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Sample records for central europe part

  1. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  2. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  3. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  4. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  5. The growing HIV epidemic in Central Europe: a neglected issue?

    PubMed

    Gökengin, Deniz; Oprea, Cristiana; Uysal, Serhat; Begovac, Josip

    2016-01-01

    The number of new cases of HIV infection has been decreasing in some parts of the world (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa) with the highest burden of disease in recent years. However, other regions are showing a different trend, such as Eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. This trend seems also to apply to the Central European region. This article analyses HIV data for Central Europe derived from annual surveillance reports of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and gives an overview of the recent status of the epidemic in this specific region. We show that, although still at a low level, the HIV epidemic in Central Europe continues to grow and requires more resources and interventions to curtail the ongoing epidemic. PMID:27482455

  6. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  7. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  8. Why (not) go east? Comparison of findings from FDA Investigational New Drug study site inspections performed in Central and Eastern Europe with results from the USA, Western Europe, and other parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Caldron, Paul H; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Kropf, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, investigational sites in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have been increasingly utilized by pharmaceutical companies because of their high productivity in terms of patient enrolment into clinical trials. Based on the FDA's publicly accessible Clinical Investigator Inspection List, we present an analysis of findings and outcome classifications from FDA inspections during Investigational New Drug (IND) studies and compare the results for the CEE region to those from Western European countries and the USA. Data from all 5531 FDA clinical trials inspections that occurred between 1994 (when the FDA first performed inspections in CEE) and the end of 2010 were entered into the database for comparative analysis. Of these, 4865 routine data audit (DA) inspections were analyzed: 401 from clinical trials performed in Western Europe, 230 in CEE, 3858 in the USA, and 376 in other countries. The average number of deficiencies per inspection ranged between 0.99 for CEE and 1.97 in Western Europe. No deficiencies were noted during 16.6%, 39.0%, and 21.5% of the inspections in Western Europe, CEE and USA, respectively. The percentages of inspections after which no follow-up action was indicated were 36.9% for Western Europe, 55.7% for CEE, and 44.3% for US sites. CEE was also the region with the lowest percentage of inspections that required official or voluntary action. On the basis of FDA inspection data, the high productivity of CEE sites appears to be accompanied by regulatory compliance as well as by data quality standards that are not inferior to those in Western regions. PMID:22563236

  9. Why (not) go east? Comparison of findings from FDA Investigational New Drug study site inspections performed in Central and Eastern Europe with results from the USA, Western Europe, and other parts of the world

    PubMed Central

    Caldron, Paul H; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Kropf, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, investigational sites in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have been increasingly utilized by pharmaceutical companies because of their high productivity in terms of patient enrolment into clinical trials. Based on the FDA’s publicly accessible Clinical Investigator Inspection List, we present an analysis of findings and outcome classifications from FDA inspections during Investigational New Drug (IND) studies and compare the results for the CEE region to those from Western European countries and the USA. Data from all 5531 FDA clinical trials inspections that occurred between 1994 (when the FDA first performed inspections in CEE) and the end of 2010 were entered into the database for comparative analysis. Of these, 4865 routine data audit (DA) inspections were analyzed: 401 from clinical trials performed in Western Europe, 230 in CEE, 3858 in the USA, and 376 in other countries. The average number of deficiencies per inspection ranged between 0.99 for CEE and 1.97 in Western Europe. No deficiencies were noted during 16.6%, 39.0%, and 21.5% of the inspections in Western Europe, CEE and USA, respectively. The percentages of inspections after which no follow-up action was indicated were 36.9% for Western Europe, 55.7% for CEE, and 44.3% for US sites. CEE was also the region with the lowest percentage of inspections that required official or voluntary action. On the basis of FDA inspection data, the high productivity of CEE sites appears to be accompanied by regulatory compliance as well as by data quality standards that are not inferior to those in Western regions. PMID:22563236

  10. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. PMID:26632483

  11. Short history of PACS (Part II: Europe).

    PubMed

    Lemke, Heinz U

    2011-05-01

    Although the concept of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) was developed in Europe during the latter part of the 1970s, no working system was completed at that time. The first PACS implementations took place in the United States in the early 1980s, e.g. at Pennsylvania University, UCLA, and Kansas City University. Some more or less successful PACS developments also took place in Europe in the 1980s, particularly in the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Scandinavia, and Germany. Most systems could be characterized by their focus on a single department, such as radiology or nuclear medicine. European hospital-wide PACS with high visibility evolved in the early 1990s in London (Hammersmith Hospital) and Vienna (SMZO). These were followed during the latter part of the 1990s by approximately 10-20 PACS installations in each of the major industrialized countries of Europe. Wide-area PACS covering several health care institutions in a region are now in the process of being implemented in a number of European countries. Because of limitations of space some countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Spain, Greece, as well as Eastern European countries, etc. could not be appropriately represented in this paper. PMID:21466932

  12. Surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Dagan, Ron; Sayiner, Abdullah; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Dinleyici, Ener Çağrı; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Kulcsár, Andrea; Mad'arová, Lucia; Pazdiora, Petr; Sidorenko, Sergey; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Tambić-Andrašević, Arjana; Yeraliyeva, Lyazzat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumococcal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease associated with S. pneumoniae is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (e.g. PCV7, PCV13) provide protection from invasive pneumococcal disease as well as non-invasive infection (pneumonia, acute otitis media), and decrease vaccine-type nasopharyngeal colonisation, thus reducing transmission to unvaccinated individuals. PCVs have also been shown to reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal disease. Surveillance for pneumococcal disease is important to understand local epidemiology, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance rates. Surveillance systems also help to inform policy development, including vaccine recommendations, and monitor the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. National pneumococcal surveillance systems exist in a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (such as Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), and some have introduced PCVs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Russia, Slovakia and Turkey). Those countries without established programs (such as Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) may be able to learn from the experiences of those with national surveillance systems. The serotype distributions and impact of PCV13 on pediatric pneumococcal diseases are relatively similar in different parts of the world, suggesting that approaches to vaccination used elsewhere are also likely to be effective in Central and Eastern Europe. This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, presents the latest surveillance data from Central and Eastern Europe, and discusses any similarities and differences in these data as well the potential implications for vaccination policies in the region. PMID:27096714

  13. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  14. Labour Markets and Training in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesporova, Alena

    1997-01-01

    Economic upheaval in Central and Eastern Europe has led to excessive labor supply, increased unemployment, and enforced economic inactivity. Economic policies promoting growth, efficiency, and education and training to improve the quality and adaptability of the workforce are needed. (SK)

  15. Environment and health in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzman, C.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the influence of environmental pollution on human health in comparison with other determinants of health in Central and Eastern Europe; to summarize current knowledge about locations in Central and Eastern Europe where environmental pollution has influenced human health; and to identify the principal types of environmental exposure which are affecting human health and could be subject to remediation through concerted environmental action.

  16. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberle, E.

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  17. Policy advocacy for female injecting drug users in eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakowicz, Anna

    2010-10-01

    A key reason for hosting AIDS 2010 in Vienna was to highlight the spread of HIV through injecting drug use, something that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In this article, based on a presentation at the conference, Anna Zakowicz discusses the options for promoting policy advocacy for female injecting drug users (IDUs) in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:21413621

  18. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    hippocastanum are well represented in the PEP725 database. Flowering of lilac Syringa vulgaris is also used in the US as spring indicator . The flowering and/or leaf unfolding dates of lilac, horse chestnut show a clear advance to an earlier entrance in the last two decades 1991 to 2000 and 2001 to 2010 compared with the reference period 1961 to 1990, being more pronounced in northwestern regions of Central Europe. The growing season defined here as time span between leaf unfolding and leaf coloration of birch and beech has been lengthening up to two weeks in 2001 to 2010 compared to 1961 to 1990 in northeastern parts of Central Europe.

  19. [Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals in Central Europe].

    PubMed

    Bodio, Mauro; Junghanss, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Central Europe is largely safe from accidents with venomous and poisonous animals. The regions where European vipers are regularly found are shrinking. Today accidents with jellyfish and stings of venomous fish afflicted during leisure activities at the sea side play the dominant role. Life threatening accidents in Europe are mainly due to exotic snakes held in captivity. A system useful in daily medical practice is explained to classify and stage accidents due to poisonous and venomous animals. The important poisonous and venomous animals of Central Europe and the specific therapeutics, the antivenoms, are covered. The antivenom depot "Antivenin-CH" of the Swiss Toxicology Information Centre in Zurich and the MRITox in Munich with the antivenom registry Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN) are presented. PMID:19401985

  20. Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Multilingual Matters 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt, Ed.; Peckham, Donald, Ed.

    This collection aims to provide an introductory study of linguistic minorities in Central and Eastern Europe, taking into account historical development, present situation, language maintenance and shifts, as well as language and educational policies of the different countries in the area. The introduction (by Christina Bratt Paulston) discusses a…

  1. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  2. The Emergence of Management Education in Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddock, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Management education in East Central Europe exists in a context of rapid evolution, the need to establish credibility, and contradictory demand. Programs must deal with the transition to a market economy, social versus profit orientation, lack of qualified faculty, and the need for textbooks and case material. (SK)

  3. Farewell to Parachute Professors in East-Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognianova, Ekaterina

    1995-01-01

    Examines the work of 10 North American journalism educators who taught in 15 midcareer training programs for journalists in East-Central Europe from 1991-93. Asks how North American journalists teach in intercultural settings and how they changed their methods to suit the setting. Concludes that North American journalists should continue their…

  4. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cadar, Daniel; Bosch, Stefan; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the complete genome of a putative novel Usutu virus (USUV) strain (Usutu-BONN) detected in a dead blackbird from Germany. Genomic analysis revealed several unique amino acid substitutions among the polyprotein gene. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that Usutu-BONN constitutes a putative novel African USUV lineage, which was probably recently introduced to central Europe. PMID:26291923

  5. Key Indicators on Vocational Education and Training. Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badescu, Mircea; Kennedy, Alison

    The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone substantial changes due, in part, to vocational education and training (VET). One of the most important objectives of the European Union (EU) enlargement process is to monitor key indicators of the educational systems and labor markets so that the different skills in demand and…

  6. GIA induced intraplate seismicity in northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Steffen, Rebekka; Wu, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Though northern Central Europe is regarded as a low seismicity area (Leydecker and Kopera, 1999), several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII affected the area in the last 1200 years (Leydecker, 2011). The trigger for these seismic events is not sufficiently investigated yet. Based on the combination of historic earthquake epicentres with the most recent fault maps we show that the historic seismicity concentrated at major reverse faults. There is no evidence for significant historic earthquakes along normal faults in northern Central Europe. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (clusters that shift from time to time) implies that northern Central Europe behaves like a typical intraplate tectonic region as demonstrated for other intraplate settings (Liu et al., 2000) We utilized Finite Element models that describe the process of glacial isostatic adjustment to analyse the fault behaviour. We use the change in Coulomb Failure Stress (dCFS) to represent the minimum stress required to reach faulting. A negative dCFS value indicates that the fault is stable, while a positive value means that GIA stress is potentially available to induce faulting or cause fault instability or failure unless released temporarily by an earthquake. The results imply that many faults in Central Europe are postglacial faults, though they developed outside the glaciated area. This is supported by the characteristics of the dCFS graphs, which indicate the likelihood that an earthquake is related to GIA. Almost all graphs show a change from negative to positive values during the deglaciation phase. This observation sheds new light on the distribution of post-glacial faults in general. Based on field data and the numerical simulations we developed the first consistent model that can explain the occurrence of deglaciation seismicity and more recent historic earthquakes in northern Central Europe. Based on our model, the historic seismicity in northern Central Europe

  7. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  8. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced, and the…

  9. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Kendall, J. M.; Ren, Y.; Hegedus, E.; Ionescu, C.; Brueckl, E. P.; Radovanovic, S.

    2012-12-01

    Since the Mesozoic, central Europe tectonics has been dominated by the closure of the Tethyan Ocean as the African and European plates collided. This was accompanied by subduction, orogeny (the Alpine - Carpathian mountain chain), and microplate accretion. In the Mid-Miocene lithospheric extension formed the Pannonian Basin; this extension has been variously ascribed to slab roll-back, lithospheric gravitational instability or mantle extrusion. We present SKS splitting measurements for central Europe from temporary seismological deployments of the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP, 2005-2007) and the South Carpathian Project (SCP, 2009-2011), together with stations from permanent national networks. This provides a station spacing on the order of 50 - 70 km from the Eastern Alps across the Pannonian Basin and Carpathians to the East European platform with which to test geodynamic models for the region. SKS splitting delay times are between 0.7 - 1.5 s with a regional NW-SE trend of fast directions across the eastern Pannonian-Carpathian region, turning to parallel the tectonic strike in the Alps but perturbed by extension in the western Pannonian, the presence of the East European platform and the lithospheric instability in the Vrancea region of Romania. The fast polarisation orientations are correlated with upper mantle and transition zone tomographic images from a recent finite frequency study with the aim of controlling variations in mantle heterogeneity. The consistency of the regional anisotropy trends across much of central Europe imply olivine orientation perpendicular to the principal compressive stresses created by the collision of Adria and Europe, perturbed by Miocene extension of the Pannonian Basin and present-day lithospheric instability of the Vrancea region.

  10. An analysis of Eemian climate in Western and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagwijn, W. H.

    On the basis of 31 pollen diagrams and additional data for botanical macrofossils an analysis is made of the Last Interglacial (Eemian) climatic history in Western and Central Europe. The main tool for this analysis is the climatic indicator species method. Only selected woody species are used for the quantification of data. Partial climatic range diagrams are presented for: Abies alba, Acer monspessulanum, Acer tataricum, Buxus sempervirens, Tilia tomentosa. The problem of time correlation and pollen zonation of the Eemian is discussed. The climatic analysis itself is based on an improved version of the indicator species method. In this version not every site is analysed for its climatic values. Instead maps and tables on the migrational history of Hedera, Ilex, Buxus, Abies and species of Acer, Tilia and Abies are the basis for climatic maps showing respectively January and July isotherms for the periods of the Corylus zone (E4a) and the Carpinus zone (E5). It is concluded that mean January temperatures were as much as 3°C higher at Amsterdam (The Netherlands), than at present, and mean temperatures in July were 2°C higher. However, the thermal maximum in winter was later (zone E5) than the summer thermal maximum (zone E4a). Winter temperatures changed parallel to rise and fall of global sea-level. Precipitation changes are more difficult to estimate. In the first part of the Eemian precipitation must have been relatively low, but from zone E4b onward it increased to higher values, reaching 800 mm and probably substantially more in zones E5 and E6. Hence the Eemian climate was in its beginning relatively more contintental, and later (from E4b onward) more oceanic. However, as compared with the Holocene, the Eemian climate was, generally speaking, more oceanic.

  11. Extreme Winter/Early-Spring Temperature Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Ardizzone, Joseph; Brakke, Thomas; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Jusem, Juan Carlos; Glantz, Michael; Rogers, Jeff; Sud, Yogesh; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Extreme seasonal fluctuations of the surface-air temperature characterize the climate of central Europe, 45-60 deg North Temperature difference between warm 1990 and cold 1996 in the January-March period, persisting for more than two weeks at a time, amounted to 18 C for extensive areas. These anomalies in the surface-air temperature stem in the first place from differences in the low level flow from the eastern North-Atlantic: the value of the Index 1na of southwesterlies over the eastern North-Atlantic was 8.0 m/s in February 1990, but only 2.6 m/ s in February 1996. The primary forcing by warm advection to positive anomalies in monthly mean surface temperature produced strong synoptic-scale uplift at the 700 mb level over some regions in Europe. The strong uplift contributed in 1990 to a much larger cloud-cover over central Europe, which reduced heat-loss to space (greenhouse effect). Thus, spring arrived earlier than usual in 1990, but later than usual in 1996.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    -resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332299

  13. LINET : A New Lightning Detection Network in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, H. D.; Oettinger, W. P.; Schmidt, K.; Defer, E.

    2006-12-01

    At the University of Munich a VLF/LF lightning detection network (LINET) was developed which provides a number of new features, useful for both research and operational purposes. These include a) total lightning capability: cloud-to-ground strokes (CG) and cloud lightning (IC) are measured with almost equal efficiency; b) low-amplitude reporting: weak events from channel currents below 5 kA are detected in order to cover the range with dominant IC-production; c) new 3D-discrimination: this method is utilized to separate CG from IC with excellent reliability, provided the sensor baseline does not exceed ~250 km; d) IC emission height: for each cloud event a height is determined which is thought to reflect the central region of the involved channel; and e) optimised location accuracy: due to the precision of the combined action of all network modules the position error of strokes reaches values as small as ~100 m. During international co-operations LINET has been tested in four different continents, namely in Southern Germany, in the area of Bauru in Brazil, around Darwin in Australia and during the ongoing AMMA campaign in Benin, Africa. Since the features quoted above could be verified, a 55-sensor network was established in Central Europe and put into operation on May 1, 2006, covering Germany and major parts of all surrounding countries. LINET data is available for scientific projects, and represents the data source utilized by the German Weather Services for operational purposes. The ability to cover a storm in terms of both CG and IC events without data loss in real time renders LINET a useful tool for a variety of research purposes, ranging from cell-tracking, recognition of severe weather conditions, and study of lightning-induced chemical processes to input data for numerical cloud model calculations. Especially the wealth of recorded IC events contributes to a renewed discussion of cloud discharges. Abundant occurrence of IC events is well-known but

  14. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  15. Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Europe's New Center. United Germany in a Uniting Europe, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stassen, Manfred; Kraemer, Dagmar

    1993-01-01

    Introduces part 1 of a special section on teaching about Germany and the European Community. Argues that the end of the Cold War and the movement toward European economic union brought new political realities that will affect the United States. Contends that the data about Germany and Europe presented is timely and more appropriate for classroom…

  17. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  18. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. PMID:15046838

  19. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F; Kaufmann, C; Hegglin, D; Mathis, A

    2009-12-01

    Complaints about a biting pest led to the recognition of invasive Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Europe. Larval collections from cemetery vases revealed a colonized area of approximately 1400 km(2) in northern Switzerland spreading into bordering Germany, suggesting that the mosquito has been established in this region for several years. Within this range, larvae of Ae. japonicus were recovered from more containers than the most common resident culicid species Culex pipiens. Possible introduction sites (used tyre yards and international airports) revealed few or no larvae, and the mode of introduction remains unclear. Given the vector potential of this species for arboviruses, implementation of surveillance and control measures should be considered. PMID:19941611

  20. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  1. Zoonotic Babesia: possibly emerging pathogens to be considered for tick-infested humans in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hunfeld, K P; Brade, V

    2004-04-01

    The three host-tick Ixodes (I.) ricinus is regarded as an important vector of tick-borne microorganisms pathogenic for humans in central Europe and is primarily known as the main vector of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the virus causing tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most clinically relevant tick transmitted pathogens for humans in European countries. Furthermore, it is now well established that I. ricinus also transmits Ehrlichia (E.) phagocytophila, Babesia (Ba.) divergens, and Ba. microti, all agents of zoonotic infections in dear, sheep, cattle, dogs, and horses. In addition to their known zoonotic potential, recent molecular-epidemiological and seroepidemiological surveys as well as increasingly reported clinical cases of infections caused by these tick-borne organisms other than B. burgdorferi (TOBB) also strongly suggest a possible relevance of Babesia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia for humans at risk in Europe. However, there are few medical microbiological investigations and epidemiological data on the distribution and relevance of Babesia for humans in our part of the northern hemisphere. There is also very little diagnostic and clinical knowledge on human babesiosis in many regions of Europe. Furthermore, sophisticated diagnostic tools designed for the reliable detection of the underlying pathogens, are not yet generally available to the microbiological laboratory. This review aims to provide basic information on human babesiosis and the most relevant causative pathogens of the disease in Europe and to draw attention to this parasitic infection as a possibly emerging and probably under-diagnosed disease in this part of the northern hemisphere. PMID:15146990

  2. Future changes in atmospheric circulation types and related precipitation extremes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Markus; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The statistical evaluation of the relationships between atmospheric circulation types and areal precipitation events took place in the context of an international project called WETRAX (Weather patterns, storm tracks and related precipitation extremes). The aim of the project was to estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions. For parts of southern Central Europe, a gridded daily precipitation set with 6km horizontal resolution has been generated for the period 1951-2006 by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG). To determine regions with similar precipitation variability, a S-mode principal component analysis has been applied. Extreme precipitation events are defined by the 95% percentile, based on regional arithmetic means of daily precipitation. Large-scale atmospheric circulation types have been derived by different statistical methods and variables using the COST733 classification software and gridded daily NCEP1 reanalysis data. To evaluate the performance of a particular circulation type classification with respect to regional precipitation extremes, multiple regression models have been derived between the circulation type frequencies as predictor variables and monthly frequencies of extreme precipitation as well as monthly rainfall amounts from these events. To estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions, multiple regression models are applied to different projected GCM predictor data. Thus, future changes in circulation type occurrence frequencies are transferred into assessments of future changes in precipitation extremes on a regional scale.

  3. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

  4. Cyclic climate fluctuations during the last interglacial in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ulrich C.; Klotz, Stefan; Geyh, Mebus A.; Pross, Jörg; Bond, Gerard C.

    2005-06-01

    Differentiating natural climate change from anthropogenic forcing is a major challenge in the prediction of future climates. In this context, the investigation of interglacials provides valuable information on natural climate variability during periods that resemble the present. This paper shows that natural cyclic changes in winter climates affected central European environments during the last interglacial, i.e., the Eemian, 126 110 ka. As a result of the extraordinarily high counting sums performed at Eemian pollen samples, it was possible to reveal a robust presence absence pattern of the insect-pollinated, and therefore in the pollen rain underrepresented, taxon Hedera. This plant is known to require the influence of oceanic winter climates, i.e., moist and mild, in northwest and central Europe. By analogy with recent findings from the North Atlantic's Holocene interglacial, the trigger of the Eemian climate variability may have been changes in solar activity, possibly amplified by changes in North Atlantic ocean currents and/or in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our findings suggest natural cyclic changes to be a persistent feature of interglacial climates.

  5. Continuous Morphological Variation Correlated with Genome Size Indicates Frequent Introgressive Hybridization among Diphasiastrum Species (Lycopodiaceae) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hanušová, Kristýna; Ekrt, Libor; Vít, Petr; Kolář, Filip; Urfus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process frequently contributing to diversification and speciation of angiosperms. Its extent in other groups of land plants has only rarely been studied, however. We therefore examined the levels of introgression in the genus Diphasiastrum, a taxonomically challenging group of Lycopodiophytes, using flow cytometry and numerical and geometric morphometric analyses. Patterns of morphological and cytological variation were evaluated in an extensive dataset of 561 individuals from 57 populations of six taxa from Central Europe, the region with the largest known taxonomic complexity. In addition, genome size values of 63 individuals from Northern Europe were acquired for comparative purposes. Within Central European populations, we detected a continuous pattern in both morphological variation and genome size (strongly correlated together) suggesting extensive levels of interspecific gene flow within this region, including several large hybrid swarm populations. The secondary character of habitats of Central European hybrid swarm populations suggests that man-made landscape changes might have enhanced unnatural contact of species, resulting in extensive hybridization within this area. On the contrary, a distinct pattern of genome size variation among individuals from other parts of Europe indicates that pure populations prevail outside Central Europe. All in all, introgressive hybridization among Diphasiastrum species in Central Europe represents a unique case of extensive interspecific gene flow among spore producing vascular plants that cause serious complications of taxa delimitation. PMID:24932509

  6. A dynamical basis for crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1983-01-01

    The stress field in the earth's crust as inferred from satellite gravity data causes crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe. The satellite-determined stresses in the crust of central Europe are consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms, joint-orientation and in situ stress measurements.

  7. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  8. Structure of the Lithosphere in Central Europe: Integrated Density Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielik, M.; Grinč, M.; Zeyen, H. J.; Plašienka, D.; Pasteka, R.; Krajňák, M.; Bošanský, M.; Mikuška, J.

    2014-12-01

    Firstly, we present new results related to the lithospheric structure and tectonics of the Central Europe and the Western Carpathians. For geophysical study of the lithosphere in Central Europe we calculated four original 2D lithosphere-scales transects crossing this area from the West European Platform in the North to the Aegean Sea in the South and from the Adriatic Sea in the West to the East European Platform in the East. Modelling is based on the joint interpretation of gravity, geoid, topography and surface heat flow data with temperature-dependent density. Wherever possible, crustal structure is constrained by seismic data. The thickness of the lithosphere decreases from the older and colder platforms to the younger and hotter Pannonian Basin with a maximum thickness under the Eastern and Southern Carpathians. The thickness of the Carpathian arc lithosphere varies between 150 km in the North (the Western Carpathians) and about 300 km in the Vrancea zone (the Eastern and Southern Carpathian junction). In the Platform areas it is between 120 and 150 km and in the Pannonian Basin it is about 70 km. The models show that the Moesian Platform is overthrust from the North by the Southern Carpathians and from the South by the Balkanides and characterized by bending of this platform. In all transects, the thickest crust is found underneath the Carpathian Mountains or, as in the case of the Vrancea area, under their immediate foreland. The thickest crust outside the orogens is modelled for the Moesian Platform with Moho depths of up to 45 km. The thinnest crust is located under the Pannonian Basin with about 26-27 km. Secondly, our presentation deals with construction of the stripped gravity map in the Turiec Basin, which represents typical intramontane Neogene depression of the Western Carpathians. Based on this new and original gravity map corrected by regional gravity effect we were able to interpret the geological structure and tectonics of this sedimentary basin

  9. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, drilling induced tensile fractures, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions and stress inversions from these, engineering methods (overcoring, borehole slotter) and geological data (e.g. volcanic alignment, inversion of fault slip data). To guarantee the comparability of the different stress indicator the resulting data are quality-ranked using the WSM quality ranking scheme. The new data set has a better coverage and enables us to identifying the regional and local variability of the stress pattern. For the Mediterranean and Central Europe we analysed the wave-length of the stress pattern by determining the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid using an updated version of the hybrid approach of Heidbach et al. [2010]. The preliminary results show that the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is a key control of the overall stress pattern. However, given the complex tectonic setting in particular due to the indentation/collision of the Adriatic micro block, the Alpine topography as well as forces that control the movement of the Anatolian and Aegean block, the stress pattern shows in these regions significant changes in the mean SHmax orientation as well as in the tectonic regime.

  10. Comparison of local magnitude scales in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Cipciar, Andrej; Csicsay, Kristian; Srbecky, Miroslav; Kristekova, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Efficient monitoring of earthquakes and determination of their magnitudes are necessary for developing earthquake catalogues at a regional and national levels. Unification and homogenization of the catalogues in terms of magnitudes has great importance for seismic hazard assessment. Calibrated local earthquake magnitude scales are commonly used for determining magnitudes of regional earthquakes by all national seismological services in the Central Europe. However, at the local scale, each seismological service uses its own magnitude determination procedure. There is no systematic comparison of the approaches and there is no unified procedure. We present a comparison of the local magnitude scales used by the national seismological services of Slovakia (Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Austria (ZAMG), Hungary (Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and Poland (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences), and by the local network of seismic stations located around the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. The comparison is based on the national earthquake catalogues and annually published earthquake bulletins for the period from 1985 to 2011. A data set of earthquakes has been compiled based on identification of common events in the national earthquake catalogues and bulletins. For each pair of seismic networks, magnitude differences have been determined and investigated as a function of time. The mean and standard deviations of the magnitude differences as well as regression coefficients between local magnitudes from the national seismological networks have been computed. Results show relatively big scatter between different national local magnitudes and its considerable time variation. A conversion between different national local magnitudes in a scale 1:1 seems inappropriate, especially for the compilation of the

  11. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined. PMID:22797238

  12. Is the Central Europe more inclinable to wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Virag, M.; Bares, D.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Hlavinka, P.

    2009-09-01

    Many studies indicate a gradual increase in danger of wildfire in Central Europe. The risk of wildfire differs greatly among individual areas (whether regions or districts), and this difference remains, irrespective of the methods used to describe the danger of wildfires. For this study was used the calculation of the FDI (Fire Danger Index) for 200 stations on the territory of Czech Republic in the period 1961-2008. The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. During processing the model compute upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the speed of spread of wildfire. Between years 1991-2008 there was an increase in the average monthly FDI indices in comparison to the period 1961-1990. During this period, a statistically significant trend toward higher indices was found (0.02 FDI index/year). The trend of danger of wildfires growth was evident in all months.

  13. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, F M; Vrana, K; Zhovinsky, E; Povoroznuk, V; Toth, G; Hope, B C; Iljinsky, U; Baker, J

    2007-04-01

    Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts, but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentrations causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently sets water quality guidelines for the element. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg l-1 are widespread and effects on health of high fluoride in water have been reported. The aim of the current project was to develop a geographic information system (GIS) to aid the identification of areas where high-fluoride waters and fluorosis may be a problem; hence, where water treatment technologies should be targeted. The development of the GIS was based upon the collation and digitisation of existing information relevant to fluoride risk in Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Slovakia assembled for the first time in a readily accessible form. In addition, geochemistry and health studies to examine in more detail the relationships between high-fluoride drinking waters and health effects in the population were carried out in Moldova and Ukraine demonstrating dental fluorosis prevalence rates of 60-90% in adolescents consuming water containing 2-7 mg l-1 fluoride. PMID:17256094

  14. The Genetic Legacy of Multiple Beaver Reintroductions in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Christiane; Kraus, Robert H. S.; Angst, Christof; Allgöwer, Rainer; Michaux, Johan; Teubner, Jana; Nowak, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The comeback of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) throughout western and central Europe is considered a major conservation success. Traditionally, several subspecies are recognised by morphology and mitochondrial haplotype, each linked to a relict population. During various reintroduction programs in the 20th century, beavers from multiple source localities were released and now form viable populations. These programs differed in their reintroduction strategies, i.e., using pure subspecies vs. mixed source populations. This inhomogeneity in management actions generated ongoing debates regarding the origin of present beaver populations and appropriate management plans for the future. By sequencing of the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite genotyping of 235 beaver individuals from five selected regions in Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium we show that beavers from at least four source origins currently form admixed, genetically diverse populations that spread across the study region. While regional occurrences of invasive North American beavers (n = 20) were found, all but one C. fiber bore the mitochondrial haplotype of the autochthonous western Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU). Considering this, as well as the viability of admixed populations and the fact that the fusion of different lineages is already progressing in all studied regions, we argue that admixture between different beaver source populations should be generally accepted. PMID:24827835

  15. Mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wapler, Kathrin; Hengstebeck, Thomas; Groenemeijer, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence and characteristics of mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar are analysed. A three year analysis shows an annual and diurnal cycle with a wider maximum in the late afternoon/evening compared to the diurnal cycle of general thunderstorms. Analysis of F2 tornado events and over a hundred hail storms show the characteristics of the corresponding mesocyclones as seen by radar. For all of the six F2 tornadoes in the three-year period in Germany a corresponding mesocyclone could be detected in radar data. Furthermore the analysis reveals that about half of all hail storms in Germany are associated with a mesocyclone detected in radar data within 10 km and 10 min. Some mesocyclone attributes, e.g. depth and maximum shear, and of the associated convective cell, e.g. reflectivity related parameters VIL, VILD and echotop, have predictive skill for indicating the occurrence of hail. The mesocyclone detection algorithm may support the analysis and nowcasting of severe weather events and thus support the warning process.

  16. Prevention of unsafe abortion in countries of Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Hodorogea, Stelian; Comendant, Rodica

    2010-07-01

    Despite permissive laws and a well-developed network of facilities, the incidence of unsafe abortion and the resulting maternal mortality is unacceptably high in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with one-quarter of all maternal deaths reported to occur as a consequence of abortion. Among the reasons that oblige women to submit themselves to risky procedures are new legislative barriers to accessing pregnancy termination, the unequal distribution of abortion services and healthcare providers, the increased costs of abortion services or unofficial payments, coupled with an increase in the number of impoverished and disadvantaged individuals. The quality of abortion services remains very poor. Safe abortion techniques, including manual vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia and medical abortion, are slowly being implemented. Less safe methods such as dilatation and curettage and general anesthesia are widely used. Unsafe techniques are also practiced extensively in the case of second trimester abortions. Many women from these regions of the world still rely on and accept abortion as a means of fertility control. Although abortions have fallen significantly in Eastern Europe over the last decade, both in absolute numbers and as rates, this region continues to have the highest abortion rates in the world. Concerted efforts by governments, professional associations, and international donors are needed to reduce the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20471645

  17. The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe (1815)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigelis, Algimantas; Wójcik, Zbigniew; Narębski, Wojciech; Gelumbauskaitė, Leonora Živilė; Kozák, Jan; Czarniecki, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe was compiled by Stanisław Staszic in the early 19th century. The map is based on the geological survey that Staszic performed in different parts of Poland and adjacent areas. In 1814, Staszic presented his ideas on the geology and mineral sources of Poland and Lithuania. In 1815, he completed the book-length descriptive analysis O ziemorodztwie Karpatów i innych gór i równin Polski przez Stanisława Staszica, which was published in Warsaw and complemented by a large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe. His later studies were compiled in a historico-philosophical treatise titled Ród ludzki (1819-1820). The complete edition of Staszic's works, Dzieła, which also included these publications, appeared over 1816-1820. The geological field survey that he performed over several years, and his study of social-economic problems enabled Staszic to draw in great detail a geological map of the Carpathians, the Central Polish Highlands, Volhynia (modern Ukraine) and the Eastern Alps, as well as the areas of the Polish-Lithuanian Lowlands, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Polesye (modern Belarus), Moldova, Transylvania, and Hungary. Staszic was interested in the exploration of mineral deposits, particularly in Poland, which had rock salt, copper and iron ores, and coal. In his monograph and map, he adopted a stratigraphic subdivision based on types of rock contents and organic fossils, which was a slightly modified version of Werner's classification system. The lithological legend sets five classes and 135 different types of rock, and 15 types of ore deposits, using the French names for these. In general, Staszic was an advocate of Werner's paradigm; however, he did not follow exactly the ideas of the German geologist. Staszic's fundamental work recapitulates his views on geological history of Central and Eastern Europe, and brings to an end the Enlightment period in the geology of that part of

  18. A Treasure Chest of Nanogranites: the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, S.; O'Brien, P. J.; Walczak, K.; Wunder, B.; Ziemann, M. A.; Hecht, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite 150 years of investigation of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe), it is only recently that the investigation of old and new samples displayed the occurrence of tiny portions of crystallized anatectic melt in regional migmatites. These vestiges of magma, called "nanogranites", are natural probes of the partial melting processes in the crust. Original melt composition and water content can be directly analyzed after piston cylinder re-homogenization. When compared to classic re-melting experiments, nanogranites are ideal "natural" experimental charges of anatectic melt. They are encapsulated in peritectic garnet immediately after production - both phases are products of the same partial melting reaction. Sheltered inside garnet, they remain unaffected by the physico-chemical changes which affected the host migmatites during their slow cooling, unlike leucosomes and anatexis-related plutons. Five different case studies of nanogranite-bearing high-grade rocks have been identified so far: three in metapelites from the Moldanubian Zone, and two in metagranitoids from the Granulitgebirge and Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Their characterization provides insights into how the continental crust melts at different depths, from shallow levels to mantle depths, during different moments of its metamorphic history (prograde vs. decompressional melting). For example, the investigation and experimental re-melting of nanogranites from Grt+Ky leucogranulites (Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome) recently provided evidence of prograde melting of metagranitoids under eclogite-facies conditions (T≥875°C and P~2.7 GPa), close to the stability field of coesite. The melt generated is granitic, hydrous (6 wt% H2O) and metaluminous (ASI=1.03), and is at the moment the "deepest" glass obtained through re-homogenization of primary polycrystalline inclusions in natural rocks. This work confirms that nanogranites in migmatites 1) are a powerful tool to constrain anatexis in natural rocks, and 2) can

  19. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  20. Modelling of stable water isotopes in Central Europe with COSMOiso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Emanuel; Pfahl, Stephan; Schädler, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric water in form of vapor or clouds is responsible for ˜75 % of the natural greenhouse effect and carries huge amounts of latent heat. For this reason, a best possible description of the hydrological cycle is a prerequisite for reliable climate modelling. As the stable isotopes H216O, H218O and HDO differ in vapor pressure, they are fractionated during phase changes and contain information about the formation of precipitation, evaporation from the ground, etc. Therefore, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water is an useful tracer to test and improve our understanding of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere. Within the project PalMod the isotope-enabled limited-area model COSMOiso will be used for high-resolution isotope simulations of paleo-climates. For validation with modern observations we compare 12 years of modelled isotope ratios from Central Europe to observations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and to observations of isotope ratios of water vapor at different locations in Germany. We find a good agreement of modelled and observed isotope ratios in summer. In winter, we observe a systematic overestimation of modelled isotope ratios in precipitation and low-level water vapor. We relate those differences to specific circulation regimes with predominantly easterly moisture transport and the corresponding strong dependence of modelled isotope ratios on lateral boundary data. Furthermore, we investigate the dependence of modelled isotope ratios in winter on the type of isotope fractionation during surface evaporation at skin temperatures close to the freezing point.

  1. Directly observable optical properties of sprites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-04-01

    Luminous optical emissions accompanying streamer-based natural electric breakdown processes initiating in the mesosphere are called sprites. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68N, 16.58E, 230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. On the basis of these observations, characteristic morphological properties of sprites, i.e. basic forms (e.g. column, carrot, angel, etc.) as well as common morphological features (e.g. tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, etc.), have been identified. Probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with each of the basic sprite forms. It is speculated that different sequences of streamer propagation directions can result in very similar final sprite shapes. The number and type variety of sprite elements appearing in an event as well as the total optical duration of an event was analyzed statistically. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events were considered as special subsets of sprite clusters. It was found that more than 90% of the recorded sprite elements appeared in clusters rather than alone and more than half of the clusters contained more than one basic sprite forms. The analysis showed that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites featuring glows and tendrils do not tend to have optical lifetimes longer than 80 ms. Such very long optical lifetimes have not been observed in sprite clusters containing more than 25 elements of any type, either. In contrast to clusters containing sprite entities of only one form, sprite events showing more sprite forms seem to have extended optical durations more likely. The need for further investigation and for finding theoretical concepts to link these observations to electric conditions ambient for sprite formation is emphasized.

  2. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  3. Decentralizing Education in Transition Societies: Case Studies from Central and Eastern Europe. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiszbein, Ariel, Ed.

    This book is about education system reform in Central and Eastern Europe, with emphasis on decentralization and management. In the past, local authorities served as implementation arms of the central ministry, while finance and decision-making were controlled by the central government, leaving local communities with little influence. New education…

  4. The magnetic low of central Europe: analysis and interpretation by a multi scale approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Maurizio; Fedi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    -SE direction. So, a simple contact model was performed in order to demonstrate that the main source that generates the EML is the complex fault system of the TESZ. However, the |T| maxima are positioned not only along the suture zone, but also in Central Europe, showing that the contributions to the EML derive also from sources placed in the Paleozoic platform with a reverse dipolar aspect. From these results it appears that the contributions responsible for the nature of this anomaly are to be reconnected first to the presence of the TESZ, which puts in contact two different platforms with different thicknesses, and also to the presence of bodies with a strong remanent component, which characterize part of the Central European crust.

  5. 75 FR 9576 - Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ....S. companies from across the civil nuclear supply chain, including engineering services; fuel... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe AGENCY... States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration is organizing a Civil Nuclear...

  6. Hazardous wastes in eastern and central Europe: technology and health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Cikrt, M; Suk, W A

    1999-01-01

    Issues of hazardous waste management are major concerns in the countries of eastern and central Europe. A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-supported conference was held in Prague, Czech Republic, as a part of a continuing effort to provide information and promote discussion among the countries of eastern and central Europe on issues related to hazardous wastes. The focus was on incineration as a means of disposal of hazardous wastes, with discussions on both engineering methods for safe incineration, and possible human health effects from incineration by-products. Representatives from government agencies, academic institutions, and local industries from 14 countries in the region participated along with a few U.S. and western European experts in this field. A series of 12 country reports documented national issues relating to the environment, with a focus on use of incineration for hazardous waste disposal. A particularly valuable contribution was made by junior scientists from the region, who described results of environmental issues in their countries. PMID:10090701

  7. Raising the Curtain. A Report with Recommendations on Academic Exchanges with East Central Europe and the USSR. East Central Europe Information Exchange Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B.

    This report provides an overview of the changes in the development of academic exchange activity between the United States, the Soviet Union, and East Central Europe in the context of far-reaching reforms throughout the region. It also explores the factors which may facilitate or inhibit further growth in academic exchanges. The report begins with…

  8. Geodynamics of crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Geological observations reveal the style of neotectonic near-surface stresses and deformations in central Europe. Seismic activity, focal depths and fault plane solutions of earthquakes indicate kinematic reactions within the crust. A crustal deformation model which may account for the Rhine graben systems and the associated seismotectonic block movements in Europe is presented. A computer aided tomography to gravity anomalies is used in determining the crustal stresses in central Europe. Tomographical interpretations of gravity data with respect to seismic stresses are discussed. Kinematics and dynamics are integrated to show that the measured regional stresses in central Europe are derivable from the convection generated traction on the boundary of the elastic spherical shell of the crust as inferred from satellite derived gravity data.

  9. Have “new” methods in medical education reached German-speaking Central Europe: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation-based-training (SBT) in the education of health professionals is discussed as an effective alternative for knowledge and skills enhancement as well as for the establishment of a secure learning environment, for learners and patients. In the Anglo-American region, SBT and simulation and training centers (STC) are numbered as standard for medical training. In German-speaking Central Europe, priority is still given to the establishment of SBT and STC. The purpose of this study was (i) to survey the status quo relating to the existence and facilities of simulation and training centers at medical universities in German-speaking Central Europe and (ii) the evaluation of training methods, especially in the area of emergency medicine skills. Methods All public and private medical universities or medical faculties in Germany (36), Austria (4) and German-speaking Switzerland (3) were interviewed. In the survey, information regarding the existence and facilities of STCs and information with regards to the use of SBT in the area of emergency medicine was requested. The questions were partly posed in a closed-ended-, in an open-ended- and in a multiple choice format (with the possibility of selecting more than one answer). Results Of a total of 43 contacted medical universities/medical faculties, 40 ultimately participated in the survey. As decisive for the establishment of a STC the potential to improve the clinical-practical training and the demand by students were listed. Obligatory training in a STC during the first and sixth academic year was confirmed only by 12 institutions, before the first invasive procedure on patients by 17 institutions. 13 institutions confirmed the use of the STC for the further training of physicians and care-staff. Training for the acute care and emergency medicine skills in the field of pediatrics, for the most part, occurs decentralized. Conclusions New methods in medical training have reached German-speaking Central

  10. Redistribution of recent collision push and ridge push in Central Europe: insights from FEM modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosiński, M.; Beekman, F.; Bada, G.; Cloetingh, S.

    2006-11-01

    2-D elastic finite element models of the recent stress field of Central Europe are built to evaluate the loads exerted on the continental boundary and the magnitude of tectonic stresses within the continental part of the plate. The models comprise 24 tectonic blocks (their stiffness is either constant throughout the model or varies from block to block), 16 fault zones and 12 geologically significant boundary segments. We have obtained a relatively unique balance of external tectonic forces by (1) careful adjustment of calculated stress directions and regimes to complex pattern of stress from data and (2) by calibration with gravitational potential energy. A high level of compression (ca. 9 × 1012 N m-1) exerted to the short Ionian side of the Adriatic indenter is crucial for the stress-field pattern in Central Europe. The Adria microplate rotates due to eccentricity between the Africa push from the south and the Alpine buttress to the north. A free boundary of the Apennines does not contribute significantly to this motion. Kinematics of this indenter is controlled by friction on the Dinaric suture, which, in turn is decisive for strain-energy distribution between the Alpine and the Pannonian domains. The predicted pronounced extension in the Greece-Aegean segment (2.5 × 1012 N m-1) implies active pull transferred from the Hellenic subduction zone. This extension releases stress in the Balkan-Pannonian region and enables the eastward escape of tectonic blocks in front of advancing Adria. Significant changes of tectonic push trends are found along the Black Sea-Caucasus boundary segment and at the European passive margin from the North Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Differential stresses in Central Europe are estimated in the range of 10-60 MPa when averaged over the 30-80-km-thick mechanically heterogeneous lithosphere. The maximum stiffness contrast across the model is predicted to be of one order of magnitude. Apparent friction coefficients of fault zones differ

  11. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  12. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  13. Entrepreneurial and Vocational Education and Training: Lessons from Eastern and Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    The social, economic and political systems of former communist countries have faced considerable changes since the late 1980s. Most countries in Eastern and Central Europe have undergone their own individual brand of transition from a centrally planned, command system to a more or less liberalized, Western-style market economy. Many observers…

  14. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  15. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  16. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed. PMID:22167868

  17. Diet and Mobility in the Corded Ware of Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Price, T. Douglas; Kristiansen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic investigations of two cemetery populations from the Corded Ware Culture in southern Germany reveal new information on the dating of these graves, human diet during this period, and individual mobility. Corded Ware Culture was present across much of temperate Europe ca. 2800–2200 cal. BC and is represented by distinctive artifacts and burial practices. Corded Ware was strongly influenced by the Yamnaya Culture that arose in the steppes of eastern Europe and western Eurasia after 3000 BC, as indicated by recent aDNA research. However, the development of CW on different chronological and spatial scales has to be evaluated. Examination of the CW burials from southern Germany supports an argument for substantial human mobility in this period. Several burials from gravefields and larger samples from two large cemeteries at Lauda-Königshofen "Wöllerspfad" and at Bergheinfeld “Hühnerberg” contributed the human remains for our study of bone and tooth enamel from the Corded Ware Culture. Our results suggest that Corded Ware groups in this region at least were subsisting on a mix of plant and animal foods and were highly mobile, especially the women. We interpret this as indicating a pattern of female exogamy, involving different groups with differing economic strategies. PMID:27223117

  18. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services. PMID:25107995

  19. "out of The Cold": On Late Neanderthal Population Dynamics In Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöris, O.

    During the last several years, analyses of fossil Neanderthal DNA have shown not only the degree to which the genetic fingerprints of Neanderthals differ from those of anatomically modern humans, but have also lent credibility to the hotly debated "Out- of-Africa" hypothesis. Perhaps more important than the observed genetic differences is the fact that Neanderthals - according to their reconstructed DNA sequences - were genetically highly homogeneous, indicating rapid population growth that may have followed a demographic 'bottleneck' during the first cold maximum (CM-1 = second part of OIS 4) of the last glacial, some 60 to 70 ka ago. Central European Middle Palaeolithic sites characterised by broad spectra of bifacially-worked tools, namely different forms of backed knives ("Keilmesser") com- monly attributed to Neanderthals, fall within the age-range 85 and 45 ka calBP and thus both pre- and post-date the proposed 'bottleneck' that occurred during CM-1. Di- rectly comparable sites dating within this critical period are lacking. Based on strati- graphic, palaeoenvironmental, and radiometric evidence, a series of sites can tenta- tively be age-calibrated with the high-resolution GISP2 Greenland ice core record of last glacial climate change. With the aid of improved chronological frameworks and additional palaeoenvironmen- tal information (e.g. glacier mass balance models), we have developed a three-step model with which to investigate this period. We begin with (1) pre-CM-1 populations in Central and northern Central Europe which (2) were forced into southern Euro- pean refugia (i.e. SW France and the Pannonian Basins) by the rapid expansion of the northern hemispheric ice-cover at the beginning of CM-1 (a process that could be named 'preglacial dislocation'). Finally, some 10 ka later, their descendants may have re-occupied the southern part of Central Europe during the climatic amelioration (OIS 3) following CM-1. Changes in lithic technology, as expressed in

  20. Climate change impacts on hydrological extremes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An increase of hydro-climatic extremes can be observed worldwide and is challenging national and regional risk management and adaptation plans. Our study presents and discusses possible trends in climate drivers and hydro-climatic extremes in Europe observed and under future climate conditions. In a case study for Germany, impacts of different regional climate scenario ensembles are compared. To this end, a hydrological model was applied to transform the scenarios data into river runoff for more than 5000 river reaches in Germany. Extreme Value Distributions have been fitted to the hydrographs of the river reaches to derive the basic flood statistics. The results for each river reach have been linked to related damage functions as provided by the German Insurance Association considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The robust result is that under scenario conditions a significant increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany, while also the number of low flow events may rise.

  1. Hungarian travertine: a historic and current stone resource of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    Travertine is a widespread dimension stone that was used worldwide in monuments. The best known examples are known from the Roman Empire from Italy, where this porous stone belonged to one of the favourite stone types. Ancient quarries of Tivoli provided material to major construction works to Rome. Other occurrences belonging to the Roman Empire outside of Rome were also used by the Romans. Some of the most important European deposits are known from Hungary. Exploitable travertine layers are found at many places in Hungary but at least two major areas were actively quarried by the Romans. One major deposit was not far away from the provincial capital of Roman Pannonia - called Aquincum, which currently forms a part of Budapest, while the other even larger occurrence is at Süttő, at the riverside of Danube some 50 km NE from the past capital. River Danube provided an excellent pathway of transport ting stone to the capital. Evidences indicate that quarrying activity in Süttő area has already begun during the 1st century BC and the travertine has been exploited with some interruptions since then. The present day quarries form the parts of the largest active dimension quarry system of Hungary. The exposed very thick banks (3 to 4m) of travertine were deposited from lukewarm springs during the Pleistocene period. Various types of travertine were used for constructing Roman aqueducts, fortresses, amphitheatre until the 4th century AD and were also transported to other parts of that Roman Province which extended to the present territory of Hungary, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. Although the use of travertine has significantly decreased after the fall of Roman Empire in Central Europe and in Hungary, the presence of this stone was also documented from numerous Gothic and Baroque buildings from the area. The use of this stone became more popular again in the Carpathian Basin, when major constructions of larger cities such as Bratislava, Vienna or Budapest accelerated

  2. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  3. Lessons Learned After Several Years in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Daniel S.

    1995-01-01

    As Western educators help Central and Eastern European institutions develop programs in business and economics education, five areas require attention: (1) team teaching by local and Western faculty; (2) coordination between host and Western institutions; (3) institution building; (4) careful selection and preparation of faculty to provide…

  4. Educational Reforms in East-Central Europe: The Hungarian Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berend, Ivan T.

    1980-01-01

    Examines educational trends in East-Central European countries during the twentieth century, with emphasis on educational development in Hungary since World War II. Information is presented on objectives, problems, educational level of the working population at various periods, and prognosis for the 1980s. (Author/DB)

  5. Interannual drought index variations in Central Europe related to large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2014-05-01

    This contribution investigates the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and interannual variations of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in central Europe. To this end occurrence frequencies of circulation types (CT) derived from a variety of circulation type classifications (CTC) applied to daily sea level pressure (SLP) data and mean circulation indices of vorticity (V), zonality (Z) and meridionality (M) have been utilized as predictors within multiple regression models (MRM) for the estimation of gridded 3-month SPI values over central Europe for the period 1950 to 2010. CTC based MRMs used in the analyses comprise variants concerning the basic method for CT classification, the number of CTs, the size and location of the spatial domain used for CTCs and the exclusive use of CT frequencies or the combined use of CT frequencies and mean circulation indices as predictors. Adequate MRM predictor combinations have been identified by applying stepwise multiple regression analyses within a resampling framework. The performance (robustness) of the resulting MRMs has been quantified based on a leave-one out cross-validation procedure applying several skill scores. Furthermore the relative importance of individual predictors has been estimated for each MRM. From these analyses it can be stated that i.) the consideration of vorticity characteristics within CTCs, ii.) a relatively small size of the spatial domain to which CTCs are applied and iii.) the inclusion of mean circulation indices appear to improve model skill. However model skill exhibits distinct variations between seasons and regions. Whereas promising skill can be stated for the western and northwestern parts of the central European domain only unsatisfactorily skill is reached in the more continental regions and particularly during summer. Thus it can be concluded that the here presented approaches feature the potential for the downscaling of central European drought index

  6. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Lebedev, S.; Cristiano, L.; Meier, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid growth in the no. of seismic stations globally, manual data processing for routine analysis as well as determination of seismic observables becomes more and more impractical. Therefore, automated schemes are inevitable to handle these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We measure inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical component (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. We have developed a scheme to automate this well established inter-station method, which automatically selects the smooth parts of observed phase velocity dispersion curves, and thus obtain path average phase velocity dispersion curve of each inter-station path. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we finally confined the method to three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the parameters and obtained optimal values of these three parameters. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe which involved more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of the data of the permanent networks. The method was also tested on temporary deployments e.g. TOR, PASSEQ, SVEKALPKO etc, across Europe. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 100 kilometers. Well known features of upper mantle structure in central Europe are well resolved in our phase velocity maps. Distinct differences

  7. The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Stefen, C.; Mors, T.

    2008-09-15

    New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

  8. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  9. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  10. Tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Central and Eastern Europe: consequences of political transition.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Sarah E

    2008-03-01

    The variable, often dramatic, upsurge in tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe can best be understood as the result of a multi-factorial system of causes, including abiotic and biotic environmental changes, and human behaviour determined by socio-economic conditions. Many of these stem from the political transition with the end of Soviet rule. PMID:18316221

  11. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  12. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  13. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  14. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  15. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  16. Language and Area Studies: East Central and Southeastern Europe. A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Charles, Ed.

    East Central and Southeastern Europe, considered as "Eastern Eruope," are the subject of a three-year survey of language and area studies undertaken by several committees of specialists of the American Council of Learned Societies. Four basic goals of the project include: (1) a survey of graduate training and research needs, (2) an evaluation of…

  17. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20(th) century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21(st) century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901-2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21(st) century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  18. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  19. Laboratories of Reform? The Europeanization and Internationalization of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowska, Dorota; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article deals with higher education (HE) transformations in Central and Eastern Europe in the context of democratization and globalization. The authors first briefly survey the wider canvas of reform since 1989, particularly probing the extent to which the countries of the region may be treated as a distinctive or a cohesive…

  20. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  1. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP

  2. Estimation of the SO2 source term for the Holuhraun event and its influence on central Europe air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Delia; Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; Maurer, Christian; Wotawa, Gerhard; Stebel, Kerstin; Holla, Robert; Gilge, Stefan; Flemming, Johannes; Stohl, Andreas; Hirtl, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    On 29 August 2014 a fissure eruption began in Holuhraun, Northeastern Iceland, associated with increased volcanic activity in the Bárdarbunga system. For more than 150 days, the eruption released large quantities of SO2 into the atmosphere affecting not only the local Icelandic air quality, but also leading to periods of increased ambient SO2 concentrations in parts of mainland Europe. During the second half of September, significant amounts of SO2 were rapidly transported southward by favourable meteorological conditions and several countries in Central Europe experienced high ground-level SO2 concentrations. The measured concentrations reached and even exceeded the EC directive health thresholds. In this work, we evaluate the air quality effects in Europe during this targeted period using both ground-based and satellite observations (GOME2B and OMI) as well as dispersion modelling with the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. We estimate the volcanic SO2 source emissions by comparing the satellite observations with atmospheric transport model simulations in an inverse modelling approach. The estimated source term is evaluated against independent ground-based observational data (e.g. MAX-DOAS, Brewer) and used as emission term in dispersion model forecasts for evaluating the air quality effects in Europe. In addition, the potential use of air quality data to perform the source term estimation by inversion with ground-based data will also be investigated.

  3. Patterns and drivers of Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming of the Holocene induced the rearrangement of vegetation across Europe, including the widely synchronous and rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana) at around 10.6 ka BP (Giesecke et al., 2011). The simultaneity of the hazel expansion across large parts of Europe suggests that a climate shift has triggered that expansion. However, it remains poorly understood, which climate parameter has been effective (Huntley, 1993) because hazel expanded simultaneously in areas that today clearly differ in climate. To better understand the causes we studied Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in NE Germany in high temporal and spatial resolution. Analysis combines pollen data from 60 sites, including high resolution data sets, with present-day site patterns of soil and relief using the extended downscaling approach. Using forward modeling of pollen deposition in each sample site the method seeks that vegetation composition on each site type that produces modeled pollen deposition most similar to empiric pollen deposition. The results (Theuerkauf et al., 2014) indicate that first populations of hazel established soon after the Holocene warming at 11.2 ka. These populations were still small and possibly restricted to warm loving slopes, indicating that low summer warmth was the limiting factor. The widespread expansion of hazel started only after 10.8 ka, possibly following a shift to greater summer warmth. Hazel primarily expanded on sites that are today covered by gleyic soils, from which it largely expelled tree birch. Hazel thus obviously could only expand on sites that received additional wetness from ground- and stagnant water. Giesecke T., Bennett K.D., Birks H.J.B., Bjune A.E., Bozilova E., Feurdean A., Finsinger W., Froyd C., Pokorný P., Rösch M., Seppä H., Tonkov S., Valsecchi V., & Wolters S. (2011) The pace of Holocene vegetation change - testing for synchronous developments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2805-2814. Huntley B. (1993) Rapid

  4. Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address

  5. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment as a key to understand the neotectonics of northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Northern Central Europe is generally regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1200 years (Leydecker, 2009). In a pilot study we analysed the Osning Thrust, which is a one of the major Mesozoic fault zones in northern Central Europe. Several soft-sediment deformation structures like fault-arrays and a sand volcano developed in aeolian sediments, were caused by earthquakes along the Osning Thrust. The growth-strata of faults was dated with the OSL method and showed that the deformation took place between 15.9 ± 1.6 to 13.1 ± 1.5 ka (Brandes et al., 2012, Brandes & Winsemann, 2013). Numerical simulations support the results regarding the timing of the the seismicity and imply that the Late Pleistocene activity of the Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment (Brandes et al., 2012). In a second step we analysed more faults in northern Central Europe. It is evident that the historic seismicity was concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic contraction phase that effected Central Europe in the Late Cretaceous. Between these faults, the seismic activity was almost absent. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrated for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust, the Aller Valley Fault and the Tornquist Zone. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (clusters that shift from time to time) implies that northern Central Europe behaves like a typical intraplate tectonic region. To analyse, if the faults that show pronounced historic seismicity are postglacial faults, we used the Fault Stability Margin (FSM), which is described in more detail in Wu & Hasegawa (1996). The Fault Stability Margins for the major reverse faults that showed historic seismicity in northern Central Europe reach the δFSM=0

  6. A Signal of Ice Loading in Late Pleistocene Activity of the Sudetic Marginal Fault (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartvich, F.; Stepancikova, P.; Rockwell, T. K.; Nývlt, D.; Stemberk, J.; Rood, D. H.; Hók, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Myers, M.; Luttrell, K. M.; Wechsler, N.

    2014-12-01

    We combine paleoseismic trench and cosmogenic dating results to study the late Pleistocene-Holocene history of morphologically pronounced NW-SE trending Sudetic Marginal Fault (SMF) situated at the northeastern limit of the Bohemian Massif in central Europe. Eighteen trenches were excavated at the Bila Voda site to study 3D distribution of a beheaded alluvial fan on the NE block of the fault and to find the offset "feeder channel" that sourced the deposits. We interpret a small drainage of about 40-60 m to the SE of the fan apex as the feeder channel. A 2.5 m depth profile was collected for cosmogenic exposure dating from a well-preserved part of the fan. Using a simple model that accounts for pre-depositional exposure (inheritance) and assuming no surface erosion, 10Be concentrations are well-fit with an apparent exposure age of ~12 ka. However, this is a minimum limiting age if the surface was eroded by gelifluction in the late Pleistocene. Assuming a ~25 ka OSL age for the base of the fan apex it gives a left-lateral slip rate of ~2 mm/yr. As the Holocene deposits do not show significant displacement, most of the recorded slip took place during Late Pleistocene with corresponding slip rate of 2.8 to 3.5 mm/yr. Bila Voda site lies ~150 km south from the Late Pleistocene Weichselian maximum (~20 ka) ice-sheet front. Thus, we hypothesize that the slip rate acceleration was due to ice-loading and subsequent unloading during deglaciation. To test this, we calculated the stress induced in the lithosphere from ablation of the Weichselian ice sheet modeled as a flexing elastic plate. Preliminary modeling results indicate that complete deglaciation alters the stress field such that it would inhibit left lateral failure on the SMF, consistent with observations suggesting no slip occurred during the Holocene. Although the SMF is ~150 km from the Weichselian ice sheet front, it is well within the flexural rebound area of the ice sheet, causing normal stress on the SMF to

  7. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    PubMed

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air. PMID:27450248

  8. Canine dirofilariosis endemic in Central Europe-10 years of epidemiological study in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana; Čabanová, Viktória; Stloukal, Eduard; Miklisová, Dana

    2016-06-01

    The study presents the comprehensive results of a detailed epidemiological study on canine dirofilariosis in Slovakia, Central Europe. More than 4000 dogs were investigated, and several epidemiological factors were considered. The mean prevalence in individual regions ranged from 2.0 % in northern Slovakia to more than 25.0 % in the south-western part of the country, with the nematode Dirofilaria repens confirmed as the dominant causative agent. Canine dirofilariosis occurred more often in animals more than 3 years old and in dogs of large and giant breed sizes. Short-haired animals were infected more often than dogs with a long coat. Also, the infection was significantly more prevalent in animals kept in rural areas in comparison with urban environments.Counts of microfilariae (mf) in peripheral blood reached their highest levels in May and August and corresponded to activity peaks and population maximums of potential vectors, the mosquito species Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens, the two most prevalent species in Slovakia. Moreover, two dogs naturally infested with D. repens were included in the experiment in order to monitor daily microfilarial periodicity. This fluctuation showed the same tendency in both animals, with a peak of circulating mf recorded at 4 a.m. and minimal mf counts at 4 p.m. PMID:27021185

  9. Hail hazard derived from historic hail footprints; a probabilistic hail storm catalogue for central Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Maximilian; Bonassi, Alessandro; Oramas-Dorta, Delioma; De Aguinaga, Jose; Cheetham, Rebecca; Moehrlein, Matthias; Riso, Silvia; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe models are widely used in reinsurance risk assessment from natural perils. In this context Guy Carpenter, a reinsurance intermediary, has developed a probabilistic hail model for Central Europe. As part of the hazard development, Guy Carpenter has tasked meteorologists at nowcast GmbH to identify historic hail patterns and individual hail storm tracks over an 8-year period from a continuous lightning dataset, issuing from their lightning detection system, "LINET". Based on historic hail footprints provided by nowcast GmbH, Guy Carpenter has developed a stochastic event generator in order to compute a catalogue consisting of synthetic, but meteorologically reasonable events, representing an 800-year history. The goal of stochastic event generation is to extend the observed hail history to extreme hail scenarios that could cause catastrophic losses to insurance portfolios and to quantify corresponding storm probabilities. Reflecting geographical dependencies, the method uses key attributes of the historic hail tracks and footprints, such as the storm track, length and bearing direction, footprint centre point and storm genesis date. A bootstrapping technique was used to associate simulated hail footprints with a likely storm track, based on historic distributions. The poster shows work in progress on the event set generation results, the computed geographic hazard maps and validation of the frequency and intensity assumptions, using data from nowcast GmbH, the European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) and spatial statistics on insurance claims information.

  10. E-health development policies in new member states in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Duplaga, Mariusz

    2007-01-01

    The paper brings insights on the process of e-health development in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, which joined European Union in 2004 years. The main part of the activities resulting in this review were carried out within the eHealth European Research Area (eHealth ERA) project established under the EU 6. Framework Programme. The research team involved in the project activities in the Centre of Innovation, Technology Transfer and University Development, Jagiellonian University focused the inquiries on the six countries: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia. The tool for data collection elaborated by the STAKES, Finland was applied. The main areas covered within the analysis included: health system characteristics, e-health policies definition process and deployment, specific activities in e-health subdomain as well as research and development programmes held in European countries. It seems that general background and intensive process of system and economy transformation was key factor influencing greatly the perception and status of the e-health domain in these countries. The opportunities related to the inclusion in the European Union was another essential factor bringing additional important impact on the e-health formation. All these countries started painful reform in early 90s after the fall of the communist governments. The health care system in general was not the prime benefactors of these changes. PMID:17894192

  11. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH < 1.5x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 are found for p,p'-DDT, kOH < 0.75x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDE and kOH < 1.0x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDD. The kOH values for DDE and DDD are significantly lower than estimated (QSAR). References

  12. Seasonal variability of ice nuclei over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Holger; Nickovic, Slobodan; Schuetz, Lothar; Weinbruch, Stephan; Levin, Zev; Andreae, Meinrat; Barrie, Leonard; Ebert, Martin; Bundke, Ulrich; Bingemer, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of ice nuclei (IN) has been measured every day since April 2008 at the Taunus Observatory on Mt. Kleiner Feldberg (50.22°N, 8.45°E, 825 m. above sea level) at 20 km north of Frankfurt / M., Germany. Aerosol samples were collected on silicon wafers by an electrical aerosol precipitator and analyzed for IN number concentration (condensation and deposition freezing modes) using the static vapor diffusion chamber FRIDGE (Klein et al., Atmos. Res, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.08.002, 2009). Around 800 samples were analyzed so far. The IN number concentration shows a pronounced seasonal signal with about a factor of 10 higher ice nuclei in summer than in winter. Desert dust transported over long distances appears to be the dominant contributor to IN at the site. Episodes of Sahara dust transport are well represented by individual peaks in the IN record and identified by airmass trajectories, transport modelling and mineralogical analysis. The contribution of mineral dust to IN is further corroborated by the covariance of the individual IN concentrations with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) due to extinction by large particles, which was measured simultaneously at the AERONET site (Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry) at Mainz, 20 km southwest of our site. The relation between IN and AOD not only holds for our individual daily measurements, but is also valid for the monthly means of our IN record, which are highly correlated to the multi-year monthly means of coarse and middle-sized dust AOD which is derived from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite instrument (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/misr_tools/clim_likely.cgi ) for the grid point closest to our site. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge funding of this work by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of the collaborative research centre Die troposphärische Eisphase (SFB641) and by the German-Israeli Foundation (GIF).

  13. Pyogenic liver abscess: Differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients. PMID:20503444

  14. Do properties of high conductive mid-mantle layer change beneath tesz in central europe ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. Yu; Jozwiak, W.

    2003-04-01

    Study of mantle conductivity beneath the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Central Europe is the subject of the international CEMES project. The study includes investigations of the mid-mantle conductive layer, which are based on unique data sets from European geomagnetic observatories. Results obtained by few investigators for individual observatories indicate that depths up to the mid-mantle conductive layer are increasing generally from the North to South beneath Europe. To investigate the phenomenon in more details, local magnetovariation responses published by Roberts (1984), Schultz &Larsen (1987), Olsen (1998) and Semenov (1998) have been collected for 35 European geomagnetic observatories with periods from 6 hours to as long as available. The data collected for each observatory have been extended by using the ultra-long period responses obtained for the Europe-Asia region up to the global 11-year period (Semenov &Jozwiak, 1999). For all observatories, the data have been inverted by means of the 1D spherical inversion based on the stochastic method (Jozwiak, 2001). The mid-mantle conductive layer has been detected for all observatories at varying depths. The mantle geoelectrical structures are presented as the schematic maps of depths with constant conductance beneath whole Europe. The conclusion mentioned above has been generally confirmed by the data with much wider period range and great number of observatories: depths are found to increase from 500-600 km beneath the Baltic Shield down to 750-800 km beneath the southern and west-southern regions of Europe. Detailed results obtained beneath the TESZ are subject of discussion for Central Europe.

  15. Lightning, overshooting top and hail characteristics for strong convective storms in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurković, Petra Mikuš; Mahović, Nataša Strelec; Počakal, Damir

    2015-07-01

    Lightning activity in storms with overshooting tops and hail-producing storms over Central Europe is studied, in order to find typical lightning characteristics that can be useful in nowcasting of the severity of the storm and its ability to produce hail. The first part of the study gives the analysis of lightning activity in thunderstorms with overshooting tops (OT) for the warm part of the year (May-September) from 2009 to 2010 over central and southeastern Europe. Deep convective clouds with OT were detected in Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, using methods based on the infrared window (IRW, 10.8 μm) channel and absorption channels of water vapor (WV, 6.2 μm) and ozone (O3, 9.7 μm) in the form of brightness temperature differences. The locations and times of the detected OT were compared to the distribution and types of lightning strokes, which were provided by the LINET Lightning Location System. The results show that the spatial distribution of lightning generally coincides with the spatial distribution of the detected OT. The largest numbers of lightning strokes and OT were found in western Hungary, southeastern Austria, northeastern Slovenia and the northern Adriatic. The largest number of OT occurred between 1600 and 1800 UTC, whereas from 0600 to 1000 UTC OT detections were rather rare. Lightning activity showed a similar temporal distribution, with an increase in lightning activity evident at or close to the time of the OT detections. At the time of and close to the location of the OT, the lightning was found to occur well above the tropopause and was clearly related to the OT of cumulonimbus clouds. In the second part of the study, lightning characteristics are studied for 35 events of hail-producing thunderstorms over Croatia in the summer months (May to September), from 2008 to 2012. The lightning distribution, also registered by LINET, was compared to hail parameters based on measurements

  16. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  17. Challenges and opportunities in Pan-European collaboration for researchers from Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Decsi, T; Fidler Mis, N; Kolacek, S; Kon, I; Kopecky, J; Penas-Jimenez, I; Socha, P; Szajewska, H

    2005-01-01

    Ten Central and Eastern [NLG4] European countries have recently joined the European Union. This historical enlargement provided a good opportunity to discuss the challenges and opportunities in Pan-European Research Collaboration for researchers from Central/Eastern Europe. This paper summarises examples of productive research collaboration between East and West, current challenges [NLG5], and ideas on how to facilitate better collaboration. A short overview of training, mobility and career development opportunities, covered by the Marie Curie actions, is also presented. PMID:16137107

  18. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902) (Coleoptera, Apionidae) in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Marek; Podlussány, Attila; Schön, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Perapion connexum (Schilsky) is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented. PMID:22451784

  19. Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.

    When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

  20. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently

  1. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań. PMID:26558656

  2. Analyses of seasonal and annual maximum daily discharge records for central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.; Serinaldi, Francesco; Ntelekos, Alexandros A.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryAnnual and seasonal maximum daily discharge time series for 55 stations in central Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) are used to examine flood frequency from a regional perspective. In this study we examine temporal nonstationarities in the flood peak records, and characterize upper tail and scaling properties of the flood peak distributions. There is a marked seasonality in the flood peak record, with a large fraction of annual maximum flood peaks occurring during the winter in the western part of the study domain, and during the summer in the southern portion of this region. The presence of abrupt and slowly varying changes in the flood time series is examined by means of non-parametric tests. Change-points in the mean and variance of the flood peak distributions are examined using the Pettitt test, while the presence of monotonic patterns is examined by means of Spearman and Mann-Kendall tests. Abrupt changes, rather than monotonic trends are responsible for violations of the stationarity assumption. These step changes can often be associated with anthropogenic effects, such as construction of dams and reservoirs and river training. Given the profound changes that these catchments have undergone, it is difficult to detect a possible climate change signal in the flood peak record. The estimates of the location, scale, and shape parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value distribution are used to examine the upper tail and scaling properties of the flood peak distributions. The location and scale parameters exhibit a power law behaviour when plotted as a function of drainage area, while the shape parameter decreases log-linearly for increasing catchment area. The findings of this study suggest that these records exhibit a heavy tail behaviour.

  3. The main characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East-Central Europe from 1871 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the paper concerns the determination of the annual and multi-annual variability of air flow over East-Central Europe in the period 1871-2010. Daily mean sea-level pressure and values of physical quantities provided the basis for distinguishing 27 circulation types, i.e., eight directional cyclonic, transitional, and anticyclonic types, and one non-directional cyclonic, anticyclonic, and an undefined type. Over the area of East-Central Europe, the highest frequency is recorded for air flow from the western sector, with a maximum in the period from December to January. In spring, a higher than average frequency of cyclonic and easterly circulation is observed, and in summer—anticyclonic and northerly. Increased zonal circulation was recorded in the years 1910-1930, and particularly after 1970, and eastern at the end of the nineteenth century and in the 1930s and 1940s. An increase in the frequency of days with non-directional anticyclonic type and westerly air flow, and a simultaneous decrease in frequency of days with south-easterly and easterly circulation were observed throughout the study period. Among the three classes of circulation types, the highest persistence (particularly in winter) was recorded for anticyclonic types, i.e., when the high pressure system occurred over the Scandinavian Peninsula or East Europe.

  4. Statistical analysis of soil moisture content changes in Central Europe using GLDAS database over three past decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Kȩdzior, Mateusz A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper examine soil moisture trends changes in inhomogeneous area of Central European countries — Poland, the Czech Republic and neighbouring territories. The area suffered from the lack of large-scale soil parameters research. Most of them are limited to ground measurements performed for a small part of land. Although there were extensive water conditions studies performed for the whole Europe, such as drought analysis, they were focused on Western European countries, neglecting situation in Central Europe (taking exception to Austria). The NOAH model of Global Land Data Assimilation System database has been used as a data source. It delivers one degree spatial resolution data and variables which describe soil moisture values for four depth levels (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm and 100-200 cm). Data covering years 1979-2011 has been averaged in order to analyse summer and winter terms separately. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis have been prepared on the software Statistica, Research reveals that area is losing water content. Due to promising results of water content trend analysis, the authors plan to run a large-scale analysis using other variables from the GLDAS database, especially concerning soil temperature and evapotranspiration.

  5. Oblique view of east side of central wing and part ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side of central wing and part of south side, Facility 268 to right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Northeast front, central part, with a flag hanging from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast front, central part, with a flag hanging from the second floor balcony - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, Riaz Ahmed; Weidle, Christian; Lebedev, Sergei; Cristiano, Luigia; Behrmann, Jan; Meier, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid growth in the number of seismic stations globally, automated analysis routines are inevitable to extract seismic observables from these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We have new developed an algorithm that enables automated, accurate measurement of inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we find that the automated selection of segments of a given phase-velocity curve requires three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. Furthermore, before averaging phase velocities for one path outliers are rejected. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the selection parameters. Interestingly, rough perturbations in the phase velocity curves do not bias the average phase velocities towards larger values. This indicates a rather random perturbation of the phase velocities by noise and complicated non-plane wave propagation. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe, involving more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of data from permanent networks. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 200 kilometers in Central Europe. At shorter periods the North-German and Polish sedimentary basins are clearly imaged. At lower crustal depth the Alpine crustal root is characterized by low velocities. At longer

  9. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuletić, Dijana; Potočić, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletković, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Galić, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijašič, Dragan; Zupanič, Matjaž; Simončič, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public

  10. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. Methodology/Principal Findings Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles) in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895–1899 and 1935–1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos) partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. Conclusions/Significance Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long-term maintenance of oak

  11. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe. PMID:26344029

  12. The development of academic family medicine in central and eastern Europe since 1990

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the early 1990s former communist countries have been reforming their health care systems, emphasizing the key role of primary care and recognizing family medicine as a specialty and an academic discipline. This study assesses the level of academic development of the discipline characterised by education and research in central and eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods A key informants study, using a questionnaire developed on the basis of a systematic literature review and panel discussions, conducted in 11 central and eastern European countries and Russia. Results Family medicine in CEE countries is now formally recognized as a medical specialty and successfully introduced into medical training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Almost all universities have FM/GP departments, but only a few of them are led by general practitioners. The specialist training programmes in all countries except Russia fulfil the recommendations of the European Parliament. Structured support for research in FM/GP is not always available. However specific scientific organisations function in almost all countries except Russia. Scientific conferences are regularly organised in all the countries, but peer-reviewed journals are published in only half of them. Conclusions Family medicine has a relatively strong position in medical education in central and eastern Europe, but research in family practice is less developed. Although the position of the discipline at the universities is not very strong, most of the CEE countries can serve as an example of successful academic development for countries southern Europe, where family medicine is still not fully recognised. PMID:23510461

  13. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  14. Various environments of interglacials recorded by Pleistocene paleosoils in Hungary (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Kis, Éva

    2015-04-01

    Based on stable isotope analyses of worldwide reference curves from deep sea, ice core and speleothem records, it has long been apparent that duration, intensity and climatic conditions of different interglacial periods were significantly diverse. As a consequence of negligible fresh, detrital material admixture during interglacials, the soil formation intensity and maturity of various kinds of past soils have been holding vital information on the environmental conditions at the time the soils formed. This, in turn, means that several physical and chemical properties of soils allow us to reconstruct past climatic regimes. Loess-paleosol sequences in Hungary (Central Europe) provide insight into the cyclic nature of glacial-interglacial variations of the last 1 million years. The paleosoils have been recognized as the product of warmer and moister interglacials, when the (glacial) loess material was altered by chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. 12 pedogene units from MIS-19 to MIS-5 strata were analysed in the course of this study, with a special attention to MIS-11 and MIS-19 periods, because of these can be regarded as analogues of the Holocene interglacial (due to the similarities in obliquity and eccentricity). Grain size, geochemical and (clay)mineralogical studies were elaborated and were gathered from previously published papers to quantify past weathering intensity and paleoenvironmental conditions by geochemical climofunctions. The Upper and partly, the Middle Pleistocene loess deposits are intercalated by steppe, forest-steppe and brown forest soils, while the older pedogene horizons are different kinds; these are red, Mediterranean-type soils. The MIS-5 pedocomplex consist of three parts at several Hungarian sites, however the pedogene units cannot be correlated unequivocally with the three MIS-5 warmer substages, due to the scarce absolute age data. The MIS-7 and MIS-9 stages are represented by three forest steppe soils. The MIS-11 pedocomplex

  15. MiKlip-PRODEF: Probabilistic Decadal Forecast for Central and Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyers, Mark; Haas, Rabea; Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    The demand for skilful climate predictions on time-scales of several years to decades has increased in recent years, in particular for economic, societal and political terms. Within the BMBF MiKlip consortium, a decadal prediction system on the global to local scale is currently being developed. The subproject PRODEF is part of the MiKlip-Module C, which aims at the regionalisation of decadal predictability for Central and Western Europe. In PRODEF, a combined statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) and a probabilistic forecast tool are developed and applied to the new Earth system model of the Max-Planck Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM), which is part of the CMIP5 experiment. Focus is given on the decadal predictability of windstorms, related wind gusts as well as wind energy potentials. SDD combines the benefits of both high resolution dynamical downscaling and purely statistical downscaling of GCM output. Hence, the SDD approach is used to obtain a very large ensemble of highly resolved decadal forecasts. With respect to the focal points of PRODEF, a clustering of temporal evolving atmospheric fields, a circulation weather type (CWT) analysis, and a storm damage indices analysis is applied to the full ensemble of the decadal hindcast experiments of the MPI-ESM in its lower resolution (MPI-ESM-LR). The ensemble consists of up to ten realisations per yearly initialised decadal hindcast experiments for the period 1960-2010 (altogether 287 realisations). Representatives of CWTs / clusters and single storm episodes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a horizontal resolution of 0.22°. For each model grid point, the distributions of the local climate parameters (e.g. surface wind gusts) are determined for different periods (e.g. each decades) by recombining dynamical downscaled episodes weighted with the respective weather type frequencies. The applicability of the SDD approach is illustrated with examples of decadal forecasts of the MPI

  16. The Structure of the Mantle Lithosphere in Central Europe from S-Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Data from about 650 permanent and temporary seismic broadband stations accessed from the open EIDA Archive yielded about 49.000 S-receiver functions. Selection criteria were a signal-to-noise ratio of at least two of the S signal on the SV component, low noise on the P component before the S arrival time and a relatively good approximation of the delta im- pulse on the SV component after deconvolution. All traces were checked visually. The time domain traces were migrated to depth domain by back projection along the ray path. Smooth images of major discontinuities in the upper mantle were obtained by applying an eight-seconds low-pass filter. Observations of the Moho and the discontinuity at 410 km depth serve as a check of the quality of the analysis. We observe two widespread negative (i.e., downward reduction in velocity) discontinuities. The shallower one in about the 50 km to 150 km depth interval occurs everywhere in the study area and is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in Phanerozoic Europe. According to similar observations in the north American craton, it is interpreted as mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) in the east European craton (EEC). The second negative discontinuity seen beneath the EEC, the Trans-European Suture Zone, the Bohemian Massive, and parts of the Pannonian Basin lies at a depth interval of about 150 km to 300 km. It is interpreted as cratonic LAB reaching well the S and E of the Torn- quist-Teisseyre Zone, which is considered the boundary of the EEC at the shallower levels. The deeper cratonic LAB has anomalous topography: Below the Pannonian Basin it shal- lows to c. 150 km but deepens to c. 300 km below the Bohemian Massif. There is a jump in the cratonic LAB along the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif, where the LAB sud- denly changes depth from 200 km in the north to 300 km in the south. We tentatively inter- pret these observations as a result of overthrusting the EEC mantle lithosphere during the

  17. Pannonian Basin Province, Central Europe (Province 4808) -Petroleum Geology, Total Petroleum Systems, and Petroleum Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolton, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the Pannonian Basin Province of Central Europe and summarizes the petroleum geology, which was the basis for assessment, and presents results of that assessment. The Pannonian Basin Province consists of a large compound extensional basin of Neogene age overlying Paleogene basins and interior elements of the greater Alpine foldbelt. Within it, six total petroleum systems (TPS) are defined and six assessment units established for estimation of undiscovered oil and gas resources. Other speculative TPSs were identified but not included for quantitative assessment within this study.

  18. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  19. From Part-Time Farming to Pluriactivity: A Decade of Change in Rural Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Anthony M.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates inadequacy of "part-time farming," preferring "pluriactivity." Sets context for 10 papers on pluriactivity and agro-rural change in Western Europe. Outlines applied social science studies on the topic. Voices need for critical, policy-oriented studies in face of changing agricultural and social issues. (TES)

  20. Dramatic decline of ischaemic heart disease mortality in post communist central Europe: recovery from totality.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vlado

    2012-06-01

    After 1970 the preexisting gap in population health between democratic Europe and communist countries became even more prominent. While in the democratic Europe there was a progressive rise in life expectancy associated with the decline in ischaemic heart disease (IHD), the trend on the other side of the iron curtain was exactly reverse. After the fall of communism in 1989 population health in the post-communist central Europe (CE) rapidly signalled a favourable recovery. This biphasic trend in post-communist countries is very remarkable. Most remarkably the decline in IHD mortality started soon after the demise of totality, even before the modernization of health care (new more effective medications and diagnostic technology), public campaign against smoking and improved supply of protective nutrients got chance to attain an important role. The decades-long psychosocial depression of communism was rapidly replaced with a promise of a better future. It is generally accepted that psychosocial factors are powerfool tools in the pathogenesis of IHD. PMID:22966731

  1. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  2. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, D.S.; Oleksyn, J.

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  3. Seismic imaging of the geodynamic activity at the western Eger rift in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, N.; Buske, S.; Hrubcova, P.; Ruzek, B.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.; Fischer, T.

    2015-04-01

    The western Eger rift at the Czech-German border in central Europe is an important geodynamically active area within the European Cenzoic rift system (ECRS) in the forelands of the Alps. Along with two other active areas of the ECRS, the French Massif Central and the east and west Eifel volcanic fields, it is characterized by numerous CO2-rich fluid emission points and frequent micro-seismicity. Existence of a plume(s) is indicated in the upper mantle which may be responsible for these observations. Here we reprocess a pre-existing deep seismic reflection profile '9HR' and interpret the subsurface structures as mapped by seismic reflectivity with previous findings, mainly from seismological and geochemical studies, to investigate the geodynamic activity in the subsurface. We find prominent hints of pathways which may allow magmatic fluids originating in the upper mantle to rise through the crust and cause the observed fluid emanations and earthquake activity.

  4. Morbus Behçet – a rare disease in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Jurowski, Piotr; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Kot, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. The entity is endemic in countries of Eastern and Central Asia, especially Turkey and Iran, but rarely seen in Central Europe. As there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should be based on clinical criteria. Frequently a definitive diagnosis is established within several years or months after the first manifestations appear. The increased number of cases, recently described worldwide also in the Polish population, indicates that the disease could spread out of endemic areas. The aim of this manuscript is to present the clinical picture, diagnosis criteria and therapeutic approaches of this “international disease” which currently is observed not only in emigrants from Asia but also in native Polish citizens. PMID:26788079

  5. From the Party/State to Multiethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in Europe and Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews anecdotal and field experience in Europe and Central Asia in meeting the challenges of social cohesion and draws some comparisons between the social cohesion of education systems in the European and Central Asian regions and that of the United States. Outlines ways in which public education has contributed to social cohesion in the West.…

  6. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  7. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described. PMID:15046847

  8. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fér, Tomáš; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. Methods DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. Key Results The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Conclusions The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the

  9. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  10. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  11. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe.

    PubMed

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  12. Hungary's experience: Soviet military leaves hazardous reminder in Central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, P.I.; Biczo, I.L.; Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, thousands of abandoned Soviet military installations, including troop bases and airfields, have been returned to their host countries. These installations present serious, widespread environmental problems for the governments of Central and Eastern Europe. In the West, where approximately 130 military installations also are being realigned from military to civilian uses, similar environmental contamination problems exist. Expertise gained by US and Western European engineering firms at such sites may be applied to the cleanup of contaminated sites in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 1,000 former Soviet military installations exist in eastern Germany alone, with additional sites in Hungary, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Poland. These sites pose critical contamination problems that will require a variety of remedial activities, including engineering, consulting, design and environmental assessment services; instrumentation and laboratory capabilities; groundwater and surface water treatment technologies; leaking underground storage tank (UST) removal and replacement techniques; mobile incinerators; and bioremediation and soil desorption technologies.

  13. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  14. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K; Münzel, Susanne C; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  15. The effect of moving cold fronts over Central Europe to the variability of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potuznikova, Katerina; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Boska, Josef; Sindelarova, Tereza; Mosna, Zbysek

    2015-04-01

    Cold fronts represent well known source of atmospheric waves, (especially short and medium scale AGW - acoustic gravity waves), that are able to propagate up to the ionospheric heights. In our study we focus on the effects of the transitions of cold front over the region of Central Europe on the variations of the ionosphere. We concentrate on periods of low solar and geomagnetic activity. Neutral atmosphere data are compared with the wave-like oscillations in the E and F layer. Our tropospheric data comprise synoptic maps on of 500 hPa and 850 hPa geopotential heights. Within ionospheric data we search for variability that is linked to the tropospheric disturbances. The ionospheric parameters (electron concentration and corresponding height) we analyse by the wavelet transform method. The Modern HF digisonde DPS-4 D (Digisonde Portable Sounder), which is in operation at the Pruhonice observatory (49.59 N; 14.33 E) of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague (IAP) since 2004, represents an excellent source of the ionospheric data for Central Europe. Pruhonice digisonde usually operates in standard mode - one ionogram and electron density profie N(h) each 15 minutes. Besides that, data from several european stations of the digisonde world network (data from Juliusruhe, Chilton, Brusel, Roma and Tortosa digisonde stations) are included in the study.

  16. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  17. [Canine leishmaniosis in Central Europe: retrospective survey and serological study of imported and travelling dogs].

    PubMed

    Mettler, Maik; Grimm, Felix; Naucke, Torsten J; Maasjost, Christiane; Deplazes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a common parasitic disease in Central Europe affecting dogs imported or returning from endemic countries around the Mediterranean basin. Through an internet discussion forum owners of dogs with suspected or proven leishmaniosis living in Central Europe (D, A, CH), were questioned about the dog's history. Additionally, serologic examinations of the dogs for anti-Leishmania antibodies (ELISA using antigen of promastigote stages) were offered to the participants. From February to October 2003, 291 dogs imported or returning from Southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, France, Malta, Portugal and others) were analysed. Serologically, 111 dogs (38%) were classified positive; 103 being imported and eight travelling dogs. The majority of seropositive dogs originated from Spain (67%). No significant correlation could be established between race, sex and age and the incidence of the disease. The clinical symptoms in the seropositive dogs varied widely and ranged from mild general symptoms to visceral manifestations with chronic renal failure. Skin disorders were found in 78% of the seropositive, symptomatic animals. In the country of origin or after import or return, 174 out of 291 dogs (60%) had been tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by different immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT). Discrepancies between the ELISA and the various IFATs used were noted in 55 cases (32%), especially in cases of low IFAT titers. Most of the seropositive dogs (80%) had been treated against leishmaniosis. In 91% of these cases, Allopurinol as monotherapy or in combination with Glucantime had been used. For diagnostics and therapy, dog owners had spent an average of 1,100 euros (median 900 euros, maximum 5,800 euros). PMID:15690634

  18. Strain Distribution in Central Europe: FEM Modeling and Comparison with GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araszkiewicz, A.; Bogusz, J.; Jarosinski, M.; Lenik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of this research is to demonstrate how the results of permanent GPS measurements can be understand in terms of recent geodynamics by applying numerical modeling method. On the other hand, the results of modeling are testing the consistency of the GPS measurements. The method of finite element analysis was applied to develop two-dimensional model of strain and stress field in Central Europe. The FEM model was prepared in the ABAQUS software, consisting of graphic modules and ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS Standard modules for solving the static task. The structure of the model was created in the plane Cartesian coordinate system, assuming that for this size of model the earth curvature will not affect the stress and strain direction significantly. Simplified elastic model with frictional contact elements was used for defining mechanical properties of the model. The model consists of 48 parts representing major tectonic units/blocks characterized by different material properties. The stiffness of tectonic blocks expressed by Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was determined based on the lithospheric thickness, surface heat flow and simplified lithological column of the lithosphere. For dislocations, different values of friction coefficient was tested in course of the trial-and-error modeling than the best fitted options were finally adopted in the model. The dynamic (force and pressure) boundary conditions were applied to the elastic model based on the recent tectonic stress directions from the World Stress Map Database. To allow fast changes of the loads the model boundary were designed normal to tectonic stresses. After each computing round the simulated stress and strain were compared with that measured, paying special attention to the GPS measurements from Poland and the adjacent areas. We have used coordinates and velocities from EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densified by Polish national Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) ASG-EUPOS. They were obtained

  19. Bridging global and microregional scales: ploidy distribution in Pilosella echioides (Asteraceae) in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Kubátová, Barbora; Szeląg, Zbigniew; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A detailed knowledge of cytotype distribution can provide important insights into the evolutionary history of polyploid systems. This study aims to explore the spatial distribution of different cytotypes in Pilosella echioides at various spatial scales (from the whole distributional range to the population level) and to outline possible evolutionary scenarios for the observed geographic pattern. Methods DNA-ploidy levels were estimated using DAPI flow cytometry in 4410 individuals of P. echioides from 46 populations spread over the entire distribution range in central Europe. Special attention was paid to the cytotype structure in the most ploidy-diverse population in south-west Moravia. Key Results Five different cytotypes (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x and 6x) were found, the last being recorded for the first time. Although ploidy-uniform (di- or tetraploid) sites clearly prevailed, nearly one-quarter of the populations investigated harboured more (up to all five) cytotypes. Whereas penta- and hexaploids constituted only a minority of the samples, a striking predominance of the triploid cytotype was observed in several populations. Conclusions The representative sampling confirmed previous data on cytotype distribution, i.e. the spatial aggregation of mixed-ploidy populations in south-west Moravia and Lower Austria and the predominance of ploidy-uniform populations in other parts of the area investigated. Recurrent origin of polyploids from diploid progenitors via unreduced gametes and their successful establishment are considered the key factors promoting intrapopulational ploidy mixture (‘primary hybrid zones’). As an alternative to the generally accepted theory of cytotype co-existence based on the development of different means of inter-ploidy reproductive isolation, it is suggested that a long-term ploidy mixture can also be maintained in free-mating populations provided that the polyploids originate with a sufficient frequency. In addition, the

  20. On the assessment of urban land-surface impacts on climate in regional climate model simulations over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    When aiming higher resolution in dynamical downscaling, which is common trend in CORDEX activities, the effects of land use and land use changes are playing increasing role. This is especially true for the urban areas, which in high resolution can occupy significant part of a single gridbox, if not being even bigger in case of big cities or megacities. Moreover, the role of cities will increase in future, as the population within the urban areas is growing faster, with the estimate for Europe of about 84% living in cities. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been coupled with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM), which can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Additionally, the version of land-surface scheme using CLM is tested and effect of the urban environment, which is included in the CLM scheme, will be assessed. Both versions will be compared and validated using EOBS data.

  1. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, Pawel; Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest. PMID:26835186

  3. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M.; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A.; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest. PMID:26835186

  4. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor. PMID:25680828

  5. This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  6. 16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART OF THE INTERIOR, RECENTLY USED FOR A BASKETBALL, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE ROLL-UP DOOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at left and plant switch house at right (series 1 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  8. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  9. Using BeiDou system for precise positioning in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniak, Dawid; Cellmer, Slawomir; Nowel, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    In 2012 the Chinese navigation satellite system called BeiDou System (BDS) has reached the regional operational capabilities over the area of East Asia. Currently the BDS system consists of 5 medium orbit satellites MEO, 6 geosynchronous satellites IGSO and 5 geostationary satellites GEO and provides regional coverage by its navigation signals. Also in Europe BDS satellites can be used to determine position. In 2015 the third phase of BSD system development has started, aimed at providing global coverage and compatibility with other GNSS systems. As a result, BDS will broadcast signals at the same frequency as GPS L1 and L5 and Galileo E1, E5a and E5b. In the presented research we carried out relative positioning using the MAFA method. This was the first time when this method was applied to process BDS signals. The results show that it is possible to obtain precise position in central Europe using BDS signals only. However, with its current constellation, this is not possible 24/7, but in periodic time windows.

  10. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals. PMID:23456142

  11. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3− increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  12. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3(-) increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  13. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various "natural laboratories" of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally.Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world's most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports.By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m(3) (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m(3)), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments.The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including

  14. Types of geographical distribution of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in Central Europe *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107

  15. Is Central Europe Safe from Environmental Lead Intoxications? A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Pelclová, Daniela; Šťastná, Jana; Vlčková, Štěpánka; Vlček, Kamil; Urban, Michal; Laštovková, Andrea; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    Preventive measures in Central Europe were successful in suppressing both occupational and environmental lead exposure so that they did not constitute a severe public health problem. However, rare lead intoxications still appear. We report on lead intoxication in four family members where the source was removed lead ceiling paint. The symptoms of the lead intoxication started several weeks after removal and the inhalational exposure to the minimum dust residues lasted for more than three months before the poisoning was diagnosed. Father developed anaemia and saturnine colics. He and his two daughters received antidotal treatment which had to be repeated in the children. Finally, all recovered completely.Lead intoxication may be easily overlooked due to the unspecific symptoms. It is necessary to think of this rare poisoning which may be caused by old paints, historical ceramics and lead shots, in addition to commercial products imported from abroad. PMID:27434242

  16. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  17. A Decade of Transformation: Educational Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    The changes in Central and Eastern Europe caused by upheavals at the beginning of the 1990s had great impact on the formation and implementation of educational policies. A comparison of patterns in Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic shows common features which were rooted in the collapse of the communist system. At the same time these transformation processes were marked by considerable diversity. To elucidate these commonalities and differences, the following problem areas are examined: (a) decentralisation of responsibilities; (b) financing and privatisation; (c) structural reforms; (d) curricular reforms; and (e) evaluation, assessment and examinations. These developments are considered in the light of various theories about how periods of social transformation unfold. The article helps to throw light on the differences between the countries of the region in terms of how the educational changes were perceived and carried out.

  18. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  19. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  20. Tracing sediment pathways by zircon fission track analysis: Oligocene marine connections in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Cornelia; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Frisch, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we use contrasting zircon fission track age signatures of Alpine detritus and detritus derived from the Variscan realm to trace sediment pathways in Central Europe. Our data show that the Molasse Basin was connected with the Rhine Graben Sea during the Mid-Oligocene, thus joining the North Sea to the Paratethys. Within the Rhine Graben Sea, fairly strong south-north directed currents existed, transporting sand-sized Alpine detritus nearly 300 km towards the north. A connection between the Rhône-Bresse Graben and the Rhine Graben and/or the French Molasse Basin and the Swiss Molasse Basin, by contrast, is not supported by the fission track data. This may be explained by the existence of submarine rises that hampered the transport of sand-sized sediment towards the north/northeast.

  1. Forest stand growth dynamics in Central Europe have accelerated since 1870

    PubMed Central

    Pretzsch, Hans; Biber, Peter; Schütze, Gerhard; Uhl, Enno; Rötzer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have been exposed to climate change for more than 100 years, whereas the consequences on forest growth remain elusive. Based on the oldest existing experimental forest plots in Central Europe, we show that, currently, the dominant tree species Norway spruce and European beech exhibit significantly faster tree growth (+32 to 77%), stand volume growth (+10 to 30%) and standing stock accumulation (+6 to 7%) than in 1960. Stands still follow similar general allometric rules, but proceed more rapidly through usual trajectories. As forest stands develop faster, tree numbers are currently 17–20% lower than in past same-aged stands. Self-thinning lines remain constant, while growth rates increase indicating the stock of resources have not changed, while growth velocity and turnover have altered. Statistical analyses of the experimental plots, and application of an ecophysiological model, suggest that mainly the rise in temperature and extended growing seasons contribute to increased growth acceleration, particularly on fertile sites. PMID:25216297

  2. The "Geomorphologic Diagonal" of Central Europe - towards a new morphotectonic interpretation of macroforms in average mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    Modern methods of low temperature thermochronology are able to throw light on the geomorphological development of macrorelief landforms. A rarely investigated problem concerns the orientation and morphotectonic evolution of Central European uplands (low to mid-elevation mountain ranges). A conspicuous NW-SE striking boundary takes course through Germany from the Osning and Teutoburg Forest in the NW to the Bavarian Forest in the SE. I call this line the "geomorphological diagonal". East of this line, more or less NW-SE striking morphotectonic features (e.g., Harz Mountains, Sudety) dominate the macrorelief up to the eastern border of Central Europe (Thornquist-Teysseire Lineament), with the exception of the Ohre Rift and Central Bohemia. West of this line, the macrorelief is either characterized by NNE-SSW to N-S oriented structures (e.g., Upper Rhine Rift) and, to a lesser extent, by (S)SW-(E)NE mountain ranges (southern Rhenish Slate Mountains and Ore Mountains) or by no predominance at all. In the Lower Rhine Embayment and along the Middle Rhine River, (N)NW-(S)SE directed morphotectonic features influence the low mountain ranges. In several cases geologists have proven that NW-SE morphotectonic structures are related to the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian to Campanian) "basin inversion" (e.g., von Eynatten et al. 2008). A compilation of low temperature thermochronological data (AFT, [U-Th]/He) from Central Europe clearly supports strong crustal cooling during the Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary in morphotectonically protruded crustal blocks east of the geomorphological diagonal, whereas west of it the age data available so far exhibit a much larger scatter from Upper Paleozoic to Tertiary without clear evidence of an outstanding Upper Cretaceous crustal cooling event. Based on this data I hypothesize that east of the diagonal macroforms of uplifted denudation surfaces ("peneplains" or "etchplains") may be inherited from the Cretaceous whereas west of it

  3. Reproduction of links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan; Štěpánek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    The study evaluates relationships between large-scale atmospheric circulation (represented by circulation indices and circulation types derived from gridded mean sea level pressure) and daily precipitation amounts over three regions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) with different precipitation regimes. We examine how ENSEMBLES regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by re-analysis reproduce the observed links and capture differences in the links between the regions (lowlands vs. highlands) and seasons. We study the links of circulation to (i) mean precipitation over the regions, (ii) probability of wet days, and (iii) probability of extreme daily precipitation (exceeding threshold defined by a high quantile of precipitation distribution in a given season). Relatively strong links between atmospheric circulation and the precipitation characteristics are found in the observed data. The links are generally more pronounced for highland than lowland regions. More wet days and higher precipitation amounts are found for cyclonic and stronger flows, and for westerly and north-easterly flows. The RCMs are generally able to capture basic features of the links; nevertheless, they have difficulties to reproduce some more specific features and differences in the links between the regions. The results also suggest that good performance in some precipitation characteristics may be due to compensating errors rather than model's perfection. Reference: Plavcová E., Kyselý J., Štěpánek P., 2014: Links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in the observed data and regional climate model simulations. International Journal of Climatology, doi 10.1002/joc.3882.

  4. Climatology of Vb cyclones, physical mechanisms and their impact on extreme precipitation over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, M.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Raible, C. C.

    2015-09-01

    Cyclones, which develop over the western Mediterranean and move northeastward are a major source of extreme weather and known to be responsible for heavy precipitation over the northern side of the Alpine range and Central Europe. As the relevant processes triggering these so-called Vb events and their impact on extreme precipitation are not yet fully understood, this study focuses on gaining insight into the dynamics of past events. For this, a cyclone detection and tracking tool is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2013) to identify prominent Vb situations. Precipitation in the ERA-Interim and the E-OBS data sets is used to evaluate case-to-case precipitation amounts and to assess consistency between the two data sets. Both data sets exhibit high variability in precipitation amounts among different Vb events. While only 23 % of all Vb events are associated with extreme precipitation, around 15 % of all extreme precipitation days (99 percentile) over the northern Alpine region and Central Europe are induced by Vb events, although Vb cyclones are rare events (2.3 per year). To obtain a better understanding of the variability within Vb events, the analysis of the 10 heaviest and lowest precipitation Vb events reveals noticeable differences in the state of the atmosphere. These differences are most pronounced in the geopotential height and potential vorticity field, indicating a much stronger cyclone for heavy precipitation events. The related differences in wind direction are responsible for the moisture transport around the Alps and the orographical lifting along the northern slopes of the Alps. These effects are the main reasons for a disastrous outcome of Vb events, and consequently are absent in the Vb events associated with low precipitation. Hence, our results point out that heavy precipitation related to Vb events is mainly related to large-scale dynamics rather than to thermodynamic processes.

  5. A tectonic model for the spatial occurrence of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits - applications to Central Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A structural-tectonic model, which was developed to assess the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits and associated polymetallic vein systems for the Matra Mountains, Hungary, has been expanded here and applied to other parts of central Europe. The model explains how granitoid stocks are emplaced and hydrothermal fluids flow within local strain features (duplexes) within strike-slip fault systems that develop in continental crust above subducting plates. Areas of extension that lack shear at the corners and along the edges of the fault duplexes are structural traps for the granitoid stocks associated with porphyry copper deposits. By contrast, polymetallic vein deposits are emplaced where shear and extension are prevalent in the interior of the duplexes. This model was applied to the Late Cretaceous-age porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Banat-Timok-Srednogorie region of Romania-Serbia-Bulgaria and the middle Miocene-age deposits in Romania and Slovakia. In the first area, porphyry copper deposits are most commonly located at the corners, and occasionally along the edges, of strike-slip fault duplexes, and the few polymetallic vein deposits identified are located at interior sites of the duplexes. In the second area, the model accounts for the preferred sites of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) and central Slovakian volcanic field (Slovakia).

  6. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W.

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  7. The New Faces of Europe. Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," offers some basic data on the contemporary human geography of the European continent, with a focus on central and eastern Europe. The document first describes civic issues in the teaching of geography and cartography of the new Europe. The basic pedagogical intent…

  8. High genetic similarity of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kovač, Jasna; Čadež, Neža; Stessl, Beatrix; Stingl, Kerstin; Gruntar, Igor; Ocepek, Matjaž; Trkov, Marija; Wagner, Martin; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the leading zoonosis in the European Union with the majority of cases attributed to Campylobacter jejuni. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, some severe cases need to be treated with antibiotics, primarily macrolides and quinolones. However, the resistance to the latter is reaching alarming levels in most of the EU countries. To shed light on the expansion of antibiotic resistance in central Europe, we have investigated genetic similarity across 178 ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni mostly isolated in Slovenia, Austria and Germany. We performed comparative genetic similarity analyses using allelic types of seven multilocus sequence typing housekeeping genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of a quinolone resistance determining region located within the DNA gyrase subunit A gene. This analysis revealed high genetic similarity of isolates from clonal complex ST-21 that carry gyrA allelic type 1 in all three of these central-European countries, suggesting these ciprofloxacin resistant isolates arose from a recent common ancestor and are spread clonally. PMID:26557112

  9. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  10. Challenges for Teachers' Professional Learning for Inclusive Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Becirevic, Majda

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prepare teachers and other professionals for inclusive education in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS/CEE) region are heavily influenced by the legacy of Soviet defectology (the study of children with disabilities) and Soviet traditions of teacher education. The authors identify some…

  11. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  12. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  13. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  14. A New Generation of Large Seismic Refraction Experiments in Central Europe (1997-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Grad, M.; Spicak, A.; Brueckl, E.; Hegedus, E.; Keller, G. R.; Thybo, H.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1997, Central Europe has been covered by an unprecedented network of seismic refraction experiments. These experiments (POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, SUDETES 2003) have only been possible due a massive international cooperative effort. The total length of all profiles is about 19,000 km, and over 300 explosive sources were employed. The result is a network of seismic refraction profiles that extends along the Trans-European Suture Zone region of Poland and the Bohemian massif, Pannonian basin, trough the Carpathians and Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the Dinarides. As reflected in structures within these areas, Central Europe has experienced a complex tectonic history that includes the Caledonian, Variscan, and Alpine orogenies. The related TESZ region is a broad zone of deformation that extends across Europe from British Isles to the Black Sea region that formed as Europe was assembled from a complex collage of terranes during the late Palaeozoic. For example, the Bohemian massif is mostly located in the Czech Republic and is a large, complex terrane whose origin can be traced to northern Gondwana (Africa). These terranes were accreted along the margin of Baltica that was formed during the break-up of Rodinia. The tectonic evolution of this region shares many attributes with the Appalachian/Ouachita origin and is certainly of global important to studies in terrane tectonics and continental evolution. In southern Poland, several structural blocks are located adjacent to Baltica and were probably transported laterally along it similar to the Cenozoic movement of terranes along the western margin of North America. The younger Carpathian arc and Pannonian back-arc basin were also targeted by these experiments. Thickness of the crust in the area of investigations changes from 22-25 km in the Pannonian basin to about 55 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland. Together, these experiments are providing an unprecedented 3-D image of the

  15. Georeference of the 1:200,000 'degree maps' of Central Europe (about 1910)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timár, G.; Molnár, G.; Crăciunescu, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Institute of Military Geography in Vienna has completed the mapping of central Europe in the scale of 1:200,000 in the first decade of the 20th century. The map sheets cover a one degree (latitude) by one degree (longitude) extent piece of the terrain, that's why these sheets are referred to as 'degree maps'. The longitude is shown with respect to the Ferro prime meridian. The integer degree lines are the horizontal and vertical central lines of the sheets. The map sheets has no uniform projections, not even inside one sheet. The basic units of these maps were the 1:75,000 scale sheets of the cartography of the Habsburg Monarchy, each covering a half degree (longitude) by quarter degree (latitude) piece of terrain. Each 1:75,000 sheets have their own oblique Stereographic projection, with the projection centre at the geometric centre of the sheet. The set of these Stereographic systems is called Lichtenstern-type polyedric projection system. Each degree maps contains eight of the 1:75,000 sheets, without reprojection but simply drawn them in an approximate mosaic. Thus, the exact method of the georeference would be to cut these degree maps into eight pieces along the borders of the 1:75,000 sheets and rectify them separately in their own Stereographic systems. As it raises a huge work, we suggest to define substituting projections. Namely, a sinusoidal projection for each degree column should be defined with a projection center at the crossing of the central meridian and the Equator. The degree maps can be rectified using their corners as control points in the respective sinusoidal projection. After the rectification, we can crop the map content of the sheets and reproject them to any selected projection to make a real map mosaic. Using the georeference, we can provide combinations of these sheets and the modern databases or elevation models.

  16. Evaluation of Operationally Derived Aerosol Optical Depth from MSG-SEVIRI over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, C.; Riffler, M.; Emili, E.; Petitta, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol parameters derived from geostationary remote sensing instruments can complement those obtained from polar orbiting sensors (e.g. MODIS, MERIS, or AVHRR). The high scanning frequency of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites of 15 minutes significantly broadens the potential diurnal coverage over Europe and Africa. Therefore, these data allow to better account for the occasionally high spatial and temporal variabilities of atmospheric aerosols, for instance in cases such as desert dust outbreaks, forest fires, or the evolution of high particulate matter concentrations during stable weather conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate operationally derived aerosol optical depth maps based on imagery acquired by MSG-SEVIRI between December 2007 and November 2008. A one-channel multi-temporal approach is used in order to daily estimate aerosol optical depth for each slot between 6:12 and 18:12 UTC. The resulting SEVIRI AOD values are related to Sun photometer measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). 22 AERONET sites within the study area of central Europe provide cloud-screened level1.5 data for the investigation period. Overall, nearly ten thousand instantaneous SEVIRI and Sun photometer AOD values are compared and a correlation of 0.75 as well as a root-mean-square-error of 0.07 is found. Further, about 75% of all SEVIRI AOD values fall within the MODIS expected error over land of +/-(0.05+0.15*AOD). Finally, the computed statistical parameters for each individual season do not vary strongly. Taken together, the performance of the operational SEVIRI AOD estimation is comparable to the ones based on data from sensors on-board polar orbiting satellites. Therefore, these aerosol information of high temporal frequency can be of great interest e.g. for tracking pollutant transport, for comparisons with aerosol modelling results, or for synergistic use with additional

  17. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. PMID:26711673

  18. Occurrence of atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe: clinical and virological examinations.

    PubMed

    Farsang, A; Makranszki, L; Dobos-Kovács, M; Virág, Györgyi; Fábián, Katalin; Barna, Tímea; Kulcsár, G; Kucsera, L; Vetési, F

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of the atypical form of myxomatosis struck a rabbit farm in Hungary. The animals had previously been vaccinated with a vaccine containing Shope rabbit fibroma virus strain. The disease appeared in winter when the presence of mosquitoes and fleas is not common. The virus was isolated from an eyelid specimen of a naturally infected rabbit. The surviving animals were observed for four weeks, blood samples were collected and, after euthanasia, organ specimens were also examined by morphological methods including pathology and electron microscopy. Serum samples were examined by virus neutralisation for antibodies. Genetic analysis of the isolated virus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The primers were designed on the basis of the major envelope gene (Env) of the Lausanne reference strain in the GenBank. The viral proteins were examined by SDS-PAGE. The isolated virus (ref. no.: BP04/2001) was able to infect the susceptible animals directly, by contact. The disease was characterised by respiratory symptoms of the upper tracheal tract, conjunctivitis and high mortality by the 11th-14th day. Aerogenic infection with strain BP04/2001 resulted in 100% morbidity among the susceptible animals. Sequencing of the amplified 400-bp-long DNA revealed 97% homology with the Env gene of the Lausanne strain, which proves that strain BP04/2001 is a variant of the Lausanne strain having been enzootic throughout Europe. The live vaccine strain used in Hungary against myxomatosis, which is also a Lausanne-derived strain, protected the animals. According to the protein analysis a protein of 200 kDa in size is not expressed in strain BP04/2001. This is the first report on atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe. The virus spreads by airborne transmission and may cause severe losses in the rabbit population. PMID:14680061

  19. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  20. Evaluation of Enviro-HIRLAM model and aerosols effect during wildfires episodes in Europe and Central Russia in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuterman, Roman; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Baklanov, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil

    2014-05-01

    The summer of 2010 was characterized by severe weather events such as floods, heat waves and droughts across Middle East, most of Europe and European Russia. Among them the wildfires in Portugal and European Russia were some of the most prominent and led to substantial increase of atmospheric aerosols concentration. For instance, pollution from Russian wildfires, which were the most noticeable, spread around the entire central part of the country and also dispersed towards the Northern Europe. This study is devoted to Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model evaluation and analysis of radiation balance change due to increased aerosol burden caused by wildfires in Russia. For this purpose the model was forced by boundary and initial conditions produced by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) IFS and MOZART models for meteorology and atmospheric composition, respectively. The model setup included aerosol microphysics module M7 with simple tropospheric sulfur chemistry, anthropogenic emissions by TNO, wildfires emissions by FMI and interactive sea-salt and dust emissions. During the model run surface data assimilation of meteorological parameters was applied. The HIRLAM Savijarvi radiation scheme has been improved to account explicitly for aerosol radiation interactions. So that the short-wave radiative transfer calculations are performed as standard 2-stream calculations for averages of aerosol optical properties weighted over the entire spectrum. The model shows good correlation of particulate matter (PM) concentrations on diurnal cycle as well as day-to-day variability, but one always has negative bias of PM. The Enviro-HIRLAM is able to capture concentration peaks both from short-term and long-term trans boundary transport of PM and predicted the Aerosol Optical Thickness (at 550 nm) up to 2 over wildfire-polluted regions. And the direct radiative forcing is less than -100 W/m2.

  1. Automated inter-station measurements of fundamental mode phase velocities, and tomographic inversion for Central and Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, Riaz Ahmed; Weidle, Christian; Lebedev, Sergei; Cristiano, Luigia; Meier, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Broad-band phase velocity measurements of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and the upper mantle. Dispersion curves may be determined by cross correlating direct and coda fundamental mode waveforms recorded at two stations on the great circle path. In many cases the cross correlation is less affected by scattering than the waveform itself. Examples show that broad band dispersion curves may be obtained by this interferometric measurement. Single event measurements may however be perturbed by off-path propagation, scattering at lateral heterogeneity, higher modes, noise, and erroneous response information. Due to the smooth nature of the 1D fundamental mode sensitivity kernels smooth dispersion curves are expected for media with moderate and smooth lateral heterogeneity. Therefore, smooth parts of the dispersion curves are selected. This reduces the influence of scattering, higher modes, and noise. Furthermore, comparison of a large number of dispersion curves measured along one path for both propagation directions may reveal smooth perturbations caused by off-path propagation and erroneous response information. Finally, after rejection of outliers smooth measurements for a larger number of events are averaged to find a path-average dispersion curve. Previously, the selection of the smooth part of the dispersion curve was made manually and if there were many station pair combinations and a large number of events the manual processing was time consuming. We now introduce the automated selection of the phase velocity curves, based on a set of rigorous, consistent, frequency- and distance-dependent criteria. The procedure is applied to around one million events and about 60,000 paths on permanent and temporary networks including TOR, and PASSEQ networks in central and northern Europe. Fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves are measured and anisotropic phase-velocity maps

  2. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  3. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  4. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  5. Climate condition in the Central Europe during the Weichselian Ice Sheet according to the Educational Global Climate Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuman, Izabela; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2010-05-01

    The expansion and retreat of the ice sheet is controlled by climate changes, and from the other hand, a huge ice mass influences on the climate in the regional scale. This mechanism is commonly known as the fact but often without making reconstruction by using climatological modeling. The purpose of our study is to reconstruct the climate condition during the Weichselian Ice Sheet in the Central Europe, especially for Poland and surrounded countries. The Global Climate Model (GCM) is made for predicting climate, but simplified version can be useful for reconstructing paleoclimate. Hence, the simple initial conditions and surface data proposed by the Educational version of the GCM was applied. In our study we used a simplified version of the GCM to calculate main climate characteristics within the time limits c. 21 000 BP - 18 000 BP, which has been previously invented on Columbia University. The model is constructed on grid with a horizontal resolution 8° latitude by 10° longitude and was establish for modeling most of weather conditions based on available paleoclimate data. It is possible to estimate the probable climate condition along the southern ice sheets margin on the basis of output from the GCM and GIS modeling techniques. Above the ice mass occurs local high pressure area, which seriously interfered on atmospheric circulation. Whereas the low pressure systems in the southern part of continent may caused permanent barometric situation, which stimulates wind directions as well as the precipitable water available in the mass of air. The climate on the east-south border of ice margin was colder and drier than on the west-south region, where it was more ocean-reliable and gentle with higher temperatures. The differences in temperature between the western and eastern part of the Central Europe reached few centigrade. Against a background of the mean paleoclimatic situation in the Central Europe there is coming out a question about the particular paleoclimate

  6. On the urban land-surface impact on climate over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Zemankova, Katerina; Zak, Michal

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate over central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) for urban and suburban land surface. This can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface processes on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0,6 m s-1 and both increases and decreases in summer depending the location with respect to cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 ms-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts in our simulations the summer precipitation rate showing decrease over cities up to - 2 mm day-1. We further showed, that significant temperature increases are not limited to the urban canopy layer but spawn the whole boundary layer. Above that, a small but statistically significant temperature decrease is modeled. The comparison with observational data showed significant improvement in modeling the monthly surface temperatures in summer and the models better describe the diurnal temperature variation reducing the afternoon and evening bias due to the UHI development, which was not captured by the model if one does not apply the urban parameterization. Sensitivity experiments were carried out as well to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs

  7. Vb-type cyclones and their role in extreme precipitation events in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, Martina; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph C.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather situations are of major relevance for society, since they lead to great economical and personal damage. In Central Europe, one important source of extreme precipitation accompanied by large flooding events is the so-called Vb-event, classified by W. J. Van Bebber in 1891. Vb-events are defined as cyclones developing over the western Mediterranean that move north eastward. They can uptake large amounts of moisture, which is then transported towards the Alps and Central Europe, inducing heavy precipitation and flooding events. Despite their importance the relevant processes triggering Vb-events and their impact in extreme precipitation are not yet fully understood. The overall goal of this study research is to understand the dynamics of the past events and to provide a reliable climatology, which would provide a first guess for future behaviour of these potentially disastrous situations. A cyclone detection and tracking tool is applied to ERA Interim reanalysis (1979-2013) in order to identify the most prominent Vb-situations. Vb-events are detected and tracked in the geopotential height at 850 hPa. Subsequently, the cyclones are automatically filtered with criteria based on the origin and end of the track, which allows us discarding those paths that should not be considered as Vb-events. Precipitation in the ERA Interim and E-OBS database is used to evaluate the precipitation amounts corresponding to each case and to assess the consistency between datasets. ERA Interim and E-OBS data consistently indicate that there is great variability in precipitation amounts within different Vb-events. While it is expected that Vb-events are associated with extreme precipitation, this is only true for about one quarter of all cases. Nevertheless around 15% of extreme precipitation days (99 percentile) over the Alpine region are triggered by Vb-events. In order to obtain a better understanding of the large variability in Vb-events, the ten heaviest and lowest

  8. On the Risk of Mediterranean and Sub-tropical Climate Expansion into Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farda, Ales; Štěpánek, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Szabó-Takács, Beata

    2015-04-01

    Many contemporary studies of climate change focused on or including Central Europe suggest significant changes of future climate characteristics. The scope of this transformation includes increased mean annual temperature, increased frequency and intensity of heat waves and droughts and changes in spatiotemporal precipitation characteristic including the tendency to occurrence of dangerous torrential rains. This makes from the region one of the particularly vulnerable area increasing the necessity of providing reliable, precise and comprehensible information both to the decision makers and general public. In our study we decided to examine climate change signal using the Köppen-Geiger climate classification on corrected output of high resolution simulations performed with the RCMs ALADIN-Climate/CZ and RegCM, nested in GCM ARPÉGE 5.0 lateral boundary conditions and ECHAM4 respectively. Both experiments were forced by IPCC SRES A1B scenario. Climate classifications like that of Köppen-Geiger are useful in wider range of ecological disciplines including forestry and agriculture as they correlate with their bio-ecologically oriented classification systems. In order to address regional and local character of climate change signal we decided to study simulations performed in 10km resolution, which is capable to capture even relatively fine scale geomorphological details. To retain as much fine scale signal as possible, model output was corrected using measured data from the dense observation networks operated by the national meteorological services of Austria (north to the Alps), Czech Republic and Slovakia. Thus, we are able to detect changes in climate characteristics affecting small scale geomorphological features like individual Alps and Carpathian mountain ranges, individual mountain systems of Bohemian massif, rift and river valleys, which are usually poorly represented in more coarse resolution. Our findings among other suggest the risk of large scale

  9. Optically perceptible characteristics of sprites observed in Central Europe in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-01-01

    Sprites are luminous optical emissions accompanying electric discharges in the mesosphere. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68°N, 16.58°E, ˜230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. Characteristic sprite forms, i.e., column, wishbone, tree, angel, and carrot have been identified in the set of records. Characteristic morphological properties corresponding to each type are given; earlier definitions and observations as well as the related theoretical considerations are reviewed. Based on the knowledge and experience from high-speed imaging in sprite observations, probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with the characteristic sprite types. It is suggested that different streamer propagation sequences corresponding to different dynamic processes may result in similar sprite forms. Several occasionally detectable sprite features are noted and described: tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, and spots. Spots are distinguished from the similar beads by their characteristic brightness, size, and location relative to the bright body of the sprite. The events observed in Central Europe have been classified by the number of individual sprites and by the variety of types appearing in them. More than 90% of the recorded sprites were found to occur in clusters rather than alone, and more than half of the sprite clusters contained more than one sprite types. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events are described as being special subsets of sprite clusters. Statistical analysis of the occurrences of morphological types, various sprite features, and event durations indicated that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites with glows and tendrils do not tend to have long optical lifetimes. Sprite events with more morphological types, on the other hand, more likely have extended durations. The maximum of the encountered event duration was lower for events with many sprite

  10. Phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in central and northern Europe from automated, broad-band, interstation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They

  11. Chondritic Xenon in the Earth's mantle: new constrains on a mantle plume below central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Bernard, Peter; Furi, Evelin; Marty, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    data support the notion that the fraction of plutonium-derived Xe in plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) is higher than in the MORB source reservoir. Hence, the MORB - type reservoirs appear to be well distinguished and more degassed than the plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) supporting the heterogeneity of Earth's mantle. Finally this study highlights that xenon isotopes in the Eifel gas have preserved a chemical signature that is characteristic of other mantle plume sources. This is very intriguing because the presence of a mantle plume in this sector of Central Europe was already inferred from geophysical and geochemical studies(Buikin et al., 2005; Goes et al., 1999). Notably, tomographic images show a low-velocity structure down to 2000 km depth, representing deep mantle upwelling under central Europe, that may feed smaller upper-mantle plumes (Eifel volcanic district-Germany). References Buikin A., Trieloff M., HoppJ., Althaus T., Korochantseva E., Schwarz W.H. &Altherr R., (2005), Noble gas isotopessuggestdeepmantleplume source of late Cenozoicmaficalkalinevolcanism in Europe, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 230, 143-162. Goes S., Spakman W. &BijwaardH., (1999), A lowermantle source for centraleuropeanvolcanism, Science, 286, 1928-1931.G. Holland, M. Cassidy, C.J. Ballentine, Meteorite Kr in the Earth's mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere, Science, 326, 1522-1525, (2009). Marty, B. Neon and xenon isotopes in MORB: implications for the Earth-atmosphere evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 94, 45-56 (1989). Mukhopadhyay S., Early differentiation and volatile accretion recorded in deep-mantle neon and xenon
, Nature, 486, 101-106, (2013).

  12. Two thousand years of geomagnetic field direction over central Europe revealed by indirect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Péter

    2010-04-01

    Supplemented by 32 new directions, the Hungarian archaeomagnetic data set now consists of 217 archaeologically dated directions ranging in age from 300 BC to 1800 AD. From this data set, reference curves of secular variation of the geomagnetic field direction were computed using hierarchical modelling and curve estimation by moving average technique. Thanks to some of the new data, the gap in the earlier reference curves around 500 AD has now been filled up. For comparison's sake, directional records of comparable length from central Europe were also processed by the same curve building method. For this purpose, all dated directional data (declination and inclination with statistics) were drawn from the GEOMAGIA50 database for France, Germany, the Ukraine and Moldavia, Bulgaria and Italy and transferred via their virtual geomagnetic poles to a reference point of their respective countries. The resulting reference curves, including those for Hungary, show more or less similar temporal behaviour to the corresponding CALS7K.2 model curves (also available from the GEOMAGIA50 database), but significant deviations from the low-order CALS7K.2 predictions are also discernible owing to the likely presence of additional higher-order complications in the regional field. Therefore, the regional field and its secular variation are suggested to be approximated by the reference rather than the predicted curves. At any other location within the study area, the direction of the regional field can be obtained by spatial interpolation from the reference curves as illustrated by isogonic and isoclinic maps shown for selected times. Local time-series of interpolated directions for other central European countries lacking reference curves might serve as master curves for magnetic dating.

  13. The CEGRN 2011 Campaign and the densification of ETRF2000 in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, A.; Barlik, M.; Becker, M.; Gerhatova, L.; Grenerczy, G.; Hefty, J.; Krauss, A.; Legovini, P.; Medac, D.; Milev, G.; Mojzes, M.; Mulic, M.; Odalovic, O.; Rus, T.; Simek, J.; Sledzinski, J.; Stangl, G.; Stopar, B.; Vespe, F.; Virag, G.

    2012-04-01

    The CEGRN 2011 Campaign took place from 20 to 25 June 2011. It was a coordinated effort of 14 Central European Countries: Austria, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine, with the involvement of some 85 stations. Data processing with state of the art software, and IGS08 orbits and antenna models according to the EPN standards is being completed by independent Analysis Centers in Austria, Hungary, Italy and Slovakia, with the Center in Graz acting as a Combination Center. The paper presents the results of the analysis and of the multiyear combination, with time series spanning a timeline of up to 17 years (1994-2011). Since all data up to and including the 2009 Campaign have been re-analysed with the reprocessed orbits and IGS05 antenna models, the derived velocity field represents a particularly valid example of evolution of the ITRF reference frame in Central Europe. The addition of the 2011 data set, based on IGS08, is not obvious. In a first step the solution, inclusive of the 2011 campaign, can be aligned to the EPN (European Permanent Network of EUREF) cumulative solution in ITRF2005 and can be transformed into the ETRF2000 frame. In a second step, the CEGRN campaigns are planned to be reprocessed with the IGS08 antenna models, provided the IGS and EPN reprocessing solutions (REPRO2) are available for the orbits. Once completed, a densification of the European regional velocity field will become available for both geodynamic studies and widespread dissemination of the ETRS89 standard of coordinates, in compliance with the EU Directive INSPIRE.

  14. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  15. Palliative Care Information Needs in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    PubMed

    Jünger, Saskia; Klose, Jasper; Brearley, Sarah; Hegedus, Katalin; Payne, Sheila; Radbruch, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    In a cross-national survey, we examined the information needs and barriers to accessing palliative care information in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In total, 584 healthcare professionals from 22 countries completed the questionnaire. Information on legislation and official papers (67 percent) and information on education courses in palliative care (65 percent) were the most frequently reported information needs. Major barriers to accessing palliative care information were language and a lack of easily accessible and affordable, clinically relevant information. An informative Web site, an electronic newsletter, and regular meetings or conferences were rated as the most important information channels. We concluded that access to reliable and well-structured information should be facilitated for healthcare professionals in CEE and CIS countries to assist them in their clinical decision making. Most importantly, more in-depth qualitative research and dialogue with stakeholders in the different countries are needed to develop context-specific, tailor-made strategies. PMID:26201213

  16. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Stěpánek, Petr; Zalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9% confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95% confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker. PMID:23640249

  17. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats. PMID:22536108

  18. Rapid Climate Shifts during last Deglaciation over Central to Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, F.; Muschitiello, F.; Brandefelt, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Tarasov, L.; Naslund, J. O.; Johansson, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Abrupt climate shifts during the last deglaciation provide test cases for analyzing the transient response of our climate system to changes in external forcings and internal feedbacks. The regional imprints of rapid climate shifts, their timing and hence connection to local vs. large-scale mechanisms are however still poorly understood owing to a limited number of records with usually large age uncertainties and low sampling rates. In this study we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of rapid climate shifts over central Europe and Scandinavia during Bølling-Allerød (14.7-12.7kyr BP) and Younger Dryas (~12kyr BP) by means of pollen data and climate simulations. For a better understanding of physical mechanisms behind regional imprints of climate shifts, time slice experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CCSM1.0.5) are set up at high resolution (1°x1°) using different topographies and ice sheets (ICE-5G and a new version of GLAC). Matching these time slice experiments with the spatial temperature pattern derived from pollen records, we estimate the extent to which environmental conditions (pollen) represent the direct large-scale influence of climate over the Euro-Atlantic sector vs. regional-scale climate effects e.g. caused by shrinking ice sheets and coastal transgression due to sea-level rise.

  19. Detection of Dry Intrusion on Water Vapor Images Over Central Europe - June 2010 TO September 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, J.; Dejmal, K.; Hudec, F.; Kolar, P.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of evaluation of the intensity of cyclogenesis which could be connected with the weather having a significant impact on Earth's surface is quite useful. If, as one of the basic assumptions, the existence of connection between dry intrusions, dry bands, tropopause height and warm dark areas distribution on water vapor images (WV images) is considered, it is possible to set up a method of detecting dry intrusions on searching and tracking areas with higher brightness temperature compared with the surrounding environment. This paper covers the period between June 2010 and September 2011 over Central Europe. The ISIS method (Instrument de Suivi dans I'Imagerie satellitaire), originally developed for detection of cold cloud tops, was used as an initial ideological point. Subsequently, this method was modified by Michel and Bouttier for usage on WV images. Some of the applied criteria and parameters were chosen with reference to the results published by Michel and Bouttier as well as by Novotny. The procedure can be divided into two steps: detection of warm areas and their tracking. Cases of detection of areas not evidently connected with dry intrusions can be solved by filtering off based on the connection between detected warm areas to the cyclonic side of jet streams and significant lowering of the tropopause.

  20. Effect of a Frontal System on Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Distribution over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, R. M.; Lewis, A. C.; Lewis, A. C.; McQuaid, J. B.; Barjat, H.; Dewey, K.; Kent, J.

    2001-12-01

    The distribution of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) has been determined during periods of convective and frontal activity over central Europe. High frequency whole air sampling was carried out on board the UK Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules aircraft during the EXPORT campaign, August 2000 (European eXport of Precursors and Ozone by long-Range Transport). The distribution of NMHC during and after the passage of a WCB (Warm Conveyor Belt) associated with a cold front was investigated. Advection was shown to have occurred over several days but embedded convection within the WCB caused rapid uplift of reactive carbon from the boundary layer to the mid-troposphere. Post-WCB, elevated levels of NMHC in the free troposphere due to convective mixing were observed. High mixing ratios of NMHC were found at altitudes of up to 5 km ( propene, t = 5.28 hours, 13.8pptV). The observations indicate that uplift of reactive NMHC during frontal passage may significantly perturb partitioning and abundance of inorganic and organic peroxy radicals and lifetime of hydroxyl radical (OH). The net production rate of ozone (N(O3)) within the WCB was calculated using the photostationary state expression (PSS), showing net ozone production in the free troposphere.

  1. Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, R. M.; Lewis, A. C.; Carney, R. A.; McQuaid, J. B.; Arnold, S. R.; Methven, J.; Barjat, H.; Dewey, K.; Kent, J.; Monks, P. S.; Carpenter, L. J.; Brough, N.; Penkett, S. A.; Reeves, C. E.

    2003-04-01

    The vertical distribution of 21 C2-C7 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) has been determined in planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free tropospheric (FT) air over central Europe under a range of meteorological conditions. High-frequency whole air sampling was conducted on board the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules aircraft during the European Export of Precursors and Ozone by Long-Range Transport (EXPORT) experiment in August 2000. When vertical transport by large-scale flow or convection was weak, the expected large concentration gradient between the PBL and FT was observed for all short and medium lifetime hydrocarbons (e.g., average iso-butane, PBL 100 pptV, FT 6 pptV). During periods of strong convective activity associated with the passage of a cold front, a rapid uplift of reactive carbon from the boundary layer to the mid free troposphere was observed. Using changing ratios of hydrocarbons with different atmospheric lifetimes, a timescale for transport during this event was determined. Hydrocarbon lifetime measurements suggest that in certain regions of the system, it is convective transport embedded within the cold front rather than larger-scale advection along the warm conveyor belt that is dominant in transporting ozone precursors into the free troposphere.

  2. Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes - the 2013 smoke season over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Flentje, H.; Ries, L.

    2015-08-01

    In July 2013 very strong boreal fire plumes were observed at the northern rim of the Alps by lidar and ceilometer measurements of aerosol, ozone and water vapour for about 3 weeks. In addition, some of the lower-tropospheric components of these layers were analysed at the Global Atmosphere Watch laboratory at the Schneefernerhaus high-altitude research station (2650 m a.s.l., located a few hundred metres south-west of the Zugspitze summit). The high amount of particles confirms our hypothesis that fires in the Arctic regions of North America lead to much stronger signatures in the central European atmosphere than the multitude of fires in the USA. This has been ascribed to the prevailing anticyclonic advection pattern during favourable periods and subsidence, in contrast to warm-conveyor-belt export, rainout and dilution frequently found for lower latitudes. A high number of the pronounced aerosol structures were positively correlated with elevated ozone. Chemical ozone formation in boreal fire plumes is known to be rather limited. Indeed, these air masses could be attributed to stratospheric air intrusions descending from remote high-latitude regions, obviously picking up the aerosol on their way across Canada. In one case, subsidence from the stratosphere over Siberia over as many as 15-20 days without increase in humidity was observed although a significant amount of Canadian smoke was trapped. These coherent air streams lead to rather straight and rapid transport of the particles to Europe.

  3. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-05-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  4. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  5. Seedling traits, plasticity and local differentiation as strategies of invasive species of Impatiens in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Skálová, Hana; Havlíčková, Vendula; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Invasiveness of some alien plants is associated with their traits, plastic responses to environmental conditions and interpopulation differentiation. To obtain insights into the role of these processes in contributing to variation in performance, we compared congeneric species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) with different origin and invasion status that occur in central Europe. Methods Native I. noli-tangere and three alien species (highly invasive I. glandulifera, less invasive I. parviflora and potentially invasive I. capensis) were studied and their responses to simulated canopy shading and different nutrient and moisture levels were determined in terms of survival and seedling traits. Key Results and Conclusions Impatiens glandulifera produced high biomass in all the treatments and the control, exhibiting the ‘Jack-and-master’ strategy that makes it a strong competitor from germination onwards. The results suggest that plasticity and differentiation occurred in all the species tested and that along the continuum from plasticity to differentiation, the species at the plasticity end is the better invader. The most invasive species I. glandulifera appears to be highly plastic, whereas the other two less invasive species, I. parviflora and I. capensis, exhibited lower plasticity but rather strong population differentiation. The invasive Impatiens species were taller and exhibited higher plasticity and differentiation than native I. noli-tangere. This suggests that even within one genus, the relative importance of the phenomena contributing to invasiveness appears to be species'specific. PMID:22247125

  6. The legal status of home education in post-communist countries of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2012-08-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland and Hungary. This analysis of the legal environment for home education confirms on the one hand that these countries' approach is similar in many aspects. Generally, laws tend to regulate home education rather strictly, all home-educated children must be enrolled at some school, and these schools are mandated by the state to serve as supervisory bodies for home-educated children. This legal arrangement puts the parents of home-schooled children in a very subordinate position in relation to the school. Despite these restrictions, however, the states have gradually opened up the option for home education to quite a broad pool of potentially interested people. On the other hand, the findings show that there are also significant differences between individual countries. These differences provide a good illustration of the fact that, despite historical, economic and cultural similarities, political institutions and state bureaucracies in individual states act autonomously, which leads to different policy outcomes.

  7. Variability of aerosol properties during the 2007-2010 spring seasons over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Chaikovsky, Anatoli

    2012-10-01

    Aerosol optical properties have been studied for spring seasons when increased values of PM10 are registered. Measurements of aerosol optical properties were taken by collocated lidar and sun-photometers at Belsk, Poland, and Minsk, Belarus. A significant increase of registered aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was found during episodes with elevated PM10 concentrations. An increase of AOT at 1020 nm amounted to 50% in the case of Minsk and 18% in the case of Belsk, while an increase of AOT at 400 nm was 66% and 33%, respectively. We noted an increase of Ångström exponent by 6% at both stations and no significant increase of single scattering albedo. The LIDAR measurements together with NAAPS model results and backtrajectory analysis suggest that both the biomass burning products and the Saharan dust are responsible for increased PM10 concentrations and large AOT values during spring time. The smoke aerosol is transported over Central Europe mainly in the boundary layer, increasing both PM10 concentration and AOT. The dust aerosol transported in the free troposphere slightly affects the AOT values only. Statistically significant correlation between PM10 concentration and AOT was found during reporting period.

  8. [Alcohol and drugs in Central Europe--problems and possible solutions].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K; Cs emy, L

    1994-08-22

    The high alcohol consumption and increasing abuse of other addictive inducing substances in Central Europe calls for broadley conceived preventive programmes and cheap and widely applicable therapeutic strategies (early treatment at the first contact level, self-help manuals, self-aid organizations). Social instability along with greater availability of alcohol and drugs create a dangerous combination. In addition to strategies of stress prevention at the societal level also strategy at the individual level is important (e.g. relaxation training, yoga, psychotherapy). It is also important to change the "image" of western society and commercial interests of those who make profits on alcohol and drugs should be under control and advertising should be greatly restricted if not prohibited. Prevention of problems caused by alcohol and drugs in particular in youths must be combined and really effective strategies should be used such as peer programmes. The authors mention also their own preventive programme FIT IN and print materials oriented specifically on certain population groups. PMID:7923324

  9. Taxonomic status of Syngamus nematodes parasitizing passeriform hosts from Central Europe: Morphological, morphometric and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Rząd, Izabella

    2016-10-01

    The systematic position and validity of species within genus Syngamus have always been controversial. In this present work, we evaluated the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships between three species of Syngamus nematodes (Syngamus trachea, Syngamus taiga and Syngamus merulae) and one taxa, determined only to the generic level, collected from respiratory tracts of passeriform hosts from Central Europe using newly obtained sequences of 2 nuclear markers (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 [ITS1, ITS2]) and a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I [COI] gene. Our results clearly showed that S. trachea, S. taiga and S. merulae are valid, molecularly and morphologically distinct species. Moreover, molecular analysis of adult female of Syngamus sp. collected from tracheae of the European robin Erithacus rubecula clearly indicate that these comprise separate species. In the derived phylogeny, the Syngamus clade is divided into two sub-clades: one comprised Syngamus species with a characteristic, well-developed cuticular collar around the oral opening (S. trachea and S. taiga) and a second that groups taxa without or with rudimentary collar (S. merulae and currently sequenced Syngamus sp. from Erithacus rubecula). These results clearly suggest that the degree of collar development (well-developed vs. rudimentary/absent) may be an important phylogenetic feature for determining the structure of the genus Syngamus on subgeneric level. Additionally, our results support historical division of the genus Syngamus into two subgenera S. (Syngamus) and S. (Ornithogamus). PMID:27353021

  10. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  11. Health sector reform in central and eastern Europe: the professional dimension.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Mckee, M

    1997-12-01

    The success or failure of health sector reform in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe depends, to a large extent, on their health care staff. Commentators have focused on the structures to be put in place, such as mechanisms of financing or changes in ownership of facilities, but less attention has been paid to the role and status of the different groups working in health care services. This paper draws on a study of trends in staffing and working conditions throughout the region. It identifies several key issues including the traditionally lower status and pay of health sector workers compared to the West, the credibility crisis of trade unions, and the under-developed roles of professional associations. In order to implement health sector reforms and to address the deteriorating health status of the population, the health sector workforce has to be restructured and training programmes reoriented towards primary care. Finally, the paper identifies emerging issues such as the erosion of 'workplace welfare' and its adverse effects upon a predominantly female health care workforce. PMID:10176264

  12. Pushing the limits – two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Pteromalus briani sp. n. and Pteromalus janstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalus briani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglais urticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalus janstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world. PMID:26261432

  13. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  14. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam

    2014-02-01

    A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. Exposure ages and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An exposure age of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.

  15. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  16. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05–74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57–9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  17. Transcurrent nature of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone in Central Europe: results of the POLCRUST-01 deep reflection seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkiewicz, M.; Maksym, A.; Malinowski, M.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Petecki, Z.; Probulski, J.; Janik, T.; Majdański, M.; Środa, P.; Czuba, W.; Gaczyński, E.; Jankowski, L.

    2015-04-01

    Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) corresponds to a crustal boundary between the Precambrian East European Platform (EEP) and the Palaeozoic West European Platform. Although the zone has been controlling Phanerozoic evolution of large parts of Central Europe, its course, geometry and origin are still poorly constrained. Deep reflection seismic profile POLCRUST-01, recently acquired in SE Poland, for the first time allowed a precise comparison of the Ediacaran and later tectonic patterns to the deep crustal features of the TTZ and adjacent areas. The TTZ corresponds to the subvertical Tomaszów Fault separating the Radom-Kraśnik Elevation, composed of the typical EEP crust, from the Biłgoraj-Narol Block (BNB) in the SW, with a thinned crystalline basement showing affinities to the EEP crust. The BNB is a part of the larger Caledonian Łysogóry Terrane as evidenced by its Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy and gravity data. Thus, for the first time, the proximal Baltican affinity of this unit has been documented unambiguously. The Łysogóry Terrane is delimited from the SW by the subvertical Cieszanów Fault Zone, corresponding to the Holy Cross Suture. The adjacent Małopolska Terrane is characterized by a distinct Early Palaeozoic stratigraphy, and lower-middle crust exhibiting SW-dipping reflective packages interpreted as NE-verging thrust and shear zones of a Neoproterozoic orogen. The observations from the POLCRUST-01 profile and regional comparisons indicate that the TTZ is a major Caledonian transcurrent zone between Poland and East Romania. In central Poland, the TTZ likely forms a narrow subvertical contact between the EEP and a proximal Kuiavia Terrane, as constrained by the deep refraction seismic data. To the NW, the zone extends towards the Pomeranian part of the Caledonide fold-and-thrust belt related to the Avalonia-Baltica collision zone (Thor Suture). South-east of Poland the TTZ corresponds to the Rava Ruska Fault Zone established as a Caledonian suture

  18. Large Scale Cooling in Tertiary Central Europe as inferred by the MBT/CBT Paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S.; Schwark, L.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's climate experienced dramatic changes throughout the last 65 Ma. Starting at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum, the global climate underwent a gradual cooling that eventually resulted in the glaciations in the Neogene. Most reconstructions of climate variability are derived from the marine realm using global deep sea oxygen isotope curves or molecular paleotemperature proxies. In contrast, only little information on the changes of the continental climate is available, which is mainly due to a lack of continuous high resolution records and suitable quantitative temperature proxies. The MBT/CBT paleothermometer is a novel temperature proxy based on temperature-driven changes in the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) content of soil-living bacteria. These changes have been demonstrated to correlate well with ambient air temperature and the MBT/CBT proxy has thus been used to reconstruct paleotemperature records of terrestrial as well as coastal marine sediments (1). In this study, we employed the MBT/CBT paleothermometer on a number of maar lake deposits that - due to their exceptional well preserved organic matter content and finely-laminated sediments - comprise excellent archives of a continental climate. The analysed lacustrine deposits were all situated in the middle European Tertiary volcanic belt and ranged in age from the Early Eocene to the Late Oligocene, allowing for the detailed reconstruction of climate evolution of the Central European continent. Calculated mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of the Messel oil shale, deposited during the Eocene climate optimum, averaged at 25 °C. This agrees well with previous temperature estimates based on paleontological observations, suggesting a paratropical climate in Eocene Central Europe with an average air temperature of ca. 25-30 °C (2). In contrast, to the green house period of the Early Eocene, the climate of the Oligocene was significantly cooler reflected by low MAAT of 8-15

  19. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

  20. The "Heart" of the European "Body Politic". British and German Perspectives on Europe's Central "Organ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolff, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a corpus of British and German press coverage of European Union (EU) politics over the 1990s, the paper analyses uses of the geopolitical HEART metaphor. Over the course of the 1990s, successive British governments promised to work "at" the "heart of Europe". However, no one ever claimed that Britain was "in" the heart of Europe,…

  1. Meso-Cenozoic intraplate contraction in Central and Western Europe: a unique tectonic event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, Jonas; Jähne, Fabian; Malz, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    From the British Isles to Poland, Europe experienced contractional deformation in Late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. The closest contemporaneous plate margins were the incipient Mid-Atlantic rift in the west and northwest, and the Mediterranean system of subduction zones in the south. Each of these plate margins was located more than 1000 km away from the site of deformation. This tectonic event thus represents an outstanding example of large-scale intraplate shortening and may serve as a template for comparison with modern examples. Its effects are seen in a ca. 500 km wide strip that stretches in NW-SE-direction along the Tornquist Line, a regional fault zone separating thick lithosphere of the Baltic Shield from much thinner lithosphere to the southwest. Most faults and folds also trend NW-SE, but some are linked by large N-S-striking transfer zones. In the southeast, the shortening structures are truncated by the Neogene Carpathian thrust front; their original extent is unknown. In the west, the fault zones fan out into more northerly trends in the Central North Sea and more easterly trends in the Channel area before dying out on the shelf. Late Cretaceous (ca. 90-70 Ma) shortening dominates from Poland to the North Sea, while the main shortening event in Southern Britain is of Paleogene age. Many Late Cretaceous to Paleogene structures have been conditioned by Permian or Triassic through Early Cretaceous extensional faulting, whereas some large basement uplifts and reverse faults have no demonstrable inheritance from earlier extension. The thick, mobile Zechstein salt has modified extensional and contractional structures, but both extend beyond its depositional borders. Even where thick evaporates underlie the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, the basement is typically involved in the deformation, except for localized thin-skinned imbricate thrusting and salt-cored anticlines. Different structural styles do not appear to correlate with the magnitude of shortening

  2. Direct evidence for the existence of dairying farms in prehistoric Central Europe (4th millennium BC).

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Matuschik, Irenaus; Jacomet, Stephanie; Schibler, Joerg

    2008-06-01

    The molecular and isotopic chemistry of organic residues from archaeological potsherds was used to obtain further insight into the dietary trends and economies at the Constance lake-shore Neolithic settlements. The archaeological organic residues from the Early Late Neolithic (3922-3902 BC) site Hornstaad-Hornle IA/Germany are, at present, the oldest archaeological samples analysed at the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Lausanne. The approach includes 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of the bulk organic residues, fatty acids distribution and 13C/12C ratios of individual fatty acids. The results are compared with those obtained from the over 500 years younger Neolithic (3384-3370 BC) settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3/Switzerland and with samples of modern vegetable oils and fat of animals that have been fed exclusively on C3 forage grasses. The overall fatty acid composition (C9 to C24 range, maximizing at C14 and C16), the bulk 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios (delta13C, delta15N) and the 13C/12C ratios of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic acids (C18:1) of the organic residues indicate that most of the studied samples (25 from 47 samples and 5 from 41 in the delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C16:0 and delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C18:1 diagrams, respectively) from Hornstaad-Hornle IA and Arbon Bleiche 3 sherds contain fat residues of pre-industrial ruminant milk, and young suckling calf/lamb adipose. These data provide direct proof of milk and meat (mainly from young suckling calves) consumption and farming practices for a sustainable dairying in Neolithic villages in central Europe around 4000 BC.dagger. PMID:18569190

  3. Low Usutu virus seroprevalence in four zoological gardens in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused bird die-offs in Austria, Hungary and Switzerland between 2001 and 2009. While the zoological gardens of Vienna and Zurich recorded USUV-associated mortality in different species of birds during this period, incidences in Budapest were limited to areas outside the zoo, and in the greater Basel area avian mortality due to USUV infection was not observed at all. The objectives of this investigation were to gain insight into USUV infection dynamics in captive birds in zoos with varying degrees of virus exposure and to study differences in susceptibility to USUV of different species of birds. Results 372 bird sera were collected between October 2006 and August 2007. The samples were tested in parallel by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and 90% plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT-90). 8.75%, 5.3% and 6.59% of birds in the zoos of Vienna, Zurich and Basel, respectively, showed USUV-specific antibodies by PRNT-90. No antibodies to USUV were detected in birds of the Budapest zoo. The order Strigiformes (owls) exhibited the highest USUV-seroprevalence, compared to other orders of birds. Conclusions USUV seems not to pose an imminent threat to zoo bird populations in central Europe at the moment. Depending on a variety of especially environmental factors, however, this may change at any time in the (near) future, as experienced with West Nile virus (WNV). It is therefore strongly suggested to continue with combined WNV and USUV surveillance activities in affected areas. PMID:23919825

  4. Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe?

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Sádlo, Jirí; Mandák, Bohumil; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2003-03-01

    Temporal patterns of immigration to the country were analysed using 668 alien species in the flora of the Czech Republic for which the dates of the first record were available (64.8% of the total number of 1031 so-called neophytes, i.e. aliens introduced after the year 1500). After a period of initial slow increase lasting to the 1840s, the accumulation of neophytes over time could be best fitted by a linear model that explained 97% of the variance. The intensity of floristic research, which varied between periods, did not significantly affect the overall increase in the number of aliens. The effect of species traits on the year of introduction was evaluated, with continent of origin, introduction type (deliberate or accidental), life history, Grime's life strategy, onset of flowering, mode of dispersal and propagule size as explanatory variables. Species of European origin and CSR strategists arrived earlier than those with other origins and strategies. Deliberately introduced species appeared earlier than accidental arrivals, and those cultivated for utilitary reasons on average arrived earlier than ornamentals. Species capable of early flowering were remarkably more prevalent among early newcomers. A separate analysis of accidentally introduced American species also identified life history as a significant predictor of immigration time, with annuals being introduced earlier than biennials and perennials. The data contribute to an understanding of a crucial stage of the invasion process that has received little attention in the literature. The model "early alien" to Central Europe is a European species with a CSR strategy deliberately brought for cultivation as a utilitary plant. Once it escaped from cultivation, its establishment in the wild was favoured by its ability to flower early and, therefore, complete the life cycle. PMID:12647111

  5. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  6. Central Europe Flood June 2013 - Rapid estimation of extent and depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millinship, Ian; Busby, Kathryn; Schröter, Kai

    2014-05-01

    Following flooding in central Europe in June 2013, we have produced a flood footprint describing the maximum extent and depth of flooding. Rapid damage estimation for a flood event such as this is useful for the re/insurance industry, in which companies need to estimate the impact of flooding on their business. An early understanding of the geographical scope and severity of an event allows claims adjusters to be deployed effectively and an estimation of the potential loss ensures adequate release of funds to pay for claims. Following reports of heavy rainfall in the headwaters of the Isar, Saale, Inn, and Elbe during the first week of June 2013, we began monitoring the http://www.hochwasserzentralen.de/ website and extracted peak flow for the affected gauges. Using extreme value statistical analysis of the historic flow records, we assessed the return period of the flow generated by the 2013 event for each gauged location. This return period was then interpolated along each river reach taking into consideration catchment characteristics. Then, using previously developed Germany design hazard maps containing information on the extent and depth of flooding associated with a range of return periods at 10m resolution, we pieced together a flood footprint along the course of the affected rivers and tributaries. With much of the Elbe/Danube heavily defended and regulated, we then undertook a detailed manual exercise to account for defences and any breach locations. Here georeferenced ground / aerial photographs and satellite footprint maps produced by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and available through the media were used to establish the integrity of defences and to validate our flood footprint. The resulting footprint was licensed by a number of companies within the re/insurance sector and is being used by academic partners for further research into damage assessment.

  7. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states. PMID:20427332

  8. Characterization of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning over Central Europe - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Geiss, Alexander; Heimerl, Katharina; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wiegner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are a major component of the Earth's atmosphere and have substantial impact on the Earth's radiation budget and on the hydrological cycle. Biomass burning smoke is one important component with respect of global climate warming as it is an important source of black carbon, which is a key player in atmospheric heating. As biomass burning smoke layers are often transported over long distances they cannot be considered as local events only but have a global effect. During transport the smoke particles are affected by aging and mixing processes. Thus their microphysical and optical properties change and, as a consequence their effect on the Earth's radiation budget. However, the influence of aging and mixing processes on the particle microphysical and optical properties is still only poorly understood. To improve our knowledge, studies of transport conditions together with measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution the smoke layers as well as of their microphysical and optical properties are crucial. We present a case study of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning smoke to Central Europe in summer 2013. The smoke layer is characterized by multi-wavelength lidar measurements over Maisach and by continuous Ceilometer measurements over Munich, Germany. Multi-wavelength lidar measurements are an important tool for the characterization of aerosols, as they provide vertically resolved information of their optical properties which serve as input parameters for the determination of microphysical properties of the aerosol layers. Additionally, airborne in-situ measurements of size distribution and black carbon mass concentration onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon are presented. The source regions and transport conditions are studied using a combination of satellite measurements and model simulations.

  9. Crustal thickness in central Europe from single-station seismic noise autocorrelation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Gesa; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    The InSight mission to Mars will place a single three-component seismometer on the planet's surface, requiring the application of single-station methods. In addition, seismicity on Mars is likely less abundant than on Earth, making it important to also use the available seismic noise. For these reasons different approaches of seismic noise autocorrelation have been tested with broadband three-component datasets from 12 stations across central Europe. These stations cover varying Moho depths of ca. 25-50 km depth. With the help of the autocorrelations, reflected body waves are extracted in order to estimate the crustal thickness at each station. This is of special relevance for Mars, where average crustal thickness is uncertain by a factor of two. The different approaches used are waterlevel normalized autocorrelation, with and without application of a short-term and long-term average filter to the spectrum of the data prior to autocorrelation, and phase autocorrelation. These approaches are compared and analyzed. Estimates for the Moho depths are made from the lag times of the reflected P-waves and compared to available Moho depth values at the stations. Due to the availability of three-component data these estimates can be cross-validated and in some cases not only P-wave reflections, but also possible S-wave and multiple reflections can be identified. The estimates compare well with the general trend of Moho depth expected for these stations. The consistency of results is further investigated by comparing different stations of the GERES array (aperture 2 km), which also allows to examine results for closely located broad-band and short-period stations side by side.

  10. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The earthworm activity is generally recognized as an important factor changing the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil environment including the microbial constituents. In central Europe, about 40% of earthworm species are endemic to this region, some of them dominating forest and grassland ecosystems and playing a keystone role in the soil food-web. However, current knowledge about the effects of earthworms on soil microorganisms derives from studies on a few peregrine species only. Our study brought a view on the microbial component of the steppe soil affected by the activity of Allolobophora hrabei, an endemic earthworm fragmentary distributed in the border regions of the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The study was carried out in three steppe fragments, where A. hrabei represented a key earthworm species. Comprehensive approach based on bio-indicating quantitative and qualitative options of extended phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) of bulk soil, drilosphere sensu lato and casts was used on data from two-years monitoring. In situ observation was completed by detailed observation of the casts-microbiota succession under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results showed that A. hrabei significantly affected soil microorganisms mainly via its extremely high casting activity. The doubled biomass, new qualitative composition, better growth and nutritional status of microbial community together with significantly higher availability of phosphorus and organic carbon in casts in contrast to bulk soil confirmed beneficial impact of A. hrabei on the soil environment. A. hrabei has burrowed up to more than one metre depths and produced more than 3 kg . m-2 of casts per year.