated energy crops and crop residues will meet herbaceous feedstock demands for the new bioeconomy in the Central and Eastern USA. Perennial warm-season grasses and corn stover are well-suited to the eastern half of the USA and provide opportunities for expanding agricultural operations in the r...

  13. Hungary's experience: Soviet military leaves hazardous reminder in Central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, P.I.; Biczo, I.L.; Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, thousands of abandoned Soviet military installations, including troop bases and airfields, have been returned to their host countries. These installations present serious, widespread environmental problems for the governments of Central and Eastern Europe. In the West, where approximately 130 military installations also are being realigned from military to civilian uses, similar environmental contamination problems exist. Expertise gained by US and Western European engineering firms at such sites may be applied to the cleanup of contaminated sites in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 1,000 former Soviet military installations exist in eastern Germany alone, with additional sites in Hungary, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Poland. These sites pose critical contamination problems that will require a variety of remedial activities, including engineering, consulting, design and environmental assessment services; instrumentation and laboratory capabilities; groundwater and surface water treatment technologies; leaking underground storage tank (UST) removal and replacement techniques; mobile incinerators; and bioremediation and soil desorption technologies.

  14. Analysis of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects from central and eastern United States earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lindley, G.

    1998-02-01

    This report describes the results from three studies of source spectra, attenuation, and site effects of central and eastern United States earthquakes. In the first study source parameter estimates taken from 27 previous studies were combined to test the assumption that the earthquake stress drop is roughly a constant, independent of earthquake size. 200 estimates of stress drop and seismic moment from eastern North American earthquakes were combined. It was found that the estimated stress drop from the 27 studies increases approximately as the square-root of the seismic moment, from about 3 bars at 10{sup 20} dyne-cm to 690 bars at 10{sup 25} dyne-cm. These results do not support the assumption of a constant stress drop when estimating ground motion parameters from eastern North American earthquakes. In the second study, broadband seismograms recorded by the United States National Seismograph Network and cooperating stations have been analysed to determine Q{sub Lg} as a function of frequency in five regions: the northeastern US, southeastern US, central US, northern Basin and Range, and California and western Nevada. In the third study, using spectral analysis, estimates have been made for the anelastic attenuation of four regional phases, and estimates have been made for the source parameters of 27 earthquakes, including the M{sub b} 5.6, 14 April, 1995, West Texas earthquake.

  15. Mapping seismic anisotropy of the lithospheric mantle beneath the northern and eastern Bohemian Massif (central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Luděk; Babuška, Vladislav

    2012-09-01

    We evaluate 3D body-wave anisotropic parameters—shear-wave splitting (fast S polarizations and delay times of the split slow shear waves) and directional terms of relative P-wave residuals from data of passive seismic experiment BOHEMA II (2004-2005). Data from 34 temporary stations increased substantial density of observations in the Bohemain Massif (BM) and allowed us to scan in detail the upper mantle structure of its northern and eastern parts. For the first time, we delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere in this part of the BM and infer 3D self-consistent models of their fabrics by a joint inversion of the body-wave anisotropic parameters. Fabrics of the northern and north-eastern parts of the BM are approximated best by peridotite aggregates with the (a,c) foliations dipping approximately to the N and NE, respectively, whereas a model with the westerly dipping a lineation fits best the fabric of the south-eastern domain. The Saxothuringian fabric, NW of the Eger Rift, extends to the east across the Elbe Fault Zone and continues along this zone to the southeast beneath the Cretaceous Basin. The south-eastward continuation of the Elbe Fault Zone seems to be related to the boundary between two different fabrics of the northern and southern Brunovistulian domains below the Moravo-Silesian zone. This study shows an underthrusting of the Brunovistulian micro-plate beneath the eastern rim of the BM and indicates that its northern and southern fragments might have originally belonged to Baltica and to Gondwana, respectively. According to a zone of distinctly decreased anisotropic signals, the Brunovistulian micro-plate extends at least about 100 km westward beneath the Moldanubian. With these new findings we update the domain-like mantle structure of the BM and compare the results with inferences from the upper mantle velocity tomography and depth changes of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary retrieved in a detailed model from relative residuals and from the

  16. Eastern and Central Pacific ENSO and their relationships to the recharge/discharge oscillator paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awnesh; Delcroix, Thierry

    2013-12-01

    One of the leading theories to explain the oscillatory nature of the El Niño Southern Oscillation is the recharge-discharge oscillator paradigm, which roots on warm waters exchanged between the equatorial and off-equatorial regions. This study tests the relevance of this theory to account for the Eastern and recently mediated Central Pacific El Niño events. The recharge-discharge of the equatorial Pacific, measured here as changes in Warm (>20 °C) Water Volume (WWV), is analysed using monthly 1993-2010 sea level anomaly (a proxy for WWV) obtained from altimetry, and a validated 1958-2007 DRAKKAR simulation. An Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) technique performed on the observed and modelled WWV tendency shows the existence of five distinct clusters, which characterise the Eastern Pacific (EP) and Central Pacific (CP) El Niño, La Niña, after EP El Niño and neutral conditions. The AHC results, complemented with an analysis of lagged-regression analysis, and 3-month averages of typical EP and CP El Niño events, indicate that the equatorial band WWV discharge during CP is not as pronounced as during EP El Niño. To understand the differences, we analysed the balance of horizontal mass transports accounting for changes in WWV tendency. The analysis indicates an overall poleward transport during EP El Niño, which is not the case during CP El Niño. Instead, a compensating effect with a poleward (equatorward) transport occurring in the western (eastern) Pacific is evident, in line with changes in the zonal thermocline slopes occurring in the western (eastern) half of the basin. The WWV changes are discussed with respect to the conceptual phases of the recharge-discharge oscillator paradigm.

  17. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Argalášová-Sobotová, L'ubica; Lekaviciute, Jurgita; Jeram, Sonja; Sevcíková, L'udmila; Jurkovicová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 papers on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults were identified by literature search. The authors reviewed scientific international and local journals, conference proceedings, and local reports published in national languages. The major endpoints were high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction. The target populations were adults. Experimental and exposure-assessment studies, field, empirical studies, social surveys, and epidemiological studies are presented. The major sources of environmental noise were road and air traffic. The results were presented in tables and the most relevant articles were briefly discussed. The importance of this review is that it refers to some countries that no longer exist in the same political and governmental systems. The strength of this paper is that it includes publications that were not evaluated in earlier systematic reviews. Strategies for future noise-related research on national and global level are proposed. PMID:23412577

  18. Paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks: a comparison between central and eastern Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankarani, M.; Amini, A.; Mosadegh, H.

    2009-04-01

    The succession of Permian rocks in Alborz region is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate facies. All of the sediments were deposited in the Paleotethyan passive continental margin but they show different facies architecture and paleoenvironmental condition in various parts of the region. This study, as part of a wider project, has investigated sedimentary facies and paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks in central and eastern Alborz. The Permian rocks in central Alborz are dominated by siliciclastic facies (Doroud Formation) in the lower, and carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the upper half. Field studies and laboratory measurements resulted in recognition of 4 terrigenous and 13 carbonate facies in the succession. A siliciclastic shallow marine system was determined as depositional environment of the terrigenous facies. A homoclinal carbonate ramp, with scattered patch reefs, was determined as depositional environment of the carbonate facies. Dasycladacean green algae, ancestral red algae, hermatypic corals and bryozoans were the major bioconstructors of the ramp. The abundance of skeletal shoals respect to ooidal shoals in the ramp margin was high. The Permian rocks in eastern Alborz are dominated by mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the lower, and siliciclastic facies (Nesen Formation) in the upper half. The studies resulted in recognition of 5 terrigenous and 6 carbonate facies in the succession. A mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf with high sediment influx was determined as depositional environment of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies. Occurrence of the small patch reefs with high coral diversity in this mixed shelf indicates normal marine (hyposaline) condition. Upper terrigenous facies were deposited in fluvial-flood plain system. Difference in paleoclimate and tectonic activity of two sub-basins seems to be the major cause of the differences between the Permian facies in central and eastern Alborz.

  19. Lg excitation, attenuation, and source spectral scaling in central and eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, B.J.; Xie, J.; Baqer, S.

    1997-10-01

    Seismic moments and corner frequencies were obtained for many earthquakes in the central and eastern United States, and for a few events in the western United States, using the Lg phase and a recently developed inversion algorithm. Additionally, Q values for the Lg phase along paths to individual stations were obtained simultaneously with the source parameters. Both corner frequencies and magnitudes were found to vary systematically with moment. For moments between 0.15 and 400 x 10{sup 15} N-m corner frequencies vary between about 4 and 0.2 Hz while body-wave magnitude varies between about 3.5 and 5.8. A map of Lg Q values displays a systematic decrease from east and west. Maximum and minimum values are 989 and 160, respectively. Lg coda Q values were obtained for the entire United States with excellent coverage in the eastern and western portions of the country and somewhat poorer coverage in the central portion. Lg coda Q is highest (700-750) in a region of the northeastern United States that includes portions of New York and Pennsylvania and lowest (>200) in California. Lg coda Q is lower (250-450) everywhere west of Rocky Mountains than in the rest of the country (450-750). Q determinations for both the direct Lg phase and Lg coda indicate that, for an earthquake of a given magnitude, Lg and its coda will propagate much more efficiently, and cause damage over a wider area, in the eastern and central United States than it will in the United States.

  20. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently

  1. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  2. Fossil Chondrichthyes from the central eastern Pacific Ocean and their paleoceanographic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D.; Aguilera, Orangel A.; Rodriguez, Félix

    2014-04-01

    The study of the chondrichthyan fauna from the Angostura, Onzole, Canoa and Jama formations, in the Neogene of Bordón and Manabí basins, Ecuador, reveals the presence of 30 taxa, including the deep water shark †Chlamydoselachus landinii sp. nov. The assemblages are dominated by tropical shallow and deep water chondrichthyans, suggesting paleoenvironments associated with a short platform shelf bordering a deep margin. These assemblages are the most diverse shark and ray association known from the Tropical Central Eastern Pacific Ocean in the South American coastal basin, and provide new information on the paleoecology and paleodiversity of Neogene chondrichthyans.

  3. Linear relation of central and eastern North American precipitation to tropical Pacific Sea surface temperature anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Montroy, D.L.

    1997-04-01

    In past research the Southern Oscillation index has often been used as an indicator of the tropical Pacific climate, notably for El Nino and La Nina event occurrences. This study identifies calendar monthly teleconnection signals in central and eastern North American precipitation associated with an alternative tropical Pacific indicator, sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) patterns. Using an approximate 1{degrees} resolution set of monthly precipitation totals for 1950-92, the work identifies monthly teleconnection relationships and their intraseasonal evolution. This builds upon previous studies that were limited to seasonal timescales. Here, a unique two-way statistical analysis is used to delineate linear SSTA-precipitation teleconnection patterns.

  4. The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe (1815)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigelis, Algimantas; Wójcik, Zbigniew; Narębski, Wojciech; Gelumbauskaitė, Leonora Živilė; Kozák, Jan; Czarniecki, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe was compiled by Stanisław Staszic in the early 19th century. The map is based on the geological survey that Staszic performed in different parts of Poland and adjacent areas. In 1814, Staszic presented his ideas on the geology and mineral sources of Poland and Lithuania. In 1815, he completed the book-length descriptive analysis O ziemorodztwie Karpatów i innych gór i równin Polski przez Stanisława Staszica, which was published in Warsaw and complemented by a large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe. His later studies were compiled in a historico-philosophical treatise titled Ród ludzki (1819-1820). The complete edition of Staszic's works, Dzieła, which also included these publications, appeared over 1816-1820. The geological field survey that he performed over several years, and his study of social-economic problems enabled Staszic to draw in great detail a geological map of the Carpathians, the Central Polish Highlands, Volhynia (modern Ukraine) and the Eastern Alps, as well as the areas of the Polish-Lithuanian Lowlands, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Polesye (modern Belarus), Moldova, Transylvania, and Hungary. Staszic was interested in the exploration of mineral deposits, particularly in Poland, which had rock salt, copper and iron ores, and coal. In his monograph and map, he adopted a stratigraphic subdivision based on types of rock contents and organic fossils, which was a slightly modified version of Werner's classification system. The lithological legend sets five classes and 135 different types of rock, and 15 types of ore deposits, using the French names for these. In general, Staszic was an advocate of Werner's paradigm; however, he did not follow exactly the ideas of the German geologist. Staszic's fundamental work recapitulates his views on geological history of Central and Eastern Europe, and brings to an end the Enlightment period in the geology of that part of

  5. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality. PMID:25053673

  6. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals. PMID:23456142

  7. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  8. Central and eastern Anatolian crustal deformation rate and velocity fields derived from GPS and earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simão, N. M.; Nalbant, S. S.; Sunbul, F.; Komec Mutlu, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new strain-rate and associated kinematic model for the eastern and central parts of Turkey. In the east, a quasi N-S compressional tectonic regime dominates the deformation field and is partitioned through the two major structural elements of the region, which are the conjugate dextral strike-slip North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the sinistral strike slip East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ). The observed surface deformation is similar to that inferred by anisotropy studies which sampled the region of the mantle closer to the crust (i.e. the lithospheric mantle and the Moho), and is dependent on the presence or absence of a lithospheric mantle, and of the level of coupling between it and the overlaying crust. The areas of the central and eastern parts of Turkey which are deforming at elevated rates are situated above areas with strong gradients in crustal thickness. This seems to indicate that these transition zones, situated between thinner and thicker crusts, promote more deformation at the surface. The regions that reveal elevated strain-rate values are 1) the Elaziğ-Bingol segment of the EAFZ, 2) the region around the Karlıova triple-junction including the Yedisu segment and the Varto fault, 3) the section of the NAFZ that extends from the Erzincan province up to the NAFZ-Ezinepazarı fault junction, and 4) sections of the Tuz Gölü Fault Zone. Other regions like the Adana basin, a significant part of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ), the Aksaray and the Ankara provinces, are deforming at smaller but still considerable rates and therefore should be considered as areas well capable of producing damaging earthquakes (between M6 and 7). This study also reveals that the central part of Turkey is moving at a faster rate towards the west than the eastern part Turkey, and that the wedge region between the NAFZ and the EAFZ accounts for the majority of the counter clockwise rotation between the eastern and the central parts of Turkey. This

  9. Strategies to address climate change in central and Eastern Euopean countries

    SciTech Connect

    Simeonova, K.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents analyses based on information mainly from the National Communications of nine Central and Eastern European countries that are undertaking radical transition from centrally planned to market driven economics (EIT). It is designed primarily to provide an overview of the policies and measures to address climate change that have been implemented, or under implementation or planned. In order to better understand the objective of policies and measures and the way they have been implemented in EIT countries that analysis has been supplemented by a review of the national circumstances and overall policy contexts in EIT countries that are relevant to climate change policies and measures problems. Therefore, these issues will be discussed in the paper along with analysis of mitigation policies and measures by sector.

  10. The Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragato, Pier Luigi; Costa, Giovanni; Gallo, Antonella; Gosar, Andrej; Horn, Nikolaus; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mucciarelli, Marco; Pesaresi, Damiano; Steiner, Rudolf; Suhadolc, Peter; Tiberi, Lara; Živčić, Mladen; Zoppé, Giuliana

    2014-05-01

    The region of the Central and Eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismicity. The active seismogenic structures and the related potentially destructive events are located in the proximity of the political boundaries between several countries existing in the area. An example is the seismic region between the NE Italy (FVG, Trentino-Alto Adige and Veneto), Austria (Tyrol, Carinthia) and Slovenia. So when a destructive earthquake occurs in the area, all the three countries are involved. In the year 2001 the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Department of Mathematics and Geoscience of the University of Trieste (DMG), the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy and the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria signed an agreement for the real-time seismological data exchange in the Southeastern Alps region. Soon after the Interreg IIIa Italia-Austria projects "Trans-National Seismological Networks in the South-Eastern Alps" and "FASTLINK" started. The main goal of these projects was the creation of a transfrontier network for the common seismic monitoring of the region for scientific and civil defense purposes. During these years the high quality data recorded by the transfrontier network has been used, by the involved institutions, for their scientific research, for institutional activities and for the civil defense services. Several common international projects have been realized with success. The instrumentation has been continuously upgraded, the installations quality improved as well as the data transmission efficiency. In the 2013 ARSO, DMG, OGS and ZAMG decided to name the cooperative network "Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network - CE3RN". The national/regional seismic networks actually involved in the CE3RN network are: • Austrian national BB network (ZAMG - OE) • Friuli Veneto SP network (OGS - FV) • Friuli VG

  11. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  12. Roaming Earthquakes in North China and Central-Eastern US: How and Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Stein, S. A.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Large earthquakes in mid-continents often occur in unexpected places. In North China, large earthquakes roamed between distant fault systems in the past 2000 years such that no large events ruptured the same fault segment twice during this period. In the central-eastern US, although historic earthquake records only go back a few hundred years, increasing paleoseismic evidence reveals large events in places of little seismicity today. Such spatiotemporal patterns of mid-continental earthquakes differ significantly from those at plate boundary zones, where relative plate motion loads the plate boundary faults steadily at relatively high rates, leading to localized seismicity with some arguable quasi-periodicity. In mid-continents, tectonic loading is slow and accommodated collectively by a complex system of interacting faults, each of which can be active for a short period after long dormancy. The mechanics of fault interaction in mid-continents remain to be fully understood. Besides the well studied Coulomb stress perturbations due to dislocation on the fault planes, property changes of fault zones by a large rupture may cause redistribution of regional stress and strain fields in mid-continents. Further studies of fault interaction and the resulting spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in mid-continents are imperative for improving earthquake hazard assessment in North China, central-eastern US, and other highly populated and earthquake-prone mid-continents.

  13. Hazardous wastes in eastern and central Europe: technology and health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Cikrt, M; Suk, W A

    1999-01-01

    Issues of hazardous waste management are major concerns in the countries of eastern and central Europe. A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-supported conference was held in Prague, Czech Republic, as a part of a continuing effort to provide information and promote discussion among the countries of eastern and central Europe on issues related to hazardous wastes. The focus was on incineration as a means of disposal of hazardous wastes, with discussions on both engineering methods for safe incineration, and possible human health effects from incineration by-products. Representatives from government agencies, academic institutions, and local industries from 14 countries in the region participated along with a few U.S. and western European experts in this field. A series of 12 country reports documented national issues relating to the environment, with a focus on use of incineration for hazardous waste disposal. A particularly valuable contribution was made by junior scientists from the region, who described results of environmental issues in their countries. PMID:10090701

  14. Eastern and Central Pacific ENSO and their relationships to the recharge/discharge oscillator paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awnesh; Delcroix, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    One of the leading theories to explain the oscillatory nature of ENSO is the recharge-discharge oscillator paradigm, which roots on warm waters exchanged between the equatorial and off-equatorial regions. This study tests the relevance of this theory to account for the Eastern and recently mediated Central Pacific El Nino events. The recharge-discharge of the equatorial Pacific, measured here as changes in Warm (>20C) Water Volume (WWV), is analysed using monthly 1993-2010 sea level anomaly (a proxy for WWV) obtained from altimetry, and a validated 1958-2007 DRAKKAR simulation. An Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering (AHC) technique performed on the observed and modelled WWV shows the existence of five distinct clusters, which characterize the Eastern Pacific (EP) and Central Pacific (CP) El Nino, La Nina, after EP El Nino and neutral conditions. The AHC results, complemented with an analysis of 3-month composites of typical EP and CP El Nino events, indicate that the equatorial band WWV discharge during CP is not as pronounced as during EP El Nino. To understand the differences, we analyze the balance of horizontal mass transport accounting for changes in WWV. The analysis indicates an overall poleward transport during EP El Nino, which is not the case during CP El Nino. Instead, a compensating effect with a poleward (equatorward) transport occurring in the western (eastern) Pacific is evident, in line with changes in the zonal thermocline slopes. The WWW changes are discussed with respect to the conceptual phases of the recharge-discharge oscillator paradigm

  15. Structure along the eastern margin of the central Cordillera, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K.; Schamel, S.

    The eastern margin of the Central Cordillera in the Colombian Andes is bounded by a narrow, east-verging, middle Tertiary foreland fold and thrust belt. Serialized balanced cross-sections reveal that structures within this belt are characterized by en echelon basement-cored domes carried eastward on low-angle to moderately steeply dipping basement-rooted thrust faults. Foreland folding and thrusting migrated eastward through time, but ended by latest Oligocene and crustal deformation shifted eastward to the Eastern Cordillera and the Garzón Massif during the early Miocene through Pliocene. The style and configuration of the foreland structures along the eastern margin of the Central Cordillera appear to be controlled by a polygonal array of pre-existing mechanical anisotropies in the pre-Cretaceous basement. In the northern portion of the Chusma fault system, N/S-trending, moderately dipping, basement-rooted thrusts flatten upward into detachment surfaces within a thick Upper Cretaceous shale unit, carry broad basement-cored ramp anticlines on their hanging walls, and splay upward into the pre-Miocene sedimentary cover forming trailing imbricate fans. To the south, the same basement faults exhibit a different style as they steepen, jog sharply to a northeast trend, and cut directly up through the sedimentary cover without forming associated imbricate thrusts. This retro-arc thrust belt differs from other cordilleran deformed belts, such as the Canadian Rockies and Foothills, in that basement directly influenced deformation of the sedimentary cover. The interplay of Oligocene crustal shortening with pre-existing basement weaknesses created a transitional terrane that developed features of both thin-skinned thrust belts and thick-skinned Laramide-style crustal uplifts.

  16. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise. PMID:23412575

  17. Study of Magnetic Fabrics across the Central Part of the Chimei Fault, the Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, E. C.; Chu, Y. R.; Chou, Y. M.; Lee, T. Q.; Kuo, S. T.; Cai, Y. M.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is an ongoing collisional mountain belt located in the conjunction of two subduction-arc systems with opposite vergences between the Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. The Coastal Range along the eastern Taiwan is the accreted Luzon arcs and surrounding basins onto the Eurasian crust. The Chimei fault, a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the Miocene volcanic Tuluanshan Formation over the Pleistocene sedimentary Paliwan Formation, is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range. To investigate the deformation pattern and strain history across the Chimei fault, we analyzed oriented samples of mudstone and volcanic rocks across the fault zone, fold zone, damage zone, and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). AMS can be represented as a susceptibility ellipsoid with 3 principal directions and values (Kmax, Kint, Kmin) and therefore is well known as a tool of magnetic fabrics to study the deformation. Results of AMS across the central part of the Chimei fault show that the direction of Kmax changed from N-S orientation to sub-vertical and the orientation of Kmin switched from 270/70 to N-S orientation when samples were closed to the fault zone. At the same time, anisotropy was increasing and susceptibility ellipsoid changed from oblate to prolate in the fold zone back to oblate in the fault zone. Based on identification works of magnetic minerals, the major magnetic carrier is magnetite with pseudo-single domain. As a result, it strongly speculated when samples were approaching to the central part of Chimei fault, stress altered from sub-vertical sedimentary loading to horizontally N-S tectonic compression. Due to increasing deformation, oblate ellipsoids with strong anisotropy developed within the fault zone highlighted the strain history of the central part of the Chimei fault.

  18. Surface control on contrasts in deformation between eastern and western margins of the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, F.; Norton, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The deformation style and climate between the eastern and western escarpments of the Central Andes are strikingly different. The eastern side is in a tropical climate; it receives annual precipitation amounts of >3500 mm and experiences active shortening and thrusting, while the western side is one of the driest places on Earth and is deformed by long-wavelength warping. Indeed, climate is so dry that the western slopes can go decades without recorded rainfall. Here we show that the modern distribution of deformation in the Central Andes can be a result of enhanced orographic precipitation pattern beginning ca. 7-10 Ma (Norton and Schlunegger, 2011). Reduced erosion on the western side would have steepened the orogen, forcing deformation to shift to the east where high precipitation amounts would have enhanced erosion. We support this hypothesis with low erosion rates and a well-defined retreating knickzone in the Western Andes, and likewise by high erosion rates and channel morphologies indicative of transient orographic feedbacks in the east. Indeed, erosion rates as measured by cosmogenic nuclides are < 0.01 mm yr-1 in the west (Kober et al., 2007) and more than an order of magnitude higher, > 0.2 mm yr-1, in the east (Safran et al. 2005). Stream profiles from the Western Escarpment are indicative of slow knickzone retreat in the absence of modern tectonic forcing while streams on the Eastern Escarpment are the product of strong climate-tectonic feedbacks, indicated by steep and strongly concave segments in the orographically-affected reach. Reconstructions of the accretionary wedge geometry and high angle fault movements between the Miocene and today further support an erosion driven shift in the locus of deformation. In particular, at orogenic scales, critical taper calculations indicate that the near cessation of erosion on the western side ca. 7-10 Ma ago shifted the orogen into a super-critical state where deformation only occurs along the basal d

  19. A Dramatic Increase in Seismic Observations in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, R.; Busby, R.; Simpson, D.; Alvarez, M.; Vernon, F.

    2009-05-01

    The USArray Transportable Array (TA) is a network of 400 seismograph stations that is systematically moving west-to-east across the contiguous United States. The TA is part of the National Science Foundation's multi- disciplinary EarthScope program. The TA has already occupied over 700 stations in the western US, and is continuing its multi-year migration towards the Atlantic coast before heading for Alaska. The stations use a grid-like deployment with 70 km separation between stations. At any given time there are approximately 400 stations operational, occupying a nominal 800 km by 2000 km "footprint." Each station is operated for two years. TA stations consist of three component broadband seismometers, with a few sites in the westernmost United States also including three component strong motion instruments. The instruments are installed about two meters below the surface, in thermally stable vaults. All stations transmit continuous data in near-real-time, and the data are freely distributed through the IRIS Data Management Center. TA stations can be upgraded to incorporate high frequency or strong motion instrument. Organizations can also "adopt" stations after installation by reimbursing the cost of the hardware, so that the stations become permanent. The TA is presently operating in the swath of the country extending from Texas to Montana. From 2010 to 2013 the TA will occupy ~800 sites in the central and eastern US. The array will be centered on the New Madrid, MO region during the bicentennial of the 1811-1812 earthquakes. During the TA deployment every existing or planned nuclear plant in the eastern US will be within 70 km of at least four new seismic stations. Thus, this station deployment in the eastern half of the US presents an unprecedented opportunity for improving source characterization, modeling the regional velocity and attenuation structure, and mapping seismic zones down to low magnitude thresholds. We will provide an overview of TA

  20. Earthquake catalog for estimation of maximum earthquake magnitude, Central and Eastern United States: Part B, historical earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Computation of probabilistic earthquake hazard requires an estimate of Mmax: the moment magnitude of the largest earthquake that is thought to be possible within a specified geographic region. The region specified in this report is the Central and Eastern United States and adjacent Canada. Parts A and B of this report describe the construction of a global catalog of moderate to large earthquakes that occurred worldwide in tectonic analogs of the Central and Eastern United States. Examination of histograms of the magnitudes of these earthquakes allows estimation of Central and Eastern United States Mmax. The catalog and Mmax estimates derived from it are used in the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey national seismic-hazard maps. Part A deals with prehistoric earthquakes, and this part deals with historical events.

  1. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959–2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD.

  2. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959–2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China’s gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD. PMID:27282140

  3. Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sen; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Haze is a serious issue in China with increasing concerns, and understanding the factors driving decadal-scale variations in haze occurrence is relevant for government policymaking. Using a comprehensive observational haze dataset, we demonstrate notable decadal fluctuations in the number of haze days (HD) during winter in central eastern China, showing a decline since the mid-1980s. The leading mode of the wintertime HD features an increasing trend for 1959-2012 in eastern China, highly correlated with China's gross domestic product (GDP) that represents increasing trend of pollutant emissions, and to a lesser extent meteorological factors. The second mode shows decadal variations in central eastern China associated with Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Observations and numerical simulations suggest that Mongolia High and corresponding descending motion tend to be enhanced (weakened) in central eastern China during the positive (negative) phase of PDO. With PDO shifting towards a negative phase, the weakened Mongolia High and ascending anomalies make the air unstable and conduce to the spread of pollutants, leading to the decline in the wintertime HD over central eastern China since the mid-1980s. Based on above physical mechanisms, a linear model based on PDO and GDP metrics provided a good fit to the observed HD. PMID:27282140

  4. Geochemistry of Florida Bay sediments: Nutrient history at five sites in eastern and central Florida Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Holmes, C.W.; Kendall, C.; Lerch, H.E.; Bates, A.L.; Silva, S.R.; Boylan, A.; Corum, M.; Marot, M.; Hedgman, C.

    1999-01-01

    Recent seagrass dieoff and massive microalgal blooms have focused attention on the health of the Florida Bay ecosystem. Changes in nutrient input and the nutrient dynamics of Florida Bay are hypothesized to be linked to these problems, but crucial baseline information is still lacking. Efforts to restore Florida Bay to its natural condition will require information on the nutrient history of the bay. The purpose of this study was to examine distributions of organic C, total N, and total P in carbonate sediments from sites of continuous and known sedimentation rate (210Pb and 137Cs dated), in eastern and central Florida Bay. These sediments provide a record of historical changes in the C, N, and P load to the eastern and central bay. Analyses were conducted on sediments from cores collected at five sites, and on buried seagrass fragments at two sites. At three of the sites, sediments from seagrass-covered and adjacent barren areas were examined to determine differences in sedimentary geochemistry. Stable isotope analyses (??13C and ??15N) of sedimentary organic C and total N and of buried seagrass fragments were also carried out at two sites to examine possible changes in nutrient sources to the estuary. Results were consistent with recent increases in N and P in eastern Florida Bay, beginning in the early to mid 1980's. The timing of the increase in nutrient load observed in the sediment data directly preceded the first observations of massive microalgal blooms and seagrass dieoff in Florida Bay in 1987. The observed nutrification was greater for P than N, and was most pronounced at the most northeasterly site sampled (Pass Key). Isotope data (??15N) suggested that an increase in algal production accompanied the increase in N load at the Pass Key site. Along record of organic C, total N, and total P distributions from Whipray Basin in central Florida Bay showed historical peaks (mid 1700's and late 1800's) in organic C and total N, but not total P; these

  5. Early Oligocene partial melting in the Main Central Thrust Zone (Arun valley, eastern Nepal Himalaya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppo, Chiara; Rubatto, Daniela; Rolfo, Franco; Lombardo, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    The Main Central Thrust Zone (MCTZ) is a key tectonic feature in the architecture of the Himalayan chain. In the Arun valley of the eastern Nepal Himalaya, the MCTZ is a strongly deformed package of amphibolite- to granulite-facies metapelitic schist and granitic orthogneiss. This package is tectonically interposed between the underlying, low-grade, Lesser Himalaya sequences and the overlying, high-grade and locally anatectic, Higher Himalayan Crystallines (HHC). The MCTZ is characterized by a well documented inverted metamorphism from the Grt-Bt zone, across the Ky-in, St-in and -out, Kfs-in, Ms-out and Sil-in isograds. Partial melting with local occurrence of migmatitic segregations has been rarely reported from the highest structural levels of the MCTZ. While it is widely accepted that thrusting along the MCT occurred during the Miocene, geochronological data constraining the timing of crustal anatexis in the upper portion of the MCTZ are still lacking. In order to understand the link between partial melting in the MCTZ and the Miocene activation of the MCT, we present the P- T-time evolution of a kyanite-bearing anatectic gneiss occurring at the highest structural levels of the MCTZ, along the Arun-Makalu transect (eastern Nepal). Microstructural observations combined with P- T pseudosection analysis show that dehydration partial melting occurred in the kyanite-field. After reaching peak conditions at about 820 °C, 13 kbar, the studied sample experienced decompression accompanied by cooling down to 805 °C, 10 kbar, which caused in situ melt crystallization. SHRIMP monazite and zircon geochronology provides evidence that the anatexis affecting the upper portion of the MCTZ occurred during Early Oligocene (˜ 31 Ma). These results demonstrate that in the upper MCTZ, at least in the eastern Himalaya, crustal anatexis was earlier than, and not a consequence of, decompression linked to exhumation along the MCT.

  6. Crustal velocity structure of Central and Eastern Turkey from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Linda M.; Beck, Susan L.; Biryol, C. Berk; Zandt, George; Özacar, A. Arda; Yang, Yingjie

    2013-09-01

    In eastern Turkey, the ongoing convergence of the Arabian and African plates with Eurasia has resulted in the westward extrusion of the Anatolian Plate. To better understand the current state and the tectonic history of this region, we image crust and uppermost mantle structure with ambient noise tomography. Our study area extends from longitudes of 32° to 44°E. We use continuous data from two temporary seismic deployments, our 2006-2008 North Anatolian Fault Passive Seismic Experiment and the 1999-2001 Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment, as well as from additional seismographs in the region. We compute daily cross-correlations of noise records between all station pairs and stack them over the entire time period for which they are available, as well as in seasonal subsets, to obtain interstation empirical Green's functions. After selecting interstation cross-correlations with high signal-to-noise ratios and measuring interstation phase velocities, we compute phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 8 to 40 s. At all periods, the phase velocity maps are similar for winter and summer subsets of the data, indicating that seasonal variations in noise sources do not bias our results. Across the study area, we invert the phase velocity estimates for shear velocity as a function of depth. The shear velocity model, which extends to 50 km depth, highlights tectonic features apparent at the surface: the Eastern Anatolian Plateau is a prominent low-velocity anomaly whereas the Kirşehir Massif has relatively fast velocities. There is a large velocity jump across the Inner Tauride Suture/Central Anataolian Fault Zone throughout the crust whereas the North Anatolian Fault does not have a consistent signature. In addition, in the southeastern part of our study area, we image a high velocity region below 20 km depth which may be the northern tip of the underthrusting Arabian Plate.

  7. Subtropical Low Cloud Responses to Central and Eastern Pacific El Nino Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, A. D.; Bennartz, R.; Jiang, J. H.; Kato, S.; Olson, W. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Su, H.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Pacific El Niño event in 2006-2007 and the central Pacific El Niño event during 2009-2010 exhibit opposite responses in the top of atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects. These responses are driven by differences in large-scale circulation that result in significant low cloud anomalies in the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Both the vertical profile of cloud fraction and cloud water content are reduced during the eastern Pacific El Niño; however, the shift in the distribution of cloud characteristics and the physical processes underlying these changes need further analysis. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Clouds and Radiation Working Group will use a synthesis of NEWS data products, A-Train satellite measurements, reanalysis, and modeling approaches to further explore the differences in the low cloud response to changes in the large-scale forcing, as well as try to understand the physical mechanism driving the observed changes in the low clouds for the 2006/07 and 2009/10 distinct El Niño events. The distributions of cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties over the southeast Pacific will first be compared for these two events using a combination of MODIS, CloudSat/CALIPSO, and CERES data. Satellite and reanalysis estimates of changes in the vertical temperature and moisture profiles, lower tropospheric stability, winds, and surface heat fluxes are then used to identify the drivers for observed differences in the clouds and TOA radiative effects.

  8. Ambient ozone in forests of the Central and Eastern European mountains.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Grodzińska, K; Fraczek, W; Musselman, R; Manning, W; Badea, O; Popescu, F; Fleischer, P

    2004-07-01

    Ambient ozone (O(3)) concentrations in the forested areas of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) mountains measured on passive sampler networks and in several locations equipped with active monitors are reviewed. Some areas of the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Romania and parts of Poland, as well as the Sumava and Brdy Mountains in the Czech Republic are characterized by low European background concentrations of the pollutant (summer season means approximately 30 ppb). Other parts of the Carpathians, especially the western part of the range (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland), some of the Eastern (Ukraine) and Southern (Romania) Carpathians and the Jizerske Mountains have high O(3) levels with peak values >100 ppb and seasonal means approximately 50 ppb. Large portions of the CEE mountain forests experience O(3) exposures that are above levels recommended for protection of forest and natural vegetation. Continuation of monitoring efforts with a combination of active monitors and passive samplers is needed for developing risk assessment scenarios for forests and other natural areas of the CEE Region. PMID:15046836

  9. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  10. Ten years of establishment of the satellite reference station system EUPOS in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, J.; Graszka, W.; Rosenthal, G.

    2012-04-01

    The project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) was initiated in 2002 by the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and European Academy of the Urban Development Berlin. The project consists in establishment of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern European countries. At the moment 20 European and West-Asiatic countries intend to participate in the project.One common project standard set is observed by all countries. The system will use as main satellite signal the signal of the system Galileo as soon as this system is available. The network of reference stations provides signals for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy are offered by the system services. In the presentation there will be given some details concerning organisation of the project and offered services, up-to-now gained experiences and cooperation with other scientific organisations.

  11. A Decade of Transformation: Educational Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    The changes in Central and Eastern Europe caused by upheavals at the beginning of the 1990s had great impact on the formation and implementation of educational policies. A comparison of patterns in Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic shows common features which were rooted in the collapse of the communist system. At the same time these transformation processes were marked by considerable diversity. To elucidate these commonalities and differences, the following problem areas are examined: (a) decentralisation of responsibilities; (b) financing and privatisation; (c) structural reforms; (d) curricular reforms; and (e) evaluation, assessment and examinations. These developments are considered in the light of various theories about how periods of social transformation unfold. The article helps to throw light on the differences between the countries of the region in terms of how the educational changes were perceived and carried out.

  12. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  13. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  14. Paleoseismic targets, seismic hazard, and urban areas in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Published geologic information from the central and eastern United States identifies 83 faults, groups of sand blows, named seismic zones, and other geological features as known or suspected products of Quaternary tectonic faulting. About one fifth of the features are known to contain faulted Quaternary materials or seismically induced liquefaction phenomena, but the origin and associated seismic hazard of most of the other features remain uncertain. Most of the features are in or near large urban areas. The largest cluster of features is in the Boston-Washington urban corridor (2005 estimated population: 50 million). The proximity of most features to populous areas identifies paleoseismic targets with potential to impact urban-hazard estimates.

  15. Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Oman, Luke D.; Waugh, Darryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted experiments with a comprehensive chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that seasonality and the location of the peak warming of sea surface temperatures dictate the response of stratospheric water vapor to El Nino. In spring, El Nino events in which sea surface temperature anomalies peak in the eastern Pacific lead to a warming at the tropopause above the warm pool region, and subsequently to more stratospheric water vapor (consistent with previous work). However, in fall and in early winter, and also during El Nino events in which the sea surface temperature anomaly is found mainly in the central Pacific, the response is qualitatively different: temperature changes in the warm pool region are nonuniform and less water vapor enters the stratosphere. The difference in water vapor in the lower stratosphere between the two variants of El Nino approaches 0.3 ppmv, while the difference between the winter and spring responses exceeds 0.5 ppmv.

  16. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf: 1999-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Waite, Janice M.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Moore, Sue E.

    2012-06-01

    Visual line transect surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf in association with pollock stock assessment surveys aboard the NOAA ship Miller Freeman in June and July of 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. Transect survey effort ranged from 1188 km in 1999 to 3761 km in 2002. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were the most common large whale in all years except 2004 when humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) were more abundant. Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) were the most common small cetacean in all years. Abundance estimates were calculated by year for each oceanographic domain: coastal, middle, and outer/slope. The middle and outer/slope domains were divided into two strata ("north" and "south") because of variable survey effort. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales changed between the earlier (colder) and later (warmer) survey years. Fin whales consistently occupied the outer shelf and secondarily the middle shelf, and their abundance was an order of magnitude greater in cold compared to warm years. Humpback whales "lived on the margin" of the northern Alaska Peninsula, eastern Aleutian Islands and Bristol Bay; their preferred habitat is possibly associated with areas of high prey availability due to nutrient upwelling and aggregation mechanisms. Minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) occur shoreward of fin whales in the outer and middle shelf and in coastal habitats along the Alaska Peninsula. The highest abundance for this species was observed in a cold (1999) year. No clear relationship emerged for odontocetes with regard to warm and cold years. Dall's porpoise occupied both outer and middle domains and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) were more common in middle and coastal domains. This study provided a unique, broad-scale assessment of cetacean distribution and abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and a baseline for future comparisons.

  17. Late Quaternary sea-level highstands in the central and eastern Indian Ocean: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2005-11-01

    The relative sea-level history of several atolls in the central and eastern Indian Ocean, including the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Chagos Archipelago, and the Maldives-Laccadive Archipelagoes, has been debated for over a century but takes on a particular significance in the face of anticipated climate change. For each of these central and eastern Indian Ocean atolls Pleistocene limestone is encountered at depths of 6-20 m below sea level. On the Cocos (Keeling) Islands this has been dated to Last Interglacial age. Conglomerate platform underlies the reef islands on Cocos within which a sequence of fossil microatolls of massive and branching Porites records a gradual fall of sea level relative to the atoll. In the Maldives, the significance of outcrops of 'reef rock' has been vigorously debated without resolving sea-level history. Although in situ Heliopora occurs on the reef flat of Addu Atoll, dated at around 2700 radiocarbon yrs BP, other evidence for higher sea level remains poorly constrained. Conglomerates of a similar age have been described from the Chagos Archipelago, but it has not been unequivocally demonstrated that they formed under conditions of relatively higher sea level. In contrast to reefs further west in the Indian Ocean, each of these atolls has living microatolls of massive Porites that have been constrained in their upward growth by sea level. Interpretation of the upper surface of two such specimens from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands indicates broad fluctuations in the sea surface over the past century; similar microatolls are described from the Maldives implying little change in sea level over recent years. Regardless of minor past fluctuations, most reef islands in the Maldives are particularly low-lying and appear vulnerable to inundation, and extracting a more detailed sea-level history remains an important challenge.

  18. Simulation of air quality over Central-Eastern Europe - Performance evaluation of WRF-CAMx modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Katarzyna; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Reizer, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of presented work is to evaluate the accuracy of modelling the atmospheric transport and transformation on regional scale, performed with 25 km grid spacing. The coupled Mesoscale Weather Model - Chemical Transport Model (CTM) has been applied for Europe under European-American AQMEII project (Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative - http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The modelling domain was centered over Denmark (57.00°N, 10.00°E) with 172 x 172 grid points in x and y direction. The map projection choice was Lambert conformal. In the applied modelling system the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) from ENVIRON International Corporation (Novato, California) was coupled off-line to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). WRF-CAMx simulations have been carried out for 2006. The anthropogenic emisions database has been provided by TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) under AQMEII initiative. Area and line emissions were proceeded by emission model EMIL (Juda-Rezler et al., 2012) [1], while for the point sources the EPS3 model (Emission Processor v.3 from ENVIRON) was implemented in order to obtain vertical distribution of emission. Boundary conditions were acquired from coupling the GEMS (Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data) modelling system results with satellite observations. The modelling system has been evaluated for the area of Central-Eastern Europe, regarding ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. For each pollutant measured data from rural background AirBase and EMEP stations, with more than 75% of daily data, has been used. Original 'operational' evaluation methodology, proposed by Juda-Rezler et al. (2012) was applied. Selected set of metrics consists of 5 groups: bias measures, error measures, correlation measures, measures of model variance and spread, which

  19. Isotropic Crustal Velocity beneath Central Idaho/ Eastern Oregon using Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremner, P. M.; Panning, M. P.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V. I.; Stanciu, A. C.; Torpey, M.; Hongsresawat, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present a new, high resolution isotropic crustal velocity model beneath central Idaho and eastern Oregon. We produced the velocity model from vertical component Rayleigh wave group velocity measurements on data from the IDaho/ORegon (IDOR) Passive seismic network, 85 3-component broadband seismic stations, using ambient noise tomography and the method of Gallego et. al (2010). We calculated inter-station group velocities in narrow frequency bands from travel-time measurements of the stacked cross-correlations (bandpass filtered between 2 and 30 seconds), which we used to invert for velocity structure beneath the network. Goals of our work include refining models of crustal structure in the accreted Blue Mountain terranes in the western study area; determining the depth extent of the Salmon River Suture/ West Idaho Shear Zone (WISZ), which crosses north-south through the middle of the network; determining the architecture of the Idaho batholith, an extensive largely crustal derived pluton; and examining the nature of the autochthonous (?) North American crust and lithosphere beneath the batholith. We cross-correlated seismograms for each IDOR Passive station pair in 24 hr segments, and then band-passed, removed mean and trend, whitened, and progressively stacked these cross-correlated seismograms for the number of days of available data for each station pair. We made travel-time measurements in relative width, narrow frequency bands by picking the peak of the envelope of the stacked seismograms. To overcome the loss of temporal resolution in the narrow bands, we measured 1-sided cross-correlated seismograms made by adding the negative side to the positive side of the stacked seismograms, and multiplying by a step function. We derived Rayleigh wave group velocity models for each frequency band using the least-squares inversion method of Tarantola (2005). We determined depth sensitivity of the various frequency bands from group velocity dispersion curves. Similarly

  20. Challenges for Teachers' Professional Learning for Inclusive Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Becirevic, Majda

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prepare teachers and other professionals for inclusive education in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS/CEE) region are heavily influenced by the legacy of Soviet defectology (the study of children with disabilities) and Soviet traditions of teacher education. The authors identify some…

  1. Zanobatus maculatus, a new species of panray from the Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Zanobatidae).

    PubMed

    Séret, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A new species of panray, Zanabatus maculatus sp. nov., is described from 12 type specimens collected in the Gulf of Guinea (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new species is distinguished from its sympatric congener, the striped panray Zanobatus schoenleinii, by its smaller size, heavier thorn pattern, spearhead-shaped dermal denticles and maculate colour pattern. PMID:27615946

  2. A Reflection on Adaptability, Achievement Motivation and Success of Central and Eastern European Students in One English University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowska, Maja

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on and discusses Central and Eastern European (CEE) learners' adaptability and achievement in one English post-1992 university. There appears to be a scarcity of studies of values, beliefs, attitudes and needs as well as achievement (and factors contributing to it) between CEE and other learners. Since the expansion of the…

  3. SURVEYS AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF HARMONIA AXYRIDIS AND OTHER COCCINELLIDAE (COLEOPTERA) IN EASTERN AND CENTRAL SOUTH DAKOTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harmonia axyridis, a coccinellid native to Asia, was discovered in South Dakota in 1996, but its distribution and habitat use in the state had remained undetermined. We sampled coccinellids from various habitats, including agricultural and natural areas, in eastern and central South Dakota in 2000 a...

  4. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  5. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  6. Holocene mammalian change in the central Columbia Basin of eastern Washington state, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2016-08-01

    Predictions of changes in the Holocene mammalian fauna of the central Columbia Basin in eastern Washington (USA) based on environmental changes are largely met. Taxonomic richness is greatest during periods of cool-moist climate. Rates of input of faunal remains to the paleozoological record may suggest greater mammalian biomass during periods of greater moisture but are difficult to interpret without data on sampling intensity in the form of volume of sediment excavated. Abundances of leporids and grazing ungulates fluctuate in concert with abundance of grass. Several biogeographic records are tantalizing but require additional study and data before being accepted as valid. Records of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) indicate this species was present in the central basin during the Holocene contrary to historic records and recent suggestions modern foxes there are escapees from fur farms. Bison (Bison bison) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) underwent diminution of body size during the Holocene. Modern efforts to conserve the Columbia Basin ecosystem are advised to consider the Holocene record as indicative of what may happen to that ecosystem in the future.

  7. Leveraging EarthScope USArray with the Central and Eastern United States Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, R.; Sumy, D. F.; Woodward, R.; Frassetto, A.; Brudzinski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent earthquakes, such as the 2011 M5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake, raised awareness of the comparative lack of knowledge about seismicity, site response to ground shaking, and the basic geologic underpinnings in this densely populated region. With this in mind, the National Science Foundation, United States Geological Survey, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy supported the creation of the Central and Eastern United States Seismic Network (CEUSN). These agencies, along with the IRIS Consortium who operates the network, recognized the unique opportunity to retain EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations in this region beyond the standard deployment duration of two years per site. The CEUSN project supports 159 broadband TA stations, more than 30 with strong motion sensors added, that are scheduled to operate through 2017. Stations were prioritized in regions of elevated seismic hazard that have not been traditionally heavily monitored, such as the Charlevoix and Central Virginia Seismic Zones, and in regions proximal to nuclear power plants and other critical facilities. The stations (network code N4) transmit data in real time, with broadband and strong motion sensors sampling at 100 samples per second. More broadly the CEUSN concept also recognizes the existing backbone coverage of permanently operating seismometers in the CEUS, and forms a network of over 300 broadband stations. This multi-agency collaboration is motivated by the opportunity to use one facility to address multiple missions and needs in a way that is rarely possible, and to produce data that enables both researchers and federal agencies to better understand seismic hazard potential and associated seismic risks. In June 2015, the CEUSN Working Group (www.usarray.org/ceusn_working_group) was formed to review and provide advice to IRIS Management on the performance of the CEUSN as it relates to the target scientific goals and objectives. Map shows

  8. First direct evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species ( Cheirogaleus crossleyi) from the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Marina B.; Rahalinarivo, Vololonirina

    2010-10-01

    The nocturnal dwarf lemurs of Madagascar (genus Cheirogaleus) are the only primates known to be obligate hibernators. Although the physiology of hibernation has been studied widely in the western, small-bodied species, Cheirogaleus medius, no direct evidence of hibernation, i.e., body temperature recordings, has been reported for any of the three recognized eastern dwarf lemur species. We present skin temperature data collected by external collar transmitters from two eastern dwarf lemur individuals ( Cheirogaleus crossleyi) captured in the high-altitude forest of Tsinjoarivo, central-eastern Madagascar. Our study species is larger in body size than western dwarf lemurs and inhabits much colder environments. We present the first evidence of hibernation in an eastern dwarf lemur species, and we compare the results with data available for the western species. Although the hibernation period is shorter in dwarf lemurs from Tsinjoarivo, minimum body temperatures are lower than those reported for C. medius. Both individuals at Tsinjoarivo showed limited passive and extended deep hibernation during which they did not track ambient temperature as observed in most western dwarf lemurs. Because ambient temperatures at Tsinjoarivo never exceed 30°C, dwarf lemurs have to experience arousals to maintain homeostasis during periods of hibernation. We show that large dwarf lemurs (>400 g) are capable of undergoing deep hibernation and suggest that cold, high-altitude forests may render hibernation highly advantageous during periods of food scarcity. This study has implications for understanding the physiology of hibernation in small-bodied lemurs.

  9. Contrasting lithospheric mantle domains beneath the Massif Central (France) revealed by geochemistry of peridotite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenoir, Xavier; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Dautria, Jean-Marie

    2000-09-01

    We report major and trace element analyses for 82 coarse-grained peridotite xenoliths from 25 Cenozoic volcanic centres throughout the Massif Central (France). These data cover a region of about 150×150 km, allowing an investigation of large scale compositional variations in the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). In agreement with textural variations, geochemical data define two contrasting lithospheric domains, situated north and south of latitude 45°30'. Peridotites of the northern domain show protogranular textures, characterised by clustered pyroxene-spinel distributions. They are rather refractory and depleted in MREE relative to HREE, but pervasively enriched in LREE and other highly incompatible elements. The samples show mantle-normalised patterns with negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf, similar to enriched mantle xenoliths ascribed to carbonatitic metasomatism. In contrast, the peridotites of the southern domain are devoid of pyroxene-spinel clusters and are therefore referred to as coarse-granular. They are distinguished from the northern suite by more fertile compositions and relatively flat MREE-HREE patterns. In addition, only the harzburgites and a few lherzolites are enriched in LREE. Most southern domain lherzolites are depleted in these elements and the average composition of the southern suite is comparable to that of depleted MORB-source mantle (DMM). The main compositional differences between the two domains cannot be accounted for by a secular evolution of the Massif Central SCLM caused by Cenozoic plume upwelling. Instead, these differences record the existence of distinct lithospheric blocks assembled during the Variscan orogeny. To some degree, the northern and southern domains are reminiscent of cratonic and circumcratonic SCLM domains. Being relatively refractory and pervasively enriched in LREE, the northern domain displays similarities with cratonic SCLM. It is interpreted as a relatively ancient (pre

  10. Natural radioactivity and rare earth elements in feldspar samples, Central Eastern desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Walley El-Dine, Nadia; El-Shershaby, Amal; Afifi, Sofia; Sroor, Amany; Samir, Eman

    2011-05-01

    The pegmatite bodies of the Eastern Desert of Egypt are widely distributed especially along the Marsa-Alam-Idfu road. The Abu Dob area covers about 150km(2) of the Arabian Nubian shield at the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Most of the pegmatite is zoned; the zonation starts with milky quartz at the core followed by alkali feldspar at the margins. The feldspars vary in color from rose to milky and in composition from K-feldspar to Na-feldspar, sometimes interactions of both types are encountered. Thirteen feldspar samples were collected from different locations in the Abu Dob area for measuring the natural radioactivity of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K using an HPGe detector. The variation in concentration of radionuclides for the area under investigation can be classified into regions of high, medium and low natural radioactivity. The average concentration in BqKg(-1) has been observed to be from 9.5 to 183675.7BqKg(-1) for (238)U, between 6.1 and 94,314.2BqKg(-1) for (232)Th and from 0 to 7894.6BqKg(-1) for (40)K. Radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), dose rate (D(R)) and external hazard (H(ex)) have also been determined. In the present work, the concentration of rare earth elements are measured for two feldspar samples using two techniques, Environmental Scanning Electron microscope XIL 30 ESEM, Philips, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The existence of rare earth elements in this area are very high and can be used in different important industries. PMID:21324705

  11. Non-fatal injuries in three Central and Eastern European urban population samples: the HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Topor-Madry, Roman; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite high mortality from injuries and accidents, data on rates and distribution of non-fatal injuries in Central and Eastern European populations are scarce. Methods: Cross-sectional study of random population samples of 45–69-year-old men and women (n = 28 600) from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland) and six Czech towns, participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study. Participants provided information on non-fatal injuries in the past 12 months, socio-economic characteristics, alcohol consumption and other covariates. Results: The period prevalence of non-fatal injuries in the last year among Czech, Russian and Polish men was 12.5, 9.4 and 5.3%, respectively; among women, the respective proportions were 9.9, 9.8 and 6.4%. Injury prevalence declined with age in men and increased with age in women. Higher injury prevalence was associated with being unmarried, material deprivation, higher drinking frequency and problem drinking. In the pooled data, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest material deprivation category was 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.38–1.79]; for problem drinking, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI 1.23–1.69). Alcohol did not mediate the link between socio-economic status and injury. Conclusion: Non-fatal injuries were associated with material deprivation, other socio-economic characteristics and with alcohol. These results not only underscore the universality of the inequality phenomenon, but also suggest that the mediating role of alcohol in social differentials in non-fatal injury remains an unresolved issue. PMID:19959615

  12. 21 Ma Eclogite From the Main Central Thrust Sheet, Eastern Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Vervoort, J. D.; Parkinson, C. D.

    2007-12-01

    Though uncommon throughout the Himalaya, eclogites have been documented in the Kaghan Valley of Pakistan, the Tso Morari dome in India, the Kharta region of Tibet, and the Makalu-Everest region of the Arun River valley in eastern Nepal. The Kaghan and Tso Morari UHP eclogites have been dated at ~50 Ma, and are commonly viewed as reflecting aborted subduction of the leading edge of the Indian plate during the initial stages of Indo- Asian collision. Here we show that the Arun eclogites are significantly younger, only ~21 Ma, so reflect either different origins, or substantial time lags in tectonics along strike. The Arun eclogites are stratigraphically continuous with the surrounding Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) felsic gneisses, and have been interpreted as metamorphosed basaltic sills. P-T conditions have been estimated at >14 kbar at 670-710 °C. The GHS in this region overlies Lesser Himalayan rocks along the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which can be traced for over 2000 km along strike. Lu-Hf dates from garnet separates in one relict eclogite indicate an age of 20.7±0.4 Ma (MSWD = 2.2). Five garnet amphibolites from nearby were also dated via Lu-Hf, and their ages range from 14-20 Ma (13.9±2.5, 14.1±0.3, 14.5±2.8, 15.1±0.6, and 19.8±1.1 Ma). The ~21 Ma age obtained from the eclogite postdates eclogite ages from the western Himalaya (Kaghan and Tso Morari) by ~30 Myr, and has important implications for tectonic models of Himalayan orogenesis. One possible model is that (aborted) subduction, slab breakoff, and ascent of India's leading edge occurred diachronously: ~50 Ma in the western Himalaya, ~20 Ma in eastern Nepal, and presumably even younger in the eastern Himalaya. Alternatively, because the Arun eclogites did not reach ultra-high pressure conditions seen by western eclogites (only ≥45, not ≥90 km depth), they may simply reflect deepening or longer transport of the MCT in the Arun area. Regardless, a ~21 Ma age for these eclogites combined with

  13. Shallow crustal structure of eastern-central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Ramón, V. M.; Lermo-Samaniego, J.

    2015-12-01

    Central-eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is featured by large basins (i.e., Toluca, Mexico, Puebla-Tlaxcala, Libres-Oriental). It has been supposed that major crustal faults limit these basins. Sierra de Las Cruces range separates the Toluca and Mexico basins. The Sierra Nevada range separates Mexico basin from the Puebla-Tlaxcala basin. Based in gravity and seismic data we inferred the Toluca basin is constituted by the Ixtlahuaca sub-basin, to the north, and the Toluca sub-basin to the south, which are separated by a relative structural high. The Toluca depression is more symmetric and bounded by sub-vertical faults. In particular its eastern master fault controlled the emplacement of Sierra de Las Cruces range. Easternmost Acambay graben constitutes the northern and deepest part of the Ixtlahuaca depression. The Toluca-Ixtlahuaca basin is inside the Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault system, and limited to the west by the Guerrero terrane which continues beneath the TMVB up to the Acambay graben. Mexico basin basement occupies an intermediate position and featured by a relative structural high to the north-east, as established by previous studies. This relative structural high is limited to the west by the north-south Mixhuca trough, while to the south it is bounded by the east-west Copilco-Xochimilco-Chalco sub-basin. The Puebla-Tlaxcala basin basement is the shallowest of these 3 tectonic depressions. In general, features (i.e., depth) and relationship between these basins, from west to east, are controlled by the regional behavior of the Sierra Madre Oriental fold and thrust belt basement (i.e., Oaxaca Complex?). This study indicates that an active east-west regional fault system limits to the south the TMVB (from the Nevado de Toluca volcano through the Popocatepetl volcano and eastward along southern Puebla-Tlaxcala basin). The Tenango and La Pera fault systems constituting the western part of this regional fault system coincide with northern

  14. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70–50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15–10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  15. 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marina; Alshamali, Farida; Silva, Paula; Carrilho, Carla; Mandlate, Flávio; Jesus Trovoada, Maria; Černý, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup L2 originated in Western Africa but is nowadays spread across the entire continent. L2 movements were previously postulated to be related to the Bantu expansion, but L2 expansions eastwards probably occurred much earlier. By reconstructing the phylogeny of L2 (44 new complete sequences) we provide insights on the complex net of within-African migrations in the last 60 thousand years (ka). Results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, whereas, eastern lineages seem to be substantially more ancient. Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: (1) one migration at 70-50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, (2) postglacial movements (15-10 ka) into Eastern Africa; and (3) the southward Bantu Expansion in the last 5 ka. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the later movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants. This implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was mainly a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations. PMID:26211407

  16. The Central and Eastern U.S. Seismic Network: Legacy of USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, J. A.; Astiz, L.; Benz, H.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Reyes, J. C.; Sharer, G.; Vernon, F.; Woodward, R.

    2014-12-01

    As the USArray Transportable Array entered the central and eastern United States, several Federal agencies (National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy) recognized the unique opportunity to retain TA stations beyond the original timeline. The mission of the CEUSN is to produce data that enables researchers and Federal agencies alike to better understand the basic geologic questions, background earthquake rates and distribution, seismic hazard potential, and associated societal risks of this region. The selected long-term sub-array from Transportable Array (TA) stations includes nearly 200 sites, complemented by 100 broadband stations from the existing regional seismic networks to form the Central and Eastern United States Network (CEUSN). Multiple criteria for site selection were weighed by an inter-agency TA Station Selection (TASS) Working Group: seismic noise characteristics, data availability in real time, proximity to nuclear power plants, and homogeneous distribution throughout the region. The Array Network Facility (ANF) started collecting data for CEUSN network stations since late 2013, with all stations collected since May 2014. Regional seismic data streams are collected in real-time from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). TA stations selected to be part of CEUSN, retain the broadband sensor to which a 100 sps channel is added, the infrasound and environmental channels, and, at some stations, accelerometers are deployed. The upgraded sites become part of the N4 network for which ANF provides metadata and can issue remote commands to the station equipment. Stations still operated by TA, but planned for CEUSN, are included in the virtual network so all stations are currently available now. By the end of 2015, the remaining TA stations will be upgraded. Data quality control procedures developed for TA stations at ANF and at the DMC are currently performed on N4 data. However

  17. The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and its activities through the Central Eastern European Task Force.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H; Bjerre-Jepsen, M; Hossfeld, D

    1999-01-01

    The article describes the history and organization of the European Society for Medical Oncology. The society, founded in 1975, aims at advancing medical oncology on a pan-European basis. Postgraduate training and education constitute a major part of ESMO's activities through a current CME programme of courses and other activities. Each year the ESMO Examination is held, and every other year ESMO organizes its congresses with the latest attendance of more than 6000 delegates. ESMO has a continuous increase of members, also from outside Europe. In 1996 ESMO created the Central Eastern European Programme with the aim to support the needs of the countries of the former Eastern Europe. A task force (CEE TF) with members from 16 Central Eastern European countries meets twice a year to discuss key areas. An e-mail communication system has been launched, courses are planned for 1998-1999, exchange programmes are in progress, and support in setting up national guidelines will follow. A Central Eastern European Oncology Group (CEE OG), which performs clinical trials on a cooperative basis, has been established with ESMO guidance. PMID:10676547

  18. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  19. Crustal structure of the Central-Eastern Greenland: results from the TopoGreenland refraction profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Until present, seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coasts of Greenland, where the crustal structure is affected by oceanic break-up. We present the deep seismic structure of the crust of the interior of Greenland, based on the new and the only existing so far seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profile. The seismic data was acquired by a team of six people during a two-month long experiment in summer of 2011 on the ice cap in the interior of central-eastern Greenland. The presence of an up to 3.4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering most of the land mass, made acquisition of geophysical data logistically complicated. The profile extends 310 km inland in E-W direction from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near the Scoresby Sund across the center of the ice cap. 350 Reftek Texan receivers recorded high-quality seismic data from 8 equidistant shots along the profile. Explosive charge sizes were 1 ton at the ends and ca. 500 kg along the profile, loaded with about 125 kg at 35-85 m depth in individual boreholes. Given that the data acquisition was affected by the thick ice sheet, we questioned the quality of seismic records in such experiment setup. We have developed an automatic routine to check the amplitudes and spectra of the selected seismic phases and to check the differences/challenges in making seismic experiments on ice and the effects of ice on data interpretation. Using tomographic inversion and forward ray tracing modelling we have obtained the two-dimensional velocity model down to a 50 km depth. The model shows a decrease of crustal thickness from 47 km below the centre of Greenland in the western part of the profile to 40 km in its eastern part. Relatively high lower crustal velocities (Vp 6.8 - 7.3 km/s) in the western part of the TopoGreenland profile may result from past collision tectonics or, alternatively, may be related to the speculated passage of the Iceland mantle plume. Comparison of our results

  20. Estimating earthquake magnitudes from reported intensities in the central and eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver; Cramer, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    A new macroseismic intensity prediction equation is derived for the central and eastern United States and is used to estimate the magnitudes of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, and 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquakes. This work improves upon previous derivations of intensity prediction equations by including additional intensity data, correcting magnitudes in the intensity datasets to moment magnitude, and accounting for the spatial and temporal population distributions. The new relation leads to moment magnitude estimates for the New Madrid earthquakes that are toward the lower range of previous studies. Depending on the intensity dataset to which the new macroseismic intensity prediction equation is applied, mean estimates for the 16 December 1811, 23 January 1812, and 7 February 1812 mainshocks, and 16 December 1811 dawn aftershock range from 6.9 to 7.1, 6.8 to 7.1, 7.3 to 7.6, and 6.3 to 6.5, respectively. One‐sigma uncertainties on any given estimate could be as high as 0.3–0.4 magnitude units. We also estimate a magnitude of 6.9±0.3 for the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake. We find a greater range of magnitude estimates when also accounting for multiple macroseismic intensity prediction equations. The inability to accurately and precisely ascertain magnitude from intensities increases the uncertainty of the central United States earthquake hazard by nearly a factor of two. Relative to the 2008 national seismic hazard maps, our range of possible 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquake magnitudes increases the coefficient of variation of seismic hazard estimates for Memphis, Tennessee, by 35%–42% for ground motions expected to be exceeded with a 2% probability in 50 years and by 27%–35% for ground motions expected to be exceeded with a 10% probability in 50 years.

  1. Horizontal crustal motion in the central and eastern Mediterranean inferred from Satellite Laser Ranging measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Robbins, John W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Torrence, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    Four campaigns to acquire Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements at sites in the Mediterranean region have been completed. These measurements to the LAGEOS satellite, made largely by mobile systems, cover a time span beginning in November 1985 and ending in June 1993. The range data from 18 sites in the central and eastern Mediterranean have been simultaneously analyzed with data acquired by the remainder of the global laser tracking network. Estimates of horizontal motion were placed into a regional, northern Europe-fixed, kinematic reference frame. Uncertainties are on the order of 5 mm/yr for sites having at least four occupations by mobile systems and approach 1 mm/yr for permanently located sites with long histories of tracking. The resulting relative motion between sites in the Aegean exhibit characteristics of broadly distributed pattern of radial extension, but at rates that are about 50% larger than those implied from studies of seismic strain rates based on seismicity of magnitude 6 or greater or across the region. The motion estimated for sites in Turkey exhibit velocity components associated with the westward motion of the Anatolian Block relative to Eurasia. These results provide a present-day 'snapshot' of ongoing deformational processes as experienced by the locations occupied by SLR systems.

  2. Rift tectonics and limestone sedimentation: Jurassic of the central and eastern High Atlas, Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Warme, J.E.; Hazlett, B.H.; Crevello, P.D.; Letsch, D.K.; Burke, R.B. )

    1988-08-01

    The central and eastern High Atlas ranges of southern Morocco represent deposition in an Early to Middle Jurassic rift which first collected continental basalts, red beds, and evaporites. Carbonate deposition was initiated by a euxinic phase, followed by a mosaic of normal marine limestones and marls controlled by regional subsidence and local differential fault-block movements and overprinted by global sea level changes. The High Atlas is now an en echelon series of high-angle reverse faults, creating abrupt and discontinuous fault-bounded ridges separated by broad synclines. Facies relationships of the Jurassic carbonates show that the faults were originally synrift normal faults, probably transtensional, now structurally reversed. Overlying Aalenian to Bajocian shelf limestones prograded into an axial seaway filled with thick marls, punctuated in the Bajocian by horizons of spectacularly exposed coralgal reefs which appear structurally isolated on separate fault blocks. Sedimentation eventually outpaced subsidence, culminating in continental deposits as the sea finally retreated in the mid-Dogger. Although abundant potential source rocks of this rift are thermally overmature, the basin serves as a well-exposed model for comparison with carbonate-filled rifts elsewhere.

  3. Crustal deformation rates in central and eastern U.S. inferred from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Weijun; Prescott, William H.

    Analysis of continuous GPS observations between 1996 and 2000 at 62 stations distributed throughout the central and eastern United States suggests that the area is generally stable. Seven of the 62 stations show anomalous velocities, but there is reason to suspect their monument stability. Assuming the remaining 55 stations are stable with respect to interior North America, we have found the North America-ITRF97 Euler vector (-1.88°±1.04°N, 77.67°±0.39°W, 0.201°±0.004° Myr-1) that minimizes the RMS station velocity. Referred to fixed North America, all of these velocities are less than 3.2 mm yr-1. Motion of several stations suggests the Mississippi embayment may be moving southward away from the rest of the continent at a rate of 1.7±0.9 mm yr-1. The motion of the embayment produces a large gradient in velocity which, in turn, implies the highest seismic moment accumulation rate that we found. Although the highest rate is only marginally significant, the fact that it occurs near New Madrid, where earthquake risk is thought to be high, argues that the anomaly may be real. Nevertheless, the identification of the anomaly remains tentative.

  4. Biology of Plesionika narval(Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) Around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. A.; Tuset, V. M.; Lozano, I. J.; Santana, J. I.

    1997-03-01

    The biology of Plesionika narval(Fabricius, 1787) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Pandalidae) around the Canary Islands (Eastern Central Atlantic) was studied, based on a total of 41 679 shrimps of size range 2-30 mm carapace length (CL) collected over a 20-year period. This species carries out seasonal migrations; shrimps concentrate in deep waters in the autumn, move to shallower waters during winter and spring, and return to deep waters in summer. The growth parameters of males were L 0nfin;=29·47 mm CL and k=0·54 year -1, and of females were L 0nfin;=31·90 mm CL and k=0·66 year -1, with size generally increasing gradually with depth. Carapace length/wet weight relationships showed negative allometry. Ovigerous females occur year round but a spawning peak was determined from April to June when the population is found in shallower waters (26-175 m). Ovigerous females decrease in number as the depth increases. The size at maturity in females was 11·96 mm CL. The study of the sex ratio by depth and the seasonal migrations, as well as the sex differences in growth, confirm that this species conforms to the reproductive pattern of tropical pandalids, in which dioecy occurs.

  5. Disparities and relative risk ratio of preterm birth in six Central and Eastern European centers

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Chander P; Kacerovsky, Marian; Zinner, Balazs; Ertl, Tibor; Ceausu, Iuliana; Rusnak, Igor; Shurpyak, Serhiy; Sandhu, Meenu; Hobel, Calvin J; Dumesic, Daniel A; Vari, Sandor G

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify characteristic risk factors of preterm birth in Central and Eastern Europe and explore the differences from other developed countries. Method Data on 33 794 term and 3867 preterm births (<37 wks.) were extracted in a retrospective study between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009. The study took place in 6 centers in 5 countries: Czech Republic, Hungary (two centers), Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Data on historical risk factors, pregnancy complications, and special testing were gathered. Preterm birth frequencies and relevant risk factors were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software. Results All the factors selected for study (history of smoking, diabetes, chronic hypertension, current diabetes, preeclampsia, progesterone use, current smoking, body mass index, iron use and anemia during pregnancy), except the history of diabetes were predictive of preterm birth across all participating European centers. Preterm birth was at least 2.4 times more likely with smoking (history or current), three times more likely with preeclampsia, 2.9 times more likely with hypertension after adjusting for other covariates. It had inverse relationship with the significant predictor body mass index, with adjusted risk ratio of 0.8 to 1.0 in three sites. Iron use and anemia, though significant predictors of preterm birth, indicated mixed patterns for relative risk ratio. Conclusion Smoking, preeclampsia, hypertension and body mass index seem to be the foremost risk factors of preterm birth. Implications of these factors could be beneficial for design and implementation of interventions and improve the birth outcome. PMID:25891871

  6. Palliative Care Information Needs in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    PubMed

    Jünger, Saskia; Klose, Jasper; Brearley, Sarah; Hegedus, Katalin; Payne, Sheila; Radbruch, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    In a cross-national survey, we examined the information needs and barriers to accessing palliative care information in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In total, 584 healthcare professionals from 22 countries completed the questionnaire. Information on legislation and official papers (67 percent) and information on education courses in palliative care (65 percent) were the most frequently reported information needs. Major barriers to accessing palliative care information were language and a lack of easily accessible and affordable, clinically relevant information. An informative Web site, an electronic newsletter, and regular meetings or conferences were rated as the most important information channels. We concluded that access to reliable and well-structured information should be facilitated for healthcare professionals in CEE and CIS countries to assist them in their clinical decision making. Most importantly, more in-depth qualitative research and dialogue with stakeholders in the different countries are needed to develop context-specific, tailor-made strategies. PMID:26201213

  7. Benefits of investment into modern medicines in Central-Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Inotai, András; Petrova, Guenka; Vitezic, Dinko; Kaló, Zoltán

    2014-02-01

    Transferability of current evidence and expressing value of innovative pharmaceuticals according to health system objectives Due to the scarcity of healthcare resources, decision-makers often expect monetary benefits--including cost savings or productivity gain--from innovative medicines. Manufacturers try to fulfill this expectation by expressing the benefits of innovative technologies in monetary units citing approaches from the scientific literature. Unfortunately, currently available evidence has limited relevance and transferability in Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries. This study aims to summarize how innovative pharmaceuticals in CEE countries may contribute to WHO-defined health system objectives, including health gain, equity in health, financial protection, responsiveness, equity in finance and financial sustainability. References in this study are also mainly based on international examples; therefore, additional policy research from CEE countries is necessary to validate assumptions. If CEE politicians can rely on credible arguments based on local research evidence, they may improve long-term strategies and policy decisions related to healthcare innovation. PMID:24350863

  8. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed. PMID:22167868

  9. Cycle stratigraphy and porosity in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian shelf limestones, eastern Central Basin Platform, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Saller, A.H.; Dickson, J.A.D.; Boyd, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Pennyslvanian and Lower Permian shelfal limestones were studied in core and wireline logs on the eastern side of the Central Basin platform in west Texas. Sixty-three (63) cycles were delineated in the study interval, which includes 200-250 m of Canyon (Missourian), Cisco (Virgilian), and Wolfcamp strata. Four general lithofacies are present: fossiliferous wackestones and packstones, grainstones, phylloid algal boundstones, and shales. These lithologies typically occur in 1-18-m-thick cycles bounded by subaerial exposure surfaces. Grainstones in the upper part of some cycles indicate a shallowing of environments prior to subaerial exposure. Many cycles have subaerial exposure surfaces developed on subtidal fossiliferous wackestones or packstones suggesting rapid falls in sea level. Long-term transgressive intervals (transgressive systems tracts or TST) are dominated by thick (>4 m) cycles, whereas long-term regressive intervals (highstand systems tract or HST) are dominated by thinner cycles. Stable carbon isotope data suggest that thick cycles in TSTs were subjected to short periods of subaerial exposure, whereas thin cycles in the HSTs were subjected to much longer subaerial exposure. Where present, reservoir-grade porosity occurs in the upper part of cycles, 0.3-5 m below subaerial exposure surfaces. Prolonged subaerial exposure apparently reduced matrix porosity by allowing more time for calcite precipitation, which was especially effective in reducing porosity in micritic strata below exposure surfaces.

  10. Health sector reform in central and eastern Europe: the professional dimension.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Mckee, M

    1997-12-01

    The success or failure of health sector reform in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe depends, to a large extent, on their health care staff. Commentators have focused on the structures to be put in place, such as mechanisms of financing or changes in ownership of facilities, but less attention has been paid to the role and status of the different groups working in health care services. This paper draws on a study of trends in staffing and working conditions throughout the region. It identifies several key issues including the traditionally lower status and pay of health sector workers compared to the West, the credibility crisis of trade unions, and the under-developed roles of professional associations. In order to implement health sector reforms and to address the deteriorating health status of the population, the health sector workforce has to be restructured and training programmes reoriented towards primary care. Finally, the paper identifies emerging issues such as the erosion of 'workplace welfare' and its adverse effects upon a predominantly female health care workforce. PMID:10176264

  11. Crustal deformation rates in Central and Eastern U.S. inferred from GPS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gan, Weijun; Prescott, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of continuous GPS observations between 1996 and 2000 at 62 stations distributed throughout the central and eastern United States suggests that the area is generally stable. Seven of the 62 stations show anomalous velocities, but there is reason to suspect their monument stability. Assuming the remaining 55 stations are stable with respect to interior North America, we have found the North America-ITRF97 Euler vector (-1.88?? ?? 1.04??N, 77.67?? ?? 0.39??W, 0.201?? ?? 0.004?? Myr-1) that minimizes the RMS station velocity. Referred to fixed North America, all of these velocities are less than 3.2 mm yr-1. Motion of several stations suggests the Mississippi embayment may be moving southward away from the rest of the continent at a rate of 1.7??0.9 mm yr-1. The motion of the embayment produces a large gradient in velocity which, in turn, implies the highest seismic moment accumulation rate that we found. Although the highest rate is only marginally significant, the fact that it occurs near New Madrid, where earthquake risk is thought to be high, argues that the anomaly may be real. Nevertheless, the identification of the anomaly remains tentative.

  12. Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Rahimi, H.; Allameh Zadeh, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, more than 380 local earthquakes (2 < ML < 4.5) have been used to estimate the direct-shear waves (Qd), coda (Qc), intrinsic (Qi) and scattering quality factor (QSc) in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region. The events were recorded by one temporary and two permanent networks. The quality factors of shear and coda waves have been individually estimated at different frequency bands by using coda normalization (CNM) method and single backscattering (SBS) method, respectively. Average frequency-dependent relationships have been estimated for Qd and Qc as 111 ± 4f0.85±0.04 and 112 ± 8f1.02±0.06, respectively. The intrinsic quality factor, Qi, has been separated from the scattering quality factor QSc by using individually estimated Qc and Qd values. The average frequency-dependent relationships of Qi and QSc have been calculated in the form of 108f1.00 and 784f0.56, respectively. The results of this study suggest that S-wave's attenuation (Qd-1) is dominated by the intrinsic attenuation. The attenuation of coda waves has been observed similar to the intrinsic attenuation, which indicates, the coda decay is mostly caused by the intrinsic attenuation. It has been observed that the scattering mean free path is frequency independent at frequencies greater than 6 Hz. The results of this study are similar to the tectonically active regions.

  13. Willingness and ability to pay for physician services in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Danyliv, Andriy; Groot, Wim; Gryga, Irena; Pavlova, Milena

    2014-07-01

    Patient charges for physician services are implemented in high-income countries and often are considered in the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). However, there is no evidence on the potential consumption effects of service charges in these countries. This study provides evidence on the potential impact of patient charges on the consumption of specialized physician services in six CEE countries: Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. We apply a semi-parametric survival analysis to stated willingness and ability to pay (WATP) in order to identify potential demand pools and their price, income and age semi-elasticity. Data are collected through a survey held in 2010 among representative samples of about 1000 respondents in each country. Our results suggest that median WATP in the studied countries is comparable to the cost of the services. The obtained demand pools appear to be theoretically valid and externally consistent. They provide information on the shares of population that would be WATP certain fee levels, and their heterogeneity across socio-demographic groups gives an idea about the population groups that will need to be exempted. PMID:24630780

  14. Expression of the mouse PR domain protein Prdm8 in the developing central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tae; Iwanari, Hiroko; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Hamakubo, Takao; Shinkai, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    It was first shown in the PR (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology) domain family proteins that the PR domain has homology to the SET (Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste and Trithorax) domain, a catalytic domain of the histone lysine methyltransferases. Recently, there are many reports that the PR domain proteins have important roles in development and/or cell differentiation. In this report, we show the expression patterns of one of the mouse PR domain proteins, Prdm8, in the developing central nervous system. In the developing retina, Prdm8 expression was detected in postmitotic neurons in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer, and its expression became restricted predominantly to the rod bipolar cells when retinogenesis was completed. In the developing spinal cord, Prdm8 was expressed first in the progenitor populations of ventral interneurons and motor neurons, and later in a subpopulation of interneurons. In the developing brain, Prdm8 expression was observed in postmitotic neurons in the intermediate zone and the cortical plate. In the postnatal brain, Prdm8 was expressed mainly in layer 4 neurons of the cerebral cortex. These results show that Prdm8 expression is tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner during neural development and mainly restricted to postmitotic neurons, except in the spinal cord. PMID:19616129

  15. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  16. Dissolution of bedded rock salt: A seismic profile across the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member, central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, N.L.; Hopkins, J.; Martinez, A.; Knapp, R.W.; Macfarlane, P.A.; Watney, W.L.; Black, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since late Tertiary, bedded rock salt of the Permian Hutchinson Salt Member has been dissolved more-or-less continuously along its active eastern margin in central Kansas as a result of sustained contact with unconfined, undersaturated groundwater. The associated westward migration of the eastern margin has resulted in surface subsidence and the contemporaneous sedimentation of predominantly valley-filling Quarternary alluvium. In places, these alluvium deposits extend more than 25 km to the east of the present-day edge of the main body of contiguous rock salt. The margin could have receded this distance during the past several million years. From an environmental perspective, the continued leaching of the Hutchinson Salt is a major concern. This predominantly natural dissolution occurs in a broad zone across the central part of the State and adversely affects groundwater and surface-water quality as nonpoint source pollution. Significant surface subsidence occurs as well. Most of these subsidence features have formed gradually; others developed in a more catastrophic manner. The latter in particular pose real threats to roadways, railways, and buried oil and gas pipelines. In an effort to further clarify the process of natural salt dissolution in central Kansas and with the long-term goal of mitigating the adverse environmental affects of such leaching, the Kansas Geological Survey acquired a 4-km seismic profile across the eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt in the Punkin Center area of central Kansas. The interpretation of these seismic data (and supporting surficial and borehole geologic control) is consistent with several hypotheses regarding the process and mechanisms of dissolution. More specifically these data support the theses that: 1. (1) Dissolution along the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member was initiated during late Tertiary. Leaching has resulted in the steady westward migration of the eastern margin, surface subsidence, and the

  17. Large-scale circulation classification and its links to observed precipitation in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Deliang; Tu, Kai; Ruan, Chengqing; Hu, Zengyun

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the large-scale circulation dynamics and regional precipitation regime in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has so far not been well understood. In this study, we classify the circulation types using the self-organizing maps based on the daily field of 500 hPa geopotential height and link them to the precipitation climatology in the eastern and central TP. By virtue of an objective determining method, 18 circulation types are quantified. The results show that the large amount of precipitation in summer is closely related to the circulation types in which the enhanced and northward shifted subtropical high (SH) over the northwest Pacific and the obvious cyclconic circulation anomaly over the Bay of Bengal are helpful for the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon to take abundant low-latitude moisture to the eastern and southern TP. On the contrary, the dry winter in the central and eastern Tibet corresponds to the circulation types with divergence over the central and eastern TP and the water vapor transportations of East Asian winter monsoon and mid-latitude westerly are very weak. Some circulation types are associated with some well-known circulation patterns/monsoons influencing the TP (e.g. East Atlantic Pattern, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Indian Summer Monsoon and the mid-latitude westerly), and exhibit an overall good potential for explaining the variability of regional seasonal precipitation. Moreover, the climate shift signals in the late 1970s over the eastern Pacific/North Pacific Oceans could also be reflected by both the variability of some circulation types and their correspondingly composite precipitations. This study extends our understandings for the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and their linkages with regional precipitation and is beneficial for the climate change projection and related adaptation activities in the highest and largest plateau in the world.

  18. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  19. Current distribution of North American river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma, with seven new county records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Dominic A.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984 and 1985, the Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation reintroduced North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) from coastal Louisiana into eastern Oklahoma. Those reintroductions and immigration from Arkansas and possibly northeastern Texas allowed river otters to become reestablished in eastern Oklahoma. Our goals were to determine the contemporary distribution of river otters in central and eastern Oklahoma with voucher specimens, sign surveys, and mail surveys and to compare proportion of positive detections among watersheds. We report new distributional records with voucher specimens from seven counties (Adair, Bryan, Coal, Johnston, McIntosh, Okfuskee, Tulsa) in Oklahoma. We also provide locality information for specimens collected from four counties (Haskell, McCurtain, Muskogee, Wagoner) where river otters were described in published literature but no voucher specimens existed. During winter and spring 2006 and 2007, we visited 340 bridge sites in 28 watersheds in eastern and central Oklahoma and identified river otter signs in 16 counties where river otters were not previously documented in published literature or by voucher specimens. Proportion of positive sites within each watershed ranged 0–100%. Mail surveys suggested that river otters occurred in eight additional counties where they were not previously documented by published literature, voucher specimens, or sign-survey efforts.

  20. Full waveform inversion of seismic reflection data from the Forsmark planned repository for spent nuclear fuel, eastern central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has been carrying out extensive studies at the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site in the eastern part of central Sweden since 2002. Identification of subhorizontal to gently dipping seismic reflections is especially important since these may represent transport routes for radionuclides. Studies have shown that such reflections can be generated by water filled fracture zones that have a lower velocity than the surrounding bedrock. Lithological changes, that is, mafic sills, may also be responsible for reflections in some cases. At the Forsmark site, it is difficult to distinguish fracture zones from mafic sills in the standard reflection seismic processed sections. However, since mafic sills usually have a positive velocity contrast with the background velocity field compared to fractures zones that have a negative one, the two possibilities could be differentiated if we could reconstruct the underground velocity field. Seismic full waveform inversion has the potential to perform this reconstruction, allowing us to discriminate between fractures zones and mafic sills. In this study, we apply a 2-D waveform inversion code on crooked line data sets acquired at the Forsmark site. This implies we are dealing with a 3-D geometry. We handle this problem by applying 3-D to 2-D coordinate projections. First, we perform a synthetic benchmark test with a similar geometry to that of the projected real data. We test both amplitude and phase inversion and phase only inversion on the synthetic data. The results show that the phase only inversion has fewer artefacts and is more stable. After successful application on the synthetic data, we apply the phase only waveform inversion on the real data. The resulting velocity fields show more details compared with the starting model based on first arrival traveltime tomography. Time domain synthetic data sets generated from the final velocity fields

  1. The boundary between the eastern and western domains of the Pyrenean Orogen: a Cenozoic triple junction zone in Iberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Cantabrian Transitional Area (CTA) is located in the eastern portion of the Cantabrian Mountain Range of the northern Spain. It represents the most important internal boundary within the Upper Cretaceous to Cenozoic E-W elongated Pyrenean Orogen. In the south-verging portion of this orogen, the CTA divides the western thick-skinned Cantabrian Domain, which accommodated for a limited portion of the total N-S oriented orogenic shortening, from the Pyrenean realm to the east, where the south-verging frontal structures are characterised by a marked thiN-Skin style of deformation, and significantly contributed to accommodate the total shortening. In the Cantabrian Transitional Area, Cenozoic syn-orogenic left-lateral, right-lateral and reverse dip-slip movements have occurred along different directions, postdating early-orogenic extensional structures. The latter indicate that the southern portion of the study area formed the eastern termination of the northward concave roughly E-W oriented proto Duero Foreland Basin. This basin was flanked to the north by the thick-skinned proto Cantabrian Belt, which included in its easternmost part the northern portion of the Cantabrian Transitional Area. Onset of right-lateral strike-slip tectonics along the WNW-ESE striking Ubiernal-Venatniella Fault System, which locates to the SW of the CTA and crosses the entire Cantabrian Belt and its formerly southern foreland basin, caused the dislocation of the belt-foredeep system. Contextually, thiN-Skinned structures belonging to the eastern domain of the Pyrenean Orogen laterally propagated and incorporated the eastern part of the proto Duero Foreland Basin. Coexistence of right-lateral and reverse movements to the west and to the east, respectively, determined the onset of an intrabelt compression at the boundary between the Cantabrian and Pyrenean domains, which was the ultimate act of the fusion of the two domains into a single orogen. Paradoxically, this fusion has basically

  2. Foraminiferal zonation and carbonate facies of Carboniferous (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian) Lisburne group, central and eastern Brooks range, Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Mamet, Bernard L.; Dutro, J. Thomas

    1970-01-01

    The Lisburne Group carbonate rocks of the central and eastern Brooks Range contain foraminiferal assemblages assigned to zones of late Tournaisian (Osage) to early Moscovian (Atoka) age. Representatives of both Eurasiatic and American cratonic microfaunas permit correlation with the original Carboniferous type sections in western Europe as well as with the standard Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sequences in the Mid-Continent region of North America. Correlation anomalies in the lower part of the sequence are discussed.

  3. The eastern Central Pamir Gneiss Domes: temporal and spatial geometry of burial and exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutte, Daniel; Stearns, Michael; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2013-04-01

    We present a structural and thermochronologic study of the Gneiss Domes and their cover in the Central Pamir. Emphasis is laid on presentation and discussion of new 40Ar-39Ar dates embedded in two structural profiles through the central Muskol and western Shatput domes. The structure of the Central Pamir is dominated by Cenozoic deformation related to the India-Asia collision. Only few structures of the Phanerozoic amalgamation of the Pamir were not reactivated. The Cenozoic structural development of the Central Pamir can be simplified into three phases: 1) Between initial collision of India and Asia to 28-20 Ma (peak metamorphism, U-Pb monazite) the emplacement of large thrust sheets led to strong north-south shortening;" in the eastern Central Pamir the major thrust sheet has a minimum displacement of 35 km. The stratigraphic thickness of this nappe is ~7 km but its internal structure and thus its true thickness is weakly constrained by the available data. Klippen of Early Paleozoic strata of this thrust sheet south of the Central Pamir Muskol and Shatput domes cover Carboniferous to Triassic strata of the footwall; they can be linked to the Akbaital nappe previously mapped by Russian geologists north of the domes. In the Sasaksu valley of the Muskol dome, the thrust sheet is intruded by a ~36 Ma granodiorite (new U-Pb zircon dates). (2) This crustal imbricate stack is cut by east-trending normal faults and shear zones that define the Central Pamir Gneiss Domes. Normal shear is concentrated along the northern margin of the domes and was the main process associated with exhumation of the domes from ~30 km depth at 20-15 Ma (U-Th/Pb titanite and monazite, Ar-Ar, fission-track geo-thermochronology). One granite at ~35 Ma (U-Pb zircon) pre-dates exhumation while three leucocratic dykes (18-20 Ma U-Pb monazite and zircon) are dated to be coeval with the initial stages of exhumation. Detrital U-Pb zircon ages of the high-grade metasediments indicate that the protoliths

  4. Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) Seismic Source Characterization (SSC) for Nuclear Facilities Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin J. Coppersmith; Lawrence A. Salomone; Chris W. Fuller; Laura L. Glaser; Kathryn L. Hanson; Ross D. Hartleb; William R. Lettis; Scott C. Lindvall; Stephen M. McDuffie; Robin K. McGuire; Gerry L. Stirewalt; Gabriel R. Toro; Robert R. Youngs; David L. Slayter; Serkan B. Bozkurt; Randolph J. Cumbest; Valentina Montaldo Falero; Roseanne C. Perman' Allison M. Shumway; Frank H. Syms; Martitia P. Tuttle

    2012-01-31

    This report describes a new seismic source characterization (SSC) model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). It will replace the Seismic Hazard Methodology for the Central and Eastern United States, EPRI Report NP-4726 (July 1986) and the Seismic Hazard Characterization of 69 Nuclear Plant Sites East of the Rocky Mountains, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Model, (Bernreuter et al., 1989). The objective of the CEUS SSC Project is to develop a new seismic source model for the CEUS using a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 3 assessment process. The goal of the SSHAC process is to represent the center, body, and range of technically defensible interpretations of the available data, models, and methods. Input to a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) consists of both seismic source characterization and ground motion characterization. These two components are used to calculate probabilistic hazard results (or seismic hazard curves) at a particular site. This report provides a new seismic source model. Results and Findings The product of this report is a regional CEUS SSC model. This model includes consideration of an updated database, full assessment and incorporation of uncertainties, and the range of diverse technical interpretations from the larger technical community. The SSC model will be widely applicable to the entire CEUS, so this project uses a ground motion model that includes generic variations to allow for a range of representative site conditions (deep soil, shallow soil, hard rock). Hazard and sensitivity calculations were conducted at seven test sites representative of different CEUS hazard environments. Challenges and Objectives The regional CEUS SSC model will be of value to readers who are involved in PSHA work, and who wish to use an updated SSC model. This model is based on a comprehensive and traceable process, in accordance with SSHAC guidelines in NUREG/CR-6372, Recommendations for Probabilistic

  5. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in routine rheumatology practice: data from Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Peter; Baranauskaite, Asta; Damjanov, Nemanja; Hojnik, Maja; Kurucz, Reka; Nagy, Orsolya; Nemec, Petr; Niedermayer, Dora; Perić, Porin; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Pille, Andres; Rednic, Simona; Vlad, Violeta; Zlnay, Martin; Balint, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    The main aim was to gain structured insight into the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in routine rheumatology practices in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. In a cross-sectional, observational, international, multicenter survey, a questionnaire was sent to investigational sites in CEE countries. Data on all subsequent routine MSUS examinations, site characteristics, MSUS equipment, and investigators were collected over 6 months or up to 100 examinations per center. A total of 95 physicians at 44 sites in 9 countries provided information on a total of 2810 MSUS examinations. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (34.8 and 14.9 % of cases, respectively). Mean number of joints examined was 6.8. MSUS was most frequently performed for diagnostic purposes (58 %), particularly in patients with undifferentiated arthritis, suspected soft tissue disorders, or osteoarthritis (73.0-85.3 %). In RA patients, 56.3 % of examinations were conducted to monitor disease activity. Nearly all investigations (99 %) had clinical implications, while the results of 78.6 % of examinations (51.6-99.0 %) were deemed useful for patient education. This first standardized multicountry survey performed in CEEs provided a structured documentation of the routine MSUS use in participating countries. The majority of MSUS examinations were performed for diagnostic purposes, whereas one-third was conducted to monitor disease activity in RA. A majority of examinations had an impact on clinical decision making and were also found to be useful for patient education. PMID:26923691

  6. Chemical and Physical Defense Traits in Two Sexual Forms of Opuntia robusta in Central Eastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; León Solano, Héctor Javier; Solache Rámos, Lupita Tzenyatze; Mendoza Reyes, Citlalli Hypatia; Oro Cerro, María del Carmen; Mariezcurrena Berasain, María Dolores; Rivas Manzano, Irma Victoria; Manjarrez, Javier; Villareal Benitez, José Luis; Czarnoleski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Sexually dimorphic plants provide an excellent opportunity for examining the differences in the extent of their defense against herbivores because they exhibit sex-related differences in reproductive investment. Such differences enable comparison of the sex with high reproduction expenses with the sex that expends less. The more costly sex is usually also better defended against herbivores. Generally, females are considered more valuable than hermaphrodites in terms of fitness; however, hermaphrodites are more valuable if they can produce seed by autonomous selfing, provided that the inbreeding depression is low and pollen is limited. We studied a gynodioecious population of Opuntia robusta from Central-Eastern Mexico, which has been reported to be trioecious, dioecious, or hermaphrodite, and addressed the following questions: 1) Is the hermaphrodite's reproductive output higher than the female's, and are hermaphrodites thus better defended? 2) Are plant tissues differentially defended? 3) Do trade-offs exist among different physical defense traits? and 4) among physical and chemical defense traits? We found that 1) hermaphrodites had a higher seed output and more spines per areola than females and that their spines contained less moisture. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained more total phenolic compounds (TPCs) than female ones. In addition, 2) hermaphrodite reproductive cladodes bore more spines than female cladodes, and 3) and 4) we found a negative relationship between spine number per areola and areola number per cladode and a positive relationship between spine number per areola per plant and TPC concentration per plant. Non-reproductive hermaphrodite cladodes contained a higher concentration of TPCs than female cladodes, and parental cladodes contained fewer TPCs than both reproductive and empty cladodes. PMID:24599143

  7. Paleoenvironmental signals and paleoclimatic condition of the Early Maastrichtian oil shales from Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Zaki, Rafat; Mohamed, Ramadan S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Early Maastrichtian oil shales are hosted in the Duwi Formation of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. The examined member represents up to 20% of the total Duwi Formation. This interval is mainly composed of siliciclastic facies, phosphorites facies and carbonate facies. Oil shales microfacies is mainly composed of smectite, kaolinite, calcite, fluorapatite, quartz and pyrite. They are enriched in a number of major elements and trace metals in particular Ca, P, V, Ni, Cr, Sr, Zn, Mo, Nb, U and Y compared to the post-Archaean Australian shale (PAAS). Chondrite-normalized REEs patterns of oil shales for the studied area display light rare earth elements enrichment relatively to heavy rare earth elements with negative Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* anomalies. The most remarkable indicators for redox conditions are enrichments of V, Mo, Ni, Cr, U content and depletion of Mn content. Besides, V/V+Ni, V/Ni, U/Th, Ni/Co, authigentic uranium ratios with presence of framboidal shape of pyrite and its size are reflecting the deposition of these shales under marine anoxic to euxinic environmental conditions. Additionally, the ratio of Strontium (Sr) to Barium (Ba) Sr/Ba reflected highly saline water during deposition. Elemental ratios critical to paleoclimate and paleoweathering (Rb /Sr, Al2O3/TiO2), CIA values, binary diagram between (Al2O3+K2O+Na2O) and SiO2 and types of clay minerals dominated reflect warm to humid climate conditions prevailing during the accumulation of these organic-rich petroleum source rocks.

  8. Overview of seismic potential in the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schweig, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    The seismic potential of any region can be framed in terms the locations of source zones, the frequency of earthquake occurrence for each source, and the maximum size earthquake that can be expect from each source. As delineated by modern and historical seismicity, the most important seismic source zones affecting the eastern United States include the New Madrid and Wabash Valley seismic zones of the central U.S., the southern Appalachians and Charleston, South Carolina, areas in the southeast, and the northern Appalachians and Adirondacks in the northeast. The most prominant of these in terms of current seismicity and historical seismic moment release in the New Madrid seismic zone, which produced three earthquakes of moment magnitude {ge} 8 in 1811 and 1812. The frequency of earthquake recurrence can be examined using the instrumental record, the historical record, and the geological record. Each record covers a unique time period and has a different scale of temporal resolution and completeness of the data set. The Wabash Valley is an example where the long-term geological record indicates a greater potential than the instrumental and historical records. This points to the need to examine all of the evidence in any region in order to obtain a credible estimates of earthquake hazards. Although earthquake hazards may be dominated by mid-magnitude 6 earthquakes within the mapped seismic source zones, the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake is just the most recent example of the danger of assuming future events will occur on faults known to have had past events and how destructive such an earthquake can be.

  9. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states. PMID:20427332

  10. [Problem issues related to HIV/AIDS in Eastern European and Central Asian countries].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    HIV has been spreading over the territories of our countries for 18 years, and it is still possible to resist the epidemic in a unique and efficient way. In June 2001, the UNO General Assembly Special Session was devoted to the problem of HIV/AIDS in full. Its Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (Resolution S-26/2) defines main directions of this work both in world-wide, regional, and international scopes. It should be stressed that first of all the Declaration emphasizes the necessity to improve management and coordination of efforts at the global, regional, and national levels, which is of special importance to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where a new phase of HIV infection epidemic has begun and the spread of the virus grows and very soon may gain uncontrollable character. As for the countries of our region, here the epidemic process has been developing mostly through sexual way of transmission for 8 years since 1987, when the first case of HIV infection was revealed. More than 350000 HIV-infected people, including more than 15,000 children, have been registered in Russian Federation. More than 9000 people have died. The proportion of childbearing age women constantly grows, and the number of children born to mothers with AIDS has now exceeded 15,000. To realize the component "Prevention of HIV infection, B and C hepatitis, and revealing and treatment of HIV patients" of the priority national health project, 3.1 billion rubles are allocated for the prophylaxis of and fight against HIV and AIDS. The measures that are planned to take will allow for principle changes in the present situation with medical aid providence of contemporary antiretroviral medicines. Russian Orthodox Church with its parishes, monasteries etc. carries out numerous projects of primary HIV prophylaxis among children and young people in different regions; these projects are directed towards forming moral values. PMID:18030715

  11. Medical and economic burden of influenza in the elderly population in central and eastern European countries

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Gábor; Kovács, Gábor; Kaló, Zoltán; Kaló, Zoltán; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Kyncl, Jan; Kyncl, Jan; Csohan, Agnes; Csohan, Agnes; Pistol, Adriana; Pistol, Adriana; Leleka, Mariya; Leleka, Mariya; Kipshakbaev, Rafail; Kipshakbaev, Rafail; Durand, Laure; Durand, Laure; Macabeo, Bérengère; Macabeo, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    Influenza affects 5–15% of the population during an epidemic. In Western Europe, vaccination of at-risk groups forms the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, vaccination coverage of the elderly (>65 y) is often low in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE); potentially because a paucity of country-specific data limits evidence-based policy making. Therefore the medical and economic burden of influenza were estimated in elderly populations in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. Data covering national influenza vaccination policies, surveillance and reporting, healthcare costs, populations, and epidemiology were obtained via literature review, open-access websites and databases, and interviews with experts. A simplified model of patient treatment flow incorporating cost, population, and incidence/prevalence data was used to calculate the influenza burden per country. In the elderly, influenza represented a large burden on the assessed healthcare systems, with yearly excess hospitalization rates of ~30/100 000. Burden varied between countries and was likely influenced by population size, surveillance system, healthcare provision, and vaccine coverage. The greatest burden was found in Poland, where direct costs were over EUR 5 million. Substantial differences in data availability and quality were identified, and to fully quantify the burden of influenza in CEE, influenza reporting systems should be standardized. This study most probably underestimates the real burden of influenza, however the public health problem is recognized worldwide, and will further increase with population aging. Extending influenza vaccination of the elderly may be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden of influenza in CEE. PMID:24165394

  12. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  13. Earthquake Rate Models for Evolving Induced Seismicity Hazard in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Injection-induced earthquake rates can vary rapidly in space and time, which presents significant challenges to traditional probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies that are based on a time-independent model of mainshock occurrence. To help society cope with rapidly evolving seismicity, the USGS is developing one-year hazard models for areas of induced seismicity in the central and eastern US to forecast the shaking due to all earthquakes, including aftershocks which are generally omitted from hazards assessments (Petersen et al., 2015). However, the spatial and temporal variability of the earthquake rates make them difficult to forecast even on time-scales as short as one year. An initial approach is to use the previous year's seismicity rate to forecast the next year's seismicity rate. However, in places such as northern Oklahoma the rates vary so rapidly over time that a simple linear extrapolation does not accurately forecast the future, even when the variability in the rates is modeled with simulations based on an Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, JASA, 1988) to account for earthquake clustering. Instead of relying on a fixed time period for rate estimation, we explore another way to determine when the earthquake rate should be updated. This approach could also objectively identify new areas where the induced seismicity hazard model should be applied. We will estimate the background seismicity rate by optimizing a single set of ETAS aftershock triggering parameters across the most active induced seismicity zones -- Oklahoma, Guy-Greenbrier, the Raton Basin, and the Azle-Dallas-Fort Worth area -- with individual background rate parameters in each zone. The full seismicity rate, with uncertainties, can then be estimated using ETAS simulations and changes in rate can be detected by applying change point analysis in ETAS transformed time with methods already developed for Poisson processes.

  14. 21st century projections of snowfall and winter severity across central-eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Lorenz, D. J.; Hoving, C.; Schummer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Statistically downscaled climate projections from nine global climate models (GCMs) are used to force a snow accumulation and ablation model (SNOW-17) across the central-eastern North American Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) to develop high-resolution projections of snowfall, snow depth, and winter severity index (WSI) by the mid- and late 21st century. Here, we use projections of a cumulative WSI (CWSI) known to influence autumn-winter waterfowl migration to demonstrate the utility of SNOW-17 results. The application of statistically downscaled climate data and a snow model leads to a better representation of lake processes in the Great Lakes Basin, topographic effects in the Appalachian Mountains, and spatial patterns of climatological snowfall, compared to the original GCMs. Annual mean snowfall is simulated to decline across the region, particularly in early winter (December-January), leading to a delay in the mean onset of the snow season. Due to a warming-induced acceleration of snowmelt, the percentage loss in snow depth exceeds that of snowfall. Across the Plains and Prairie Potholes LCC and Upper Midwest and Great Lakes LCC, daily snowfall events are projected to become less common, but more intense. The greatest reductions in the number of days per year with a present snowpack are expected close to the historical position of the -5°C isotherm in DJFM, around 44°N. The CWSI is projected to decline substantially during December-January, leading to increased likelihood of delays in timing and intensity of autumn-winter waterfowl migrations.

  15. Medical and economic burden of influenza in the elderly population in central and eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gábor; Kaló, Zoltán; Jahnz-Rozyk, Karina; Kyncl, Jan; Csohan, Agnes; Pistol, Adriana; Leleka, Mariya; Kipshakbaev, Rafail; Durand, Laure; Macabeo, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    Influenza affects 5-15% of the population during an epidemic. In Western Europe, vaccination of at-risk groups forms the cornerstone of influenza prevention. However, vaccination coverage of the elderly (> 65 y) is often low in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE); potentially because a paucity of country-specific data limits evidence-based policy making. Therefore the medical and economic burden of influenza were estimated in elderly populations in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. Data covering national influenza vaccination policies, surveillance and reporting, healthcare costs, populations, and epidemiology were obtained via literature review, open-access websites and databases, and interviews with experts. A simplified model of patient treatment flow incorporating cost, population, and incidence/prevalence data was used to calculate the influenza burden per country. In the elderly, influenza represented a large burden on the assessed healthcare systems, with yearly excess hospitalization rates of ~30/100,000. Burden varied between countries and was likely influenced by population size, surveillance system, healthcare provision, and vaccine coverage. The greatest burden was found in Poland, where direct costs were over EUR 5 million. Substantial differences in data availability and quality were identified, and to fully quantify the burden of influenza in CEE, influenza reporting systems should be standardized. This study most probably underestimates the real burden of influenza, however the public health problem is recognized worldwide, and will further increase with population aging. Extending influenza vaccination of the elderly may be a cost-effective way to reduce the burden of influenza in CEE. PMID:24165394

  16. Comparison of atmospheric mercury speciation and deposition at nine sites across central and eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Mark A.; Tate, Michael T.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Schauer, James J.; Kolker, Allan; Shanley, James B.; Bothner, Michael H.

    2010-09-01

    This study presents >5 cumulative years of tropospheric mercury (Hg) speciation measurements, over the period of 2003-2009, for eight sites in the central and eastern United States and one site in coastal Puerto Rico. The purpose of this research was to identify local and regional processes that impact Hg speciation and deposition (wet + dry) across a large swath of North America. Sites sampled were selected to represent both a wide range of mercury exposure and environmental conditions. Seasonal mean concentrations of elemental Hg (1.27 ± 0.31 to 2.94 ± 1.57 ng m-3; ? ± σ), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM; 1.5 ± 1.6 to 63.3 ± 529 pg m-3), and fine particulate Hg (1.2 ± 1.4 to 37.9 ± 492 pg m-3) were greatest at sites impacted by Hg point sources. Diel bin plots of Hgo and RGM suggest control by a variety of local/regional processes including impacts from Hg point sources and boundary layer/free tropospheric interactions as well as from larger-scale processes affecting Hg speciation (i.e., input of the global Hg pool, RGM formed from oxidation of Hgo by photochemical compounds at coastal sites, and elemental Hg depletion during periods of dew formation). Comparison of wet Hg deposition (measured), RGM and fine particulate Hg dry deposition (calculated using a multiple resistance model), and anthropogenic point source emissions varied significantly between sites. Significant correlation between emission sources and dry deposition was observed but was highly dependant upon inclusion of data from two sites with exceptionally high deposition. Findings from this study highlight the importance of environmental setting on atmospheric Hg cycling and deposition rates.

  17. Oppositely dipping thrusts and transpressional imbricate zone in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Wahed, Mohamed A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper documents the 40-60 km wide ENE-WSW trending Mubarak-Barramiya shear belt (MBSB) in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt by examining its structural styles, kinematics and geometry. Our study revealed the existence of prevalent dextral and minor sinistral conjugate shear zones. The MBSB is metamorphic belt (greenschist-amphibolite) characterized by at least three post-collisional (740-540 Ma) ductile Neoproterozoic deformation events (D1, D2 and D3) followed by a brittle neotectonic deformation (D4). D1 event produced early top-to-the-northwest thrust displacements due to NW-SE shortening. D2 produced discrete zones of NNW-trending upright folds and culminated in initiation of major NW-trending sinistral shear zones of the Najd Fault System (NFS, at c. 640-540 Ma ago) as well as steeply dipping S2 foliation, and shallowly plunging L2 lineation. NW-to NNW-trending F2 folds are open to steep and vary in plunge from horizontal to vertical. D2 deformational fabrics are strongly overprinted by D3 penetrative structures. D3 is characterized by a penetrative S3 foliation, steeply SE- to NW-plunging and shallowly NE-plunging stretching lineations (L3), asymmetric and sheath folds (F3) consistent with dextral sense of movement exhibited by delta- and sigma-type porphyroclast systems and asymmetric boudinage fabrics. D2-D3 represent a non-coaxial progressive event formed in a dextral NE- over NW-sinistral shear zone during a partitioned transpression in response to E-W-directed compression during oblique convergence between East and West Gondwana developed due to closure of the Mozambique Ocean and amalgamation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in Cryogenian-early Ediacaran time.

  18. Carbon exchange of an old-growth eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest in central New England.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Julian L; Schedlbauer, Jessica L

    2002-11-01

    Carbon (C) exchange of an approximately 200-year-old eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) forest in central Massachusetts, USA, was estimated from mid-October 2000 through October 2001 based on eddy covariance measurements and statistical modeling from microclimatic data. Measurements were made in 68% of the hours during the year of study, with > 50% coverage in all months except December and August. Data were filtered by wind direction and atmospheric turbulence to remove invalid measurements. Analysis of filtered data showed that photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was significant in predicting C exchange, except during the winter. Daily minimum air temperature affected C exchange in autumn and winter, whereas time of day, water vapor pressure deficit and air temperature had significant effects on C storage in spring, summer and fall. Most C storage in the stand occurred in April through July and in October 2001, with maximum rates in April and May. Persistent cold weather prevented C storage in December through March. In early spring 2001, C uptake was sensitive to nocturnal frost: daily minimum air temperatures below 0 degrees C reduced C fixation, and minima below -5 degrees C caused its virtual cessation. Soil temperature was a poor predictor of C balance during this period. In August, high soil and air temperatures (averaging 16.7 and 21.1 degrees C, respectively) drove high ecosystem respiration, which approximately balanced C uptake. These patterns show potential for stimulated C storage in hemlock forests in a warmer climate with fewer spring and autumn frosts, but reduced C storage during warmer summers. Estimated annual C storage was 3.0 Mg ha(-1), which is higher than for younger coniferous and deciduous forests during earlier years in the northeastern USA. Long-term data are needed to determine if the estimated high C storage in this hemlock forest is a result of interannual climate variation or an effect of forest composition. PMID:12414368

  19. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Access in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  20. Early to mid Tertiary crustal extension in the Central Alps: The Turba Mylonite Zone (Eastern Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nievergelt, Peter; Liniger, Markus; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; MäHlmann, Rafael Ferreiro

    1996-04-01

    In the Penninic-Austroalpine boundary zone of Eastern Switzerland a clear distinction can be made between upper and lower stacks of nappes with contrasting tectonic evolution that are separated by the Turba mylonite zone (TMZ). The Austroalpine nappes, Platta ophiolites, and Malenco-Forno-Lizun ophiolites belong to the upper stack. These nappes were formed by predominantly west directed, late Cretaceous shortening and imbrication. The lower stack, comprising the Suretta nappe, Schams nappes, Avers schists, and Oberhalbstein flysch units, includes Tertiary sediments and was deformed and metamorphosed in early Tertiary time. Kinematic indicators in the mylonites of the TMZ, representing the boundary between the two stacks, show a top-to-the-east directed movement, which is clearly distinct from the regionally prevalent top-to-the-north direction of thrusting in the Tertiary. The main foliation in the shear zone is discordant with respect to the structures of the hanging wall, and concordant to the footwall. Vitrinite reflectance in shaly sediments above and below the TMZ in the northern part indicates that the TMZ coincides with a drop in peak metamorphic temperature from about 350°C in the top of the footwall to about 280°C at the base of the hanging wall. Therefore the TMZ is interpreted as an east dipping, low-angle normal fault. The age of its activity is bracketed between about 45 and 30 Ma, based on overprinting relations with radiometrically dated features (45-30 Ma: main foliation in the footwall, older than TMZ activity; 30 Ma: Bergell granodiorite intrusion, younger than TMZ activity). Extension along the TMZ was followed by further north-south shortening, as indicated by postmylonitic folding of the TMZ. Normal faulting along the TMZ accommodated relative uplift of the Lepontine structural dome, a large metamorphic complex in the Central Alps. Unroofing of this dome started before 30 Ma and continued in the Miocene with activity of further normal faults

  1. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Agnes; Adam, Balazs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Adany, Roza; Kosa, Karolina

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  2. Increased Earthquake Rates in the Central and Eastern US Portend Higher Earthquake Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Mueller, C. S.; Michael, A. J.; McGarr, A.; Petersen, M. D.; Weingarten, M.; Holland, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2009 the central and eastern United States has experienced an unprecedented increase in the rate of M≥3 earthquakes that is unlikely to be due to natural variation. Where the rates have increased so has the seismic hazard, making it important to understand these changes. Areas with significant seismicity increases are limited to areas where oil and gas production take place. By far the largest contributor to the seismicity increase is Oklahoma, where recent studies suggest that these rate changes may be due to fluid injection (e.g., Keranen et al., Geology, 2013; Science, 2014). Moreover, the area of increased seismicity in northern Oklahoma that began in 2013 coincides with the Mississippi Lime play, where well completions greatly increased the year before the seismicity increase. This suggests a link to oil and gas production either directly or from the disposal of significant amounts of produced water within the play. For the purpose of assessing the hazard due to these earthquakes, should they be treated differently from natural earthquakes? Previous studies suggest that induced seismicity may differ from natural seismicity in clustering characteristics or frequency-magnitude distributions (e.g., Bachmann et al., GJI, 2011; Llenos and Michael, BSSA, 2013). These differences could affect time-independent hazard computations, which typically assume that clustering and size distribution remain constant. In Oklahoma, as well as other areas of suspected induced seismicity, we find that earthquakes since 2009 tend to be considerably more clustered in space and time than before 2009. However differences between various regional and national catalogs leave unclear whether there are significant changes in magnitude distribution. Whether they are due to natural or industrial causes, the increased earthquake rates in these areas could increase the hazard in ways that are not accounted for in current hazard assessment practice. Clearly the possibility of induced

  3. Arenig volcanic and sedimentary strata, central New Brunswick and eastern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poole, W.H.; Neuman, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Arenig strata in the Napadogan area of the Miramichi Highlands of west-central New Brunswick are similar to those of the Lunksoos anti-clinorial area of eastern Maine. Strata from both areas were deposited in a volcanic back-arc setting upon Cambrian-Tremadoc, deep-water, turbiditic quartzose strata on the northwest-facing Gander margin of Gondwana. Tremadoc southeastward obduction of the Penobscot Arc, formed in the lapetus Ocean to the northwest of the margin, was followed by local uplift, rift faulting, erosion, and finally by local deposition of late Arenig gravel within the early stages of a subsiding back-arc basin that was related to a younger, northwest-facing, early Arenig-Llanvirn Popelogan Arc lying to the northwest. These strata became overlain by late Arenig marine felsic tuff, sandy and silty tuff and mudstone, coarse textured and many hundreds of metres thick in the Lunksoos area but much finer and only a few metres thick farther from the volcanic centres, in the Napadogan area. During Llanvirn, the strata became covered with deep-water, commonly manganiferous, ferruginous shale-chert in a basin shielded from currents carrying coarse detritus. Arenig strata of the Napadogan area probably developed to the southeast of the main rift-volcanism zone that perhaps extended between the Lunksoos and northeastern Miramichi Highlands during the Arenig. Brachiopods of the Celtic paleogeographic assemblage colonized newly formed shelves flanking islands along the zone. Shell beds developed upon fresh layers of ash in a nutrient-rich environment between episodes of volcanism. These Celtic brachiopods developed in cool waters of high southern latitudes off Gondwana, different from those on the Laurentian margin in warm waters of low southern latitudes.

  4. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  5. Potential Use of HF Radar for Tsunami Detection in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokacar, Tulay; Necmioglu, Ocal; Ozer, Ceren

    2016-04-01

    Today, HF radar is recognized as internationally cost-effective and efficient solution to provide near-real time measurements that cover a large area continuously over time for ocean hazards warning and long term ocean monitoring studies such as, seasonal forecasts of climate, hurricanes, s torm surges and large-scale ocean circulation changes. These radar systems recently became an operational tool in coastal monitoring worldwide. They are used for many operational applications that include ship detection, tracking, guidance, distribution of pollutants, fishery and oceanography. HF radar data used for the tsunami warnings, can also be used for the other purposes and be of potential interest to wide application area users and stakeholders. Moreover multi user applications will ensure the system is maintained operationally over the long term. Hence the system is cost effective also with regards to maintenance. New algorithms allow useful detection and verification for tsunami detection. While technical monitoring capacity and the algorithms for tsunami detection is improved significantly, further studies are required to obtain complete wave height determination. We analysed the available technology and algorithms for the purpose of tsunami detection in the central-eastern Mediterranean and its connected Seas (Aegean and Black Sea). Since the study area is characterized by narrow continental shelf area, the HF radar observation for the purpose of tsunami detection is possible in restricted areas. While extensive continental shelves in the northeastern Black Sea and along the coast of Tunisia in the central Mediterranean let tsunami detection 2.5 hours before tsunami waves hit the coast, the detection is possible around 1 hr or less in advance for the remaining basins with wide continental shelf areas. The bathymetric structure is important for deciding the applicability of HF radar systems for the tsunami detection in continental shelf areas, which can be covered by

  6. Interseismic strain and rotation rates in the northeast Mojave domain, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Prescott, II W.

    2004-01-01

    The northeast Mojave domain, a type locality for bookshelf faulting, is a region of east striking, left-lateral faults in the northeast comer of the Mojave block, a block otherwise dominated by ??N40??W striking, right-lateral faults. Paleomagnetic evidence suggests that blocks within the domain have rotated clockwise about a vertical axis as much as 60?? since 12.8 Ma [Schermer et al., 1996]. In 1994, and again in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed an array of 14 geodetic monuments distributed across the northeast Mojave domain. The 2002 survey results were adjusted to remove the coseismic offsets imposed by the nearby Hector Mine earthquake (16 October 1999, Mw = 7.1). The adjusted deformation across the array appears to be uniform and can be approximated by the principal strain rates ??:1 = 28.9 ?? 9.1 N77.2??W ?? 4.8?? and ??2 = -48.2 ?? 8.9 N12.8??E ?? 4.8?? nstrain yr-1; extension reckoned positive, and quoted uncertainties are standard deviations. That strain accumulation could be released by slip . on faults striking N32??W but not by bookshelf faulting on the east striking faults alone. The vertical axis rotation rate of the northeast Mojave domain as a whole relative to fixed North America is 71.0 ?? 6.4 nrad yr-1 (4.07?? ?? 0.37?? Myr-1) clockwise, about twice the maximum tenser shear strain rate. The observed rotation rate acting over 12.8 Myr would produce'a clockwise rotation of 52.1?? ?? 4.7??, exclusive of possible coseismic rotations. That rotation is in rough agreement with the paleomagnetic rotation accumulated in the individual fault blocks within the northeast Mojave domain since 12.8 Ma.

  7. Fertilizer use and wheat yield in Central and Eastern European countries from 1986 to 2005 and its implication for developing sustainable fertilizer management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Central-Eastern European countries (CEE) face economic and political challenges that have implications for agricultural production. The challenge for agriculturalists is to increase agricultural production after years of misguided policies and resource constraints (primarily nutrients). We tested th...

  8. Crystal Structure of the Central Coiled-Coil Domain from Human Liprin-[beta]2

    SciTech Connect

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Tang, Ming-Yun; Sawaya, Michael R.; Phillips, Martin L.; Bowie, James U.

    2012-02-07

    Liprins are a conserved family of scaffolding proteins important for the proper regulation and development of neuronal synapses. Humans have four liprin-{alpha}s and two liprin-{beta}s which all contain long coiled-coil domains followed by three tandem SAM domains. Complex interactions between the coiled-coil and SAM domains are thought to create liprin scaffolds, but the structural and biochemical properties of these domains remain largely uncharacterized. In this study we find that the human liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil forms an extended dimer. Several protease-resistant subdomains within the liprin-{beta}1 and liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coils were also identified. A 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of the central, protease-resistant core of the liprin-{beta}2 coiled-coil reveals a parallel helix orientation. These studies represent an initial step toward determining the overall architecture of liprin scaffolds and understanding the molecular basis for their synaptic functions.

  9. PAK5 is auto-activated by a central domain that promotes kinase oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Tabanifar, Bahareh; Zhao, Zhuoshen; Manser, Ed

    2016-06-15

    PAKs (p21 activated kinases) are an important class of Rho effectors. These contain a Cdc42-Rac1 interaction and binding (CRIB) domain and a flanking auto-inhibitory domain (AID) which binds the C-terminal catalytic domain. The group II kinases PAK4 and PAK5 are considered significant therapeutic targets in cancer. Among human cancer cell lines we tested, PAK5 protein levels are much lower than those of PAK4, even in NCI-H446 which has the highest PAK5 mRNA expression. Although these two kinases are evolutionarily and structurally related, it has never been established why PAK4 is inactive whereas PAK5 has high basal activity. The AID of PAK5 is functionally indistinguishable from that of PAK4, pointing to other regions being responsible for higher activity of PAK5. Gel filtration indicates PAK4 is a monomer but PAK5 is dimeric. The central region of PAK5 (residues 109-420) is shown here to promote self-association, and an elevated activity, but has no effect on activation loop Ser(602) phosphorylation. These residues allow PAK5 to form characteristic puncta in cells, and removing sequences involved in oligomerization suppresses kinase activity. Our model suggests PAK5 self-association interferes with AID binding to the catalytic domain, thus maintaining its high activity. Further, our model explains the observation that PAK5 (1-180) inhibits PAK5 in vitro. PMID:27095851

  10. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific

  11. Mantle delamination as the cause for the Miocene-Recent evolution of the Central and Eastern Anatolian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Govers, R.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphological data of the southern margin of Central Turkey suggest that the Central Anatolian plateau underwent regional uplift to its present day elevation since the Late Miocene (8-5.45Ma). This uplift was preceded by the onset of widespread volcanism in central Anatolia (13Ma-8Ma). There is no evidence for crustal shortening and sub-crustal seismic velocities beneath Central Anatolian Plateau are low. This suggests that mantle processes may be responsible and it is the aim of our TOPOEUROPE/VAMP project is to identify the cause of the regional uplift. Seismic tomographical results for the top of the lower mantle suggest a single slab from the Aegean to Bitlis in the past. Based on the upper mantle tomography, this slab became fragmented later. These constraints were used to add evolving plate boundaries to published Middle East Basins Evolution (MEBE) maps. In the reconstruction, the laterally continuous Northern Neotethys slab broke west of the Kisehir block into two slab fragments; an Aegean slab and a Central-East Anatolian slab. In Eastern Anatolia, roll-back of the Central-East Anatolian slab and delamination of the lithospheric mantle has been proposed to be the cause of uplift and widespread volcanism. Here, we propose that this process also took place beneath the Central Anatolian plateau and that both plateaus genetically form a single "Anatolian plateau". If true, delamination is expected to have had a thermal and isostatic imprint. Using a 3D thermal-flexural model and accounting for changes in the effective elastic thickness due to thermal evolution, we aim to quantify the possible imprints of delamination in the geological record of the Central and Eastern Anatolian plateau. Our model results show that a combination of a single delamination event and minor crustal thickening (1-5km) in Eastern Anatolia can explain the present day elevation of both plateaus. Delamination can also explain the observed anomalously high surface

  12. Basement structural control on Cretaceous pull-apart basins of the central Eastern Egypt Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, K.; El Kazzaz, Y.; Holdsworth, B.

    2006-12-01

    The present-day Red Sea / Gulf of Suez rift system is attributed to extensional block faulting with along-axis segmentation into sub-basins with different dip polarities. The northwestern margin of the Red Sea - Gulf of Suez rift system is exposed for about 400 km along the northwestern Red Sea coast near Quseir to the tip of the Gulf of Suez at Suez City. This area contains elements of the pre-Red Sea structural pattern which has been viewed in similar terms as one of fault-related basin formation. Four distinct depocenters (sub-basins) separated by complex accommodation zones are present containing 500-700m thick section ranging in age from the Late Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Each sub-basin is asymmetric, bounded on one side by a major NW-trending border fault system with large throws (3-6 km in general) with a dominant strata dip direction toward the border fault system. These basins are arranged in en echelon patterns and now form separate elongated ridges surrounded by basement rocks. Our study of the tectonic evolution of the central eastern section of the Gulf of Suez rift and the Northwestern Red Sea has focused on the interaction of pre-existing basement fabrics with the pre-Red Sea structural development. The study involved analysis of LandsatTM images and aerial photographs integrated with results from reconnaissance geological mapping. Our provisional results indicate that the Gebel Um Hammad/Duwi and Hammadat sub-basins were sited in pull-apart structures created by dextral reactivation of E-W to ENE-WSW trending basement fault zones. We show how the basin-bounding fault systems, lower order normal faults and folds in both hangingwall sequences and in basement are compatible with a Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene strike-slip regime. In contrast, the main Red Sea Gulf of Suez rift shows no evidence for strike-slip influence with the main boundary faults cutting across basement fabrics, however, as pointed out by previous authors, rift segmentation

  13. Preliminary ground motion prediction equations for the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graizer, V.

    2014-12-01

    At the current stage I used the database created under the Next Generation Attenuations (NGA-East) project by Cramer et al. (2013). In contrast to the active tectonic environment in the Western US (WUS) the strong motion record database for the stable continental environment in the Central and Eastern US (CEUS) is not sufficient to create purely empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) covering required for the PSHA magnitude (4.5

  14. Ground Motion Prediction Equations for the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Graizer, V.

    2015-12-01

    New ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) G15 model for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) is presented. It is based on the modular filter based approach developed by Graizer and Kalkan (2007, 2009) for active tectonic environment in the Western US (WUS). The G15 model is based on the NGA-East database for the horizontal peak ground acceleration and 5%-damped pseudo spectral acceleration RotD50 component (Goulet et al., 2014). In contrast to active tectonic environment the database for the CEUS is not sufficient for creating purely empirical GMPE covering the range of magnitudes and distances required for seismic hazard assessments. Recordings in NGA-East database are sparse and cover mostly range of M<6.0 with limited amount of near-fault recordings. The functional forms of the G15 GMPEs are derived from filters—each filter represents a particular physical phenomenon affecting the seismic wave radiation from the source. Main changes in the functional forms for the CEUS relative to the WUS model (Graizer and Kalkan, 2015) are a shift of maximum frequency of the acceleration response spectrum toward higher frequencies and an increase in the response spectrum amplitudes at high frequencies. Developed site correction is based on multiple runs of representative VS30 profiles through SHAKE-type equivalent-linear programs using time histories and random vibration theory approaches. Site amplification functions are calculated for different VS30 relative to hard rock definition used in nuclear industry (Vs=2800 m/s). The number of model predictors is limited to a few measurable parameters: moment magnitude M, closest distance to fault rupture plane R, average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 m of the geological profile VS30, and anelastic attenuation factor Q0. Incorporating anelastic attenuation Q0 as an input parameter allows adjustments based on the regional crustal properties. The model covers the range of magnitudes 4.0

  15. Risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections on agritourism farms in central and eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Agritourism provides ecological tourist services for urban dwellers in rural areas. Agritourism farms offer space and attractive scenery for people seeking to rest in quiet place and wanting healthy, outdoor recreational activities. The high epidemiological standard of agritourism farms is beneficial for the health of the farm owners and the guests. Upgraded level of the farm sanitation, also from parasitological point of view is of great importance, especially that among agritourism farms guests predominate families with small children. A field survey was carried out in 57 farms in central-eastern Poland to evaluate the environmental risk factors for geohelminth infections on agritourism farms offering tourist services for urban dwellers. Samples of soil were collected from 76 sites, i.e. yards surrounding houses, vegetable, fruit and flower gardens, playgrounds and sandpits. In addition, samples were taken from 27 public places of recreation (playgrounds at forest clearing) visited by agritourism farm guests. During visits the farms were inspected and the owners were questioned about their awareness of the threat of parasitic infections. Soil contamination with geohelminth eggs was found in 4 examined farms (7.0%), in one locality on each farm. The eggs of Toxocara spp. and Ascaris spp. were detected in single samples from 3 backyards (6.4%) and one sandpit (10.0%). In the soil samples from places of recreation outside the farms eggs of human or animal helminths were not identified. The results of this study showed that the risk of helminth infections on agritourism farms is low, since geohelminth eggs (1-3 per sample) were detected only in four samples (0.5%) among 760 collected from farms households. The farm owners must be aware of the importance of preventive measures to eliminate the environmental contamination with eggs of zoonotic soiltransmitted helminths. Special attention should be paid to the risk of intestinal parasites of cats of semi domestic

  16. Genesis of the Abu Marawat gold deposit, central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoheir, Basem A.; Akawy, Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Gold mineralisation at the Abu Marawat mine, central Eastern Desert of Egypt, is related to a system of massive and sheared, milky quartz veins cutting a sequence of Neoproterozoic island arc metavolcanic/volcaniclastic rocks and related banded iron formation (BIF). Sulphide-bearing quartz veins and related hydrothermal breccia bodies display a range of textures including sheared, boudinaged and recrystallised quartz, open space filling and microbreccia. These variable textures imply a complex history of crack-seal mechanism characterising the relation between mineral deposition and a major N-S-trending shear zone, during a late brittle-ductile deformation event which affected the area at about 550 Ma. Gold-base metal mineralisation is associated with brecciation and fracturing of the iron ore bands, close to silicified shears and related quartz veins. The auriferous quartz lodes are characterised by the occurrence of visible pyrite-chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± sphalerite ± galena mineralisation. Gold is refractory in pyrite and chalcopyrite, but rare visible gold/electrum and telluride specks were observed in a few samples. Hydrothermal alteration includes pervasive silicification, pyritisation, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins and altered shears, and a more widespread propylitic alteration assemblage (quartz + chlorite + pyrite + calcite ± epidote). Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometric studies suggest heterogeneous trapping of a low-salinity (1.4-6.7 wt.% eq. NaCl) aqueous solution and a carbonic fluid. Evidence for fluid immiscibility during ore formation includes variable liquid/vapour ratios in inclusions along individual trails and bulk inclusion homogenisation into liquid and occasionally to vapour at comparable temperatures. The trapping conditions of intragranular aqueous-carbonic inclusions approximate 264-378 °C at 700-1300 bar. Similar temperature estimates have been obtained from Al

  17. Calibrated Multiple Event Relocations of the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeck, W. L.; Benz, H.; McNamara, D. E.; Bergman, E.; Herrmann, R. B.; Myers, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake locations are a first-order observable which form the basis of a wide range of seismic analyses. Currently, the ANSS catalog primarily contains published single-event earthquake locations that rely on assumed 1D velocity models. Increasing the accuracy of cataloged earthquake hypocenter locations and origin times and constraining their associated errors can improve our understanding of Earth structure and have a fundamental impact on subsequent seismic studies. Multiple-event relocation algorithms often increase the precision of relative earthquake hypocenters but are hindered by their limited ability to provide realistic location uncertainties for individual earthquakes. Recently, a Bayesian approach to the multiple event relocation problem has proven to have many benefits including the ability to: (1) handle large data sets; (2) easily incorporate a priori hypocenter information; (3) model phase assignment errors; and, (4) correct for errors in the assumed travel time model. In this study we employ bayseloc [Myers et al., 2007, 2009] to relocate earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States from 1964-present. We relocate ~11,000 earthquakes with a dataset of ~439,000 arrival time observations. Our dataset includes arrival-time observations from the ANSS catalog supplemented with arrival-time data from the Reviewed ISC Bulletin (prior to 1981), targeted local studies, and arrival-time data from the TA Array. One significant benefit of the bayesloc algorithm is its ability to incorporate a priori constraints on the probability distributions of specific earthquake locations parameters. To constrain the inversion, we use high-quality calibrated earthquake locations from local studies, including studies from: Raton Basin, Colorado; Mineral, Virginia; Guy, Arkansas; Cheneville, Quebec; Oklahoma; and Mt. Carmel, Illinois. We also add depth constraints to 232 earthquakes from regional moment tensors. Finally, we add constraints from four historic (1964

  18. Comparative Epidemiologic Characteristics of Pertussis in 10 Central and Eastern European Countries, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Heininger, Ulrich; André, Philippe; Chlibek, Roman; Kristufkova, Zuzana; Kutsar, Kuulo; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Petrović, Vladimir; Prymula, Roman; Usonis, Vytautas; Zavadska, Dace

    2016-01-01

    We undertook an epidemiological survey of the annual incidence of pertussis reported from 2000 to 2013 in ten Central and Eastern European countries to ascertain whether increased pertussis reports in some countries share common underlying drivers or whether there are specific features in each country. The annual incidence of pertussis in the participating countries was obtained from relevant government institutions and/or national surveillance systems. We reviewed the changes in the pertussis incidence rates in each country to explore differences and/or similarities between countries in relation to pertussis surveillance; case definitions for detection and confirmation of pertussis; incidence and number of cases of pertussis by year, overall and by age group; population by year, overall and by age group; pertussis immunization schedule and coverage, and switch from whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP) to acellular pertussis vaccines (aP). There was heterogeneity in the reported annual incidence rates and trends observed across countries. Reported pertussis incidence rates varied considerably, ranging from 0.01 to 96 per 100,000 population, with the highest rates generally reported in Estonia and the lowest in Hungary and Serbia. The greatest burden appears for the most part in infants (<1 year) in Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Romania, and Serbia, but not in the other participating countries where the burden may have shifted to older children, though surveillance of adults may be inappropriate. There was no consistent pattern associated with the switch from wP to aP vaccines on reported pertussis incidence rates. The heterogeneity in reported data may be related to a number of factors including surveillance system characteristics or capabilities, different case definitions, type of pertussis confirmation tests used, public awareness of the disease, as well as real differences in the magnitude of the disease, or a combination of these factors. Our study highlights the

  19. Deaggregation of Probabilistic Ground Motions in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmsen, S.; Perkins, D.; Frankel, A.

    1999-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is a technique for estimating the annual rate of exceedance of a specified ground motion at a site due to known and suspected earthquake sources. The relative contributions of the various sources to the total seismic hazard are determined as a function of their occurrence rates and their ground-motion potential. The separation of the exceedance contributions into bins whose base dimensions are magnitude and distance is called deaggregation. We have deaggregated the hazard analyses for the new USGS national probabilistic ground-motion hazard maps (Frankel et al., 1996). For points on a 0.2?? grid in the central and eastern United States (CEUS), we show color maps of the geographical variation of mean and modal magnitudes (M??, M??) and distances (D??, D??) for ground motions having a 2% chance of exceedance in 50 years. These maps are displayed for peak horizontal acceleration and for spectral response accelerations of 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec. We tabulate M??, D??, M??, and D?? for 49 CEUS cities for 0.2- and 1.0-sec response. Thus, these maps and tables are PSHA-derived estimates of the potential earthquakes that dominate seismic hazard at short and intermediate periods in the CEUS. The contribution to hazard of the New Madrid and Charleston sources dominates over much of the CEUS; for 0.2-sec response, over 40% of the area; for 1.0-sec response, over 80% of the area. For 0.2-sec response, D?? ranges from 20 to 200 km, for 1.0 sec, 30 to 600 km. For sites influenced by New Madrid or Charleston, D is less than the distance to these sources, and M?? is less than the characteristic magnitude of these sources, because averaging takes into account the effect of smaller magnitude and closer sources. On the other hand, D?? is directly the distance to New Madrid or Charleston and M?? for 0.2- and 1.0-sec response corresponds to the dominating source over much of the CEUS. For some cities in the North Atlantic states, short

  20. Noise characteristics of Continuous GPS time series of Central and Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. D.; Vijayan, M. S. M.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global positioning system measurements with its millimetre level accuracy have been widely used to monitor the crustal dynamics. Geodetic crustal deformation studies require accurate estimate of the parameters which demands realistic estimate of the uncertainties in order to constrain the signal. GPS based crustal deformation studies in tectonically active region, such as Central and Eastern Himalaya have been carried out by several groups however, proper noise characteristics of GPS time series of this study region are unknown. In this work, we attempt to address the noise characteristics of GPS position time series by analysing the GPS time series of 22 stations from North-East India, Bhutan and Nepal Himalaya spanning 2002-2013. We have employed Spectral analysis and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to study the noise characteristics. Power spectrum obtained by using Lomb-Scargle method reveals characteristics of white noise at the high frequencies and power law noise at lower frequencies. Estimation of the spectral index by finding the slope of the spectral curve suggests fractal white noise with overall index of -0.61. MLE was performed in two ways. First, by assuming the time series to be composed of (a) white (WN), (b) white plus flicker (FL) and (c) white plus random walk noise (WRN) and then by estimating spectral index assuming the noise to be composition of white and power law noise (WPN). The comparison of MLE values of three noise model suggest that white plus flicker noise model (FL) is the most preferred noise model. Comparison of velocity uncertainties between white noise and white plus flicker noise, obtained from MLE, suggest that velocity uncertainty is under estimated by factor of ~8 when simple white noise model is used. The spectral index estimated using MLE is -1.1 (~1) which suggests that flicker noise is the main power law noise in time series of all 22 GPS stations. A slight difference of noise amplitudes of two different monument types

  1. The Central domain of RyR1 is the transducer for long-range allosteric gating of channel opening.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Zhen; Wu, Jianping; Li, Zhangqiang; Yan, Nieng

    2016-09-01

    The ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are intracellular calcium channels responsible for rapid release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (SR/ER) to the cytoplasm, which is essential for the excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling of cardiac and skeletal muscles. The near-atomic resolution structure of closed RyR1 revealed the molecular details of this colossal channel, while the long-range allosteric gating mechanism awaits elucidation. Here, we report the cryo-EM structures of rabbit RyR1 in three closed conformations at about 4 Å resolution and an open state at 5.7 Å. Comparison of the closed RyR1 structures shows a breathing motion of the cytoplasmic platform, while the channel domain and its contiguous Central domain remain nearly unchanged. Comparison of the open and closed structures shows a dilation of the S6 tetrahelical bundle at the cytoplasmic gate that leads to channel opening. During the pore opening, the cytoplasmic "O-ring" motif of the channel domain and the U-motif of the Central domain exhibit coupled motion, while the Central domain undergoes domain-wise displacement. These structural analyses provide important insight into the E-C coupling in skeletal muscles and identify the Central domain as the transducer that couples the conformational changes of the cytoplasmic platform to the gating of the central pore. PMID:27468892

  2. Geochronology and geochemistry of middle Permian-Middle Triassic intrusive rocks from central-eastern Jilin Province, NE China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Jin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Pei, Fu-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yu; Cao, Hua-Hua

    2015-12-01

    To constrain the Permian-Early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the eastern segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, we conducted zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses on six middle Permian-Middle Triassic intrusive plutons in central-eastern Jilin Province, NE China. Zircons from the six plutons display distinct oscillatory zoning and striped absorption in cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and Th/U ratios of 0.11-1.41, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the intrusive rocks formed in the middle Permian (ca. 260 Ma) to Middle Triassic (ca. 245 Ma). In central-eastern Jilin Province, the middle Permian and Middle Triassic plutons are composed mainly of strongly deformed monzogranites with affinities to adakitic rocks, which are formed from partial melting of thickened mafic lower crust. In contrast, the late Permian-the Early Triassic plutons in central-eastern Jilin Province consist of a bimodal association (including gabbros and granitoids) and deformed monzonites, which typically form in extensional settings. These observations, along with the results of previous studies on early-middle Permian granitoids in western Jilin Province, indicate that the eastern segment of the Paleo-Asian Ocean underwent the initial closure in central-western Jilin Province during the middle Permian and the final closure in eastern Jilin Province in the Middle Triassic.

  3. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  4. Genetic isolation among the northwestern, southwestern and central-eastern Indian Ocean populations of the pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Muhamad Fadry; Alimuddin; Muththalib, Mohamed; Salama, Adnan Jameel; Imai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566-571 bp) were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986-1.0000 and π = 0.031593-0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents. PMID:24865488

  5. Deep-tow magnetic survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Carlut, J. H.; Searle, R. C.; Sauter, D.; Cannat, M.

    2011-12-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining magnetic data, geology mapping from side-scan sonar images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the side-scan images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. This allows us to hypothesis that magnetic anomalies are caused by serpentinized peridotites or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may results from fluid-rocks interaction along the detachment faults as well as from the repartition of the volcanic material and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in order to better constrain tectonic mechanisms that occur during the formation of this

  6. Paleotectonic reconstruction of the central Tethys domain since the Late Permian: the DARIUS Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrier, Eric; Vrielynck, Bruno; Brunet, Marie-Françoise; Robertson, Alastair; Sosson, Marc; Zanchi, Andrea; Brouillet, Jean-françois; Kaveh, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    The DARIUS Programme is a 4-years consortium sponsored by Major Oil Companies and Research Organizations. DARIUS drive together a group of academic scientific teams whose expertise includes several domains of tectonics (structural analysis, paleotectonic reconstructions, basin analysis, subsidence modeling), stratigraphy (paleontology, sequence stratigraphy, organic matter analysis), modeling, kinematics, and geophysics. The main objective is characterizing the tecto-stratigraphic evolution of a vast domain around Central Tethys extending from Black-Sea Anatolia in the west to western Central Asia in the east. One of the final products of the DARIUS Programme is a set of 20 paleotectonic maps of the DARIUS domain ranging in age from the Late Permian to Pliocene. In these maps we propose paleotectonic reconstructions of the south-central Eurasian and north African-Arabian plates starting after the Late Paleozoic Hercynian orogeny. These palinspastic maps are based on an up-to-date kinematics reconstruction of the African, Indian and Arabian plates with respect to Eurasia. For each map we depict the major tectonic-geodynamic features (i.e. the rifts, different types of basins, major orogens and fold belts, main transcurrent faults, subduction zones, accretionary prisms...) as well as the main paleofacies. Our reconstructions are based on an accurate timing of the tectonic events that have succeeded in the central Tethyan margins since the Late Paleozoic. These events include both the main orogenies resulting from collisions of major plates and blocks and the series of openings and inversions of basins that developed in the northern and southern Tethyan margins between the main collisions. Following the Variscian orogeny that ended in the Early Permian, the Mid to Late Triassic Eo- and Mid-Cimmerian orogenies are related to the collision of Gondwanian blocs with the Pangea margin after closure of the Paleo-Tethys oceanic domain. Then, for the rest of the Mesozoic and

  7. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rulison, Eric L.; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus, is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (proportion infested = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white footed mice and other small mammals (proportion infested = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi, compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes.

  8. Meeting of the Central and Eastern U.S. (CEUS) Earthquake Hazards Program October 28–29, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Martitia; Boyd, Oliver; McCallister, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    On October 28th and 29th, 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program held a meeting of Central and Eastern United States investigators and interested parties in Memphis, Tennessee. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the Central and Eastern United States earthquake-hazards community to present and discuss recent research results, to promote communication and collaboration, to garner input regarding future research priorities, to inform the community about research opportunities afforded by the 2010–2012 arrival of EarthScope/USArray in the central United States, and to discuss plans for the upcoming bicentennial of the 1811–1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The two-day meeting included several keynote speakers, oral and poster presentations by attendees, and breakout sessions. The meeting is summarized in this report and can be subdivided into four primary sections: (1) summaries of breakout discussion groups; (2) list of meeting participants; (3) submitted abstracts; and (4) slide presentations. The abstracts and slides are included “as submitted” by the meeting participants and have not been subject to any formal peer review process; information contained in these sections reflects the opinions of the presenter at the time of the meeting and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  9. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor. PMID:25680828

  10. Minimal role of eastern fence lizards in Borrelia burgdorferi transmission in central New Jersey oak/pine woodlands.

    PubMed

    Rulison, Eric L; Kerr, Kaetlyn T; Dyer, Megan C; Han, Seungeun; Burke, Russell L; Tsao, Jean I; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2014-10-01

    The eastern fence lizard, Sceloporus undulatus , is widely distributed in eastern and central North America, ranging through areas with high levels of Lyme disease, as well as areas where Lyme disease is rare or absent. We studied the potential role of S. undulatus in transmission dynamics of Lyme spirochetes by sampling ticks from a variety of natural hosts at field sites in central New Jersey, and by testing the reservoir competence of S. undulatus for Borrelia burgdorferi in the laboratory. The infestation rate of ticks on fence lizards was extremely low (prevalence = 0.087, n = 23) compared to that on white-footed mice and other small mammals (prevalence = 0.53, n = 140). Of 159 nymphs that had fed as larvae on lizards that had previously been exposed to infected nymphs, none was infected with B. burgdorferi , compared with 79.9% of 209 nymphs that had fed as larvae on infected control mice. Simulations suggest that changes in the numbers of fence lizards in a natural habitat would have little effect on the infection rate of nymphal ticks with Lyme spirochetes. We conclude that in central New Jersey, S. undulatus plays a minimal role in the enzootic transmission cycle of Lyme spirochetes. PMID:24871138

  11. Deep-tow geophysical survey above large exhumed mantle domains of the eastern Southwest Indian ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, A.; Munschy, M.; Sauter, D.; Carlut, J.; Searle, R.; Cannat, M.

    2012-04-01

    The recent discovery of a new type of seafloor, the "smooth seafloor", formed with no or very little volcanic activity along the easternmost part of the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) shows an unexpected complexity in processes of generation of the oceanic lithosphere. There, detachment faulting is thought to be a mechanism for efficient exhumation of deep-seated mantle rocks. We present here a deep-tow geological-geophysical survey over smooth seafloor at the eastern SWIR (62-64°N) combining multibeam bathymetric data, magnetic data, geology mapping from sidescan sonar (TOBI) images and results from dredge sampling. We introduce a new type of calibration approach for deep-tow fluxgate magnetometer. We show that magnetic data can be corrected from the magnetic effect of the vehicle with no recourse to its attitude (pitch, roll and heading) but only using the 3 components recorded by the magnetometer and an approximation of the scalar intensity of the Earth magnetic field. The collected dredge samples as well as the sidescan sonar images confirm the presence of large areas of exhumed mantle-derived peridodites surrounded by a few volcanic constructions. We investigate the possibility that magnetic anomalies are either caused by serpentinized peridotites and/or magmatic intrusions. We show that the magnetic signature of the smooth seafloor is clearly weaker than the surrounding volcanic areas. Moreover, the calculated magnetization of a source layer as well as the comparison between deep-tow and sea-surface magnetic data argue for strong East-West variability in the distribution of the magnetized sources. This variability may result from fluid-rock interactions along the detachment faults as well as from the occurrence of small sized and thin volcanic patches and thus questions the seafloor spreading origin of the corresponding magnetic anomalies. Finally, we provide magnetic arguments, as calculation of block rotation or spreading asymmetry in

  12. Measurements of Canopy Interception and Trasnpiration of Openly-Grown Eastern Redcedar in Central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent decades Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) has been rapidly encroaching and degrading native prairie and rangeland landscapes in the Great Plains of the U.S. Increase in redcedar density and areal coverage may negatively impact local and regional water budgets through increased tr...

  13. The Role of the State in the Repression and Revival of Religiosity in Central Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Tim; Neundorf, Anja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present two different roles of the state affecting individuals' religiosity. First, we provide evidence for the effectiveness of socialist regimes in influencing citizens' opinions by comparing religious beliefs among several generations of Eastern Europeans. Second, the article explores whether the democratization…

  14. Unique Dairy Applications for Eastern Gamagrass in Central Wisconsin: I. Yield Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replacement dairy heifers offered diets comprised largely of corn (Zea mays L.) silage or other high-energy forages often become overconditioned, which may damage their future performance as lactating cows. Our objective was to assess the yield potential of a perennial C4 grass, eastern gamagrass [T...

  15. Petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic granitic plutons, eastern Llano Uplift, central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. K.; Gray, Walt; Gibbs, Tyson; Gallegos, M. A.

    2010-08-01

    The Llano Uplift of central Texas is a gentle structural dome exposing ˜ 1370 to 1230 Ma metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks of Grenville affinity along the southern margin of Laurentia. The metamorphic rocks were subsequently intruded by ˜ 1119 to 1070 Ma late syn- to post-tectonic granites collectively known as the Town Mountain Granite (TMG). The eastern most of the TMG, the Marble Falls (MF), Kingsland (KL), and Lone Grove (LG) plutons, are metaluminous to marginally peraluminous, high-K, calc-alkaline, ferroan, biotite-calcic amphibole granites [Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 0.71-0.92 and 0.78-0.91 for biotite and calcic amphibole, respectively] displaying distinct variation trends with increasing silica content. They are chemically and texturally zoned and have mineralogical and chemical characteristics similar to A-type granites; i.e., 1) Fe-rich biotites, calcic amphiboles, accessory fluorite, and sporadic rapakivi texture, 2) high K 2O (> 4 wt.%), 3) low Al 2O 3 (< 16 wt.%) and CaO (< 3 wt.%), 4) high Fe/(Fe + Mg), 5) enrichments in Zr, Nb, REE, Ga/Al, and 6) depleted Eu. However, in contrast to typical A-type granites (having low Sr and Ba) the MF, KL,and LG plutons are enriched in Sr and Ba; i.e., up to 229 ppm and 1090 ppm, respectively. On granite discrimination diagrams [(K 2O + Na 2O)/CaO vs. Zr + Nb + Ce + Y (ppm) and Zr (ppm) vs. Ga/Al*10,000] the KL and MF plutons plot within the A-type field, whereas the LG pluton compositions are divided between A-type and fractionated granite fields (I-, S- and M-types). On tectonic discrimination diagrams (Y vs. Nb ) the MF and KL granites plot in the "within-plate" granite field, but the LG pluton plots across several fields including "within-plate" and "volcanic arc plus syn-collisional" fields. Consequently the tectonic classification on a geochemical basis for the LG pluton is unclear. Based on thermal metamorphic mineral assemblages, normative Q-Ab-Or plots, and Q-Ab-Or-H 2O experimental data (Johannes and Holtz

  16. Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Diabetes: From Evidence to Clinical Reality in Central and Eastern Europe—Recommendations from the International Central-Eastern European Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Barkai, László; Bolgarska, Svetlana; Bronisz, Agata; Broz, Jan; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Honka, Marek; Janez, Andrej; Krnic, Mladen; Lalic, Nebojsa; Martinka, Emil; Rahelic, Dario; Roman, Gabriela; Tankova, Tsvetalina; Várkonyi, Tamás; Wolnik, Bogumił; Zherdova, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is universally considered to be an integral part of type 1 diabetes management and crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of complex insulin regimens. This extends to type 2 diabetes patients on intensive insulin therapy, and there is also a growing body of evidence suggesting that structured SMBG is beneficial for all type 2 diabetes patients, regardless of therapy. However, access to SMBG can be limited in many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. A consensus group of diabetes experts from 10 countries in this region (with overlapping historical, political, and social environments)—Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine—was formed to discuss the role of SMBG across the spectrum of patients with diabetes. The group considered SMBG to be an essential tool that should be accessible to all patients with diabetes, including those with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. The current article summarizes the evidence put forward by the consensus group and provides their recommendations for the appropriate use of SMBG as part of individualized patient management. The ultimate goal of these evidence-based recommendations is to help patients and providers in Central and Eastern Europe to make optimal use of SMBG in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of glucose-lowering therapies, to prevent complications, and to empower the patient to play a more active role in the management of their diabetes. PMID:24716890

  17. Seasonal Equability in Late Cretaceous Central-Eastern Iberia? Inferences from Isotopic Data on Vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, L.; Barroso-Barcenilla, F.; Cambra-Moo, O.

    2013-12-01

    calculate temperature values. As expected, temperature values estimated from theropods are lower (G1: 17.5×4.4°C, G2: 21.0×3.8°C), representing mean annual temperature (MAT), whereas temperature values yielded by crocodilians (G1: 19.6×4.4°C, G2: 24.4×3.8°C) and turtles (G1: 18.8×4.4°C, G2: 23.5×3.8°C) are slightly higher, reflecting the temperature of the warmest months (TWMs). Our record shows an increase in temperature values between G1 and G2, but they remain within expected temperature estimates based on other independent proxies (palynomorphs, vertebrates) and paleoclimatic models for the Late Cretaceous and the 'Lo Hueco' paleo-latitude. Maximum differences between TWMs and MAT are 2.1°C and 3.4°C for G1 and G2, respectively. These differences are in the low end-member of those observed in modern subtropical settings (~2.8-8.1°C) pointing to a slightly lower seasonal thermal varibility in central-eastern Iberia during the late Campanian-early Maastrichtian.

  18. Mid-Oligocene climate dynamics using benthic foraminifera from the Central Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirkel, Jessica; Herrle, Jens; Pälike, Heiko; Liebrand, Diederik; Batenburg, Sietske

    2014-05-01

    The Oligocene marks the onset of major Antarctic ice sheets and hence the first step into a "icehouse" world, which continues to the present day. To understand the evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, it is fundamental to assess and quantify changes in the ocean circulation pattern and the intensity of Pacific equatorial upwelling (PEU) since the initiation of southern hemisphere ice caps during the Eocene-Oligocene transition. It is well known that combined variations in the eccentricity, obliquity and precession of Earth's orbit influence long-term climate fluctuations, notably the build up and decay of ice volume. To unravel the importance of orbital forcing on ice volume changes and to estimate its impact on paleoproductivity in the Central Eastern Pacific Ocean, we focused on the Oi-2b event about 26.8 Ma ago, being the most important glacial episode in the mid-Oligocene (Pälike et al., 2006). We calculated benthic foraminifer accumulation rates (BFAR) to reconstruct organic matter flux to the sea floor and hence surface water productivity. Furthermore, to assess and differentiate between changes in productivity and dissolution, a planktic foraminifera-based fragmentation index (FI) was calculated. BFAR values range between 16 and 217 NBF/cm-2/kyr (average: 65 NBF/cm-2/kyr). Increased BFAR indicate phases of higher supply of organic matter to the sea floor and thus enhanced surface water productivity. Our BFAR record indicates variable but generally lower productivity conditions during the glacial event compared to pre- and post-Oi-2b conditions. However, the transition into the Oi-2b event which is documented in heavier δ18O of Cibicidoides grimsdalei (2.1 per mil to 3.0 per mil ) and Oridorsalis umbonatus (1.7 per mil and 2.6 per mil) is characterized by a higher productivity, which is also supported by the assumption of increased productivity for the onset of Oi-2b based on Δδ13C variations of planktic and benthic foraminifera from ODP Site 1218 (Wade

  19. Aeolian dust deposition during the Eocene-Oligocene in central to eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenberghe, Jef; Abels, Hemmo; van Cappelle, Marijn

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian dust deposition during the Eocene-Oligocene in central to eastern Asia Jef Vandenberghe1, Hemmo Abels2 and Marijn van Cappelle3 1Dept. of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2Dept. of Earth Sciences, Universiteit Utrecht, 3584 CD, Utrecht, The Netherlands 3Dept. of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, U.K. The deposition of loess is generally attributed to a monsoonal climate system. Recently it has been shown that such a system existed already at the end of the Eocene on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau (Licht et al., 2014). One of the main arguments to prove the supply of loess by monsoonal winds is the use of grain size properties. The lower part of the Shuiwan section (Eocene) consists of metre-scale alternations of mudstone and gypsum beds; the upper part (Oligocene) is mainly mudstone (Dupont-Nivet et al., 2007; Abels et al., 2010). Sediments are categorized in six grain-size types based on the grain-size distribution and the mode of the silt grain sizes as measured using laser diffraction. Sediments of type 1, the only type with a unimodal grain-size distribution, consist exclusively of clay-sized particles (modal value of 2-2.5 µm). Types 2-6 have a multimodal composition. They contain an additional silt-sized fraction with a modal size of c. 16 µm in type 2; c. 26 µm in type 3 and c. 31 µm in type 4. Type 5 is a mixture of previous types, and type 6 contains in addition a slight amount of sand. Similar bimodal grain-size distributions occur in the Neogene Red Clay and in the Pleistocene loess of the Chinese Loess Plateau. All three silt fractions (with modal sizes 16, 26 and 31 µm) represent typical loess sediments, transported by dust storms in suspension at different altitudes. Their exact grain size depends on wind velocity, source material and transport distance. The 'clay component' may have settled from high suspension clouds in the air down to dry ground or to

  20. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  1. The MDM2 RING domain and central acidic domain play distinct roles in MDM2 protein homodimerization and MDM2-MDMX protein heterodimerization.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Patrick L; Ke, Hengming; Zhang, Yanping

    2015-05-15

    The oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is an E3 ligase that plays a prominent role in p53 suppression by promoting its polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In its active form, MDM2 forms homodimers as well as heterodimers with the homologous protein murine double minute 4 (MDMX), both of which are thought to occur through their respective C-terminal RING (really interesting new gene) domains. In this study, using multiple MDM2 mutants, we show evidence suggesting that MDM2 homo- and heterodimerization occur through distinct mechanisms because MDM2 RING domain mutations that inhibit MDM2 interaction with MDMX do not affect MDM2 interaction with WT MDM2. Intriguingly, deletion of a portion of the MDM2 central acidic domain selectively inhibits interaction with MDM2 while leaving intact the ability of MDM2 to interact with MDMX and to ubiquitinate p53. Further analysis of an MDM2 C-terminal deletion mutant reveals that the C-terminal residues of MDM2 are required for both MDM2 and MDMX interaction. Collectively, our results suggest a model in which MDM2-MDMX heterodimerization requires the extreme C terminus and proper RING domain structure of MDM2, whereas MDM2 homodimerization requires the extreme C terminus and the central acidic domain of MDM2, suggesting that MDM2 homo- and heterodimers utilize distinct MDM2 domains. Our study is the first to report mutations capable of separating MDM2 homo- and heterodimerization. PMID:25809483

  2. Supporting Reform in Science Education in Central and Eastern Europe--Reflections and Perspectives from the Project TEMPUS-SALiS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapanadze, Marika; Eilks, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, many Central and Eastern European countries underwent significant change in their political and educational systems, among them Georgia and Moldova. Reforms in education sought to overcome the highly centralized educational system of the former Soviet Union as well as to conquer the teacher-centred…

  3. Identity and relationships of the Arboreal Caatinga among other floristic units of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) of north-eastern and Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rubens M; Oliveira-Filho, Ary T; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Queiroz, Luciano P; Cardoso, Domingos B O S; Rodal, Maria J N

    2012-01-01

    The tree species composition of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF) in north-eastern and central Brazil is analyzed to address the following hypotheses: (1) variations in species composition are related to both environment (climate and substrate) and spatial proximity; (2) SDTF floristic units may be recognized based on peculiar composition and environment; and (3) the Arboreal Caatinga, a deciduous forest occurring along the hinterland borders of the Caatinga Domain, is one of these units and its flora is more strongly related to the caatinga vegetation than to outlying forests. The study region is framed by the Brazilian coastline, 50th meridian west and 21st parallel south, including the Caatinga Domain and extensions into the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado Domains. Multivariate and geostatistic analyses were performed on a database containing 16,226 occurrence records of 1332 tree species in 187 georeferenced SDTF areas and respective environmental variables. Tree species composition varied significantly with both environmental variables and spatial proximity. Eight SDTF floristic units were recognized in the region, including the Arboreal Caatinga. In terms of species composition, its tree flora showed a stronger link with that of the Cerrado Dry Forest Enclaves. On the other hand, in terms of species frequency across sample areas, the links were stronger with two other units: Rock Outcrops Caatinga and Agreste and Brejo Dry Forests. There is a role for niche-based control of tree species composition across the SDTFs of the region determined primarily by the availability of ground water across time and secondarily by the amount of soil mineral nutrients. Spatial proximity also contributes significantly to the floristic cohesion of SDTF units suggesting a highly dispersal-limited tree flora. These units should be given the status of eco-regions to help driving the conservation policy regarding the protection of their biodiversity. PMID:22423333

  4. Mass loading of size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in the ambient air during fireworks episodes in eastern Central India.

    PubMed

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deb, Manas K; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K; Verma, Santosh K

    2013-04-01

    The effects of combustion of the fire crackers on the air quality in eastern Central India were studied for the first time during Diwali festival. This case study analyzes the size distribution and temporal variation of aerosols collected in the rural area of eastern Central India during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period for the year of 2011. Fifteen aerosol samples were collected during the special case study of Diwali period using Andersen sampler. The mean concentrations of PM10 (respirable particulate matter) were found to be 212.8 ± 4.2, 555.5 ± 20.2 and 284.4 ± 5.8 during pre-diwali, Diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. During Diwali festival PM10 concentration was about 2.6 and 1.9 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali period, respectively. PM2.5 (fine) and PM1 (submicron) concentrations during Diwali festival were more than 2 times higher than pre-diwali and post-diwali. PMID:23287842

  5. Infertility in Poland--present status, reasons and prognosis as a reflection of Central and Eastern Europe problems with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2003-03-01

    Poland has been considered a representative country for the population of Central and Eastern Europe as it has genetically homogenous population and reveals profound similarities in economical and historical processes common for all countries of the region. According to our observations there is approximately 20% of infertile couples in Poland (lack of concentration after at least 12 month of unprotected intercourse) and 40-60% of them are infertile because of the male factor. However, studies of infertility in Poland that have been conducted so far need to be verified. The changes connected with the style of life and new tendencies observed during the tedious political changes had considerable influence on childbearing rate in Poland. Additional factors diminishing the fertility rate are: the change of the status of women in a society, raising amount of everyday stress, the high rate (17%) of unemployment and the low average income. Furthermore, in Poland, the diagnostics and treatment (assisted reproductive technology) are entirely financed from the private funds of a patient. Summing up, the problem of childlessness in Central and Eastern Europe is a complex one and very alarming therefore it is necessary to work out and to implement research, preventative and therapeutic programmes strengthened through the international cooperation of specialized centers of excellence. PMID:12640359

  6. South America Monsoon variability on millennial to multi-centennial time scale during the Holocene in central eastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strikis, N. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Cheng, H.; Karmann, I.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Wang, X.; Paula, M. S.; Novello, V. F.; Auler, A.

    2011-12-01

    A paleoprecipitation reconstruction based on high resolution and well-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records shows that the monsoon precipitation over central eastern Brazil underwent to strong variations on millennial to multi-centennial time-scales during the Holocene. This new record indicates that abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation are correlated to Bond events 6, 5 and 4 and also with 8.2 ky event during the early and mid-Holocene, with a mean amplitude of 1.5 % (PDB). The pacing and structure of such events are general consistent with variations in solar activity suggested by atmospheric Δ14 C records. In the late-Holocene, abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation peaking at 3.2, 2.7 and 2.3 ky B.P. are approximately synchronous with periods of low solar minima. In this regard, the most prominent event occurred during the late Holocene occurred at ~2.7 ky B.P. In addition, these positive anomalies of the precipitation recorded in central eastern Brazil are also in good agreement with variations in Titicaca lake level. The good correspondence between the speleothem and marine records imply that the variations in the north Atlantic sea surface temperature is the main forcing for abrupt millennial to multi-centennial precipitations variation within the region under influence of South American Monsoon.

  7. Uniparental Genetic Heritage of Belarusians: Encounter of Rare Middle Eastern Matrilineages with a Central European Mitochondrial DNA Pool

    PubMed Central

    Kushniarevich, Alena; Sivitskaya, Larysa; Danilenko, Nina; Novogrodskii, Tadeush; Tsybovsky, Iosif; Kiseleva, Anna; Kotova, Svetlana; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Metspalu, Ene; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Bahmanimehr, Ardeshir; Reidla, Maere; Rootsi, Siiri; Parik, Jüri; Reisberg, Tuuli; Achilli, Alessandro; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Gandini, Francesca; Olivieri, Anna; Behar, Doron M.; Torroni, Antonio; Davydenko, Oleg; Villems, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic Belarusians make up more than 80% of the nine and half million people inhabiting the Republic of Belarus. Belarusians together with Ukrainians and Russians represent the East Slavic linguistic group, largest both in numbers and territory, inhabiting East Europe alongside Baltic-, Finno-Permic- and Turkic-speaking people. Till date, only a limited number of low resolution genetic studies have been performed on this population. Therefore, with the phylogeographic analysis of 565 Y-chromosomes and 267 mitochondrial DNAs from six well covered geographic sub-regions of Belarus we strove to complement the existing genetic profile of eastern Europeans. Our results reveal that around 80% of the paternal Belarusian gene pool is composed of R1a, I2a and N1c Y-chromosome haplogroups – a profile which is very similar to the two other eastern European populations – Ukrainians and Russians. The maternal Belarusian gene pool encompasses a full range of West Eurasian haplogroups and agrees well with the genetic structure of central-east European populations. Our data attest that latitudinal gradients characterize the variation of the uniparentally transmitted gene pools of modern Belarusians. In particular, the Y-chromosome reflects movements of people in central-east Europe, starting probably as early as the beginning of the Holocene. Furthermore, the matrilineal legacy of Belarusians retains two rare mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, N1a3 and N3, whose phylogeographies were explored in detail after de novo sequencing of 20 and 13 complete mitogenomes, respectively, from all over Eurasia. Our phylogeographic analyses reveal that two mitochondrial DNA lineages, N3 and N1a3, both of Middle Eastern origin, might mark distinct events of matrilineal gene flow to Europe: during the mid-Holocene period and around the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, respectively. PMID:23785503

  8. Estimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in eastern and central North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Gay, D.A.; Prestbo, E.M.; Risch, M.R.; Johnson, D.; Narayan, J.; Zsolway, R.; Holsen, T.M.; Miller, E.K.; Castro, M.S.; Graydon, J.A.; St. Louis, V.L.; Dalziel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Dry deposition of speciated mercury, i.e., gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), particulate-bound mercury (PBM), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), was estimated for the year 2008–2009 at 19 monitoring locations in eastern and central North America. Dry deposition estimates were obtained by combining monitored two- to four-hourly speciated ambient concentrations with modeled hourly dry deposition velocities (Vd) calculated using forecasted meteorology. Annual dry deposition of GOM+PBM was estimated to be in the range of 0.4 to 8.1 μg m−2 at these locations with GOM deposition being mostly five to ten times higher than PBM deposition, due to their different modeled Vd values. Net annual GEM dry deposition was estimated to be in the range of 5 to 26 μg m−2 at 18 sites and 33 μg m−2 at one site. The estimated dry deposition agrees very well with limited surrogate-surface dry deposition measurements of GOM and PBM, and also agrees with litterfall mercury measurements conducted at multiple locations in eastern and central North America. This study suggests that GEM contributes much more than GOM+PBM to the total dry deposition at the majority of the sites considered here; the only exception is at locations close to significant point sources where GEM and GOM+PBM contribute equally to the total dry deposition. The relative magnitude of the speciated dry deposition and their good comparisons with litterfall deposition suggest that mercury in litterfall originates primarily from GEM, which is consistent with the limited number of previous field studies. The study also supports previous analyses suggesting that total dry deposition of mercury is equal to, if not more important than, wet deposition of mercury on a regional scale in eastern North America.

  9. Orientation of the central domains of KSRP and its implications for the interaction with the RNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Hollingworth, David; Kelly, Geoff; Martin, Stephen; García-Mayoral, MaríaFlor; Briata, Paola; Gherzi, Roberto; Ramos, Andres

    2010-01-01

    KSRP is a multi-domain RNA-binding protein that recruits the exosome-containing mRNA degradation complex to mRNAs coding for cellular proliferation and inflammatory response factors. The selectivity of this mRNA degradation mechanism relies on KSRP recognition of AU-rich elements in the mRNA 3′UTR, that is mediated by KSRP’s KH domains. Our structural analysis shows that the inter-domain linker orients the two central KH domains of KSRP—and their RNA-binding surfaces—creating a two-domain unit. We also show that this inter-domain arrangement is important to the interaction with KSRP’s RNA targets. PMID:20385598

  10. Temporal stability of a coarse sediment community in the Central Eastern English Channel Paleovalleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozach, Sophie; Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2012-07-01

    The natural variation of the benthic community of eastern Channel paleovalleys was investigated over a four-year period in the context of an aggregate extraction licence for the French side of the English Channel. Six surveys were conducted: twice a year (mid-April: pre-recruitment and the end of August: post-recruitment) in 2007, 2009 and 2010. The area showed similar features of community structural parameters, to other coarse sediment areas in the eastern English Channel. This area also presented an outstanding constancy over time. The baseline obtained allows the identification of cause-effect relationships between the impact of aggregate dredging and environmental changes and also highlights the consequences of dredging on key ecological attributes. The long-term biological recovery rate will thereby be easier to assess. The use of this baseline is discussed in terms of implications for future management of the study area.

  11. Seismicity and recent faulting in eastern California and western and central Nevada: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator); Silverstein, J.; Tubbesing, L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery covering the eastern California-Nevada seismic belt were utilized to study the fault pattern in relation to the distribution of earthquake epicenters and Quaternary volcanic rocks. Many suspected faults not previously mapped were identified. These include several suspected shear zones in Nevada, faults showing evidence of recent breakage, and major lineaments. Highly seismic areas are generally characterized by Holocene faulting and Quaternary volcanic activity. However, several major fault segments showing evidence of recent breakage are associated with little or no seismicity. The tectonic pattern strongly suggests that the eastern California-Nevada seismic belt coincides with a major crustal rift associated with zones of lateral shear. New data on potentially active fault zones have direct practical applications in national and local earthquake hazard reduction programs. Positive contacts have been made with Kern and Ventura Counties to make results of this investigation available for application to their earthquake hazards definition projects.

  12. Bedrock topography of the eastern and central Mesabi Range, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, E.L.

    1964-01-01

    The Mesabi iron-mining district or range, is in north-eastern Minnesota, 60 to 85 miles west of Lake Superior. The Mesabi Range, in this report, includes the iron-mining belt, ¼ of a mile to 3 miles wide, that extends for 120 miles in a northeasterly direction across Itasca and St. Louis Counties. It is the area of economically important iron-bearing formation and associated rocks, now mostly buried under glacial drift.

  13. A contribution to the SHA of Eastern Thessaly, Central Greece: archaeological and historical evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helly, B.; Caputo, R.; Tsafalias, A.

    2003-04-01

    Eastern Thessaly region (Central Greece) shows numerous evidences of seismic activity ranging from structural, morphological, palaeoseismological, archaeological and historical. In the present note, we focus on the latter two aspects. A fundamental source of historic data are the "Chronicles" of the monasteries of the area. Doubtless, the most important ones are those located in the Meteora region (western Thessaly). In the "Chronicles" of these monasteries few events are reported relative to the investigated region and particularly the August 1668, occurred in the area of Larissa, the 1731, the November 9, 1766 and the August 28, 1781. Maximum inferred intensity of the three latter earthquakes has been estimated of the VIII degree. Based on the tectonic setting of the possible seismogenic structures, these events are tentatively located in the Tyrnavos Basin, while no other events are known in this sector neither before the 16th century nor in more recent times, except the March 1941 earthquake occurred East of Larissa. Archaeological information from the broader area concerns several sectors. i) Along the Rodià Fault, which is the major antithetic structure bordering to the north the Tyrnavos Basin, near the Arghyropouli village, the ancient site of Leimoné has been occupied since Neolithic times but it also represents an important Mycenaean site (13th-10th century BC). According to the historian Rhianos (3rd century BC), the town was still there during the Classical Period (5th-4th century BC) but according to Strabo it was disappeared at the end of the 1st century BC. ii) In Larissa, an inscription of the end of the 3rd century BC ascertain the bad conditions of a certain number of shrines and public buildings, reporting several damages like fallen columns. iii) Along the Tyrnavos Fault, the ancient settlement and ruins found on the rocky hill of the present-day Damasi village has been correlated to the ancient town of Phalanna and the alluvial plain

  14. Coexistence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genospecies within Ixodes ricinus ticks from central and eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Szpechciński, Adam; Supergan-Marwicz, Marta; Horbowicz, Marcin; Szwed, Magdalena; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Sprawka, Iwona

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence and coinfection rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in Ixodes ricinus (L.) ticks sampled from diverse localities in central and eastern regions of Poland. In years 2009-2011, questing nymphs and adults of I. ricinus were collected using a flagging method at 18 localities representing distinct ecosystem types: urban green areas, suburban forests and rural woodlands. Molecular detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies was based on amplification of a fla gene using nested PCR technique, subsequent PCR-RFLP analysis and bidirectional sequencing. It was revealed that 45 samples (2.1%) harboured two different B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies, whereas triple infections with various spirochetes was found in 11 (0.5%) individuals. Generally, the highest average coinfection rates were evidenced in arachnids gathered at rural woodlands, intermediate at suburban forests, while the lowest were recorded at urban green areas. Overall, single spirochete infections were noted in 16.3% (n = 352/2,153) ticks. Importantly, it is the first report evidencing the occurrence of Borrelia miyamotoi (0.3%, n = 7/2153) in I. ricinus populations within central Poland. Circumstantial variability of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies in the common tick individuals sampled at various habitat types in central and eastern Poland was displayed. The coexistence of two or three different spirochete genospecies in single adult ticks, as well as the presence of B. miyamotoi were demonstrated. Therefore, further studies uncovering the co-circulation of the tested bacteria and other human pathogens in I. ricinus ticks are required. PMID:26408587

  15. Distinctly different parental magmas for calc-alkaline plutons and tholeiitic lavas in the central and eastern Aleutian arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yue; Rioux, Matthew; Kelemen, Peter B.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Bolge, Louise; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cenozoic calc-alkaline plutons that comprise the middle crust of the central and eastern Aleutians have distinct isotopic and elemental compositions compared to Holocene tholeiitic lavas in the same region, including those from the same islands. Therefore the Holocene lavas are not representative of the net magmatic transfer from the mantle into the arc crust. Compared to the lavas, the Eocene to Miocene (9-39 Ma) intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks show higher SiO2 at a given Fe/Mg ratio, and have higher εNd-εHf values and lower Pb-Sr isotope ratios. However, the plutonic rocks strongly resemble calc-alkaline Holocene volcanics with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the western Aleutians, whose composition has been attributed to significant contributions from partial melting of subducted basaltic oceanic crust. These data could reflect a temporal variation of central and eastern Aleutian magma source compositions, from predominantly calc-alkaline compositions with more "depleted" isotope ratios in the Paleogene, to tholeiitic compositions with more "enriched" isotopes more recently. Alternatively, the differences between central Aleutian plutonic and volcanic rocks may reflect different transport and emplacement processes for the magmas that form plutons versus lavas. Calc-alkaline parental magmas, with higher SiO2 and high viscosity, are likely to form plutons after extensive mid-crustal degassing of initially high water contents. This conclusion has overarching importance because the plutonic rocks are chemically similar to bulk continental crust. Formation of similar plutonic rocks worldwide may play a key role in the genesis and evolution of continental crust.

  16. Horizontal velocities in the central and eastern United States from GPS surveys during the 1987-1996 interval

    SciTech Connect

    Snay, R.A.; Strange, W.E.

    1997-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission jointly organized GPS surveys in 1987, 1990, 1993, and 1996 to search for crustal deformation in the central and eastern United States (east of longitude 108{degrees}W). We have analyzed the data of these four surveys in combination with VLBI data observed during the 1979-1995 interval and GPS data for 22 additional surveys observed during the 1990-1996 interval. These latter GPS surveys served to establish accurately positioned geodetic marks in various states. Accordingly, we have computed horizontal velocities for 64 GPS sites and 12 VLBI sites relative to a reference frame for which the interior of the North American plate is considered fixed on average. None of our derived velocities exceeds 6 mm/yr in magnitude. Moreover, the derived velocity at each GPS site is statistically zero at the 95% confidence level except for the site BOLTON in central Ohio and the site BEARTOWN in southeastern Pennsylvania. However, as statistical theory would allow approximately 5% of the 64 GPS sites to fall our zero-velocity hypothesis, we are uncertain whether or not these estimated velocities for BOLTON and BEARTOWN reflect actual motion relative to the North American plate. We also computed horizontal strain rates for the cells formed by a 1{degrees} by 1{degrees} grid spanning the central and eastern United States. Corresponding shearing rates are everywhere less than 60 nanoradians/yr in magnitude, and no shearing rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level except for a grid cell near BEARTOWN whose rate is 57 {+-} 26 nanoradians/yr. Also corresponding areal dilatation rates are everywhere less than 40 nanostrain/yr in magnitude, and no dilatation rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Gastrointestinal parasites of the eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) in central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, J P; Cosgrove, M; Rothenbacher, H

    1980-10-01

    During a 3 year period, 186 eastern cottontails (Sylvilagus floridanus) were trapped from two areas and examined for helminth and protozoan parasites. Fecal samples from 139 were evaluated for coccidia and helminth ova. Nine species of coccictia were identified: Eimera audubonii, E. azul, E. environ, E. honessi, E. maior, E.minima, E. neoirresidua, E. neoleporis, and E. sylvilagi. Ova from 5 helminth species were found: Cittotaenia sp., Hastilesia tricolor, Passalurus sp., a trichostrongyle-type nematode species, and Trichuris sp. Five helminths were recovered from stomachs and small intestines: Cittotaenia sp. H. tricolor, Obeliscoides cuniculi,, Passalurus ambiguus, and Trichostrongylus calcaratus. PMID:7463607

  18. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  19. An investigation of the active tectonics in central-eastern mainland Greece with imaging and decomposition of topographic and aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, Andreas; Kranis, Haralambos; Chailas, Stylianos

    2010-03-01

    We report the results of a joint analysis of aeromagnetic, topographic and tectonic data in central-eastern mainland Greece. The emphasis of the analysis is placed on the detection of coherent lineations (discontinuities), collocated and correlated with faulting structures detected by geological field observation. To this effect, edge detection and image enhancement were applied to digital aeromagnetic anomaly maps and digital elevation models, comprising bidirectional differentiation, wavelet transformation (imaging) and spatial decomposition/reconstruction in the wavenumber domain. The analysis facilitated the detection of significant topographic lineaments with NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and ESE-WNW orientations. Respectively, the aeromagnetic data exhibit two families of significant NE-SW, and one family of ESE-WNW lineaments. The major aeromagnetic and topographic lineaments coincide and have comparable width scales of the order of 2-3 km, indicating that they are produced by significant discontinuities in the upper crust. The kinematics of the NE-SW faults varies between oblique-slip and strike-slip. These faults affect Neogene to Late Quaternary deposits and have been responsible for the formation of transverse depressions and horsts. This is also corroborated by focal plane solutions from small earthquakes recorded by local networks. The nature of these structures is not yet clear. However, they have been detected by diverse methodologies, they have considerable extent and are apparently active. These attributes suggest that they may possibly be related to the propagation and diffusion of the North Anatolian and North Aegean fault systems into the Greek mainland.

  20. Timing of terrane accretion in eastern and east-central Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludman, Allan

    1986-05-01

    The Norumbega fault zone is often cited as a post-Acadian suture between exotic blocks, even though stratigraphic, structural, and metamorphic data indicate that there is little offset of the Silurian-Devonian strata that the zone cuts in eastern Maine. Similarly, the Kingman fault zone has been shown by gravity and geochemical studies to separate distinct crustal blocks, whereas mapping shows that it lies entirely within a Silurian turbidite package. These conflicts are resolved if the two fault zones represent boundaries between Ordovician or older crustal blocks that had accreted to form a composite terrane prior to deposition of the cover sequences. The faults now mapped within these younger rocks formed by reactivation of the pre-Silurian boundaries during late Acadian time; movement continued until the late Carboniferous. Most of the accretionary history of Maine had thus ended before the Silurian. A complex composite terrane may have formed during Cambrian-Ordovician time that (1) interacted with cratonic North America during the Taconian orogeny and (2) became the “basement” upon which the Silurian and Lower Devonian strata of eastern Maine were deposited.

  1. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (FST = 0.08–0.44, P < 0.005). Central and eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary “graveyards”, serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation. PMID:25540693

  2. Population structure and phylogeography reveal pathways of colonization by a migratory marine reptile (Chelonia mydas) in the central and eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Peter H; Jensen, Michael P; Frey, Amy; LaCasella, Erin; Balazs, George H; Zárate, Patricia; Chassin-Noria, Omar; Sarti-Martinez, Adriana Laura; Velez, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Climate, behavior, ecology, and oceanography shape patterns of biodiversity in marine faunas in the absence of obvious geographic barriers. Marine turtles are an example of highly migratory creatures with deep evolutionary lineages and complex life histories that span both terrestrial and marine environments. Previous studies have focused on the deep isolation of evolutionary lineages (>3 mya) through vicariance; however, little attention has been given to the pathways of colonization of the eastern Pacific and the processes that have shaped diversity within the most recent evolutionary time. We sequenced 770 bp of the mtDNA control region to examine the stock structure and phylogeography of 545 green turtles from eight different rookeries in the central and eastern Pacific. We found significant differentiation between the geographically separated nesting populations and identified five distinct stocks (F ST = 0.08-0.44, P < 0.005). Central and eastern Pacific Chelonia mydas form a monophyletic group containing 3 subclades, with Hawaii more closely related to the eastern Pacific than western Pacific populations. The split between sampled central/eastern and western Pacific haplotypes was estimated at around 0.34 mya, suggesting that the Pacific region west of Hawaii has been a more formidable barrier to gene flow in C. mydas than the East Pacific Barrier. Our results suggest that the eastern Pacific was colonized from the western Pacific via the Central North Pacific and that the Revillagigedos Islands provided a stepping-stone for radiation of green turtles from the Hawaiian Archipelago to the eastern Pacific. Our results fit with a broader paradigm that has been described for marine biodiversity, where oceanic islands, such as Hawaii and Revillagigedo, rather than being peripheral evolutionary "graveyards", serve as sources and recipients of diversity and provide a mechanism for further radiation. PMID:25540693

  3. Geological structures and deformation sequence of the eastern Gyeonggi massif, central Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, You Hong; Hwang, Jae Ha

    2010-05-01

    The Gyeonggi massif, situated between the Nangrim and Yeongnam massifs of the Korean Peninsula, is a Precambrian terrane consists primarily of Archean to Proterozoic crystalline basement. Although the Gyeonggi massif has been suspected as an eastern extension of the Qinling-Dabie collision belt of China, a structural data about the Gyeonggi massif are very short, especially about the eastern part of the Gyeonggi massif. This study focused the deformation sequence of the eastern part of Gyeonggi massif and comparison with that of western part of Gyeonggi massif. At least, five phases of deformational events can be recognized. The first phase of deformation produced gneissic and schistose structures with intrafolial and recumbent folds. During the second phase of deformation, mylonite, mineral lineation, intrafolial recumbent folds and irregular folds were formed. The Bangsan Anticline (BSA) and its sub-order folds were produced by the third phase of deformation. SE-vergent thrust and south-vergent kink folds resulted from the forth and fifth phases of deformation, respectively. Axis of the BSA can be traced over 5km and the representative orientations of two limbs of the BSA are N17°W/32°SE, N29°E/25°NW, respectively. Interlimb angle of the BSA is measured as 128° and can be classified into open fold. Structural transect analysis of regional foliation shows that axis of the BSA is located about 4.6km toward East from longitude 127°53'45″E. If the BSA is correlated with very large-scale NS-trending folds occurred in the western part of the Gyeonggi massif based on characteristics of fold structure, the third phase of deformation can be interpreted in age from the Late Proterozoic to the Early Paleozoic (750~390 Ma). Mylonite of the study area cannot be correlated to the Gyeonggi Shear Zone, which was suggested as post-collisional top-to-the-north extensional structure. The SE-vergent thrust of the forth phase of deformation is probably correlated to the

  4. A new colorful species of Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the eastern flank of the Cordillera Central in Colombia .

    PubMed

    Rivera-Prieto, Diego A; Rivera-Correa, Mauricio; Daza, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the humid forests on the eastern flank of the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia (6º 23' 19.3554" N, 75º 1' 24.0594" W; ca. 1150 m.a.s.l.). Pristimantis jaguensis sp. nov. is characterized by an extraordinary variation in color and is readily distinguished from congeneric species by lacking nuptial pads, discoidal fold and conical calcar tubercles; flanks and belly white to cream without blotches as well as iris yellow ocher to copper with thick brown reticulation and cream sclera. Molecular phylogenetic analyses recovered the new species in a clade with species mostly distributed in Ecuador. Our finding suggests that new taxa can still be discovered in the Middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia despite the extensive sampling this region has received during the last decades.  PMID:25543734

  5. Historical experience in the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis in the plain region of Eastern and Central China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) (kala-azar) was most seriously prevalent in the plain regions of eight provinces/municipalities in the eastern and central parts of China. In the early 1950s, the number of counties/cities endemic for VL and the number of cases in the plain regions accounted for 60% and 80%, respectively, of the total numbers in the entire country. By implementing comprehensive control measures, including treatment of patients for eliminating the source of infection and spraying insecticide in endemic villages to kill sandflies, VL transmission has been brought under control in this region by the early 1960s, and no new infected cases have been found since 1983, achieving the goal of eliminating VL. PMID:24650707

  6. Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis, a new genus and species of wedgefish from the eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Rhinidae).

    PubMed

    Séret, Bernard; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    A new wedgefish, Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from three specimens collected in the shallow waters of the shoal "Banc d'Arguin", off Mauritania (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new genus is mainly distinguished from its close relatives, members of the genus Rhynchobatus, by its snout shape, more broadly rounded like that of the shark-ray Rhina ancylostoma, instead of being typically wedge-shaped as in Rhynchobatus species. The new species resembles the common West African wedgefish, Rhynchobatus lubberti, in having a similar colour pattern, but differs in snout shape. The new genus is supported as genetically distinct by comparative analysis of the mitochondrial NADH2 gene. PMID:27470765

  7. The structure of the Ishtar Terra central and eastern parts and some tectonic problems of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazilevskiy, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Moving from the Maxwell Montes to the eastern edge of Ishtar Terra there is a gradual shift in submeridional meandering folded ranges in the western section of the area to straight intersecting disjunctive systems of connected faults and sublatitudinal shifts. These disjunctive systems evidently transform older structures; the major axis of the stresses created by them is primarily oriented sublatitudinally. Relative to younger structures, in the western they occupy a higher hypsometric position. The reason for the formation of this entire system may be a large astenospheric flow wihch rise in the region of Lakashmi Planum and Maxwell Montes and which spreads and plunges in an easterly direction, taking with it deformed blocks of the lithosphere.

  8. A new leaf-tailed gecko of the Uroplatus ebenaui group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Madagascar's central eastern rainforests.

    PubMed

    Ratsoavina, Fanomezana Mihaja; Ranjanaharisoa, Fiadanantsoa Andrianja; Glaw, Frank; Raselimanana, Achille P; Miralles, Aurélien; Vences, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new leaf-tailed gecko species of the Uroplatus ebenaui group from the eastern central rainforests of Madagascar, which had previously been considered as a confirmed candidate species. Our description of Uroplatus fiera sp. nov. relies on integrating evidence from molecular and morphological characters and is based on newly collected material from two localities. A phylogenetic analysis based on multiple mitochondrial DNA fragments places the new species as sister to a lineage of uncertain status (Uroplatus ebenaui [Ca8]), and the clade consisting of these two lineages is sister to a further undescribed candidate species (U. ebenaui [Ca1]). This entire clade is sister to U. phantasticus plus another candidate species. The new species differs from these close relatives, and all other congenerics, by strong differences in DNA sequences of mitochondrial genes (>8.5% uncorrected p-distance in 16S rDNA to all nominal species of the genus) and lacks shared alleles with any of the nominal species in the nuclear CMOS gene. From its closest relatives the new species further differs in its much smaller tail size (relative to U. phantasticus), and a narrower tail, fewer supralabials, and more toe lamellae (relative to U. ebenaui [Ca1]). Morphologically the new species is most similar to U. ebenaui but differs in its larger body size and unpigmented oral mucosa. Given its distribution in central eastern Madagascar, with records from near Fierenana and Ambatovy, its range overlaps with that of U. phantasticus. Based on examination of the U. phantasticus holotype, we confirm that this latter has a blackish pigmented oral mucosa as do those specimens typically attributed to this nomen, thereby confirming its distinctness from U. fiera sp. nov., in which the mucosa is unpigmented. PMID:26623762

  9. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes emitted by Tapajos National Forest, eastern central Amazonian rainforest, Santarem-PA, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. G.; Batalha, S. S. A.; Park, J. H.; Seco, R.; Tota, J.; Santana, R. A. S. D.; Guenther, A. B.; Kim, S.; Smith, J. N.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. It is known that tropical forests are the biggest source of the dominant BVOCs (i.e. isoprene and monoterpenes) emitted to the atmosphere. Nevertheless, Amazonian rainforest, the world's largest tropical rainforest, has been poorly explored for isoprene and monoterpene emissions. Recently (June and July 2014), we deployed a PTR-TOF-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Time of Flight - Mass Spectrometer) to quantify isoprene and monoterpene emissions using the eddy covariance flux method at the FLONA Tapajos (Floresta Nacional do Tapajos; Tapajos National Forest) in the eastern central Amazon rainforest, Santarem-PA, Brazil. The sample inlet and a 3D-sonic anemometer were located above the forest canopy (~65m), and the air was sampled through a long Teflon tube (100m) with high flow rate (40L/min) to the PTR-TOF-MS. From preliminary results for the first 3 days, concentrations and fluxes of m/z 69 (isoprene; C5H8-H+) and m/z 137 (total monoterpenes; C10H16-H+) showed a clear circadian cycle (high during daytime and low at nighttime), suggesting the emissions of these compounds are light and temperature dependent. Our study provides the first PTR-TOF-MS flux observations of isoprene and total monoterpenes at the Flona Tapajos. Moreover, since there are variations on the emissions, when comparing different environments of the huge Amazon basin, these results from eastern central Amazonia will contribute to improving regional and global BVOC emission model estimates.

  10. Retreating or Standing: Responses of Forest Species and Steppe Species to Climate Change in Arid Eastern Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Ming-Li; Sanderson, Stewart C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The temperature in arid Eastern Central Asia is projected to increase in the future, accompanied by increased variability of precipitation. To investigate the impacts of climate change on plant species in this area, we selected two widespread species as candidates, Clematis sibirica and C. songorica, from montane coniferous forest and arid steppe habitats respectively. Methodology/Principal Findings We employed a combined approach of molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) to predict the future responses of these two species to climate change, utilizing evidence of responses from the past. Genetic data for C. sibirica shows a significant phylogeographical signal (NST > FST, P<0.05) and demographic contraction during the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene. This forest species would likely experience range reduction, though without genetic loss, in the face of future climate change. In contrast, SDMs predict that C. songorica, a steppe species, should maintain a consistently stable potential distribution under the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the future climatic conditions referring to its existing potential distribution. Molecular results indicate that the presence of significant phylogeographical signal in this steppe species is rejected and this species contains a high level of genetic differentiation among populations in cpDNA, likely benefiting from stable habitats over a lengthy time period. Conclusions/Significance Evidence from the molecular phylogeography of these two species, the forest species is more sensitive to past climate changes than the steppe species. SDMs predict that the forest species will face the challenge of potential range contraction in the future more than the steppe species. This provides a perspective on ecological management in arid Eastern Central Asia, indicating that increased attention should be paid to montane forest species, due to their high sensitivity to disturbance. PMID

  11. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL). PMID:25592912

  12. Overcoming data scarcity: Seasonal forecasting of reservoir inflows using public domain resources in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Management of large hydropower reservoirs can be politically and strategically problematic. Traditional flow forecasting techniques rely on accurate ground based observations, a requirement not met in many areas of the globe (Artan et al., 2007). In particular, access to real-time observational data in transnational river basins is often not possible. In these regions, novel techniques are required to combat the challenges of flow forecasting for efficient reservoir management. Near real time remotely sensed information regarding flow predictors (e.g. satellite precipitation estimates) could combat data availability issues, improving the utility of seasonal reservoir inflow forecasts. This study investigates the potential for river flow forecasting using public domain resources, including satellite and re-analysis precipitation as well as climate indices for several strategically important reservoirs throughout Central Asia (including Toktogul, Andijan, Kayrakkum and Nurek). Using reservoir inflows from 2001-2010, parsimonious numerical models were created for each study site using selected significant predictors for lead times of 1-3 months as well half year averages. Preliminary investigation has shown that parsimonious statistical models can explain over 80% of the variance in monthly inflows with three month lead to the Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan (Dixon and Wilby, 2015). Such findings show promise for improving the safety and efficiency of reservoir operations as well as reducing risks emerging from climate change.

  13. Morphologic Changes in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Bin; Chung, Hyewon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate morphologic changes of acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Methods This retrospective study included 63 eyes of 63 patients with unilateral acute CSC. All patients underwent simultaneous SD-OCT and fluorescein angiography examination using Spectralis HRA+OCT. Results The external limiting membrane could be seen on SD-OCT, although the junction between photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) was not detected in all eyes with retinal detachment (RD). However, IS/OS became visible after resolution of serous RD in 51 eyes (81.0%). SD-OCT images at the leakage sites showed a bump of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in in 47 cases (68.1%) and pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in 22 of 69 leakage sites (31.9%). In 14 of 69 leakage sites (20.3%), highly reflective areas suggesting fibrinous exudate were observed in the subretinal space. In nine leakage sites (13.0%), sagging or dipping of the posterior retinal layer was seen. Abnormal RPE changes such as RPE bump and PED were observed in 12 of 22 fellow eyes (54.5%). Conclusions A variety of morphologic changes could be identified on SD-OCT, and those findings may contribute more information to our understanding of the pathophysiology of CSC. PMID:23060721

  14. 2016 one-year seismic hazard forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from induced and natural earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a 1-year seismic hazard forecast for 2016 for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes. The model assumes that earthquake rates calculated from several different time windows will remain relatively stationary and can be used to forecast earthquake hazard and damage intensity for the year 2016. This assessment is the first step in developing an operational earthquake forecast for the CEUS, and the analysis could be revised with updated seismicity and model parameters. Consensus input models consider alternative earthquake catalog durations, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground motion estimates, and represent uncertainties in earthquake occurrence and diversity of opinion in the science community. Ground shaking seismic hazard for 1-percent probability of exceedance in 1 year reaches 0.6 g (as a fraction of standard gravity [g]) in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2 g in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in north-central Texas near Dallas. Near some areas of active induced earthquakes, hazard is higher than in the 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model (NHSM) by more than a factor of 3; the 2014 NHSM did not consider induced earthquakes. In some areas, previously observed induced earthquakes have stopped, so the seismic hazard reverts back to the 2014 NSHM. Increased seismic activity, whether defined as induced or natural, produces high hazard. Conversion of ground shaking to seismic intensity indicates that some places in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arkansas may experience damage if the induced seismicity continues unabated. The chance of having Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) VI or greater (damaging earthquake shaking) is 5–12 percent per year in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, similar to the chance of damage caused by natural earthquakes

  15. 2016 One-Year Seismic Hazard Forecast for the Central and Eastern United States from Induced and Natural Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Ellsworth, William L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced a 1-year seismic hazard forecast for 2016 for the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) that includes contributions from both induced and natural earthquakes. The model assumes that earthquake rates calculated from several different time windows will remain relatively stationary and can be used to forecast earthquake hazard and damage intensity for the year 2016. This assessment is the first step in developing an operational earthquake forecast for the CEUS, and the analysis could be revised with updated seismicity and model parameters. Consensus input models consider alternative earthquake catalog durations, smoothing parameters, maximum magnitudes, and ground motion estimates, and represent uncertainties in earthquake occurrence and diversity of opinion in the science community. Ground shaking seismic hazard for 1-percent probability of exceedance in 1 year reaches 0.6 g (as a fraction of standard gravity [g]) in northern Oklahoma and southern Kansas, and about 0.2 g in the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, in central Arkansas, and in north-central Texas near Dallas. Near some areas of active induced earthquakes, hazard is higher than in the 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model (NHSM) by more than a factor of 3; the 2014 NHSM did not consider induced earthquakes. In some areas, previously observed induced earthquakes have stopped, so the seismic hazard reverts back to the 2014 NSHM. Increased seismic activity, whether defined as induced or natural, produces high hazard. Conversion of ground shaking to seismic intensity indicates that some places in Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, and Arkansas may experience damage if the induced seismicity continues unabated. The chance of having Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) VI or greater (damaging earthquake shaking) is 5–12 percent per year in north-central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, similar to the chance of damage caused by natural earthquakes

  16. Prediction of extreme floods in the eastern Central Andes based on a complex networks approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, N.; Bookhagen, B.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.; Marengo, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events in the Central Andes of South America. These events are spatially extensive and often result in substantial natural hazards for population, economy and ecology. Here we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by introducing the concept of network divergence on directed networks derived from a non-linear synchronization measure. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and predict more than 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of rainfall events above the 99th percentile in the Central Andes. In addition to the societal benefits of predicting natural hazards, our study reveals a linkage between polar and tropical regimes as the responsible mechanism: the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics.

  17. Identification of avian coronavirus in wild aquatic birds of the central and eastern USA.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Poulson, Rebecca; Stallknecht, David E; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and difficult to control because of their extensive genetic diversity, short generation time, and high mutation rates. Genetically diverse CoVs have been reported from wild aquatic birds that may represent a potential reservoir for avian CoVs as well as hosts for mutations and recombination events leading to new serotypes or genera. We tested 133 pooled samples representing 700 first-passage (in eggs) and 303 direct cloacal swab transport media samples from wild aquatic birds in the US that were avian influenza-negative. We isolated RNA from frozen samples and performed reverse transcriptase-PCR using a published universal CoV primer set. Of the samples tested, one from a Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) was positive for CoV, showing nucleotide sequence similarity to a duck coronavirus (DK/CH/HN/ZZ2004). These data indicate a possible low prevalence of CoVs circulating in wild aquatic birds in the eastern half of the US. PMID:25380364

  18. Education in Multi-Ethnic Societies of Central and Eastern Europe. A Skills Exchange Workshop (Bulgaria, November 7-10, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    To address problems in public education for majority and minority ethnic groups in Central and Eastern Europe, Minority Rights Group International and the Inter Ethnic Initiative for Human Rights Foundation organized a skills exchange workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria in November 1997. Representatives from Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovkia…

  19. New records of the genus Diodontus Curtis, 1834 (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) from Bulgaria, Montenegro and Poland, with a key to Central and Eastern European species.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Piotr; Ljubomirov, Toshko; Wiśniowski, Bogdan; Kowalczyk, Jan Krzysztof; Krzyżyński, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    First records of Diodontus medius Dahlbom, 1844 and D. insidiosus Spooner, 1938 from Poland, and of D. handlirschi Kohl, 1888 from Bulgaria and Montenegro are provided. An illustrated key for the identification of Central and Eastern European species of the genus Diodontus is given. PMID:27395490

  20. Ten Years After and Looking Ahead: A Review of the Transformations of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bucharest (Romania). European Centre for Higher Education.

    This volume consists of representative case studies from institutions in Central and Eastern European countries engaged in the reform of higher education. The case studies are structured with the aid of a questionnaire completed by the contributors. The studies are: (1) "Bulgaria: The University of Ruse--Institutional Change in the Bulgarian…

  1. A Cross Country Analysis of Curricular Reform in Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Integration of Work and Learning. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David, Ed.; Gronwald, Detlef; Grootings, Peter; Nielsen, Soren

    Curriculum reform in vocational education and training (VET) in Central and Eastern Europe was examined through case studies of VET in 10 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Special attention was paid to the following: each country's VET system; curriculum…

  2. Reshaping the Focus of Vocational Teacher and Trainer Training. A Cross Country Review of Needs, Achievements and Obstacles in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Soren P.

    This document reports the results of a comparative analysis of the current situation and future needs of teacher and trainer training in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Following an introductory section explaining the methodology of the study, the second section focuses on features common to teacher and trainer training in all Central…

  3. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The vocational education and training (VET) reforms currently under way in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States are distinguished by the breadth, range, depth, and speed of the reforms proposed or already initiated. The European Union has assisted the reform process through its Phare and Tacis programs. The following have been…

  4. The Role of Technical Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries. The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States. Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    In comparison with the context in which reforms usually occur, the current vocational education and training (VET) reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and New Independent States (NIS) have these two unusual aspects: breadth, range, and depth of VET reforms are extremely large; and the reform process is exceptionally rapid. The European…

  5. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  6. Late Neoproterozoic Nuqara Dokhan Volcanics, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geochemistery and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Tharwat; Asran, Asran; Amron, Taha; Natflos, Theo

    2014-05-01

    The Nuqara volcanic is one of the northernmost outcrops of the Arabian-Nubian Shield Dokhan volcanics. The origin and tectonic setting of the late Neoproterozoic Dokhan volcanics (ca. 610-560 Ma) in the Egyptian Eastern Desert is highly debated. The debate concerns the tectonic setting where they formed during transition between convergent to extensional regime or after the East- and the West-Gondwana collision (~600Ma). In order to solve this problem, lavas from Nuqara area were studied geologically and geochemically. Nuqara Dokhan volcanics comprises two main rock suites: (a) an intermediate volcanic suite, consisting of basaltic andesite, andesite and their associated pyroclastics rocks; and (b) a felsic volcanic suite composed of dacite, rhyolite and ignimbrites. The two suites display well-defined major and trace element trends and continuum in composition with wide ranges in SiO2 (52-75.73%), CaO (9.19-0.22%), MgO (5.29-0.05%), Sr (1367-7.4 ppm), Zr (688.5-172.7 ppm), Cr (207-0.4 ppm), and Ni (94.3-0.2 ppm). The Nuqara Dokhan volcanics are characterized by strong enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE and affiliated to the calc-alkaline subducted - related magmatism. Geochemical Modeling displays that the evolution of these rocks was governed by fractional crystallization of plagioclase, amphiboles, pyroxene, magnetite and apatite in the intermediate varieties and plagioclase, amphibole, magnetite, apatite and zircon in the felsic varieties. The obtained mineral chemistry of these volcanics reveals: (a) Plagioclase range in composition from An55 to An40 in basaltic andesite and from An39 to An24 in andesite. (b) Alkali feldspars have sanidine composition. (c) Clinopyroxenes have augite composition. The low Al2O3 contents (1.94-5.588 wt %) indicate that clinopyroxene crystallized at low - pressure conditions. (d) Amphiboles have magnesio- hornblende composition.

  7. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, "NEMO-SN1", deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz-1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9-22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  8. Annual Acoustic Presence of Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) Offshore Eastern Sicily, Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sciacca, Virginia; Caruso, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Chierici, Francesco; De Domenico, Emilio; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Simeone, Francesco; Viola, Salvatore; Riccobene, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of surveys have definitively confirmed the seasonal presence of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in highly productive regions of the Mediterranean Sea. Despite this, very little is yet known about the routes that the species seasonally follows within the Mediterranean basin and, particularly, in the Ionian area. The present study assesses for the first time fin whale acoustic presence offshore Eastern Sicily (Ionian Sea), throughout the processing of about 10 months of continuous acoustic monitoring. The recording of fin whale vocalizations was made possible by the cabled deep-sea multidisciplinary observatory, “NEMO-SN1”, deployed 25 km off the Catania harbor at a depth of about 2,100 meters. NEMO-SN1 is an operational node of the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory (EMSO) Research Infrastructure. The observatory was equipped with a low-frequency hydrophone (bandwidth: 0.05 Hz–1 kHz, sampling rate: 2 kHz) which continuously acquired data from July 2012 to May 2013. About 7,200 hours of acoustic data were analyzed by means of spectrogram display. Calls with the typical structure and patterns associated to the Mediterranean fin whale population were identified and monitored in the area for the first time. Furthermore, a background noise analysis within the fin whale communication frequency band (17.9–22.5 Hz) was conducted to investigate possible detection-masking effects. The study confirms the hypothesis that fin whales are present in the Ionian Sea throughout all seasons, with peaks in call detection rate during spring and summer months. The analysis also demonstrates that calls were more frequently detected in low background noise conditions. Further analysis will be performed to understand whether observed levels of noise limit the acoustic detection of the fin whales vocalizations, or whether the animals vocalize less in the presence of high background noise. PMID:26581104

  9. Petrology and petrogenesis of the older and younger granitoids of Wadi Beizah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, A. I.; Menesy, M. Y.; Diab, M. M.

    The studied granitoids of Wadi Beizah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, are represented by older arc-granitoids intruded by a post-collisional stock of younger pink granite. The arc-granitoids (I-type) cover a wide compositional spectrum from meladiorites, diorites, quartzdiorites/monzodiorites and tonalites, to leucogranodiorites. Their distribution pattern is unimodal dominated by diorites. They are of low-K calc-alkaline character and represent the plutonic rocks of the mature, ensimatic island arc stage. Three models for the geotectonic environment of the younger granites of the Eastern Desert of Egypt have been suggested: (1) Within-plate, rifting, tensional environment similar to the Oslo Rift of Norway (Greenberg, 1981) Stern et al., 1984, 1986), (2) Extensive crustal anatexis during collisional tectonics, compression, thickening of the crust and thrust imbrication (Hussein et al., 1982; Ragab, 1987b), (3) Active continental margin geotectonic environment (Abdel-Rahman and Martin, 1987). These three models are discussed in detail. The present workers believe that the Younger Granites in general are the products of extensive crustal anatexis at the culmination of the Pan-African orogenic cycle when arc-arc suturing is complete. Recent studies revealed a low-angle thrust event in the Central Eastern Desert followed the initial arc-arc collision and continued after the deposition of the molasse-type sediments (Ries et al., 1983; El-Ramly et al., 1984; Greiling et al., 1984; Habib et al., 1985; Greiling and El-Ramly, 1985) which indicate thickening of the crust and compression regime at the time of emplacement of the Younger Granites. The dominance of ≪granite minimum≫ composition of these late orogenic granites suggests extensive crustal anatexis. Their low Nb-content (< 40 ppm) precludes within-plate hot-spot related magma, in comparison with: (1) The post-Pan-African (400-100 M.a.) granitic rocks from the NE Sudan which on a geochemical evidence are

  10. Contrasting the Eastern Pacific El Niño and the Central Pacific El Niño: Process-based Feedback Attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Yang, Song; Cai, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the roles of radiative and non-radiative air-sea coupled thermodynamic processes in modifying sea surface temperature(SST) anomalies driven by (air-sea coupled) oceanic dynamic processes, focusing on their contributions to the key differences between the eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño and the central Pacific (CP) El Niño. The attribution is achieved by decomposing sea surface temperature SST anomalies into partial SST anomalies due to individual processes using a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method. Oceanic processes induce warming from the central to the eastern equatorial Pacific and cooling over the western basin with a maximum warming center in the central Pacific for both types of El Niño. The processes that act to oppose the oceanic process-induced SST anomalies are surface latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, cloud, and atmospheric dynamic feedbacks, referred to as negative-feedback processes. The cooling due to each of the four negative-feedback processes is the strongest in the region where the initial warming due to oceanic processes is the largest. Water-vapor feedback is the sole process that acts to enhance the initial warming induced by oceanic processes. The increase in atmospheric water vapor over the eastern Pacific is much stronger for the EP El Niño than for the CP El Niño. It is the strong water-vapor feedback over the eastern Pacific and the strong negative feedbacks over the central equatorial Pacific that help to relocate the maximum warming center from the central Pacific to the eastern basin for the EP El Niño.

  11. An investigation of the meteorological and photochemical factors influencing the background rural and marine surface ozone levels in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalabokas, P. D.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Ellul, R.; Kleanthous, S.; Repapis, C. C.

    A study on the spatial distribution as well as an investigation of the possible factors influencing the observed variations of summer (JJA) rural and marine surface ozone background in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean is performed, following observations showing that the 60 ppb EU Air Quality Standard for Human Health Protection is frequently exceeded in the area. For this purpose the measurements of the following four Eastern Mediterranean stations are analyzed: Giordan Lighthouse-Gozo, Malta; Aliartos-Central Greece; Finokalia-Crete, Greece and Ag. Marina, Cyprus. The measured summer afternoon rural and marine ozone levels in Central Greece and on Crete Island are quite comparable, but are found to be significantly higher (by about 15-20%) than the corresponding levels in Malta and Cyprus. After investigating the characteristic meteorological conditions associated with high and low rural and marine surface ozone concentrations, it appears that an important factor leading to high tropospheric ozone values in the Eastern Mediterranean area is the anticyclonic influence of the high-pressure domination over the Central Mediterranean and the Balkans. The rural and marine surface ozone stations located across the Aegean Channel are also influenced by the long-range transport of polluted air masses from the European continent in the boundary layer during summer and the subsequent photochemical ozone production. This characteristic northern flow during summer is created by the combination of the Central Mediterranean anticyclone with the Middle-East low-pressure system. On the other hand, the lowest ozone levels, particularly in the Crete and Cyprus stations, are associated with an extension to the west of the Middle-East low and weak pressure gradients over the Eastern Mediterranean and an upper air trough in the North Eastern Europe.

  12. Natural radionuclide concentrations in granite rocks in Aswan and Central-Southern Eastern Desert, Egypt and their radiological implications.

    PubMed

    Issa, Shams A M; Uosif, M A M; Abd el-Salam, L M

    2012-07-01

    Different types of granites, used extensively in local construction, were collected from five localities in Egypt, namely: Abu Ziran (Central Eastern Desert), Gabal El Maesala (Aswan) and three areas from Wadi Allaqi, (Gabal Abu Marw, Gabal Haumor and Gabal um Shalman), in the South Eastern Desert. Granite samples were studied radiologically, petrographically and geochemically. The contents of natural radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3'×3']. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the selected granite samples ranged from 9±0.5 to 111±7, 8±1 to 75±4 and 100±6 to 790±40 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The external hazard index (H(ex)), absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The calculated radium equivalents were lower than the values recommended for construction materials (370 Bq kg(-1)). The excess lifetime cancer risks were also calculated. Petrographically, the granites studied are varied in the form of potash-feldspar, quartz, plagioclase, mica and hornblende. The accessory minerals are zircon, apatite and allanite. Geochemically, the chemical composition of the granite is studied especially for major oxides. They are characterized to have SiO(2), K(2)O, Na(2)O and Al(2)O(3) with depletion in CaO, MgO, TiO(2) and P(2)O(5). PMID:22147926

  13. Lg attenuation in the central and eastern United States as revealed by the EarthScope Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, Andrea; Ranasinghe, Nishath; Ni, James; Sandvol, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Lg waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) are used to estimate Lg Q0 in the central and eastern United States (CEUS). Attenuation is calculated based on Lg spectral amplitudes filtered at a narrow band from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz. Two-station and reverse two-station techniques are used to calculate Q0 values. 39 events occurring from 2010 to 2012 and ranging from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 are used in this study. 39,258 and 4,627 interstation Q0 values are determined using the two-station and reverse two-station techniques, respectively. The results show northeast trending high Q0 regions (low attenuation) ranging from eastern New Mexico to Wisconsin. Regions of low Q0 (high attenuation) are seen along the Minnesota-Wisconsin border, the Gulf Coastal Plain (GCP), along the South Dakota-Nebraska border, and along the Oklahoma-Texas border. A positive correlation between heat flow, sediment thickness, recent tectonic activity, fluids, and low Q0 was observed. Areas with low heat flow, thin sediment cover, no recent tectonic activity, and a lack of fluids were observed to have consistently high Q0. These new models use a greater amount of data, attain more coverage than previous studies, and better constrain attenuation. This increase in detail can improve high frequency ground motion predictions of future large earthquakes for more accurate far field hazard assessment and improve the overall understanding of the structure and assemblage of the CEUS.

  14. Detrital Mineral Record of the Central Myanmar Basin and implications for the evolution of the eastern Himalayan margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezina, C. A.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Barfod, D. N.; Carter, A.; Parrish, R. R.; Horstwood, M. S.; Thein, M.; Win Oo, N.

    2014-12-01

    Single grain detrital thermochronology (40Ar/39Ar white mica, zircon fission track and Lu-Hf analysis) of Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Central Myanmar Basin permits the identification of tectonothermal events in the source areas, and an understanding of how exhumation histories and changing provenance are related to the palaeogeography of the West Burma block during India-Asia collision. Robinson et al. (2014) used detrital zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis to show that Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks were primarily sourced from the Gangdese magmatic arc that lies exclusively within the southern Lhasa terrane, and that the Yarlung Tsangpo and Irrawaddy River were connected at this time. Detrital thermochronology reveal these Paleogene deposits contain broadly distributed, mainly pre-Himalayan 40Ar/39Ar white mica cooling ages, reflecting the contribution from multiple source areas with a cooling history that is similar to the Lhasa terrane. A distinct change in provenance to a single, sustained source area during deposition of the Miocene units is recorded by a white mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling age peak of 37 Ma and a lesser peak of 17 - 21 Ma that is also observed in detrital zircon fission track age data. These two age peaks, 37 Ma and 17 - 21 Ma, likely reflect an initial period of crustal thickening, metamorphism and exhumation in the southern Mogok Metamorphic Belt, and a later phase of exhumation associated with deformation in the eastern syntaxis and the onset of extension in Myanmar and other parts of SE Asia. The latter events are also associated with the disconnection of the Yarlung Tsangpo from the Irrawaddy River around 18 Ma (Robinson et al., 2014). The combined dataset provides constraints on the position and movement of the West Burma block from the Late Eocene to Early Miocene, supports an Oligocene (~37 Ma) age for the timing of India-West Burma-Sibumasu coupling, and an Early Miocene age for extension

  15. Lithospheric expression of geological units in central and eastern North America from full waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huaiyu; French, Scott; Cupillard, Paul; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The EarthScope TA deployment has provided dense array coverage throughout the continental US and with it, the opportunity for high resolution 3D seismic velocity imaging of both lithosphere and asthenosphere in the continent. Building upon our previous long-period waveform tomographic modeling in North America, we present a higher resolution 3D isotropic and radially anisotropic shear wave velocity model of the North American lithospheric mantle, constructed tomographically using the spectral element method for wavefield computations and waveform data down to 40 s period. The new model exhibits pronounced spatial correlation between lateral variations in seismic velocity and anisotropy and major tectonic units as defined from surface geology. In the center of the continent, the North American craton exhibits uniformly thick lithosphere down to 200-250 km, while major tectonic sutures of Proterozoic age visible in the surface geology extend down to 100-150 km as relatively narrow zones of distinct radial anisotropy, with Vsv>Vsh. Notably, the upper mantle low velocity zone is present everywhere under the craton between 200 and 300 km depth. East of the continental rift margin, the lithosphere is broken up into a series of large, somewhat thinner (150 km) high velocity blocks, which extend laterally 200-300 km offshore into the Atlantic Ocean. Between the craton and these deep-rooted blocks, we find a prominent narrow band of low velocities that roughly follows the southern and eastern Laurentia rift margin and extends into New England. We suggest that the lithosphere along this band of low velocities may be thinned due to the combined effects of repeated rifting processes and northward extension of the hotspot related Bermuda low-velocity channel across the New England region. We propose that the deep rooted high velocity blocks east of the Laurentia margin represent the Proterozoic Gondwanian terranes of pan-African affinity, which were captured during the Rodinia

  16. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries. PMID:17980813

  17. Phylogeography of a widespread terrestrial vertebrate in a barely-studied Palearctic region: green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) indicate glacial refugia in Eastern Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Stöck, Matthias; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiu-Ling; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2008-11-01

    The phylogeography of western Palearctic species is relatively well studied, but data on Eastern Central Asia are scarce. We present one of the first data sets from a widespread terrestrial vertebrate (Bufo pewzowi) inhabiting Eastern Central Asian mountains and deserts to gain knowledge on its phylogeography in this region. We applied combined phylogenetic and demographic analyses to understand the evolutionary history using mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation of toads from 37 locations. Genetic structure of Bufo pewzowi is strongly affected by landscape: we found three haplotype groups in eastern Kazakhstan, Dzungaria and Tarim Basin, divided by the Tian Shan and Dzungarian Alatau ranges. A vicariant hypothesis may explain divergence among groups. The divergence time of the three major clades was estimated about 0.9 million years ago (confidence interval 0.5-1.4), and is discussed with respect to Quaternary uplifting and glaciation in the Tian Shan. Demographic analyses provided evidence for both historical bottlenecks and population expansions and suggested Pleistocene signatures. Glacial refugia were inferred in the Tarim Basin (around the Turpan depression), in southern Dzungaria (Urumqui region), at the northern foot of the Tian Shan (Gongnaisi) and perhaps at the Altai range (Terekti). Regional Post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal patterns are proposed. A taxonomic hypothesis is presented. This study provides a detailed history of how a widespread terrestrial vertebrate responded to geological change and Quaternary glacial events in Eastern Central Asia and may have significance for future phylogeographic research in this understudied region. PMID:18301990

  18. Evidences for the austroalpine - southalpine up-doming after the end of the variscan orogenesis (central and eastern alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S.; Tumiati, S.

    2003-04-01

    The structural and petrographic studies of the basement units in the Alpine region, independently from their present tectonic setting in the nappe pile, suggest that at the end of the Variscan orogenesis they were in such a position that they suffered relevant up-doming and cooling since Late Carboniferous (Thöni, 1981; Mottana et al., 1985; Martin et al., 1996; Bertotti et al., 1999). This up-doming has been interpreted as due to an isostatic rebound related to the detachment of the slab after the cessation of the subduction at the end of the Variscan orogenesis (Neubauer and Handler, 2000; Ranalli, 2003). The metamorphic setting of the Southalpine basement between the Tonale pass and Lake Maggiore in the Southern Alps, is due to processes which, by extension denudation and erosion, locally took to the surface portions of middle-to-high grade basement, within a horst-graben environment (Cassinis et al., 1997). The basements of the Orobic, Lake Como and Lake Maggiore areas are composed of kyanite-garnet or sillimanite-bearing schists (e.g., Gneiss di Morbegno, Scisti di Edolo, Scisti dei Laghi; Boriani et al., 1990; Siletto et al., 1993), or of low grade schists (e.g., Filladi di Ambria) intruded by Early Permian plutons, covered by continental and volcanic deposits of Late Carboniferous to Permian age, after a marked unconformity (Cadel et al., 1996). The thickness of this clastic cover ranges between a few hundreds to thousands of meters; the clast compositions suggest a low-grade basement as a dominant source; the structures indicate alternance of uplift and collapse and continue deformation during sedimentation (Cassinis et al., 1974). Most of the Upper Austroalpine units of the central and eastern Alps (e.g., Tonale nappe, Languard, Ortles and Campo units) have structural and lithological similarities with the Orobic, Lake Como and Lake Maggiore basement units confirming their appartenance to the same pre-Alpine paleogeographic environment which suffered up

  19. Non-redundant hexagonal array configurations for optical interferometric systems compactly covering central domains in the spatial-frequency plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopilovich, L. E.

    2005-07-01

    Two-dimensional non-redundant arrays are used in many applications, in particular as pupil masks in imaging contexts. The problem of arranging a mask with a given element number on a hexagonal grid, providing the complete coverage of central domain of maximum radius in the spatial-frequency plane is considered here. Diagrams show optimum configurations having third-order symmetry which were found for 12, 15, 18 and 21 elements. Their autocorrelations illustrate the extent to which the central domain of the spatial-frequency plane is covered. The case of a greater element number is also discussed. Optimum configurations with 24 and 30 elements are found using Baumert's tables of cyclic difference sets.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Longitudinal Trajectories of Physical Functioning in Central and Eastern Europe: A 10-Year Follow-up of HAPIEE Study

    PubMed Central

    Pikhart, Hynek; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Besala, Agnieszka; Bell, Steven; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical functioning (PF) is an essential domain of older persons’ health and quality of life. Health behaviors are the main modifiable determinants of PF. Cross-sectionally, alcohol consumption appears to be linked to better PF, but longitudinal evidence is mixed and very little is known about alcohol consumption and longitudinal PF trajectories. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of 28,783 men and women aged 45–69 years from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and seven towns of the Czech Republic. At baseline, alcohol consumption was measured by a graduated frequency questionnaire and problem drinking was evaluated using the CAGE questionnaire. PF was assessed using the Physical Functioning Subscale of the SF-36 instrument at baseline and three subsequent occasions. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate the associations between alcohol consumption and PF trajectories over 10-year follow-up. Results: PF scores declined during follow-up in all three cohorts. Faster decline in PF over time was found in Russian female frequent drinkers, Polish female moderate drinkers, and Polish male regular heavy drinkers, in comparison with regular and/or light-to-moderate drinkers. Nondrinking was associated with a faster decline compared with light drinking only in Russian men. Problem drinking and past drinking were not related to the decline rate of PF. Conclusions: This large longitudinal study in Central and Eastern European populations with relatively high alcohol intake does not strongly support the existence of a protective effect of alcohol on PF trajectories; if anything, it suggests that alcohol consumption is associated with greater deterioration in PF over time. PMID:26748094

  1. Evaluation of abyssal meiobenthos in the eastern central Pacific (Clarion-Clipperton fracture zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud-Mornant, Jeanne; Gourbault, Nicole

    Meiobenthos were sampled from 17 stations in the abyssal deep-sea system of the central Pacific centered around 14°N, 130°W at depths 4960-5154m, during the Nixo 47 R/V Jean Charcot cruise. Meiofaunal density range from 45-89 ind. 10cm 2. Predominant taxa are nematodes (84-100%) and copepods (0-10%). Rotifera, Polychaeta, and Acarina also occur. Nematodes are uniformly distributed spatially with 45 species or so; Monhysteridae is the dominant taxon, and Syringolaimus sp. (Ironidae) co-occurs faithfully. Low biomass (0.4-70.6μg 10cm 2) are attributed to supposed dwarfism of metazoan meiofauna and very high proportion (60-80%) of juveniles and pre-adult forms. The majority of protozoans and metazoans are detritus- or deposit-feeders; in addition symbiotic associations, coprophagy and gardening activities are frequent. In such an oligotrophic environment, low food supply may limit meiofaunal abundance, biomass and maturation, and to a lesser extent species richness.

  2. Study of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility on Central Chimei Fault, Coastal Range of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Chimei fault is the only major reverse fault across the entire Coastal Range and is also a typical lithology-contrast fault thrusting the volcanic Tuluanshan Formation of Miocene over the sedimentary Paliwan Formation of Pleistocene. To investigate the deformation pattern across the Chimei fault more precisely, we analyzed oriented coring samples of mudstone across the fault zone, damage zone, fold zone and wall rocks along the Hsiukuluan River via anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Prolate (cigar-shaped) and oblate (disc-shaped) ellipsoids appear together at fault zone, damage zone and fold zone, suggesting that strong variation of deformation and lithology in each zone of the Chimei fault. Previous study pointed out that oblate ellipsoid usually appears in the footwall, further indicating that the Chimei fault behaves differently from regular detachment faults. It strongly speculates although the central Chimei fault displays N-S shortening, the deformation is not strong enough to develop penetrative oblate fabric, even in the main fault zone of the Chimei fault. Further studies will be rnrformation is not sobear theequired to identify the magnetic carriers and grain size to improve current concept. Keywords : Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility, Coastal Range, Chimei Fault, Taiwan

  3. Mutational analysis of the central domain of adenovirus virus-associated RNA mandates a revision of the proposed secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Pe'ery, T; Mellits, K H; Mathews, M B

    1993-01-01

    Protein synthesis in adenovirus-infected cells is regulated during the late phase of infection. The rate of initiation is maintained by a small viral RNA, virus-associated (VA) RNAI, which prevents the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF-2 by a double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, DAI. On the basis of nuclease sensitivity analysis, a secondary-structure model was proposed for VA RNA. The model predicts a complex stem-loop structure in the central part of the molecule, the central domain, joining two duplexed stems. The central domain is required for the inhibition of DAI activation and participates in the binding of VA RNA to DAI. To assess the significance of the postulated stem-loop structure in the central domain, we generated compensating, deletion, and substitution mutations. A substitution mutation which disrupts the structure in the central domain abolishes VA RNA function in vitro and in vivo. Base-compensating mutations failed to restore the function or structure of the mutant, implying that the stem-loop structure may not exist. To confirm this observation, we tested mutants with alterations in the hypothetical loop and short stem that constitute the main features of the wild-type model structure. The upper part of the hypothetical loop could be deleted without abolishing the ability of the RNA to block DAI activation in vitro, whereas other loop mutations were deleterious for function and caused major rearrangements in the molecule. Base-compensating mutations in the stem did not restore the expected base pairing, even though the mutant RNAs were still functional in vitro. Surprisingly, a mutant with a noncompensating substitution mutation in the stem was more effective than wild-type VA RNAI in DAI inhibition assays but was ineffective in vivo. The structural and functional consequences of these mutations do not support the proposed model structure for the central domain, and we therefore suggest an alternative structure in

  4. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  5. Map of surficial deposits and materials in the eastern and central United States (east of 102 degrees West longitude)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fullerton, David S.; Bush, Charles A.; Pennell, Jean N.

    2003-01-01

    This data set contains surficial geologic units in the Eastern and Central United States, as well as a glacial limit line showing the position of maximum glacial advance during various geologic time periods. The geologic units represent surficial deposits and other surface materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, such as soils, alluvium, and glacial deposits. These surface materials are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmented and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of a continent. This data set and the printed map produced from it, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Geologic Investigation Series I-2789, were based on 31 published maps in the USGS's Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States map series (USGS Miscellaneous Investigations Series I-1420). The data were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale, to be viewed as a digital map at 1:2,000,000 nominal scale and to be printed as a conventional paper map at 1:2,500,000 scale.

  6. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969–1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 –1.46 mBq g−1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

  7. Tropical/subtropical Upper Paleocene Lower Eocene fluvial deposits in eastern central Patagonia, Chile (46°45'S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, M.; de la Cruz, R.; Troncoso, A.

    2000-11-01

    A succession of quartz-rich fluvial sandstones and siltstones derived from a mainly rhyolitic source and minor metamorphic rocks, located to the west, represent the first Upper Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits described in Chilean eastern central Patagonian Cordillera (46°45'S). This unit, exposed 25 km south of Chile Chico, south of lago General Carrera, is here defined as the Ligorio Márquez Formation. It overlies with an angular unconformity Lower Cretaceous shallow marine sedimentary rocks (Cerro Colorado Formation) and subaerial tuffs that have yielded K-Ar dates of 128, 125 and 123 Ma (Flamencos Tuffs, of the Divisadero Group). The Ligorio Márquez Formation includes flora indicative of a tropical/subtropical climate, and its deposition took place during the initial part of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene Cenozoic optimum. The underlying Lower Cretaceous units exhibit folding and faulting, implying a pre-Paleocene-Lower Eocene contractional tectonism. Overlying Oligocene-Miocene marine and continental facies in the same area exhibit thrusts and normal faults indicative of post-Lower Miocene contractional tectonism.

  8. Multistation template matching to characterize frequency-magnitude distributions of induced seismicity in the Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Skoumal, R.; Currie, B.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the frequency-magnitude distribution (FMD) of recent seismic sequences thought to be induced by wastewater injection and hydraulic fracturing in the Central and Eastern U.S. to investigate their physical origin and improve hazard estimates. Multistation template matching is utilized to increase the number of events analyzed by lowering the magnitude of detection. In cases where local deployments are available, we demonstrate that the FMD obtained through template matching using regional data are comparable to those obtained from traditional detection using the local deployment. Since deployments usually occur after seismicity has already been identified, catalogs constructed with regional data offer the advantage of providing a more complete history of the seismicity. We find two primary groups of FMDs for induced sequences: those that generally follow the Gutenberg-Richter power-law and those that generally do not. All of the induced sequences are typically characterized by swarm-like behavior, but the non-power-law FMDs are also characterized by a clustering of events at low magnitudes and particularly low aftershock productivity for a continental interior. Each of the observations in the non-power law FMD cases is predicted by numerical simulations of a seismogenic zone governed by a viscoelastic damage rheology with low effective viscosity in the fault zone. Such a reduction in effective viscosity is expected if fluid injection increases fluid pressures in the fault zone to the point that the fault zone begins to dilate.

  9. Reconnaissance survey for lightweight and carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons in the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie: September 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Zapotosky, J.E.; White, W.S.

    1980-10-01

    A reconnaissance survey of the central and eastern basins of Lake Erie (22,240 km/sup 2/) was conducted from September 17 to 27, 1978. The survey provided baseline information on natural gas and oil losses from geologic formations, prior to any potential development of natural gas resources beneath the United States portion of the Lake. Lightweight hydrocarbons indicative of natural gas (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and n-butane) are introduced into the waters of Lake Erie by escape from geologic formations and by biological/photochemical processes. The geochemical exploration technique of hydrocarbon sniffing provided enough data to reveal significant distribution patterns, approximate concentrations, and potential sources. Twelve sites with elevated lightweight hydrocarbon concentrations had a composition similar to natural gas. In one area of natural gas input, data analysis suggested a potential negative effect of natural gas on phytoplanktonic metabolism (i.e., ethylene concentration). Samples taken for liquid hydrocarbon analysis (carbon tetrachloride extractable hydrocarbons) correlated best with biologically derived lightweight hydrocarbons.

  10. Occurrence and trends of eastern and central Pacific El Niño in different reconstructed SST data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Michael S.; Bennartz, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Interest in El Niño diversity has increased in the past decade, with much attention given to the hypothesis that there exist distinct eastern Pacific and central Pacific (CP) types. It is well known that classification systems in the literature differ, sometimes dramatically, by methodology. We test to what extent differences may occur due to the use of different sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions, focusing on the newly released version 4 of the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) data set, two earlier versions of the ERSST data set, and an independent data set, Hadley Centre Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature (HadISST). The updated ERSST data set identifies more CP El Niños than the two older versions of ERSST and HadISST. Classification differences occur throughout the entire record rather than being restricted to the early period. We explore the potential influence of SST data set choice on the study of El Niño diversity impacts using precipitation anomalies in the western United States.

  11. Epidemiology and Treatment Guidelines of Negative Symptoms in Schizo-phrenia in Central and Eastern Europe: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika; Walczak, Jacek; Augustyńska, Joanna; Miernik, Katarzyna; Stelmachowski, Jarosław; Pieniążek, Izabela; Obrzut, Grzegorz; Pogroszewska, Angelika; Paulić, Gabrijela; Damir, Marić; Antolić, Siniša; Tavčar, Rok; Indrikson, Andra; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Jankovic, Slobodan; Pulay, Attila J; Rimay, József; Varga, Márton; Sulkova, Ivana; Veržun, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aim : To gather and review data describing the epidemiology of schizophrenia and clinical guidelines for schizophrenia therapy in seven Central and Eastern European countries, with a focus on negative symptoms. Methods : A literature search was conducted which included publications from 1995 to 2012 that were indexed in key databases. Results : Reports of mean annual incidence of schizophrenia varied greatly, from 0.04 to 0.58 per 1,000 population. Lifetime prevalence varied from 0.4% to 1.4%. One study reported that at least one negative symptom was present in 57.6% of patients with schizophrenia and in 50–90% of individuals experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. Primary negative symptoms were observed in 10–30% of patients. Mortality in patients with schizophrenia was greater than in the general population, with a standardized mortality ratio of 2.58–4.30. Reasons for higher risk of mortality in the schizophrenia population included increased suicide risk, effect of schizophrenia on lifestyle and environment, and presence of comorbidities. Clinical guidelines overall supported the use of second-generation antipsychotics in managing negative symptoms of schizophrenia, although improved therapeutic approaches are needed. Conclusion : Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental illnesses and poses a considerable burden on patients and healthcare resources alike. Negative symptoms are present in many patients and there is an unmet need to improve treatment offerings for negative symptoms beyond the use of second-generation antipsychotics and overall patient outcomes. PMID:26535049

  12. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-04-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for 239+240Pu activity concentration and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that 239+240Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g-1, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 +/- 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of 241Pu using the 241Pu/239Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released 241Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited 241Pu in the last decades.

  13. Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

  14. Comparing different algorithms for estimating satellite-based vertically integrated water vapor for Central/Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, A.; Bartholy, J.; Gelybó, G. Y.; Pongrácz, R.; Barcza, Z.; Borbás, E.; Woolf, H. M.; Ferencz, C. S.

    There is a growing need in the meteorologist community for high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric water vapor data since it is essential to understand the hydrological cycle aerosol properties aerosol-cloud interactions energy budget the greenhouse effect and the climate system Atmospheric water vapor is estimated in several places worldwide using the signal of the GPS Global Positional System satellites measured in a network of ground-based meteorological stations and also in a sparse network of radiosondes Remote sensing provides an alternative method to estimate the water vapor content of the atmosphere in high spatial resolution Many techniques have been proposed to estimate atmospheric water vapor content using satellite data primarily in the form of total column precipitable water using a variety of electromagnetic spectrum In this poster we compare different estimation techniques of the vertically integrated water vapor VIWV for Hungary located in Central Eastern Europe using remotely sensed data One of the applications of VIWV data is also presented namely an atmospheric correction algorithm the so-called SMAC method Simplified Method for the Atmospheric Correction In order to determine the VIWV observations of the AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer the ATOVS Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder onboard the NOAA meteorological satellites and measurements of the MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the satellites Terra and Aqua are used Our comparisonal study is based on the

  15. Plutonium concentration and isotopic ratio in soil samples from central-eastern Japan collected around the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining Pu background data in the environment is essential for contamination source identification and assessment of environmental impact of Pu released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. However, no baseline information on Pu isotopes in Fukushima Prefecture has been reported. Here we analyzed 80 surface soil samples collected from the central-eastern Japan during 1969-1977 for (239+240)Pu activity concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio to establish the baseline before the FDNPP accident. We found that (239+240)Pu activity concentrations ranged from 0.004 -1.46 mBq g(-1), and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios varied narrowly from 0.148 to 0.229 with a mean of 0.186 ± 0.015. We also reconstructed the surface deposition density of (241)Pu using the (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the Japanese fallout reference material. The obtained results indicated that, for the FDNPP-accident released (241)Pu, a similar radiation impact can be estimated as was seen for the global fallout deposited (241)Pu in the last decades. PMID:25881009

  16. Public health research support through the European structural funds in central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health research provides evidence for practice across fields including health care, health promotion and health surveillance. Levels of public health research vary markedly across European Union (EU) countries, and are lowest in the EU's new member states (in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean). However, these countries now receive most of the EU's Structural Funds, some of which are allocated to research. Methods STEPS, an EU-funded study, sought to assess support for public health research at national and European levels. To identify support through the Structural funds, STEPS drew information from country respondents and internet searches for all twelve EU new member states. Results The EU allocates annually around €7 billion through the Structural Funds for member states' own use on research. These funds can cover infrastructure, academic employment, and direct research grants. The programmes emphasise links to business. Support for health research includes major projects in biosciences, but direct support for public health research was found in only three countries - Cyprus, Latvia and Lithuania. Conclusions Public health research is not prioritised in the EU's Structural Funds programme in comparison with biomedicine. For the research dimension of the new European programme for Structural Funds 2014-2002, ministries of health should propose public health research to strengthen the evidence-base for European public health policy and practice. PMID:22480250

  17. POPE study: rationale and methodology of a study to phenotype patients with COPD in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zbozinkova, Zuzana; Barczyk, Adam; Tkacova, Ruzena; Valipour, Arschang; Tudoric, Neven; Zykov, Kirill; Somfay, Attila; Miravitlles, Marc; Koblizek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major health challenge in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. However, clinical phenotypes, symptom load, and treatment habits of patients with COPD in CEE countries remain largely unknown. This paper provides a rationale for phenotyping COPD and describes the methodology of a large study in CEE. Methods/design The POPE study is an international, multicenter, observational cross-sectional survey of patients with COPD in CEE. Participation in the study is offered to all consecutive outpatients with stable COPD in 84 centers across the CEE region if they fulfill the following criteria: age >40 years, smoking history ≥10 pack-years, a confirmed diagnosis of COPD with postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7, and absence of COPD exacerbation ≥4 weeks. Medical history, risk factors for COPD, comorbidities, lung function parameters, symptoms, and pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical treatment are recorded. The POPE project is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT02119494. Outcomes The primary aim of the POPE study was to phenotype patients with COPD in a real-life setting within CEE countries using predefined classifications. Secondary aims of the study included analysis of differences in symptoms, and diagnostic and therapeutic behavior in participating CEE countries. Conclusion There is increasing acceptance toward a phenotype-driven therapeutic approach in COPD. The POPE study may contribute to reveal important information regarding phenotypes and therapy in real-life CEE. PMID:27042048

  18. Groundwater quality and management in arid and semi-arid regions: Case study, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Ripperdan, Robert; Wang, Tao; Encarnación, John

    2012-07-01

    This study presents a model budget for groundwater in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. The stable isotopic composition and hydrochemistry of groundwater samples collected from different aquifers were determined to identify recharge sources and water quality. Stable isotopic values suggest that shallow alluvial and fracture zone aquifers are recharged from seasonal precipitation, while groundwater in deeper sedimentary sub-basins is paleowater that was recharged during periods of less arid regional climate. Hydrochemical analysis indicates elevated salinity in each aquifer type, which is attributed to leaching and dissolution of terrestrial salts and to mixing with marine water. Groundwater from sedimentary sub-basin aquifers can be treated and used for drinking and domestic purposes. Groundwater from shallow alluvial and fracture zone wells is suitable for animal husbandry and mineral ore dressing. A model water budget shows that approximately 4.8 × 109 m3 of recoverable groundwater is stored in sedimentary sub-basin aquifers, or approximately 550 years of water at present utilization rates.

  19. Mapping the extent of abandoned farmland in Central and Eastern Europe using MODIS time series satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Baumann, Matthias; Bragina, Eugenia V.; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Müller, Daniel; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Sieber, Anika; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2013-09-01

    The demand for agricultural products continues to grow rapidly, but further agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental costs, making recultivating currently unused farmland an interesting alternative. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to widespread abandonment of agricultural lands, but the extent and spatial patterns of abandonment are unclear. We quantified the extent of abandoned farmland, both croplands and pastures, across the region using MODIS NDVI satellite image time series from 2004 to 2006 and support vector machine classifications. Abandoned farmland was widespread, totaling 52.5 Mha, particularly in temperate European Russia (32 Mha), northern and western Ukraine, and Belarus. Differences in abandonment rates among countries were striking, suggesting that institutional and socio-economic factors were more important in determining the amount of abandonment than biophysical conditions. Indeed, much abandoned farmland occurred in areas without major constraints for agriculture. Our map provides a basis for assessing the potential of Central and Eastern Europe’s abandoned agricultural lands to contribute to food or bioenergy production, or carbon storage, as well as the environmental trade-offs and social constraints of recultivation.

  20. Estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability with index-overlay and statistical methods: the case of eastern Kopaida, central Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziritis, E.; Lombardo, L.

    2016-03-01

    The intrinsic vulnerability of a karstic aquifer system in central Greece was jointly assessed with the use of a statistical approach and PI method, as a function of topography, protective cover effectiveness and the degree to which this cover is bypassed due to flow conditions. The input data for the index-overlay PI method were derived from field works and 71 boreholes of the area; the information was obtained, subsequently its critical factors were compiled which included lithology, fissuring and karstification of bedrock, soil characteristics, hydrology, hydrogeology, topography and vegetation. The aforementioned parameters were processed jointly with the aid of a GIS and yielded the final estimation of intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. Results were compared with an equivalent spatially distributed probability map obtained through a stochastic approach. The calibration and test phase of the latter relied on morphometric conditions derived by terrain analyses of a digital elevation model as well as on geology and land use from thematic maps. This procedure allowed taking into account the topographic influences with respect to a deep system such as the local karstic aquifer of eastern Kopaida basin. Finally, results were validated with ground truth nitrate values obtained from 41 groundwater samples, highlighted the spatial delineation of susceptible areas to contamination in both cases and provided a robust tool for regional planning actions and water resources management schemes.

  1. Role of natural and human factors in the degradation of the environment in central, eastern, and northern Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Alwelaie, A.N.A.

    1985-01-01

    The roles of natural and human factors in the arid lands have long been a matter of concern to many researchers. This study tries to find out the causes of degradation of natural environments in the central, eastern, and northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The decrease in rainfall leads to increasing aridity and, thus paves the way for greater deterioration of the environment as the carrying capacity of the arid lands decreases. This study determines that human activities have had adverse effects on the arid lands of Saudi Arabia. Causes of degradation of environment in the study area include: (1) drought: (2) agricultural malpractice and soil degradation; (3) use of wood for fuel; (4) water wastage; (5) wind-blown sand; (6) pressure of locusts; (7) hunting; (8) societal instability; (9) oil rush and population pressure; (10) management of the environment; (11) overgrazing of pastures. An analysis of people's attitudes towards their environment in relation to their beliefs finds that the attitude of people towards the idea of conservation is not as positive as the attitude of Islam.

  2. Primate abundance and habitat preferences on the lower Urubamba and Tambo rivers, central-eastern Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Rolando; Cornejo, Fanny M; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2013-10-01

    We report information on population density, group size, and habitat preferences of primates along the lower Río Urubamba and in the Río Urubamba-Río Tambo interfluvium, in central-eastern Peruvian Amazonia, an area that has been little explored with regard to its primate fauna. During 425 km of transect walks in October-November 2008 and April-May 2009 totally 174 groups of nine primate species were encountered, the most common being Callicebus brunneus (45 groups), Saguinus imperator (41 groups), and Aotus nigriceps (26 groups). Group sizes were smallest for A. nigriceps and C. brunneus (mean of 2.8 and 2.9, respectively) and largest for Saimiri boliviensis (mean 15.6). Population densities were lowest for Lagothrix cana (3.3 individuals/km(2)) and highest for A. nigriceps (31.1 individuals/km(2)). Groups of C. brunneus, S. imperator, S. boliviensis, Cebus albifrons, and Cebus apella were most frequently (83 % of sightings) encountered in semi-dense or in open primary forest that included stands of bamboo (Guadua sarcocarpa) or where bamboo was a very common species. PMID:23661029

  3. Radioactivity and distribution of U and Th in some granitic masses, Wadi El-Saqia Area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Monem, A. A.; Hussein, H. A.; Abdel-Kader, Z. M.; Abu Zied, H. T.; Ammar, S. E.

    1996-05-01

    Radioactivity measurements and U and Th content determinations were carried out on 3 small granitic plutons, Gabal Abu Aqarib, Gabal El-Himeiyer and Gabal Um Zarabit, in the Central Eastern Desert. The Abu Aqarib and Um Zarabit alkali feldspar granites are elenogated bodies intruded into the Dokhan Volcanics, whereas El-Himeiyir is intruded into an ophiolitic melange section. Compared to the average content of U and Th of world granites, El-Himeiyir alkali feldspar granites show normal content of both U and Th. On the other hand, Abu Aqarib alkali feldspar granite shows some enrichments in both U and Th, whereas Um Zarabit granite shows enrichments in U contents only. The two discovered anomalous radioactive sites show 154 ppm U, and 256 ppm Th contents for Gabal Abu Aqarib site, and 24 ppm U, and 107 ppm Th contents for El-Himeiyir one. The two sites are associated with NE-trending shear zones and exhibit hydrothermal alteration features such a hematitization and silicification. The high radioactivity is ascribed to unusual accumulations of zircon and/or apatite; however, some of the enriched U may be of epigenetic origin.

  4. Preliminary assessment of post-Haiyan mangrove damage and short-term recovery in Eastern Samar, central Philippines.

    PubMed

    Primavera, J H; Dela Cruz, M; Montilijao, C; Consunji, H; Dela Paz, M; Rollon, R N; Maranan, K; Samson, M S; Blanco, A

    2016-08-30

    Strong winds and storm surges from Typhoon Haiyan caused damage of US$12-15billion and >10,000 human casualties in central Philippines in November 2013. To validate a proposed government US$22million mangrove replanting program, mangrove damage and short-term recovery were surveyed in seven natural and planted mangrove sites in Eastern Samar province at 2.5month and 4.5month post-Haiyan. The preliminary assessment showed that natural mangroves (except for those directly hit by the storm) were recovering by means of tree sprouts and surviving seedlings and saplings compared to the devastated plantation. Likewise, tree mortality was higher in the plantation and natural forests hit by the storm surge, compared to more undamaged and partially damaged trees in natural mangroves. Hence the main recommendations to government are (1) to protect recovering mangroves by not releasing rehabilitation funds (that will inadvertently pay for clearing of live trees and for removal of seedlings), (2) to only plant in totally damaged sites (e.g., plantations), and (3) to only plant naturally dominant species, e.g., Sonneratia alba and Avicennia marina (instead of the popular Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa). PMID:27245554

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF REPTILIAN AND AMPHIBIAN BLOOD MEALS FROM MOSQUITOES IN AN EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS FOCUS IN CENTRAL ALABAMA

    PubMed Central

    CUPP, EDDIE W.; ZHANG, DUNHUA; YUE, XIN; CUPP, MARY S.; GUYER, CRAIG; SPRENGER, TONYA R.; UNNASCH, THOMAS R.

    2005-01-01

    Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culex erraticus, and Cx. peccator were collected in an enzootic eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus focus in central Alabama (Tuskegee National Forest) from 2001 to 2003 and analyzed for virus as well as host selection. EEE virus was detected in each species every year except 2003, when pools of Cx. peccator were negative. Most (97%) of the 130 Cx. peccator blood meals identified were from ectothermic hosts; 3% were from birds. Among blood meals from reptiles (approximately 75% of the total), 81% were from Agkistrodon piscivorus (cottonmouth); all amphibian blood meals (approximately 25%) were from Rana spp. with > 50% taken from the bullfrog R. catesbeiana. Host identifications were made from 131 of 197 Cx. erraticus, but only 3 (2%) were derived from ectothermic species. Identification of Ur. sapphirina blood meals proved difficult and only 2 of 35 hosts were determined. Both were from R. catesbeiana. Ectothermic species are possible EEE virus reservoirs in the southeastern United States where species such as Cx. peccator and Ur. sapphirina occur with large, diverse reptilian, amphibian, and avian populations such as those at the Tuskegee site. PMID:15381805

  6. Two new species of the deep-sea genus Parameiropsis (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the eastern central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Hyun; Wi, Jin Hee; Suh, Hae-Lip

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Parameiropsis are herein described that were identified from the Korean Deep Ocean Study (KODOS) in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, located in the eastern central Pacific. Parameiropsis kodosensis n. sp. is similar to P. magnus Itô, 1983 in two key respects: the presence of a distal seta on the syncoxa of the maxilliped, and the general features of its swimming legs. However, P. kodosensis can be differentiated from P. magnus by a higher length-to-width ratio of the caudal ramus (2.5:1 and 1:1 respectively), the setal number on the exp-3 of P1, and the exp and benp of P5 are separated in P. kodosensis, while they are fused in P. magnus. Parameiropsis tetraspinosa n. sp. resembles P. peruanus Becker, 1974 in the absence of a fused seta in the outermost spine on the endopod of antenna and the general features of the swimming legs. However, P. tetraspinosa can be distinguished from P. peruanus by a higher length-to-width ratio of the caudal ramus (3.9:1 and 2.3:1 respectively), the presence of a distal seta on the syncoxa of the maxilliped, and by its medially fused P5. In this study full descriptions and a comparison with previously described species are provided. Additionally, a key to females of Parameiropsis species is given. PMID:27395690

  7. Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentary evolution of Czechowskie Lake (Eastern Pomerania, North Central Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordowski, Jarosław; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Brauer, Achim; Ott, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Czechowskie Lake is located in north-central Poland in Tuchola Forest, about 100 kilometers SW away from Gdańsk. In the deepest parts of the lake there are preserved laminated sediments with an excellent Holocene climatic record. The lake has the area of 76,6 ha. Actual water level is at 109,9 m a.s.l. The average depth is 9,59 m, maximal 32 m. It occupies a large subglacial channel, reproduced within the glacifluvial sediments of the last glaciation. The lake has a history reaching back to Pommeranian phase which is proved by analysis of sedimentary succesions in the vicinity of present-day waterbody. Primarily it come to existence as an very variable ice dammed lake but after dead ice and permafrost desintegration it changed into a stable lake. In the terrestrialised part oft the lake and in its litoral zone there were curried out numerous boreholes within limnic and slope sediments. They have been analysed in respect to lithology and structure. Some of them were also investigated palynologically which along with radiocarbon datings allowed to reconstruct major phases of the water level fluctuations. The maximum infilling with the limnic and telmatic sediments reaches over 12 m. In the bottom of the lake there is a marked presence of many overdeepenings with the diameter of dozen or several dozen meters and the depth of up to 10 m with numerous, distinct throughs between them. They favoured the preservation of the lamination in the deepest parts of the lake due to waves hampering and stopping of the density circulation in the lake waterbody. The analysis of limnic sediments revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability mainly in dependance of the area of the water body and water level in time of deposition. In the lake are recorded three distinct phases of lake level decrease. The sedimentary evolution in the isolated minor lake basins showed gradual decrease of mineral and organic deposition in favour for carbonate one although in places separated by

  8. Intracontinental active normal faulting and paleoseismicity in the eastern Weihe Graben, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, G.; Lin, A.; Yan, B.; Jia, D.; Wu, X.

    2012-12-01

    During the past decades, tectonic deformation and seismogenic behavior of active strike-slip and thrust faults have been well investigated, due to the high-frequent occurrence of large-magnitude strike-slip and thrust-type earthquakes. In contrast, normal-faulting earthquakes of M≥7 scarcely occurred, and the rupture process and deformation features of seismogenic normal-faults are still not clear. The intracontinental graben systems around the stable Ordos Block, central China, experienced extension over the past ~50 Ma, which are ideal places to study the extensional tectonic deformation. As well, these regions with high historical seismicity including 3 large earthquakes of M≥8, provide a good chance to learn the rupture mechanism of large intracontinental normal-faulting earthquakes. Based on the 3D analysis of high-resolution remote-sensing images (0.5-m WorldView and 1-m IKONOS images) and field investigations, active normal faults are mainly distributed along the margin zones of the uplifted mountainous blocks (e.g., Weinan Loess Tableland and Huashan Mountains), characterized by the distributed fault scarps. Striations and scratch steps observed on the main fault planes, reveal a normal slip-sense of active faults in study area. In combination with the 14C age dating, the vertical offset amount of ~30 m during the past 14,050-16,270 years was observed, yielding an average vertical displacement-rate of ~1.8-2.1 mm/a, which is consistent with previous estimation in the Weihe Graben. According to the field observations of fault outcrops and the exposed trench walls, the offset strata, scarp-derived colluvial deposits and in-filled fissures generally can be observed, indicating the occurrence of paleoearthquakes. Together with the 14C ages, the late Pleistocene-Holocene activity of normal faults was demonstrated. Especially, it is concluded that at least 3 strong earthquakes associated with surface-faulting in the past 2600 years, including the most recent

  9. New and recurrent gain-of-function STAT1 mutations in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis from Eastern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Soltész, Beáta; Tóth, Beáta; Shabashova, Nadejda; Bondarenko, Anastasia; Okada, Satoshi; Cypowyj, Sophie; Abhyankar, Avinash; Csorba, Gabriella; Taskó, Szilvia; Sarkadi, Adrien Katalin; Méhes, Leonóra; Rozsíval, Pavel; Neumann, David; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Tulassay, Zsolt; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Sediva, Anna; Litzman, Jiri; Maródi, László

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) may result from various inborn errors of interleukin (IL)-17-mediated immunity. Twelve of the 13 causal mutations described to date affect the coiled-coil domain (CCD) of STAT1. Several mutations, including R274W in particular, are recurrent, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Objective To investigate and describe nine patients with CMCD in Eastern and Central Europe, to assess the biochemical impact of STAT1 mutations, to determine cytokines in supernatants of Candida-exposed blood cells, to determine IL-17-producing T cell subsets and to determine STAT1 haplotypes in a family with the c.820C>T (R274W) mutation. Results The novel c.537C>A (N179K) STAT1 mutation was gain-of-function (GOF) for γ-activated factor (GAF)-dependent cellular responses. In a Russian patient, the cause of CMCD was the newly identified c.854 A>G (Q285R) STAT1 mutation, which was also GOF for GAF-dependent responses. The c.1154C>T (T385M) mutation affecting the DNA-binding domain (DBD) resulted in a gain of STAT1 phosphorylation in a Ukrainian patient. Impaired Candida-induced IL-17A and IL-22 secretion by leucocytes and lower levels of intracellular IL-17 and IL-22 production by T cells were found in several patients. Haplotype studies indicated that the c.820C>T (R274W) mutation was recurrent due to a hotspot rather than a founder effect. Severe clinical phenotypes, including intracranial aneurysm, are presented. Conclusions The c.537C>A and c.854A>G mutations affecting the CCD and the c.1154C>T mutation affecting the DBD of STAT1 are GOF. The c.820C>T mutation of STAT1 in patients with CMCD is recurrent due to a hotspot. Patients carrying GOF mutations of STAT1 may develop multiple intracranial aneurysms by hitherto unknown mechanisms. PMID:23709754

  10. Diatom assemblage responses to changing environment in the conspicuously eutrophic Kiuruvesi lake route, central-eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammelin, Mira; Kauppila, Tommi

    2016-04-01

    Lakes and their water quality have been affected by anthropogenic actions for centuries. The most intensive changes have often occurred since the mid-19th century. Industrialization, modern agriculture, forest ditching and artificial lowering of water level are examples of these changes that have usually resulted in the deterioration of lake water quality. Many organisms, such as diatoms, are sensitive to these changes in their environmental conditions. Therefore, a marked species turnover is often seen between the pre and post human impact diatom assemblages. This turnover can be rapidly assessed simultaneously from many lakes by using multivariate methods and top-bottom sampling. Our study area consists of three adjacent lake routes in the grass cultivation and dairy production area of central-eastern Finland, where slash-and-burn cultivation and artificial water level lowering were common practice during the past centuries. The centermost Iisalmi lake route is particularly interesting because of the conspicuously eutrophic lakes in its Kiuruvesi subroute. We used the top-bottom approach to sample pre and post human impact samples from 47 lakes (50 sampling sites) located in the three lake routes. In addition, stratigraphic samples from the long cores of three lakes (one larger central basin and two small upstream lakes) in the Kiuruvesi subroute were studied in more detail. Multivariate methods were used to assess diatom assemblage change within the long cores and between the pre-disturbance and modern samples. The results indicate that most study lakes have undergone a marked shift in their diatom assemblages since the onset of human impact in the area. The lake routes are characterized by differing pre-impact diatom assemblages. However, human influence has reduced their natural variation. Similar diatom species are common in the modern samples of the heavily impacted lakes in all three lake routes. The detailed examination of the diatom assemblage turnover in

  11. Dominance of Dermacentor reticulatus over Ixodes ricinus (Ixodidae) on livestock, companion animals and wild ruminants in eastern and central Poland.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Welc-Faleciak, Renata; Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Kowalec, Maciej; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The most common tick species parasitizing animals in Poland are Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. These tick species differ in their distribution, habitats, seasonal activity and host specificity. Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed, whereas the range of D. reticulatus is limited to eastern and central parts of the country with several new foci in the middle-west and the west. However, as in many central European countries, the range of D. reticulatus is expanding, and some authors have correlated this expansion with an increasing number of available hosts. The aim of the present study was to determine the tick fauna on domestic and livestock animals in two areas endemic for I. ricinus and D. reticulatus and to compare the risk of infestation with different tick species in open and forest areas. Over a 14 month period, 732 ticks were collected from five host species including domestic animals (dogs and cats), livestock (cows and horses) and wildlife (European bison) in two areas, central and NE Poland, endemic for D. reticulatus. Three tick species were recorded: D. reticulatus (623 individuals; 85.1% of all collected ticks), I. ricinus (106 individuals; 14.5%) and three females of Ixodes hexagonus (0.4%) from a dog. Dermacentor reticulatus was the dominant tick species found on four host species and constituted 86, 81, 97 and 100% of all ticks from dogs, horses, cows and bison, respectively, and was collected from animals throughout the year, including during the winter. The common tick, I. ricinus, was the dominant tick collected from cats (94%). Fully-engorged, ready-for-reproduction females of D. reticulatus were collected from all host species. In May 2012, questing ticks were collected by dragging in forest or open habitats. The density of adult marsh ticks in open areas was around 2 ticks/100 m(2) in the majority of locations, with a maximum of 9.5 ticks/100 m(2). The density of adult I. ricinus was much lower in its typical

  12. Seasonality and paleoecology of the late Cretaceous multi-taxa vertebrate assemblage of "Lo Hueco" (central eastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Domingo, Laura; Barroso-Barcenilla, Fernando; Cambra-Moo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic studies of multi-taxa terrestrial vertebrate assemblages allow determination of paleoclimatic and paleoecological aspects on account of the different information supplied by each taxon. The late Campanian-early Maastrichtian "Lo Hueco" Fossil-Lagerstätte (central eastern Spain), located at a subtropical paleolatitude of ~31°N, constitutes an ideal setting to carry out this task due to its abundant and diverse vertebrate assemblage. Local δ18OPO4 values estimated from δ18OPO4 values of theropods, sauropods, crocodyliforms, and turtles are close to δ18OH2O values observed at modern subtropical latitudes. Theropod δ18OH2O values are lower than those shown by crocodyliforms and turtles, indicating that terrestrial endothermic taxa record δ18OH2O values throughout the year, whereas semiaquatic ectothermic taxa δ18OH2O values represent local meteoric waters over a shorter time period when conditions are favorable for bioapatite synthesis (warm season). Temperatures calculated by combining theropod, crocodyliform, and turtle δ18OH2O values and gar δ18OPO4 have enabled us to estimate seasonal variability as the difference between mean annual temperature (MAT, yielded by theropods) and temperature of the warmest months (TWMs, provided by crocodyliforms and turtles). ΔTWMs-MAT value does not point to a significantly different seasonal thermal variability when compared to modern coastal subtropical meteorological stations and Late Cretaceous rudists from eastern Tethys. Bioapatite and bulk organic matter δ13C values point to a C3 environment in the "Lo Hueco" area. The estimated fractionation between sauropod enamel and diet is ~15‰. While waiting for paleoecological information yielded by the ongoing morphological study of the "Lo Hueco" crocodyliforms, δ13C and δ18OCO3 results point to incorporation of food items with brackish influence, but preferential ingestion of freshwater. "Lo Hueco" turtles showed the lowest δ13C and δ18OCO3 values of the

  13. Seasonality and Paleoecology of the Late Cretaceous Multi-Taxa Vertebrate Assemblage of “Lo Hueco” (Central Eastern Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Laura; Barroso-Barcenilla, Fernando; Cambra-Moo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic studies of multi-taxa terrestrial vertebrate assemblages allow determination of paleoclimatic and paleoecological aspects on account of the different information supplied by each taxon. The late Campanian-early Maastrichtian “Lo Hueco” Fossil-Lagerstätte (central eastern Spain), located at a subtropical paleolatitude of ~31°N, constitutes an ideal setting to carry out this task due to its abundant and diverse vertebrate assemblage. Local δ18OPO4 values estimated from δ18OPO4 values of theropods, sauropods, crocodyliforms, and turtles are close to δ18OH2O values observed at modern subtropical latitudes. Theropod δ18OH2O values are lower than those shown by crocodyliforms and turtles, indicating that terrestrial endothermic taxa record δ18OH2O values throughout the year, whereas semiaquatic ectothermic taxa δ18OH2O values represent local meteoric waters over a shorter time period when conditions are favorable for bioapatite synthesis (warm season). Temperatures calculated by combining theropod, crocodyliform, and turtle δ18OH2O values and gar δ18OPO4 have enabled us to estimate seasonal variability as the difference between mean annual temperature (MAT, yielded by theropods) and temperature of the warmest months (TWMs, provided by crocodyliforms and turtles). ΔTWMs-MAT value does not point to a significantly different seasonal thermal variability when compared to modern coastal subtropical meteorological stations and Late Cretaceous rudists from eastern Tethys. Bioapatite and bulk organic matter δ13C values point to a C3 environment in the “Lo Hueco” area. The estimated fractionation between sauropod enamel and diet is ~15‰. While waiting for paleoecological information yielded by the ongoing morphological study of the “Lo Hueco” crocodyliforms, δ13C and δ18OCO3 results point to incorporation of food items with brackish influence, but preferential ingestion of freshwater. “Lo Hueco” turtles showed the lowest δ13C and δ18OCO3

  14. Crustal Structure of the Central Anatolia - Eastern Mediterrenean, Turkey and Cyprus from Wide-Angle Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denli, Alper; Gürbüz, Cemil; Mechie, James; Weber, Michael

    2016-04-01

    As a part of the CyprusArc project, a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles were carried out in March 2010. The 300 km and 45 km long north-south trending profiles extended from Cihanbeyli in Central Anatolia to Anamur in eastern Mediterranean, Turkey and in southern Cyprus, respectively. The purpose of the project is to observe the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of the African plate with the Anatolian plate. The field experiment comprised two land shots (1125 kg explosives) in Turkey and airguns (98 cubic liters) on the Mediterranean sea, beneath Cyprus. 244 stations were installed on land for data acquisition. 77 three-component sensors and 167 vertical-component sensors were installed along ~300 km distances between Cihanbeyli and Anamur with an average spacing of 1.25 km, on Turkey. 24 three-component sensors and 21 vertical component sensors were deployed along 45 km distances on land at southern Cyprus with an average spacing of 1.25 km. To reveal a good data quality, a visual quality check, frequency analysis and filtering were applied to the seismic data. Two land shots on Turkey (also recorded on Cyprus) and airgun shots on the Mediterranean sea beneath Cyprus, geological and previous seismic investigations provide information to derive a layered velocity models beneath from the Anatolian plateau to eastern Mediterranean, Turkey and for the ophiolite complex on Cyprus. After picking observed seismic phases, finite-differences ray tracing of the wide-angle data leads a 2-D crustal P-wave velocity models. The results show moho depth increases from 38 km to 45 km depth along north-south trending profile on Turkey and crustal thinning between south Turkey and Cyprus from 40 km to 36 km. Obtained models were further refined using forward modeling to generate synthetic seismograms for individual shot gathers. Thus, by varying the velocity structure, the theoretical times and amplitudes of the various

  15. Mass loading and episodic variation of molecular markers in PM2.5 aerosols over a rural area in eastern central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Deb, Manas K.; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2015-09-01

    The impact of biomass burning in atmospheric aerosols load is poorly known. We investigated the impact of biomass burning through molecular markers on the concentration of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected from a rural site in eastern central India during three episodic periods from October to November 2011. The collected PM2.5 samples were chemically quantified for potassium as well as sugars and dicarboxylic acids using ion chromatography. Levoglucosan and glucose were found as the most abundant sugar compounds and sugar-alcohols showed the predominance of mannitol whereas oxalic acid was the most abundant diacid followed by maleic acid in PM2.5 aerosols. Substantially enhanced concentrations of K+ as well as levoglucosan and glucose were observed in eastern central India. Analysis of the source specific molecular markers and ratios of sugars and diacids infer that combustion of biomass was the major emission sources of organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosols over eastern central India. We applied Spearman correlation analysis and principal component analysis to further investigate the sources of measured sugars and diacids. The concentrations of K+ and levoglucosan were significantly correlated with sugars and diacids that verifying their common sources from biomass burning emission. This study demonstrates that biomass burning for domestic heating and cooking purposes and agricultural activities significantly influence the air quality of eastern central India during the investigation period. The obtained data in this research is helpful for the global scientific community to assessments and remedial of air quality parameters in rural areas of developing countries under similar atmospheric circumstances.

  16. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W.

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  17. Relation of watershed setting and stream nutrient yields at selected sites in central and eastern North Carolina, 1997-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Terziotti, Silvia; Kolb, Katharine R.

    2013-01-01

    Data collected between 1997 and 2008 at 48 stream sites were used to characterize relations between watershed settings and stream nutrient yields throughout central and eastern North Carolina. The focus of the investigation was to identify environmental variables in watersheds that influence nutrient export for supporting the development and prioritization of management strategies for restoring nutrient-impaired streams. Nutrient concentration data and streamflow data compiled for the 1997 to 2008 study period were used to compute stream yields of nitrate, total nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (P) for each study site. Compiled environmental data (including variables for land cover, hydrologic soil groups, base-flow index, streams, wastewater treatment facilities, and concentrated animal feeding operations) were used to characterize the watershed settings for the study sites. Data for the environmental variables were analyzed in combination with the stream nutrient yields to explore relations based on watershed characteristics and to evaluate whether particular variables were useful indicators of watersheds having relatively higher or lower potential for exporting nutrients. Data evaluations included an examination of median annual nutrient yields based on a watershed land-use classification scheme developed as part of the study. An initial examination of the data indicated that the highest median annual nutrient yields occurred at both agricultural and urban sites, especially for urban sites having large percentages of point-source flow contributions to the streams. The results of statistical testing identified significant differences in annual nutrient yields when sites were analyzed on the basis of watershed land-use category. When statistical differences in median annual yields were noted, the results for nitrate, total N, and total P were similar in that highly urbanized watersheds (greater than 30 percent developed land use) and (or) watersheds with greater

  18. Distribution, lithology and ages of late Cenozoic volcanism on the eastern margin of the Great Basin, West-Central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    The eastern margin of the Basin and Range province in central Utah is the locus of late Cenozoic volcanic activity and has witnessed several volcanic episodes within the last three million years. The Twin Peaks volcanic center became active 2.7 m.y. ago producing rhyodacite and rhyolite from a shallow silicic magma body accompanied by voluminous eruptions of basalt. Between about 1 and 0.3 m.y. ago there were eruptions of high silica rhyolite from a deep-seated magma source beneath the Mineral Mountains together with primitive and strongly fractionated mafic magmas of the Cove Fort subprovince. Within this volcanic area are two localities, Roosevelt Hot Springs and Sulfurdale, which have high temperature waters at or near the surface. To the north in the Black Rock Desert, volcanism extended from 1.5 m.y to only several hundred years ago. The activity was dominated by basaltic eruptions, but the area contains the youngest known rhyolite body in Utah (0.4 m.y.). Volcanic vents are located along major crustal discontinuities in the Black Rock Desert, along ring fracture systems at Twin Peaks, and are aligned along trends of north-south normal faulting in the Mineral Mountains and Cove Fort areas. The localization of volcanism is consistent with high strain rates on a regional scale associated with extension of the Basin and Range. The variety of lithologies observed is consistent with a model of fundamentally basaltic magmatism which augments melting in the lower crust to produce silicic magmas. The majority of the mafic magmas that reach the surface are modified by fractionation with the most primitive varieties erupted to the west.

  19. Natural phytoplasma infection of four phloem-feeding Auchenorrhyncha across vineyard agroecosystems in central-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Landi, L; Isidoro, N; Rioloi, P

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal variations of grapevine yellow phytoplasma were investigated in four phloem-feeding planthopper and leafhopper species that are vectors of plant disease agents. In total, 1,148 wild specimens were collected from three vineyard agroecosystems in the Marche region (central-eastern Italy), from May to September 2008, and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment-length polymorphism methods. Of 525 Euscelis lineolatus Brullé, 25.1% were positive for aster yellow phytoplasma (16SrI-C, 16SrI-B subgroups) and stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII-A subgroup; Vergilbungskrankheit type I [VK-I]). Of 368 Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret, 19.3% were positive for the 16SrXII-A subgroup (VK-I, VK-II; mainly according to their host plant). Of 146 Neoaliturus fenestratus (Herrich-Schäffer), 15.1% were positive for the 16SrI-C and 16SrI-B subgroups, and 7.3% of 109 Psammotettix alienus (Dahlbom) were positive for the 16SrI-B subgroup. The total inoculation efficiency in the feeding medium assays was 57.1% for P. alienus, 44.7% for E. lineolatus, 44.4% for N. fenestratus and 33.9% for H. obsoletus. All of the phytoplasma subgroups identified in the insect bodies were also detected in their feeding media. Detection of stolbur phytoplasma in E. lineolatus feeding media strengthens the hypothesis that it is a candidate vector of Bois noir disease causal agent. The phytoplasma subgroups detected in the Auchenorrhyncha species showed variations according to season and/or vineyard agroecosystem. This study highlights the different specificities of these phytoplasma-Auchenorrhyncha species relationships, and suggests a primary role of the entire vineyard agroecosystem in the epidemiology of grapevine yellow phytoplasma diseases. PMID:23786045

  20. Climate variability and associated vegetation response throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, A.; Perşoiu, A.; Tanţău, I.; Stevens, T.; Magyari, E. K.; Onac, B. P.; Marković, S.; Andrič, M.; Connor, S.; Fărcaş, S.; Gałka, M.; Gaudeny, T.; Hoek, W.; Kolaczek, P.; Kuneš, P.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marinova, E.; Michczyńska, D. J.; Perşoiu, I.; Płóciennik, M.; Słowiński, M.; Stancikaite, M.; Sumegi, P.; Svensson, A.; Tămaş, T.; Timar, A.; Tonkov, S.; Toth, M.; Veski, S.; Willis, K. J.; Zernitskaya, V.

    2014-12-01

    Records of past climate variability and associated vegetation response exist in various regions throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). To date, there has been no coherent synthesis of the existing palaeo-records. During an INTIMATE meeting (Cluj Napoca, Romania) focused on identifying CEE paleo-records, it was decided to address this gap by presenting the palaeo-community with a compilation of high-quality climatic and vegetation records for the past 60-8 ka. The compilation should also serve as a reference point for the use in the modelling community working towards the INTIMATE project goals, and in data-model inter-comparison studies. This paper is therefore a compilation of up to date, best available quantitative and semi-quantitative records of past climate and biotic response from CEE covering this period. It first presents the proxy and archive used. Speleothems and loess mainly provide the evidences available for the 60-20 ka interval, whereas pollen records provide the main source of information for the Lateglacial and Holocene. It then examines the temporal and spatial patterns of climate variability inferred from different proxies, the temporal and spatial magnitude of the vegetation responses inferred from pollen records and highlights differences and similarities between proxies and sub-regions and the possible mechanisms behind this variability. Finally, it identifies weakness in the proxies and archives and their geographical distribution. This exercise also provides an opportunity to reflect on the status of research in the area and to identify future critical areas and subjects of research.

  1. A clinical and molecular study of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in three districts of central and eastern India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) is recommended throughout India as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Due to the presence of several eco-epidemiological zones of malaria and variable drug pressure, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of this combination in different regions of India. The objective of this study was to use clinical and molecular methods to monitor the efficacy of AS + SP in three diverse sites. Methods The study was undertaken in three high endemic sites of central and eastern India. Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled and followed for 28 days. Molecular genotyping was conducted for merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) to differentiate between re-infection and recrudescence and for the dhfr and dhps genes to monitor antifolate drug resistance. Results In all, 149 patients were enrolled at the three sites. The crude cure rates were 95.9%, 100%, and 100% in Ranchi, Keonjhar, and West Garo Hills respectively. PCR-corrected cure rates were 100% at all sites. In dhfr, 27% of isolates had triple mutations, while 46% isolates were double-mutants. The most prevalent mutation was S108N followed by C59R. 164 L mutation was observed in 43/126 (34%) isolates. In dhps, most (76%) of the isolates were wild-type. Only 2.5% (2/80) isolates showed double mutation. dhfr-dhps two locus mutation were observed in 16% (13/80) isolates. Parasite clearance time was not related with antifolate mutations. Conclusions AS + SP combination therapy remained effective against falciparum malaria despite common mutations promoting resistance to antifolate drugs. Although the prevalence of double and triple mutations in dhfr was high, the prevalence of dhfr-dhps two locus mutations were low. Even isolates with dhfr triple and dhfr-dhps two locus mutations achieved adequate clinical and parasitological response. PMID:23866298

  2. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (Gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non–communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Conclusions: Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe. PMID:23390466

  3. Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Sumilo, Dana; Bormane, Antra; Asokliene, Loreta; Vasilenko, Veera; Golovljova, Irina; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Hubalek, Zdenek; Randolph, Sarah E

    2008-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most serious widespread vector-borne disease of humans in Europe, increased from 2- to 30-fold in many Central and Eastern European countries from 1992 to 1993, coinciding with independence from Soviet rule. Unemployment and low income have been shown in Latvia to be statistically associated with high-risk behaviour involving harvest of wild foods from tick-infested forests, and also with not being vaccinated against TBE. Archival data for 1970--2005 record major changes in the agricultural and industrial sectors, and consequent changes in the abiotic and biotic environment and socio-economic conditions, which could have increased the abundance of infected ticks and the contact of humans with those ticks. For example, abandoned agricultural fields became suitable for rodent transmission hosts; use of pesticides and emissions of atmospheric industrial pollutants plummeted; wildlife hosts for ticks increased; tick populations appear to have responded; unemployment and inequality increased in all countries. These factors, by acting synergistically but differentially between and within each country, can explain the marked spatio-temporal heterogeneities in TBE epidemiology better than can climate change alone, which is too uniform across wide areas. Different degrees of socio-economic upheaval caused by political transition in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia and the Czech Republic can apparently explain the marked variation in TBE upsurge. Causal linkage between national socio-economic conditions and epidemiology is strongly indicated by striking correlations across eight countries between the degree of upsurge of TBE and both poverty and household expenditure on food (R2 = 0.533 and 0.716, respectively). PMID:18183571

  4. Modeling a habitat suitability index for the eastern fall cohort of Ommastrephes bartramii in the central North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Tian, Siquan; Liu, Bilin; Chen, Yong

    2011-05-01

    The eastern fall cohort of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, has been commercially exploited by the Chinese squid jigging fleet in the central North Pacific Ocean since the late 1990s. To understand and identify their optimal habitat, we have developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model using two potential important environmental variables — sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) — and fishery data from the main fishing ground (165°-180°E) during June and July of 1999-2003. A geometric mean model (GMM), minimum model (MM) and arithmetic weighted model (AWM) with different weights were compared and the best HSI model was selected using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The performance of the developed HSI model was evaluated using fishery data for 2004. This study suggests that the highest catch per unit effort (CPUE) and fishing effort are closely related to SST and SSHA. The best SST- and SSHA-based suitability index (SI) regression models were SISST-based = 0.7SIeffort-SST + 0.3 SICPUE-SST, and SISSHA-based = 0.5SIeffort-SSHA + 0.5SICPUE-SSHA, respectively, showing that fishing effort is more important than CPUE in the estimation of SI. The best HSI model was the AWM, defined as HSI=0.3SISST-based+ 0.7SISSHA-based, indicating that SSHA is more important than SST in estimating the HSI of squid. In 2004, monthly HSI values greater than 0.6 coincided with the distribution of productive fishing ground and high CPUE in June and July, suggesting that the models perform well. The proposed model provides an important tool in our efforts to develop forecasting capacity of squid spatial dynamics.

  5. Attempt at quantifying human-induced land-cover change during the Holocene in central eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Furong; Gaillard, Marie-José; Mazier, Florence; Sugita, Shinya; Xu, Qinghai; Li, Yuecong; Zhou, Zhongze

    2016-04-01

    China is one of the key regions of the world where agricultural civilizations already flourished several millennia ago. However, the role of human activity in vegetation change is not yet fully understood. As a contribution to the PAGES LandCover6k initiative, this study aims to achieve a first attempt at Holocene land-cover reconstructions in the temperate zone of China using the REVEALS model (Sugita, 2007). Pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) are key parameters required for the model and were lacking so far for major taxa characteristic of ancient cultural landscapes in that part of the world. Remains of traditional agricultural structures and practices are still found in the low mountain ranges of the Shandong province located in central-eastern China. The area was chosen for a study of pollen-vegetation relationships and calculation of pollen productivity estimates. Pollen counts and vegetation data from 37 random sites within an area of 200 x 100 km are used for calculation. The vegetation inventory within 100 meters from the pollen sampling site follows the standard methods of Bunting et al. (2013). Vegetation data beyond 100 meters up to 1.5 km from the pollen sampling site is extracted from satellite images. The PPEs are calculated using the three sub-models of the Extended R-value model and compared with existing PPEs from northern China's biomes and temperate Europe. The PPEs' relevance for reconstruction of past human-induced land-cover change in temperate China are evaluated. Key words China, traditional agricultural landscape, ERV model, pollen productivity estimates References Bunting, M. J., et al. (2013). "Palynological perspectives on vegetation survey: a critical step for model-based reconstruction of Quaternary land cover." Quaternary Science Reviews 82: 41-55. Sugita, S. (2007). "Theory of quantitative reconstruction of vegetation I: pollen from large sites REVEALS regional vegetation composition." The Holocene 17(2): 229-241.

  6. PM₁₀ concentration in urban atmosphere around the eastern Tien Shan, Central Asia during 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Minguillón, María Cruz; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Fang; Qiu, Xue

    2015-05-01

    Based on the daily records from 16 cities around the eastern Tien Shan (Tianshan Mountains), central Asia from 2007 to 2013, the spatial pattern and seasonal/interannual variation of urban particulate matter up to 10 μm in size (PM10) concentrations and influencing factors were analyzed. Annual mean PM10 concentrations (±standard deviation) in most cities on the northern slope mainly range from 55 ± 28 μg/m(3) to 92 ± 75 μg/m(3), and those on the southern slope range between 96 ± 65 and 195 ± 144 μg/m(3). PM10 concentrations are maxima in winter on the northern slope, while they maximize in springtime on the southern slope. There is an increasing trend in annual mean concentrations during the period 2007-2013, which is not statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Urban PM10 concentration in the study region is jointly influenced by anthropogenic emission and regional natural processes, especially dust events and precipitation. The northern slope usually has heavy anthropogenic air pollution (mostly in winter) and relatively rich precipitation especially in summer, and the southern slope always suffers more frequent dust events (mostly in spring) and less precipitation. Modeled back-trajectory indicated that the Taklimakan desert source can greatly increase the PM10 concentration on the southern slope, and the mountain ranges may hinder the transport of dust to the northern slope. PMID:25471722

  7. Remote sensing detection of gold related alteration zones in Um Rus area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, Reda; Kusky, Timothy; El Mezayen, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) images covering the Um Rus area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt were evaluated for mapping geologic structure, lithology, and gold-related alteration zones. The study area is covered by Pan-African basement rocks including gabbro and granodiorite intruded into a variable mixture of metavolcanics and metasediments. The first three principal component analyses (PCA1, PCA2, PCA3) in a Red-Green-Blue (RGB) of the visible through shortwave-infrared (VNIR + SWIR) ASTER bands enabled the discrimination between lithological units. The results show that ASTER band ratios ((2 + 4)/3, (5 + 7)/6, (7 + 9)/8) in RGB identifies the lithological units and discriminates the granodiorite very well from the adjacent rock units.The granodiorites are dissected by gold-bearing quartz veins surrounded by alteration zones. The microscopic examination of samples collected from the alteration zones shows sericitic and argillic alteration zones. The Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Spectral Information Divergence (SID) supervised classification methods were applied using the reference spectra of the USGS spectral library. The results show that these classification methods are capable of mapping the alteration zones as indicated by field verification work. The PALSAR image was enhanced for fracture mapping using the second moment co-occurrence filter. Overlying extracted faults and alteration zone classification images show that the N30E and N-S fractures represent potential zones for gold exploration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used as a powerful tool for ore deposit exploration.

  8. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  9. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf, June and July of 2002, 2008, and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Moore, Sue E.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2013-10-01

    As part of the Bering Sea Project, cetacean surveys were conducted to describe distribution and estimate abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Three marine mammal observers conducted visual surveys along transect lines sampled during the Alaska Fisheries Science Center walleye pollock assessment survey in June and July of 2008 and 2010. Distribution and abundance in 2008 and 2010 (cold years) are compared with results from a similar survey conducted in 2002 (a warm year), as the only three years that the entire survey area was sampled; patterns largely match those previously observed. Abundance estimates for comparable areas in 2002, 2008 and 2010 were as follows: humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): 231 (CV=0.63), 436 (CV=0.45), and 675 (CV=0.80); fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): 419 (CV=0.33), 1368 (CV=0.34), and 1061 (CV=0.38); minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): 389 (CV=0.52), 517 (CV=0.69), and 2020 (CV=0.73); Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli): 35,303 (CV=0.53), 14,543 (CV=0.32), and 11,143 (CV=0.32); and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): 1971 (CV=0.46), 4056 (CV=0.40), and 833 (CV=0.66). It should be noted that these abundance estimates are not corrected for biases due to perception, availability, or responsive movement. Estimates for humpback, fin and minke whales increased from 2002 to 2010, while those for harbor and Dall's porpoise decreased; trends were significant for fin whales. It is likely that changes in estimated abundance are due at least in part to shifts in distribution and not just changes in overall population size. Annual abundance estimates were examined by oceanographic domain. Humpback whales were consistently concentrated in coastal waters north of Unimak Pass. Fin whales were broadly distributed in the outer domain and slope in 2008 and 2010, but sightings were sparse in 2002. Minke whales were distributed throughout the study area in 2002 and 2008, but in 2010 they were concentrated in the outer domain and

  10. Early Childhood in Central and Eastern Europe: Issues and Challenges. Action Research in Family and Early Childhood. UNESCO Education Sector Monograph No. 13/2000. First Central and Eastern European Early Childhood Care and Development Meeting (Budapest, Hungary, October 24-28, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korintus, Marta

    This document is comprised of the proceedings from the first Central and Eastern European Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) meeting in Budapest, Hungary, October 24-28, 1999, convened to begin the development of an ECCD network in the region to address the similar needs and concerns of children in these countries. Following an…

  11. Crystal structure of the HCV IRES central domain reveals strategy for start-codon positioning.

    PubMed

    Berry, Katherine E; Waghray, Shruti; Mortimer, Stefanie A; Bai, Yun; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2011-10-12

    Translation of hepatitis C viral proteins requires an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5' untranslated region of the viral mRNA. The core domain of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRES contains a four-way helical junction that is integrated within a predicted pseudoknot. This domain is required for positioning the mRNA start codon correctly on the 40S ribosomal subunit during translation initiation. Here, we present the crystal structure of this RNA, revealing a complex double-pseudoknot fold that establishes the alignment of two helical elements on either side of the four-helix junction. The conformation of this core domain constrains the open reading frame's orientation for positioning on the 40S ribosomal subunit. This structure, representing the last major domain of HCV-like IRESs to be determined at near-atomic resolution, provides the basis for a comprehensive cryoelectron microscopy-guided model of the intact HCV IRES and its interaction with 40S ribosomal subunits. PMID:22000514

  12. The Central Executive as a Search Process: Priming Exploration and Exploitation across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Todd, Peter M.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The trade-off between exploration and exploitation is common to a wide variety of problems involving search in space and mind. The prevalence of this trade-off and its neurological underpinnings led us to propose domain-general cognitive search processes (Hills, Todd, & Goldstone, 2008). We propose further that these are consistent with the idea…

  13. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity. PMID:26223935

  14. An amphioxus RAG1-like DNA fragment encodes a functional central domain of vertebrate core RAG1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanni; Xu, Ke; Deng, Anqi; Fu, Xing; Xu, Anlong; Liu, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The highly diversified repertoire of antigen receptors in the vertebrate immune system is generated via proteins encoded by the recombination activating genes (RAGs) RAG1 and RAG2 by a process known as variable, diversity, and joining [V(D)J] gene recombination. Based on the study of vertebrate RAG proteins, many hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of RAG. This issue remains unresolved, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the evolution of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that the amphioxus genome contains an ancient RAG1-like DNA fragment (bfRAG1L) that encodes a virus-related protein that is much shorter than vertebrate RAG1 and harbors a region homologous to the central domain of core RAG1 (cRAG1). bfRAG1L also contains an unexpected retroviral type II nuclease active site motif, DXN(D/E)XK, and is capable of degrading both DNA and RNA. Moreover, bfRAG1L shares important functional properties with the central domain of cRAG1, including interaction with RAG2 and localization to the nucleus. Remarkably, the reconstitution of bfRAG1L into a cRAG1-like protein yielded an enzyme capable of recognizing recombination signal sequences and performing V(D)J recombination in the presence of mouse RAG2. Moreover, this reconstituted cRAG1-like protein could mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes in RAG1-deficient mice. Together, our results demonstrate that amphioxus bfRAG1L encodes a protein that is functionally equivalent to the central domain of cRAG1 and is well prepared for further evolution to mediate V(D)J recombination. Thus, our findings provide unique insights into the evolutionary origin of RAG1. PMID:24368847

  15. An amphioxus RAG1-like DNA fragment encodes a functional central domain of vertebrate core RAG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanni; Xu, Ke; Deng, Anqi; Fu, Xing; Xu, Anlong; Liu, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The highly diversified repertoire of antigen receptors in the vertebrate immune system is generated via proteins encoded by the recombination activating genes (RAGs) RAG1 and RAG2 by a process known as variable, diversity, and joining [V(D)J] gene recombination. Based on the study of vertebrate RAG proteins, many hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of RAG. This issue remains unresolved, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the evolution of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that the amphioxus genome contains an ancient RAG1-like DNA fragment (bfRAG1L) that encodes a virus-related protein that is much shorter than vertebrate RAG1 and harbors a region homologous to the central domain of core RAG1 (cRAG1). bfRAG1L also contains an unexpected retroviral type II nuclease active site motif, DXN(D/E)XK, and is capable of degrading both DNA and RNA. Moreover, bfRAG1L shares important functional properties with the central domain of cRAG1, including interaction with RAG2 and localization to the nucleus. Remarkably, the reconstitution of bfRAG1L into a cRAG1-like protein yielded an enzyme capable of recognizing recombination signal sequences and performing V(D)J recombination in the presence of mouse RAG2. Moreover, this reconstituted cRAG1-like protein could mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes in RAG1-deficient mice. Together, our results demonstrate that amphioxus bfRAG1L encodes a protein that is functionally equivalent to the central domain of cRAG1 and is well prepared for further evolution to mediate V(D)J recombination. Thus, our findings provide unique insights into the evolutionary origin of RAG1. PMID:24368847

  16. The Eastern Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone in central Portugal: Active faulting in a low-deformation region within a major river environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, Carolina; Vilanova, Susana P.; Besana-Ostman, Glenda M.; Carvalho, João; Heleno, Sandra; Fonseca, Joao

    2015-10-01

    Active faulting in the Lower Tagus Valley, Central Portugal, poses a significant seismic hazard that is not well understood. Although the area has been affected by damaging earthquakes during historical times, only recently has definitive evidence of Quaternary surface faulting been found along the western side of the Tagus River. The location, geometry and kinematics of active faults along the eastern side of the Tagus valley have not been previously studied. We present the first results of mapping and paleoseismic analysis of the eastern strand of the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (LTVFZ). Geomorphological, paleoseismological, and seismic reflection studies indicate that the Eastern LTVFZ is a left-lateral strike-slip fault. The detailed mapping of geomorphic features and studies in two paleoseismic trenches show that surface fault rupture has occurred at least six times during the past 10 ka. The river offsets indicate a minimum slip rate on the order of 0.14-0.24 mm/yr for the fault zone. Fault trace mapping, geomorphic analysis, and paleoseismic studies suggest a maximum magnitude for the Eastern LTVFZ of Mw ~ 7.3 with a recurrence interval for surface ruptures ~ 1.7 ka. At least two events occurred after 1175 ± 95 cal yr BP. Single-event displacements are unlikely to be resolved in the paleoseismic trenches, thus our observations most probably represent the minimum number of events identified in the trenches.

  17. cDNA cloning of a snake venom metalloproteinase from the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus), and the expression of its disintegrin domain with anti-platelet effects

    PubMed Central

    Suntravat, Montamas; Jia, Ying; Lucena, Sara E.; Sánchez, Elda E.; Pérez, John C.

    2013-01-01

    A 5′ truncated snake venom metalloproteinase was identified from a cDNA library constructed from venom glands of an eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). The 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was used to obtain the 1865 bp full-length cDNA sequence of a snake venom metalloproteinase (CamVMPII). CamVMPII encodes an open reading frame of 488 amino acids, which includes a signal peptide, a pro-domain, a metalloproteinase domain, a spacer, and an RGD-disintegrin domain. The predicted amino acid sequence of CamVMPII showed a 91%, 90%, 83%, and 82% sequence homology to the P-II class enzymes of C. adamanteus metalloproteinase 2, C. atrox CaVMP-II, Gloydius halys agkistin, and Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonitin, respectively. Disintegrins are potent inhibitors of both platelet aggregation and integrin-dependent cell adhesion. Therefore, the disintegrin domain (Cam-dis) of CamVMPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into a pET-43.1a vector, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Affinity purified recombinantly modified Cam-dis (r-Cam-dis) with a yield of 8.5 mg/L culture medium was cleaved from the fusion tags by enterokinase cleavage. r-Cam-dis was further purified by two-step chromatography consisting of HiTrap™ Benzamidine FF column, followed by Talon Metal affinity column with a final yield of 1 mg/L culture. r-Cam-dis was able to inhibit all three processes of platelet thrombus formation including platelet adhesion with an estimated IC50 of 1 nM, collagen- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with the estimated IC50s of 18 and 6 nM, respectively, and platelet function on clot retraction. It is a potent anti-platelet inhibitor, which should be further investigated for drug discovery to treat stroke patients or patients with thrombotic disorders. PMID:23313448

  18. Calibration of a 1D Crustal Velocity and Q Model for Ground Motion Simulations in Central and Eastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    I have performed low frequency (f < 1 Hz) ground motion simulations for the 2008 Mw 5.23 Mt. Carmel, Illinois and 2011 Mw 5.74 Mineral, Virginia earthquakes to calibrate a rock-site 1D crustal velocity and Q structure model for central and eastern US (CEUS). For each earthquake, the observed ground motions were simulated at sites extending out to about 900 km from the epicenter. Sites within the Mississippi embayment are not included in the modeling. The initial 1D velocity model was developed by averaging profiles extracted from the CUS V1.3 3D velocity model (Ramirez-Guzman et al, 2012) at each of the recording sites, with the surface shear wave velocity set at 2200 m/s. The Mt. Carmel earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=25, dip=90, rake=-175) at a depth of 14 km and a slip-rate function having a Brune corner frequency of 0.89 Hz (Hartzell and Mendoza, 2011). The Mineral earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=26, dip=55, rake=108) at a depth of 6 km and a slip-rate function having a corner frequency of 0.50 Hz. Full waveform Green's functions were computed using the FK method of Zhu and Rivera (2002). The initial model does well at reproducing the median level of observed response spectral acceleration (Sa) for most sites out to 300 km at periods of 2 to 5 sec, including the observed flattening in distance attenuation between 70 and 150 km. However, this model under predicts the motions beyond about 400 km distance. Increasing Q in the mid- and lower crust from the original value of 700 to 5000 removes this under prediction of the larger distance motions. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) estimates have been computed from the simulations using the ground motion-intensity conversion equations of Atkinson and Kaka (2007; AK2007) and Dangkua and Cramer (2011; DC2011-ENA) for comparison against the observed "Did You Feel It" intensity estimates. Given the bandwidth limitations of the simulations, I use the conversion

  19. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  20. Statistical Discrimination of Induced and Tectonic Earthquake Sequences in Central and Eastern US Based on Waveform Detected Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Peng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    It is now well established that extraction of fossil fuels and/or waste water disposal do cause earthquakes in Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). However, the physics underneath of the nucleation of induced earthquakes still remain elusive. In particular, do induced and tectonic earthquake sequences in CEUS share the same statistics, for example the Omori's law [Utsu et al., 1995] and the Gutenberg-Richter's law? Some studies have show that most naturally occurring earthquake sequences are driven by cascading-type triggering. Hence, they would follow the typical Gutenberg-Richter relation and Omori's aftershock decay and could be well described by multi-dimensional point-process models such as Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) [Ogata, 1988; Zhuang et al., 2012]. However, induced earthquakes are likely driven by external forcing such as injected fluid pressure, and hence would not be well described by the ETAS model [Llenos and Michael, 2013]. Existing catalogs in CEUS (e.g. the ANSS catalog) have relatively high magnitude of completeness [e.g., Van Der Elst et al., 2013] and hence may not be ideal for a detailed ETAS modeling analysis. A waveform matched filter technique has been successfully applied to detect many missing earthquakes in CEUS with a sparse network in Illinois [Yang et al., 2009] and on single station in Texas, Oklahoma and Colorado [e.g., Van Der Elst et al., 2013]. In addition, the deployment of the USArray station in CEUS also helped to expand the station coverage. In this study, we systematically detect missing events during 14 moderate-size (M>=4) earthquake sequences since 2000 in CEUS and quantify their statistical parameters (e.g. b, a, K, and p values) and spatio-temporal evolutions. Then we compare the statistical parameters and the spatio-temporal evolution pattern between induced and naturally occurring earthquake sequences to see if one or more diagnostic parameters exist. Our comprehensive analysis of earthquake sequences

  1. Statistical discrimination of induced and tectonic earthquake sequences in Central and Eastern US based on waveform detected catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Daniels, C.; Smith, E.; Peng, Z.; Chen, X.; Wagner, L. S.; Fischer, K. M.; Hawman, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2001, the number of M>3 earthquakes increased significantly in Central and Eastern United States (CEUS), likely due to waste-water injection, also known as "induced earthquakes" [Ellsworth, 2013]. Because induced earthquakes are driven by short-term external forcing and hence may behave like earthquake swarms, which are not well characterized by branching point-process models, such as the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model [Ogata, 1988]. In this study we focus on the 02/15/2014 M4.1 South Carolina and the 06/16/2014 M4.3 Oklahoma earthquakes, which likely represent intraplate tectonic and induced events, respectively. For the South Carolina event, only one M3.0 aftershock is identified by the ANSS catalog, which may be caused by a lack of low-magnitude events in this catalog. We apply a recently developed matched filter technique to detect earthquakes from 02/08/2014 to 02/22/2014 around the epicentral region. 15 seismic stations (both permanent and temporary USArray networks) within 100 km of the mainshock are used for detection. The mainshock and aftershock are used as templates for the initial detection. Newly detected events are employed as new templates, and the same detection procedure repeats until no new event can be added. Overall we have identified more than 10 events, including one foreshock occurred ~11 min before the M4.1 mainshock. However, the numbers of aftershocks are still much less than predicted with the modified Bath's law. For the Oklahoma event, we use 1270 events from the ANSS catalog and 182 events from a relocated catalog as templates to scan through continuous recordings 3 days before to 7 days after the mainshock. 12 seismic stations within the vicinity of the mainshock are included in the study. After obtaining more complete catalogs for both sequences, we plan to compare the statistical parameters (e.g., b, a, K, and p values) between the two sequences, as well as their spatial-temporal migration pattern, which may

  2. Implications of East Asian summer and winter monsoons for interannual aerosol variations over central-eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xugeng; Zhao, Tianliang; Gong, Sunling; Xu, Xiangde; Han, Yongxiang; Yin, Yan; Tang, Lili; He, Hongchang; He, Jinhai

    2016-03-01

    Air quality change is generally driven by two factors: pollutant emissions and meteorology, which are difficult to distinguish via observations. To identify the contribution of meteorological factor to air quality change, an aerosol simulation from 1995 to 2004 with the global air quality model GEM-AQ/EC was designed without year-to-year changes in the anthropogenic aerosol (including sulfate and organic and black carbon) emissions over the 10-year span. To assess the impact of interannual variations of East Asian monsoon (EAM) on air quality change in China, this modeling study focused on the region of central-eastern China (CEC), a typical East Asian monsoon (EAM) region with high anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The simulation analysis showed that the interannual variability in surface aerosols over CEC was driven by fluctuation in meteorological factors associated with EAM changes. Large amplitudes of interannual variability in surface aerosol concentrations reaching 20-30% relative to the 10-year averages were found over southern CEC in summer and over northern CEC in winter. The weakened near-surface winds of EAMs in both summer and winter were significantly correlated with aerosol increases over most areas of CEC. The summer and winter monsoon changes enhance the surface aerosol concentrations with increasing trend rates exceeding 30% and 40% over the southern and northern CEC region, respectively, during the 10 years. The composite analyses of aerosol concentrations in weak and strong monsoon years revealed that positive anomalies in surface aerosol concentrations during weak summer monsoon years were centered over the vast CEC region from the North China Plain to the Sichuan Basin, and the anomaly pattern with "northern higher" and "southern lower" surface aerosol levels was distributed over CEC in weak winter monsoon years. Aerosol washout by summer monsoon rainfall exerted an impact on CEC aerosol distribution in summer; aerosol dry depositions in

  3. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  4. Natural radioactivity and radiation hazard assessment of phosphate mining, Quseir-Safaga area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim; El-Shershaby, Amal; Zeidan, Ibrahim; El-Ahll, Lina Sayed

    2016-06-01

    Quseir-Safaga area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, includes Duwi Formation, which contains uranium-bearing phosphate beds. The present work used the integrated carborne γ-ray spectrometric data, X-ray analysis and HPGe γ-ray spectrometer data to investigate the radioactive zones at this area. Carborne γ-ray spectrometric survey revealed an increase of equivalent uranium, up to 182 ppm. Maps were drawn to show the results of the three radioelements K, eU, eTh and the eU/eTh ratio. The eU and (eU/eTh) maps reveal that there are twelve important anomalies, associated mainly with phosphate mines. The Hamrawein mines at the northwestern part in the study area seem to represent the highest U-anomalies. Twelve phosphate samples were collected from the determined twelve anomalies. They were analyzed with HPGe detector gamma-ray spectrometer. It was found that the results of radioelement concentrations by carborne survey agree well with that obtained by HPGe. Both of them show that phosphate mines effectively contribute to eU anomalies, occurring in the study area. Meanwhile, 40K, 238U and 232Th concentrations in phosphate samples range from 91 to 169, 864 to 3104 and 28.4 to 106 Bq/kg respectively. The highest concentration of 238U (3104 Bq/kg) occurs in the north of the studied area, close to Hamrawein city. The average concentration of 238U in the analyzed samples is 1766 Bq/kg, which is 53 times higher than the worldwide average value reaching 33 Bq/kg. The highest 232Th concentration value reaching 106 Bq/kg is 2.4 times higher than the worldwide value attaining 45 Bq/kg. The absorbed dose rate for the phosphate samples shows the highest value reaching 1468 nGy/h. This is more than 25 times the worldwide average value 58 nGy/h. The annual effective absorbed dose is also high and reached 1.8 mSv/y, which is about twice higher than the permitted value for public exposure of 1.0 mSv/y. The maximum external hazardous index value of 9.2 is more than nine times the unity

  5. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  6. Age of irrigation water in ground water from the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L.N.; Rupert, M.G.; Busenberg, E.; Schlosser, P.

    2000-01-01

    Stable isotope data (2H and 18O) were used in conjunction with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) data to determine the fraction and age of irrigation water in ground water mixtures from farmed parts of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) Aquifer in south-central Idaho. Two groups of waters were recognized: (1) regional background water, unaffected by irrigation and fertilizer application, and (2) mixtures of irrigation water from the Snake River with regional background water. New data are presented comparing CFC and 3H/3He dating of water recharged through deep fractured basalt, and dating of young fractions in ground water mixtures. The 3H/3He ages of irrigation water in most mixtures ranged from about zero to eight years. The CFC ages of irrigation water in mixtures ranged from values near those based on 3H/3He dating to values biased older than the 3H/3He ages by as much as eight to 10 years. Unsaturated zone air had CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations that were 60% to 95%, and 50% to 90%, respectively, of modern air concentrations and were consistently contaminated with CFC-11. Irrigation water diverted from the Snake River was contaminated with CFC-11 but near solubility equilibrium with CFC-12 and CFC-113. The dating indicates ground water velocities of 5 to 8 m/d for water along the top of the ESRP Aquifer near the southwestern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Many of the regional background waters contain excess terrigenic helium with a 3He/4He isotope ratio of 7 x 10-6 to 11 x 10-6 (R/Ra = 5 to 8) and could not be dated. Ratios of CFC data indicate that some rangeland water may contain as much as 5% to 30% young water (ages of less than or equal to two to 11.5 years) mixed with old regional background water. The relatively low residence times of ground water in irrigated parts of the ESRP Aquifer and the dilution with low-NO3 irrigation water from the Snake River lower the potential for

  7. Timing and duration of the Central Atlantic magmatic province in the Newark and Culpeper basins, eastern U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, Andrea; Jourdan, Fred; Puffer, John H.; Cuppone, Tiberio; Tanner, Lawrence H.; Weems, Robert E.; Bertrand, Hervé; Cirilli, Simonetta; Bellieni, Giuliano; De Min, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    New major and trace element data and 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages constrain the timing, duration and time-related geochemical evolution of the Central Atlantic magmatic province in the U.S.A. (Newark and Culpeper basins) and refine correlations with basaltic lava flows from other Late Triassic-Early Jurassic circum-Atlantic basins. The precise, statistically robust 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages were obtained on biotite and on fresh plagioclase and calculated using the latest 40K decay constants. These ages are supported by a general consistency of the Ca/K calculated from 37Ar/ 39Ar of the plateau steps and the Ca/K obtained by detailed electron microprobe analyses on plagioclase phenocrysts. The ages of five analyzed basalt lava flows, from all three lava flow units in the Newark basins, and the ages of two sill samples are indistinguishable, indicating a brief magmatic peak phase at 201.8 ± 0.7 Ma. Recalibrated 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages from the entire province indicate a near-synchronous onset and peak volcanic activity at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary within the circum-Atlantic basins from the U.S.A., Canada and Morocco. The early erupted magmas (Moroccan Lower to Upper basalts, the Fundy basin North Mountain Basalt, and Orange Mountain and equivalent U.S.A. flows) yield an enriched geochemical signature (e.g., with relatively high La/Yb), whereas late magmas in the U.S.A. (Hook Mountain and Hampden basalts) and Morocco (Recurrent basalt) yield relatively depleted geochemical compositions (low La/Yb). A slight, but significant age difference for eruption of Hook Mountain and Hampden basalts (200.3 ± 0.9 Ma) and Recurrent basalts (198.2 ± 1.1 Ma) is interpreted as evidence of a diachronous northward rift-drift transition during break-up of Pangea. Our data indicate also a prolonged intrusive sequence that continued until about 195 Ma at the Palisades sill and is consistent with sporadic late CAMP magmatism for dykes from the south-eastern U.S.A. and for intrusions from

  8. Paleoproterozoic accretionary and collisional processes and the build-up of the Borborema Province (NE Brazil): Geochronological and geochemical evidence from the Central Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Sérgio P.; Lages, Geysson A.; Brasilino, Roberta G.; Miranda, Alan W. A.

    2015-03-01

    Several Brasiliano-Pan-African belts consist of large areas of reworked Paleoproterozoic rocks. Characterization of these rocks is needed to place better controls on Precambrian paleogeographic reconstructions. The Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, occupies a central position in West Gondwana configuration, and knowledge of its geological evolution is crucial to infer relationships between Paleoproterozoic units in South America and Africa. Here, we report U-Pb ages, major- and trace-elements analyses and Sm-Nd isotopic data for orthogneisses in the eastern portion of Central Domain. The dominant basement units in the study area are banded gneisses of intermediate composition and relatively juvenile character, and migmatitic gneisses of granitic composition with Archean Nd TDM model ages. One sample of the banded gneiss yielded a weighted 207Pb/206Pb age of 2096 ± 23 Ma and an upper intercept age of 2044 ± 27 Ma, which we interpret, respectively, as ages of crystallization and metamorphism. Two large units of migmatitic gneiss in the southern and central parts of the area gave ages of, respectively, 2057 ± 20 Ma and 2055 ± 23 Ma; an orthoamphibolite associated with the latter yielded crystallization age of 2042 ± 11 Ma and metamorphic age of 1996 ± 13 Ma. All these rocks have geochemical signatures typical of subduction zone-related magmas. Combined with evidence provided by previous studies, we suggest that the evolution of the study area starts with island arc construction around 2.2 Ga, leading to an expressive volcanic arc edifice by 2.13-2.10 Ga. By 2.06 Ga, the crust had evolved enough to become intruded by magmas formed at the mantle wedge of the now largely continental magmatic arc, which continued to be intruded by mantle melts until at least 2.04 Ga. An augen gneiss in the northern part of the area, with an age of 2109 ± 15 Ma, and a migmatitic gneiss with a much older age (2183 ± 9 Ma), both of which have geochemical characteristics akin

  9. A short note on ground-motion recordings from the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake and ground-motion prediction equations in the Central and Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.; Lu, M.

    2011-01-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M 7.9) occurred along the western edge of the eastern China SCR and was well recorded by modern strong-motion instruments: 93 strong-motion stations within 1.4 to 300 km rupture distance recorded the main event. Preliminary comparisons show some similarities between ground-motion attenuation in the Wenchuan region and the central and eastern United States, suggesting that ground motions from the Wenchuan earthquake could be used as a database providing constraints for developing GMPEs for large earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

  10. New geological and single-zircon Pb evaporation data from the Central Guyana Domain, southeastern Roraima, Brazil: Tectonic implications for the central region of the Guyana Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Marcelo E.; Macambira, Moacir J. B.; Valente, Sérgio de C.

    2008-11-01

    Metagranitoid rocks, mylonites, leucogneisses and granulites occur in the Central Guyana Domain (CGD) near the UatumÖAnauá Domain (UAD) boundary, southeastern Roraima (Brazil). These rocks are oriented along NE-SW and E-W trends and dip to NW and N, respectively. Single-zircon Pb evaporation results yielded 1724 ± 14 Ma and 1889 ± 3 Ma for a syn-kinematic foliated hornblende-biotite monzogranite and a granodioritic mylonite, respectively. These results point to a new tectonic event (Itã Event) in the area in addition to the 1.94-1.93 Ga (late- to post-Transamazonian) and the 1.35-0.98 Ga (K'Mudku) thermal tectonic events. This new event may be related, at least locally, with the evolution of the Columbia Supercontinent. In addition, the Itã Fault System is younger than 1.89 Ga (granodioritic mylonite age), contrasting with the Barauana high-grade lineament and 1.94 Ga polydeformed rocks, pointing to the needs of a major revision of lithostratigraphic column currently proposed for the CGD as well as the CGD and UAD boundary.

  11. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  12. Long-range atmospheric transport of PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs to the central and eastern Mediterranean and changes of PCB and PBDE congener patterns in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Marie D.; Heil, Angelika; Kukučka, Petr; Kuta, Jan; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Lammel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The central and eastern Mediterranean is a receptor area for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted in western, central and eastern Europe, particularly during summer. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, DDXs, PBDEs, penta- and hexachlorobenzene were measured during a ship-borne survey in the summer of 2010. The concentration of PCBs (sum of 7 congeners) was 3.61 (2.08-7.72) pg m-3, of which 6.7% was associated with the particulate phase. The mean concentration of DDT isomers and their metabolites, DDE and DDD, was 2.60 (0.46-7.60) pg m-3 (particulate mass fraction θ = 0.097), of penta- and hexachlorobenzene 0.22 (<0.39-2.80) pg m-3 and 6.29 (2.48-24.16) pg m-3, respectively, and of PBDEs (sum of 8 congeners) 7.31 (2.80-19.89) pg m-3. The air masses studied had been transported mostly across central Europe, some crossing western Europe. The observed changes of PCB congener patterns along transport routes are in agreement with the perception that the reaction with the OH radical is dominating PCB atmospheric lifetime, and indicate an overestimation of the second order gas-phase reaction rate coefficient of PCB153 with OH by structure-activity relationship.

  13. Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alheit, Jürgen; Licandro, Priscilla; Coombs, Steve; Garcia, Alberto; Giráldez, Ana; Santamaría, Maria Teresa Garcia; Slotte, Aril; Tsikliras, Athanassios C.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of abundance and migrations of populations of small pelagic clupeoid fish such as anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sardinella (Sardinella aurita), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the eastern North and Central Atlantic between Senegal and Norway vary in synchrony with the warm and cool phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). This is shown by compiling retrospective data on fish catches and anecdotal observations, which in some cases date back to the mid-19th century. The AMO is defined as the de-trended mean of North Atlantic (0-60°N) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, it is not primarily the temperature which drives the dynamics of the small pelagic fish populations. Instead, the AMO seems to be a proxy for complex processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system of the North Atlantic. This is manifested in large-scale changes in strength and direction of the current system that move water masses around the North Atlantic and likely involves the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) and the subpolar gyre (SPG). The contractions and expansions of the SPG apparently play a key role. This was particularly obvious in the mid-1990s, when the SPG abruptly contracted with the result that warm subtropical water masses moved to the north and east. Small pelagic fish populations in the eastern North and Central Atlantic, including those in the Mediterranean responded quickly by changing abundances and migrating northwards. It seems that the complex ocean-atmosphere changes in the mid-1990s, which are described in the text in detail, caused a regime shift in the ecosystems of the eastern North and Central Atlantic and the small pelagic clupeoid fish populations are the sentinels of this shift.

  14. Reprint of “Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) modulates dynamics of small pelagic fishes and ecosystem regime shifts in the eastern North and Central Atlantic”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alheit, Jürgen; Licandro, Priscilla; Coombs, Steve; Garcia, Alberto; Giráldez, Ana; Santamaría, Maria Teresa Garcia; Slotte, Aril; Tsikliras, Athanassios C.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamics of abundance and migrations of populations of small pelagic clupeoid fish such as anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sardinella (Sardinella aurita), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) in the eastern North and Central Atlantic between Senegal and Norway vary in synchrony with the warm and cool phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). This is shown by compiling retrospective data on fish catches and anecdotal observations, which in some cases date back to the mid-19th century. The AMO is defined as the de-trended mean of North Atlantic (0-60°N) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, it is not primarily the temperature which drives the dynamics of the small pelagic fish populations. Instead, the AMO seems to be a proxy for complex processes in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system of the North Atlantic. This is manifested in large-scale changes in strength and direction of the current system that move water masses around the North Atlantic and likely involves the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), the Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) and the subpolar gyre (SPG). The contractions and expansions of the SPG apparently play a key role. This was particularly obvious in the mid-1990s, when the SPG abruptly contracted with the result that warm subtropical water masses moved to the north and east. Small pelagic fish populations in the eastern North and Central Atlantic, including those in the Mediterranean responded quickly by changing abundances and migrating northwards. It seems that the complex ocean-atmosphere changes in the mid-1990s, which are described in the text in detail, caused a regime shift in the ecosystems of the eastern North and Central Atlantic and the small pelagic clupeoid fish populations are the sentinels of this shift.

  15. Impacts of decaying eastern and central Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone activities over the western North Pacific in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxing; Xie, Ruihuang; Wang, Faming; Huang, Fei

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the influences of the decaying eastern Pacific El Niño (EP-El Niño) and central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño) on tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the western North Pacific (WNP) during July, August, and September (JAS). During this period, TC geneses and tracks are reduced in the central and eastern WNP. However, TC tracks reaching the Philippines increase, and more TC geneses appear west of 145°E during EP-El Niño. During CP-El Niño, tracks reaching the South China Sea (SCS) and southeast coast of China increase, and positive anomalies of TC genesis are found in the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS. It is possible that the different variations of the anomalous anticyclone over east of the Philippines in the WNP induced by El Niños are instrumental to the different TC variations in the two types of decaying El Niños during JAS. Compared with EP-El Niño, strengthening and northward expansion of the anomalous anticyclone during CP-El Niño cause a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high in summer, which is responsible for more westward TC tracks over the SCS and southeast coast of China. This northward expansion can cause the center of suppressed TC geneses in the central WNP to migrate further north during CP-El Niño. A decreased magnitude of vertical shear dominates the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS, which enhances TC formation in these regions during CP-El Niño.

  16. Impacts of decaying eastern and central Pacific El Niños on tropical cyclone activities over the western North Pacific in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuxing; Xie, Ruihuang; Wang, Faming; Huang, Fei

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the influences of the decaying eastern Pacific El Niño (EP - El Niño) and central Pacific El Niño (CP - El Niño) on tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the western North Pacific (WNP) during July, August and September (JAS). During this period, TC geneses and tracks are reduced in the central and eastern WNP. However, TC tracks reaching the Philippines increase, and more TC geneses appear west of 145°E during EP - El Niño. During CP - El Niño, tracks reaching the South China Sea (SCS) and southeast coast of China increase, and positive anomalies of TC genesis are found in the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS. It is possible that the different variation of the anomalous anticyclone over east of the Philippines in the WNP induced by El Niños are instrumental to different TC variations in the two types of decaying El Niños during JAS. Compared with EP - El Niño, strengthening and northward expansion of the anomalous anticyclone during CP - El Niño cause a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high in summer, which is responsible for more westward TC tracks over the SCS and southeast coast of China. This northward expansion can cause the center of suppressed TC geneses in the central WNP to migrate further north during CP - El Niño. A decreased magnitude of vertical shear dominates the southern part of the central WNP and southern SCS, which enhances TC formation in these regions during CP - El Niño.

  17. A review of the genus Agapetus Curtis (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) in eastern and central North America, with description of 12 new species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etnier, David A.; Parker, Charles R.; Baxter, John T., Jr.; Long, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-nine species of caddisflies in the genus Agapetus Curtis in eastern and central North America are reviewed. Twelve are described as new species: Agapetus aphallus (known only from females); Agapetus baueri, Agapetus flinti, Agapetus harrisi, Agapetus hesperus, Agapetus ibis, Agapetus kirchneri, Agapetus meridionalis, Agapetus pegram, Agapetus ruiteri, Agapetus stylifer, and Agapetus tricornutus. Agapetus rossi Denning 1941 is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of Agapetus walkeri (Betten and Mosely 1940), new synonym. A key to males is provided, and species’ distributions are mapped.

  18. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested. PMID:23275485

  19. Generation of a Maize B Centromere Minimal Map Containing the Central Core Domain

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Nathanael A.; Douglas, Ryan N.; Jackson, Caroline E.; Birchler, James A.; Dawe, R. Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The maize B centromere has been used as a model for centromere epigenetics and as the basis for building artificial chromosomes. However, there are no sequence resources for this important centromere. Here we used transposon display for the centromere-specific retroelement CRM2 to identify a collection of 40 sequence tags that flank CRM2 insertion points on the B chromosome. These were confirmed to lie within the centromere by assaying deletion breakpoints from centromere misdivision derivatives (intracentromere breakages caused by centromere fission). Markers were grouped together on the basis of their association with other markers in the misdivision series and assembled into a pseudocontig containing 10.1 kb of sequence. To identify sequences that interact directly with centromere proteins, we carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation using antibodies to centromeric histone H3 (CENH3), a defining feature of functional centromeric sequences. The CENH3 chromatin immunoprecipitation map was interpreted relative to the known transmission rates of centromere misdivision derivatives to identify a centromere core domain spanning 33 markers. A subset of seven markers was mapped in additional B centromere misdivision derivatives with the use of unique primer pairs. A derivative previously shown to have no canonical centromere sequences (Telo3-3) lacks these core markers. Our results provide a molecular map of the B chromosome centromere and identify key sequences within the map that interact directly with centromeric histone H3. PMID:26511496

  20. From Central Planning to Markets: 20 Years of Post-Socialist Transformation in an Eastern German County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelmann, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The Berlin Wall was one of the most visible symbols of two worlds that could not view each other. Thus, the fall of the Berlin Wall--and the fall of Communist regimes all over Eastern Europe, ultimately including the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself--removed the barrier to visibility. These events were revolutions that resulted in the end of…

  1. Central Corneal Thickness in Spectral-Domain OCT and Associations with Ocular and Systemic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Joachim Ernst; Vossmerbaeumer, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Background. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows quantitative analysis of the anterior segment of the eye with a noncontact examination. The aim of this study is to analyze associations of central corneal thickness (CCT) as measured by OCT with ocular and systemic cardiovascular parameters. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 734 persons was performed in a working age population. Only healthy eyes were included. A comprehensive ophthalmological examination including refraction, noncontact tonometry, and imaging of the anterior segment by SD-OCT was performed. In parallel, a broad range of systemic cardiovascular parameters were measured. Associations were analyzed using a generalized estimating equations' model. Results. CCT measurements showed a significant association with corneal curvature and intraocular pressure: a thinner CCT was associated with a flatter cornea and with lower intraocular pressure (p < 0.001). Age was positively associated with CCT (p < 0.001); all other cardiovascular parameters were not associated. Conclusion. A thinner cornea is associated with a flatter surface and with lower intraocular pressure readings, while there are no independent associations with refraction and systemic cardiovascular parameters. Our findings highlight the value of SD-OCT CCT measurements as a standard tool in anterior segment analysis. PMID:27340561

  2. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and shallow mantle of the Central and Eastern United States by seismic surface wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitz, Fred F.; Mooney, Walter D.

    2016-01-01

    Seismic surface waves from the Transportable Array of EarthScope's USArray are used to estimate phase velocity structure of 18 to 125 s Rayleigh waves, then inverted to obtain three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure of the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) down to ˜200 km. The obtained lithosphere structure confirms previously imaged CEUS features, e.g., the low seismic-velocity signature of the Cambrian Reelfoot Rift and the very low velocity at >150 km depth below an Eocene volcanic center in northwestern Virginia. New features include high-velocity mantle stretching from the Archean Superior Craton well into the Proterozoic terranes and deep low-velocity zones in central Texas (associated with the late Cretaceous Travis and Uvalde volcanic fields) and beneath the South Georgia Rift (which contains Jurassic basalts). Hot spot tracks may be associated with several imaged low-velocity zones, particularly those close to the former rifted Laurentia margin.

  3. Seismic Imaging of a Continental Intraplate: Long-Term Persistence of Fossil Rifts and Hot Spots in the Central and Eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollitz, F. F.; Mooney, W. D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic surface waves from the Transportable Array of Earthscope's USArray are used to estimate phase velocity structure of 18 to 125s Rayleigh waves, then corrected for lateral crustal thickness variations (with CRUST1.0) and inverted to obtain three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure of the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) down to ~200 km. The obtained lithosphere structure confirms previously imaged features in the CEUS, e.g., the low seismic velocity signature of Proterozoic to Cambrian fossil rifts, the very low velocity at >150 km depth below an Eocene volcanic center in northwestern Virginia, and the very low velocity along a corridor stretching from eastern New York to New Hampshire. The model also reveals new features. The high-velocity Granite-Rhyolite Province sharply bounds the Grenville front at mid-lithosphere depth, suggesting that it acted as a backstop during the Grenville orogeny ca. 1.2 - 1.0 Ga. High-velocity mantle extending ˜ 200 km deep stretches from the Archean Superior Craton well into the Proterozoic terrains (Granite-Rhyolite, Mazatzal and Yavapai provinces). This is consistent with independent seismic velocity images and suggests that the thickness of Proterozoic lithosphere is generally ˜ 200 km. A deep low-velocity zone in central Texas is associated with the late Cretaceous Travis and Uvalde volcanic fields, and a similar deep low-velocity zone is located beneath the South Georgia Rift, which contains Jurassic basalts associated with the Central Atlantic magmatic province. Hotspot tracks may be associated with several of the low-velocity zones, and the central Texas, New York-New Hampshire, and southern Georgia zones may also be associated with the former rifted Laurentia margin. This suggests a systematic pattern whereby transient mantle thermal perturbations are accentuated near former failed rifts or rift margins.

  4. Process Domains in Synthetic Landscapes: Slope-Area Relationships in the Mountaintop Mining Region of Central Appalachia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Ross, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and the governing geomorphic processes that shape them have been described in a conceptual framework of process domains. At a coarse scale, process domains are segregated between hillslope, colluvial, and alluvial processes, which can be distinguished by governing erosional processes and partitioned by local slope-drainage area relationships. In landscapes that have experienced dramatic topographic alteration such as the mountaintop coal-mining (MTM) region of central Appalachia, the resulting modified environment may be considered a synthetic landscape. Such a landscape has process domains that are decoupled from prior landscape evolution trajectories. In particular, landslide and debris flow processes, which are a predominant geomorphic agent in these steep mountain systems and a primary sediment delivery mechanism to the downstream fluvial network, may be eliminated from this landscape and detectable through changes in slope-area relationships. We evaluate differences in slope-area relationships using 10-m DEMs between two time periods, pre-mined and post-mined. At five study site located within the MTM region in the central Appalachian Mountains, US, we compare slope-area changes to adjacent unmined landscapes over the same time periods. Distinct differences exist in the character of slope-area relationships between unmined and MTM sites and local slopes are systematically and considerably reduced in all process zones of mined sites. In particular, there is an expansion of the unchanneled valley zone through either an individual or simultaneous upslope shift into the hillslope region and downslope shift into the debris flow region. In addition, local slopes are markedly reduced (33% to 44%) in the post-mined period relative to the pre-mined period at all sites and are generally below the threshold required to trigger landslides and debris flows. The consequence of altered erosion processes in this upper portion of the catchment, particularly the

  5. Family medicine in post-communist Europe needs a boost. Exploring the position of family medicine in healthcare systems of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have experienced a lot of changes at the end of the 20th century, including changes in the health care systems and especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to systematically assess the position of family medicine in these countries, using the same methodology within all the countries. Methods A key informants survey in 11 Central and Eastern European countries and Russia using a questionnaire developed on the basis of systematic literature review. Results Formally, family medicine is accepted as a specialty in all the countries, although the levels of its implementation vary across the countries and the differences are important. In most countries, solo practice is the most predominant organisational form of family medicine. Family medicine is just one of many medical specialties (e.g. paediatrics and gynaecology) in primary health care. Full introduction of family medicine was successful only in Estonia. Conclusions Some of the unification of the systems may have been the result of the EU request for adequate training that has pushed the policies towards higher standards of training for family medicine. The initial enthusiasm of implementing family medicine has decreased because there was no initiative that would support this movement. Internal and external stimuli might be needed to continue transition process. PMID:22409775

  6. Use of a time-domain electromagnetic method with geochemical tracers to explore the salinity anomalies in a small coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekirbane, Anis; Tsujimura, Maki; Kawachi, Atsushi; Lachaal, Fethi; Isoda, Hiroko; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-09-01

    The study area is a small coastal plain in north-eastern Tunisia. It is drained by an ephemeral stream network and is subject to several pollutant discharges such as oilfield brine coming from a neighboring oil company and wastewater from Somâa city, located in the upstream of the plain. Furthermore, a hydraulic head near the coastal part of the aquifer is below sea level, suggesting that seawater intrusion may occur. A time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey, based on 28 soundings, was conducted in Wadi Al Ayn and Daroufa plains to delineate the saline groundwater. Based on longitudinal and transversal resistivity two-dimensional pseudosections calibrated with boring data, the extent of saline water was identified. Geochemical tracers were combined with the resistivity dataset to differentiate the origin of groundwater salinization. In the upstream part of the plain, the infiltration of oilfield brine through the sandy bed of Wadi Al Ayn seems to have a considerable effect on groundwater salinization. However, in the coastal part of the aquifer, groundwater salinization is due to seawater intrusion and the saltwater is reaching an inland extent around 1.3 km from the shoreline. The contribution ratios of saline water bodies derived from the inverted chloride data vary for the oilfield brine from 1 to 13 % and for the seawater from 2 to 21 %.

  7. Use of a time-domain electromagnetic method with geochemical tracers to explore the salinity anomalies in a small coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekirbane, Anis; Tsujimura, Maki; Kawachi, Atsushi; Lachaal, Fethi; Isoda, Hiroko; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    The study area is a small coastal plain in north-eastern Tunisia. It is drained by an ephemeral stream network and is subject to several pollutant discharges such as oilfield brine coming from a neighboring oil company and wastewater from Somâa city, located in the upstream of the plain. Furthermore, a hydraulic head near the coastal part of the aquifer is below sea level, suggesting that seawater intrusion may occur. A time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey, based on 28 soundings, was conducted in Wadi Al Ayn and Daroufa plains to delineate the saline groundwater. Based on longitudinal and transversal resistivity two-dimensional pseudosections calibrated with boring data, the extent of saline water was identified. Geochemical tracers were combined with the resistivity dataset to differentiate the origin of groundwater salinization. In the upstream part of the plain, the infiltration of oilfield brine through the sandy bed of Wadi Al Ayn seems to have a considerable effect on groundwater salinization. However, in the coastal part of the aquifer, groundwater salinization is due to seawater intrusion and the saltwater is reaching an inland extent around 1.3 km from the shoreline. The contribution ratios of saline water bodies derived from the inverted chloride data vary for the oilfield brine from 1 to 13 % and for the seawater from 2 to 21 %.

  8. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Cuschieri, Kate S; Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-12-31

    We present a review of current cervical cancer screening practices, the implementation status of vaccination against human papillomaviruses (HPV) and available data concerning the burden of HPV infection and HPV type-specific distribution in 16 Central and Eastern European countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia. Since published data were relatively scarce, two detailed surveys were conducted during August-October 2011 and in January 2013 to obtain relevant and updated information. The mean prevalence of HPV infection in 8610 women with normal cervical cytology from the region was 12.6%, with HPV16 being the most frequent HPV type. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in women with high-grade cervical lesions was 78.1%. HPV DNA was found in 86.6% of cervical cancers; the combined prevalence of HPV16/18 among HPV positive cases was 87.5%. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in genital warts and laryngeal papillomas was 94.8% and 95.2%, respectively, with HPV6 and HPV11 being the most frequent types. Opportunistic and organized cervical screening, mainly based on conventional cytology, is performed in nine and seven countries in the region, respectively, with the proposed age of the start of screening ranging from 20 to 30 years and the estimated coverage ranging from a few percent to over 70%. At least one of the current HPV prophylactic vaccines is registered in all Central and Eastern European countries except Montenegro. Only Bulgaria, Czech Republic, FYR Macedonia, Latvia, Romania and Slovenia have actually integrated HPV vaccination into their national immunization programme and currently provide routine vaccination free of charge to the primary target population. The key reasons for lack of implementation of HPV vaccination into the national immunization programme are high vaccine cost and

  9. A new Triassic shortening-extrusion tectonic model for Central-Eastern Asia: Structural, geochronological and paleomagnetic investigations in the Xilamulun Fault (North China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pan; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Shi, Guanzhong; Xu, Bei

    2015-09-01

    At the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB), the Xilamulun Fault (XMF) is a key belt to decipher the tectonic evolution of Central-Eastern Asia, as it records the Paleozoic final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, and localizes a Late Triassic intracontinental deformation. In this study, structural analysis, 40Ar-39Ar dating, and paleomagnetic studies were performed to investigate the kinematics of the XMF and to further discuss its Triassic geodynamic significance in the Central-Eastern Asia framework after the Paleozoic Central Asian Orogenic evolution. The structural analyses reveal two phases of ductile deformation. The first one (D1), which displays N-verging and E-W trending folds, is related to the Early Paleozoic collisional event between the NCB and the Songliao-Hunshandake Block (SHB). The second phase (D2) displays a high-angle foliation and a pervasive sub-horizontal E-W stretching lineation with kinematic criteria indicative of dextral strike-slip shearing. The 40Ar-39Ar dating on mylonitic granite places the main shearing event around 227-209 Ma. This D2 shearing is coeval with that of the dextral strike-slip Bayan Obo-Chifeng Fault (BCF) and the Chicheng-Fengning-Longhua Fault to the south, which together constitute a dextral shearing fault system on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. The paleomagnetic study performed on the Middle Permian Guangxingyuan pluton, located between the XMF and BCF, documents a local clockwise rotation of this pluton with respect to the NCB and SHB. Our multidisciplinary study suggests an NNW-SSE shortening and strike-slip shearing dominated tectonic setting on the northern margin of the NCB during the Late Triassic. Combining the contemporaneous dextral strike-slip movements of the XMF and BCF in northern China and the sinistral strike-slip movement of East Gobi Fault (EGF) in southeastern Mongolia with the large-scale tectonic framework, a Late Triassic NNW-SSE shortening-eastward extrusion

  10. Formation and evolution of a Proterozoic magmatic arc: geochemical and geochronological constraints from meta-igneous rocks of the Ongole domain, Eastern Ghats Belt, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Tapabrato; Schenk, Volker; Berndt, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical data and U-Pb zircon results are presented for the intrusive meta-igneous rocks of the Ongole domain, a granulite-facies terrain of the Eastern Ghats Belt in India, with the aim of inferring the tectonic setting and the timing of their formation. Geochemical data suggest that the intrusive meta-igneous rocks (mafic granulites and charnoenderbites) possess trace and rare earth element composition that are typical of magmatic arcs. They are subalkaline, enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements and depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements like Nb, Ta and Ti. These characteristics indicate that the primary magmas of these rocks were derived by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge that had been metasomatized by a slab component. Zircon grains collected from five charnoenderbites are large and euhedral to subhedral and display fine-scale oscillatory growth zoning in CL images, implying a magmatic origin. The grains frequently show narrow-to-broad unzoned overgrowths, implying a metamorphic origin. The oscillatory-zoned cores yield Paleoproterozoic concordia ages of ca. 1,750-1,710 Ma, interpreted as the time of magma emplacement. The unzoned overgrowths yield very late Paleoproterozoic ages of ca. 1,630-1,600 Ma, interpreted as the timing of metamorphism. An enderbite showing both magmatic and metamorphic concordia ages of ca. 1,605 Ma points to the existence of syn-metamorphic intrusions. Together, the presented geochemical and geochronological evidence suggests that the Ongole domain was a magmatic arc near the Indian continent during the Paleoproterozoic. Subsequently, the rocks were metamorphosed during the late Paleoproterozoic, and the terrain was accreted to the Indian craton during the early Mesoproterozoic. The formation and growth of the Ongole domain magmatic arc through subduction-related accretion can be correlated with the growth of Columbia (1.8-1.2 Ga), but its accretion to the

  11. Role of brittle deformation during the initiation of ductile HP-LT shear zone in a metarhyolite (Suretta nappe, Eastern Central Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poilvet, Jean-Charles; Goncalves, Philippe; Oliot, Emilien; Marquer, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Although ductile shear zones are common deformation structures in the middle to deep continental lithosphere, the initiation of such structures among homogeneous and isotropic protolith (e.g. granitoid bodies) is still a matter of debate. Indeed, the lack of consensus concerns the presence and the nature of a preexisting heterogeneity (structural or compositional, such as dykes, joints or cracks). This is mainly due to the lack of observation of preserved precursors, which, if they were present initially, are generally obliterated by subsequent intense deformation. Different conceptual models require a structural precursor, which enables fluids to flow and promotes metamorphic and metasomatic reactions via fluid-rock interactions. Those fluid-rock interactions are commonly presented as a key factor controlling strain localization or lateral propagation. The main goal of this contribution is to present the first observations, to our knowledge, of a preserved brittle precursor of a millimeter scale shear zone under blueschist facies metamorphic conditions. This work provides new evidences into how ductile shear zones occurring within homogeneous and isotropic protolith nucleate and develop. The present study exposes shear zones from the Roffna metarhyolite, a subvolcanic intrusion representing most of the northern part of the Suretta nappe (Penninic domain, Eastern Central Alps). This early Permian massif intruded an older basement and was affected only by Tertiary Alpine tectonics. The heterogeneous strain pattern consists, at all scales of anastomosing shear zones surrounding lenses of nearly undeformed rocks The investigated outcrop is characterized by the presence of a shear zone network from millimetric to plurimetric scale developed under blueschist facies conditions related to continental subduction of the European plate. A combined study including field observations, EBSD analysis, SEM-CL and conventional imaging together with thermodynamic modeling of phase

  12. Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate over the late glacial and Holocene, reconstructed from the sediments of Nar lake, central Turkey, using stable isotopes and carbonate mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Jonathan R.; Jones, Matthew D.; Leng, Melanie J.; Noble, Stephen R.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Sloane, Hilary J.; Sahy, Diana; Eastwood, Warren J.; Roberts, C. Neil

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of high-resolution records of hydroclimate variability in the Eastern Mediterranean from the late glacial and early Holocene. More knowledge of the speed of climate shifts and the degree to which they were synchronous with changes in the North Atlantic or elsewhere is required to understand better the controls on Eastern Mediterranean climate. Using endogenic carbonate from a sediment sequence from Nar Gölü, a maar lake in central Turkey, dated by varve counting and uranium-thorium methods, we present high-resolution (˜25 years) oxygen (δ18O) and carbon isotope records, supported by carbonate mineralogy data, spanning the late glacial and Holocene. δ18Ocarbonate at Nar Gölü has been shown previously to be a strong proxy for regional water balance. After a dry period (i.e. evaporation far exceeding precipitation) in the Younger Dryas, the data show a transition into the relatively wetter early Holocene. In the early Holocene there are two drier periods that appear to peak at ˜9.3 ka and ˜8.2 ka, coincident with cooling 'events' seen in North Atlantic records. After this, and as seen in other records from the Eastern Mediterranean, there is a millennial-scale drying trend through the Mid Holocene Transition. The relatively dry late Holocene is punctuated by centennial-scale drought intervals, at the times of 4.2 ka 'event' and Late Bronze Age societal 'collapse'. Overall, we show that central Turkey is drier when the North Atlantic is cooler, throughout this record and at multiple timescales, thought to be due to a weakening of the westerly storm track resulting from reduced cyclogenesis in the North Atlantic. However, some features, such as the Mid Holocene Transition and the fact the early Holocene dry episodes at Nar Gölü are of a longer duration than the more discrete 'events' seen in North Atlantic records, imply there are additional controls on Eastern Mediterranean hydroclimate.

  13. Transition from a localized to wide deformation along Eastern branch of Central East African Rift: Insights from 3D numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. D.; Koptev, A.; Burov, E. B.; Calais, E.; Gerya, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Central East African Rift (CEAR) bifurcates in two branches (eastern, magma-rich and western, magma-poor) surrounding strong Tanzanian craton. Intensive magmatism and continental flood basalts are largely present in many of the eastern rift segments, but other segments, first of all the western branch, exhibit very small volcanic activity. The Eastern rift is characterized by southward progression of the onset of volcanism, the extensional features and topographic expression of the rift vary significantly north-southward: in northern Kenya the deformation is very wide (some 150-250 km in E-W direction), to the south the rift narrows to 60-70 km, yet further to the south the deformation widens again in the so-called Tanzania divergence zone. Widening of the Eastern branch within its southern part is associated with the impingement of the southward-propagating rift on the strong Masai block situated to east of the Tanzanian craton. To understand the mechanisms behind this complex deformation distribution, we implemented a 3Dl ultra-high resolution visco-plastic thermo-mechanical numerical model accounting for thermo-rheological structure of the lithosphere and hence captures essential features of the CEAR. The preferred model has a plume seeded slightly to the northeast of the craton center, consistent with seismic tomography, and produces surface strain distribution that is in good agreement with observed variation of deformation zone width along eastern side of Tanzanian craton: localized above bulk of mantle material deflected by cratonic keel narrow high strain zone (Kenia Rift) is replaced by wide distributed deformations within areas situated to north (northern Kenya, Turkana Rift) and to south (Tanzania divergence, Masai block) of it. These results demonstrate significant differences in the impact of the rheological profile on rifting style in case of dominant active rifting compared to dominant passive rifting. Narrow rifting, conventionally attributed to

  14. High-resolution seismic reflection survey results in the eastern coastal area of Boso Peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuyama, S.; Sato, T.

    2015-12-01

    GSJ has conducted the coastal project since 2008 in order to equip seamless geoinformations of land and sea. This project has approached the eastern coastal area in Boso Peninsula, eastern part of the Kanto region, Japan. In the waters off the Boso Peninsula, the Philippine Sea plate subducts under the Honshu arc. Therefore, the subsurface structure in this area is important for understanding of tectonics of Kanto region, Japan. In this study, we obtained seismic sections of ca. 1100 km in total length with a boomer and multi-channel streamer (24 channel with 3.125 m spacing) and report the geological significance of the subsurface structure in the area. We mainly research the Kujukuri area, eastern part of Boso peninsula. The broad shelf characterizes this area and that width is ca. 50 km. A clear unconformity can be distinguished separating two strata and we define them as the Kujukuri A Unit and the Kujukuri B Unit, in ascending order. The planner stratification characterizes the Kujukuri A Unit and this unit buries many channels. Distinct stratification deformed by synclines and anticlines develops in the Kujukuri B Unit. The amounts of displacement of them are over 50 msec (TWT) and it exceeds 100 msec in some locations. Additionally, a lot of faults develop in the Kujukuri B Unit near land and the vertical amounts of displacement of faults exceed 100 msec. These structures in the Kujukuri B Unit might have an effect on tectonics of the Kanto region. The understanding of geology in the Kujukuri area contributes to the tectonics of Japan.

  15. Estimating the Impact of Reducing Under-Nutrition on the Tuberculosis Epidemic in the Central Eastern States of India: A Dynamic Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Oxlade, Olivia; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Murray, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) and under-nutrition are widespread in many low and middle-income countries. Momentum to prioritize under-nutrition has been growing at an international level, as demonstrated by the "Scaling Up Nutrition" movement. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for developing TB disease. The objective of this study was to project future trends in TB related outcomes under different scenarios for reducing under-nutrition in the adult population in the Central Eastern states of India. Methods A compartmental TB transmission model stratified by body mass index was parameterized using national and regional data from India. We compared TB related mortality and incidence under several scenarios that represented a range of policies and programs designed to reduce the prevalence of under-nutrition, based on the experience and observed trends in similar countries. Results The modeled nutrition intervention scenarios brought about reductions in TB incidence and TB related mortality in the Central Eastern Indian states ranging from 43% to 71% and 40% to 68% respectively, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Modest reductions in under-nutrition averted 4.8 (95% UR 0.5, 17.1) million TB cases and 1.6 (95% UR 0.5, 5.2) million TB related deaths over a period of 20 years of intervention, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Complete elimination of under-nutrition in the Central Eastern states averted 9.4 (95% UR 1.5, 30.6) million TB cases and 3.2 (95% UR 0.7-, 10.1) million TB related deaths, relative to the scenario of no nutritional intervention. Conclusion Our study suggests that intervening on under-nutrition could have a substantial impact on TB incidence and mortality in areas with high prevalence of under-nutrition, even if only small gains in under-nutrition can be achieved. Focusing on under-nutrition may be an effective way to reduce both rates of TB and other diseases associated with under

  16. Studies in Neotropical Paleobotany. XV. A Mio-Pliocene palynoflora from the Eastern Cordillera, Bolivia: implications for the uplift history of the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Graham, A; Gregory-Wodzicki, K M; Wright, K L

    2001-09-01

    An assemblage of 33 fossil pollen and spores, recovered from the 3600-m high Pislepampa locality of E. W. Berry, Eastern Cordillera, Bolivia, adds considerably to our knowledge of three aspects of the region in late Neogene time: (1) the paleovegetation, (2) the paleoclimate, and (3) the paleoelevation of the Central Andes. The plant microfossils recognized are Isoetes, Lycopodium (three types), Cnemidaria, Cyathea (three types), Grammitis, Hymenophyllum, Pteris, trilete fern spores (two types), Danaea, monolete fern spores (four types), Podocarpus, Gramineae, Palmae, Ilex, cf. Oreopanax, Cavanillesia, cf. Pereskia, Compositae (three types), Ericaceae, Tetrorchidium, and unknowns (three types). The diversity of the Compositae suggest that this flora has a maximum age around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, that is, 6-7 million years. All members of the paleocommunity presently grow in the bosque montano húmedo (cloud forest) along the eastern slope of the Central Andes of Bolivia, which occurs between MATs (mean annual temperatures) of ∼10° and 20°C. The Pislepampa flora probably represents the lower limits of this forest because the fossil leaves collected by Berry from the same locality all have entire margins, suggesting that the flora grew near the cloud forest-tropical forest transition. Presently, the lower limit of the cloud forest forest has MATs of ∼20°C, a mean annual precipitation between 1000 and 1500 mm, and that part containing most of the identified genera of fossil pollen is found at elevations ∼1200-1400 m. These conditions are thus inferred for the Pislepampa flora; however, because of the uncertainty of the magnitude of global climate change and of possible changes in the ecological range of plant genera, we estimate an error of at least ±1000 m for the paleoelevation estimate. When the total uplift is corrected for probable amounts of erosionally driven isostatic rebound, the paleoelevation estimate suggests that from one-third to one

  17. [Influence of biomass burning in Central Asia on nitrate concentrations in Urumqi Glacier No. 1, eastern Tianshan Mountains, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Jie; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Wang, Fei-Teng; Li, Zhong-Qin

    2011-02-01

    Influence of biomass burning in Kazakhstan on nitrate concentrations in eastern Tianshan Mountains was studied. 52 samples of surface snow and snow pits were collected from Glacier No. 1 at the headwater of Urumqi River in eastern Tianshan Mountains, China. Nitrate concentrations in these samples were measured and atmospheric transmission was reconstructed with HYSPLIT air trajectory model. The objectives of this study were to identify the relationship between steppes fire and nitrate concentration in snow, and develop deposition process of nitrate caused by biomass burning in alpine glacier at high altitude. Results indicated that nitrate in surface snow could be regarded as a subsidiary indicator of biomass burning for long distance. Correlations for NO3- and K+ were 0.74 from mid September to late October 2002, which was obviously higher than mean concentration. It took 2-6 days from fire spots in Kazakhstan to sampling site. Whether the information in air mass with biomass burning products can be recorded or not, was mostly depend on local temperature and precipitation. Eluviation process was prominent at Glacier No. 1 in wet season, so postdepositional effect should be considered in paleoclimate reconstruction by ice core. PMID:21528552

  18. Mass spectrometric U-series dating of Huanglong Cave in Hubei Province, Central China: evidence for early presence of modern humans in Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Wu, Xianzhu; Wang, Qian; Tu, Hua; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2013-08-01

    Most researchers believe that anatomically modern humans (AMH) first appeared in Africa 160-190 ka ago, and would not have reached eastern Asia until ∼50 ka ago. However, the credibility of these scenarios might have been compromised by a largely inaccurate and compressed chronological framework previously established for hominin fossils found in China. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence indicating the possible presence of AMH in eastern Asia ca. 100 ka ago or even earlier. Here we report high-precision mass spectrometric U-series dating of intercalated flowstone samples from Huanglong Cave, a recently discovered Late Pleistocene hominin site in northern Hubei Province, central China. Systematic excavations there have led to the in situ discovery of seven hominin teeth and dozens of stone and bone artifacts. The U-series dates on localized thin flowstone formations bracket the hominin specimens between 81 and 101 ka, currently the most narrow time span for all AMH beyond 45 ka in China, if the assignment of the hominin teeth to modern Homo sapiens holds. Alternatively this study provides further evidence for the early presence of an AMH morphology in China, through either independent evolution of local archaic populations or their assimilation with incoming AMH. Along with recent dating results for hominin samples from Homo erectus to AMH, a new extended and continuous timeline for Chinese hominin fossils is taking shape, which warrants a reconstruction of human evolution, especially the origins of modern humans in eastern Asia. PMID:23870460

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of central structure domains from mumps virus F protein

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yueyong; Xu, Yanhui; Zhu, Jieqing; Qiu, Bingsheng; Rao, Zihe; Gao, George F.; Tien, Po

    2005-09-01

    Single crystals of the central structure domains from mumps virus F protein have been obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. Fusion of members of the Paramyxoviridae family involves two glycoproteins: the attachment protein and the fusion protein. Changes in the fusion-protein conformation were caused by binding of the attachment protein to the cellular receptor. In the membrane-fusion process, two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) regions, HR1 and HR2, are believed to form a stable six-helix coiled-coil bundle. However, no crystal structure has yet been determined for this state in the mumps virus (MuV, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family). In this study, a single-chain protein consisting of two HR regions connected by a flexible amino-acid linker (named 2-Helix) was expressed, purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete X-ray data set was obtained in-house to 2.2 Å resolution from a single crystal. The crystal belongs to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 161.2, b = 60.8, c = 40.1 Å, β = 98.4°. The crystal structure will help in understanding the molecular mechanism of Paramyxoviridae family membrane fusion.

  20. Homosexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention: the challenge of transferring lessons learned from Western Europe to Central and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael T

    2005-03-01

    In order to stem the rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemics in Eastern Europe a transfer of prevention know-how and experience from Western European countries is necessary. The success of such a transfer is contingent on addressing a number of challenging issues. Monolithic ideas of East/West difference need to give way to the growing empirical evidence which not only shows a tremendous diversity but also many similarities among the 51 countries within the WHO European region. These include similarities regarding sexual attitudes and HIV prevention needs. Western constructs such as a gay identity need to be de-emphasized however, when it comes to promoting human rights (and thus improving HIV prevention for men who have sex with men) in Central and Eastern Europe. In asking the question of what should be transferred from Western Europe to other countries, both the strengths and weaknesses of the last 20 years of prevention need to be considered. In terms of Western European research the strength lies in identifying the social structural causes of HIV transmission. In terms of practice, the successes of instituting country-level structures while also working within the gay community are to be emphasized. Short-comings are evident in terms of reaching men of lower socio-economic status, cultural minorities and sex workers. On such questions, the expertise of Europe as a whole is needed in order to find new answers. PMID:15668214

  1. An Examination of Selected Historical Rainfall-Induced Debris-Flow Events within the Central and Southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L. Scott; Morgan, Benjamin A.; Wooten, R.M.; Morrissey, M.

    2009-01-01

    Generally, every several years, heavy amounts of rainfall trigger a large number of debris flows within the central and southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States. These types of landslides damage buildings, disrupt infrastructure, and occasionally injure and kill people. One of the first large debris flows was described in Pennsylvania in August 1779. The most destructive event occurred during August 19-20, 1969, in Nelson County, Va. During a period of 8 hours, 710 to 800 milimeters of rain triggered more than 3,000 landslides, killing more than 150 people. As the population increases in this region, future storms will likely increase the risks of property damage and loss of life. We provide a general overview of debris flows in the Appalachians, using a compilation of 19 storm events for which rainfall, duration of the storm, and descriptions of the resulting landslides have been substantially documented.

  2. New structural and seismological evidence and interpretation of a lithospheric-scale shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system (central-eastern Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, G.; Scarfı, L.; Cannavò, F.; Koulakov, I.; Monaco, C.

    2016-06-01

    Geological, gravimetric, and seismological data from the central-eastern Sicily (Italy) provide evidences of a NW-SE oriented shear zone at the southern edge of the Ionian subduction system. This structure consists of a near 100 km long lithospheric-scale structural and seismic boundary. In the near-surface, it shows Plio-Pleistocene vertical-axis structural rotations, kilometer-scale topographic imprint, progressive wrenching, and large down-faulting. All these features, together with its location south-west of the subduction system, allow us to interpret the shear zone as the upper plate expression of an abandoned Subduction Transform Edge Propagator fault, working before slab detachment, currently reactivated by elastic rebound or mantle upwelling mechanism triggered by slab detachment, to form an incipient transform belt separating compartments characterized by different motion in the modern context of Africa-Europe convergence.

  3. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  4. NMR structure of a complex formed by the carboxyl-terminal domain of human RAP74 and a phosphorylated peptide from the central domain of the FCP1 phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ao; Abbott, Karen L; Desjardins, Alexandre; Di Lello, Paola; Omichinski, James G; Legault, Pascale

    2009-03-10

    Recycling of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) requires dephosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of the polymerase. FCP1 enables the recycling of RNAPII via its CTD-specific phosphatase activity, which is stimulated by the RAP74 subunit of the general transcription factor TFIIF. Both the central (centFCP1) and C-terminal (cterFCP1) domains of FCP1 interact independently and specifically with the C-terminal domain of RAP74 (cterRAP74), suggesting that these interactions mediate the stimulatory effect of TFIIF on the CTD phosphatase activity of FCP1. Phosphorylation of FCP1 by casein kinase 2 on residues in its central (T584) and C-terminal (S942 and S944) domains stimulates its binding to RAP74 and its CTD phosphatase activity. To improve our understanding of the FCP1-RAP74 interactions, we previously determined the NMR structure of a complex formed by human cterRAP74 and cterFCP1. We now present the high-resolution NMR structure and thermodynamic characterization by isothermal titration calorimetry of a complex formed by the same cterRAP74 domain and a phosphorylated peptide from the central domain of human FCP1 (centFCP1-PO(4)). Comparison of the cterFCP1-cterRAP74 and centFCP1-PO(4)-cterRAP74 complexes indicates that centFCP1 and cterFCP1 both utilize hydrophobic and acidic residues to recognize the same groove of RAP74, but there are significant differences in the details of their interactions. These differences point to the adaptability of RAP74 to recognize the two regions of FCP1. Our NMR and thermodynamic studies further elucidate the complex molecular mechanism by which TFIIF and FCP1 cooperate for RNAPII recycling. PMID:19215094

  5. A new tectonic model for the development of the Eastern Cordillera, Altiplano, and Subandean zones, Bolivian Central Andes, 20[degrees]S latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, T.L.; Isacks, B.L. ); Koch, R.W. )

    1993-02-01

    Construction of a regional transect across the central Andes at 20[degrees]S sheds new light on the relationship between the Altiplano, Eastern Cordillera (EC), and Subandean zones and allows us to refine the two-stage model of Isacks (1988) for the growth of the Central Andes. This new model is based on examination of the regional geology and geophysics, coupled with field investigations, satellite image analysis, and new Ar-Ar geochronology. In this model, widespread Oligocene to mid-Miocene compressional deformation in the Altiplano and EC was followed in the late-Miocene and Pliocene by thrusting localized east of the EC within the Subandean fold-thrust belt. During the first stage of deformation, the Altiplano basin underwent important subsidence and internal deformation. The EC was both deformed internally and thrust westwards over the Altiplano basin, while the present Subandean zone was the site of an early, broad foreland basin which received material eroded from the EC. During the second stage, beginning at [approximately]10 ma, deformation terminated within the EC and became concentrated within the fold-thrust belt in response to large scale overthrusting of the EC above the Brazilian shield; this resulted in major thrusting along the Cabalgamiento Frontal Principal (CFP), which soles into the master Subandean decollement, and [approximately]100 km of telescoping within the early, broad foreland basin. In the EC, this second stage is marked by the elaboration of a regionally extensive erosion surface, ponding of gravels in shallow basins, and the emplacement of giant ignimbrite sheets. The Eastern Cordillera can thus be thought of as a crustal-scale wedge which has been extruded upward and outward on alternate sides during successive stages of late Cenozoic deformation. This motion has served to drive subsidence in both the Altiplano and Subandean foreland basins, as well as shortening in the fold-thrust belt.

  6. Late Pleistocene glaciation in the Central Andes: Temperature versus humidity control — A case study from the eastern Bolivian Andes (17°S) and regional synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kull, C.; Imhof, S.; Grosjean, M.; Zech, R.; Veit, H.

    2008-01-01

    A glacier-climate model was used to calculate climatic conditions in a test site on the east Andean slope around Cochabamba (17°S, Bolivia) for the time of the maximum Late Pleistocene glaciation. Results suggest a massive temperature reduction of about - 6.4 °C (+ 1.4/- 1.3 °C), combined with annual precipitation rates of about 1100 mm (+ 570 mm/- 280 mm). This implies no major change in annual precipitation compared with today. Summer precipitation was the source for the humidity in the past, as is the case today. This climate scenario argues for a maximum advance of the paleo-glaciers in the eastern cordillera during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 20 ka BP), which is confirmed by exposure age dates. In a synthesized view over the central Andes, the results point to an increased summer precipitation-driven Late Glacial (15-10 ka BP) maximum advance in the western part of the Altiplano (18°S-23°S), a temperature-driven maximum advance during full glacial times (LGM) in the eastern cordillera, and a pre- and post-LGM (32 ka BP/14 ka BP) maximum advance around 30°S related to increased precipitation and reduced temperature on the western slope of the Andes. The results indicate the importance of understanding the seasonality and details of the mass balance-climate interaction in order to disentangle drivers for the observed regionally asynchronous past glaciations in the central Andes.

  7. The community of deep-sea decapod crustaceans between 175 and 2600 m in submarine canyons of a volcanic oceanic island (central-eastern Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajuelo, José G.; Triay-Portella, Raül; Santana, José I.; González, José A.

    2015-11-01

    The community structure and faunal composition of deep-sea decapod crustaceans in submarine canyons on the slope off Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands, central-eastern Atlantic) were investigated. Samples were collected during five research cruises (115 stations) at depths between 175 and 2554 m. A total of 26387 decapod specimens, belonging to 24 families and 38 species, were collected with traps. A cluster analysis of the stations showed four distinct assemblages: (i) in the transition area between shelf and slope (175-302 m); (ii) on the upper slope (361-789 m); (iii) on the middle slope (803-1973 m); and iv) on the lower slope (2011-2554 m). The deep-sea decapod fauna of the Canary Islands is dominated by shrimp of the family Pandalidae, which make up more than 23% of the species. Within the Pandalidae, species of the genus Plesionika stand out as those of greatest abundance on the island slope. The greatest diversity of species was located on the upper slope. The standardized mean abundance and mean biomass for the transition zone between the shelf and slope and for the upper slope were nearly 5 times greater in abundance and 4 times greater in biomass than those estimated for the middle slope, and nearly 53 and 29 times greater for the lower slope, indicating a lower abundance and biomass at the shallower part of the insular slope. The mean weight per individual showed an increasing pattern with depth and an inverse pattern with the bottom temperature and salinity. The existence of depth boundaries around the Canary Islands is known to be closely linked to oceanographic conditions, determined by the water masses present in this archipelago explaining the discontinuities observed at depths of 800 and 2000 m. The boundary observed inside the bathymetric region of the Eastern North Atlantic Central Water can be related with the transition zone between the shelf and the slope of the island.

  8. K-Ar dating of synkinematic clay gouges from Neoalpine faults of the Central, Western and Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleuger, Jan; Mancktelow, Neil; Zwingmann, Horst; Manser, Monika

    2012-07-01

    With ongoing Alpine convergence and deformation during exhumation there is a general progression from ductile to brittle behaviour on the Periadriatic Fault and kinematically related faults farther north (e.g. the Simplon-Rhone Fault and a diffuse, discontinuous zone of generally dextral strike-slip movement on the southern boundary of the Aar massif). K-Ar dating of fine grained illite from clay fault gouges provides a reliable method for establishing the maximum age of this transition to brittle faulting and, for short-lived faults, the approximate time of faulting itself. The new results establish that brittle faulting on the northeastern segment of the Canavese Fault (i.e. the part of the Periadriatic Fault southwest of Lago Maggiore) occurred around 20 Ma, with south-side-up kinematics. A K-Ar age of ca. 17 Ma for the crosscutting Giudicarie Fault in the Eastern Alps is effectively identical with an already published pseudotachylyte age and places a lower limit on major and continuous strike slip movements of the Periadriatic Fault. The age of brittle faulting farther north, on the southern border of the Aar Massif, is from 13.6 ± 0.3 to 8.3 ± 1.1 Ma, consistent with the younger cooling and exhumation in this area. The dominantly dextral brittle faulting becoming younger to the north reflects the continued indentation and anticlockwise rotation of Adria as Alpine units become exhumed and progressively welded to the southern block. In contrast to the Eastern Alps, there is no field evidence for (westward) lateral extrusion of Alpine units relative to Adria and the European foreland.

  9. Evidence of Variscan and Alpine tectonics in the structural and thermochronological record of the central Serbo-Macedonian Massif (south-eastern Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antić, Milorad D.; Kounov, Alexandre; Trivić, Branislav; Spikings, Richard; Wetzel, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian Massif (SMM) represents a composite crystalline belt within the Eastern European Alpine orogen, outcropping from the Pannonian basin in the north to the Aegean Sea in the south. The central parts of this massif (south-eastern Serbia) consist of the medium- to high-grade Lower Complex and the low-grade Vlasina Unit. Outcrop- and micro-scale ductile structures in this area document three major stages of ductile deformation. The earliest stage D1 is related to isoclinal folding, commonly preserved as up to decimetre-scale quartz-feldspar rootless fold hinges. D2 is associated with general south-eastward tectonic transport and refolding of earlier structures into recumbent metre- to kilometre-scale tight to isoclinal folds. Stages D1 and D2 could not be temporally separated and probably took place in close sequence. The age of these two ductile deformation stages was constrained to the Variscan orogeny based on indirect geological evidence (i.e. ca. 408-ca. 328). During this period, the SMM was involved in a transpressional amalgamation of the western and eastern parts of the Galatian super-terrane and subsequent collision with Laurussia. Outcrop-scale evidence of the final stage D3 is limited to spaced and crenulation cleavage, which are probably related to formation of large-scale open upright folds as reported previously. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology was applied on hornblende, muscovite, and biotite samples in order to constrain the age of tectonothermal events and activity along major shear zones. These 40Ar/39Ar data reveal three major cooling episodes affecting the central SMM. Cooling below greenschist facies conditions in the western part of the Vlasina Unit took place in a post-orogenic setting (extensional or transtensional) in the early Permian (284 ± 1 Ma). The age of activity along the top-to-the-west shear zone formed within the orthogneiss in the Božica area of the Vlasina Unit was constrained to Middle Triassic (246 ± 1 Ma). This

  10. Lectotype designation for seven species names in the Daucus guttatus complex (Apiaceae) from the central and eastern Mediterranean basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Daucus guttatus complex includes 2-4 species growing from central and northern Italy to the Middle East. They are characterized by being usually annuals up to 50 cm high; and the primary umbels up to 7 cm in diameter with less than 25(35) rays. Discolored umbels are frequent, bearing one to seve...

  11. 77 FR 34125 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Elgin... jointly filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(3) for an intra-corporate family... subsidiary of GTC.\\2\\ \\1\\ At the time of the 2001 CNR/WC transaction, the WCTC family of rail carriers...

  12. 75 FR 7152 - Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Hollis & Eastern Railroad L.L.C.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Stillwater Central Railroad, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption--Hollis... verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to lease and to operate, pursuant to a lease...

  13. Trends in Education Access and Financing during the Transition in Central And Eastern Europe. Social Challenges of Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Bruno; Ringold, Dena

    This paper is one in a series of reports based upon data from the "Social Challenges of Transition (SCT)" database. This cross-country study examines empirical trends in access to and financing of education in nine Central and East European countries. The study substantially improves the understanding of the impact of transition on education…

  14. Early Cretaceous Erlangmiao Metaluminous A-type Granite in the Eastern Qinlin Orogen, central China: Geochronological and Geochemical Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Ma, C.; Sher, Z.; Wang, S.; Wang, L.; Cao, Y.

    2007-12-01

    It is possible to study the Mesozoic lithospheric thinning and crust-mantle interaction due to Early Cretaceous intensive magmatism widely developed in the North China Block. As an important part of the Early Cretaceous magmatism in the North China Block, the widespread Early Cretaceous granites in the Dabieshan-Qinlin Orogen, situated in the southern margin of the North China Block, contain hornblende and/or biotite and are I-type granites, but other type granites are less reported. Early Cretaceous Erlangmiao garnet granite (EGG) with garnet and biotite found recently near Erlangmiao in Fangcheng County, Henan Province, China, has provided new constraints for evolvement of the Dabie-Qinlin Orogen. This abstract reports results of zircon U-Pb dating, elemental geochemistry, and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the EGG and its wall rocks in an attempt to constrain its petrogenesis and the Early Cretaceous tectonic evolution of the Dabie-Qinlin Orogen. The EGG, located in the eastern Qinlin Orogen, was emplaced in gneissic monzogranites (GG). There are abundant GG xenoliths and surmicaceous enclaves in the eastern margin of the stock. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb dating of the EGG suggests its crystallization at 118 ±2 Ma, whole-rock Rb-Sr isochron age, represented the cooling age of the EGG, is 110±1 Ma. The EGGs are syenogranites with almandine-Spessartine garnet and biotite. The EGGs are characterized by high SiO2 and alkali contents, high FeOt/MgO ratio, low Al2O3 and CaO contents, and display high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous characteristics. They show low total Rare Earth Element content (ΣREE), strong negative Eu anomaly, are generally enriched in Rb, Th, Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Y, Yb and depleted in Sr, Ba, Ce, P, Ti, and have high Rb, Rb/Sr and Ga/Al ratios. Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, Zr, Rb, Pb of the EGGs decrease with increasing SiO2 content. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the whole rocks range in 0.706-0.708, while the ɛNd(110Ma) values vary from -6.6 to -9.0 and Nd

  15. Seismic velocity structure of the crust and shallow mantle of the Central and Eastern United States by seismic surface wave imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, Fred; Mooney, Walter D.

    2016-01-01

    Seismic surface waves from the Transportable Array of EarthScope's USArray are used to estimate phase velocity structure of 18 to 125 s Rayleigh waves, then inverted to obtain three-dimensional crust and upper mantle structure of the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS) down to ∼200 km. The obtained lithosphere structure confirms previously imaged CEUS features, e.g., the low seismic-velocity signature of the Cambrian Reelfoot Rift and the very low velocity at >150 km depth below an Eocene volcanic center in northwestern Virginia. New features include high-velocity mantle stretching from the Archean Superior Craton well into the Proterozoic terranes and deep low-velocity zones in central Texas (associated with the late Cretaceous Travis and Uvalde volcanic fields) and beneath the South Georgia Rift (which contains Jurassic basalts). Hot spot tracks may be associated with several imaged low-velocity zones, particularly those close to the former rifted Laurentia margin.

  16. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    the Paleo-Asian Ocean the Jiamusi Block underwent a very rapid exhumation in the late Permian. In the early Mesozoic the area went into a basin developing stage and formed a large basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous the Jiamusi Block started uplifting and the basin was broken into isolate small basins. References: Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Heilongjiang Province. Regional geology of Heilongjiang Province. Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1993.578-581. Cao Chengrun, Zheng Qingdao. Structural evolution feature and its significance of hydrocarbon exploration in relict basin formation, Eastern Heilongjiang province. Journal of Jilin university (Earth Science Edition), 2003, 33(2):167-172. Lang Xiansheng. Biologic Assemblage features of Coal-bearing Strata in Shuangyashan-Jixian coal-field. Coal geology of China, 2002, 14(2):7-12. Piao Taiyuan , Cai Huawei , Jiang Baoyu. On the Cretaceous coal-bearing Strata in Eastern Heilongjiang. Journal Of Stratigraphy, 2005, 29:489-496. Wang Jie , He Zhonghua , Liu Zhaojun , Du Jiangfeng , Wang Weitao. Geochemical characteristics of Cretaceous detrital rocks and their constraint on provenance in Jixi Basin. Global Geology,2006, 25(4):341-348. DickinsonW R and Christopher A. Suczek. Plate Tectonics and Sandstone Composition. AAPG B. 1979,63(12 ):2164-2182. DickinsonW R, Beard L S, Brakenridge G R, et al. Provenance of North American Phanerozoic sandstones in relation to tectonic setting. Bull Geo-Soc Amer, 1983, 94: 222-235. Maruyama S, Seno T. Orogeny and relative plate motions: Example of the Japanese Islands. Tectonophysics, 1986,127(3-4):305-329. Maruyama S, Isozaki Y, Kimura Gand Terabayashi M C.Paleogeographic maps of the Japanese Islands: plate tectonic systhesis from 750 Ma to the present. Island Arc, 1997,6:121-142.

  17. Paleomagnetic study of the eastern sector of chapala lake and implications for the tectonics of west-central mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Rosas-Elguera, J.

    1994-12-01

    Western Mexico is characterized by several large-scale tectonic depressions which have been interpreted in terms of active continental rifting, tectonic transpression and coastal sinistral lateral transport of terranes. In this paper we report results of a paleomagnetic study of 148 samples from 22 sites in the Neogene volcanics from the eastern sector of the Chapala graben (western end of the E-W Chapala-Tula fault zone). Characteristic remanent magnetization directions have been isolated after detailed thermal demagnetization for sixteen sites. Six sites present reverse polarities and ten sites present normal polarities. Two sites show a low-latitude VGP and are considered as transitional. The normal and reverse polarity directions are almost antipodal. The overall characteristic pole position for the normal and reverse polarity sites, N = 16, pLAT = 74° N, Plong = 160° E, K = 25 and A95 = 7.6°, lies to the left of the Neogene segment of the North American or northern Mexico apparent polar wander path, which suggest the occurrence of a counterclockwise rotation of -15.5 ± 7.4 to -16.5 ± 6.9°. Results are interpreted in terms of counterclockwise vertical-axis rotation associated with regional transtension and left-lateral shear as a result of oblique subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American trench. We suggest that the Chapala graben developed early in the Miocene, in a left-lateral strike-slip environment within the regional E-W Chapala-Tula fault zone. Results support recent studies that propose relative motion for southern Mexico along the volcanic arc and trench-parallel strike-slip faulting.

  18. Bridging onshore and offshore present-day kinematics of central and eastern Mediterranean: Implications for crustal dynamics and mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PéRouse, EugéNie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Rabaute, Alain; Briole, Pierre; Jouanne, FrançOis; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrov, Dimitar

    2012-09-01

    We present a new kinematic and strain model of an area encompassing the Calabrian and Hellenic subduction zones, western Anatolia and the Balkans. Using Haines and Holt's (1993) method, we derive continuous velocity and strain rate fields by interpolating geodetic velocities, including recent GPS data in the Balkans. Relative motion between stable Eurasia and the western Aegean Sea is gradually accommodated by distributed N-S extension from Southern Balkans to the Eastern Corinth Gulf, so that the westward propagation of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) throughout continental Greece or Peloponnesus is not required. We thus propose that the NAF terminates in north Aegean and that N-S extension localized in the Corinth Gulf and distributed in Southern Balkans is due to the retreat of the Hellenic slab. The motion of the Hyblean plateau, Apulia Peninsula, south Adriatic Sea, Ionian Basin and Sirte plain can be minimized by a single rigid rotation around a pole located in the Sirte plain, compatible with the opening the Pelagian rifts (2-2.5 mm/yr) and seismotectonics in Libya. We interpret the trenchward ultraslow motion of the Calabrian arc (2-2.5 mm/yr) as pure collapse, the Calabrian subduction being now inactive. In the absolute plate motion reference frame, our modeled velocity field depicts two toroïdal crustal patterns located at both ends of the Hellenic subduction zone, clockwise in NW Greece and counter-clockwise in western Anatolia. We suggest the NW Greece toroïdal pattern is the surface expression of a slab tear and consequent toroïdal asthenospheric flow.

  19. Analysis of the central nervous system transcriptome of the eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi reveals its putative neuropeptidome.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tomer; Cummins, Scott F; Fitzgibbon, Quinn; Battaglene, Stephen; Elizur, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides have been discovered in many arthropod species including crustaceans. The nature of their biological function is well studied and varies from behavior modulation to physiological regulation of complex biochemical processes such as metabolism, molt and reproduction. Due to their key role in these fundamental processes, neuropeptides are often targeted for modulating these processes to align with market demands in commercially important species. We generated a comprehensive transcriptome of the eyestalk and brain of one of the few commercially important spiny lobster species in the southern Hemisphere, the Eastern rock lobster Sagmariasus verreauxi and mined it for novel neuropeptide and protein hormone-encoding transcripts. We then characterized the predicted mature hormones to verify their validity based on conserved motifs and features known from previously reported hormones. Overall, 37 transcripts which are predicted to encode mature full-length/partial peptides/proteins were identified, representing 21 peptide/protein families/subfamilies. All transcripts had high similarity to hormones that were previously characterized in other decapod crustacean species or, where absent in crustaceans, in other arthropod species. These included, in addition to other proteins previously described in crustaceans, prohormone-3 and prohormone-4 which were previously identified only in insects. A homolog of the crustacean female sex hormone (CFSH), recently found to be female-specific in brachyuran crabs was found to have the same levels of expression in both male and female eyestalks, suggesting that the CFSH female specificity is not conserved throughout decapod crustaceans. Digital gene expression showed that 24 out of the 37 transcripts presented in this study have significant changes in expression between eyestalk and brain. In some cases a trend of difference between males and females could be seen. Taken together, this study provides a comprehensive

  20. Active emergent thrust associated with a detachment fold: A case study of the eastern boundary fault of Takada plain, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, N.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.; Saito, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Abe, S.

    2012-04-01

    To estimate seismic hazards, understanding the relationship between active fault and seismic source fault is crucial. Along the Japan Sea coast of Northern Honshu, Japan, thick sediments, deposited in the Miocene rift-grabens, formed fold-and-thrust belt, due to the shortening deformation since the Pliocene time. Most of the thrusts are active and show clear geomorphological evidences. Some of the thrusts are secondary faults, produced by the folding of competent layers. To elucidate the relationship between an emergent thrust and deep-sited seismogenic source fault, we performed shallow high-resolution seismic reflection profiling across the eastern boundary fault of the Takada plain, central Japan. Based on the moropho-tectonic data, the vertical slip rate of the Eastern boundary fault of the Takada plain is 0.9 mm/y and has potential to produce M7.2 earthquake (AIST, 2006). For shallow structure, we obtained CMP-seismic reflection data from a 7-km-long seismic line, using 541 channels of off-line recorders. Seismic source was an Envirovibe (IVI). Receiver and shot intervals are 12.5 m and seismic signals were recorded by fixed channels. Shallow seismic data were acquired as a piggy-bag project of 70 km-long onshore-offshore deep seismic profiling. High-resolution seismic section portrays the emergent thrust, dipping to the east at about 30 degrees. The hanging wall consist Pliocene interbedded mudstone and sandstone and deeper extension of the thrust can be traced down to the Miocene mudstone of the Teradoamri Formation as a low-angle fault. In the Niigata basin, the lower part of the Teradomari Formation is known as over pressured mudstone and shallow detachments are commonly developed in this unit. Based on the deep seismic section, including velocity profile obtained by refraction tomography, deep sited fault does not connect to the shallow active fault directly.

  1. Seismically imaging the structural legacy of rifting and collision events in the central and eastern U.S. crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, B.; Lin, F. C.; Karlstrom, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    EarthScope's USArray now provides broadband seismic data across the contiguous U.S. and southeastern Canada. We used teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave tomography to map crustal structure beneath the entire array. Crust thickness was estimated with multi-mode Ps receiver function images using <0.5 Hz Ps and <0.25 Hz 2p1s and 2s1p reverberations between the free-surface and Moho. In areas of sedimentary basins or large impedance contrasts in the middle crust the reverberations alone often provide clearer images of the Moho than the Ps mode, because of interference from conversions at shallow interfaces is reduced at greater lag times. The new results enable large-scale comparison of the structural legacy of multiple rifting and collision events in eastern North America. Some Proterozoic rift segments defined by Bouguer gravity and surface geology maintain locally thin crust while others lack correlated Moho topography or are areas of locally thicker crust. Locally thin crust is found at southern end of the mid-continent rift (MCR) in northern Kansas and southern Nebraska, along the Reelfoot rift, and beneath inferred rifts in Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio. The Oklahoma aulacogen is not associated with a coherent change in crust thickness along its length, at least at a scale resolvable by USArray data and our imaging approach. The MCR extending northeast from Nebraska to Lake Superior has locally thicker crust, consistent with other recent results. We suggest that magmatic additions to the lower crust overwhelmed extension in the northern mid-continent rift, but not the rift segments further south and east. Collision events of the Grenville orogeny and Paleozoic orogens that created the Appalachian Mountains are still associated with ~45-55 km thick crust extending from the Grenville front eastward across the Appalachian Mountains to the fall line that marks the abrupt geomorphic transition to the coastal plains. Despite the ~45-55 km crust thickness long

  2. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R., Jr.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  3. Nature and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Constraints from peridotite xenoliths in the central part of the Great Xing'an Range, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shaokui; Zheng, Jianping; Griffin, W. L.; Xu, Yixian; Li, Xiyao

    2015-12-01

    Our knowledge of the lithospheric mantle beneath the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is still sparse. Petrologic, major- and trace-element studies on the peridotite xenoliths from the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Aershan area, the central part of the Great Xing'an Range, NE China, provide insights into the nature and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath the eastern part of the belt. According to the REE patterns of clinopyroxene, these peridotites can be divided into three groups which show clear differences in microstructure, geochemistry and equilibration temperature. Group 1 xenoliths (LREE-depleted patterns of Cpx) are lherzolites, with protogranular microstructure and high modal Cpx (8-13 wt.%), low Cr# in spinel (< 21.1), high whole-rock CaO and Al2O3 contents and estimated temperatures of 834-849 °C. Group 2 xenoliths (flattened REE patterns of Cpx) are harzburgites, with microstructures transitional between mosaic and tabular and low Cpx content (2-3 wt.%); they have high Cr# in spinel (41.1-49.6), low whole-rock CaO and Al2O3 levels and equilibration temperatures of 1183-1244 °C. Group 1 peridotites represent the newly accreted fertile mantle which was not significantly affected by post-melting enrichment; while Group 2 xenoliths may be older relics of moderately refractory mantle that underwent H2O bearing silicate-melt metasomatism (Ti/Eu > 3300, (La/Yb)N < 1 and occurrence of amphibole). Group 3 peridotites (convex-up REE patterns of Cpx) comprise both lherzolite and harzburgite; they have porphyroclastic microstructures, and show a broad range of Cpx modes (0-7 wt.%), spinel-Cr# (26.5-71.1), bulk rock CaO and Al2O3 contents and temperatures (941-1239 °C). The high TiO2 contents (up to 1.42 wt.%) in spinels of Group 3 imply the involvement of melt/rock reactions. We suggest that the upwelling of asthenospheric material played a key role in modifying the lithospheric mantle underneath the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, and resulted in

  4. Late Pan-African granite emplacement during regional deformation, evidence from magnetic fabric and structural studies in the Hammamat-Atalla area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, R. O.; de Wall, H.; Sadek, M. F.; Dietl, C.

    2014-11-01

    Field investigations, microstructural observations, and magnetic fabric analyses revealed a polyphase, late Pan-African deformational evolution in the Um Sheqila-Um Had (595 Ma) composite pluton and in the Hammamat and Atalla areas of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt in Ediacaran times. Major stages are early shortening (NNW-SSE), subsequent strike-slip (NW-SE shear zones), and late shortening (NW-SE). Strain studies on pebbles and xenoliths together with AMS data show a predominance of shallow, NW-SE trending X axes or magnetic lineations, associated with steep, NW-SE striking magnetic foliations. Magnetic fabrics and microstructures indicate a tectonic fabric in the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid plutons, which is dominated by steep NW-SE striking foliations and shallow NW-SE trending lineations, similar to those in the high-angle Atalla Shear Zone. There is a change of lineation directions from ESE-WNW at Um Sheqila (oldest) to NW-SE to Um Had II (youngest). This pattern may indicate an influence of strike-slip and is also consistent with NE-SW compression. This holds also true for the asymmetry of the contact aureole, which is extended towards NW, parallel with the trend of the magnetic lineation. The character and orientation of the deformation pattern in the Um Sheqila-Um Had plutons and the Atalla Shear Zone is thus similar to the pattern of the late shortening phase. The intrusion of the Um Sheqila-Um Had granitoid rocks, therefore, took place before the late shortening stage, but postdates early deformation, which, according to published data, was associated with lithospheric thinning in the Central Eastern Desert. Therefore, these Pan-African plutons do not represent the earliest post-deformational intrusions but a late stage of syn-deformational magmatic activity. At a regional scale, this deformation with steep foliations and shallow lineations may also be related with lateral escape tectonics. The pluton emplacement, the importance of transcurrent

  5. The tectonics of intraplate regions: Quantifying stress and surface deformation in the central and eastern U.S. and planetary analogs on Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Lisa Schleicher

    Occurring ~ 1 year apart, the magnitude 3.4 Germantown, Maryland, (16 July 2010) and magnitude 5.8 Mineral, Virginia, (23 August 2011) earthquakes rocked the U.S. national capital region, drawing renewed attention to the occurrence of seismicity within continental interiors. While the majority of earthquakes concentrate at tectonic plate boundaries, the processes that promote spatially diffuse zones of seismicity in intraplate regions are not well understood. The Mineral earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes to occur east of the Rocky Mountains in the past century and offers a rare opportunity to examine the role of stress transfer, long-distance triggering, and aftershock decay within an intraplate region. Stress transfer from the Mineral and Germantown earthquakes relieved stress on the majority of Cenozoic faults in the Mid-Atlantic region, moving these faults further away from future failure. The Everona fault and southern portion of the Mountain Run fault zone were the only locations (except in the aftershock region) that were loaded from the Mineral earthquake, although by only ~1 mbar. Accumulation of stress over time is required in order to significantly affect regional seismicity. There is no evidence of remote triggering due to the passage of seismic waves in any of the major seismic zones in the central and eastern U.S. However, the slow decay rate of aftershocks suggests seismicity in the epicentral region might continue for a decade or longer. Aftershocks triggered by stress imparted by the mainshock imply that Coulomb stress transfer plays an important role in earthquake triggering processes within intraplate regions. Processes in the aftershock zone likely have the greatest influence on seismic hazard. New imagery and altimetry data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft provide new insight into processes driving intraplate tectonic

  6. Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the Jebel Saghro and Bou Azzer - El Graara inliers, eastern and central Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Harrison, Richard W.; Burton, William C.; Quick, James E.; Benziane, Foudad; Yazidi, Abdelaziz; Saadane, Abderrahim

    2012-01-01

    New mapping, geochemistry, and 17 U–Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from rocks of the Sirwa, Bou Azzer–El Graara, and Jebel Saghro inliers constrain the Neoproterozoic evolution of the eastern Anti-Atlas during Pan-African orogenesis. In the Sirwa inlier, Tonian quartzite from the pre Pan-African passive margin deposits of the Mimount Formation contains detrital zircon derived entirely from the West African Craton (WAC), with most grains yielding Eburnean Paleoproterozoic ages of about 2050 Ma. Cryogenian Pan-African orogenic activity (PA1) from about 760 to 660 Ma included northward-dipping subduction to produce a volcanic arc, followed by ophiolite obduction onto the WAC. In the Bou Azzer–El Graara inlier, calc-alkaline granodiorite and quartz diorite, dated at 650–646 Ma, are syn- to post-tectonic with respect to the second period of Pan-African orogenesis (PA2), arc-continent accretion, and related greenschist facies metamorphism. Slab break-off and lithospheric delimination may have provided the source for the supra-subduction calc-alkaline plutons. At about 646 Ma, quartz diorite intruded the Tiddiline formation placing an upper limit on molassic deposition. Widespread Ediacaran high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic plutonism and volcanism during the final stage of Pan-African orogenesis (PA3) occurred in a setting related to either modification of the margin of the WAC or formation of a continental volcanic arc above a short-lived southward-dipping subduction zone. In the Saghro inlier, eight plutonic rocks yield ages ranging from about 588 to 556 Ma. Sampled plutonic rocks previously considered to be Cryogenian yielded Ediacaran ages. Peraluminous rhyolitic volcanic rocks in the lower part of the Ouarzazate Supergroup, including ash-flow tuffs of the Oued Dar’a caldera, yield ages between about 574 and 571 Ma. The Oued Dar’a caldera developed in a pull-apart graben produced by a left-step in a northeast-trending, left-lateral strike-slip fault zone, and

  7. Kinematics of Deformation in West-Central Walker Lane; Paleomagnetic Testing of Fault-Block Rotation and Doming Models, Eastern California and Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, S. M.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.

    2013-12-01

    Walker Lane is a broad (~100-200 km) zone of dextral shear located between the Sierra Nevada microplate and the Basin and Range Province. We consider Bodie Hills a part of the greater Walker Lane because it has experienced clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks due to dextral shear accommodation. This strain is variable, resulting in rotations ranging from ~10°-70° depending on location. The Miocene Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) is an ideal strain marker, because it is a geologically instantaneous and laterally extensive unit. We use paleomagnetic analysis of ignimbrites to improve the resolution of strain domain boundaries as well as test for doming in Bodie Hills. EVT site mean directions were compared to reference directions of the Tollhouse Flat and By Day Members collected from the stable Sierra Nevada to determine magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation. Three new sites and three previously sampled sites define a high-rotation domain including Bridgeport Valley and the East Walker River Canyon with an average clockwise rotation of ~50°-60°. We define the eastern boundary of this high-rotation domain as coinciding with a mapped fault exhibiting 11.7°×7.9° rotation of the presumed footwall. Our data corroborates and improves on Carlson's (2012) kinematic model in which the greater Bodie Hills has rotated clockwise ~30° since EVT emplacement. Eutaxitic textures, dipping up to 90°, are gross indicators of true tilt, but are also influenced by original dips in some localities, complicating interpretations. John et al. (2012) describe a simple doming model of Bodie Hills since EVT emplacement, supported by the high elevation of outflow channels compared to source areas. Our paleomagnetic data does not support simple doming, suggesting that there is either no doming of Bodie Hills, or that vertical crustal displacements have occurred without large-scale folding. John et al. (2012) dated undifferentiated EVT in Bodie Hills at ~9.4 Ma; using

  8. Postrift history of the eastern central Atlantic passive margin: Insights from the Saharan region of South Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leprêtre, Rémi; Missenard, Yves; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Gautheron, Cécile; Saddiqi, Omar; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella

    2015-06-01

    The passive margin of South Morocco is a low-elevated passive margin. It constitutes one of the oldest margins of the Atlantic Ocean, with an Early Jurassic breakup, and little geological data are available concerning its postrift reactivation so far. We investigated the postrift thermal history of the onshore part of the margin with low-temperature thermochronology on apatite crystals. Fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He ages we obtained are significantly younger than the breakup (~190 Ma). Fission track ages range from 107 ± 8 to 175 ± 16 Ma, with mean track lengths from 10.7 ± 0.3 to 12.5 ± 0.2 µm. (U-Th-Sm)/He ages range from 14 ± 1 to 185 ± 15 Ma. Using inverse modeling of low-temperature thermochronological data, we demonstrate that the South Moroccan continental margin underwent a complex postrift history with at least two burial and exhumation phases. The first exhumation event occurred during Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous, and we attribute this to mantle dynamics rather than to intrinsic rifting-related processes such as flexural rebound. The second event, from Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, might record the onset of Africa/Europe convergence. We show a remarkably common behavior of the whole Moroccan passive margin during its early postrift evolution. The present-day differences result from a segmentation of the margin domains due to the Africa/Europe convergence. Finally we propose that varying retained strengths during rifting and also the specific crustal/lithospheric geometry of stretching explain the difference between the topographical expressions on the continental African margin compared to its American counterpart.

  9. Early-Middle Paleozoic subduction-collision history of the south-eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from igneous and metasedimentary rocks of central Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Fu-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Cao, Hua-Hua; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Zi-Jin; Wang, Feng; Yang, Chuan

    2016-09-01

    To constrain the Early-Middle Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the south-eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), we undertook zircon U-Pb dating and analyzed major and trace elements and zircon Hf isotope compositions of Late Cambrian to Middle Devonian igneous and metasedimentary rocks in central Jilin Province, NE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the Early-Middle Paleozoic magmatism in central Jilin Province can be divided into four episodes: Late Cambrian (ca. 493 Ma), Middle Ordovician (ca. 467 Ma), Late Ordovician-Early Silurian (ca. 443 Ma), and Late Silurian-Middle Devonian (425-396 Ma). The progression from subduction initiation to maturity is recorded by Late Cambrian low-K tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician medium-K calc-alkaline pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician to Early Silurian low-K tonalite, which all have subduction-related characteristics and formed in an evolving supra-subduction zone setting. Late Silurian to Middle Devonian calc-alkaline igneous rocks, with the lithological association of granodiorite, monzogranite, rhyolite, dacite, and trachydacite, show progressively increasing K2O contents from medium K to shoshonite series. Furthermore, the Early-Middle Devonian monzogranites are characterized by high K2O, Sr/Y, and [La/Yb]N values, indicating they were generated by the melting of thickened lower crust. These results suggest a transition from subduction to post-orogenic setting during the Late Silurian-Middle Devonian. Our interpretation is supported by the maximum age of molasse deposition in the Zhangjiatun member of the Xibiehe Formation. Overall, we suggest that Late Cambrian tholeiitic meta-diabase, Middle Ordovician pyroxene andesite, and Late Ordovician-Early Silurian tonalite formed above the northward-subducting and simultaneously seaward-retreating of Paleo-Asian Ocean plate. Subsequently, the northern arc collided with the North China Craton and post-orogenic extension occurred

  10. Major controls on architecture, sequence stratigraphy and paleosols of middle Pleistocene continental sediments ("Qc Unit"), eastern central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Celma, Claudio; Pieruccini, Pierluigi; Farabollini, Piero

    2015-05-01

    Middle Pleistocene continental sediments in central Italy ("Qc Unit") record the oldest fluvial accumulation along the uplifting margin of the Peri-Adriatic basin. The architecture of the sediment body can be divided into two unconformity-bounded, fining-upward cycles interpreted as genetically related depositional sequences. These sequences highlight the systematic adjustment of the fluvial system to changes in the ratio between accommodation space and sediment supply (A/S ratio) and, from base to top, comprise the following surfaces and stratal components: (i) a regionally correlative sequence boundary resulting from an A/S ratio ≤ 0; (ii) a low-accommodation systems tract characterized by conglomerate-rich, amalgamated channel fills and recording an A/S ratio < 1; (iii) an expansion surface marking the turnaround point from low-accommodation systems tract to high-accommodation systems tract deposits; (iv) a high-accommodation systems tract dominated by floodplain fines encasing lens-like, fluvial channel deposits and denoting an A/S ratio > 1; and (v) a mature red argillic paleosol. To constrain the climatic signal for paleosols formation, the two sequence-capping mature paleosols have been investigated. The results of these studies suggest that they were developed under humid and warm climatic conditions associated with interglacial phases, which have been correlatively attributed to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 11 and 9.

  11. Structural development of the central Kyrenia Range (north Cyprus) in its regional setting in the eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Kinnaird, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault planes, of which a subordinate number exhibit slickenlines (fault plane data, n = 2688; with kinematics, n = 537). Additional kinematic data were obtained from C-S fabrics and folds. Small-scale structures in each stratigraphic unit were `backstripped' to reveal relative chronology. Synthesis of the structural information indicates three phases of convergence-related deformation: (1) Late Cretaceous, associated with greenschist facies metamorphism, followed by exhumation that was probably associated with WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW-trending high-angle faulting; (2) Mid-Eocene, associated with southward thrusting, coupled with ~N-S strike-slip (transfer faulting) and oblique faulting in an overall sinistral transpressive stress regime; (3) Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene, involving southward thrusting and folding, localised back-thrusting, extensive fault reactivation and large-scale segmentation of the range. Intense uplift of the Kyrenia Range took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, possibly related to the collision of the Eratosthenes Seamount with the Cyprus trench to the south of the island. The three main convergent phases relate to stages of northward subduction and diachronous continental collision affecting the northerly, active continental margin of the Southern Neotethys.

  12. Sequential variation of atmospheric mercury in Tokai-mura, seaside area of eastern central Japan - article no. D19107

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, T.; Ueno, T.; Fu, F.F.

    2007-10-15

    Concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) were continuously measured from October 2005 to August 2006 in Tokai-mura (36.27{sup o}N, 140.36{sup o}E), a small city on the Pacific side of central Japan. The concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer and autumn is higher than in winter and spring, and an 11-month average of 1-hour measurements is 3.78 {+-} 1.62 ng/m{sup 3} (n = 7551). Our results showed that changes in the GEM level in Tokai-mura are largely determined by temperature and relative humidity, but are independent of wind speed and direction. Two contrary patterns were observed in the daily cycle of GEM concentrations: the most frequent pattern of lower concentrations at noon and a pattern of higher concentrations at noon, which was only observed in November. Our results showed that two nearby potential anthropogenic sources of mercury, a coal-fired power plant and incineration facility, have only little effect on the gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in Tokai-mura based on only GEM measurements.

  13. Gradients in precipitation and seasonality between Central and Eastern Asia (Mongolia, Northern Vietnam) during the Oligocene with implication for earlier monsoonal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Madelaine; Krings, Michael; Prieto, Jérome; Schneider, Simon

    2010-05-01

    Today Central and Eastern Asia are characterized by strong contrast in the amount and the annual distribution of rainfall as well as the seasonality in temperature, which is attributed to the uplifted Tibetian Plateau generating monsoonal circulation. Whereas Central Asia is characterized by strong continentality with cold winters and little rainfall concentrated in a short rainy season, the southern part of East Asia exhibit a paratropical climate with high amounts in precipitation distributed relatively even through the year. Palaeontological data (vertebrates and plant remains) from the Eocene and Oligocene of Mongolia and Northern Vietnam indicate that a strong gradient in precipitation and seasonality between Central Asia and East Asia was already established during the Oligocene, which emphasise the establishment of substantial monsoonal circulation at that time. Fossil amphibians and reptiles from Mongolia (45° N, 101° E; Böhme 2007) indicate a strong and abrupt drying and winter cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary consistent with previous results (Dupont-Nivet et al. 2007). Late Eocene assemblages are characterized by crocodiles, salamanders and diverse aquatic turtles, whereas Early Oligocene faunas constitutes of pelobatid frogs, agamid and anguid squamates, diverse species of lizards, and an erycine boide snake. The environmental preferences of both contrasting assemblages point to a severe climate event around 34 myr ago, resulting in the lost of permanent freshwater bodies under humid and winter mild climate and the spread of open landscapes without permanent freshwater bodies under a dry arid to semi-arid climate with only a short rainy season. Oligocene reptiles, macro- and micro-botanical remains, as well as palaeosols from Northern Vietnam (22° N, 107° E; Böhme et al. subm.) suggest warm-humid, (para-) tropical climates with low seasonality in temperature and precipitation. Besides a high diversity in semi-aquatic turtles and the

  14. A proposed architecture for the central domain of the bacterial enhancer-binding proteins based on secondary structure prediction and fold recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Osuna, J.; Soberón, X.; Morett, E.

    1997-01-01

    The expression of genes transcribed by the RNA polymerase with the alternative sigma factor sigma 54 (E sigma 54) is absolutely dependent on activator proteins that bind to enhancer-like sites, located far upstream from the promoter. These unique prokaryotic proteins, known as enhancer-binding proteins (EBP), mediate open promoter complex formation in a reaction dependent on NTP hydrolysis. The best characterized proteins of this family of regulators are NtrC and NifA, which activate genes required for ammonia assimilation and nitrogen fixation, respectively. In a recent IRBM course (@ontiers of protein structure prediction," IRBM, Pomezia, Italy, 1995; see web site http://www.mrc-cpe.cam.uk/irbm-course95/), one of us (J.O.) participated in the elaboration of the proposal that the Central domain of the EBPs might adopt the classical mononucleotide-binding fold. This suggestion was based on the results of a new protein fold recognition algorithm (Map) and in the mapping of correlated mutations calculated for the sequence family on the same mononucleotide-binding fold topology. In this work, we present new data that support the previous conclusion. The results from a number of different secondary structure prediction programs suggest that the Central domain could adopt an alpha/beta topology. The fold recognition programs ProFIT 0.9, 3D PROFILE combined with secondary structure prediction, and 123D suggest a mononucleotide-binding fold topology for the Central domain amino acid sequence. Finally, and most importantly, three of five reported residue alterations that impair the Central domain. ATPase activity of the E sigma 54 activators are mapped to polypeptide regions that might be playing equivalent roles as those involved in nucleotide-binding in the mononucleotide-binding proteins. Furthermore, the known residue substitution that alter the function of the E sigma 54 activators, leaving intact the Central domain ATPase activity, are mapped on region proposed to

  15. A Neoproterozoic age for the chromitite and gabbro of the Tapo ultramafic Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Central Peru and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Castroviejo, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Jose F.; Acosta, Jorge; Pereira, Eurico

    2011-12-01

    The ultramafic-mafic rocks of the Tapo Complex are exposed in the Eastern Cordillera of the Central Peruvian Andes. This complex is composed of serpentinised peridotites and metabasites with some podiform chromitite lenses and chromite disseminations and overlies the sandstones, conglomerates, and tuffs of the Carboniferous Ambo Group. The metagabbros and amphibolites show a tholeiitic affiliation and a flat REE spider diagram, with a slight LREE depletion and a positive Eu anomaly suggesting magmatic accumulation of plagioclase, in an ocean ridge or ocean island environment. Sm-Nd isotopic analyses were performed on chromite as well as on whole rock from the gabbro. All samples yielded an Sm-Nd isochrone age of 718 ± 47 Ma with an initial 143Nd/ 144Nd of 0.51213 ± 0.00005. The ɛNd (718 Ma) values calculated for both chromite and gabbro are in close agreement, around 8.0, implying that they were formed at the same time from the same mantelic magma source. Furthermore a K-Ar age on amphibole of 448 ± 26 Ma was obtained, interpreted as the cooling age of a younger orogenic event. These rocks represent slices of oceanic crust (from a dismembered ophiolitic complex), metamorphosed and later overthrust on upper Palaeozoic continental formations.

  16. Interannual Variability of the Bimodal Distribution of Summertime Rainfall Over Central America and Tropical Storm Activity in the Far-Eastern Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The summer climate of southern Mexico and Central America is characterized by a mid summer drought (MSD), where rainfall is reduced by 40% in July as compared to June and September. A mid-summer reduction in the climatological number of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones has also been noted. Little is understood about the climatology and interannual variability of these minima. The present study uses a novel approach to quantify the bimodal distribution of summertime rainfall for the globe and finds that this feature of the annual cycle is most extreme over Pan America and adjacent oceans. One dominant interannual signal in this region occurs the summer before a strong winter El Nino/Southern Oscillation ENSO. Before El Nino events the region is dry, the MSD is strong and centered over the ocean, and the mid-summer minimum in tropical cyclone frequency is most pronounced. This is significantly different from Neutral cases (non-El Nino and non-La Nina) when the MSD is weak and positioned over the land bridge. The MSD is highly variable for La Nina years, and there is not an obvious mid-summer minimum in the number of tropical cyclones.

  17. Willingness to pay for publicly financed health care services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries based on a contingent valuation method.

    PubMed

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The increased interest in patient cost-sharing as a measure for sustainable health care financing calls for evidence to support the development of effective patient payment policies. In this paper, we present an application of a stated willingness-to-pay technique, i.e. contingent valuation method, to investigate the consumer's willingness and ability to pay for publicly financed health care services, specifically hospitalisations and consultations with specialists. Contingent valuation data were collected in nationally representative population-based surveys conducted in 2010 in six Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine) using an identical survey methodology. The results indicate that the majority of health care consumers in the six CEE countries are willing to pay an official fee for publicly financed health care services that are of good quality and quick access. The consumers' willingness to pay is limited by the lack of financial ability to pay for services, and to a lesser extent by objection to pay. Significant differences across the six countries are observed, though. The results illustrate that the contingent valuation method can provide decision-makers with a broad range of information to facilitate cost-sharing policies. Nevertheless, the intrinsic limitations of the method (i.e. its hypothetical nature) and the context of CEE countries call for caution when applying its results. PMID:25016327

  18. Effects of Stigmatization on Gay Men Living with HIV/AIDS in a Central-Eastern European Context: A Qualitative Analysis from Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Takács, J.; Kelly, J.A.; P. Tóth, T.; Mocsonaki, L.; Amirkhanian, Y.A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study highlights the social dynamics affecting people living with HIV (PLH) in Hungary and in the Central-Eastern European region. The study focused on the special needs and concerns of men living with HIV/AIDS as well as changes in their social relationships and institutional support provision, coping strategies and patterns of social functioning, especially in the context of social stigmatization. Consistent with international qualitative research findings in the field of HIV/AIDS prevention, the present study contributes to a fuller understanding of relationship between sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS related risks and risk perceptions as well as homosexuality-and HIV/AIDS stigma-related social exclusion in a previously under-researched socio-cultural setting. The findings of our study point to several barriers to effective HIV prevention, which should be overcome to improve the present situation by lessening the adverse effects of HIV/AIDS-and homosexuality-related stigma within the gay community, the general population and especially among service providers. One of the main barriers is the lack of public health programs specifically targeting MSM in Hungary, where the predominant mode of HIV transmission remains sex between men. PMID:23439743

  19. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  20. Nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) in the Eastern-Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlucci, Roberto; Giuseppe, Lembo; Porzia, Maiorano; Francesca, Capezzuto; Alessandra, Marano Chiara; Letizia, Sion; Teresa, Spedicato Maria; Nicola, Ungaro; Angelo, Tursi; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2009-08-01

    The spatial pattern of the nursery areas of red mullet ( Mullus barbatus), hake ( Merluccius merluccius) (Linnaeus, 1758) and deep-water rose shrimp ( Parapenaeus longirostris) (Lucas, 1846) was studied in the South Adriatic and North Ionian Seas (Eastern-Central Mediterranean) applying geostatistical techniques and data from time series trawl surveys conducted in the area. The analysed variables were: R (number of recruits/km 2) and R/Tot (fraction of recruits on the total sampled population). The structural analysis showed a spatial pattern of both variables characterized by continuity on a small scale. Predictions of nursery area localization with probability of finding recruits at different threshold values were obtained through median indicator kriging. For the red mullet the nurseries were mainly identified in the South Adriatic Sea off the Gargano peninsula and between Molfetta and Monopoli within 50 m in depth. The main concentration of hake juveniles was found to be between 100 and 200 m in depth along the Gargano peninsula and between Otranto and Santa Maria di Leuca, where a nursery of deep-water rose shrimp was also detected. An overlapping depth, between 100 and 200 m, was identified for hake and deep-water rose shrimp nurseries. Protection of these areas through limitations of fishing pressure is discussed.

  1. Patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe: A mixed methods approach by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Esmail, Aneez; Dovey, Susan; Wensing, Michel; Parker, Dianne; Kowalczyk, Anna; Błaszczyk, Honorata; Kosiek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Despite patient safety being recognized as an important healthcare issue in the European Union, there has been variable implementation of patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Objective: To assess the status of patient safety initiatives in countries in CEE; to describe a process of engagement in Poland, which can serve as a template for the implementation of patient safety initiatives in primary care. Methods: A mixed methods design was used. We conducted a review of literature focusing on publications from CEE, an inventory of patient safety initiatives in CEE countries, interviews with key informants, international survey, review of national reporting systems, and pilot demonstrator project in Poland with implementation of patient safety toolkits assessment. Results: There was no published patient safety research from Albania, Belarus, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, or Russia. Nine papers were found from Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia, and Slovenia. In most of the CEE countries, patient safety had been addressed at the policy level although the focus was mainly in hospital care. There was a dearth of activity in primary care. The use of patient improvement strategies was low. Conclusion: International cooperation as exemplified in the demonstrator project can help in the development and implementation of patient safety initiatives in primary care in changing the emphasis away from a blame culture to one where greater emphasis is placed on improvement and learning. PMID:26339839

  2. Estimating and interpretation of radioactive heat production using airborne gamma-ray survey data of Gabal Arrubushi area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Mohamed A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present work deals with mapping of radioactive heat production from rocks in the Gabal Arrubushi area in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt based on airborne spectral gamma-ray survey data. The results show that the radioactive heat production in the areas ranges from 0.01 μWm-3 to 5.2 μWm-3. Granites, muscovite and sericite schists in the western part of Gabal Arrubushi area have abnormally high radioactive heat production values from 2.57 μWm-3 to 4.44 μWm-3. Meanwhile, the higher averages of radioactive heat production of these rock units change from 1.21 μWm-3 to 1.5 μWm-3. The intermediate averages of heat production of felsitic mylonite schist, chlorite schist, felsites, amphibolites and Hammamat sediments are below the crustal average value range, i.e., from 0.8 μWm-3 to 1.2 μWm-3. The lowest averages of heat production values are less than 0.8 μWm-3 and found in the following rock units: Wadi sediments, rhyolites, andesites, gabbro and serpentinites.

  3. Perception and research of soil erosion by water until the mid-20th century - examples from central Europe and south-eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotterweich, M.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution, many phases of agricultural expansion and regression occurred with associated land clearance and reforestation. As a result, soil has been washed downslope by soil erosion and gullies have incised, leading to the development of colluvial and alluvial deposits in many areas worldwide. While an increasing number of studies on past soil erosion shows significant loss of soil as an effect of human activity and extreme rainfall events, only little is known about the knock-on effects on soil fertility, possibly triggering crop failures and land abandonment until the beginning of the coordinated research programmes on soil conservation. Based on historical documents and literature reviews this paper gives examples on how soil erosion had been perceived previously by farmers, land owners, researches, and policy makers in central Europe and south-eastern USA. It presents different types of problem solving strategies and their long term efficiency - a helpful tool to evaluate the long term effects of current soil conservation practices under changing climatic conditions and increasing land use pressure.

  4. Identification, Quantification, and Toxicity of PCDDs and PCDFs in Soils from Industrial Areas in the Central and Eastern Regions of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; El-Saeid, Mohamed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Turki, Ali M; Ahmad, Mahtab; Hassanin, Ashraf S; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Alenazi, Khaled K H

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify and quantify polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in soil samples collected from selected industrial areas in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. All the investigated compounds of PCDDs/PCDFs were identified in the studied locations. The average concentrations of PCDDs (sum of seven congeners measured) ranged from 11.5 to 59.6 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 125.7 pg g(-1) at an oil refinery station followed by 100.9 pg g(-1) at a cement factory. The average concentrations of PCDFs (sum of 10 congeners measured) accounted for 11.68-19.35 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 38.67 pg g(-1) at the cement factory. It was generally observed that the soil samples collected from industrial areas have substantially high toxicity equivalence (TEQ) values of PCDDs/PCDFs compared to soils of remote areas. Principal component analysis revealed that the cement factories and oil refineries were the primary sources of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:27010396

  5. Seismic imaging in the eastern Scandinavian Caledonides: siting the 2.5 km deep COSC-2 borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, Christopher; Hedin, Peter; Gee, David G.; Lorenz, Henning; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Yan, Ping

    2016-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project, a contribution to the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), aims to provide a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics. Scientific investigations include a range of topics, from subduction-related tectonics to the present-day hydrological cycle. COSC investigations and drilling activities are focused in central Scandinavia, where rocks from the middle to lower crust of the orogen are exposed near the Swedish-Norwegian border. Here, rock units of particular interest occur in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the so-called Middle Allochthon and include granulite facies migmatites (locally with evidence of ultra-high pressures) and amphibolite facies gneisses and mafic rocks. This complex overlies greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks of the dolerite-intruded Sarv Nappes and underlying, lower grade Jamtlandian Nappes (Lower Allochthon). Reflection seismic profiles have been an important component in the activities to image the subsurface structure in the area. Subhorizontal reflections in the upper 1-2 km are underlain and interlayered with strong west- to northwest-dipping reflections, suggesting significant east-vergent thrusting. Two 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes are a major component of the project, which will improve our understanding of the subsurface structure and tectonic history of the area. Borehole COSC-1 (IGSN: http://hdl.handle.net/10273/ICDP5054EEW1001), drilled in the summer of 2014, targeted the subduction-related Seve Nappe Complex and the contact with the underlying allochthon. The COSC-2 borehole will be located further east and will investigate the lower grade, mainly Cambro-Silurian rocks of the Lower Allochthon, the Jamtlandian decollement, and penetrate into the crystalline basement rocks to identify the source of some of the northwest-dipping reflections. A series of high-resolution seismic profiles have been acquired along a composite ca

  6. 5,000 years of water level changes infered from ostracod assemblages in a lowland lake in Romania (Central Eastern Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Hutchinson, Simon; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Feurdean, Angelica

    2014-05-01

    Oscillations of lake levels in Central Eastern Europe during the Holocene are crucial records of past regional climatic conditions reflecting the balance between evaporation and precipitation in their catchment. Lake Stiucii (38 ha, 10 m depth) is located in Transylvanian Plain (NW Romania) at 296 m asl. A recently extracted sediment core from the central part of the lake provides the first ostracod sediment record of the lake water level fluctuations in this region covering the last 5000 cal years BP. The sediment sequence yielded approximately 1600 valves of 18 freshwater and halophile ostracod species of 11 genera. The most abundant and frequent in the entire record were Heterocypris salina (Brady 1868), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird 1843) and Plesiocypridopsis newtoni (Brady & Robertson 1870) (abundance range between 16-25%). The ostracod assemblages also show a marked variability in diversity and abundance over the past 5000 years, which appear to closely follow water level oscillations. The assemblages indicate three periods of low diversity and density of ostracods primarily represented by Candonidae between (i) 3800 and 3150 cal yr BP, (ii) 2900 and 2400 cal yr BP and (iii) 1600 and 1200 cal yr BP and probably reflect a response to low lake water levels. This inference is supported by the deposition of gyttja and low Zr concentrations. The dominance of Cyclocypris ovum (Jurine, 1820) and Candoninae in a ostracod community of otherwise poor density and diversity between 2200 and 1800 cal yr BP probably reflects littoral environments in the central, deepest part of the present lake. The ostracod assemblages diversified (up to 10 species) between 1100 and 250 cal yr BP and are dominated by co-occurrences of halophile species e.g. Heterocypris salina and Plesiocypridopsis newtoni until 700 cal yr BP, suggesting increased supply of salty water into the lake by salt springs. Thereafter Limnocythere inopinata, a typical shallow water species (<10 m) is dominant

  7. Post-rift vertical movements and horizontal deformations in the eastern margin of the Central Atlantic: Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous evolution of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertotti, Giovanni; Gouiza, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Wide regions of Morocco, from the Meseta to the High Atlas, have experienced km-scale upward vertical movements during Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous times following the appearance of oceanic crust in the Central Atlantic. The area experiencing exhumation was flanked to the W by a domain of continuous subsidence, part of which is named the Essaouira-Agadir basin. Comparison with vertical movement curves predicted by lithospheric thinning models shows that only 50-60 % of the subsidence documented in the Essaouira basin can be explained by post-rift thermal relaxation and that <30-40 % of the observed exhumation can be explained by processes (in)directly related to the evolution of the Central Atlantic rifted margin. Syn-sedimentary structures in Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous formations of the Eassouira-Agadir basin are common and range from m-scale folds and thrusts to km-scale sedimentary wedges. These structures systematically document coeval shortening generally oriented at high angle to the present margin. As a working hypothesis, it is suggested that regional shortening can explain the structural observations and the enigmatic vertical movements.

  8. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic constraints on the mantle source of Neoproterozoic mafic dikes of the rifted eastern Laurentian margin, north-central Appalachians, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkert, Richard A.; Feigenson, Mark D.; Mana, Sara; Bolge, Louise

    2015-01-01

    fractures likely formed through a combination of southeast-directed extension and strike-slip shear stresses. Geochemical compositions of the dikes are the same regardless of their structural trend or location implying they formed during a single magmatic event. They, along with other mafic dikes in the north-central Appalachians, were emplaced in a within-plate tectonic setting along the rifted margin of eastern Laurentia, prior to opening of the Iapetus Ocean.

  9. Chronology and geochemistry of Mesozoic granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China: Constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, De-Bin; Xu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Qing-Hai; Pei, Fu-Ping

    2010-01-01

    We performed zircon U-Pb dating and analyses of major and trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes for granitoids in the Bengbu area, central China, with the aim of constraining the magma sources and tectonic evolution of the eastern North China Craton (NCC). The analyzed zircons show typical fine-scale oscillatory zoning, indicating a magmatic origin. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals granitoids of two ages: Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous ( 206Pb/ 238U ages of 160 Ma and 130-110 Ma, respectively). The Late Jurassic rocks (Jingshan intrusion) consist of biotite-syenogranite, whereas the Early Cretaceous rocks (Huaiguang, Xilushan, Nushan, and Caoshan intrusions) are granodiorite, syenogranite, and monzogranite. The Late Jurassic biotite-syenogranites and Early Cretaceous granitoids have the following common geochemical characteristics: SiO 2 = 70.35-74.56 wt.%, K 2O/Na 2O = 0.66-1.27 (mainly < 1.0), and A/CNK = 0.96-1.06, similar to I-type granite. The examined rocks are characterized by enrichment in light rare earth elements, large ion lithophile elements, and U; depletion in heavy rare earth elements, Nb, and Ta; and high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7081-0.7110) and low ɛNd ( t) values (- 14.40 to - 22.77), indicating a crustal origin. The occurrence of Neoproterozoic magmatic zircons (850 Ma) and inherited early Mesozoic (208-228 Ma) metamorphic zircons within the Late Jurassic biotite-syenogranites, together with the occurrence of Neoproterozoic magmatic zircons (657 and 759 Ma) and inherited early Mesozoic (206-231 Ma) metamorphic zircons within the Early Cretaceous Nushan and Xilushan granitoids, suggests that the primary magmas were derived from partial melting of the Yangtze Craton (YC) basement. In contrast, the occurrence of Paleoproterozoic and Paleoarchean inherited zircons within the Huaiguang granitoids indicates that their primary magmas mainly originated from partial melting of the NCC basement. The occurrence of YC basement within the lower

  10. Youth Civic Development: Theorizing a Domain with Evidence from Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Martinez, M. Loreto; Cumsille, Patricio; Ngomane, Tsakani

    2011-01-01

    The authors use examples of youth civic engagement from Chile, South Africa, Central/Eastern Europe, and the United States--and also emphasize diversities among youth from different subgroups within countries--to illustrate common elements of the civic domain of youth development. These include the primacy of collective activity for forming…

  11. The MADS domain protein DIANA acts together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to specify the central cell in Arabidopsis ovules.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Angenent, Gerco C

    2008-08-01

    MADS box genes in plants consist of MIKC-type and type I genes. While MIKC-type genes have been studied extensively, the functions of type I genes are still poorly understood. Evidence suggests that type I MADS box genes are involved in embryo sac and seed development. We investigated two independent T-DNA insertion alleles of the Arabidopsis thaliana type I MADS box gene AGAMOUS-LIKE61 (AGL61) and showed that in agl61 mutant ovules, the polar nuclei do not fuse and central cell morphology is aberrant. Furthermore, the central cell begins to degenerate before fertilization takes place. Although pollen tubes are attracted and perceived by the mutant ovules, neither endosperm development nor zygote formation occurs. AGL61 is expressed in the central cell during the final stages of embryo sac development. An AGL61:green fluorescent protein-beta-glucoronidase fusion protein localizes exclusively to the polar nuclei and the secondary nucleus of the central cell. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that AGL61 can form a heterodimer with AGL80 and that the nuclear localization of AGL61 is lost in the agl80 mutant. Thus, AGL61 and AGL80 appear to function together to differentiate the central cell in Arabidopsis. We renamed AGL61 DIANA, after the virginal Roman goddess of the hunt. PMID:18713950

  12. Clinico-radiological profile and outcome of dengue patients with central nervous system manifestations: A case series in an Eastern India tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Souren; Sen, Kaushik; Biswas, Nirendra Mohan; Ghosal, Anirban; Rousan Jaman, S. K.; Yashavantha Kumar, K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Dengue, an acute viral disease, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, has a variable clinical spectrum ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. However, neurological complications, in general, are unusual but have been observed more frequently in the recent past, and some studies highlighted varied neurological complications during the course of illness. Although dengue is classically considered a nonneurotropic virus, there is increasing evidence for dengue viral neurotropism. In this study, we have evaluated clinico-radiological profile and outcome of nine serologically confirmed dengue patients having varied manifestations of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Materials and Methods: All the consecutive patients presented with neurological complications with positive serology for dengue infection (IgM positivity) in Department of Medicine, in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India from August 2013 to October 2014 were included in the study. These patients were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including complete hemogram, coagulation profile, liver function test, serum electrolytes, and routine CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) study with the exclusion of other common neuroinvasive pathogens. Results: Out of 9 patients with neurological complications associated with confirmed dengue infection, 2 (22%) patients had dengue encephalopathy, 5 (56%) patients have dengue encephalitis, 1 (11%) patient had dengue meningitis, and 1 (11%) patient had postdengue immune-mediated CNS involvement. Conclusion: This case series reaffirms the occurrence of varied CNS manifestations in dengue virus infection and underlines the importance of inclusion of dengue in the differential diagnosis of acute encephalitis syndrome. PMID:26933357

  13. Processing and interpretation of ASTER TIR data for mapping of rare-metal-enriched albite granitoids in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboelkhair, Hatem; Ninomiya, Yoshiki; Watanabe, Yasushi; Sato, Isao

    2010-08-01

    ASTER level 1B (radiance at the sensor) TIR-bands and level 2B04 (surface emissivity) data were analyzed to detect four of 14 rare-metal-enriched albite granite, which are classified as I-type magnetite-series (G3 type) granites in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Analysis of the shapes of laboratory emissivity spectrum of albite granite samples measured by portable emission spectrometer and albite mineral spectra from ASTER spectral library at the website of JPL of NASA showed that, albite granite samples has a higher emissivity in bands 12, 13 and 14 than in bands 10 and 11. To identify and map this type of granite, Quartz Index, as well as band ratios, band ratio combination and band combinations were used, based on the shapes of the analyzed emissivity spectrum of albite granite samples and albite mineral. The Quartz Index (QI) was high for quartz-rich/feldspar poor rocks and was low for K-feldspar or gypsum-rich rocks. Albite rich granites were detected as dark pixels in the QI image. The proposed band ratio b12/b11 clearly identified the albite granite bodies as dark regions. False color images of band combination of 14:12:10 and 12:13:11 in R:G:B clearly mapped the albite granite bodies as light brownish yellow and light greenish regions respectively. A new ASTER colored composite band ratio combination b12/b13:b11/b12:b14/b13 as R:G:B is applied successfully for mapping albite granite in the study area. This new combination clearly separated albite granite as pinkish magenta color. An ASTER scene covering the study area acquired on a different date was used to determine the effect of atmospheric and surface temperature conditions on the ratio and the mathematical band operation. The results indicated no significance differences.

  14. Morphological and light-absorption characteristics of individual BC particles collected in an urban seaside area at Tokaimura, eastern central Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Feng Fu; Watanabe, Kazuo; Shinohara, Nobuo; Xu, Xueqin; Xu, Liangjun; Akagi, Tasuku

    2008-04-15

    To observe surface morphology and light-absorption property of different black carbon (BC) particles, different-sized aerosols were collected in Tokaimura (36.27 degrees N, 140.36 degrees E), an urban seaside area of eastern central Japan, using a high-volume Andersen type sampler during a whole year (Jan. to Dec. in 2004). The morphology of individual BC particle separated from different-sized aerosols was observed with Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) and four types of morphology were observed: 50 nm spherical particles, micrometer-sized plates with homogeneous surfaces, micrometer-sized spherical particles with homogeneous surfaces and micrometer-sized spherical particles with small holes on surfaces. The light-absorption property of BC particles with different morphology has been determined by infrared spectrometry (IRS) with a photoacoustic technique in a region of 400-4000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)). All morphology BC particles showed a strong light-absorption during 500-3000 wavenumbers (cm(-1)) with two strong broad peaks in 750-1100 and 1200-2200 wavenumbers (cm(-1)), implying that all morphology BC particles can absorb a significant part of thermal infrared emitted from the earth (wavelength 4000-50,000 nm). The seasonal variation and the size-distribution of aerosols and its chemical components (e.g. C, Na, Cl, NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), Al, Ca, Mg and Fe) were also measured in this study. More than 55% of non-inorganic carbon (OC+BC) in the atmosphere was detected in the aerosols with a size smaller than 1.1 microm and the concentration of non-inorganic carbon in the atmosphere showed only a faint variation during a whole year, although the concentrations of total aerosols and its chemical components exhibited a distinct variation. PMID:18262223

  15. ARRA-funded VS30 measurements using multi-technique approach at strong-motion stations in California and central-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yong, Alan; Martin, Antony; Stokoe, Kenneth; Diehl, John

    2013-01-01

    Funded by the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), we conducted geophysical site characterizations at 191 strong-motion stations: 187 in California and 4 in the Central-Eastern United States (CEUS). The geophysical methods used at each site included passive and active surface-wave and body-wave techniques. Multiple techniques were used at most sites, with the goal of robustly determining VS (shear-wave velocity) profiles and VS30 (the time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth). These techniques included: horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), two-dimensional (2-D) array microtremor (AM), refraction microtremor (ReMi™), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), multi-channel analysis of surface waves (Rayleigh wave: MASRW; and Love wave: MASLW), and compressional- and shear-wave refraction. Of the selected sites, 47 percent have crystalline, volcanic, or sedimentary rock at the surface or at relatively shallow depth, and 53 percent are of Quaternary sediments located in either rural or urban environments. Calculated values of VS30 span almost the full range of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) Site Classes, from D (stiff soils) to B (rock). The NEHRP Site Classes based on VS30 range from being consistent with the Class expected from analysis of surficial geology, to being one or two Site Classes below expected. In a few cases where differences between the observed and expected Site Class occurred, it was the consequence of inaccurate or coarse geologic mapping, as well as considerable degradation of the near-surface rock. Additionally, several sites mapped as rock have Site Class D (stiff soil) velocities, which is due to the extensive weathering of the surficial rock.

  16. Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Evolution of the Central Andean Foreland Basin System in the Eastern Cordillera to Subandean Zone, Southern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, A.; Horton, B. K.; Anderson, R. B.; Long, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of foreland basin deposystems and provenance across southern Bolivia reveals punctuated growth of the central Andean orogenic wedge. New and published sedimentology, provenance data, stratigraphy, subcrop mapping, and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry along two transects (19.5, 21°S) from the easternmost Eastern Cordillera (EC) to the western Subandean Zone (SAZ) shed light on Late Cretaceous-Miocene thrust belt and foreland basin dynamics. Sediment dispersal patterns are constrained by paleocurrents, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, sandstone petrography, and conglomerate clast compositions. Spatial and temporal changes in the Andean thrust belt are recorded in asymmetric foreland basin thicknesses, facies distributions, and provenance within the EC (Incapampa and Camargo synclines) and SAZ (El Rosal and Entre Rios synclines). The >4 km uppermost Cretaceous-lower Miocene EC succession and ~2.5 km upper Oligocene-Miocene SAZ clastic successions record a shift from fluvial backbulge to pedogenic forebulge deposition. Braided, meandering, and lacustrine foredeep deposition records the most-rapid subsidence, with a later shift to progradational braided and alluvial fan deposition in the wedge-top zone. Growth strata preserved in EC and SAZ wedge-top deposits suggest unsteady eastward advance of the deformation front. Distal foreland deposits show west-directed paleocurrents with >1 Ga detrital zircon populations. Emerging Andean sources are indicated by east-directed paleocurrents, <0.7 Ga detrital zircon populations, and hinterland clast compositions. Time-transgressive patterns of punctuated exhumation in the EC (>36-25 Ma), Interandean Zone (IAZ, ~22-7 Ma) and SAZ (<6 Ma) can be linked to eastward passage of a flexural forebulge, recorded as a 50-200 m thick condensed zone in EC and SAZ basin fill. Integrated assessment of basin architecture, provenance, and exhumation highlights the potential influence of pre-Cenozoic IAZ heterogeneities on

  17. The First paleomagnetic study from Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia, China and its implication for the evolution of Paleo-Asian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pan; Chen, Yan; Xu, Bei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Guanzhong; Choulet, Flavien

    2013-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between North China Block (NCB) and Mongolia Block (MOB) is a contentious issue and geodynamical models remain speculative. As an effort to puzzle out this controversy, a paleomagnetic study was carried out on Paleozoic formations in Central-Eastern Inner Mongolia (China). Despite the indigent outcrop conditions to collect reliable samples over a three-year period, we present the first paleomagnetic data for Inner Mongolia Block (IMB). More than 680 sedimentary and volcanoclastic samples were collected from 86 sites. We have established titanium-poor magnetite and hematite as the principal magnetic carriers. AMS measurements demonstrate negligible deformation of the study rocks with sedimentary fabrics. From primary magnetizations, a Late Devonian and a Permian pole are calculated for IMB at: λ=46.8°N, φ=349.1°E, dp=14.6°, dm=27.3° with N=3 and λ=49.5°N, φ=0.0°E, dp=6.2°, dm=11.0° with N=5, respectively. Two stages of secondary magnetization are also identified probably due to Early Permian and Early Cretaceous magmatic events. As preliminary results, the comparison of our new paleomagnetic poles with available data from NCB, MOB and Siberia indicates that (1) paleolatitude of IMB, NCB and MOB are consistent between Late Devonian and Permian, suggesting pre-Late Devonian closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean and further evaluation of these three blocks as a single entity; (2) post-Permian intracontinental deformation was significant and characterized by block rotations, which due to strike-slip faulting within the welded NCB-IMB-MOB block.

  18. Records of human occupation from Pleistocene river terrace and aeolian sediments in the Arneiro depression (Lower Tejo River, central eastern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, Pedro P.; Almeida, Nelson A. C.; Aubry, Thierry; Martins, António A.; Murray, Andrew S.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Sohbati, Reza; Raposo, Luis; Rocha, Leonor

    2012-09-01

    In the uppermost reach of the Lower Tejo River (eastern central Portugal), where the river crosses two quartzite ridges that separate the Ródão (upstream) and Arneiro (downstream) depressions, Palaeolithic artefacts have been recovered from three lower river terrace levels and a cover unit of aeolian sands. This paper presents data on the discovery of archaeological artefacts from the terrace levels and the aeolian sands that can be linked to Middle and Upper Palaeolithic industries from new field sites at Tapada do Montinho and Castelejo. The archaeological data when placed in a geomorphological, sedimentary and chronological framework, contribute new information on the understanding of human occupation in western Iberia during cold-climate episodes of the last 62 to 12 ka; and especially during the cooler and driest conditions that occurred between 32 and 12 ka, when the climate favoured aeolian sediment transport. In the Lower Tejo River, the integration of absolute age datasets with archaeological, geomorphological and sedimentary data indicate that in westernmost Iberia the first appearance of artefacts in river terrace sediments suggests that the earliest marker for human occupation dates from the lower Acheulian (Lower Palaeolithic), probably corresponding to an age of ~ 340 ka. Data also suggest, for the first time, that Acheulian lithic industries were replaced by Middle Palaeolithic ones (namely the Levallois stone knapping technique) by ~ 160 ka (~ MIS6). Middle Palaeolithic industries were later replaced by Upper Palaeolithic industries at 32 ka. The post 32 ka period, dominated by aeolian sediment transport, is related to the onset of cold-dry climate conditions which resulted in low river flow discharges, floodplain exposure and reworking by NW winds. This cold-dry period is coeval with the disappearance of Megafauna and associated Neanderthal communities, and the replacement of the Middle Palaeolithic industries by Upper Palaeolithic ones in this

  19. Budget impact analysis of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Brodszky, Valentin; Baji, Petra; Balogh, Orsolya; Péntek, Márta

    2014-05-01

    The first biosimilar monoclonal antibody (infliximab, CT-P13) was registered by the European Medicines Agency in 2013 for the treatment of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biosimilar infliximab is first being marketed in the Central and Eastern European countries. This paper presents the estimated budget impact of the introduction of biosimilar infliximab in RA over a 3-year time period in six selected countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. A prevalence-based model was constructed for budget impact analysis. Two scenarios were compared to the reference scenario (RSc) where no biosimilar infliximab is available: biosimilar scenario 1 (BSc1), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is disallowed, and only patients who start new biological therapy are allowed to use biosimilar infliximab; as well as biosimilar scenario 2 (BSc2), where interchanging the originator infliximab with biosimilar infliximab is allowed, and 80% of patients treated with originator infliximab are interchanged to biosimilar infliximab. Compared to the RSc, the net savings are estimated to be €15.3 or €20.8 M in BSc1 and BSc2, respectively, over the 3 years. If budget savings were spent on reimbursement of additional biosimilar infliximab treatment, approximately 1,200 or 1,800 more patients could be treated in the six countries within 3 years in the two biosimilar scenarios, respectively. The actual saving is most sensitive to the assumption of the acquisition cost of the biosimilar drug and to the initial number of patients treated with biological therapy. The study focused on one indication (RA) and demonstrated that the introduction of biosimilar infliximab can lead to substantial budget savings in health care budgets. Further savings are expected for other indications where biosimilar medicines are implemented. PMID:24832837

  20. Transition from alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanism during evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon (Western Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiéblemont, Denis; Bouton, Pascal; Préat, Alain; Goujou, Jean-Christian; Tegyey, Monique; Weber, Francis; Ebang Obiang, Michel; Joron, Jean Louis; Treuil, Michel

    2014-11-01

    We report new geochemical data for the volcanic and subvolcanic rocks associated with the evolution of the Francevillian basin of eastern Gabon during Paleoproterozoic times (c. 2.1-2 Ga). Filling of this basin has proceeded through four main sedimentary or volcano-sedimentary episodes, namely FA, FB, FC and FD. Volcanism started during the FB episode being present only in the northern part of the basin (Okondja sub-basin). This volcanism is ultramafic to trachytic in composition and displays a rather constant alkaline geochemical signature. This signature is typical of a within-plate environment, consistent with the rift-setting generally postulated for the Francevillian basin during the FB period. Following FB, the FC unit is 10-20 m-thick silicic horizon (jasper) attesting for a massive input of silica in the basin. Following FC, the FD unit is a c. 200-400 m-thick volcano-sedimentary sequence including felsic tuffs and epiclastic rocks. The geochemical signatures of these rocks are totally distinct from those of the FB alkaline lavas. High Th/Ta and La/Ta ratios attest for a calc-alkaline signature and slight fractionation between heavy rare-earth suggests melting at a rather low pressure. Such characteristics are comparable to those of felsic lavas associated with the Taupo zone of New Zealand, a modern ensialic back-arc basin. Following FD, the FE detrital unit is defined only in the Okondja region, probably associated with a late-stage collapse of the northern part of the basin. It is suggested that the alkaline to calc-alkaline volcanic transition reflects the evolution of the Francevillian basin from a diverging to a converging setting, in response to the onset of converging movements in the Eburnean Belt of Central Africa.

  1. Geological and petrological evidences for mingling and mixing of magmas in the Me-akan and Taisetsu volcanoes, eastern and central Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Keiji; Sato, Eiichi; Anzai, Keisuke; Baba, Hikaru

    2015-04-01

    Both the Me-akan volcano, eastern Hokkaido, and the Taisetsu volcano, central Hokkaido, are exactly the clear fields showing geological evidences for magma mingling and magma mixing, such as coexistence of basaltic andesite scoria and dacite pumice in plinian fall deposit, heterogeneous juvenile ejecta (banded pumice, etc.) in pyroclastic flow, mafic inclusions in lavas, and banded structure in lavas. Throughout the eruption history of Me-Akan volcano, the largest eruptions occurred about 12000-13000 years ago. The main eruptions of this stage were continuously eruptive sequence of pumice-scoria pyroclastic flows and pumice-scoria plinian fallout, which show the multi-stage processes of magma mixing and mingling in the magma plumbing system through mineralogical and petrological analyses of the juvenile products. Each deposit contains pumice (SiO2=63wt.%), scoria (SiO2=55wt.%) and heterogeneous scoria. The core composition of plagioclase phenocrysts of these scoria and pumice shows a same bimodal distribution of low-An plagioclase (An=59) and high-An plagioclase (An>70). These indicate that heterogeneous ejecta such as banded pumice were exactly mingling products of both mixed mafic and felsic magmas, which were derived from continuous magma mixing of felsic and mafic end-member magmas in a zoned magma chamber. The lavas in Taisetsu volcano frequently show the banded structure of andesite and dacite magmas, and are characterized by containing a number of mafic inclusions with coarse- and fine-grained types. These inclusions were originated from two kinds of mafic end-member magmas and have different resident times in magma chamber. Some coarse-type inclusion was probably brought out from dacite crystal mush layer. The plagioclase phenocrysts in the host lava show trimodal An-content distributions (

  2. Origin of the Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly (NW Spain). Implications for the Origin of Magnetic Anomalies in the Central Iberian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayarza, P.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.; Villalain, J. J.; Alvarez Lobato, F.; Martin Paramio, M.; Rodriguez Gómez, S.; Sanz López, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aeromagnetic map of Iberia features outstanding anomalies that have been key to define the Central Iberian Arc, a late-orogenic orocline in the western part of the Variscan belt. The most studied of them is the EGMA (Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly), which follows the Lugo-Sanabria extensional dome and is probably associated with it. Among the existing models of this anomaly, those relating it with magnetite-rich inhomogeneous granites and migmatites formed during late-Variscan extension seem to be more plausible ones. However, this and other interpretations involving deep-seated mafic/ultramafic bodies lack resolution as they are based on the aeromagnetic dataset. New ground magnetic data have been acquired in the northern part of the Xistral Tectonic Window, at the core of the Lugo dome where its deepest rocks crop out. The resulting maps show that the anomaly ranges ~1000 nT (vs. 190 nT on the aeromagnetic map) and that the most important maxima lie on top of extensional detachments located on high-grade metasediments or inhomogeneous granites. 2D forward modeling indicates that the magnetization is carried by upper Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian metasediments, partially melted during late-Variscan high-T and low-P metamorphic event linked to the extensional collapse. Furthermore, the anomaly maxima are spatially related with detachments, where the metasediments were strongly sheared. Therefore, the P-T, redox and fluid pressure conditions necessary for the formation of magnetite seem related with the extensional process and the dynamics of its structures. Many magnetic anomalies of the Central Iberian Arc lie on top of Variscan extensional domes and accordingly may have a similar origin. Special attention is paid to the Gredos Magnetic Anomaly, coincident with the batholith of the same name. Preliminary magnetic mapping and modeling indicate that the anomaly is previous to the intrusion of the Jurassic Alentejo-Plasencia dyke and to the tardi

  3. The Pikwitonei granulite domain: A lower crustal level along the Churchill-Superior boundary in central Manitoba

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, W.

    1983-01-01

    The greenschist to amphibolite facies tonalite-greenstone terrain of the Gods Lake subprovince grades - in a northwesterly direction - into the granulite facies Pikwitonei domain at the western margins of the Superior Province. The transition is the result of prograde metamorphism and takes place over 50 - 100 km without any structural or lithological breaks. Locally the orthopyroxene isograd is oblique to the structural grain and transects greenstone belts, e.g., the Cross Lake belt. The greenstone belts in the granulite facies and adjacent lower grade domain consist mainly of mafic and (minor) ultramafic metavolcanics, and clastic and chemical metasedimentary rocks. Typical for the greenstone belts crossed by the orthopyroxene isograd are anorthositic gabbros and anorthosites, and plagiophyric mafic flows. The Pikwitonei granulite domain has been interpreted as to represent a lower crustal level which was uplifted to the present level of erosion. On the basis of gravimetric data this uplift has been modelled as an obduction onto the Churchill Province during the Hudsonian orogeny, similar to the Ivrea Zone. The fault between the Churchill and Superior Province is described.

  4. Early Cretaceous continental delamination in the Yangtze Block: Evidence from high-Mg adakitic intrusions along the Tanlu fault, central Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Liqiong; Mo, Xuanxue; Santosh, M.; Yang, Zhusen; Yang, Dan; Dong, Guochen; Wang, Liang; Wang, Xinchun; Wu, Xuan

    2016-09-01

    Early Cretaceous high-Mg adakitic rocks from central Eastern China provide important insights into the thinning mechanism of the over-thickened lithosphere in the Yangtze Block (YB) as well as the North China Block (NCB). The Tanlu fault (TLF), located between the North China and Yangtze Blocks, and has been considered as a prominent pathway of magmas and fluids that resulted in lithosphere thinning of the YB during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Here we report the petrology, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology, in situ Hf isotopes, and whole-rock Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of four high-Mg adakitic intrusions along the TLF in northeastern Langdai. These adakitic intrusions consist of monzodiorite, quartz monzonite porphyry, and quartz monzodiorite. Zircon LA-MC-ICPMS analyses of five samples yield weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 127.58 ± 0.80, 126.90 ± 0.81, 120.71 ± 0.64, 122.75 ± 0.57, and 129.2 ± 1.1 Ma, indicating their emplacement during the Early Cretaceous. The intrusions have intermediate SiO2 (53.18-65.48 wt%) and high potassium (K2O = 3.07-3.95 wt%; Na2O/K2O = 1.02-1.26) and are classified as shoshonitic to high-K calc-alkaline series. They are characterized by high MgO (1.80-7.35 wt%), Mg# (50-65), Sr (591-1183 ppm), Ni (20.3-143.0 ppm), and Cr (51.40-390.0 ppm) contents, high (La/Yb)N (11.60-28.33) and Sr/Y (27.9-113.5) ratios, and low Y (7.79-22.4 ppm) and Yb (0.60-2.01 ppm) contents, comparable with high-Mg adakites. The samples are enriched in light rare earth elements but depleted in heavy rare earth elements and high field strength elements with slightly negative to positive Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.81-1.30), resembling the features of high-Mg adakitic rocks. Their whole-rock εNd(t) = -16.2 to -15.0, initial (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7060-0.7074, low radiogenic Pb (206Pb/204Pb(t) = 16.208-16.509, 207Pb/204Pb(t) = 15.331-15.410, and 208Pb/204Pb(t) = 36.551-36.992), and zircon εHf(t) = -36.6 to -16.6 suggest magma derivation from a continental crustal

  5. Geochronogy of leucogranites in Yadong region: constraints on the age of the South Tibetan Detachment System in central-eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Chao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2016-04-01

    The South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) is a series of low-angle normal faults with an extension of more than 2000 km along strike of the Himalaya orogen (Burchfiel et al., 1992). It separates the high-grade rocks of the Greater Himalaya Sequence (GHS) from the generally low-grade metasedimentary rocks of Tethyan Himalaya Sequence (THS) above. Knowing the timing of deformations related to the STDS is critical to understanding the exhumation history of the Himalaya. In central-eastern Himalaya, the STDS is disrupted by a major northeast-trending fault zone that was referred as Yadong Cross Structure (YCS). Exposures of the STDS either side of the YCS have been well determined, and the cessation timing of shearing have been estimated prior to 22~16 Ma for the western section and younger than 12 Ma for the eastern section (see the review in Leloup et al., 2010). It suggests that the YCS is key region that corresponds to a major timing discontinuity. However, the exposure of STDS in Yadong region and its activity timing has not been well constrained. Field mapping of the Yadong region reveals that a klippen of Cambrian biotite schist, chlorite schist, calcischists and quartzite, and Ordovician limestones of the THS units was resting on garnet-sillimanite-plagioclase gneisses, augen granitic gneisses and migmatites of the GHS basement (China University of Geosciences, 2005, unpublished). Structural relationships indicate that the contact is a low-angle normal fault, which was termed as Yadong shear zone (Xu et al., 2013). We correlate the Yadong shear zone to the STDS following the broader convention that STDS is defined as the contact between the THS and GHS. There are two leucogranite plutons within the shear zone, the Dingga pluton to the north and the Gaowu pluton to the south. They intruded into both GHS and THS, with the main bodies are undeformed and isotropic. Furthermore, there are numbers of undeformed dykes crosscut the foliations of the country rocks

  6. Orographic barrier development along the eastern flanks of the southern central Andes, Argentina: new insights from stable hydrogen isotopes in hydrated volcanic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingel, H.; Mulch, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Cottle, J. M.; Rohrmann, A.; Alonso, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    The Andes constitute one of the most important orographic barriers in the S hemisphere, which impacts atmospheric circulation, the amount and distribution of rainfall, and resulting surface processes. In the central Andes of Argentina the orogenic Puna Plateau and the intermontane basins within the adjacent Eastern Cordillera (EC) constitute archives that furnish spatiotemporal information on the uplift of the orogen and ensuing paleoenvironmental changes. Presently, rainfall in NW Argentina is focused along the windward flanks of the EC, while its intermontane basins and the Puna constitute high-elevation regions with decreasing rainfall and steep topographic gradients. The influence of topography on hydrologic conditions is reflected in the stable isotopic composition of meteoric water. Importantly, in light of these systematic present-day isotope characteristics, proxy materials retrieved from basin strata may record analogous conditions in the past and provide insight concerning topographic growth through time. Here, we present isotopic data of volcanic glass (δDg), extracted from volcanic ash deposits interbedded with strata in different sedimentary basins across the E flank of the plateau. Combined with geochronology, our data show clear spatiotemporal variations in δDg within the different basins that are correlated with regional topographic growth and associated orographic effects during the Mio-Pliocene. For example, the Humahuaca basin (23.5°S) shows a gradual δDg-decrease that documents uplift of the basin catchment and possibly enhanced rainout along a paleo-Andean front, followed by a strong shift towards modern δDg values (-100‰) after 3 Ma, associated with aridification due to range uplift and orographic shielding to the E. In the Angastaco basin (25.5°S), δDg is more variable prior to 3.5 Ma (-70 to -95‰). Conditions similar to today (-65‰) were established by at least 1 Ma. Isotopic and sedimentologic data from the Toro basin (24.5

  7. Timing and nature of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean: constraints from ophiolitic gabbros in the northern Great Xing'an Range, eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yongjiang; Liu, Binqiang; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Weimin; Liu, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Jifeng ophiolitic mélange (ultramafic rocks, meta-basalts and gabbros) crops out in the northern segment of the Great Xing'an Range, the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which marks the closure of the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean associated with the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. In order to investigate the formation age and magma source of the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange, the gabbros from newly discovered the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange are studied with zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and zircon Hf isotopes. Zircon U-Pb dating from the ophiolitic gabbros yields U-Pb age of 647 ± 5.3 Ma, which may represent the formation age of the ophiolitic mélange. The gabbros display low SiO2, TiO2, K2O contents, high Na2O, LREE contents and indistinctive REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 1.97-2.98]. It shows an E-MORB-like affinity, while the element concentrations of the Jifeng samples are lower than that of E-MORB. More importantly, Nb displays negative anomaly in comparison with Th, which shows a transitional SSZ-type ophiolite signature. Moreover, the ɛ Hf ( t) values of ~647 Ma zircons in the gabbros range from +8.4 to +13.4, and the corresponding Hf single-stage ages ( T DM1) are between 687 and 902 Ma, which is obviously older than the crystallization age of 647 Ma. These geochemical features can be explained as melts from the partial melting of a depleted mantle source meta-somatized by fluids derived from a subducted slab. Accordingly, we conclude that the Jifeng ophiolitic mélange is probably related to transitional SSZ-type ophiolite and developed in an intra-oceanic subduction, which indicates that an ocean (the Xinlin-Xiguitu Ocean) existed between the Erguna block and Xing'an block. The Ocean's formation might be no later than the Neoproterozoic (647 Ma), and it was closed in the Late Cambrian because of the collision between the Erguna block and Xing'an block.

  8. Constrains on the Latest Volcanic Eruptions in Eastern-Central Europe: Zircon Geochronology and Magma Residence Time at the Ciomadul Volcano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harangi, S.; Lukács, R.; Dunkl, I.; Molnár, K.; Schmitt, A. K.; Kiss, B.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of volcanic hazard is often difficult, particularly at those areas, where no volcanic events have been documented in the historical time or even longer. Here, we present new geochronological data to demonstrate that relatively young volcanism occurred in eastern-central Europe, at the Ciomadul volcano (southeast Carpathians, Romania) and there is a potential for future rejuvenation. The eruption ages of the Ciomadul are constrained by (U-Th)/He zircon dating corrected for U-series disequilibrium and this suggests that the volcanic activity occurred from 150 ka to 32 ka. Following a lava dome building stage, a more explosive eruption phase took place at 50-32 ka. Subplinian to plinian eruptions produced volcanic ash clouds that blanketed extended areas. The U-Th and U-Pb age spectra of the zircons from the 50-32 ka volcanic rocks ranges over 300 ka and is thus indicative of a long-lasting intrusive body beneath the volcano. Interior-rim age difference within individual zircons is as much as 340-88 ka. Thus, a subterraneous magma system was already under construction ca. 150-200 ka before the onset of volcanic eruptions. The peak zircon crystallization age falls between 220-100 ka, and there are only sparse age data <100 ka indicating that conditions became unfavourable for zircon crystallization, possibly due to sluggish precipitation at low temperatures or complete solidification within some parts of the magma system. Nevertheless, rim-analysis (outer 4 μm) of the youngest, 32 ka zircons shows that crystallization occurred also at 60-80 ka, but this still precedes the eruption age by about 30-40 ka. All samples contain zircons with widely differing ages which cover the entire 300 ka period of magma evolution at Ciomadul. These data reflect that a melt-bearing crystal mush body could have continuously existed beneath the volcano. Intermittent injections of hotter magma into the cold crystal mush could help to maintain the magma system over 100's ka

  9. Molecular genetic analysis of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Eastern and Central Sudan using pvcsp and pvmsp-3α genes as molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Talha, Albadawi Abdelbagi; Pirahmadi, Sekineh; Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Djadid, Navid Dinparast; Nour, Bakri Y M; Zakeri, Sedigheh

    2015-06-01

    In Sudan, Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 5-10% of malaria cases. This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversity of P. vivax population from Sudan by analyzing the polymorphism of P. vivax csp (pvcsp) and pvmsp-3α genes. Blood samples (n=76) were taken from suspected malaria cases from 2012-2013 in three health