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Sample records for central europe part

  1. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  2. Exploration potential of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, W.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Because of governmental changes an entire region of Central Europe has received exploration scrutiny not possible during the past 40-50 years. This entire area - Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, and East Germany - is tectonically related. Yugoslavia, although not under the same restrictions, is also considered in the same tectonic setting. Therefore, these countries can be expected to reflect some of the same stratigraphy, source rock, reservoir, trap and field types, and production history. Much of the region can be considered frontier while other parts mature. Production from all is about 55,000 T/D, 380,000 BO/D and 63.1 Bm{sup 3}/yr, 2,203 Bft{sup 3}/yr. Major source rocks have been identified as Tertiary-Oligocene, Miocene-Mesozoic, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. Carboniferous coal sequences are considered source for the Permian. The East European platform and Tethyian plates are the foundation of the Central Europe states. Plate collisions during the late Mesozoic and into the Tertiary affected the Carpathian, Balkans, Dinarides, and Helenide Mountain chains. Mesozoic and Tertiary foredeep deposits have been proven productive from normal-, thrust-, and wrench-faulted anticlinal structures. Paleozoic, Mesozoic erosional remnants, and Tertiary lacustrine and deltaic stratigraphic deposits are the major productive reservoirs in the Pannonian basin. Permian shelf and reefal deposits are found in such areas as the Permian Shelf in Eastern Germany and Poland. Reefal plays may be found in Bulgaria and Romania offshore.

  3. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  4. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite, Task 3.6, Part 2. The 2nd international conference on energy and environment: Transitions in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    On November 1-5, 1994, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Power Research Institute of Prague cosponsored their second conference since 1991 in the Czech Republic, entitled ``Energy and Environment: Transitions in East Central Europe.`` This conference was a continuation of the EERC`s joint commitment, initiated in 1190, to facilitate solutions to short- and long-term energy and environmental problems in East Central Europe. Production of energy from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner is a critical issue facing East Central Europe, because the region continues to rely on coal as its primary energy source. The goal of the conference was to develop partnerships between industry, government, and the research community in East Central Europe and the United States to solve energy and environmental issues in a manner that fosters economic development. Among the topics addressed at the conference were: conventional and advanced energy generation systems; economic operation of energy systems; air pollution controls; power system retrofitting and repowering, financing options; regulatory issues; energy resource options; waste utilization and disposal; and long-range environmental issues. Selected papers in the proceedings have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  5. The growing HIV epidemic in Central Europe: a neglected issue?

    PubMed

    Gökengin, Deniz; Oprea, Cristiana; Uysal, Serhat; Begovac, Josip

    2016-01-01

    The number of new cases of HIV infection has been decreasing in some parts of the world (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa) with the highest burden of disease in recent years. However, other regions are showing a different trend, such as Eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Central Asia. This trend seems also to apply to the Central European region. This article analyses HIV data for Central Europe derived from annual surveillance reports of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and gives an overview of the recent status of the epidemic in this specific region. We show that, although still at a low level, the HIV epidemic in Central Europe continues to grow and requires more resources and interventions to curtail the ongoing epidemic. PMID:27482455

  6. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  7. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  8. Why (not) go east? Comparison of findings from FDA Investigational New Drug study site inspections performed in Central and Eastern Europe with results from the USA, Western Europe, and other parts of the world.

    PubMed

    Caldron, Paul H; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Kropf, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, investigational sites in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have been increasingly utilized by pharmaceutical companies because of their high productivity in terms of patient enrolment into clinical trials. Based on the FDA's publicly accessible Clinical Investigator Inspection List, we present an analysis of findings and outcome classifications from FDA inspections during Investigational New Drug (IND) studies and compare the results for the CEE region to those from Western European countries and the USA. Data from all 5531 FDA clinical trials inspections that occurred between 1994 (when the FDA first performed inspections in CEE) and the end of 2010 were entered into the database for comparative analysis. Of these, 4865 routine data audit (DA) inspections were analyzed: 401 from clinical trials performed in Western Europe, 230 in CEE, 3858 in the USA, and 376 in other countries. The average number of deficiencies per inspection ranged between 0.99 for CEE and 1.97 in Western Europe. No deficiencies were noted during 16.6%, 39.0%, and 21.5% of the inspections in Western Europe, CEE and USA, respectively. The percentages of inspections after which no follow-up action was indicated were 36.9% for Western Europe, 55.7% for CEE, and 44.3% for US sites. CEE was also the region with the lowest percentage of inspections that required official or voluntary action. On the basis of FDA inspection data, the high productivity of CEE sites appears to be accompanied by regulatory compliance as well as by data quality standards that are not inferior to those in Western regions. PMID:22563236

  9. Why (not) go east? Comparison of findings from FDA Investigational New Drug study site inspections performed in Central and Eastern Europe with results from the USA, Western Europe, and other parts of the world

    PubMed Central

    Caldron, Paul H; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Kropf, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, investigational sites in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) have been increasingly utilized by pharmaceutical companies because of their high productivity in terms of patient enrolment into clinical trials. Based on the FDA’s publicly accessible Clinical Investigator Inspection List, we present an analysis of findings and outcome classifications from FDA inspections during Investigational New Drug (IND) studies and compare the results for the CEE region to those from Western European countries and the USA. Data from all 5531 FDA clinical trials inspections that occurred between 1994 (when the FDA first performed inspections in CEE) and the end of 2010 were entered into the database for comparative analysis. Of these, 4865 routine data audit (DA) inspections were analyzed: 401 from clinical trials performed in Western Europe, 230 in CEE, 3858 in the USA, and 376 in other countries. The average number of deficiencies per inspection ranged between 0.99 for CEE and 1.97 in Western Europe. No deficiencies were noted during 16.6%, 39.0%, and 21.5% of the inspections in Western Europe, CEE and USA, respectively. The percentages of inspections after which no follow-up action was indicated were 36.9% for Western Europe, 55.7% for CEE, and 44.3% for US sites. CEE was also the region with the lowest percentage of inspections that required official or voluntary action. On the basis of FDA inspection data, the high productivity of CEE sites appears to be accompanied by regulatory compliance as well as by data quality standards that are not inferior to those in Western regions. PMID:22563236

  10. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. PMID:26632483

  11. Short history of PACS (Part II: Europe).

    PubMed

    Lemke, Heinz U

    2011-05-01

    Although the concept of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) was developed in Europe during the latter part of the 1970s, no working system was completed at that time. The first PACS implementations took place in the United States in the early 1980s, e.g. at Pennsylvania University, UCLA, and Kansas City University. Some more or less successful PACS developments also took place in Europe in the 1980s, particularly in the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Scandinavia, and Germany. Most systems could be characterized by their focus on a single department, such as radiology or nuclear medicine. European hospital-wide PACS with high visibility evolved in the early 1990s in London (Hammersmith Hospital) and Vienna (SMZO). These were followed during the latter part of the 1990s by approximately 10-20 PACS installations in each of the major industrialized countries of Europe. Wide-area PACS covering several health care institutions in a region are now in the process of being implemented in a number of European countries. Because of limitations of space some countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Spain, Greece, as well as Eastern European countries, etc. could not be appropriately represented in this paper. PMID:21466932

  12. Surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Dagan, Ron; Sayiner, Abdullah; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Dinleyici, Ener Çağrı; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Kulcsár, Andrea; Mad'arová, Lucia; Pazdiora, Petr; Sidorenko, Sergey; Streinu-Cercel, Anca; Tambić-Andrašević, Arjana; Yeraliyeva, Lyazzat

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pneumococcal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The burden of disease associated with S. pneumoniae is largely preventable through routine vaccination. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (e.g. PCV7, PCV13) provide protection from invasive pneumococcal disease as well as non-invasive infection (pneumonia, acute otitis media), and decrease vaccine-type nasopharyngeal colonisation, thus reducing transmission to unvaccinated individuals. PCVs have also been shown to reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal disease. Surveillance for pneumococcal disease is important to understand local epidemiology, serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance rates. Surveillance systems also help to inform policy development, including vaccine recommendations, and monitor the impact of pneumococcal vaccination. National pneumococcal surveillance systems exist in a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (such as Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), and some have introduced PCVs (Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Russia, Slovakia and Turkey). Those countries without established programs (such as Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine) may be able to learn from the experiences of those with national surveillance systems. The serotype distributions and impact of PCV13 on pediatric pneumococcal diseases are relatively similar in different parts of the world, suggesting that approaches to vaccination used elsewhere are also likely to be effective in Central and Eastern Europe. This article briefly reviews the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease, presents the latest surveillance data from Central and Eastern Europe, and discusses any similarities and differences in these data as well the potential implications for vaccination policies in the region. PMID:27096714

  13. Hazardous wastes in Eastern and Central Europe [meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Blaha, K; Cikrt, M

    1996-01-01

    The countries of Eastern and Central Europe have emerged from a political system which for decades has ignored protection of human health from hazardous wastes. While the economies of the countries in this region are stretched, awareness and concern about hazardous waste issues are a part of the new realities. At a recent conference sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, representatives of seven countries in the region described the status of hazardous waste programs, issues of major concern, and steps being taken to protect human health. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines some of the problems remaining in dealing with the legacy of the past, addressing the problems of the present, and providing a framework for future research and collaborative efforts. PMID:8919756

  14. Labour Markets and Training in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesporova, Alena

    1997-01-01

    Economic upheaval in Central and Eastern Europe has led to excessive labor supply, increased unemployment, and enforced economic inactivity. Economic policies promoting growth, efficiency, and education and training to improve the quality and adaptability of the workforce are needed. (SK)

  15. Environment and health in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzman, C.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the influence of environmental pollution on human health in comparison with other determinants of health in Central and Eastern Europe; to summarize current knowledge about locations in Central and Eastern Europe where environmental pollution has influenced human health; and to identify the principal types of environmental exposure which are affecting human health and could be subject to remediation through concerted environmental action.

  16. Animal manure digestion systems in central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberle, E.

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of existing plants in Europe and describes the substrates being used. It focuses on the individual farm-scale and community plants, as these are the two main types now being built. It also describes plants currently under construction, especially in Germany and Denmark, where the major efforts are focused. A description of how the technique has developed over the past few years, its current state of development, the motivation and economic balance, and the substrate characteristics, is presented.

  17. Policy advocacy for female injecting drug users in eastern and central Europe.

    PubMed

    Zakowicz, Anna

    2010-10-01

    A key reason for hosting AIDS 2010 in Vienna was to highlight the spread of HIV through injecting drug use, something that has reached crisis proportions in many parts of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In this article, based on a presentation at the conference, Anna Zakowicz discusses the options for promoting policy advocacy for female injecting drug users (IDUs) in Central and Eastern Europe. PMID:21413621

  18. Trend of earlier spring in central Europe continued

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungersböck, Markus; Jurkovic, Anita; Koch, Elisabeth; Lipa, Wolfgang; Scheifinger, Helfried; Zach-Hermann, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    hippocastanum are well represented in the PEP725 database. Flowering of lilac Syringa vulgaris is also used in the US as spring indicator . The flowering and/or leaf unfolding dates of lilac, horse chestnut show a clear advance to an earlier entrance in the last two decades 1991 to 2000 and 2001 to 2010 compared with the reference period 1961 to 1990, being more pronounced in northwestern regions of Central Europe. The growing season defined here as time span between leaf unfolding and leaf coloration of birch and beech has been lengthening up to two weeks in 2001 to 2010 compared to 1961 to 1990 in northeastern parts of Central Europe.

  19. [Accidents with venomous and poisonous animals in Central Europe].

    PubMed

    Bodio, Mauro; Junghanss, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    Central Europe is largely safe from accidents with venomous and poisonous animals. The regions where European vipers are regularly found are shrinking. Today accidents with jellyfish and stings of venomous fish afflicted during leisure activities at the sea side play the dominant role. Life threatening accidents in Europe are mainly due to exotic snakes held in captivity. A system useful in daily medical practice is explained to classify and stage accidents due to poisonous and venomous animals. The important poisonous and venomous animals of Central Europe and the specific therapeutics, the antivenoms, are covered. The antivenom depot "Antivenin-CH" of the Swiss Toxicology Information Centre in Zurich and the MRITox in Munich with the antivenom registry Munich AntiVenom INdex (MAVIN) are presented. PMID:19401985

  20. Higher Education Quality Assurance Organisations in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Paul; Billing, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the development of intermediary, or buffer, bodies dealing with quality assurance in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe over the past 10 years. It relates these developments to the context of communist-era centralisation and control, and to more recent interventions by international aid agencies. The lessons that…

  1. Linguistic Minorities in Central and Eastern Europe. Multilingual Matters 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt, Ed.; Peckham, Donald, Ed.

    This collection aims to provide an introductory study of linguistic minorities in Central and Eastern Europe, taking into account historical development, present situation, language maintenance and shifts, as well as language and educational policies of the different countries in the area. The introduction (by Christina Bratt Paulston) discusses a…

  2. Putative Lineage of Novel African Usutu Virus, Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cadar, Daniel; Bosch, Stefan; Jöst, Hanna; Börstler, Jessica; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Becker, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the complete genome of a putative novel Usutu virus (USUV) strain (Usutu-BONN) detected in a dead blackbird from Germany. Genomic analysis revealed several unique amino acid substitutions among the polyprotein gene. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that Usutu-BONN constitutes a putative novel African USUV lineage, which was probably recently introduced to central Europe. PMID:26291923

  3. The Emergence of Management Education in Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddock, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Management education in East Central Europe exists in a context of rapid evolution, the need to establish credibility, and contradictory demand. Programs must deal with the transition to a market economy, social versus profit orientation, lack of qualified faculty, and the need for textbooks and case material. (SK)

  4. Farewell to Parachute Professors in East-Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ognianova, Ekaterina

    1995-01-01

    Examines the work of 10 North American journalism educators who taught in 15 midcareer training programs for journalists in East-Central Europe from 1991-93. Asks how North American journalists teach in intercultural settings and how they changed their methods to suit the setting. Concludes that North American journalists should continue their…

  5. Key Indicators on Vocational Education and Training. Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badescu, Mircea; Kennedy, Alison

    The transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone substantial changes due, in part, to vocational education and training (VET). One of the most important objectives of the European Union (EU) enlargement process is to monitor key indicators of the educational systems and labor markets so that the different skills in demand and…

  6. GIA induced intraplate seismicity in northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Steffen, Rebekka; Wu, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Though northern Central Europe is regarded as a low seismicity area (Leydecker and Kopera, 1999), several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII affected the area in the last 1200 years (Leydecker, 2011). The trigger for these seismic events is not sufficiently investigated yet. Based on the combination of historic earthquake epicentres with the most recent fault maps we show that the historic seismicity concentrated at major reverse faults. There is no evidence for significant historic earthquakes along normal faults in northern Central Europe. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (clusters that shift from time to time) implies that northern Central Europe behaves like a typical intraplate tectonic region as demonstrated for other intraplate settings (Liu et al., 2000) We utilized Finite Element models that describe the process of glacial isostatic adjustment to analyse the fault behaviour. We use the change in Coulomb Failure Stress (dCFS) to represent the minimum stress required to reach faulting. A negative dCFS value indicates that the fault is stable, while a positive value means that GIA stress is potentially available to induce faulting or cause fault instability or failure unless released temporarily by an earthquake. The results imply that many faults in Central Europe are postglacial faults, though they developed outside the glaciated area. This is supported by the characteristics of the dCFS graphs, which indicate the likelihood that an earthquake is related to GIA. Almost all graphs show a change from negative to positive values during the deglaciation phase. This observation sheds new light on the distribution of post-glacial faults in general. Based on field data and the numerical simulations we developed the first consistent model that can explain the occurrence of deglaciation seismicity and more recent historic earthquakes in northern Central Europe. Based on our model, the historic seismicity in northern Central Europe

  7. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Engi, D.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G.; Glicken, J.; Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S.

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  8. What Can We Learn from 15,000 Teachers in Central Europe and Central Asia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking Project" which has now sent more than 70 volunteer teacher educators into 20 countries across Central Europe and Central Asia to help teachers to try out methods that foster active learning and critical thinking. Discusses support for the project, teaching strategies introduced, and the…

  9. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Kendall, J. M.; Ren, Y.; Hegedus, E.; Ionescu, C.; Brueckl, E. P.; Radovanovic, S.

    2012-12-01

    Since the Mesozoic, central Europe tectonics has been dominated by the closure of the Tethyan Ocean as the African and European plates collided. This was accompanied by subduction, orogeny (the Alpine - Carpathian mountain chain), and microplate accretion. In the Mid-Miocene lithospheric extension formed the Pannonian Basin; this extension has been variously ascribed to slab roll-back, lithospheric gravitational instability or mantle extrusion. We present SKS splitting measurements for central Europe from temporary seismological deployments of the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP, 2005-2007) and the South Carpathian Project (SCP, 2009-2011), together with stations from permanent national networks. This provides a station spacing on the order of 50 - 70 km from the Eastern Alps across the Pannonian Basin and Carpathians to the East European platform with which to test geodynamic models for the region. SKS splitting delay times are between 0.7 - 1.5 s with a regional NW-SE trend of fast directions across the eastern Pannonian-Carpathian region, turning to parallel the tectonic strike in the Alps but perturbed by extension in the western Pannonian, the presence of the East European platform and the lithospheric instability in the Vrancea region of Romania. The fast polarisation orientations are correlated with upper mantle and transition zone tomographic images from a recent finite frequency study with the aim of controlling variations in mantle heterogeneity. The consistency of the regional anisotropy trends across much of central Europe imply olivine orientation perpendicular to the principal compressive stresses created by the collision of Adria and Europe, perturbed by Miocene extension of the Pannonian Basin and present-day lithospheric instability of the Vrancea region.

  10. An analysis of Eemian climate in Western and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagwijn, W. H.

    On the basis of 31 pollen diagrams and additional data for botanical macrofossils an analysis is made of the Last Interglacial (Eemian) climatic history in Western and Central Europe. The main tool for this analysis is the climatic indicator species method. Only selected woody species are used for the quantification of data. Partial climatic range diagrams are presented for: Abies alba, Acer monspessulanum, Acer tataricum, Buxus sempervirens, Tilia tomentosa. The problem of time correlation and pollen zonation of the Eemian is discussed. The climatic analysis itself is based on an improved version of the indicator species method. In this version not every site is analysed for its climatic values. Instead maps and tables on the migrational history of Hedera, Ilex, Buxus, Abies and species of Acer, Tilia and Abies are the basis for climatic maps showing respectively January and July isotherms for the periods of the Corylus zone (E4a) and the Carpinus zone (E5). It is concluded that mean January temperatures were as much as 3°C higher at Amsterdam (The Netherlands), than at present, and mean temperatures in July were 2°C higher. However, the thermal maximum in winter was later (zone E5) than the summer thermal maximum (zone E4a). Winter temperatures changed parallel to rise and fall of global sea-level. Precipitation changes are more difficult to estimate. In the first part of the Eemian precipitation must have been relatively low, but from zone E4b onward it increased to higher values, reaching 800 mm and probably substantially more in zones E5 and E6. Hence the Eemian climate was in its beginning relatively more contintental, and later (from E4b onward) more oceanic. However, as compared with the Holocene, the Eemian climate was, generally speaking, more oceanic.

  11. Extreme Winter/Early-Spring Temperature Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Ardizzone, Joseph; Brakke, Thomas; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Jusem, Juan Carlos; Glantz, Michael; Rogers, Jeff; Sud, Yogesh; Susskind, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Extreme seasonal fluctuations of the surface-air temperature characterize the climate of central Europe, 45-60 deg North Temperature difference between warm 1990 and cold 1996 in the January-March period, persisting for more than two weeks at a time, amounted to 18 C for extensive areas. These anomalies in the surface-air temperature stem in the first place from differences in the low level flow from the eastern North-Atlantic: the value of the Index 1na of southwesterlies over the eastern North-Atlantic was 8.0 m/s in February 1990, but only 2.6 m/ s in February 1996. The primary forcing by warm advection to positive anomalies in monthly mean surface temperature produced strong synoptic-scale uplift at the 700 mb level over some regions in Europe. The strong uplift contributed in 1990 to a much larger cloud-cover over central Europe, which reduced heat-loss to space (greenhouse effect). Thus, spring arrived earlier than usual in 1990, but later than usual in 1996.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    -resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332299

  13. LINET : A New Lightning Detection Network in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, H. D.; Oettinger, W. P.; Schmidt, K.; Defer, E.

    2006-12-01

    At the University of Munich a VLF/LF lightning detection network (LINET) was developed which provides a number of new features, useful for both research and operational purposes. These include a) total lightning capability: cloud-to-ground strokes (CG) and cloud lightning (IC) are measured with almost equal efficiency; b) low-amplitude reporting: weak events from channel currents below 5 kA are detected in order to cover the range with dominant IC-production; c) new 3D-discrimination: this method is utilized to separate CG from IC with excellent reliability, provided the sensor baseline does not exceed ~250 km; d) IC emission height: for each cloud event a height is determined which is thought to reflect the central region of the involved channel; and e) optimised location accuracy: due to the precision of the combined action of all network modules the position error of strokes reaches values as small as ~100 m. During international co-operations LINET has been tested in four different continents, namely in Southern Germany, in the area of Bauru in Brazil, around Darwin in Australia and during the ongoing AMMA campaign in Benin, Africa. Since the features quoted above could be verified, a 55-sensor network was established in Central Europe and put into operation on May 1, 2006, covering Germany and major parts of all surrounding countries. LINET data is available for scientific projects, and represents the data source utilized by the German Weather Services for operational purposes. The ability to cover a storm in terms of both CG and IC events without data loss in real time renders LINET a useful tool for a variety of research purposes, ranging from cell-tracking, recognition of severe weather conditions, and study of lightning-induced chemical processes to input data for numerical cloud model calculations. Especially the wealth of recorded IC events contributes to a renewed discussion of cloud discharges. Abundant occurrence of IC events is well-known but

  14. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  15. Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, southwest part, showing the northwest side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. Europe's New Center. United Germany in a Uniting Europe, Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stassen, Manfred; Kraemer, Dagmar

    1993-01-01

    Introduces part 1 of a special section on teaching about Germany and the European Community. Argues that the end of the Cold War and the movement toward European economic union brought new political realities that will affect the United States. Contends that the data about Germany and Europe presented is timely and more appropriate for classroom…

  17. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  18. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. PMID:15046838

  19. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  20. The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, F; Kaufmann, C; Hegglin, D; Mathis, A

    2009-12-01

    Complaints about a biting pest led to the recognition of invasive Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Central Europe. Larval collections from cemetery vases revealed a colonized area of approximately 1400 km(2) in northern Switzerland spreading into bordering Germany, suggesting that the mosquito has been established in this region for several years. Within this range, larvae of Ae. japonicus were recovered from more containers than the most common resident culicid species Culex pipiens. Possible introduction sites (used tyre yards and international airports) revealed few or no larvae, and the mode of introduction remains unclear. Given the vector potential of this species for arboviruses, implementation of surveillance and control measures should be considered. PMID:19941611

  1. Zoonotic Babesia: possibly emerging pathogens to be considered for tick-infested humans in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hunfeld, K P; Brade, V

    2004-04-01

    The three host-tick Ixodes (I.) ricinus is regarded as an important vector of tick-borne microorganisms pathogenic for humans in central Europe and is primarily known as the main vector of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi and the virus causing tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most clinically relevant tick transmitted pathogens for humans in European countries. Furthermore, it is now well established that I. ricinus also transmits Ehrlichia (E.) phagocytophila, Babesia (Ba.) divergens, and Ba. microti, all agents of zoonotic infections in dear, sheep, cattle, dogs, and horses. In addition to their known zoonotic potential, recent molecular-epidemiological and seroepidemiological surveys as well as increasingly reported clinical cases of infections caused by these tick-borne organisms other than B. burgdorferi (TOBB) also strongly suggest a possible relevance of Babesia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia for humans at risk in Europe. However, there are few medical microbiological investigations and epidemiological data on the distribution and relevance of Babesia for humans in our part of the northern hemisphere. There is also very little diagnostic and clinical knowledge on human babesiosis in many regions of Europe. Furthermore, sophisticated diagnostic tools designed for the reliable detection of the underlying pathogens, are not yet generally available to the microbiological laboratory. This review aims to provide basic information on human babesiosis and the most relevant causative pathogens of the disease in Europe and to draw attention to this parasitic infection as a possibly emerging and probably under-diagnosed disease in this part of the northern hemisphere. PMID:15146990

  2. Future changes in atmospheric circulation types and related precipitation extremes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, Markus; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The statistical evaluation of the relationships between atmospheric circulation types and areal precipitation events took place in the context of an international project called WETRAX (Weather patterns, storm tracks and related precipitation extremes). The aim of the project was to estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions. For parts of southern Central Europe, a gridded daily precipitation set with 6km horizontal resolution has been generated for the period 1951-2006 by the Austrian Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG). To determine regions with similar precipitation variability, a S-mode principal component analysis has been applied. Extreme precipitation events are defined by the 95% percentile, based on regional arithmetic means of daily precipitation. Large-scale atmospheric circulation types have been derived by different statistical methods and variables using the COST733 classification software and gridded daily NCEP1 reanalysis data. To evaluate the performance of a particular circulation type classification with respect to regional precipitation extremes, multiple regression models have been derived between the circulation type frequencies as predictor variables and monthly frequencies of extreme precipitation as well as monthly rainfall amounts from these events. To estimate the regional flooding potential in Central Europe under enhanced climate change conditions, multiple regression models are applied to different projected GCM predictor data. Thus, future changes in circulation type occurrence frequencies are transferred into assessments of future changes in precipitation extremes on a regional scale.

  3. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

  4. Cyclic climate fluctuations during the last interglacial in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ulrich C.; Klotz, Stefan; Geyh, Mebus A.; Pross, Jörg; Bond, Gerard C.

    2005-06-01

    Differentiating natural climate change from anthropogenic forcing is a major challenge in the prediction of future climates. In this context, the investigation of interglacials provides valuable information on natural climate variability during periods that resemble the present. This paper shows that natural cyclic changes in winter climates affected central European environments during the last interglacial, i.e., the Eemian, 126 110 ka. As a result of the extraordinarily high counting sums performed at Eemian pollen samples, it was possible to reveal a robust presence absence pattern of the insect-pollinated, and therefore in the pollen rain underrepresented, taxon Hedera. This plant is known to require the influence of oceanic winter climates, i.e., moist and mild, in northwest and central Europe. By analogy with recent findings from the North Atlantic's Holocene interglacial, the trigger of the Eemian climate variability may have been changes in solar activity, possibly amplified by changes in North Atlantic ocean currents and/or in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our findings suggest natural cyclic changes to be a persistent feature of interglacial climates.

  5. Continuous Morphological Variation Correlated with Genome Size Indicates Frequent Introgressive Hybridization among Diphasiastrum Species (Lycopodiaceae) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hanušová, Kristýna; Ekrt, Libor; Vít, Petr; Kolář, Filip; Urfus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Introgressive hybridization is an important evolutionary process frequently contributing to diversification and speciation of angiosperms. Its extent in other groups of land plants has only rarely been studied, however. We therefore examined the levels of introgression in the genus Diphasiastrum, a taxonomically challenging group of Lycopodiophytes, using flow cytometry and numerical and geometric morphometric analyses. Patterns of morphological and cytological variation were evaluated in an extensive dataset of 561 individuals from 57 populations of six taxa from Central Europe, the region with the largest known taxonomic complexity. In addition, genome size values of 63 individuals from Northern Europe were acquired for comparative purposes. Within Central European populations, we detected a continuous pattern in both morphological variation and genome size (strongly correlated together) suggesting extensive levels of interspecific gene flow within this region, including several large hybrid swarm populations. The secondary character of habitats of Central European hybrid swarm populations suggests that man-made landscape changes might have enhanced unnatural contact of species, resulting in extensive hybridization within this area. On the contrary, a distinct pattern of genome size variation among individuals from other parts of Europe indicates that pure populations prevail outside Central Europe. All in all, introgressive hybridization among Diphasiastrum species in Central Europe represents a unique case of extensive interspecific gene flow among spore producing vascular plants that cause serious complications of taxa delimitation. PMID:24932509

  6. A dynamical basis for crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H.-S.

    1983-01-01

    The stress field in the earth's crust as inferred from satellite gravity data causes crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe. The satellite-determined stresses in the crust of central Europe are consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms, joint-orientation and in situ stress measurements.

  7. Civic Education Trends in Post-Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamot, Gregory E.

    Developments during the decade and a half following the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe indicate broad advancement in civic education for democracy. This digest notes the rising trend in civic education competency in Central and Eastern Europe, describes an increasingly accepted and used framework for civic education, and…

  8. Structure of the Lithosphere in Central Europe: Integrated Density Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielik, M.; Grinč, M.; Zeyen, H. J.; Plašienka, D.; Pasteka, R.; Krajňák, M.; Bošanský, M.; Mikuška, J.

    2014-12-01

    Firstly, we present new results related to the lithospheric structure and tectonics of the Central Europe and the Western Carpathians. For geophysical study of the lithosphere in Central Europe we calculated four original 2D lithosphere-scales transects crossing this area from the West European Platform in the North to the Aegean Sea in the South and from the Adriatic Sea in the West to the East European Platform in the East. Modelling is based on the joint interpretation of gravity, geoid, topography and surface heat flow data with temperature-dependent density. Wherever possible, crustal structure is constrained by seismic data. The thickness of the lithosphere decreases from the older and colder platforms to the younger and hotter Pannonian Basin with a maximum thickness under the Eastern and Southern Carpathians. The thickness of the Carpathian arc lithosphere varies between 150 km in the North (the Western Carpathians) and about 300 km in the Vrancea zone (the Eastern and Southern Carpathian junction). In the Platform areas it is between 120 and 150 km and in the Pannonian Basin it is about 70 km. The models show that the Moesian Platform is overthrust from the North by the Southern Carpathians and from the South by the Balkanides and characterized by bending of this platform. In all transects, the thickest crust is found underneath the Carpathian Mountains or, as in the case of the Vrancea area, under their immediate foreland. The thickest crust outside the orogens is modelled for the Moesian Platform with Moho depths of up to 45 km. The thinnest crust is located under the Pannonian Basin with about 26-27 km. Secondly, our presentation deals with construction of the stripped gravity map in the Turiec Basin, which represents typical intramontane Neogene depression of the Western Carpathians. Based on this new and original gravity map corrected by regional gravity effect we were able to interpret the geological structure and tectonics of this sedimentary basin

  9. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, drilling induced tensile fractures, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions and stress inversions from these, engineering methods (overcoring, borehole slotter) and geological data (e.g. volcanic alignment, inversion of fault slip data). To guarantee the comparability of the different stress indicator the resulting data are quality-ranked using the WSM quality ranking scheme. The new data set has a better coverage and enables us to identifying the regional and local variability of the stress pattern. For the Mediterranean and Central Europe we analysed the wave-length of the stress pattern by determining the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid using an updated version of the hybrid approach of Heidbach et al. [2010]. The preliminary results show that the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is a key control of the overall stress pattern. However, given the complex tectonic setting in particular due to the indentation/collision of the Adriatic micro block, the Alpine topography as well as forces that control the movement of the Anatolian and Aegean block, the stress pattern shows in these regions significant changes in the mean SHmax orientation as well as in the tectonic regime.

  10. Comparison of local magnitude scales in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysel, Robert; Kristek, Jozef; Moczo, Peter; Cipciar, Andrej; Csicsay, Kristian; Srbecky, Miroslav; Kristekova, Miriam

    2015-04-01

    Efficient monitoring of earthquakes and determination of their magnitudes are necessary for developing earthquake catalogues at a regional and national levels. Unification and homogenization of the catalogues in terms of magnitudes has great importance for seismic hazard assessment. Calibrated local earthquake magnitude scales are commonly used for determining magnitudes of regional earthquakes by all national seismological services in the Central Europe. However, at the local scale, each seismological service uses its own magnitude determination procedure. There is no systematic comparison of the approaches and there is no unified procedure. We present a comparison of the local magnitude scales used by the national seismological services of Slovakia (Geophysical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences), Czech Republic (Institute of Geophysics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Austria (ZAMG), Hungary (Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences) and Poland (Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences), and by the local network of seismic stations located around the Nuclear Power Plant Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia. The comparison is based on the national earthquake catalogues and annually published earthquake bulletins for the period from 1985 to 2011. A data set of earthquakes has been compiled based on identification of common events in the national earthquake catalogues and bulletins. For each pair of seismic networks, magnitude differences have been determined and investigated as a function of time. The mean and standard deviations of the magnitude differences as well as regression coefficients between local magnitudes from the national seismological networks have been computed. Results show relatively big scatter between different national local magnitudes and its considerable time variation. A conversion between different national local magnitudes in a scale 1:1 seems inappropriate, especially for the compilation of the

  11. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, F M; Vrana, K; Zhovinsky, E; Povoroznuk, V; Toth, G; Hope, B C; Iljinsky, U; Baker, J

    2007-04-01

    Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts, but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentrations causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently sets water quality guidelines for the element. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg l-1 are widespread and effects on health of high fluoride in water have been reported. The aim of the current project was to develop a geographic information system (GIS) to aid the identification of areas where high-fluoride waters and fluorosis may be a problem; hence, where water treatment technologies should be targeted. The development of the GIS was based upon the collation and digitisation of existing information relevant to fluoride risk in Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Slovakia assembled for the first time in a readily accessible form. In addition, geochemistry and health studies to examine in more detail the relationships between high-fluoride drinking waters and health effects in the population were carried out in Moldova and Ukraine demonstrating dental fluorosis prevalence rates of 60-90% in adolescents consuming water containing 2-7 mg l-1 fluoride. PMID:17256094

  12. The Genetic Legacy of Multiple Beaver Reintroductions in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Frosch, Christiane; Kraus, Robert H. S.; Angst, Christof; Allgöwer, Rainer; Michaux, Johan; Teubner, Jana; Nowak, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The comeback of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) throughout western and central Europe is considered a major conservation success. Traditionally, several subspecies are recognised by morphology and mitochondrial haplotype, each linked to a relict population. During various reintroduction programs in the 20th century, beavers from multiple source localities were released and now form viable populations. These programs differed in their reintroduction strategies, i.e., using pure subspecies vs. mixed source populations. This inhomogeneity in management actions generated ongoing debates regarding the origin of present beaver populations and appropriate management plans for the future. By sequencing of the mitochondrial control region and microsatellite genotyping of 235 beaver individuals from five selected regions in Germany, Switzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium we show that beavers from at least four source origins currently form admixed, genetically diverse populations that spread across the study region. While regional occurrences of invasive North American beavers (n = 20) were found, all but one C. fiber bore the mitochondrial haplotype of the autochthonous western Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU). Considering this, as well as the viability of admixed populations and the fact that the fusion of different lineages is already progressing in all studied regions, we argue that admixture between different beaver source populations should be generally accepted. PMID:24827835

  13. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined. PMID:22797238

  14. Is the Central Europe more inclinable to wildfires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozny, M.; Virag, M.; Bares, D.; Trnka, M.; Zalud, Z.; Hlavinka, P.

    2009-09-01

    Many studies indicate a gradual increase in danger of wildfire in Central Europe. The risk of wildfire differs greatly among individual areas (whether regions or districts), and this difference remains, irrespective of the methods used to describe the danger of wildfires. For this study was used the calculation of the FDI (Fire Danger Index) for 200 stations on the territory of Czech Republic in the period 1961-2008. The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. During processing the model compute upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the speed of spread of wildfire. Between years 1991-2008 there was an increase in the average monthly FDI indices in comparison to the period 1961-1990. During this period, a statistically significant trend toward higher indices was found (0.02 FDI index/year). The trend of danger of wildfires growth was evident in all months.

  15. Mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wapler, Kathrin; Hengstebeck, Thomas; Groenemeijer, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    The occurrence and characteristics of mesocyclones in Central Europe as seen by radar are analysed. A three year analysis shows an annual and diurnal cycle with a wider maximum in the late afternoon/evening compared to the diurnal cycle of general thunderstorms. Analysis of F2 tornado events and over a hundred hail storms show the characteristics of the corresponding mesocyclones as seen by radar. For all of the six F2 tornadoes in the three-year period in Germany a corresponding mesocyclone could be detected in radar data. Furthermore the analysis reveals that about half of all hail storms in Germany are associated with a mesocyclone detected in radar data within 10 km and 10 min. Some mesocyclone attributes, e.g. depth and maximum shear, and of the associated convective cell, e.g. reflectivity related parameters VIL, VILD and echotop, have predictive skill for indicating the occurrence of hail. The mesocyclone detection algorithm may support the analysis and nowcasting of severe weather events and thus support the warning process.

  16. Prevention of unsafe abortion in countries of Central Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Hodorogea, Stelian; Comendant, Rodica

    2010-07-01

    Despite permissive laws and a well-developed network of facilities, the incidence of unsafe abortion and the resulting maternal mortality is unacceptably high in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, with one-quarter of all maternal deaths reported to occur as a consequence of abortion. Among the reasons that oblige women to submit themselves to risky procedures are new legislative barriers to accessing pregnancy termination, the unequal distribution of abortion services and healthcare providers, the increased costs of abortion services or unofficial payments, coupled with an increase in the number of impoverished and disadvantaged individuals. The quality of abortion services remains very poor. Safe abortion techniques, including manual vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia and medical abortion, are slowly being implemented. Less safe methods such as dilatation and curettage and general anesthesia are widely used. Unsafe techniques are also practiced extensively in the case of second trimester abortions. Many women from these regions of the world still rely on and accept abortion as a means of fertility control. Although abortions have fallen significantly in Eastern Europe over the last decade, both in absolute numbers and as rates, this region continues to have the highest abortion rates in the world. Concerted efforts by governments, professional associations, and international donors are needed to reduce the consequences of unsafe abortion. PMID:20471645

  17. The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe (1815)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigelis, Algimantas; Wójcik, Zbigniew; Narębski, Wojciech; Gelumbauskaitė, Leonora Živilė; Kozák, Jan; Czarniecki, Stanisław

    2008-01-01

    The first large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe was compiled by Stanisław Staszic in the early 19th century. The map is based on the geological survey that Staszic performed in different parts of Poland and adjacent areas. In 1814, Staszic presented his ideas on the geology and mineral sources of Poland and Lithuania. In 1815, he completed the book-length descriptive analysis O ziemorodztwie Karpatów i innych gór i równin Polski przez Stanisława Staszica, which was published in Warsaw and complemented by a large geological map of Central and Eastern Europe. His later studies were compiled in a historico-philosophical treatise titled Ród ludzki (1819-1820). The complete edition of Staszic's works, Dzieła, which also included these publications, appeared over 1816-1820. The geological field survey that he performed over several years, and his study of social-economic problems enabled Staszic to draw in great detail a geological map of the Carpathians, the Central Polish Highlands, Volhynia (modern Ukraine) and the Eastern Alps, as well as the areas of the Polish-Lithuanian Lowlands, the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, Polesye (modern Belarus), Moldova, Transylvania, and Hungary. Staszic was interested in the exploration of mineral deposits, particularly in Poland, which had rock salt, copper and iron ores, and coal. In his monograph and map, he adopted a stratigraphic subdivision based on types of rock contents and organic fossils, which was a slightly modified version of Werner's classification system. The lithological legend sets five classes and 135 different types of rock, and 15 types of ore deposits, using the French names for these. In general, Staszic was an advocate of Werner's paradigm; however, he did not follow exactly the ideas of the German geologist. Staszic's fundamental work recapitulates his views on geological history of Central and Eastern Europe, and brings to an end the Enlightment period in the geology of that part of

  18. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  19. A Treasure Chest of Nanogranites: the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, S.; O'Brien, P. J.; Walczak, K.; Wunder, B.; Ziemann, M. A.; Hecht, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite 150 years of investigation of the Bohemian Massif (Central Europe), it is only recently that the investigation of old and new samples displayed the occurrence of tiny portions of crystallized anatectic melt in regional migmatites. These vestiges of magma, called "nanogranites", are natural probes of the partial melting processes in the crust. Original melt composition and water content can be directly analyzed after piston cylinder re-homogenization. When compared to classic re-melting experiments, nanogranites are ideal "natural" experimental charges of anatectic melt. They are encapsulated in peritectic garnet immediately after production - both phases are products of the same partial melting reaction. Sheltered inside garnet, they remain unaffected by the physico-chemical changes which affected the host migmatites during their slow cooling, unlike leucosomes and anatexis-related plutons. Five different case studies of nanogranite-bearing high-grade rocks have been identified so far: three in metapelites from the Moldanubian Zone, and two in metagranitoids from the Granulitgebirge and Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Their characterization provides insights into how the continental crust melts at different depths, from shallow levels to mantle depths, during different moments of its metamorphic history (prograde vs. decompressional melting). For example, the investigation and experimental re-melting of nanogranites from Grt+Ky leucogranulites (Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome) recently provided evidence of prograde melting of metagranitoids under eclogite-facies conditions (T≥875°C and P~2.7 GPa), close to the stability field of coesite. The melt generated is granitic, hydrous (6 wt% H2O) and metaluminous (ASI=1.03), and is at the moment the "deepest" glass obtained through re-homogenization of primary polycrystalline inclusions in natural rocks. This work confirms that nanogranites in migmatites 1) are a powerful tool to constrain anatexis in natural rocks, and 2) can

  20. Modelling of stable water isotopes in Central Europe with COSMOiso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Emanuel; Pfahl, Stephan; Schädler, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric water in form of vapor or clouds is responsible for ˜75 % of the natural greenhouse effect and carries huge amounts of latent heat. For this reason, a best possible description of the hydrological cycle is a prerequisite for reliable climate modelling. As the stable isotopes H216O, H218O and HDO differ in vapor pressure, they are fractionated during phase changes and contain information about the formation of precipitation, evaporation from the ground, etc. Therefore, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water is an useful tracer to test and improve our understanding of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere. Within the project PalMod the isotope-enabled limited-area model COSMOiso will be used for high-resolution isotope simulations of paleo-climates. For validation with modern observations we compare 12 years of modelled isotope ratios from Central Europe to observations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) and to observations of isotope ratios of water vapor at different locations in Germany. We find a good agreement of modelled and observed isotope ratios in summer. In winter, we observe a systematic overestimation of modelled isotope ratios in precipitation and low-level water vapor. We relate those differences to specific circulation regimes with predominantly easterly moisture transport and the corresponding strong dependence of modelled isotope ratios on lateral boundary data. Furthermore, we investigate the dependence of modelled isotope ratios in winter on the type of isotope fractionation during surface evaporation at skin temperatures close to the freezing point.

  1. Directly observable optical properties of sprites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-04-01

    Luminous optical emissions accompanying streamer-based natural electric breakdown processes initiating in the mesosphere are called sprites. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68N, 16.58E, 230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. On the basis of these observations, characteristic morphological properties of sprites, i.e. basic forms (e.g. column, carrot, angel, etc.) as well as common morphological features (e.g. tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, etc.), have been identified. Probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with each of the basic sprite forms. It is speculated that different sequences of streamer propagation directions can result in very similar final sprite shapes. The number and type variety of sprite elements appearing in an event as well as the total optical duration of an event was analyzed statistically. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events were considered as special subsets of sprite clusters. It was found that more than 90% of the recorded sprite elements appeared in clusters rather than alone and more than half of the clusters contained more than one basic sprite forms. The analysis showed that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites featuring glows and tendrils do not tend to have optical lifetimes longer than 80 ms. Such very long optical lifetimes have not been observed in sprite clusters containing more than 25 elements of any type, either. In contrast to clusters containing sprite entities of only one form, sprite events showing more sprite forms seem to have extended optical durations more likely. The need for further investigation and for finding theoretical concepts to link these observations to electric conditions ambient for sprite formation is emphasized.

  2. Earthquake and Flood Risk Assessments for Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murnane, R. J.; Daniell, J. E.; Ward, P.; Winsemius, H.; Tijssen, A.; Toro, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report on a flood and earthquake risk assessment for 32 countries in Europe and Central Asia with a focus on how current flood and earthquake risk might evolve in the future due to changes in climate, population, and GDP. The future hazard and exposure conditions used for the risk assessment are consistent with selected IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs). Estimates of 2030 and 2080 population and GDP are derived using the IMAGE model forced by the socioeconomic conditions associated with the SSPs. Flood risk is modeled using the probabilistic GLOFRIS global flood risk modeling cascade which starts with meteorological fields derived from reanalysis data or climate models. For 2030 and 2080 climate conditions, the meteorological fields are generated from five climate models forced by the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Future flood risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with the SSP2 and SSP3 scenarios. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by a flood when a grid cell receives any depth of flood inundation. The earthquake hazard is quantified using a 10,000-year stochastic catalog of over 15.8 million synthetic earthquake events of at least magnitude 5. Ground motion prediction and estimates of local site conditions are used to determine PGA. Future earthquake risk is estimated using population and GDP exposures consistent with all five SSPs. Population and GDP are defined as being affected by an earthquake when a grid cell experiences ground motion equaling or exceeding MMI VI. For most countries, changes in exposure alter flood risk to a greater extent than changes in climate. For both flood and earthquake, the spread in risk grows over time. There are large uncertainties due to the methodology; however, the results are not meant to be definitive. Instead they will be used to initiate discussions with governments regarding efforts to manage disaster risk.

  3. Decentralizing Education in Transition Societies: Case Studies from Central and Eastern Europe. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiszbein, Ariel, Ed.

    This book is about education system reform in Central and Eastern Europe, with emphasis on decentralization and management. In the past, local authorities served as implementation arms of the central ministry, while finance and decision-making were controlled by the central government, leaving local communities with little influence. New education…

  4. The magnetic low of central Europe: analysis and interpretation by a multi scale approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, Maurizio; Fedi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    -SE direction. So, a simple contact model was performed in order to demonstrate that the main source that generates the EML is the complex fault system of the TESZ. However, the |T| maxima are positioned not only along the suture zone, but also in Central Europe, showing that the contributions to the EML derive also from sources placed in the Paleozoic platform with a reverse dipolar aspect. From these results it appears that the contributions responsible for the nature of this anomaly are to be reconnected first to the presence of the TESZ, which puts in contact two different platforms with different thicknesses, and also to the presence of bodies with a strong remanent component, which characterize part of the Central European crust.

  5. 75 FR 9576 - Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ....S. companies from across the civil nuclear supply chain, including engineering services; fuel... International Trade Administration Civil Nuclear Policy Mission to Central and Eastern Europe AGENCY... States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration is organizing a Civil Nuclear...

  6. Hazardous wastes in eastern and central Europe: technology and health effects.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, D O; Cikrt, M; Suk, W A

    1999-01-01

    Issues of hazardous waste management are major concerns in the countries of eastern and central Europe. A National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences-supported conference was held in Prague, Czech Republic, as a part of a continuing effort to provide information and promote discussion among the countries of eastern and central Europe on issues related to hazardous wastes. The focus was on incineration as a means of disposal of hazardous wastes, with discussions on both engineering methods for safe incineration, and possible human health effects from incineration by-products. Representatives from government agencies, academic institutions, and local industries from 14 countries in the region participated along with a few U.S. and western European experts in this field. A series of 12 country reports documented national issues relating to the environment, with a focus on use of incineration for hazardous waste disposal. A particularly valuable contribution was made by junior scientists from the region, who described results of environmental issues in their countries. PMID:10090701

  7. Raising the Curtain. A Report with Recommendations on Academic Exchanges with East Central Europe and the USSR. East Central Europe Information Exchange Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B.

    This report provides an overview of the changes in the development of academic exchange activity between the United States, the Soviet Union, and East Central Europe in the context of far-reaching reforms throughout the region. It also explores the factors which may facilitate or inhibit further growth in academic exchanges. The report begins with…

  8. Geodynamics of crustal deformation and seismotectonic block movements in central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Geological observations reveal the style of neotectonic near-surface stresses and deformations in central Europe. Seismic activity, focal depths and fault plane solutions of earthquakes indicate kinematic reactions within the crust. A crustal deformation model which may account for the Rhine graben systems and the associated seismotectonic block movements in Europe is presented. A computer aided tomography to gravity anomalies is used in determining the crustal stresses in central Europe. Tomographical interpretations of gravity data with respect to seismic stresses are discussed. Kinematics and dynamics are integrated to show that the measured regional stresses in central Europe are derivable from the convection generated traction on the boundary of the elastic spherical shell of the crust as inferred from satellite derived gravity data.

  9. Have “new” methods in medical education reached German-speaking Central Europe: a survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation-based-training (SBT) in the education of health professionals is discussed as an effective alternative for knowledge and skills enhancement as well as for the establishment of a secure learning environment, for learners and patients. In the Anglo-American region, SBT and simulation and training centers (STC) are numbered as standard for medical training. In German-speaking Central Europe, priority is still given to the establishment of SBT and STC. The purpose of this study was (i) to survey the status quo relating to the existence and facilities of simulation and training centers at medical universities in German-speaking Central Europe and (ii) the evaluation of training methods, especially in the area of emergency medicine skills. Methods All public and private medical universities or medical faculties in Germany (36), Austria (4) and German-speaking Switzerland (3) were interviewed. In the survey, information regarding the existence and facilities of STCs and information with regards to the use of SBT in the area of emergency medicine was requested. The questions were partly posed in a closed-ended-, in an open-ended- and in a multiple choice format (with the possibility of selecting more than one answer). Results Of a total of 43 contacted medical universities/medical faculties, 40 ultimately participated in the survey. As decisive for the establishment of a STC the potential to improve the clinical-practical training and the demand by students were listed. Obligatory training in a STC during the first and sixth academic year was confirmed only by 12 institutions, before the first invasive procedure on patients by 17 institutions. 13 institutions confirmed the use of the STC for the further training of physicians and care-staff. Training for the acute care and emergency medicine skills in the field of pediatrics, for the most part, occurs decentralized. Conclusions New methods in medical training have reached German-speaking Central

  10. Redistribution of recent collision push and ridge push in Central Europe: insights from FEM modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosiński, M.; Beekman, F.; Bada, G.; Cloetingh, S.

    2006-11-01

    2-D elastic finite element models of the recent stress field of Central Europe are built to evaluate the loads exerted on the continental boundary and the magnitude of tectonic stresses within the continental part of the plate. The models comprise 24 tectonic blocks (their stiffness is either constant throughout the model or varies from block to block), 16 fault zones and 12 geologically significant boundary segments. We have obtained a relatively unique balance of external tectonic forces by (1) careful adjustment of calculated stress directions and regimes to complex pattern of stress from data and (2) by calibration with gravitational potential energy. A high level of compression (ca. 9 × 1012 N m-1) exerted to the short Ionian side of the Adriatic indenter is crucial for the stress-field pattern in Central Europe. The Adria microplate rotates due to eccentricity between the Africa push from the south and the Alpine buttress to the north. A free boundary of the Apennines does not contribute significantly to this motion. Kinematics of this indenter is controlled by friction on the Dinaric suture, which, in turn is decisive for strain-energy distribution between the Alpine and the Pannonian domains. The predicted pronounced extension in the Greece-Aegean segment (2.5 × 1012 N m-1) implies active pull transferred from the Hellenic subduction zone. This extension releases stress in the Balkan-Pannonian region and enables the eastward escape of tectonic blocks in front of advancing Adria. Significant changes of tectonic push trends are found along the Black Sea-Caucasus boundary segment and at the European passive margin from the North Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Differential stresses in Central Europe are estimated in the range of 10-60 MPa when averaged over the 30-80-km-thick mechanically heterogeneous lithosphere. The maximum stiffness contrast across the model is predicted to be of one order of magnitude. Apparent friction coefficients of fault zones differ

  11. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K.; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970–1999 and 2000–2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000–2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970–1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  12. Rising Mediterranean Sea Surface Temperatures Amplify Extreme Summer Precipitation in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volosciuk, Claudia; Maraun, Douglas; Semenov, Vladimir A; Tilinina, Natalia; Gulev, Sergey K; Latif, Mojib

    2016-01-01

    The beginning of the 21st century was marked by a number of severe summer floods in Central Europe associated with extreme precipitation (e.g., Elbe 2002, Oder 2010 and Danube 2013). Extratropical storms, known as Vb-cyclones, cause summer extreme precipitation events over Central Europe and can thus lead to such floodings. Vb-cyclones develop over the Mediterranean Sea, which itself strongly warmed during recent decades. Here we investigate the influence of increased Mediterranean Sea surface temperature (SST) on extreme precipitation events in Central Europe. To this end, we carry out atmosphere model simulations forced by average Mediterranean SSTs during 1970-1999 and 2000-2012. Extreme precipitation events occurring on average every 20 summers in the warmer-SST-simulation (2000-2012) amplify along the Vb-cyclone track compared to those in the colder-SST-simulation (1970-1999), on average by 17% in Central Europe. The largest increase is located southeast of maximum precipitation for both simulated heavy events and historical Vb-events. The responsible physical mechanism is increased evaporation from and enhanced atmospheric moisture content over the Mediterranean Sea. The excess in precipitable water is transported from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Europe causing stronger precipitation extremes over that region. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean Sea surface warming amplifies Central European precipitation extremes. PMID:27573802

  13. Entrepreneurial and Vocational Education and Training: Lessons from Eastern and Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Jay; Matlay, Harry

    2004-01-01

    The social, economic and political systems of former communist countries have faced considerable changes since the late 1980s. Most countries in Eastern and Central Europe have undergone their own individual brand of transition from a centrally planned, command system to a more or less liberalized, Western-style market economy. Many observers…

  14. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  15. Education and Social Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halász, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates the outcomes of the efforts of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries to make their education systems more effective in enhancing broader social and economic goals. It focuses on those 11 Central and Eastern European countries which became members of the EU in 2004 or following this date. First, it presents a short…

  16. Irregular migration and informal economy in Southern and Central-Eastern Europe: breaking the vicious cycle?

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Thanos; Iglicka, Krystyna; Gmaj, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The flexible and cheap labour that European “post-industrial” economies are in need of is often facilitated by undeclared labour. The undocumented migrant, from his/her part, relatively easily finds work that suits his -- at least initial -- plans. What lies behind this nexus between irregular migration and informal economy? To what extent can this nexus be attributed to the structural features of the so-called “secondary”, as opposed to “primary”, labour market? And how does migration policy correlate with this economic context and lead to the entrapment of migrants in irregularity? Finally, can this vicious cycle of interests and life-strategies be broken and what does the experience of the migrants indicate in this respect? This paper addresses these questions via an exploration of the grounds upon which irregular migration and the shadow economy complement each other in southern Europe (SE) and central and Eastern Europe (CEE) (two regions at different points in the migration cycle). In doing so, the dynamic character of the nexus between informal economy and irregular migration will come to the fore, and the abstract identity of the “average” undocumented migrant will be deconstructed. PMID:22167868

  17. Diet and Mobility in the Corded Ware of Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Price, T. Douglas; Kristiansen, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic investigations of two cemetery populations from the Corded Ware Culture in southern Germany reveal new information on the dating of these graves, human diet during this period, and individual mobility. Corded Ware Culture was present across much of temperate Europe ca. 2800–2200 cal. BC and is represented by distinctive artifacts and burial practices. Corded Ware was strongly influenced by the Yamnaya Culture that arose in the steppes of eastern Europe and western Eurasia after 3000 BC, as indicated by recent aDNA research. However, the development of CW on different chronological and spatial scales has to be evaluated. Examination of the CW burials from southern Germany supports an argument for substantial human mobility in this period. Several burials from gravefields and larger samples from two large cemeteries at Lauda-Königshofen "Wöllerspfad" and at Bergheinfeld “Hühnerberg” contributed the human remains for our study of bone and tooth enamel from the Corded Ware Culture. Our results suggest that Corded Ware groups in this region at least were subsisting on a mix of plant and animal foods and were highly mobile, especially the women. We interpret this as indicating a pattern of female exogamy, involving different groups with differing economic strategies. PMID:27223117

  18. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services. PMID:25107995

  19. "out of The Cold": On Late Neanderthal Population Dynamics In Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöris, O.

    During the last several years, analyses of fossil Neanderthal DNA have shown not only the degree to which the genetic fingerprints of Neanderthals differ from those of anatomically modern humans, but have also lent credibility to the hotly debated "Out- of-Africa" hypothesis. Perhaps more important than the observed genetic differences is the fact that Neanderthals - according to their reconstructed DNA sequences - were genetically highly homogeneous, indicating rapid population growth that may have followed a demographic 'bottleneck' during the first cold maximum (CM-1 = second part of OIS 4) of the last glacial, some 60 to 70 ka ago. Central European Middle Palaeolithic sites characterised by broad spectra of bifacially-worked tools, namely different forms of backed knives ("Keilmesser") com- monly attributed to Neanderthals, fall within the age-range 85 and 45 ka calBP and thus both pre- and post-date the proposed 'bottleneck' that occurred during CM-1. Di- rectly comparable sites dating within this critical period are lacking. Based on strati- graphic, palaeoenvironmental, and radiometric evidence, a series of sites can tenta- tively be age-calibrated with the high-resolution GISP2 Greenland ice core record of last glacial climate change. With the aid of improved chronological frameworks and additional palaeoenvironmen- tal information (e.g. glacier mass balance models), we have developed a three-step model with which to investigate this period. We begin with (1) pre-CM-1 populations in Central and northern Central Europe which (2) were forced into southern Euro- pean refugia (i.e. SW France and the Pannonian Basins) by the rapid expansion of the northern hemispheric ice-cover at the beginning of CM-1 (a process that could be named 'preglacial dislocation'). Finally, some 10 ka later, their descendants may have re-occupied the southern part of Central Europe during the climatic amelioration (OIS 3) following CM-1. Changes in lithic technology, as expressed in

  20. Climate change impacts on hydrological extremes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    An increase of hydro-climatic extremes can be observed worldwide and is challenging national and regional risk management and adaptation plans. Our study presents and discusses possible trends in climate drivers and hydro-climatic extremes in Europe observed and under future climate conditions. In a case study for Germany, impacts of different regional climate scenario ensembles are compared. To this end, a hydrological model was applied to transform the scenarios data into river runoff for more than 5000 river reaches in Germany. Extreme Value Distributions have been fitted to the hydrographs of the river reaches to derive the basic flood statistics. The results for each river reach have been linked to related damage functions as provided by the German Insurance Association considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The robust result is that under scenario conditions a significant increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany, while also the number of low flow events may rise.

  1. Hungarian travertine: a historic and current stone resource of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Ákos

    2013-04-01

    Travertine is a widespread dimension stone that was used worldwide in monuments. The best known examples are known from the Roman Empire from Italy, where this porous stone belonged to one of the favourite stone types. Ancient quarries of Tivoli provided material to major construction works to Rome. Other occurrences belonging to the Roman Empire outside of Rome were also used by the Romans. Some of the most important European deposits are known from Hungary. Exploitable travertine layers are found at many places in Hungary but at least two major areas were actively quarried by the Romans. One major deposit was not far away from the provincial capital of Roman Pannonia - called Aquincum, which currently forms a part of Budapest, while the other even larger occurrence is at Süttő, at the riverside of Danube some 50 km NE from the past capital. River Danube provided an excellent pathway of transport ting stone to the capital. Evidences indicate that quarrying activity in Süttő area has already begun during the 1st century BC and the travertine has been exploited with some interruptions since then. The present day quarries form the parts of the largest active dimension quarry system of Hungary. The exposed very thick banks (3 to 4m) of travertine were deposited from lukewarm springs during the Pleistocene period. Various types of travertine were used for constructing Roman aqueducts, fortresses, amphitheatre until the 4th century AD and were also transported to other parts of that Roman Province which extended to the present territory of Hungary, Austria, Slovenia and Croatia. Although the use of travertine has significantly decreased after the fall of Roman Empire in Central Europe and in Hungary, the presence of this stone was also documented from numerous Gothic and Baroque buildings from the area. The use of this stone became more popular again in the Carpathian Basin, when major constructions of larger cities such as Bratislava, Vienna or Budapest accelerated

  2. Cooperation with Central and Eastern Europe in Language Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Poul

    This paper outlines trends and activities in Central and Eastern European language research and language-related software development (language engineering) and briefly describes some specific projects. The language engineering segment of the European Union's Fourth Framework Programme, intended to facilitate use of telematics applications and…

  3. Lessons Learned After Several Years in Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Daniel S.

    1995-01-01

    As Western educators help Central and Eastern European institutions develop programs in business and economics education, five areas require attention: (1) team teaching by local and Western faculty; (2) coordination between host and Western institutions; (3) institution building; (4) careful selection and preparation of faculty to provide…

  4. Educational Reforms in East-Central Europe: The Hungarian Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berend, Ivan T.

    1980-01-01

    Examines educational trends in East-Central European countries during the twentieth century, with emphasis on educational development in Hungary since World War II. Information is presented on objectives, problems, educational level of the working population at various periods, and prognosis for the 1980s. (Author/DB)

  5. Interannual drought index variations in Central Europe related to large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2014-05-01

    This contribution investigates the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and interannual variations of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in central Europe. To this end occurrence frequencies of circulation types (CT) derived from a variety of circulation type classifications (CTC) applied to daily sea level pressure (SLP) data and mean circulation indices of vorticity (V), zonality (Z) and meridionality (M) have been utilized as predictors within multiple regression models (MRM) for the estimation of gridded 3-month SPI values over central Europe for the period 1950 to 2010. CTC based MRMs used in the analyses comprise variants concerning the basic method for CT classification, the number of CTs, the size and location of the spatial domain used for CTCs and the exclusive use of CT frequencies or the combined use of CT frequencies and mean circulation indices as predictors. Adequate MRM predictor combinations have been identified by applying stepwise multiple regression analyses within a resampling framework. The performance (robustness) of the resulting MRMs has been quantified based on a leave-one out cross-validation procedure applying several skill scores. Furthermore the relative importance of individual predictors has been estimated for each MRM. From these analyses it can be stated that i.) the consideration of vorticity characteristics within CTCs, ii.) a relatively small size of the spatial domain to which CTCs are applied and iii.) the inclusion of mean circulation indices appear to improve model skill. However model skill exhibits distinct variations between seasons and regions. Whereas promising skill can be stated for the western and northwestern parts of the central European domain only unsatisfactorily skill is reached in the more continental regions and particularly during summer. Thus it can be concluded that the here presented approaches feature the potential for the downscaling of central European drought index

  6. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Lebedev, S.; Cristiano, L.; Meier, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid growth in the no. of seismic stations globally, manual data processing for routine analysis as well as determination of seismic observables becomes more and more impractical. Therefore, automated schemes are inevitable to handle these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We measure inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical component (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. We have developed a scheme to automate this well established inter-station method, which automatically selects the smooth parts of observed phase velocity dispersion curves, and thus obtain path average phase velocity dispersion curve of each inter-station path. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we finally confined the method to three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the parameters and obtained optimal values of these three parameters. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe which involved more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of the data of the permanent networks. The method was also tested on temporary deployments e.g. TOR, PASSEQ, SVEKALPKO etc, across Europe. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 100 kilometers. Well known features of upper mantle structure in central Europe are well resolved in our phase velocity maps. Distinct differences

  7. The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Stefen, C.; Mors, T.

    2008-09-15

    New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

  8. Modelling Higher Education in Eastern and Central Europe Since Perestroika: The Application of Dynamic Concept Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobrough, John

    2004-01-01

    Since perestroika there have been many changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The states of the region have regained the opportunity to establish partnerships within the European Union. Higher education development has enabled increased communication and opportunities for staff and students. Greater interaction has resulted in a greater mobility…

  9. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-06-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble.

  10. Language and Area Studies: East Central and Southeastern Europe. A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Charles, Ed.

    East Central and Southeastern Europe, considered as "Eastern Eruope," are the subject of a three-year survey of language and area studies undertaken by several committees of specialists of the American Council of Learned Societies. Four basic goals of the project include: (1) a survey of graduate training and research needs, (2) an evaluation of…

  11. CEE-ing is believing: bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Katrina

    2011-09-15

    Bioscience ventures in Central and Eastern Europe are becoming a presence in world healthcare markets despite a perennially short supply of venture funding and other support mechanisms relative to other world economic regions. Here are three up-and-coming CEE stories worth keeping an eye on. PMID:21869613

  12. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20th century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21st century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901–2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21st century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  13. Tick-borne encephalitis incidence in Central and Eastern Europe: consequences of political transition.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Sarah E

    2008-03-01

    The variable, often dramatic, upsurge in tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe can best be understood as the result of a multi-factorial system of causes, including abiotic and biotic environmental changes, and human behaviour determined by socio-economic conditions. Many of these stem from the political transition with the end of Soviet rule. PMID:18316221

  14. Key Indicators--Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report presents statistical information on the vocational education and training systems of 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. These materials precede the body of the report: introduction, guide to reading the report, and…

  15. Civic Education in Former Communist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper discusses the efforts of educators in the former communist nations of central and eastern Europe, particularly those of Estonia and Poland. In spite of diverse histories and cultures, each of these nations has shared a legacy of totalitarian communism imposed by the former Soviet Union. This inheritance has afflicted all former…

  16. Structural Dimensions of Roma School Desegregation Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostas, Iulius; Kostka, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Scrutiny of the socio-economic exclusion of the Roma in Central and Eastern Europe has brought attention to the widespread practice of school segregation of Romani children who are automatically placed in classes for the mentally disabled or shunted into separate and inferior schools and classrooms. It is now widely recognised that such practices…

  17. Private Tutoring in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Policy Choices and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    Private tutoring has become increasingly visible in Eastern Europe and Central Asia since the collapse of the socialist bloc in the early 1990s. Yet, this unprecedented growth of private tutoring, in its varied forms and arrangements, has remained largely unnoticed by policymakers in the region. Based on the data from the cross-national studies of…

  18. Record dry summer in 2015 challenges precipitation projections in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Orth, René; Zscheischler, Jakob; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-01-01

    Central Europe was characterized by a humid-temperate climate in the 20(th) century. Climate change projections suggest that climate in this area will shift towards warmer temperatures by the end of the 21(st) century, while projected precipitation changes are highly uncertain. Here we show that the 2015 summer rainfall was the lowest on record since 1901 in Central Europe, and that climate models that perform best in the three driest years of the historical time period 1901-2015 project stronger drying trends in the 21(st) century than models that perform best in the remaining years. Analyses of precipitation and derived soil moisture reveal that the 2015 event was drier than both the recent 2003 or 2010 extreme summers in Central Europe. Additionally there are large anomalies in satellite-derived vegetation greenness. In terms of precipitation and temperature anomalies, the 2015 summer in Central Europe is found to lie between historical climate in the region and that characteristic of the Mediterranean area. Even though the models best capturing past droughts are not necessarily generally more reliable in the future, the 2015 drought event illustrates that potential future drying trends have severe implications and could be stronger than commonly assumed from the entire IPCC AR5 model ensemble. PMID:27323864

  19. Laboratories of Reform? The Europeanization and Internationalization of Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowska, Dorota; Harmsen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article deals with higher education (HE) transformations in Central and Eastern Europe in the context of democratization and globalization. The authors first briefly survey the wider canvas of reform since 1989, particularly probing the extent to which the countries of the region may be treated as a distinctive or a cohesive…

  20. Correlates of National-Level Homicide Variation in Post-Communist East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatel, Janet P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether correlates of cross-national homicide variation tested with data from highly developed, predominantly Western nations could also explain homicide rates in East-Central Europe. Using pooled time-series analyses of data from nine countries from 1990 through 2003, this study found that homicide rates were negatively…

  1. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP

  2. Estimation of the SO2 source term for the Holuhraun event and its influence on central Europe air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Delia; Iren Kristiansen, Nina; Theys, Nicolas; Brenot, Hugues; Maurer, Christian; Wotawa, Gerhard; Stebel, Kerstin; Holla, Robert; Gilge, Stefan; Flemming, Johannes; Stohl, Andreas; Hirtl, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    On 29 August 2014 a fissure eruption began in Holuhraun, Northeastern Iceland, associated with increased volcanic activity in the Bárdarbunga system. For more than 150 days, the eruption released large quantities of SO2 into the atmosphere affecting not only the local Icelandic air quality, but also leading to periods of increased ambient SO2 concentrations in parts of mainland Europe. During the second half of September, significant amounts of SO2 were rapidly transported southward by favourable meteorological conditions and several countries in Central Europe experienced high ground-level SO2 concentrations. The measured concentrations reached and even exceeded the EC directive health thresholds. In this work, we evaluate the air quality effects in Europe during this targeted period using both ground-based and satellite observations (GOME2B and OMI) as well as dispersion modelling with the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. We estimate the volcanic SO2 source emissions by comparing the satellite observations with atmospheric transport model simulations in an inverse modelling approach. The estimated source term is evaluated against independent ground-based observational data (e.g. MAX-DOAS, Brewer) and used as emission term in dispersion model forecasts for evaluating the air quality effects in Europe. In addition, the potential use of air quality data to perform the source term estimation by inversion with ground-based data will also be investigated.

  3. Patterns and drivers of Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The rapid warming of the Holocene induced the rearrangement of vegetation across Europe, including the widely synchronous and rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana) at around 10.6 ka BP (Giesecke et al., 2011). The simultaneity of the hazel expansion across large parts of Europe suggests that a climate shift has triggered that expansion. However, it remains poorly understood, which climate parameter has been effective (Huntley, 1993) because hazel expanded simultaneously in areas that today clearly differ in climate. To better understand the causes we studied Early Holocene vegetation dynamics in NE Germany in high temporal and spatial resolution. Analysis combines pollen data from 60 sites, including high resolution data sets, with present-day site patterns of soil and relief using the extended downscaling approach. Using forward modeling of pollen deposition in each sample site the method seeks that vegetation composition on each site type that produces modeled pollen deposition most similar to empiric pollen deposition. The results (Theuerkauf et al., 2014) indicate that first populations of hazel established soon after the Holocene warming at 11.2 ka. These populations were still small and possibly restricted to warm loving slopes, indicating that low summer warmth was the limiting factor. The widespread expansion of hazel started only after 10.8 ka, possibly following a shift to greater summer warmth. Hazel primarily expanded on sites that are today covered by gleyic soils, from which it largely expelled tree birch. Hazel thus obviously could only expand on sites that received additional wetness from ground- and stagnant water. Giesecke T., Bennett K.D., Birks H.J.B., Bjune A.E., Bozilova E., Feurdean A., Finsinger W., Froyd C., Pokorný P., Rösch M., Seppä H., Tonkov S., Valsecchi V., & Wolters S. (2011) The pace of Holocene vegetation change - testing for synchronous developments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30, 2805-2814. Huntley B. (1993) Rapid

  4. Trends in the mortality effects of hot spells in central Europe: adaptation to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysely, J.; Plavcova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Europe has recently been affected by several long-lasting and severe heat waves, particularly in July-August 2003 (western Europe), June-July 2006 (central Europe), July 2007 (southeastern Europe) and July 2010 (western Russia). The heat waves influenced many sectors of human activities, with enormous socio-economic and environmental impacts. With estimated death tolls exceeding 50,000, the 2003 and 2010 heat waves were the worst natural disasters in Europe over the last 50 years, yielding an example of how seriously may also high-income societies be affected by climate change. The present study examines temporal changes in mortality associated with spells of large positive temperature anomalies (hot spells) in the population of the Czech Republic (around 10 million inhabitants, central Europe). Declining trends in the mortality impacts since 1986 are found, in spite of rising temperature trends. The findings remain unchanged if possible confounding effects of within-season acclimatization to heat and the mortality displacement effect are taken into account, and they are similar for all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Recent positive socio-economic development, following the collapse of communism in central and eastern Europe in 1989, and better public awareness of heat-related risks are likely the primary causes of the declining vulnerability in the examined population (Kyselý and Plavcová, 2012). The results are also consistent with those reported for other developed regions of the world (the US, western Europe, Australia) and suggest that climate change may have relatively little influence on heat-related deaths, since changes in other factors that affect vulnerability of the population are dominant instead of temperature trends. It is essential to better understand the observed non-stationarity of the temperature-mortality relationship and the role of adaptation and its limits, both physiological and technological, and to address

  5. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment as a key to understand the neotectonics of northern Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, Christian; Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Northern Central Europe is generally regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1200 years (Leydecker, 2009). In a pilot study we analysed the Osning Thrust, which is a one of the major Mesozoic fault zones in northern Central Europe. Several soft-sediment deformation structures like fault-arrays and a sand volcano developed in aeolian sediments, were caused by earthquakes along the Osning Thrust. The growth-strata of faults was dated with the OSL method and showed that the deformation took place between 15.9 ± 1.6 to 13.1 ± 1.5 ka (Brandes et al., 2012, Brandes & Winsemann, 2013). Numerical simulations support the results regarding the timing of the the seismicity and imply that the Late Pleistocene activity of the Osning Thrust was an effect of glacial isostatic adjustment (Brandes et al., 2012). In a second step we analysed more faults in northern Central Europe. It is evident that the historic seismicity was concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic contraction phase that effected Central Europe in the Late Cretaceous. Between these faults, the seismic activity was almost absent. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrated for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust, the Aller Valley Fault and the Tornquist Zone. The spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes (clusters that shift from time to time) implies that northern Central Europe behaves like a typical intraplate tectonic region. To analyse, if the faults that show pronounced historic seismicity are postglacial faults, we used the Fault Stability Margin (FSM), which is described in more detail in Wu & Hasegawa (1996). The Fault Stability Margins for the major reverse faults that showed historic seismicity in northern Central Europe reach the δFSM=0

  6. A Signal of Ice Loading in Late Pleistocene Activity of the Sudetic Marginal Fault (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartvich, F.; Stepancikova, P.; Rockwell, T. K.; Nývlt, D.; Stemberk, J.; Rood, D. H.; Hók, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Myers, M.; Luttrell, K. M.; Wechsler, N.

    2014-12-01

    We combine paleoseismic trench and cosmogenic dating results to study the late Pleistocene-Holocene history of morphologically pronounced NW-SE trending Sudetic Marginal Fault (SMF) situated at the northeastern limit of the Bohemian Massif in central Europe. Eighteen trenches were excavated at the Bila Voda site to study 3D distribution of a beheaded alluvial fan on the NE block of the fault and to find the offset "feeder channel" that sourced the deposits. We interpret a small drainage of about 40-60 m to the SE of the fan apex as the feeder channel. A 2.5 m depth profile was collected for cosmogenic exposure dating from a well-preserved part of the fan. Using a simple model that accounts for pre-depositional exposure (inheritance) and assuming no surface erosion, 10Be concentrations are well-fit with an apparent exposure age of ~12 ka. However, this is a minimum limiting age if the surface was eroded by gelifluction in the late Pleistocene. Assuming a ~25 ka OSL age for the base of the fan apex it gives a left-lateral slip rate of ~2 mm/yr. As the Holocene deposits do not show significant displacement, most of the recorded slip took place during Late Pleistocene with corresponding slip rate of 2.8 to 3.5 mm/yr. Bila Voda site lies ~150 km south from the Late Pleistocene Weichselian maximum (~20 ka) ice-sheet front. Thus, we hypothesize that the slip rate acceleration was due to ice-loading and subsequent unloading during deglaciation. To test this, we calculated the stress induced in the lithosphere from ablation of the Weichselian ice sheet modeled as a flexing elastic plate. Preliminary modeling results indicate that complete deglaciation alters the stress field such that it would inhibit left lateral failure on the SMF, consistent with observations suggesting no slip occurred during the Holocene. Although the SMF is ~150 km from the Weichselian ice sheet front, it is well within the flexural rebound area of the ice sheet, causing normal stress on the SMF to

  7. Hail hazard derived from historic hail footprints; a probabilistic hail storm catalogue for central Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Maximilian; Bonassi, Alessandro; Oramas-Dorta, Delioma; De Aguinaga, Jose; Cheetham, Rebecca; Moehrlein, Matthias; Riso, Silvia; Betz, Hans-Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Catastrophe models are widely used in reinsurance risk assessment from natural perils. In this context Guy Carpenter, a reinsurance intermediary, has developed a probabilistic hail model for Central Europe. As part of the hazard development, Guy Carpenter has tasked meteorologists at nowcast GmbH to identify historic hail patterns and individual hail storm tracks over an 8-year period from a continuous lightning dataset, issuing from their lightning detection system, "LINET". Based on historic hail footprints provided by nowcast GmbH, Guy Carpenter has developed a stochastic event generator in order to compute a catalogue consisting of synthetic, but meteorologically reasonable events, representing an 800-year history. The goal of stochastic event generation is to extend the observed hail history to extreme hail scenarios that could cause catastrophic losses to insurance portfolios and to quantify corresponding storm probabilities. Reflecting geographical dependencies, the method uses key attributes of the historic hail tracks and footprints, such as the storm track, length and bearing direction, footprint centre point and storm genesis date. A bootstrapping technique was used to associate simulated hail footprints with a likely storm track, based on historic distributions. The poster shows work in progress on the event set generation results, the computed geographic hazard maps and validation of the frequency and intensity assumptions, using data from nowcast GmbH, the European Severe Storms Laboratory (ESSL) and spatial statistics on insurance claims information.

  8. E-health development policies in new member states in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Duplaga, Mariusz

    2007-01-01

    The paper brings insights on the process of e-health development in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, which joined European Union in 2004 years. The main part of the activities resulting in this review were carried out within the eHealth European Research Area (eHealth ERA) project established under the EU 6. Framework Programme. The research team involved in the project activities in the Centre of Innovation, Technology Transfer and University Development, Jagiellonian University focused the inquiries on the six countries: Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Lithuania and Latvia. The tool for data collection elaborated by the STAKES, Finland was applied. The main areas covered within the analysis included: health system characteristics, e-health policies definition process and deployment, specific activities in e-health subdomain as well as research and development programmes held in European countries. It seems that general background and intensive process of system and economy transformation was key factor influencing greatly the perception and status of the e-health domain in these countries. The opportunities related to the inclusion in the European Union was another essential factor bringing additional important impact on the e-health formation. All these countries started painful reform in early 90s after the fall of the communist governments. The health care system in general was not the prime benefactors of these changes. PMID:17894192

  9. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    PubMed

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air. PMID:27450248

  10. Canine dirofilariosis endemic in Central Europe-10 years of epidemiological study in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, Martina; Iglódyová, Adriana; Čabanová, Viktória; Stloukal, Eduard; Miklisová, Dana

    2016-06-01

    The study presents the comprehensive results of a detailed epidemiological study on canine dirofilariosis in Slovakia, Central Europe. More than 4000 dogs were investigated, and several epidemiological factors were considered. The mean prevalence in individual regions ranged from 2.0 % in northern Slovakia to more than 25.0 % in the south-western part of the country, with the nematode Dirofilaria repens confirmed as the dominant causative agent. Canine dirofilariosis occurred more often in animals more than 3 years old and in dogs of large and giant breed sizes. Short-haired animals were infected more often than dogs with a long coat. Also, the infection was significantly more prevalent in animals kept in rural areas in comparison with urban environments.Counts of microfilariae (mf) in peripheral blood reached their highest levels in May and August and corresponded to activity peaks and population maximums of potential vectors, the mosquito species Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens, the two most prevalent species in Slovakia. Moreover, two dogs naturally infested with D. repens were included in the experiment in order to monitor daily microfilarial periodicity. This fluctuation showed the same tendency in both animals, with a peak of circulating mf recorded at 4 a.m. and minimal mf counts at 4 p.m. PMID:27021185

  11. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH < 1.5x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 are found for p,p'-DDT, kOH < 0.75x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDE and kOH < 1.0x10-12 cm3 molec-1 s-1 for p,p'-DDD. The kOH values for DDE and DDD are significantly lower than estimated (QSAR). References

  12. Seasonal variability of ice nuclei over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Holger; Nickovic, Slobodan; Schuetz, Lothar; Weinbruch, Stephan; Levin, Zev; Andreae, Meinrat; Barrie, Leonard; Ebert, Martin; Bundke, Ulrich; Bingemer, Heinz

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of ice nuclei (IN) has been measured every day since April 2008 at the Taunus Observatory on Mt. Kleiner Feldberg (50.22°N, 8.45°E, 825 m. above sea level) at 20 km north of Frankfurt / M., Germany. Aerosol samples were collected on silicon wafers by an electrical aerosol precipitator and analyzed for IN number concentration (condensation and deposition freezing modes) using the static vapor diffusion chamber FRIDGE (Klein et al., Atmos. Res, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.08.002, 2009). Around 800 samples were analyzed so far. The IN number concentration shows a pronounced seasonal signal with about a factor of 10 higher ice nuclei in summer than in winter. Desert dust transported over long distances appears to be the dominant contributor to IN at the site. Episodes of Sahara dust transport are well represented by individual peaks in the IN record and identified by airmass trajectories, transport modelling and mineralogical analysis. The contribution of mineral dust to IN is further corroborated by the covariance of the individual IN concentrations with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) due to extinction by large particles, which was measured simultaneously at the AERONET site (Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry) at Mainz, 20 km southwest of our site. The relation between IN and AOD not only holds for our individual daily measurements, but is also valid for the monthly means of our IN record, which are highly correlated to the multi-year monthly means of coarse and middle-sized dust AOD which is derived from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite instrument (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/misr_tools/clim_likely.cgi ) for the grid point closest to our site. Acknowledgements: We gratefully acknowledge funding of this work by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) as part of the collaborative research centre Die troposphärische Eisphase (SFB641) and by the German-Israeli Foundation (GIF).

  13. Pyogenic liver abscess: Differences in etiology and treatment in Southeast Asia and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cerwenka, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of etiology and timely treatment of underlying causes, when possible, play an important role in the successful therapy of patients with pyogenic liver abscess (PLA). Recent publications from Central Europe and Southeast Asia hint at considerable differences in etiology. In this article, we aim to elaborate these differences and their therapeutic implications. Apart from some special types of PLA that are comparable in Southeast Asia and Central Europe (such as posttraumatic or postprocedural PLA), there are clear differences in the microbiological spectrum, which implies different risk factors and disease courses. Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) PLA is predominantly seen in Southeast Asia, whereas, in Central Europe, PLA is typically caused by Escherichia coli, Streptococcus or Staphylococcus, and these patients are more likely to be older and to have a biliary abnormality or malignancy. K. pneumoniae patients are more likely to have diabetes mellitus. Control of septic spread is crucial in K. pneumoniae patients, whereas treatment of the underlying diseases is decisive in many Central European PLA patients. PMID:20503444

  14. Do properties of high conductive mid-mantle layer change beneath tesz in central europe ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. Yu; Jozwiak, W.

    2003-04-01

    Study of mantle conductivity beneath the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Central Europe is the subject of the international CEMES project. The study includes investigations of the mid-mantle conductive layer, which are based on unique data sets from European geomagnetic observatories. Results obtained by few investigators for individual observatories indicate that depths up to the mid-mantle conductive layer are increasing generally from the North to South beneath Europe. To investigate the phenomenon in more details, local magnetovariation responses published by Roberts (1984), Schultz &Larsen (1987), Olsen (1998) and Semenov (1998) have been collected for 35 European geomagnetic observatories with periods from 6 hours to as long as available. The data collected for each observatory have been extended by using the ultra-long period responses obtained for the Europe-Asia region up to the global 11-year period (Semenov &Jozwiak, 1999). For all observatories, the data have been inverted by means of the 1D spherical inversion based on the stochastic method (Jozwiak, 2001). The mid-mantle conductive layer has been detected for all observatories at varying depths. The mantle geoelectrical structures are presented as the schematic maps of depths with constant conductance beneath whole Europe. The conclusion mentioned above has been generally confirmed by the data with much wider period range and great number of observatories: depths are found to increase from 500-600 km beneath the Baltic Shield down to 750-800 km beneath the southern and west-southern regions of Europe. Detailed results obtained beneath the TESZ are subject of discussion for Central Europe.

  15. Lightning, overshooting top and hail characteristics for strong convective storms in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurković, Petra Mikuš; Mahović, Nataša Strelec; Počakal, Damir

    2015-07-01

    Lightning activity in storms with overshooting tops and hail-producing storms over Central Europe is studied, in order to find typical lightning characteristics that can be useful in nowcasting of the severity of the storm and its ability to produce hail. The first part of the study gives the analysis of lightning activity in thunderstorms with overshooting tops (OT) for the warm part of the year (May-September) from 2009 to 2010 over central and southeastern Europe. Deep convective clouds with OT were detected in Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data, using methods based on the infrared window (IRW, 10.8 μm) channel and absorption channels of water vapor (WV, 6.2 μm) and ozone (O3, 9.7 μm) in the form of brightness temperature differences. The locations and times of the detected OT were compared to the distribution and types of lightning strokes, which were provided by the LINET Lightning Location System. The results show that the spatial distribution of lightning generally coincides with the spatial distribution of the detected OT. The largest numbers of lightning strokes and OT were found in western Hungary, southeastern Austria, northeastern Slovenia and the northern Adriatic. The largest number of OT occurred between 1600 and 1800 UTC, whereas from 0600 to 1000 UTC OT detections were rather rare. Lightning activity showed a similar temporal distribution, with an increase in lightning activity evident at or close to the time of the OT detections. At the time of and close to the location of the OT, the lightning was found to occur well above the tropopause and was clearly related to the OT of cumulonimbus clouds. In the second part of the study, lightning characteristics are studied for 35 events of hail-producing thunderstorms over Croatia in the summer months (May to September), from 2008 to 2012. The lightning distribution, also registered by LINET, was compared to hail parameters based on measurements

  16. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  17. Perapion connexum (Schilsky, 1902) (Coleoptera, Apionidae) in Central Europe, a case of plant expansion chase

    PubMed Central

    Wanat, Marek; Podlussány, Attila; Schön, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Perapion connexum (Schilsky) is recorded for the first time from Hungary and Kyrgyzstan, and new distribution data from Ukraine and Russia are provided. Preliminary placements of this weevil in faunal checklists for Poland and Slovakia are here documented with detailed data. Its occurrence in Austria based on older evidence, is discussed. The neophytic and invasive in Central Europe sorrel Rumex confertus Willd. is confirmed to be its unique host plant in Poland. Morphology of the newcoming weevil is described and illustrated, and the key to all Central European species of Perapion is presented. PMID:22451784

  18. Challenges and opportunities in Pan-European collaboration for researchers from Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Decsi, T; Fidler Mis, N; Kolacek, S; Kon, I; Kopecky, J; Penas-Jimenez, I; Socha, P; Szajewska, H

    2005-01-01

    Ten Central and Eastern [NLG4] European countries have recently joined the European Union. This historical enlargement provided a good opportunity to discuss the challenges and opportunities in Pan-European Research Collaboration for researchers from Central/Eastern Europe. This paper summarises examples of productive research collaboration between East and West, current challenges [NLG5], and ideas on how to facilitate better collaboration. A short overview of training, mobility and career development opportunities, covered by the Marie Curie actions, is also presented. PMID:16137107

  19. Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.

    When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

  20. Perceived challenges to public health in Central and Eastern Europe: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a major gradient in burden of disease between Central and Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe. Many of the underlying causes and risk factors are amenable to public health interventions. The purpose of the study was to explore perceptions of public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries on public health challenges in their countries. Methods We invited 179 public health experts from Central and Eastern European countries to a 2-day workshop in Berlin, Germany. A total of 25 public health experts from 14 countries participated in May 2008. The workshop was structured into 8 sessions of 1.5 hours each, with the topic areas covering coronary heart disease, stroke, prevention, obesity, alcohol, tobacco, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. The workshop was recorded and the proceedings transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were entered into atlas.ti for content analysis and coded according to the session headings. After analysis of the content of each session discussion, a re-coding of the discussions took place based on the themes that emerged from the analysis. Results Themes discussed recurred across disease entities and sessions. Major themes were the relationship between clinical medicine and public health, the need for public health funding, and the problems of proving the effectiveness of disease prevention. Areas for action identified included the need to engage with the public, to create a better scientific basis for public health interventions, to identify “best practices” of disease prevention, and to implement registries/surveillance instruments. The need for improved data collection was seen throughout all areas discussed, as was the need to harmonize data across countries. Conclusions To reduce the burden of disease across Europe, closer collaboration of countries across Europe seems important in order to learn from each other. A more credible scientific basis for effective public health interventions is urgently

  1. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań. PMID:26558656

  2. Analyses of seasonal and annual maximum daily discharge records for central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarini, Gabriele; Smith, James A.; Serinaldi, Francesco; Ntelekos, Alexandros A.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryAnnual and seasonal maximum daily discharge time series for 55 stations in central Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic, and Slovakia) are used to examine flood frequency from a regional perspective. In this study we examine temporal nonstationarities in the flood peak records, and characterize upper tail and scaling properties of the flood peak distributions. There is a marked seasonality in the flood peak record, with a large fraction of annual maximum flood peaks occurring during the winter in the western part of the study domain, and during the summer in the southern portion of this region. The presence of abrupt and slowly varying changes in the flood time series is examined by means of non-parametric tests. Change-points in the mean and variance of the flood peak distributions are examined using the Pettitt test, while the presence of monotonic patterns is examined by means of Spearman and Mann-Kendall tests. Abrupt changes, rather than monotonic trends are responsible for violations of the stationarity assumption. These step changes can often be associated with anthropogenic effects, such as construction of dams and reservoirs and river training. Given the profound changes that these catchments have undergone, it is difficult to detect a possible climate change signal in the flood peak record. The estimates of the location, scale, and shape parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value distribution are used to examine the upper tail and scaling properties of the flood peak distributions. The location and scale parameters exhibit a power law behaviour when plotted as a function of drainage area, while the shape parameter decreases log-linearly for increasing catchment area. The findings of this study suggest that these records exhibit a heavy tail behaviour.

  3. The main characteristics of atmospheric circulation over East-Central Europe from 1871 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the paper concerns the determination of the annual and multi-annual variability of air flow over East-Central Europe in the period 1871-2010. Daily mean sea-level pressure and values of physical quantities provided the basis for distinguishing 27 circulation types, i.e., eight directional cyclonic, transitional, and anticyclonic types, and one non-directional cyclonic, anticyclonic, and an undefined type. Over the area of East-Central Europe, the highest frequency is recorded for air flow from the western sector, with a maximum in the period from December to January. In spring, a higher than average frequency of cyclonic and easterly circulation is observed, and in summer—anticyclonic and northerly. Increased zonal circulation was recorded in the years 1910-1930, and particularly after 1970, and eastern at the end of the nineteenth century and in the 1930s and 1940s. An increase in the frequency of days with non-directional anticyclonic type and westerly air flow, and a simultaneous decrease in frequency of days with south-easterly and easterly circulation were observed throughout the study period. Among the three classes of circulation types, the highest persistence (particularly in winter) was recorded for anticyclonic types, i.e., when the high pressure system occurred over the Scandinavian Peninsula or East Europe.

  4. Statistical analysis of soil moisture content changes in Central Europe using GLDAS database over three past decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Kȩdzior, Mateusz A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper examine soil moisture trends changes in inhomogeneous area of Central European countries — Poland, the Czech Republic and neighbouring territories. The area suffered from the lack of large-scale soil parameters research. Most of them are limited to ground measurements performed for a small part of land. Although there were extensive water conditions studies performed for the whole Europe, such as drought analysis, they were focused on Western European countries, neglecting situation in Central Europe (taking exception to Austria). The NOAH model of Global Land Data Assimilation System database has been used as a data source. It delivers one degree spatial resolution data and variables which describe soil moisture values for four depth levels (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm and 100-200 cm). Data covering years 1979-2011 has been averaged in order to analyse summer and winter terms separately. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis have been prepared on the software Statistica, Research reveals that area is losing water content. Due to promising results of water content trend analysis, the authors plan to run a large-scale analysis using other variables from the GLDAS database, especially concerning soil temperature and evapotranspiration.

  5. Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Central part of Pier 22, showing the southeast side of the Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Oblique view of east side of central wing and part ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of east side of central wing and part of south side, Facility 268 to right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Enlisted Men's Barracks & Mess Hall, Marine Barracks, Neville Way, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Northeast front, central part, with a flag hanging from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast front, central part, with a flag hanging from the second floor balcony - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Guard House & Barracks, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. Surface wave tomography of central and northern Europe from automated inter-station dispersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, Riaz Ahmed; Weidle, Christian; Lebedev, Sergei; Cristiano, Luigia; Behrmann, Jan; Meier, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid growth in the number of seismic stations globally, automated analysis routines are inevitable to extract seismic observables from these large data volumes. For surface wave tomography, phase velocity dispersion curves of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. We have new developed an algorithm that enables automated, accurate measurement of inter-station phase velocity dispersion curves through cross correlation of vertical (Rayleigh wave) and transverse component (Love wave) seismograms. After testing various parameters for automation of the procedure we find that the automated selection of segments of a given phase-velocity curve requires three parameters only, namely (1) difference of the measured phase velocity curve from a background model, (2) a smoothness constraint and (3) a length criterion. Furthermore, before averaging phase velocities for one path outliers are rejected. We performed rigorous tests to optimize the selection parameters. Interestingly, rough perturbations in the phase velocity curves do not bias the average phase velocities towards larger values. This indicates a rather random perturbation of the phase velocities by noise and complicated non-plane wave propagation. We successfully applied the method to more than one hundred thousand inter station paths in central and northern Europe, involving more than one million cross correlations on 20 years of data from permanent networks. After inversion of the fundamental mode phase velocity dispersion curves for both Rayleigh and Love waves, we obtain high resolution anisotropic phase velocity maps for periods between 10 and 250 seconds with a lateral resolution between about 50 to 200 kilometers in Central Europe. At shorter periods the North-German and Polish sedimentary basins are clearly imaged. At lower crustal depth the Alpine crustal root is characterized by low velocities. At longer

  9. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuletić, Dijana; Potočić, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletković, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Galić, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijašič, Dragan; Zupanič, Matjaž; Simončič, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public

  10. Tree-Rings Mirror Management Legacy: Dramatic Response of Standard Oaks to Past Coppicing in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Szabó, Péter; Mazůrek, Petr; Riedl, Vladan; Müllerová, Jana; Kopecký, Martin; Doležal, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Background Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. Methodology/Principal Findings Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles) in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895–1899 and 1935–1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos) partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. Conclusions/Significance Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long-term maintenance of oak

  11. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe. PMID:26344029

  12. The development of academic family medicine in central and eastern Europe since 1990

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the early 1990s former communist countries have been reforming their health care systems, emphasizing the key role of primary care and recognizing family medicine as a specialty and an academic discipline. This study assesses the level of academic development of the discipline characterised by education and research in central and eastern European (CEE) countries. Methods A key informants study, using a questionnaire developed on the basis of a systematic literature review and panel discussions, conducted in 11 central and eastern European countries and Russia. Results Family medicine in CEE countries is now formally recognized as a medical specialty and successfully introduced into medical training at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Almost all universities have FM/GP departments, but only a few of them are led by general practitioners. The specialist training programmes in all countries except Russia fulfil the recommendations of the European Parliament. Structured support for research in FM/GP is not always available. However specific scientific organisations function in almost all countries except Russia. Scientific conferences are regularly organised in all the countries, but peer-reviewed journals are published in only half of them. Conclusions Family medicine has a relatively strong position in medical education in central and eastern Europe, but research in family practice is less developed. Although the position of the discipline at the universities is not very strong, most of the CEE countries can serve as an example of successful academic development for countries southern Europe, where family medicine is still not fully recognised. PMID:23510461

  13. Regulation and safety implementation of nanotechnology for chemical enterprises in the Central Europe Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, A.; Hartl, S.; Sinner, F.

    2013-04-01

    As result of the gradually increasing nanotechnology sector there is the necessity of a contemporary analysis of the present regulations used for nanomaterials, to outline the current situation of the nanotechnology sector, to promote international cooperation and research's coordination to overcome disciplinary boundaries, to fill the gap between more and less experienced regions and to turn investments in R&D in industrial innovations. The general objective of the Central Europe project NANOFORCE, which is developed by national and regional chemistry associations and R&D Centres of the Central Europe area, is to foster the innovative nanotechnology-sector networks across Central Europe regions by bringing together public and private organizations to carry out collaborative and interdisciplinary researches on nanomaterials (in the frame of REACH Regulation) and to turn the most promising laboratory results into innovative industrial applications. To build up a legal advisory board for chemical enterprises starting in nanotechnology, a state of the art report on existing safety procedures and nanotech related regulations was produced to give an overview on currently available regulations used by chemical industries and manufacturing companies within the European region to secure their products. The main emphasis was placed on REACH regulation to search for relevant sections concentrating on nanomaterials which are applicable for nanotechnology. In addition, all relevant directives and amendments of REACH were screened with regard to identify gaps where action is still needed and give possible recommendations for the European Commission. Beyond literature research a questionnaire for producers, users, researchers and financiers was developed with the goal to collect information about the nanotechnology sector in the CE region concerning development, financial status, and international cooperation within joint ventures, safety and nanotoxicology.

  14. MiKlip-PRODEF: Probabilistic Decadal Forecast for Central and Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyers, Mark; Haas, Rabea; Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    The demand for skilful climate predictions on time-scales of several years to decades has increased in recent years, in particular for economic, societal and political terms. Within the BMBF MiKlip consortium, a decadal prediction system on the global to local scale is currently being developed. The subproject PRODEF is part of the MiKlip-Module C, which aims at the regionalisation of decadal predictability for Central and Western Europe. In PRODEF, a combined statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) and a probabilistic forecast tool are developed and applied to the new Earth system model of the Max-Planck Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM), which is part of the CMIP5 experiment. Focus is given on the decadal predictability of windstorms, related wind gusts as well as wind energy potentials. SDD combines the benefits of both high resolution dynamical downscaling and purely statistical downscaling of GCM output. Hence, the SDD approach is used to obtain a very large ensemble of highly resolved decadal forecasts. With respect to the focal points of PRODEF, a clustering of temporal evolving atmospheric fields, a circulation weather type (CWT) analysis, and a storm damage indices analysis is applied to the full ensemble of the decadal hindcast experiments of the MPI-ESM in its lower resolution (MPI-ESM-LR). The ensemble consists of up to ten realisations per yearly initialised decadal hindcast experiments for the period 1960-2010 (altogether 287 realisations). Representatives of CWTs / clusters and single storm episodes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a horizontal resolution of 0.22°. For each model grid point, the distributions of the local climate parameters (e.g. surface wind gusts) are determined for different periods (e.g. each decades) by recombining dynamical downscaled episodes weighted with the respective weather type frequencies. The applicability of the SDD approach is illustrated with examples of decadal forecasts of the MPI

  15. Various environments of interglacials recorded by Pleistocene paleosoils in Hungary (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Kis, Éva

    2015-04-01

    Based on stable isotope analyses of worldwide reference curves from deep sea, ice core and speleothem records, it has long been apparent that duration, intensity and climatic conditions of different interglacial periods were significantly diverse. As a consequence of negligible fresh, detrital material admixture during interglacials, the soil formation intensity and maturity of various kinds of past soils have been holding vital information on the environmental conditions at the time the soils formed. This, in turn, means that several physical and chemical properties of soils allow us to reconstruct past climatic regimes. Loess-paleosol sequences in Hungary (Central Europe) provide insight into the cyclic nature of glacial-interglacial variations of the last 1 million years. The paleosoils have been recognized as the product of warmer and moister interglacials, when the (glacial) loess material was altered by chemical weathering and pedogenic processes. 12 pedogene units from MIS-19 to MIS-5 strata were analysed in the course of this study, with a special attention to MIS-11 and MIS-19 periods, because of these can be regarded as analogues of the Holocene interglacial (due to the similarities in obliquity and eccentricity). Grain size, geochemical and (clay)mineralogical studies were elaborated and were gathered from previously published papers to quantify past weathering intensity and paleoenvironmental conditions by geochemical climofunctions. The Upper and partly, the Middle Pleistocene loess deposits are intercalated by steppe, forest-steppe and brown forest soils, while the older pedogene horizons are different kinds; these are red, Mediterranean-type soils. The MIS-5 pedocomplex consist of three parts at several Hungarian sites, however the pedogene units cannot be correlated unequivocally with the three MIS-5 warmer substages, due to the scarce absolute age data. The MIS-7 and MIS-9 stages are represented by three forest steppe soils. The MIS-11 pedocomplex

  16. The Structure of the Mantle Lithosphere in Central Europe from S-Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, Rainer; Handy, Mark; Yuan, Xiaohui; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Data from about 650 permanent and temporary seismic broadband stations accessed from the open EIDA Archive yielded about 49.000 S-receiver functions. Selection criteria were a signal-to-noise ratio of at least two of the S signal on the SV component, low noise on the P component before the S arrival time and a relatively good approximation of the delta im- pulse on the SV component after deconvolution. All traces were checked visually. The time domain traces were migrated to depth domain by back projection along the ray path. Smooth images of major discontinuities in the upper mantle were obtained by applying an eight-seconds low-pass filter. Observations of the Moho and the discontinuity at 410 km depth serve as a check of the quality of the analysis. We observe two widespread negative (i.e., downward reduction in velocity) discontinuities. The shallower one in about the 50 km to 150 km depth interval occurs everywhere in the study area and is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in Phanerozoic Europe. According to similar observations in the north American craton, it is interpreted as mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) in the east European craton (EEC). The second negative discontinuity seen beneath the EEC, the Trans-European Suture Zone, the Bohemian Massive, and parts of the Pannonian Basin lies at a depth interval of about 150 km to 300 km. It is interpreted as cratonic LAB reaching well the S and E of the Torn- quist-Teisseyre Zone, which is considered the boundary of the EEC at the shallower levels. The deeper cratonic LAB has anomalous topography: Below the Pannonian Basin it shal- lows to c. 150 km but deepens to c. 300 km below the Bohemian Massif. There is a jump in the cratonic LAB along the northern edge of the Bohemian Massif, where the LAB sud- denly changes depth from 200 km in the north to 300 km in the south. We tentatively inter- pret these observations as a result of overthrusting the EEC mantle lithosphere during the

  17. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  18. Pannonian Basin Province, Central Europe (Province 4808) -Petroleum Geology, Total Petroleum Systems, and Petroleum Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolton, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    This report deals with the Pannonian Basin Province of Central Europe and summarizes the petroleum geology, which was the basis for assessment, and presents results of that assessment. The Pannonian Basin Province consists of a large compound extensional basin of Neogene age overlying Paleogene basins and interior elements of the greater Alpine foldbelt. Within it, six total petroleum systems (TPS) are defined and six assessment units established for estimation of undiscovered oil and gas resources. Other speculative TPSs were identified but not included for quantitative assessment within this study.

  19. From Part-Time Farming to Pluriactivity: A Decade of Change in Rural Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Anthony M.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates inadequacy of "part-time farming," preferring "pluriactivity." Sets context for 10 papers on pluriactivity and agro-rural change in Western Europe. Outlines applied social science studies on the topic. Voices need for critical, policy-oriented studies in face of changing agricultural and social issues. (TES)

  20. Dramatic decline of ischaemic heart disease mortality in post communist central Europe: recovery from totality.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Emil; Simko, Vlado

    2012-06-01

    After 1970 the preexisting gap in population health between democratic Europe and communist countries became even more prominent. While in the democratic Europe there was a progressive rise in life expectancy associated with the decline in ischaemic heart disease (IHD), the trend on the other side of the iron curtain was exactly reverse. After the fall of communism in 1989 population health in the post-communist central Europe (CE) rapidly signalled a favourable recovery. This biphasic trend in post-communist countries is very remarkable. Most remarkably the decline in IHD mortality started soon after the demise of totality, even before the modernization of health care (new more effective medications and diagnostic technology), public campaign against smoking and improved supply of protective nutrients got chance to attain an important role. The decades-long psychosocial depression of communism was rapidly replaced with a promise of a better future. It is generally accepted that psychosocial factors are powerfool tools in the pathogenesis of IHD. PMID:22966731

  1. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  2. Evaluating the risk of air pollution to forests in central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, D.S.; Oleksyn, J.

    1996-09-01

    Foliar damage to trees by air pollution in Central and Eastern Europe has been a major scientific and political issue. Emissions of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can have wide-ranging effects on local and regional vegetation that can be compounded by other environmental stresses to plant growth. Since uptake and physiological effects of these gases on tree leaves we largely, mediated by stomata, surrogate methods for estimating pollutant conductances into leaves and forest canopies may lead to risk assessments for major vegetation types that can then be used in regional planning. Management options to ameliorate or mitigate air pollutant damage to forests and losses in productivity are likely to be more difficult to widely implement than on-the-stack emissions abatement. Informed management and policy decisions regarding Central and Eastern European forests are dependent on the development of quantitative tools and models for risk assessment of the effects of atmospheric pollutants on ecosystem health and productivity.

  3. Morbus Behçet – a rare disease in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Jurowski, Piotr; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Kot, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease of complex and not entirely elucidated etiology, which was originally diagnosed in patients with aphthous stomatitis, genital ulcerations and ocular manifestations. The entity is endemic in countries of Eastern and Central Asia, especially Turkey and Iran, but rarely seen in Central Europe. As there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests or histopathologic findings which confirm the preliminary diagnosis, the final diagnosis should be based on clinical criteria. Frequently a definitive diagnosis is established within several years or months after the first manifestations appear. The increased number of cases, recently described worldwide also in the Polish population, indicates that the disease could spread out of endemic areas. The aim of this manuscript is to present the clinical picture, diagnosis criteria and therapeutic approaches of this “international disease” which currently is observed not only in emigrants from Asia but also in native Polish citizens. PMID:26788079

  4. Seismic imaging of the geodynamic activity at the western Eger rift in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, N.; Buske, S.; Hrubcova, P.; Ruzek, B.; Shapiro, S.; Wigger, P.; Fischer, T.

    2015-04-01

    The western Eger rift at the Czech-German border in central Europe is an important geodynamically active area within the European Cenzoic rift system (ECRS) in the forelands of the Alps. Along with two other active areas of the ECRS, the French Massif Central and the east and west Eifel volcanic fields, it is characterized by numerous CO2-rich fluid emission points and frequent micro-seismicity. Existence of a plume(s) is indicated in the upper mantle which may be responsible for these observations. Here we reprocess a pre-existing deep seismic reflection profile '9HR' and interpret the subsurface structures as mapped by seismic reflectivity with previous findings, mainly from seismological and geochemical studies, to investigate the geodynamic activity in the subsurface. We find prominent hints of pathways which may allow magmatic fluids originating in the upper mantle to rise through the crust and cause the observed fluid emanations and earthquake activity.

  5. Educational Research and Higher Education Reform in Eastern and Central Europe: Studies in Comparative Education, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Erich, Ed.

    The conference papers examine higher education reforms in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe from several research perspectives: political, economic, pedagogical, and sociological. Papers are organized in three sections: Higher Education Policies and Institutional Change; Central European Higher Education in Transition; and Higher…

  6. From the Party/State to Multiethnic Democracy: Education and Social Cohesion in Europe and Central Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews anecdotal and field experience in Europe and Central Asia in meeting the challenges of social cohesion and draws some comparisons between the social cohesion of education systems in the European and Central Asian regions and that of the United States. Outlines ways in which public education has contributed to social cohesion in the West.…

  7. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described. PMID:15046847

  8. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  9. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe.

    PubMed

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  10. Hungary's experience: Soviet military leaves hazardous reminder in Central and Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, P.I.; Biczo, I.L.; Herndon, R.C.; Moerlins, J.E.

    1994-02-01

    Since the breakup of the former Soviet Union, thousands of abandoned Soviet military installations, including troop bases and airfields, have been returned to their host countries. These installations present serious, widespread environmental problems for the governments of Central and Eastern Europe. In the West, where approximately 130 military installations also are being realigned from military to civilian uses, similar environmental contamination problems exist. Expertise gained by US and Western European engineering firms at such sites may be applied to the cleanup of contaminated sites in Central and Eastern Europe. More than 1,000 former Soviet military installations exist in eastern Germany alone, with additional sites in Hungary, the Czech and Slovak Republics, and Poland. These sites pose critical contamination problems that will require a variety of remedial activities, including engineering, consulting, design and environmental assessment services; instrumentation and laboratory capabilities; groundwater and surface water treatment technologies; leaking underground storage tank (UST) removal and replacement techniques; mobile incinerators; and bioremediation and soil desorption technologies.

  11. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K.; Münzel, Susanne C.; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  12. Mitochondrial Genomes of Giant Deers Suggest their Late Survival in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Immel, Alexander; Drucker, Dorothée G; Bonazzi, Marion; Jahnke, Tina K; Münzel, Susanne C; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Kind, Claus-Joachim; Krause, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The giant deer Megaloceros giganteus is among the most fascinating Late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna that became extinct at the end of the last ice age. Important questions persist regarding its phylogenetic relationship to contemporary taxa and the reasons for its extinction. We analyzed two large ancient cervid bone fragments recovered from cave sites in the Swabian Jura (Baden-Württemberg, Germany) dated to 12,000 years ago. Using hybridization capture in combination with next generation sequencing, we were able to reconstruct nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from both specimens. Both mtDNAs cluster phylogenetically with fallow deer and show high similarity to previously studied partial Megaloceros giganteus DNA from Kamyshlov in western Siberia and Killavullen in Ireland. The unexpected presence of Megaloceros giganteus in Southern Germany after the Ice Age suggests a later survival in Central Europe than previously proposed. The complete mtDNAs provide strong phylogenetic support for a Dama-Megaloceros clade. Furthermore, isotope analyses support an increasing competition between giant deer, red deer, and reindeer after the Last Glacial Maximum, which might have contributed to the extinction of Megaloceros in Central Europe. PMID:26052672

  13. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  14. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  15. The effect of moving cold fronts over Central Europe to the variability of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potuznikova, Katerina; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Boska, Josef; Sindelarova, Tereza; Mosna, Zbysek

    2015-04-01

    Cold fronts represent well known source of atmospheric waves, (especially short and medium scale AGW - acoustic gravity waves), that are able to propagate up to the ionospheric heights. In our study we focus on the effects of the transitions of cold front over the region of Central Europe on the variations of the ionosphere. We concentrate on periods of low solar and geomagnetic activity. Neutral atmosphere data are compared with the wave-like oscillations in the E and F layer. Our tropospheric data comprise synoptic maps on of 500 hPa and 850 hPa geopotential heights. Within ionospheric data we search for variability that is linked to the tropospheric disturbances. The ionospheric parameters (electron concentration and corresponding height) we analyse by the wavelet transform method. The Modern HF digisonde DPS-4 D (Digisonde Portable Sounder), which is in operation at the Pruhonice observatory (49.59 N; 14.33 E) of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Prague (IAP) since 2004, represents an excellent source of the ionospheric data for Central Europe. Pruhonice digisonde usually operates in standard mode - one ionogram and electron density profie N(h) each 15 minutes. Besides that, data from several european stations of the digisonde world network (data from Juliusruhe, Chilton, Brusel, Roma and Tortosa digisonde stations) are included in the study.

  16. [Canine leishmaniosis in Central Europe: retrospective survey and serological study of imported and travelling dogs].

    PubMed

    Mettler, Maik; Grimm, Felix; Naucke, Torsten J; Maasjost, Christiane; Deplazes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a common parasitic disease in Central Europe affecting dogs imported or returning from endemic countries around the Mediterranean basin. Through an internet discussion forum owners of dogs with suspected or proven leishmaniosis living in Central Europe (D, A, CH), were questioned about the dog's history. Additionally, serologic examinations of the dogs for anti-Leishmania antibodies (ELISA using antigen of promastigote stages) were offered to the participants. From February to October 2003, 291 dogs imported or returning from Southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, France, Malta, Portugal and others) were analysed. Serologically, 111 dogs (38%) were classified positive; 103 being imported and eight travelling dogs. The majority of seropositive dogs originated from Spain (67%). No significant correlation could be established between race, sex and age and the incidence of the disease. The clinical symptoms in the seropositive dogs varied widely and ranged from mild general symptoms to visceral manifestations with chronic renal failure. Skin disorders were found in 78% of the seropositive, symptomatic animals. In the country of origin or after import or return, 174 out of 291 dogs (60%) had been tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by different immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT). Discrepancies between the ELISA and the various IFATs used were noted in 55 cases (32%), especially in cases of low IFAT titers. Most of the seropositive dogs (80%) had been treated against leishmaniosis. In 91% of these cases, Allopurinol as monotherapy or in combination with Glucantime had been used. For diagnostics and therapy, dog owners had spent an average of 1,100 euros (median 900 euros, maximum 5,800 euros). PMID:15690634

  17. Diversity and endemism in deglaciated areas: ploidy, relative genome size and niche differentiation in the Galium pusillum complex (Rubiaceae) in Northern and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kolář, Filip; Lučanová, Magdalena; Vít, Petr; Urfus, Tomáš; Chrtek, Jindřich; Fér, Tomáš; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Suda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants endemic to areas covered by ice sheets during the last glaciation represent paradigmatic examples of rapid speciation in changing environments, yet very few systems outside the harsh arctic zone have been comprehensively investigated so far. The Galium pusillum aggregate (Rubiaceae) is a challenging species complex that exhibits a marked differentiation in boreal parts of Northern Europe. As a first step towards understanding its evolutionary history in deglaciated regions, this study assesses cytological variation and ecological preferences of the northern endemics and compares the results with corresponding data for species occurring in neighbouring unglaciated parts of Central and Western Europe. Methods DNA flow cytometry was used together with confirmatory chromosome counts to determine ploidy levels and relative genome sizes in 1158 individuals from 181 populations. A formalized analysis of habitat preferences was applied to explore niche differentiation among species and ploidy levels. Key Results The G. pusillum complex evolved at diploid and tetraploid levels in Northern Europe, in contrast to the high-polyploid evolution of most other northern endemics. A high level of eco-geographic segregation was observed between different species (particularly along gradients of soil pH and competition) which is unusual for plants in deglaciated areas and most probably contributes to maintaining species integrity. Relative monoploid DNA contents of the species from previously glaciated regions were significantly lower than those of their counterparts from mostly unglaciated Central Europe, suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Conclusions The aggregate of G. pusillum in Northern Europe represents an exceptional case with a geographically vicariant and ecologically distinct diploid/tetraploid species endemic to formerly glaciated areas. The high level of interspecific differentiation substantially widens our perception of the

  18. Strain Distribution in Central Europe: FEM Modeling and Comparison with GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araszkiewicz, A.; Bogusz, J.; Jarosinski, M.; Lenik, K.

    2012-12-01

    The main aim of this research is to demonstrate how the results of permanent GPS measurements can be understand in terms of recent geodynamics by applying numerical modeling method. On the other hand, the results of modeling are testing the consistency of the GPS measurements. The method of finite element analysis was applied to develop two-dimensional model of strain and stress field in Central Europe. The FEM model was prepared in the ABAQUS software, consisting of graphic modules and ABAQUS/CAE and ABAQUS Standard modules for solving the static task. The structure of the model was created in the plane Cartesian coordinate system, assuming that for this size of model the earth curvature will not affect the stress and strain direction significantly. Simplified elastic model with frictional contact elements was used for defining mechanical properties of the model. The model consists of 48 parts representing major tectonic units/blocks characterized by different material properties. The stiffness of tectonic blocks expressed by Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio was determined based on the lithospheric thickness, surface heat flow and simplified lithological column of the lithosphere. For dislocations, different values of friction coefficient was tested in course of the trial-and-error modeling than the best fitted options were finally adopted in the model. The dynamic (force and pressure) boundary conditions were applied to the elastic model based on the recent tectonic stress directions from the World Stress Map Database. To allow fast changes of the loads the model boundary were designed normal to tectonic stresses. After each computing round the simulated stress and strain were compared with that measured, paying special attention to the GPS measurements from Poland and the adjacent areas. We have used coordinates and velocities from EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) densified by Polish national Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS) ASG-EUPOS. They were obtained

  19. Bridging global and microregional scales: ploidy distribution in Pilosella echioides (Asteraceae) in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Dočkalová, Zuzana; Rosenbaumová, Radka; Kubátová, Barbora; Szeląg, Zbigniew; Chrtek, Jindřich

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims A detailed knowledge of cytotype distribution can provide important insights into the evolutionary history of polyploid systems. This study aims to explore the spatial distribution of different cytotypes in Pilosella echioides at various spatial scales (from the whole distributional range to the population level) and to outline possible evolutionary scenarios for the observed geographic pattern. Methods DNA-ploidy levels were estimated using DAPI flow cytometry in 4410 individuals of P. echioides from 46 populations spread over the entire distribution range in central Europe. Special attention was paid to the cytotype structure in the most ploidy-diverse population in south-west Moravia. Key Results Five different cytotypes (2x, 3x, 4x, 5x and 6x) were found, the last being recorded for the first time. Although ploidy-uniform (di- or tetraploid) sites clearly prevailed, nearly one-quarter of the populations investigated harboured more (up to all five) cytotypes. Whereas penta- and hexaploids constituted only a minority of the samples, a striking predominance of the triploid cytotype was observed in several populations. Conclusions The representative sampling confirmed previous data on cytotype distribution, i.e. the spatial aggregation of mixed-ploidy populations in south-west Moravia and Lower Austria and the predominance of ploidy-uniform populations in other parts of the area investigated. Recurrent origin of polyploids from diploid progenitors via unreduced gametes and their successful establishment are considered the key factors promoting intrapopulational ploidy mixture (‘primary hybrid zones’). As an alternative to the generally accepted theory of cytotype co-existence based on the development of different means of inter-ploidy reproductive isolation, it is suggested that a long-term ploidy mixture can also be maintained in free-mating populations provided that the polyploids originate with a sufficient frequency. In addition, the

  20. On the assessment of urban land-surface impacts on climate in regional climate model simulations over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    When aiming higher resolution in dynamical downscaling, which is common trend in CORDEX activities, the effects of land use and land use changes are playing increasing role. This is especially true for the urban areas, which in high resolution can occupy significant part of a single gridbox, if not being even bigger in case of big cities or megacities. Moreover, the role of cities will increase in future, as the population within the urban areas is growing faster, with the estimate for Europe of about 84% living in cities. For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been coupled with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM), which can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Additionally, the version of land-surface scheme using CLM is tested and effect of the urban environment, which is included in the CLM scheme, will be assessed. Both versions will be compared and validated using EOBS data.

  1. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, Pawel; Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest. PMID:26835186

  3. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M.; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A.; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest. PMID:26835186

  4. A migration-driven model for the historical spread of leprosy in medieval Eastern and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Helen D; Michael Taylor, G; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, Gyorgy; Pap, Ildikó; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Pinhasi, Ron; Erdal, Yilmaz S; Velemínsky, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Besra, Gurdyal S; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Bull, Ian D; O'Grady, Justin; Spigelman, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Leprosy was rare in Europe during the Roman period, yet its prevalence increased dramatically in medieval times. We examined human remains, with paleopathological lesions indicative of leprosy, dated to the 6th-11th century AD, from Central and Eastern Europe and Byzantine Anatolia. Analysis of ancient DNA and bacterial cell wall lipid biomarkers revealed Mycobacterium leprae in skeletal remains from 6th-8th century Northern Italy, 7th-11th century Hungary, 8th-9th century Austria, the Slavic Greater Moravian Empire of the 9th-10th century and 8th-10th century Byzantine samples from Northern Anatolia. These data were analyzed alongside findings published by others. M. leprae is an obligate human pathogen that has undergone an evolutionary bottleneck followed by clonal expansion. Therefore M. leprae genotypes and sub-genotypes give information about the human populations they have infected and their migration. Although data are limited, genotyping demonstrates that historical M. leprae from Byzantine Anatolia, Eastern and Central Europe resembles modern strains in Asia Minor rather than the recently characterized historical strains from North West Europe. The westward migration of peoples from Central Asia in the first millennium may have introduced different M. leprae strains into medieval Europe and certainly would have facilitated the spread of any existing leprosy. The subsequent decline of M. leprae in Europe may be due to increased host resistance. However, molecular evidence of historical leprosy and tuberculosis co-infections suggests that death from tuberculosis in leprosy patients was also a factor. PMID:25680828

  5. North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing doors to compressor room at left and plant switch house at right (series 1 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wall, central part, showing partial partition wall at left. This area is labeled “Pioneering Research” on drawing copy NV-35-B-5 (submitted with HABS No. NV-35-B) (series 2 of 4) - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  7. 16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. OVERALL VIEW TO THE NORTH OVER THE CENTRAL PART OF THE INTERIOR, RECENTLY USED FOR A BASKETBALL, LOOKING NORTH TOWARDS THE ROLL-UP DOOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. This image, looking due south shows the central part of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This image, looking due south shows the central part of the north wing of the building, a 2 story facade. In the foreground are several utility chases which span this elevation of the building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  9. Publication ethics in biomedical journals from countries in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Broga, Mindaugas; Mijaljica, Goran; Waligora, Marcin; Keis, Aime; Marusic, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not members of the European Union. The most common ethical issues addressed by all journals in the region were redundant publication, peer review process, and copyright or licensing details. Image manipulation, editors' conflicts of interest and registration of clinical trials were the least common ethical policies. Three aspects were significantly more common in journals published outside the EU: statements on the endorsement of international editorial standards, contributorship policy, and image manipulation. On the other hand, copyright or licensing information were more prevalent in journals published in the Eastern EU. The existence of significant differences among biomedical journals' ethical policies calls for further research and active measures to harmonize policies across journals. PMID:23456142

  10. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3− increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  11. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kołodziejek, Jeremi; Patykowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. NO3(-) increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. PMID:26229977

  12. Using BeiDou system for precise positioning in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniak, Dawid; Cellmer, Slawomir; Nowel, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    In 2012 the Chinese navigation satellite system called BeiDou System (BDS) has reached the regional operational capabilities over the area of East Asia. Currently the BDS system consists of 5 medium orbit satellites MEO, 6 geosynchronous satellites IGSO and 5 geostationary satellites GEO and provides regional coverage by its navigation signals. Also in Europe BDS satellites can be used to determine position. In 2015 the third phase of BSD system development has started, aimed at providing global coverage and compatibility with other GNSS systems. As a result, BDS will broadcast signals at the same frequency as GPS L1 and L5 and Galileo E1, E5a and E5b. In the presented research we carried out relative positioning using the MAFA method. This was the first time when this method was applied to process BDS signals. The results show that it is possible to obtain precise position in central Europe using BDS signals only. However, with its current constellation, this is not possible 24/7, but in periodic time windows.

  13. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various "natural laboratories" of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally.Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world's most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports.By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m(3) (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m(3)), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments.The main purpose of this review is to critically examine, including

  14. Is Central Europe Safe from Environmental Lead Intoxications? A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Pelclová, Daniela; Šťastná, Jana; Vlčková, Štěpánka; Vlček, Kamil; Urban, Michal; Laštovková, Andrea; Doležel, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    Preventive measures in Central Europe were successful in suppressing both occupational and environmental lead exposure so that they did not constitute a severe public health problem. However, rare lead intoxications still appear. We report on lead intoxication in four family members where the source was removed lead ceiling paint. The symptoms of the lead intoxication started several weeks after removal and the inhalational exposure to the minimum dust residues lasted for more than three months before the poisoning was diagnosed. Father developed anaemia and saturnine colics. He and his two daughters received antidotal treatment which had to be repeated in the children. Finally, all recovered completely.Lead intoxication may be easily overlooked due to the unspecific symptoms. It is necessary to think of this rare poisoning which may be caused by old paints, historical ceramics and lead shots, in addition to commercial products imported from abroad. PMID:27434242

  15. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  16. A Decade of Transformation: Educational Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitter, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    The changes in Central and Eastern Europe caused by upheavals at the beginning of the 1990s had great impact on the formation and implementation of educational policies. A comparison of patterns in Russia, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic shows common features which were rooted in the collapse of the communist system. At the same time these transformation processes were marked by considerable diversity. To elucidate these commonalities and differences, the following problem areas are examined: (a) decentralisation of responsibilities; (b) financing and privatisation; (c) structural reforms; (d) curricular reforms; and (e) evaluation, assessment and examinations. These developments are considered in the light of various theories about how periods of social transformation unfold. The article helps to throw light on the differences between the countries of the region in terms of how the educational changes were perceived and carried out.

  17. Review of HIV Vulnerability and Condom Use in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Amirkhanian, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological trend of increasing HIV incidence rates due to sexual transmission in Central and Eastern Europe has been documented. The current review analyzed research articles that report on a wide spectrum of vulnerable populations from this world region. Studies of injection drug users, commercial sex workers, men who have sex with men, adolescents and young adults all reported inconsistent condom use. However, these patterns varied across populations and geographic areas. Populations in former Soviet countries—most affected by HIV—also often appeared to have lower condom use rates. Intensified, comprehensive, and locally-tailored measures to curb sexual HIV transmission are urgently needed. Social development programs need to incorporate HIV prevention. PMID:22348631

  18. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  19. Forest stand growth dynamics in Central Europe have accelerated since 1870

    PubMed Central

    Pretzsch, Hans; Biber, Peter; Schütze, Gerhard; Uhl, Enno; Rötzer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have been exposed to climate change for more than 100 years, whereas the consequences on forest growth remain elusive. Based on the oldest existing experimental forest plots in Central Europe, we show that, currently, the dominant tree species Norway spruce and European beech exhibit significantly faster tree growth (+32 to 77%), stand volume growth (+10 to 30%) and standing stock accumulation (+6 to 7%) than in 1960. Stands still follow similar general allometric rules, but proceed more rapidly through usual trajectories. As forest stands develop faster, tree numbers are currently 17–20% lower than in past same-aged stands. Self-thinning lines remain constant, while growth rates increase indicating the stock of resources have not changed, while growth velocity and turnover have altered. Statistical analyses of the experimental plots, and application of an ecophysiological model, suggest that mainly the rise in temperature and extended growing seasons contribute to increased growth acceleration, particularly on fertile sites. PMID:25216297

  20. Types of geographical distribution of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae) in Central Europe *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Rönn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparison of the geographical distribution patterns of 647 species of Chrysomelidae in Central Europe revealed 13 types of distribution: (1) widely distributed, (2) southern, (3) southeastern, (4) southwestern, (5) northern, (6) eastern, (7) south east quarter, (8) south west quarter, (9) fragmented, (10) montane, (11) subalpine & alpine, (12) scattered, (13) unusual, and irregular patterns produced by insufficient data. Some of these distributions are trivial (e. g. northern, eastern, etc., alpine) but others are surprising. Some cannot be explained, e. g. the remarkable gaps in the distribution of Chrysolina limbata (Fabricius, 1775) and in Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777). Although our 63.000 records are necessarily tentative, we found that the distribution maps from these data reflect in many cases the common knowledge on the occurrence of leaf beetles in specific areas. PMID:22303107

  1. Tracing sediment pathways by zircon fission track analysis: Oligocene marine connections in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Cornelia; Kuhlemann, Joachim; Frisch, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we use contrasting zircon fission track age signatures of Alpine detritus and detritus derived from the Variscan realm to trace sediment pathways in Central Europe. Our data show that the Molasse Basin was connected with the Rhine Graben Sea during the Mid-Oligocene, thus joining the North Sea to the Paratethys. Within the Rhine Graben Sea, fairly strong south-north directed currents existed, transporting sand-sized Alpine detritus nearly 300 km towards the north. A connection between the Rhône-Bresse Graben and the Rhine Graben and/or the French Molasse Basin and the Swiss Molasse Basin, by contrast, is not supported by the fission track data. This may be explained by the existence of submarine rises that hampered the transport of sand-sized sediment towards the north/northeast.

  2. The "Geomorphologic Diagonal" of Central Europe - towards a new morphotectonic interpretation of macroforms in average mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoeller, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    Modern methods of low temperature thermochronology are able to throw light on the geomorphological development of macrorelief landforms. A rarely investigated problem concerns the orientation and morphotectonic evolution of Central European uplands (low to mid-elevation mountain ranges). A conspicuous NW-SE striking boundary takes course through Germany from the Osning and Teutoburg Forest in the NW to the Bavarian Forest in the SE. I call this line the "geomorphological diagonal". East of this line, more or less NW-SE striking morphotectonic features (e.g., Harz Mountains, Sudety) dominate the macrorelief up to the eastern border of Central Europe (Thornquist-Teysseire Lineament), with the exception of the Ohre Rift and Central Bohemia. West of this line, the macrorelief is either characterized by NNE-SSW to N-S oriented structures (e.g., Upper Rhine Rift) and, to a lesser extent, by (S)SW-(E)NE mountain ranges (southern Rhenish Slate Mountains and Ore Mountains) or by no predominance at all. In the Lower Rhine Embayment and along the Middle Rhine River, (N)NW-(S)SE directed morphotectonic features influence the low mountain ranges. In several cases geologists have proven that NW-SE morphotectonic structures are related to the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian to Campanian) "basin inversion" (e.g., von Eynatten et al. 2008). A compilation of low temperature thermochronological data (AFT, [U-Th]/He) from Central Europe clearly supports strong crustal cooling during the Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary in morphotectonically protruded crustal blocks east of the geomorphological diagonal, whereas west of it the age data available so far exhibit a much larger scatter from Upper Paleozoic to Tertiary without clear evidence of an outstanding Upper Cretaceous crustal cooling event. Based on this data I hypothesize that east of the diagonal macroforms of uplifted denudation surfaces ("peneplains" or "etchplains") may be inherited from the Cretaceous whereas west of it

  3. Climatology of Vb cyclones, physical mechanisms and their impact on extreme precipitation over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, M.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Raible, C. C.

    2015-09-01

    Cyclones, which develop over the western Mediterranean and move northeastward are a major source of extreme weather and known to be responsible for heavy precipitation over the northern side of the Alpine range and Central Europe. As the relevant processes triggering these so-called Vb events and their impact on extreme precipitation are not yet fully understood, this study focuses on gaining insight into the dynamics of past events. For this, a cyclone detection and tracking tool is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2013) to identify prominent Vb situations. Precipitation in the ERA-Interim and the E-OBS data sets is used to evaluate case-to-case precipitation amounts and to assess consistency between the two data sets. Both data sets exhibit high variability in precipitation amounts among different Vb events. While only 23 % of all Vb events are associated with extreme precipitation, around 15 % of all extreme precipitation days (99 percentile) over the northern Alpine region and Central Europe are induced by Vb events, although Vb cyclones are rare events (2.3 per year). To obtain a better understanding of the variability within Vb events, the analysis of the 10 heaviest and lowest precipitation Vb events reveals noticeable differences in the state of the atmosphere. These differences are most pronounced in the geopotential height and potential vorticity field, indicating a much stronger cyclone for heavy precipitation events. The related differences in wind direction are responsible for the moisture transport around the Alps and the orographical lifting along the northern slopes of the Alps. These effects are the main reasons for a disastrous outcome of Vb events, and consequently are absent in the Vb events associated with low precipitation. Hence, our results point out that heavy precipitation related to Vb events is mainly related to large-scale dynamics rather than to thermodynamic processes.

  4. Reproduction of links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcová, Eva; Kyselý, Jan; Štěpánek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    The study evaluates relationships between large-scale atmospheric circulation (represented by circulation indices and circulation types derived from gridded mean sea level pressure) and daily precipitation amounts over three regions in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) with different precipitation regimes. We examine how ENSEMBLES regional climate model (RCM) simulations driven by re-analysis reproduce the observed links and capture differences in the links between the regions (lowlands vs. highlands) and seasons. We study the links of circulation to (i) mean precipitation over the regions, (ii) probability of wet days, and (iii) probability of extreme daily precipitation (exceeding threshold defined by a high quantile of precipitation distribution in a given season). Relatively strong links between atmospheric circulation and the precipitation characteristics are found in the observed data. The links are generally more pronounced for highland than lowland regions. More wet days and higher precipitation amounts are found for cyclonic and stronger flows, and for westerly and north-easterly flows. The RCMs are generally able to capture basic features of the links; nevertheless, they have difficulties to reproduce some more specific features and differences in the links between the regions. The results also suggest that good performance in some precipitation characteristics may be due to compensating errors rather than model's perfection. Reference: Plavcová E., Kyselý J., Štěpánek P., 2014: Links between circulation types and precipitation in Central Europe in the observed data and regional climate model simulations. International Journal of Climatology, doi 10.1002/joc.3882.

  5. A tectonic model for the spatial occurrence of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits - applications to Central Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    A structural-tectonic model, which was developed to assess the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits and associated polymetallic vein systems for the Matra Mountains, Hungary, has been expanded here and applied to other parts of central Europe. The model explains how granitoid stocks are emplaced and hydrothermal fluids flow within local strain features (duplexes) within strike-slip fault systems that develop in continental crust above subducting plates. Areas of extension that lack shear at the corners and along the edges of the fault duplexes are structural traps for the granitoid stocks associated with porphyry copper deposits. By contrast, polymetallic vein deposits are emplaced where shear and extension are prevalent in the interior of the duplexes. This model was applied to the Late Cretaceous-age porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Banat-Timok-Srednogorie region of Romania-Serbia-Bulgaria and the middle Miocene-age deposits in Romania and Slovakia. In the first area, porphyry copper deposits are most commonly located at the corners, and occasionally along the edges, of strike-slip fault duplexes, and the few polymetallic vein deposits identified are located at interior sites of the duplexes. In the second area, the model accounts for the preferred sites of porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits in the Apuseni Mountains (Romania) and central Slovakian volcanic field (Slovakia).

  6. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W.

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  7. The New Faces of Europe. Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Michel

    This monograph, published as part of the project "A Secondary Education for Europe," offers some basic data on the contemporary human geography of the European continent, with a focus on central and eastern Europe. The document first describes civic issues in the teaching of geography and cartography of the new Europe. The basic pedagogical intent…

  8. High genetic similarity of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter jejuni in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kovač, Jasna; Čadež, Neža; Stessl, Beatrix; Stingl, Kerstin; Gruntar, Igor; Ocepek, Matjaž; Trkov, Marija; Wagner, Martin; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the leading zoonosis in the European Union with the majority of cases attributed to Campylobacter jejuni. Although the disease is usually self-limiting, some severe cases need to be treated with antibiotics, primarily macrolides and quinolones. However, the resistance to the latter is reaching alarming levels in most of the EU countries. To shed light on the expansion of antibiotic resistance in central Europe, we have investigated genetic similarity across 178 ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni mostly isolated in Slovenia, Austria and Germany. We performed comparative genetic similarity analyses using allelic types of seven multilocus sequence typing housekeeping genes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of a quinolone resistance determining region located within the DNA gyrase subunit A gene. This analysis revealed high genetic similarity of isolates from clonal complex ST-21 that carry gyrA allelic type 1 in all three of these central-European countries, suggesting these ciprofloxacin resistant isolates arose from a recent common ancestor and are spread clonally. PMID:26557112

  9. Future snowfall in western and central Europe projected with a high-resolution regional climate model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vries, Hylke; Lenderink, Geert; Meijgaard, Erik

    2014-06-01

    Snowfall frequency and intensity are influenced strongly by climate change. Here we separate the basic frequency change resulting from a gradually warming climate, from the intensity changes, by focusing on snowfall on days where the mean temperature is below freezing (Hellmann days). Using an ensemble of simulations, obtained with the high-resolution regional climate model KNMI-RACMO2 driven by the EC-EARTH global climate model and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 forcing scenarios, we show that in addition to the strong decrease in the number of Hellmann days, also a substantial reduction in the mean Hellmann-day snowfall can be expected over large parts of western and central Europe. Moreover, seasonal snowfall extremes display trends that are comparable or even larger. Projected intensity reductions are locally as large as -30% per degree warming, thus being in sharp contrast to mean winter precipitation, which increases in most future climate scenarios. Exceptions are the high Alps and parts of Scandinavia, which may see an increase of up to +10% per degree warming.

  10. Challenges for Teachers' Professional Learning for Inclusive Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani; Becirevic, Majda

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to prepare teachers and other professionals for inclusive education in the Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS/CEE) region are heavily influenced by the legacy of Soviet defectology (the study of children with disabilities) and Soviet traditions of teacher education. The authors identify some…

  11. Entrepreneurial Training for the Growth of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report brings together a number of principles as to best practice in supporting, through training, growth of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Central and Eastern Europe. Chapter 2 identifies key principles to be drawn from the West through a literature review. Chapter 3 reviews the "practice" of entrepreneurial training in Central…

  12. Good Practice in Promoting Gender Equality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunberg, Laura

    This volume publishes the results of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES) project, Good Practice in Promoting Gender Inequality in Higher Education in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Countries. These case studies offer hope for a future in which…

  13. HIV among people who inject drugs in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia: a systematic review with implications for policy

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Emma; Rhodes, Tim; Platt, Lucy; Hope, Vivian; Latypov, Alisher; Donoghoe, Martin; Wilson, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID) is a major public health concern in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia. HIV transmission in this group is growing and over 27 000 HIV cases were diagnosed among PWID in 2010 alone. The objective of this systematic review was to examine risk factors associated with HIV prevalence among PWID in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia and to describe the response to HIV in this population and the policy environments in which they live. Design A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors for HIV prevalence among PWID and a synthesis of key resources describing the response to HIV in this population. We used a comprehensive search strategy across multiple electronic databases to collect original research papers addressing HIV prevalence and risk factors among PWID since 2005. We summarised the extent of key harm reduction interventions, and using a simple index of ‘enabling’ environment described the policy environments in which they are implemented. Studies reviewed Of the 5644 research papers identified from electronic databases and 40 documents collected from our grey literature search, 70 documents provided unique estimates of HIV and 14 provided multivariate risk factors for HIV among PWID. Results HIV prevalence varies widely, with generally low or medium (<5%) prevalence in Central Europe and high (>10%) prevalence in Eastern Europe. We found evidence for a number of structural factors associated with HIV including gender, socio-economic position and contact with law enforcement agencies. Conclusions The HIV epidemic among PWID in the region is varied, with the greatest burden generally in Eastern Europe. Data suggest that the current response to HIV among PWID is insufficient, and hindered by multiple environmental barriers including restricted access to services and unsupportive policy or social environments. PMID:23087014

  14. A New Generation of Large Seismic Refraction Experiments in Central Europe (1997-2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Grad, M.; Spicak, A.; Brueckl, E.; Hegedus, E.; Keller, G. R.; Thybo, H.

    2003-12-01

    Beginning in 1997, Central Europe has been covered by an unprecedented network of seismic refraction experiments. These experiments (POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, SUDETES 2003) have only been possible due a massive international cooperative effort. The total length of all profiles is about 19,000 km, and over 300 explosive sources were employed. The result is a network of seismic refraction profiles that extends along the Trans-European Suture Zone region of Poland and the Bohemian massif, Pannonian basin, trough the Carpathians and Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the Dinarides. As reflected in structures within these areas, Central Europe has experienced a complex tectonic history that includes the Caledonian, Variscan, and Alpine orogenies. The related TESZ region is a broad zone of deformation that extends across Europe from British Isles to the Black Sea region that formed as Europe was assembled from a complex collage of terranes during the late Palaeozoic. For example, the Bohemian massif is mostly located in the Czech Republic and is a large, complex terrane whose origin can be traced to northern Gondwana (Africa). These terranes were accreted along the margin of Baltica that was formed during the break-up of Rodinia. The tectonic evolution of this region shares many attributes with the Appalachian/Ouachita origin and is certainly of global important to studies in terrane tectonics and continental evolution. In southern Poland, several structural blocks are located adjacent to Baltica and were probably transported laterally along it similar to the Cenozoic movement of terranes along the western margin of North America. The younger Carpathian arc and Pannonian back-arc basin were also targeted by these experiments. Thickness of the crust in the area of investigations changes from 22-25 km in the Pannonian basin to about 55 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone in SE Poland. Together, these experiments are providing an unprecedented 3-D image of the

  15. Georeference of the 1:200,000 'degree maps' of Central Europe (about 1910)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timár, G.; Molnár, G.; Crăciunescu, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Institute of Military Geography in Vienna has completed the mapping of central Europe in the scale of 1:200,000 in the first decade of the 20th century. The map sheets cover a one degree (latitude) by one degree (longitude) extent piece of the terrain, that's why these sheets are referred to as 'degree maps'. The longitude is shown with respect to the Ferro prime meridian. The integer degree lines are the horizontal and vertical central lines of the sheets. The map sheets has no uniform projections, not even inside one sheet. The basic units of these maps were the 1:75,000 scale sheets of the cartography of the Habsburg Monarchy, each covering a half degree (longitude) by quarter degree (latitude) piece of terrain. Each 1:75,000 sheets have their own oblique Stereographic projection, with the projection centre at the geometric centre of the sheet. The set of these Stereographic systems is called Lichtenstern-type polyedric projection system. Each degree maps contains eight of the 1:75,000 sheets, without reprojection but simply drawn them in an approximate mosaic. Thus, the exact method of the georeference would be to cut these degree maps into eight pieces along the borders of the 1:75,000 sheets and rectify them separately in their own Stereographic systems. As it raises a huge work, we suggest to define substituting projections. Namely, a sinusoidal projection for each degree column should be defined with a projection center at the crossing of the central meridian and the Equator. The degree maps can be rectified using their corners as control points in the respective sinusoidal projection. After the rectification, we can crop the map content of the sheets and reproject them to any selected projection to make a real map mosaic. Using the georeference, we can provide combinations of these sheets and the modern databases or elevation models.

  16. Occurrence of atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe: clinical and virological examinations.

    PubMed

    Farsang, A; Makranszki, L; Dobos-Kovács, M; Virág, Györgyi; Fábián, Katalin; Barna, Tímea; Kulcsár, G; Kucsera, L; Vetési, F

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of the atypical form of myxomatosis struck a rabbit farm in Hungary. The animals had previously been vaccinated with a vaccine containing Shope rabbit fibroma virus strain. The disease appeared in winter when the presence of mosquitoes and fleas is not common. The virus was isolated from an eyelid specimen of a naturally infected rabbit. The surviving animals were observed for four weeks, blood samples were collected and, after euthanasia, organ specimens were also examined by morphological methods including pathology and electron microscopy. Serum samples were examined by virus neutralisation for antibodies. Genetic analysis of the isolated virus was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The primers were designed on the basis of the major envelope gene (Env) of the Lausanne reference strain in the GenBank. The viral proteins were examined by SDS-PAGE. The isolated virus (ref. no.: BP04/2001) was able to infect the susceptible animals directly, by contact. The disease was characterised by respiratory symptoms of the upper tracheal tract, conjunctivitis and high mortality by the 11th-14th day. Aerogenic infection with strain BP04/2001 resulted in 100% morbidity among the susceptible animals. Sequencing of the amplified 400-bp-long DNA revealed 97% homology with the Env gene of the Lausanne strain, which proves that strain BP04/2001 is a variant of the Lausanne strain having been enzootic throughout Europe. The live vaccine strain used in Hungary against myxomatosis, which is also a Lausanne-derived strain, protected the animals. According to the protein analysis a protein of 200 kDa in size is not expressed in strain BP04/2001. This is the first report on atypical myxomatosis in Central Europe. The virus spreads by airborne transmission and may cause severe losses in the rabbit population. PMID:14680061

  17. Evaluation of Operationally Derived Aerosol Optical Depth from MSG-SEVIRI over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, C.; Riffler, M.; Emili, E.; Petitta, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol parameters derived from geostationary remote sensing instruments can complement those obtained from polar orbiting sensors (e.g. MODIS, MERIS, or AVHRR). The high scanning frequency of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on-board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites of 15 minutes significantly broadens the potential diurnal coverage over Europe and Africa. Therefore, these data allow to better account for the occasionally high spatial and temporal variabilities of atmospheric aerosols, for instance in cases such as desert dust outbreaks, forest fires, or the evolution of high particulate matter concentrations during stable weather conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate operationally derived aerosol optical depth maps based on imagery acquired by MSG-SEVIRI between December 2007 and November 2008. A one-channel multi-temporal approach is used in order to daily estimate aerosol optical depth for each slot between 6:12 and 18:12 UTC. The resulting SEVIRI AOD values are related to Sun photometer measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). 22 AERONET sites within the study area of central Europe provide cloud-screened level1.5 data for the investigation period. Overall, nearly ten thousand instantaneous SEVIRI and Sun photometer AOD values are compared and a correlation of 0.75 as well as a root-mean-square-error of 0.07 is found. Further, about 75% of all SEVIRI AOD values fall within the MODIS expected error over land of +/-(0.05+0.15*AOD). Finally, the computed statistical parameters for each individual season do not vary strongly. Taken together, the performance of the operational SEVIRI AOD estimation is comparable to the ones based on data from sensors on-board polar orbiting satellites. Therefore, these aerosol information of high temporal frequency can be of great interest e.g. for tracking pollutant transport, for comparisons with aerosol modelling results, or for synergistic use with additional

  18. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. PMID:26711673

  19. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  20. Evaluation of Enviro-HIRLAM model and aerosols effect during wildfires episodes in Europe and Central Russia in summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuterman, Roman; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Baklanov, Alexander; Kaas, Eigil

    2014-05-01

    The summer of 2010 was characterized by severe weather events such as floods, heat waves and droughts across Middle East, most of Europe and European Russia. Among them the wildfires in Portugal and European Russia were some of the most prominent and led to substantial increase of atmospheric aerosols concentration. For instance, pollution from Russian wildfires, which were the most noticeable, spread around the entire central part of the country and also dispersed towards the Northern Europe. This study is devoted to Enviro-HIRLAM (Environment - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) model evaluation and analysis of radiation balance change due to increased aerosol burden caused by wildfires in Russia. For this purpose the model was forced by boundary and initial conditions produced by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast) IFS and MOZART models for meteorology and atmospheric composition, respectively. The model setup included aerosol microphysics module M7 with simple tropospheric sulfur chemistry, anthropogenic emissions by TNO, wildfires emissions by FMI and interactive sea-salt and dust emissions. During the model run surface data assimilation of meteorological parameters was applied. The HIRLAM Savijarvi radiation scheme has been improved to account explicitly for aerosol radiation interactions. So that the short-wave radiative transfer calculations are performed as standard 2-stream calculations for averages of aerosol optical properties weighted over the entire spectrum. The model shows good correlation of particulate matter (PM) concentrations on diurnal cycle as well as day-to-day variability, but one always has negative bias of PM. The Enviro-HIRLAM is able to capture concentration peaks both from short-term and long-term trans boundary transport of PM and predicted the Aerosol Optical Thickness (at 550 nm) up to 2 over wildfire-polluted regions. And the direct radiative forcing is less than -100 W/m2.

  1. Automated inter-station measurements of fundamental mode phase velocities, and tomographic inversion for Central and Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, Riaz Ahmed; Weidle, Christian; Lebedev, Sergei; Cristiano, Luigia; Meier, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Broad-band phase velocity measurements of fundamental mode surface waves yield information on the isotropic as well as anisotropic structure of the crust and the upper mantle. Dispersion curves may be determined by cross correlating direct and coda fundamental mode waveforms recorded at two stations on the great circle path. In many cases the cross correlation is less affected by scattering than the waveform itself. Examples show that broad band dispersion curves may be obtained by this interferometric measurement. Single event measurements may however be perturbed by off-path propagation, scattering at lateral heterogeneity, higher modes, noise, and erroneous response information. Due to the smooth nature of the 1D fundamental mode sensitivity kernels smooth dispersion curves are expected for media with moderate and smooth lateral heterogeneity. Therefore, smooth parts of the dispersion curves are selected. This reduces the influence of scattering, higher modes, and noise. Furthermore, comparison of a large number of dispersion curves measured along one path for both propagation directions may reveal smooth perturbations caused by off-path propagation and erroneous response information. Finally, after rejection of outliers smooth measurements for a larger number of events are averaged to find a path-average dispersion curve. Previously, the selection of the smooth part of the dispersion curve was made manually and if there were many station pair combinations and a large number of events the manual processing was time consuming. We now introduce the automated selection of the phase velocity curves, based on a set of rigorous, consistent, frequency- and distance-dependent criteria. The procedure is applied to around one million events and about 60,000 paths on permanent and temporary networks including TOR, and PASSEQ networks in central and northern Europe. Fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves are measured and anisotropic phase-velocity maps

  2. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  3. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  4. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  5. Climate condition in the Central Europe during the Weichselian Ice Sheet according to the Educational Global Climate Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szuman, Izabela; Czernecki, Bartosz

    2010-05-01

    The expansion and retreat of the ice sheet is controlled by climate changes, and from the other hand, a huge ice mass influences on the climate in the regional scale. This mechanism is commonly known as the fact but often without making reconstruction by using climatological modeling. The purpose of our study is to reconstruct the climate condition during the Weichselian Ice Sheet in the Central Europe, especially for Poland and surrounded countries. The Global Climate Model (GCM) is made for predicting climate, but simplified version can be useful for reconstructing paleoclimate. Hence, the simple initial conditions and surface data proposed by the Educational version of the GCM was applied. In our study we used a simplified version of the GCM to calculate main climate characteristics within the time limits c. 21 000 BP - 18 000 BP, which has been previously invented on Columbia University. The model is constructed on grid with a horizontal resolution 8° latitude by 10° longitude and was establish for modeling most of weather conditions based on available paleoclimate data. It is possible to estimate the probable climate condition along the southern ice sheets margin on the basis of output from the GCM and GIS modeling techniques. Above the ice mass occurs local high pressure area, which seriously interfered on atmospheric circulation. Whereas the low pressure systems in the southern part of continent may caused permanent barometric situation, which stimulates wind directions as well as the precipitable water available in the mass of air. The climate on the east-south border of ice margin was colder and drier than on the west-south region, where it was more ocean-reliable and gentle with higher temperatures. The differences in temperature between the western and eastern part of the Central Europe reached few centigrade. Against a background of the mean paleoclimatic situation in the Central Europe there is coming out a question about the particular paleoclimate

  6. Vb-type cyclones and their role in extreme precipitation events in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, Martina; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph C.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather situations are of major relevance for society, since they lead to great economical and personal damage. In Central Europe, one important source of extreme precipitation accompanied by large flooding events is the so-called Vb-event, classified by W. J. Van Bebber in 1891. Vb-events are defined as cyclones developing over the western Mediterranean that move north eastward. They can uptake large amounts of moisture, which is then transported towards the Alps and Central Europe, inducing heavy precipitation and flooding events. Despite their importance the relevant processes triggering Vb-events and their impact in extreme precipitation are not yet fully understood. The overall goal of this study research is to understand the dynamics of the past events and to provide a reliable climatology, which would provide a first guess for future behaviour of these potentially disastrous situations. A cyclone detection and tracking tool is applied to ERA Interim reanalysis (1979-2013) in order to identify the most prominent Vb-situations. Vb-events are detected and tracked in the geopotential height at 850 hPa. Subsequently, the cyclones are automatically filtered with criteria based on the origin and end of the track, which allows us discarding those paths that should not be considered as Vb-events. Precipitation in the ERA Interim and E-OBS database is used to evaluate the precipitation amounts corresponding to each case and to assess the consistency between datasets. ERA Interim and E-OBS data consistently indicate that there is great variability in precipitation amounts within different Vb-events. While it is expected that Vb-events are associated with extreme precipitation, this is only true for about one quarter of all cases. Nevertheless around 15% of extreme precipitation days (99 percentile) over the Alpine region are triggered by Vb-events. In order to obtain a better understanding of the large variability in Vb-events, the ten heaviest and lowest

  7. On the Risk of Mediterranean and Sub-tropical Climate Expansion into Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farda, Ales; Štěpánek, Petr; Zahradníček, Pavel; Szabó-Takács, Beata

    2015-04-01

    Many contemporary studies of climate change focused on or including Central Europe suggest significant changes of future climate characteristics. The scope of this transformation includes increased mean annual temperature, increased frequency and intensity of heat waves and droughts and changes in spatiotemporal precipitation characteristic including the tendency to occurrence of dangerous torrential rains. This makes from the region one of the particularly vulnerable area increasing the necessity of providing reliable, precise and comprehensible information both to the decision makers and general public. In our study we decided to examine climate change signal using the Köppen-Geiger climate classification on corrected output of high resolution simulations performed with the RCMs ALADIN-Climate/CZ and RegCM, nested in GCM ARPÉGE 5.0 lateral boundary conditions and ECHAM4 respectively. Both experiments were forced by IPCC SRES A1B scenario. Climate classifications like that of Köppen-Geiger are useful in wider range of ecological disciplines including forestry and agriculture as they correlate with their bio-ecologically oriented classification systems. In order to address regional and local character of climate change signal we decided to study simulations performed in 10km resolution, which is capable to capture even relatively fine scale geomorphological details. To retain as much fine scale signal as possible, model output was corrected using measured data from the dense observation networks operated by the national meteorological services of Austria (north to the Alps), Czech Republic and Slovakia. Thus, we are able to detect changes in climate characteristics affecting small scale geomorphological features like individual Alps and Carpathian mountain ranges, individual mountain systems of Bohemian massif, rift and river valleys, which are usually poorly represented in more coarse resolution. Our findings among other suggest the risk of large scale

  8. On the urban land-surface impact on climate over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal; Zemankova, Katerina; Zak, Michal

    2014-05-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of cities and in general the urban surfaces on climate over central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM) for urban and suburban land surface. This can be used both in dynamic scale within BATS scheme and in a more detailed SUBBATS scale to treat the surface processes on a higher resolution subgrid. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005-2009 over central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces and with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer), on the boundary layer height (ZPBL, increases up to 50 m). Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to -0,6 m s-1 and both increases and decreases in summer depending the location with respect to cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 ms-1). Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts in our simulations the summer precipitation rate showing decrease over cities up to - 2 mm day-1. We further showed, that significant temperature increases are not limited to the urban canopy layer but spawn the whole boundary layer. Above that, a small but statistically significant temperature decrease is modeled. The comparison with observational data showed significant improvement in modeling the monthly surface temperatures in summer and the models better describe the diurnal temperature variation reducing the afternoon and evening bias due to the UHI development, which was not captured by the model if one does not apply the urban parameterization. Sensitivity experiments were carried out as well to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs

  9. Optically perceptible characteristics of sprites observed in Central Europe in 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bór, József

    2013-01-01

    Sprites are luminous optical emissions accompanying electric discharges in the mesosphere. 489 sprite events have been observed with a TV frame rate video system in Central Europe from Sopron (47.68°N, 16.58°E, ˜230 m MSL), Hungary between 2007 and 2009. Characteristic sprite forms, i.e., column, wishbone, tree, angel, and carrot have been identified in the set of records. Characteristic morphological properties corresponding to each type are given; earlier definitions and observations as well as the related theoretical considerations are reviewed. Based on the knowledge and experience from high-speed imaging in sprite observations, probable time sequences of streamer propagation directions were associated with the characteristic sprite types. It is suggested that different streamer propagation sequences corresponding to different dynamic processes may result in similar sprite forms. Several occasionally detectable sprite features are noted and described: tendrils, glows, puffs, beads, and spots. Spots are distinguished from the similar beads by their characteristic brightness, size, and location relative to the bright body of the sprite. The events observed in Central Europe have been classified by the number of individual sprites and by the variety of types appearing in them. More than 90% of the recorded sprites were found to occur in clusters rather than alone, and more than half of the sprite clusters contained more than one sprite types. Jellyfish and dancing sprite events are described as being special subsets of sprite clusters. Statistical analysis of the occurrences of morphological types, various sprite features, and event durations indicated that jellyfish sprites and clusters of column sprites with glows and tendrils do not tend to have long optical lifetimes. Sprite events with more morphological types, on the other hand, more likely have extended durations. The maximum of the encountered event duration was lower for events with many sprite

  10. Phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in central and northern Europe from automated, broad-band, interstation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soomro, R. A.; Weidle, C.; Cristiano, L.; Lebedev, S.; Meier, T.; Passeq Working Group

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly dense coverage of Europe with broad-band seismic stations makes it possible to image its lithospheric structure in great detail, provided that structural information can be extracted effectively from the very large volumes of data. We develop an automated technique for the measurement of interstation phase velocities of (earthquake-excited) fundamental-mode surface waves in very broad period ranges. We then apply the technique to all available broad-band data from permanent and temporary networks across Europe. In a new implementation of the classical two-station method, Rayleigh and Love dispersion curves are determined by cross-correlation of seismograms from a pair of stations. An elaborate filtering and windowing scheme is employed to enhance the target signal and makes possible a significantly broader frequency band of the measurements, compared to previous implementations of the method. The selection of acceptable phase-velocity measurements for each event is performed in the frequency domain, based on a number of fine-tuned quality criteria including a smoothness requirement. Between 5 and 3000 single-event dispersion measurements are averaged per interstation path in order to obtain robust, broad-band dispersion curves with error estimates. In total, around 63,000 Rayleigh- and 27,500 Love-wave dispersion curves between 10 and 350 s have been determined, with standard deviations lower than 2 per cent and standard errors lower than 0.5 per cent. Comparisons of phase-velocity measurements using events at opposite backazimuths and the examination of the variance of the phase-velocity curves are parts of the quality control. With the automated procedure, large data sets can be consistently and repeatedly measured using varying selection parameters. Comparison of average interstation dispersion curves obtained with different degrees of smoothness shows that rough perturbations do not systematically bias the average dispersion measurement. They

  11. Chondritic Xenon in the Earth's mantle: new constrains on a mantle plume below central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Avice, Guillaume; Bernard, Peter; Furi, Evelin; Marty, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    data support the notion that the fraction of plutonium-derived Xe in plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) is higher than in the MORB source reservoir. Hence, the MORB - type reservoirs appear to be well distinguished and more degassed than the plume sources (oceanic as well as continental) supporting the heterogeneity of Earth's mantle. Finally this study highlights that xenon isotopes in the Eifel gas have preserved a chemical signature that is characteristic of other mantle plume sources. This is very intriguing because the presence of a mantle plume in this sector of Central Europe was already inferred from geophysical and geochemical studies(Buikin et al., 2005; Goes et al., 1999). Notably, tomographic images show a low-velocity structure down to 2000 km depth, representing deep mantle upwelling under central Europe, that may feed smaller upper-mantle plumes (Eifel volcanic district-Germany). References Buikin A., Trieloff M., HoppJ., Althaus T., Korochantseva E., Schwarz W.H. &Altherr R., (2005), Noble gas isotopessuggestdeepmantleplume source of late Cenozoicmaficalkalinevolcanism in Europe, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 230, 143-162. Goes S., Spakman W. &BijwaardH., (1999), A lowermantle source for centraleuropeanvolcanism, Science, 286, 1928-1931.G. Holland, M. Cassidy, C.J. Ballentine, Meteorite Kr in the Earth's mantle suggests a late accretionary source for the atmosphere, Science, 326, 1522-1525, (2009). Marty, B. Neon and xenon isotopes in MORB: implications for the Earth-atmosphere evolution. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 94, 45-56 (1989). Mukhopadhyay S., Early differentiation and volatile accretion recorded in deep-mantle neon and xenon
, Nature, 486, 101-106, (2013).

  12. Two thousand years of geomagnetic field direction over central Europe revealed by indirect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Péter

    2010-04-01

    Supplemented by 32 new directions, the Hungarian archaeomagnetic data set now consists of 217 archaeologically dated directions ranging in age from 300 BC to 1800 AD. From this data set, reference curves of secular variation of the geomagnetic field direction were computed using hierarchical modelling and curve estimation by moving average technique. Thanks to some of the new data, the gap in the earlier reference curves around 500 AD has now been filled up. For comparison's sake, directional records of comparable length from central Europe were also processed by the same curve building method. For this purpose, all dated directional data (declination and inclination with statistics) were drawn from the GEOMAGIA50 database for France, Germany, the Ukraine and Moldavia, Bulgaria and Italy and transferred via their virtual geomagnetic poles to a reference point of their respective countries. The resulting reference curves, including those for Hungary, show more or less similar temporal behaviour to the corresponding CALS7K.2 model curves (also available from the GEOMAGIA50 database), but significant deviations from the low-order CALS7K.2 predictions are also discernible owing to the likely presence of additional higher-order complications in the regional field. Therefore, the regional field and its secular variation are suggested to be approximated by the reference rather than the predicted curves. At any other location within the study area, the direction of the regional field can be obtained by spatial interpolation from the reference curves as illustrated by isogonic and isoclinic maps shown for selected times. Local time-series of interpolated directions for other central European countries lacking reference curves might serve as master curves for magnetic dating.

  13. The CEGRN 2011 Campaign and the densification of ETRF2000 in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, A.; Barlik, M.; Becker, M.; Gerhatova, L.; Grenerczy, G.; Hefty, J.; Krauss, A.; Legovini, P.; Medac, D.; Milev, G.; Mojzes, M.; Mulic, M.; Odalovic, O.; Rus, T.; Simek, J.; Sledzinski, J.; Stangl, G.; Stopar, B.; Vespe, F.; Virag, G.

    2012-04-01

    The CEGRN 2011 Campaign took place from 20 to 25 June 2011. It was a coordinated effort of 14 Central European Countries: Austria, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine, with the involvement of some 85 stations. Data processing with state of the art software, and IGS08 orbits and antenna models according to the EPN standards is being completed by independent Analysis Centers in Austria, Hungary, Italy and Slovakia, with the Center in Graz acting as a Combination Center. The paper presents the results of the analysis and of the multiyear combination, with time series spanning a timeline of up to 17 years (1994-2011). Since all data up to and including the 2009 Campaign have been re-analysed with the reprocessed orbits and IGS05 antenna models, the derived velocity field represents a particularly valid example of evolution of the ITRF reference frame in Central Europe. The addition of the 2011 data set, based on IGS08, is not obvious. In a first step the solution, inclusive of the 2011 campaign, can be aligned to the EPN (European Permanent Network of EUREF) cumulative solution in ITRF2005 and can be transformed into the ETRF2000 frame. In a second step, the CEGRN campaigns are planned to be reprocessed with the IGS08 antenna models, provided the IGS and EPN reprocessing solutions (REPRO2) are available for the orbits. Once completed, a densification of the European regional velocity field will become available for both geodynamic studies and widespread dissemination of the ETRS89 standard of coordinates, in compliance with the EU Directive INSPIRE.

  14. Scientific Migration in Central Europe in the Context of the Cold War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    As a way of intellectual reparations the Allies tried in 1945 to capture German scientists to undertake research in their own R& D and military research projects. The Soviet Occupied Zone of Germany was particularly strongly affected by this seizure of its scientific elite. Among the displaced were a group of leading German physicists, who were assigned to specific laboratories in the Caucasus, where they were kept like precious birds in a golden cage advancing the Soviet atomic bomb project. These included the Nobel Laureate Gustav Hertz, Manfred von Ardenne, Peter Adolf Thiessen and Max Steenbeck, to name but a few. In contrast to many others in similar circumstances, the fate of these scientists was directly influenced by the nuclear race and the Cold War as a result of which they were unable to return to Germany before 1955. Many German returnee scientists settled in East Germany, but some enjoyed successful careers in the West. Remarkably, one of the most instrumental inventions of the nuclear age -- the ultracentrifuge used for uranium enrichment -- emerged from this ``gilded cage.'' However, the 1950s were also marked by other migrations as well as by processes of science and technology transfer. In particular, there was an exodus of many scientists from East to West, which was driven by a lack of political freedom and prospertity and exacerbated by political turmoil in Central Europe during this period (1953/1956/1961/1968). My talk will provide a brief account of these migratory processes with a focus on Germany. Migrations concerning other Central European countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland will be also briefly described in a comparative perspective and illustrated with examples about the life and work of several physicists.

  15. The legal status of home education in post-communist countries of Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecká, Yvona

    2012-08-01

    As new laws on education were gradually adopted in post-communist states after 1989, the countries also dealt with the problem of how to include home education in their own legislation. This article investigates the development of legislation on home education in five states of post-communist Central Europe: the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Poland and Hungary. This analysis of the legal environment for home education confirms on the one hand that these countries' approach is similar in many aspects. Generally, laws tend to regulate home education rather strictly, all home-educated children must be enrolled at some school, and these schools are mandated by the state to serve as supervisory bodies for home-educated children. This legal arrangement puts the parents of home-schooled children in a very subordinate position in relation to the school. Despite these restrictions, however, the states have gradually opened up the option for home education to quite a broad pool of potentially interested people. On the other hand, the findings show that there are also significant differences between individual countries. These differences provide a good illustration of the fact that, despite historical, economic and cultural similarities, political institutions and state bureaucracies in individual states act autonomously, which leads to different policy outcomes.

  16. Variability of aerosol properties during the 2007-2010 spring seasons over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietruczuk, Aleksander; Chaikovsky, Anatoli

    2012-10-01

    Aerosol optical properties have been studied for spring seasons when increased values of PM10 are registered. Measurements of aerosol optical properties were taken by collocated lidar and sun-photometers at Belsk, Poland, and Minsk, Belarus. A significant increase of registered aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was found during episodes with elevated PM10 concentrations. An increase of AOT at 1020 nm amounted to 50% in the case of Minsk and 18% in the case of Belsk, while an increase of AOT at 400 nm was 66% and 33%, respectively. We noted an increase of Ångström exponent by 6% at both stations and no significant increase of single scattering albedo. The LIDAR measurements together with NAAPS model results and backtrajectory analysis suggest that both the biomass burning products and the Saharan dust are responsible for increased PM10 concentrations and large AOT values during spring time. The smoke aerosol is transported over Central Europe mainly in the boundary layer, increasing both PM10 concentration and AOT. The dust aerosol transported in the free troposphere slightly affects the AOT values only. Statistically significant correlation between PM10 concentration and AOT was found during reporting period.

  17. [Alcohol and drugs in Central Europe--problems and possible solutions].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K; Cs emy, L

    1994-08-22

    The high alcohol consumption and increasing abuse of other addictive inducing substances in Central Europe calls for broadley conceived preventive programmes and cheap and widely applicable therapeutic strategies (early treatment at the first contact level, self-help manuals, self-aid organizations). Social instability along with greater availability of alcohol and drugs create a dangerous combination. In addition to strategies of stress prevention at the societal level also strategy at the individual level is important (e.g. relaxation training, yoga, psychotherapy). It is also important to change the "image" of western society and commercial interests of those who make profits on alcohol and drugs should be under control and advertising should be greatly restricted if not prohibited. Prevention of problems caused by alcohol and drugs in particular in youths must be combined and really effective strategies should be used such as peer programmes. The authors mention also their own preventive programme FIT IN and print materials oriented specifically on certain population groups. PMID:7923324

  18. Palliative Care Information Needs in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    PubMed

    Jünger, Saskia; Klose, Jasper; Brearley, Sarah; Hegedus, Katalin; Payne, Sheila; Radbruch, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    In a cross-national survey, we examined the information needs and barriers to accessing palliative care information in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). In total, 584 healthcare professionals from 22 countries completed the questionnaire. Information on legislation and official papers (67 percent) and information on education courses in palliative care (65 percent) were the most frequently reported information needs. Major barriers to accessing palliative care information were language and a lack of easily accessible and affordable, clinically relevant information. An informative Web site, an electronic newsletter, and regular meetings or conferences were rated as the most important information channels. We concluded that access to reliable and well-structured information should be facilitated for healthcare professionals in CEE and CIS countries to assist them in their clinical decision making. Most importantly, more in-depth qualitative research and dialogue with stakeholders in the different countries are needed to develop context-specific, tailor-made strategies. PMID:26201213

  19. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Stěpánek, Petr; Zalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9% confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95% confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker. PMID:23640249

  20. Assemblages of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea) in a fragmented forest landscape in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tajovský, Karel; Hošek, Jan; Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Wytwer, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods were collected in 13 forest fragments differing in area (within the range of 0.1 and 254.5 ha), shape and composition of forest vegetation (thermophilous oak, mesophilous oak-hornbeam, thermophilous oak-hornbeam, acidophilous oak, basiphilous oak, beech oak-hornbeam, moist mixed deciduous forest, plantations of deciduous and coniferous trees), all situated in the Český kras Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic, Central Europe. Number of sites sampled in each fragment of forest depended on its size and ranged from 1 to 7. Altogether 30 sites were sampled. Soil samples (5 per site collected twice a year) and pitfall trapping (5 traps per site in continuous operation throughout a year) during 2008-2009 yielded a total of 14 species of terrestrial isopods. The highest densities and highest epigeic activities of terrestrial isopods were recorded in the smallest fragments of woodland. Although a wider range of habitats were sampled in the larger fragments of woodland there was not a greater diversity of species there and the population densities and epigeic activities recorded there were lower. Porcellium collicola was most abundant in small fragments of woodland regardless the vegetation there. Armadillidium vulgare and Protracheoniscus politus were statistically more abundant in the larger fragments of woodland. The results indicate that forest fragmentation does not necessarily result in a decrease in the species richness of the isopod assemblages in such habitats. PMID:22536108

  1. Rapid Climate Shifts during last Deglaciation over Central to Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, F.; Muschitiello, F.; Brandefelt, J.; Wohlfarth, B.; Tarasov, L.; Naslund, J. O.; Johansson, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Abrupt climate shifts during the last deglaciation provide test cases for analyzing the transient response of our climate system to changes in external forcings and internal feedbacks. The regional imprints of rapid climate shifts, their timing and hence connection to local vs. large-scale mechanisms are however still poorly understood owing to a limited number of records with usually large age uncertainties and low sampling rates. In this study we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of rapid climate shifts over central Europe and Scandinavia during Bølling-Allerød (14.7-12.7kyr BP) and Younger Dryas (~12kyr BP) by means of pollen data and climate simulations. For a better understanding of physical mechanisms behind regional imprints of climate shifts, time slice experiments with the Community Earth System Model (CCSM1.0.5) are set up at high resolution (1°x1°) using different topographies and ice sheets (ICE-5G and a new version of GLAC). Matching these time slice experiments with the spatial temperature pattern derived from pollen records, we estimate the extent to which environmental conditions (pollen) represent the direct large-scale influence of climate over the Euro-Atlantic sector vs. regional-scale climate effects e.g. caused by shrinking ice sheets and coastal transgression due to sea-level rise.

  2. Detection of Dry Intrusion on Water Vapor Images Over Central Europe - June 2010 TO September 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, J.; Dejmal, K.; Hudec, F.; Kolar, P.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of evaluation of the intensity of cyclogenesis which could be connected with the weather having a significant impact on Earth's surface is quite useful. If, as one of the basic assumptions, the existence of connection between dry intrusions, dry bands, tropopause height and warm dark areas distribution on water vapor images (WV images) is considered, it is possible to set up a method of detecting dry intrusions on searching and tracking areas with higher brightness temperature compared with the surrounding environment. This paper covers the period between June 2010 and September 2011 over Central Europe. The ISIS method (Instrument de Suivi dans I'Imagerie satellitaire), originally developed for detection of cold cloud tops, was used as an initial ideological point. Subsequently, this method was modified by Michel and Bouttier for usage on WV images. Some of the applied criteria and parameters were chosen with reference to the results published by Michel and Bouttier as well as by Novotny. The procedure can be divided into two steps: detection of warm areas and their tracking. Cases of detection of areas not evidently connected with dry intrusions can be solved by filtering off based on the connection between detected warm areas to the cyclonic side of jet streams and significant lowering of the tropopause.

  3. Effect of a Frontal System on Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Distribution over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, R. M.; Lewis, A. C.; Lewis, A. C.; McQuaid, J. B.; Barjat, H.; Dewey, K.; Kent, J.

    2001-12-01

    The distribution of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) has been determined during periods of convective and frontal activity over central Europe. High frequency whole air sampling was carried out on board the UK Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules aircraft during the EXPORT campaign, August 2000 (European eXport of Precursors and Ozone by long-Range Transport). The distribution of NMHC during and after the passage of a WCB (Warm Conveyor Belt) associated with a cold front was investigated. Advection was shown to have occurred over several days but embedded convection within the WCB caused rapid uplift of reactive carbon from the boundary layer to the mid-troposphere. Post-WCB, elevated levels of NMHC in the free troposphere due to convective mixing were observed. High mixing ratios of NMHC were found at altitudes of up to 5 km ( propene, t = 5.28 hours, 13.8pptV). The observations indicate that uplift of reactive NMHC during frontal passage may significantly perturb partitioning and abundance of inorganic and organic peroxy radicals and lifetime of hydroxyl radical (OH). The net production rate of ozone (N(O3)) within the WCB was calculated using the photostationary state expression (PSS), showing net ozone production in the free troposphere.

  4. Rapid uplift of nonmethane hydrocarbons in a cold front over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, R. M.; Lewis, A. C.; Carney, R. A.; McQuaid, J. B.; Arnold, S. R.; Methven, J.; Barjat, H.; Dewey, K.; Kent, J.; Monks, P. S.; Carpenter, L. J.; Brough, N.; Penkett, S. A.; Reeves, C. E.

    2003-04-01

    The vertical distribution of 21 C2-C7 nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) has been determined in planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free tropospheric (FT) air over central Europe under a range of meteorological conditions. High-frequency whole air sampling was conducted on board the U.K. Meteorological Office C-130 Hercules aircraft during the European Export of Precursors and Ozone by Long-Range Transport (EXPORT) experiment in August 2000. When vertical transport by large-scale flow or convection was weak, the expected large concentration gradient between the PBL and FT was observed for all short and medium lifetime hydrocarbons (e.g., average iso-butane, PBL 100 pptV, FT 6 pptV). During periods of strong convective activity associated with the passage of a cold front, a rapid uplift of reactive carbon from the boundary layer to the mid free troposphere was observed. Using changing ratios of hydrocarbons with different atmospheric lifetimes, a timescale for transport during this event was determined. Hydrocarbon lifetime measurements suggest that in certain regions of the system, it is convective transport embedded within the cold front rather than larger-scale advection along the warm conveyor belt that is dominant in transporting ozone precursors into the free troposphere.

  5. Stratospheric ozone in boreal fire plumes - the 2013 smoke season over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Vogelmann, H.; Flentje, H.; Ries, L.

    2015-08-01

    In July 2013 very strong boreal fire plumes were observed at the northern rim of the Alps by lidar and ceilometer measurements of aerosol, ozone and water vapour for about 3 weeks. In addition, some of the lower-tropospheric components of these layers were analysed at the Global Atmosphere Watch laboratory at the Schneefernerhaus high-altitude research station (2650 m a.s.l., located a few hundred metres south-west of the Zugspitze summit). The high amount of particles confirms our hypothesis that fires in the Arctic regions of North America lead to much stronger signatures in the central European atmosphere than the multitude of fires in the USA. This has been ascribed to the prevailing anticyclonic advection pattern during favourable periods and subsidence, in contrast to warm-conveyor-belt export, rainout and dilution frequently found for lower latitudes. A high number of the pronounced aerosol structures were positively correlated with elevated ozone. Chemical ozone formation in boreal fire plumes is known to be rather limited. Indeed, these air masses could be attributed to stratospheric air intrusions descending from remote high-latitude regions, obviously picking up the aerosol on their way across Canada. In one case, subsidence from the stratosphere over Siberia over as many as 15-20 days without increase in humidity was observed although a significant amount of Canadian smoke was trapped. These coherent air streams lead to rather straight and rapid transport of the particles to Europe.

  6. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2013-05-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents (Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant (Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  7. Phenological differences among selected residents and long-distance migrant bird species in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Lenka; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauer, Zdeněk; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The phenological responses to climate of residents and migrants (short- and long-distance) differ. Although few previous studies have focussed on this topic, the agree that changes in phenology are more apparent for residents than for long-distance migrants. We analysed the breeding times of two selected residents ( Sitta europaea, Parus major) and one long-distance migrant ( Ficedula albicollis) from 1961 to 2007 in central Europe. The timing of the phenophases of all three bird species showed a significant advance to earlier times. Nevertheless, the most marked shift was observed for the long-distance migrant (1.9 days per decade on average in mean laying date with linearity at the 99.9 % confidence level). In contrast, the shifts shown by the residents were smaller (1.6 days for S. europaea and 1.5 days for P. major also on average in mean laying date for both, with linearity at the 95 % confidence level). Spearman rank correlation coefficients calculated for pairs of phenophases of given bird species in 20-year subsamples (e.g. 1961-1980, 1962-1981) showed higher phenological separation between the residents and the migrant. This separation is most apparent after the 1980s. Thus, our results indicate that the interconnections between the studied phenological stages of the three bird species are becoming weaker.

  8. Seedling traits, plasticity and local differentiation as strategies of invasive species of Impatiens in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Skálová, Hana; Havlíčková, Vendula; Pyšek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Invasiveness of some alien plants is associated with their traits, plastic responses to environmental conditions and interpopulation differentiation. To obtain insights into the role of these processes in contributing to variation in performance, we compared congeneric species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) with different origin and invasion status that occur in central Europe. Methods Native I. noli-tangere and three alien species (highly invasive I. glandulifera, less invasive I. parviflora and potentially invasive I. capensis) were studied and their responses to simulated canopy shading and different nutrient and moisture levels were determined in terms of survival and seedling traits. Key Results and Conclusions Impatiens glandulifera produced high biomass in all the treatments and the control, exhibiting the ‘Jack-and-master’ strategy that makes it a strong competitor from germination onwards. The results suggest that plasticity and differentiation occurred in all the species tested and that along the continuum from plasticity to differentiation, the species at the plasticity end is the better invader. The most invasive species I. glandulifera appears to be highly plastic, whereas the other two less invasive species, I. parviflora and I. capensis, exhibited lower plasticity but rather strong population differentiation. The invasive Impatiens species were taller and exhibited higher plasticity and differentiation than native I. noli-tangere. This suggests that even within one genus, the relative importance of the phenomena contributing to invasiveness appears to be species'specific. PMID:22247125

  9. Mapping capacity to conduct health technology assessment in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Olry de Labry Lima, Antonio; García Mochón, Leticia; Caro Martínez, Araceli; Martín Ruiz, Eva; Espín Balbino, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Aim To provide insights into the capacity to conduct health technology assessment (HTA) in Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (CESEE), taking account of technical, financial, networking, and human resources. Methods An e-mail survey of 257 CESEE key informants involved in HTA was undertaken between March and April 2014. Contact e-mail addresses were identified from the internet. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: i) characteristics of the organization performing HTA, (ii) networking in HTA, and (iii) resources allocated for HTA. Results The survey was completed by 41 respondents representing a wide range of institutions from CESEE countries (response rate of 19.8%). Less than a quarter of respondents reported that their institutions had HTA-specific budgets, whereas the majority indicated that their institutions participated in HTA networks either at domestic or international levels. Although almost half of respondents indicated that their institutions offered HTA training, a shortage in skills training was suggested as the main barrier to HTA. Conclusion This is the first survey to thoroughly assess the state of HTA capacity in the CESEE region. To strengthen HTA capacity, CESEE countries should increase financial, technical, and training resources. To strengthen collaboration, the European Union and other international bodies should assist existing HTA networks in fulfilling their regional activities through leadership, advocacy to local policymakers, funding, and technical assistance. PMID:26935616

  10. Health sector reform in central and eastern Europe: the professional dimension.

    PubMed

    Healy, J; Mckee, M

    1997-12-01

    The success or failure of health sector reform in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe depends, to a large extent, on their health care staff. Commentators have focused on the structures to be put in place, such as mechanisms of financing or changes in ownership of facilities, but less attention has been paid to the role and status of the different groups working in health care services. This paper draws on a study of trends in staffing and working conditions throughout the region. It identifies several key issues including the traditionally lower status and pay of health sector workers compared to the West, the credibility crisis of trade unions, and the under-developed roles of professional associations. In order to implement health sector reforms and to address the deteriorating health status of the population, the health sector workforce has to be restructured and training programmes reoriented towards primary care. Finally, the paper identifies emerging issues such as the erosion of 'workplace welfare' and its adverse effects upon a predominantly female health care workforce. PMID:10176264

  11. Taxonomic status of Syngamus nematodes parasitizing passeriform hosts from Central Europe: Morphological, morphometric and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Gerard; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Sitko, Jiljí; Rząd, Izabella

    2016-10-01

    The systematic position and validity of species within genus Syngamus have always been controversial. In this present work, we evaluated the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships between three species of Syngamus nematodes (Syngamus trachea, Syngamus taiga and Syngamus merulae) and one taxa, determined only to the generic level, collected from respiratory tracts of passeriform hosts from Central Europe using newly obtained sequences of 2 nuclear markers (internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 [ITS1, ITS2]) and a fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I [COI] gene. Our results clearly showed that S. trachea, S. taiga and S. merulae are valid, molecularly and morphologically distinct species. Moreover, molecular analysis of adult female of Syngamus sp. collected from tracheae of the European robin Erithacus rubecula clearly indicate that these comprise separate species. In the derived phylogeny, the Syngamus clade is divided into two sub-clades: one comprised Syngamus species with a characteristic, well-developed cuticular collar around the oral opening (S. trachea and S. taiga) and a second that groups taxa without or with rudimentary collar (S. merulae and currently sequenced Syngamus sp. from Erithacus rubecula). These results clearly suggest that the degree of collar development (well-developed vs. rudimentary/absent) may be an important phylogenetic feature for determining the structure of the genus Syngamus on subgeneric level. Additionally, our results support historical division of the genus Syngamus into two subgenera S. (Syngamus) and S. (Ornithogamus). PMID:27353021

  12. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  13. Pushing the limits – two new species of Pteromalus (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae) from Central Europe with remarkable morphology

    PubMed Central

    Baur, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species, Pteromalus briani sp. n. and Pteromalus janstai sp. n., with unusual characters are described from the Central Plateau and the Alps in Switzerland, respectively. Pteromalus briani sp. n. is remarkable in that it has the metatibia quite abruptly expanded before the middle. This type of modification of the hind tibia is unique within the Pteromalidae and probably also the entire Chalcidoidea. It is also very rare in other parasitic wasps, where it is suspected to be associated with pheromone glands. The species is a gregarious endoparasitoid of pupae of Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus) and Aglais urticae (Linnaeus), two common butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Europe. It is furthermore a koinobiont parasitoid ovipositing in an early larval stage of the host. The other species, Pteromalus janstai sp. n., shows a flattened mesosoma. A dorsoventrally depressed body is a unique feature within the genus Pteromalus, but known from a number species in unrelated genera and subfamilies. The two records demonstrate that it is possible to discover entirely new species with extraordinary characters even in one of the taxonomically most thoroughly explored parts of the world. PMID:26261432

  14. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam

    2014-02-01

    A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. Exposure ages and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An exposure age of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.

  15. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  16. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Belotti, Elisa; Weder, Nicole; Bufka, Luděk; Kaldhusdal, Arne; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Seibold, Heidi; Woelfing, Benno; Heurich, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05–74.71/year/individual lynx) were killed than red deer (1.57–9.63/year/individual lynx), more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy. PMID:26379142

  17. Transcurrent nature of the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone in Central Europe: results of the POLCRUST-01 deep reflection seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkiewicz, M.; Maksym, A.; Malinowski, M.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Petecki, Z.; Probulski, J.; Janik, T.; Majdański, M.; Środa, P.; Czuba, W.; Gaczyński, E.; Jankowski, L.

    2015-04-01

    Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) corresponds to a crustal boundary between the Precambrian East European Platform (EEP) and the Palaeozoic West European Platform. Although the zone has been controlling Phanerozoic evolution of large parts of Central Europe, its course, geometry and origin are still poorly constrained. Deep reflection seismic profile POLCRUST-01, recently acquired in SE Poland, for the first time allowed a precise comparison of the Ediacaran and later tectonic patterns to the deep crustal features of the TTZ and adjacent areas. The TTZ corresponds to the subvertical Tomaszów Fault separating the Radom-Kraśnik Elevation, composed of the typical EEP crust, from the Biłgoraj-Narol Block (BNB) in the SW, with a thinned crystalline basement showing affinities to the EEP crust. The BNB is a part of the larger Caledonian Łysogóry Terrane as evidenced by its Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy and gravity data. Thus, for the first time, the proximal Baltican affinity of this unit has been documented unambiguously. The Łysogóry Terrane is delimited from the SW by the subvertical Cieszanów Fault Zone, corresponding to the Holy Cross Suture. The adjacent Małopolska Terrane is characterized by a distinct Early Palaeozoic stratigraphy, and lower-middle crust exhibiting SW-dipping reflective packages interpreted as NE-verging thrust and shear zones of a Neoproterozoic orogen. The observations from the POLCRUST-01 profile and regional comparisons indicate that the TTZ is a major Caledonian transcurrent zone between Poland and East Romania. In central Poland, the TTZ likely forms a narrow subvertical contact between the EEP and a proximal Kuiavia Terrane, as constrained by the deep refraction seismic data. To the NW, the zone extends towards the Pomeranian part of the Caledonide fold-and-thrust belt related to the Avalonia-Baltica collision zone (Thor Suture). South-east of Poland the TTZ corresponds to the Rava Ruska Fault Zone established as a Caledonian suture

  18. Large Scale Cooling in Tertiary Central Europe as inferred by the MBT/CBT Paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S.; Schwark, L.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's climate experienced dramatic changes throughout the last 65 Ma. Starting at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum, the global climate underwent a gradual cooling that eventually resulted in the glaciations in the Neogene. Most reconstructions of climate variability are derived from the marine realm using global deep sea oxygen isotope curves or molecular paleotemperature proxies. In contrast, only little information on the changes of the continental climate is available, which is mainly due to a lack of continuous high resolution records and suitable quantitative temperature proxies. The MBT/CBT paleothermometer is a novel temperature proxy based on temperature-driven changes in the branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) content of soil-living bacteria. These changes have been demonstrated to correlate well with ambient air temperature and the MBT/CBT proxy has thus been used to reconstruct paleotemperature records of terrestrial as well as coastal marine sediments (1). In this study, we employed the MBT/CBT paleothermometer on a number of maar lake deposits that - due to their exceptional well preserved organic matter content and finely-laminated sediments - comprise excellent archives of a continental climate. The analysed lacustrine deposits were all situated in the middle European Tertiary volcanic belt and ranged in age from the Early Eocene to the Late Oligocene, allowing for the detailed reconstruction of climate evolution of the Central European continent. Calculated mean annual air temperatures (MAAT) of the Messel oil shale, deposited during the Eocene climate optimum, averaged at 25 °C. This agrees well with previous temperature estimates based on paleontological observations, suggesting a paratropical climate in Eocene Central Europe with an average air temperature of ca. 25-30 °C (2). In contrast, to the green house period of the Early Eocene, the climate of the Oligocene was significantly cooler reflected by low MAAT of 8-15

  19. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21797075

  20. The "Heart" of the European "Body Politic". British and German Perspectives on Europe's Central "Organ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musolff, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a corpus of British and German press coverage of European Union (EU) politics over the 1990s, the paper analyses uses of the geopolitical HEART metaphor. Over the course of the 1990s, successive British governments promised to work "at" the "heart of Europe". However, no one ever claimed that Britain was "in" the heart of Europe,…

  1. Meso-Cenozoic intraplate contraction in Central and Western Europe: a unique tectonic event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, Jonas; Jähne, Fabian; Malz, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    From the British Isles to Poland, Europe experienced contractional deformation in Late Cretaceous and Paleogene time. The closest contemporaneous plate margins were the incipient Mid-Atlantic rift in the west and northwest, and the Mediterranean system of subduction zones in the south. Each of these plate margins was located more than 1000 km away from the site of deformation. This tectonic event thus represents an outstanding example of large-scale intraplate shortening and may serve as a template for comparison with modern examples. Its effects are seen in a ca. 500 km wide strip that stretches in NW-SE-direction along the Tornquist Line, a regional fault zone separating thick lithosphere of the Baltic Shield from much thinner lithosphere to the southwest. Most faults and folds also trend NW-SE, but some are linked by large N-S-striking transfer zones. In the southeast, the shortening structures are truncated by the Neogene Carpathian thrust front; their original extent is unknown. In the west, the fault zones fan out into more northerly trends in the Central North Sea and more easterly trends in the Channel area before dying out on the shelf. Late Cretaceous (ca. 90-70 Ma) shortening dominates from Poland to the North Sea, while the main shortening event in Southern Britain is of Paleogene age. Many Late Cretaceous to Paleogene structures have been conditioned by Permian or Triassic through Early Cretaceous extensional faulting, whereas some large basement uplifts and reverse faults have no demonstrable inheritance from earlier extension. The thick, mobile Zechstein salt has modified extensional and contractional structures, but both extend beyond its depositional borders. Even where thick evaporates underlie the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, the basement is typically involved in the deformation, except for localized thin-skinned imbricate thrusting and salt-cored anticlines. Different structural styles do not appear to correlate with the magnitude of shortening

  2. Crustal thickness in central Europe from single-station seismic noise autocorrelation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Gesa; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    The InSight mission to Mars will place a single three-component seismometer on the planet's surface, requiring the application of single-station methods. In addition, seismicity on Mars is likely less abundant than on Earth, making it important to also use the available seismic noise. For these reasons different approaches of seismic noise autocorrelation have been tested with broadband three-component datasets from 12 stations across central Europe. These stations cover varying Moho depths of ca. 25-50 km depth. With the help of the autocorrelations, reflected body waves are extracted in order to estimate the crustal thickness at each station. This is of special relevance for Mars, where average crustal thickness is uncertain by a factor of two. The different approaches used are waterlevel normalized autocorrelation, with and without application of a short-term and long-term average filter to the spectrum of the data prior to autocorrelation, and phase autocorrelation. These approaches are compared and analyzed. Estimates for the Moho depths are made from the lag times of the reflected P-waves and compared to available Moho depth values at the stations. Due to the availability of three-component data these estimates can be cross-validated and in some cases not only P-wave reflections, but also possible S-wave and multiple reflections can be identified. The estimates compare well with the general trend of Moho depth expected for these stations. The consistency of results is further investigated by comparing different stations of the GERES array (aperture 2 km), which also allows to examine results for closely located broad-band and short-period stations side by side.

  3. Soil microbial community and endemic earthworm Allolobophora hrabei in soils of steppe fragments of central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhottová, Dana; Jirout, Jiří; Pižl, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The earthworm activity is generally recognized as an important factor changing the intrinsic heterogeneity of soil environment including the microbial constituents. In central Europe, about 40% of earthworm species are endemic to this region, some of them dominating forest and grassland ecosystems and playing a keystone role in the soil food-web. However, current knowledge about the effects of earthworms on soil microorganisms derives from studies on a few peregrine species only. Our study brought a view on the microbial component of the steppe soil affected by the activity of Allolobophora hrabei, an endemic earthworm fragmentary distributed in the border regions of the Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The study was carried out in three steppe fragments, where A. hrabei represented a key earthworm species. Comprehensive approach based on bio-indicating quantitative and qualitative options of extended phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA) of bulk soil, drilosphere sensu lato and casts was used on data from two-years monitoring. In situ observation was completed by detailed observation of the casts-microbiota succession under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results showed that A. hrabei significantly affected soil microorganisms mainly via its extremely high casting activity. The doubled biomass, new qualitative composition, better growth and nutritional status of microbial community together with significantly higher availability of phosphorus and organic carbon in casts in contrast to bulk soil confirmed beneficial impact of A. hrabei on the soil environment. A. hrabei has burrowed up to more than one metre depths and produced more than 3 kg . m-2 of casts per year.

  4. First occurrence of Culicoides obsoletus-transmitted Bluetongue virus epidemic in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Walldorf, Volker; Klimpel, Sven; Jahn, Birgit; Jaeger, Friedhelm; Eschweiler, Josef; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2007-06-01

    In August 2006, Bluetongue virus disease (BTD) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and Northern France. Serological tests as well as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) proved the occurrence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in diseased sheep and cattle, and the virus was identified as serotype 8. Therefore, the search for possible vectors was immediately initiated in the outbreak region in Germany. Traps with automatically regulated ultraviolet light lamps were placed at two different farms with sero-positive cattle, and insect monitoring was done from August 2006 until January 2007. The caught arthropods were weekly determined, and it could be observed that midges of the dipteran family Ceratopogonidae occurred in large numbers, sometimes representing up to 40% of all individuals. The microscopical analysis of the wing morphology showed that the species (complex) Culicoides obsoletus was most abundant covering about 97% of the analysed midges. On the second place ranged C. pulicaris, while C. nubeculosus and C. festivipennis were found only as single individuals. Fed and unfed females were separated, sent to the National Reference Laboratory for Bluetongue disease (Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Isle of Riems, Germany) and investigated with a BTV-8-specific real-time RT-PCR. It could be demonstrated that at both farms both fed and unfed C. obsoletus were tested positive for BTV-8 genomes, while none of the other species scored positive. This finding strongly supports that the BTD-epidemic, which reached in the meantime wide regions of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany and of the neighbouring countries with several hundreds of affected farms, is initiated by virus transmission during the blood meal of midges of the C. obsoletus complex. Since they were captured still at the 21st of December close to cattle with clinical signs, it must be feared that BTV-8 is now established in Central Europe, where it had been absent

  5. Low Usutu virus seroprevalence in four zoological gardens in central Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused bird die-offs in Austria, Hungary and Switzerland between 2001 and 2009. While the zoological gardens of Vienna and Zurich recorded USUV-associated mortality in different species of birds during this period, incidences in Budapest were limited to areas outside the zoo, and in the greater Basel area avian mortality due to USUV infection was not observed at all. The objectives of this investigation were to gain insight into USUV infection dynamics in captive birds in zoos with varying degrees of virus exposure and to study differences in susceptibility to USUV of different species of birds. Results 372 bird sera were collected between October 2006 and August 2007. The samples were tested in parallel by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and 90% plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT-90). 8.75%, 5.3% and 6.59% of birds in the zoos of Vienna, Zurich and Basel, respectively, showed USUV-specific antibodies by PRNT-90. No antibodies to USUV were detected in birds of the Budapest zoo. The order Strigiformes (owls) exhibited the highest USUV-seroprevalence, compared to other orders of birds. Conclusions USUV seems not to pose an imminent threat to zoo bird populations in central Europe at the moment. Depending on a variety of especially environmental factors, however, this may change at any time in the (near) future, as experienced with West Nile virus (WNV). It is therefore strongly suggested to continue with combined WNV and USUV surveillance activities in affected areas. PMID:23919825

  6. Czech alien flora and the historical pattern of its formation: what came first to Central Europe?

    PubMed

    Pysek, Petr; Sádlo, Jirí; Mandák, Bohumil; Jarosík, Vojtech

    2003-03-01

    Temporal patterns of immigration to the country were analysed using 668 alien species in the flora of the Czech Republic for which the dates of the first record were available (64.8% of the total number of 1031 so-called neophytes, i.e. aliens introduced after the year 1500). After a period of initial slow increase lasting to the 1840s, the accumulation of neophytes over time could be best fitted by a linear model that explained 97% of the variance. The intensity of floristic research, which varied between periods, did not significantly affect the overall increase in the number of aliens. The effect of species traits on the year of introduction was evaluated, with continent of origin, introduction type (deliberate or accidental), life history, Grime's life strategy, onset of flowering, mode of dispersal and propagule size as explanatory variables. Species of European origin and CSR strategists arrived earlier than those with other origins and strategies. Deliberately introduced species appeared earlier than accidental arrivals, and those cultivated for utilitary reasons on average arrived earlier than ornamentals. Species capable of early flowering were remarkably more prevalent among early newcomers. A separate analysis of accidentally introduced American species also identified life history as a significant predictor of immigration time, with annuals being introduced earlier than biennials and perennials. The data contribute to an understanding of a crucial stage of the invasion process that has received little attention in the literature. The model "early alien" to Central Europe is a European species with a CSR strategy deliberately brought for cultivation as a utilitary plant. Once it escaped from cultivation, its establishment in the wild was favoured by its ability to flower early and, therefore, complete the life cycle. PMID:12647111

  7. Βedrock instability of underground storage systems in the Czech Republic, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakova, Lucie; Broz, Milan; Zaruba, Jiri; Sosna, Karel; Najser, Jan; Rukavickova, Lenka; Franek, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Underground storage systems are currently being used worldwide for the geological storage of natural gas (CH4), the geological disposal of CO2, in geothermal energy, or radioactive waste disposal. We introduce a complex approach to the risks posed by induced bedrock instabilities in deep geological underground storage sites. Bedrock instability owing to underground openings has been studied and discussed for many years. The Bohemian Massif in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) is geologically and tectonically complex. However, this setting is ideal for learning about the instability state of rock masses. Longterm geological and mining studies, natural and induced seismicity, radon emanations, and granite properties as potential storage sites for disposal of radioactive waste in the Czech Republic have provided useful information. In addition, the Czech Republic, with an average concentration radon of 140 Bq m-3, has the highest average radon concentrations in the world. Bedrock instabilities might emerge from microscale features, such as grain size and mineral orientation, and microfracturing. Any underground storage facility construction has to consider the stored substance and the geological settings. In the Czech Republic, granites and granitoids are the best underground storage sites. Microcrack networks and migration properties are rock specific and vary considerably. Moreover, the matrix porosity also affects the mechanical properties of the rocks. Any underground storage site has to be selected carefully. The authors suggest to study the complex set of parameters from micro to macroscale for a particular place and type of rock to ensure that the storage remains safe and stable during construction, operation, and after closure.

  8. Central Europe Flood June 2013 - Rapid estimation of extent and depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millinship, Ian; Busby, Kathryn; Schröter, Kai

    2014-05-01

    Following flooding in central Europe in June 2013, we have produced a flood footprint describing the maximum extent and depth of flooding. Rapid damage estimation for a flood event such as this is useful for the re/insurance industry, in which companies need to estimate the impact of flooding on their business. An early understanding of the geographical scope and severity of an event allows claims adjusters to be deployed effectively and an estimation of the potential loss ensures adequate release of funds to pay for claims. Following reports of heavy rainfall in the headwaters of the Isar, Saale, Inn, and Elbe during the first week of June 2013, we began monitoring the http://www.hochwasserzentralen.de/ website and extracted peak flow for the affected gauges. Using extreme value statistical analysis of the historic flow records, we assessed the return period of the flow generated by the 2013 event for each gauged location. This return period was then interpolated along each river reach taking into consideration catchment characteristics. Then, using previously developed Germany design hazard maps containing information on the extent and depth of flooding associated with a range of return periods at 10m resolution, we pieced together a flood footprint along the course of the affected rivers and tributaries. With much of the Elbe/Danube heavily defended and regulated, we then undertook a detailed manual exercise to account for defences and any breach locations. Here georeferenced ground / aerial photographs and satellite footprint maps produced by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and available through the media were used to establish the integrity of defences and to validate our flood footprint. The resulting footprint was licensed by a number of companies within the re/insurance sector and is being used by academic partners for further research into damage assessment.

  9. Health in financial crises: economic recession and tuberculosis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dye, Christopher

    2010-11-01

    The ongoing global financial crisis, which began in 2007, has drawn attention to the effect of declining economic conditions on public health. A quantitative analysis of previous events can offer insights into the potential health effects of economic decline. In the early 1990s, widespread recession across Central and Eastern Europe accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. At the same time, despite previously falling tuberculosis (TB) incidence in most countries, there was an upsurge of TB cases and deaths throughout the region. Here, we study the quantitative relationship between the lost economic productivity and excess TB cases and mortality. We use the data of the World Health Organization for TB notifications and deaths from 1980 to 2006, and World Bank data for gross domestic product. Comparing 15 countries for which sufficient data exist, we find strong linear associations between the lost economic productivity over the period of recession for each country and excess numbers of TB cases (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) and deaths (r(2) = 0.94, p < 0.001) over the same period. If TB epidemiology and control are linked to economies in 2009 as they were in 1991 then the Baltic states, particularly Latvia, are now vulnerable to another upturn in TB cases and deaths. These projections are in accordance with emerging data on drug consumption, which indicate that these countries have undergone the greatest reductions since the beginning of 2008. We recommend close surveillance and monitoring during the current recession, especially in the Baltic states. PMID:20427332

  10. Characterization of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning over Central Europe - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Silke; Geiss, Alexander; Heimerl, Katharina; Gasteiger, Josef; Freudenthaler, Volker; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wiegner, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols are a major component of the Earth's atmosphere and have substantial impact on the Earth's radiation budget and on the hydrological cycle. Biomass burning smoke is one important component with respect of global climate warming as it is an important source of black carbon, which is a key player in atmospheric heating. As biomass burning smoke layers are often transported over long distances they cannot be considered as local events only but have a global effect. During transport the smoke particles are affected by aging and mixing processes. Thus their microphysical and optical properties change and, as a consequence their effect on the Earth's radiation budget. However, the influence of aging and mixing processes on the particle microphysical and optical properties is still only poorly understood. To improve our knowledge, studies of transport conditions together with measurements of the horizontal and vertical distribution the smoke layers as well as of their microphysical and optical properties are crucial. We present a case study of long-range transported Canadian biomass burning smoke to Central Europe in summer 2013. The smoke layer is characterized by multi-wavelength lidar measurements over Maisach and by continuous Ceilometer measurements over Munich, Germany. Multi-wavelength lidar measurements are an important tool for the characterization of aerosols, as they provide vertically resolved information of their optical properties which serve as input parameters for the determination of microphysical properties of the aerosol layers. Additionally, airborne in-situ measurements of size distribution and black carbon mass concentration onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon are presented. The source regions and transport conditions are studied using a combination of satellite measurements and model simulations.

  11. Particulate matter source apportionment in a village situated in industrial region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Krouzek, J; Hopke, P K

    2013-12-01

    The bilinear receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to apportion particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 1-10 microm (PM1-10) sources in a village, Brezno, situated in an industrial region of northern Bohemia in Central Europe. The receptor model analyzed the data sets of 90- and 60-min integrations of PM1-10 mass concentrations and elemental composition for 27 elements. The 14-day sampling campaigns were conducted in the village in summer 2008 and winter 2010. Also, to ensure seasonal and regional representativeness of the data sets recorded in the village, the spatial-temporal variability of the 24-hr PM10 and PM1-10 within 2008-2010 in winter and summer across the multiple sites was evaluated. There were statistically significant interseasonal differences of the 24-hr PM data, but not intrasummer or intrawinter differences of the 24-hr PM1-10 data across the multiple sites. PMF resolved seven sources of PM1-10. They were high-temperature coal combustion; combustion in local heating boilers; marine aerosol; mineral dust; primary biological/wood burning; road dust, car brakes; and gypsum. The main summer factors were assigned to mineral dust (38.2%) and primary biological/wood burning (33.1%). In winter, combustion factors dominated (80%) contribution to PM1-10. The conditional probability function (CPF) helped to identified local sources of PM1-10. The source of marine aerosol from the North Sea and English Channel was indicated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). PMID:24558704

  12. Direct evidence for the existence of dairying farms in prehistoric Central Europe (4th millennium BC).

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Jorge E; Matuschik, Irenaus; Jacomet, Stephanie; Schibler, Joerg

    2008-06-01

    The molecular and isotopic chemistry of organic residues from archaeological potsherds was used to obtain further insight into the dietary trends and economies at the Constance lake-shore Neolithic settlements. The archaeological organic residues from the Early Late Neolithic (3922-3902 BC) site Hornstaad-Hornle IA/Germany are, at present, the oldest archaeological samples analysed at the Institute of Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the University of Lausanne. The approach includes 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of the bulk organic residues, fatty acids distribution and 13C/12C ratios of individual fatty acids. The results are compared with those obtained from the over 500 years younger Neolithic (3384-3370 BC) settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3/Switzerland and with samples of modern vegetable oils and fat of animals that have been fed exclusively on C3 forage grasses. The overall fatty acid composition (C9 to C24 range, maximizing at C14 and C16), the bulk 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios (delta13C, delta15N) and the 13C/12C ratios of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and oleic acids (C18:1) of the organic residues indicate that most of the studied samples (25 from 47 samples and 5 from 41 in the delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C16:0 and delta13C18:0 vs. delta13C18:1 diagrams, respectively) from Hornstaad-Hornle IA and Arbon Bleiche 3 sherds contain fat residues of pre-industrial ruminant milk, and young suckling calf/lamb adipose. These data provide direct proof of milk and meat (mainly from young suckling calves) consumption and farming practices for a sustainable dairying in Neolithic villages in central Europe around 4000 BC.dagger. PMID:18569190

  13. Climatic effects in Central Europe on the frequency of medical treatments of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Sanker, C; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the relationship between the temperature-humidity index (THI) and the incidence of medical treatments in lactating dairy cows in Lower Saxony, Germany, was investigated. Records of all veterinary-treated cases over 2 years (2003 and 2005) from eight Holstein-Friesian dairy herds raised in loose-housing systems (55 to 170 cows per herd) were evaluated. After exclusion of management-dependent and climate-independent cases, a total of 5547 treatments were analyzed. Treatments were clustered into the following groups: metabolism, fertility, udder and foot/leg. Meteorological data were compiled from the nearest weather station (average distance ± s.d. 39 ± 13 km). Hourly temperatures and relative humidity values were used to calculate the THI, which was divided into classes. Out of the total number of treatments, 37.4%, 32.9%, 21.6% and 8.1% belonged to metabolism, udder, fertility and foot/leg, respectively. Data were analyzed with a mixed model that included THI class, season and year as fixed effects and farm as random effect. In general, incidences were neither affected by the year (P > 0.05) and season (P > 0.05) nor by THI classes (P > 0.05). In tendency, incidences of metabolic treatments increased with increasing THI and incidences of udder treatments increased with decreasing THI. In conclusion, indications of moderate heat stress during summer months in Central Europe were found in the present study, although THI and season did not affect the different disease complexes significantly. PMID:23034127

  14. Dust transport and palaeoclimate during the Oldest Dryas in Central Europe - implications from varves (Lake Constance)

    SciTech Connect

    Niessen, F.; Lister, G.; Giovanoli, F.

    1992-10-01

    This paper evaluates evidence for seasonal loess deposits in peri-Alpine Lake Constance at the end of the last Glacial (Oldest Dryas chronozone). The sedimentology of laminated couplets comprising yellow and grey silts evaluates the couplets as varves comprising alternations of loess and glacial silt and clay. The laminae, less than 1 mm thick, include from bottom to top: (1) a matrix of well-sorted, non-graded fine yellow silt with sand-size intraclasts, (2) coarsening-upward grey silt with a cap of fining-upward silt to clay. This is typical and reflects summer and winter deposits (silt and clay, respectively). The authors propose that the lack of grading and the matrix supported fabric is indicative of aeolian transport and interpret the yellow laminae as loess deposits. Volcanic glass intraclasts in the loess layers are probably derived from volcanic terrain to the west of the lake, indicating an easterly palaeowind direction. Deposition of loess in the lake occurred regularly at the beginning of each annual cycle, suggesting the palaeowinds were associated with winter and/or spring conditions. Two transport scenarios are suggested to explain the sand grains scattered in this deep-water lacustrine record. 1. The grains may have been transported as bedload over the annual winter ice-cover of the lake under moderate wind strengths, frozen into the ice, and released for deposition during spring melt. 2. The sand grains were blown directly out onto the lake water by very strong winds during spring. The first scenario is contrary to the general view that loess was transported during summer, and that loess deposits thus reflect summer conditions only. Loess input to the lake shows a transitional decrease after ca. 14.3 kyr BP and cessation at ca. 14 kyr BP, probably as a result of a change of wind behaviour, increased humidity and/or vegetational changes during the Oldest Dryas in central Europe. 62 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Winter thunderstorms in central Europe in the past and the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munzar, Jan; Franc, Marek

    Thunderstorms in the territories of the Czech Republic and neighbouring countries are almost exclusively the only phenomena occurring in the warm season. In the cold half of the year, from October to March, an average incidence of thunderstorms is only 2%, with the least occurrence being recorded in January. Yet, winter thunderstorms are dangerous particularly for air traffic because during them, the cloud base is rapidly falling down and visibility is suddenly worsening due to heavy snowfall. Notwithstanding these facts, the issue of their occurrence in the central European space has been paid little attention so far. Long years of study into historical weather extremes in the territory of the Czech Republic revealed over 10 chronicle entries on the occurrence of winter thunderstorms in the period between November and February from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. The irregular phenomenon was even devoted three occasional prints in central Europe in the second half of the 16th century, two of which were issued in Germany. Fires caused by winter thunderstorms were no sporadic cases. The occurrence of thunderstorms in winter was apparently associated with the passage of pronounced cold fronts. This can be documented on cases from the end of December 1555 when heavy thunderstorms and consequent fires were recorded within a short period of time in Holland, Germany and in Czech lands. It is assumed that the situation in 1627 was similar when a winter thunderstorm was recorded in Prague and in Holešov, southeastern Moravia on 28 December. In February 1581, a thunderstorm in Prague became one of three unusual events publicized by the local occasional newspaper. The beginning of modern studies into winter thunderstorms dates back to the 1960s with the use of lightning flash counters and later also with the use of systems for large-scale lightning flash detection and localization. However, more comprehensive meteorological and climatological assessments of

  16. Too early and too northerly: evidence of temperate trees in northern Central Europe during the Younger Dryas.

    PubMed

    Robin, Vincent; Nadeau, Marie-Josée; Grootes, Pieter M; Bork, Hans-Rudolf; Nelle, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents highly unexpected paleobotanical data. Eight (14) C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates of soil macrocharcoal pieces, identified taxonomically, indicate the presence of oak and beech in the Younger Dryas, and pine in the Allerød, in the northernmost low mountain range of Central Europe, the Harz Mountains, in Germany. If the presence of pine at such latitude and periods is not surprising, the presence of temperate-adapted trees is highly improbable, because they are assumed to have reached the area from a southern location several thousand years later. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain this record. Both are related to the warm periods of the Bølling and Allerød: the classically 'short' duration of this warm period makes the migration of the temperate trees from the identified refuge areas in the southern location implausible, and so the presence of intermediary microrefugia at a medium latitude in Central Europe is postulated; recent data reveal that the warm period of the Late Glacial phase was much longer than considered in the classical view and, thus, would be long enough for a northward migration of temperate-adapted trees. Although our dataset does not permit disentanglement of these hypotheses, it provides significant innovative insights for the biogeography of Central Europe. PMID:26847468

  17. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  18. Coeval dust accumulation minima in Greenland and East Central Europe over 31-23 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Varga, György; Kovács, János; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    As reflected in δ18O values in ice cores, the North Atlantic area experienced a series of abrupt, dramatic climatic fluctuations over the last glacial during which oceanic and atmospheric conditions alternated between full glacial (stadial) and relatively mild (interstadial) conditions [1,2]. Beyond the δ18O profiles, calcium ion concentration data (hereafter [Ca2+]) also exhibit particularly clear stadial/interstadial contrasts [3]. The Ca2+/dust concentration records are considered as a proxy for the amount of terrestrial dust reaching the ice sheet [4] and/or changing dust storm activity in the source areas around the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in East Asia [5,6]. The mode of the dust size distributions is thought to reflect transit times during transport, with larger modes indicating shorter transit times and transport routes, i.e. changed atmospheric circulation patterns [5]. However, based on clay mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of loess sediments Újvári, et al. [7] suggested that Central European dust cannot be excluded as a potential source of Greenland dust. As such, it is vital to analyze dust deposition in the key dust depocentres of Eastern Europe. As a record of Carpathian Basin dust source activity, we therefore studied loess sedimentation and grain size changes in the Dunaszekcsö loess sequence in Southern Hungary. For this record, we developed the highest resolution geochronological dataset for European loess based on 61 AMS 14C dates from molluscs and charcoal fragments. This allowed us to establish a uniquely high precision Bayesian age-depth model, with the mean 95% confidence ranges that vary between 119 and 798 yr. Sedimentation rates (SR) calculated from the age-depth model vary between 0.36-1.7 mm yr‑1 and the estimated bulk dust mass accumulation rates (MAR) range from 551 to 2525 g m‑2 yr‑1. Both the SR and MAR display millennial/sub-millennial scale variations, visible uniquely due to the high precision dating

  19. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  20. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  1. Emerging viral infections of the central nervous system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kenneth L

    2009-08-01

    In this 2-part review, I will focus on emerging virus infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Part 1 will introduce the basic features of emerging infections, including their definition, epidemiology, and the frequency of CNS involvement. Important mechanisms of emergence will be reviewed, including viruses spreading into new host ranges as exemplified by West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, Toscana virus, and enterovirus 71 (EV71). Emerging infections also result from opportunistic spread of viruses into known niches, often resulting from attenuated host resistance to infection. This process is exemplified by transplant-associated cases of viral CNS infection caused by WNV, rabies virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis-like viruses and by the syndrome of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6)-associated posttransplantation acute limbic encephalitis. The second part of this review begins with a discussion of JC virus and the occurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in association with novel immunomodulatory therapies and then continues with an overview of the risk of infection introduced by imported animals (eg, monkeypox virus) and examples of emerging diseases caused by enhanced competence of viruses for vectors and the spread of vectors (eg, chikungunya virus) and then concludes with examples of novel viruses causing CNS infection as exemplified by Nipah and Hendra viruses and bat lyssaviruses. PMID:19667214

  2. The 1996-2002 Plunge in the North-Atlantic Oscillation Index Produces Cold Spring Temperatures in Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor); Otterman, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Bungato, Dennis; Chou, Shu-Hsien; Koslowsky, Dirk; Rogers, Jeffrey; Wos, Alojzy

    2002-01-01

    Surface-air temperatures in winter and spring in central Europe rose over the second half of the 20th century, reported for different data-spans, and by different approaches (Ross et al., 1996; Angell, 1999; Hansen et al., 1999; Demaree et al., 2002). Analysis with a finer temporal resolution shows that late-winter and early-spring (February and March) trends are much stronger than the 3-month season averages (Otterman et al., 2002a). Responding to this need for finer than 3- month resolution, observations at meteorological stations in central Europe are analyzed here for the years 1951-2002, computing six-pentad (5-day period) averages (effectively monthly averages for January, February, and March). The daily minimum surface-air temperature, T(sub min), and the daily maximum temperature, T(sub max), rose steeply in Berlin and Poznan' in the years 1951-1995. Based on sensitivity studies, the bulk of this sharp warming is due to stronger southwesterlies over the North Atlantic, with which the temperatures in Europe are strongly correlated (Otterman et al., 1999; 2002a). However, for the most recent seven years, a pronounced downturn of the warming is observed, which we attribute to the concurrent, 1996-2002, sharp downturn of the ocean-surface southwesterlies over the North Atlantic (Otterman et al., 2002b). Such changes in the ocean winds and variations in the storm tracks are associated with changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO (Rogers, 1997). The NAO index, the difference in the surface pressure between Iceland and Azores, constitutes a measure of the zonal winds over the eastern North Atlantic, and thus is a critically important factor influencing the flow of maritime air into Europe (but the temperature of the advected airmasses depends on the meridional component, as we discuss). The recent (1996-2002) downturn in this index resulted in much colder spring temperatures in Europe, with adverse significance for the growing season.

  3. Two UV colours of the central part of M 31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deharveng, J. M.; Laget, M.; Monnet, G.; Vuillemin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Two photographs of the galaxy M 31 have been obtained in the far UV with a Faust rocket experiment and in the near UV with the S 183 experiment aboard Skylab. Only the central part of the galaxy is detected. Reductions provide both the energy received and the angular area over M 31 from which it is emitted. The UV flux is brighter than expected from extrapolation of the visible spectrum. The distribution below 300 A is rather flat and different from previous OAO-2 observations. These results, combined with Lyman continuum flux evaluation, are used to discuss the temperature and the age of the stars which may be responsible for this anomalous UV distribution.

  4. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    for this part of Europe and below the expected levels of phytotoxicity. PMID:11808553

  5. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe. PMID:26675459

  6. Coeval dust accumulation minima in Greenland and East Central Europe over 31-23 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Stevens, Thomas; Varga, György; Kovács, János; Molnár, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    As reflected in δ18O values in ice cores, the North Atlantic area experienced a series of abrupt, dramatic climatic fluctuations over the last glacial during which oceanic and atmospheric conditions alternated between full glacial (stadial) and relatively mild (interstadial) conditions [1,2]. Beyond the δ18O profiles, calcium ion concentration data (hereafter [Ca2+]) also exhibit particularly clear stadial/interstadial contrasts [3]. The Ca2+/dust concentration records are considered as a proxy for the amount of terrestrial dust reaching the ice sheet [4] and/or changing dust storm activity in the source areas around the Northern Hemisphere, mainly in East Asia [5,6]. The mode of the dust size distributions is thought to reflect transit times during transport, with larger modes indicating shorter transit times and transport routes, i.e. changed atmospheric circulation patterns [5]. However, based on clay mineralogy and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of loess sediments Újvári, et al. [7] suggested that Central European dust cannot be excluded as a potential source of Greenland dust. As such, it is vital to analyze dust deposition in the key dust depocentres of Eastern Europe. As a record of Carpathian Basin dust source activity, we therefore studied loess sedimentation and grain size changes in the Dunaszekcsö loess sequence in Southern Hungary. For this record, we developed the highest resolution geochronological dataset for European loess based on 61 AMS 14C dates from molluscs and charcoal fragments. This allowed us to establish a uniquely high precision Bayesian age-depth model, with the mean 95% confidence ranges that vary between 119 and 798 yr. Sedimentation rates (SR) calculated from the age-depth model vary between 0.36-1.7 mm yr‑1 and the estimated bulk dust mass accumulation rates (MAR) range from 551 to 2525 g m‑2 yr‑1. Both the SR and MAR display millennial/sub-millennial scale variations, visible uniquely due to the high precision dating

  7. Late Cenozoic History of the Genus Micromys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Horáček, Ivan; Knitlová, Markéta; Wagner, Jan; Kordos, László; Nadachowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Molecular phylogeography suggests that Micromys minutus, the sole extant species of the genus, colonized its extensive range quite recently, during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. Rich Pliocene and Pleistocene fossil records both from Europe and China suggest rather continuous and gradual in situ phenotype rearrangements from the Pliocene to the Recent periods. To elucidate the discrepancy we reexamined a considerable part of the European fossil record of the genus (14 sites from MN15 to Q3, 0.4–4.2 Ma, including the type series of M. preaminutus from MN15 Csarnóta 2), analyzed them with the aid of detailed morphometric comparisons, and concluded that: (a) The European Pliocene form, M. praeminutus, differs significantly from the extant species; (b) it exhibits a broad phenotypic variation covering the presumptive diagnostic characters of MN16 M. caesaris; (c) despite having smaller dimensions, the Early and Middle Pleistocene forms (MN17-Q3, 2.6–0.4 Ma) seem to be closer to M. praeminutus than to the extant species; (d) the extinction of M. praeminutus during Q3 and the re-occupation of its niche by the recent expansion of M. minutus from E-European – C Asiatic sources (suggested by phylogeographic hypotheses) cannot be excluded. Discussing interpretations of the phylogenetic past of the genus we emphasize the distinct history of the West Palearctic clade (Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene) terminating with M. praeminutus and the East Asiatic clade (chalceus, tedfordi, minutus), and the possible identity of the Western clade with the Late Miocene genus Parapodemus. PMID:23671605

  8. Divergence in Male and Female Manipulative Behaviors with the Intensification of Metallurgy in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Humeral morphology has been shown to reflect, in part, habitual manipulative behaviors in humans. Among Central European agricultural populations, long-term social change, increasing task specialization, and technological innovation all had the potential to impact patterns of habitual activity and upper limb asymmetry. However, systematic temporal change in the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region has not been well-characterized. This study investigates diachronic patterns in humeral biomechanical properties and lengths among 174 adult Central European agriculturalists through the first ∼5400 years of farming in the region. Greater asymmetry in biomechanical properties was expected to accompany the introduction of metallurgy, particularly in males, while upper limb loading patterns were expected to be more similar between the Bronze and Iron Ages. Results revealed a divergence in the lateralization of upper limb biomechanical properties by sex between the Early/Middle Neolithic and Early/Middle Bronze Age. Neolithic females had significantly more variable properties than males in both humeri, while Bronze Age female properties became homogeneous and very symmetrical relative to the right-biased lateralization of contemporaneous males. The Bronze Age to Iron Age transition was associated with morphological change among females, with a significant increase in right-biased asymmetry and a concomitant reduction in sexual dimorphism. Relative to biomechanical properties, humeral length variation and asymmetry were low though some significant sexual dimorphism and temporal change was found. It was among females that the lateralization of humeral biomechanical properties, and variation within them, changed most profoundly through time. This suggests that the introduction of the ard and plow, metallurgical innovation, task specialization, and socioeconomic change through ∼5400 years of agriculture impacted upper limb loading in Central

  9. Divergence in male and female manipulative behaviors with the intensification of metallurgy in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Alison A; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    Humeral morphology has been shown to reflect, in part, habitual manipulative behaviors in humans. Among Central European agricultural populations, long-term social change, increasing task specialization, and technological innovation all had the potential to impact patterns of habitual activity and upper limb asymmetry. However, systematic temporal change in the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region has not been well-characterized. This study investigates diachronic patterns in humeral biomechanical properties and lengths among 174 adult Central European agriculturalists through the first ∼ 5400 years of farming in the region. Greater asymmetry in biomechanical properties was expected to accompany the introduction of metallurgy, particularly in males, while upper limb loading patterns were expected to be more similar between the Bronze and Iron Ages. Results revealed a divergence in the lateralization of upper limb biomechanical properties by sex between the Early/Middle Neolithic and Early/Middle Bronze Age. Neolithic females had significantly more variable properties than males in both humeri, while Bronze Age female properties became homogeneous and very symmetrical relative to the right-biased lateralization of contemporaneous males. The Bronze Age to Iron Age transition was associated with morphological change among females, with a significant increase in right-biased asymmetry and a concomitant reduction in sexual dimorphism. Relative to biomechanical properties, humeral length variation and asymmetry were low though some significant sexual dimorphism and temporal change was found. It was among females that the lateralization of humeral biomechanical properties, and variation within them, changed most profoundly through time. This suggests that the introduction of the ard and plow, metallurgical innovation, task specialization, and socioeconomic change through ∼ 5400 years of agriculture impacted upper limb loading in Central

  10. Holocene landscape and land-use change under human impact. Examples from Central Europe (Lower Rhine Embayment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Protze, Jens; Gerlach, Renate

    2015-04-01

    In the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), as in other parts of Central Europe, several main periods of colluvial deposition (mainly Metal Ages, Roman time, Medieval time) and four main periods of alluvial and overbank deposition in the floodplains (Early Holocene, Metal Ages, partially Roman time, Medieval, Early Modern time) can be divided. The summary of colluvial sedimentation can be shown by using interdisciplinary methods, consisting of sedimentological, geochemical and archaeological methods. This allowed reconstructing a detailed land-use history. To clarify the origin of the colluvial deposits loess-sequences also have been studied geochemically and were compared to loess- and loess-like deposits from adjacent areas, such as the Northern Eifel Mountains or the Middle Rhine. The results clearly show that only the combination of methods of natural sciences and the humanities allow optimal processing of these complex findings. To sum up these results the following cycles cause by human activities can be found in the LRE: 8 periods with soil formation (P = pedogenesis), followed by a phase with mainly stable land surfaces but some rill / gully erosion (R) and succeeded by intensive erosion and colluviation (E) caused by mainly sheet floods in an more open landscape. Especially during the Metal Ages and High Middle Ages erosion is clearly detectable. In the woodlands strong deforestation took place especially due to the production of charcoal and firewood as well as grazing activities. In addition, the development of mining and related industries in the 15th to 16th centuries and further increase in 19th century produced a strong contamination of floodplain deposits. Different periods of an increasing grassland since Medieval time cause by socio-economic effects that results in a reduction of soil erosion can be distinguished.

  11. Tropospheric mercury vertical profiles between 500 and 10 000 m in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Pirrone, Nicola; Bieser, Johannes; Bödewadt, Jan; Esposito, Giulio; Slemr, Franz; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg) plays an important role in determining the transport and cycling of mercury. However, measurements of the vertical distribution are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212) in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and total gaseous mercury (TGM) were measured with Tekran 2537X and Tekran 2537B analysers. In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, and NO2, basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity) have been measured. Additional ground-based mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof, Germany and measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft were used to extend the profile to the ground and upper troposphere respectively. No vertical gradient was found inside the well-mixed boundary layer (variation of less than 0.1 ng m-3) at different sites, with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m-3 (standard temperature and pressure, STP: T = 273.15 K, p = 1013.25 hPa). At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m-3 (STP) when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013 over Leipzig, Germany, with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to Frankfurt Airport, Germany, taken at

  12. Validation of Ionosonde Electron Density Reconstruction Algorithms with IONOLAB-RAY in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gok, Gokhan; Mosna, Zbysek; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan; Erdem, Esra

    2016-07-01

    for various purposes including calculation of actual height and generation of ionograms. In this study, the performance of electron density reconstruction algorithm of IONOLAB group and standard electron density profile algorithms of ionosondes are compared with IONOLAB-RAY wave propagation simulation in near vertical incidence. The electron density reconstruction and parameter extraction algorithms of ionosondes are validated with the IONOLAB-RAY results both for quiet anddisturbed ionospheric states in Central Europe using ionosonde stations such as Pruhonice and Juliusruh . It is observed that IONOLAB ionosonde parameter extraction and electron density reconstruction algorithm performs significantly better compared to standard algorithms especially for disturbed ionospheric conditions. IONOLAB-RAY provides an efficient and reliable tool to investigate and validate ionosonde electron density reconstruction algorithms, especially in determination of reflection height (true height) of signals and critical parameters of ionosphere. This study is supported by TUBITAK 114E541, 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  13. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  14. Changes of regional climate variability in central Europe during the past 250 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, R.

    2012-05-01

    The paper uses the data potential of very long and homogenized instrumental climate time series in the south central Europe for analyzing one feature which is very dominant in the climate change debate --whether anthropogenic climate warming causes or goes along with an increase of climate extremes. The monthly resolved data of the HISTALP data collection provide 58 single series for the three climate elements, air pressure, air temperature and precipitation, that start earlier than 1831 and extend back to 1760 in some cases. Trends and long-term low frequent climate evolution is only shortly touched in the paper. The main goal is the analysis of trends or changes of high frequent interannual and interseasonal variability. In other words, it is features like extremely hot summers, very cold winters, excessively dry or wet seasons which the study aims at. The methods used are based on detrended highpass series whose variance is analyzed in discrete 30-year windows moving over the entire instrumental period. The analysis of discrete subintervals relies on the unique number of 8 (for precipitation 7) such "normal periods". The second approach is based on the same subintervals though not in fixed but moving windows over the entire instrumental period. The first result of the study is the clear evidence that there has been no increase of variability during the past 250 years in the region. The second finding is similar but concentrates on the recent three decades which are of particular interest because they are the first 30 years with dominating anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. We can show that also this recent anthropogenic normal period shows no widening of the PDF (probability density function) compared to the preceding ones. The third finding is based on the moving window technique. It shows that interannual variability changes show a clear centennial oscillating structure for all three climate elements in the region. For the time being we have no explanation

  15. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  16. Rayleigh and Love waves phase velocity measurements in central Europe from seismic ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J.; Fry, B.; Boschi, L.; Kissling, E. H.

    2009-12-01

    We present a new database of surface-wave phase-velocity dispersion curves derived from seismic ambient noise, cross-correlating continuous seismic recordings from the Swiss Network, the German Regional Seismological Network (GRSN), and from the Italian national broadband network operated by the the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), plus some stations from the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) and from the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). In order to increase the aperture of the station array, additional measurements from the French, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Romanian and Greek stations obtained throught Orfeus are also included. The ambient noise we are using to assemble our database was recorded at the mentioned stations between January 2006 and December 2007. The Green function method, applied to continuous signal recorded at pairs of stations allows to extract from ambient noise coherent surface-wave signal travelling between the two stations. Usually the ambient-noise cross-correlation technique allows to have infomation at periods of 30 s or shorter. Our efforts are focused on extending this technique to longer periods. At this point we are able to obtain coherent dispersion curves at periods from 8 to 35 s. At a second stage, the data set of phase delays associated with a certain frequency of Rayleigh or Love waves are inverted, to determine 2-dimensional phase-velocity maps of the European region. Inversions are conducted by means of a linearized tomographic inversion algorithm. We are now able to obtain 2D Rayleighs and Loves waves phase-velocity maps at periods between 8 and 35 s. We compare these maps with those that we obtain from teleseismic measurements made at the same stations, and with independantly observed geological features in Europe and the Moho depth. Combining ambient-noise and teleseismic observations, our efforts will help to determine a 3D consensus model of the

  17. Mid Holocene climate change and impact on evolution on human settlements in northern central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krossa, V. R.; Kim, H.-J.; Moros, M.; Dörfler, W.; Blanz, T.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schneider, R.

    2012-04-01

    have facilitated the adaption of human societies, further developing agriculture and the domestication of animals in northern central Europe.

  18. Tropospheric mercury vertical profiles between 500 and 10 000 m in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Pirrone, N.; Bieser, J.; Bödewadt, J.; Esposito, G.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the CARIBIC passenger aircraft observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212) in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was measured with a Tekran 2537X analyser and a Lumex RA-915-AM. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured using a Tekran 2537B analyser and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) was sampled onto 8 denuders for post flight analysis (one for each profile, three during the transfer flights, and two blanks). In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, NO2, as well as basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity) have been measured. Additional ground based speciated mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof (Germany) were used to extend the profile to the ground. No vertical gradient was found inside the well mixed boundary layer (variation by less than 0.1 ng m-3) at different sites with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m-3 (STP; standard conditions: p = 1013.25 hPa, T = 273.15 K). At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m-3 (STP) when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013, over Leipzig (Germany) with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to Frankfurt airport (Germany) at approximately the same time provide a unique central European vertical profile from inside the

  19. High-resolution climate simulations for Central Europe: An assessment of dynamical and statistical downscaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Huth, R.; Halenka, T.; Belda, M.; Farda, A.; Skalak, P.; Stepanek, P.

    2009-12-01

    To bridge the resolution gap between the outputs of global climate models (GCMs) and finer-scale data needed for studies of the climate change impacts, two approaches are widely used: dynamical downscaling, based on application of regional climate models (RCMs) embedded into the domain of the GCM simulation, and statistical downscaling (SDS), using empirical transfer functions between the large-scale data generated by the GCM and local measurements. In our contribution, we compare the performance of different variants of both techniques for the region of Central Europe. The dynamical downscaling is represented by the outputs of two regional models run in the 10 km horizontal grid, ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ (co-developed by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Meteo-France) and RegCM3 (developed by the Abdus Salam Centre for Theoretical Physics). The applied statistical methods were based on multiple linear regression, as well as on several of its nonlinear alternatives, including techniques employing artificial neural networks. Validation of the downscaling outputs was carried out using measured data, gathered from weather stations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria and Hungary for the end of the 20th century; series of daily values of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity were analyzed. None of the regional models or statistical downscaling techniques could be identified as the universally best one. For instance, while most statistical methods misrepresented the shape of the statistical distribution of the target variables (especially in the more challenging cases such as estimation of daily precipitation), RCM-generated data often suffered from severe biases. It is also shown that further enhancement of the simulated fields of climate variables can be achieved through a combination of dynamical downscaling and statistical postprocessing. This can not only be used to reduce biases and other systematic flaws in the generated time

  20. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th-12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  1. Maternal Genetic Composition of a Medieval Population from a Hungarian-Slavic Contact Zone in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Csákyová, Veronika; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csősz, Aranka; Nagy, Melinda; Fusek, Gabriel; Langó, Péter; Bauer, Miroslav; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Makovický, Pavol; Bauerová, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The genetic composition of the medieval populations of Central Europe has been poorly investigated to date. In particular, the region of modern-day Slovakia is a blank spot in archaeogenetic research. This paper reports the study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in ancient samples from the 9th–12th centuries originating from the cemeteries discovered in Nitra-Šindolka and Čakajovce, located in western Slovakia (Central Europe). This geographical region is interesting to study because its medieval multi-ethnic population lived in the so-called contact zone of the territory of the Great Moravian and later Hungarian state formations. We described 16 different mtDNA haplotypes in 19 individuals, which belong to the most widespread European mtDNA haplogroups: H, J, T, U and R0. Using comparative statistical and population genetic analyses, we showed the differentiation of the European gene pool in the medieval period. We also demonstrated the heterogeneous genetic characteristics of the investigated population and its affinity to the populations of modern Europe. PMID:26963389

  2. How cold was it for Neanderthals moving to Central Europe during warm phases of the last glaciation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Grierson, Pauline F.

    2011-03-01

    Precise estimates of mean annual temperature (MAT) for when Neanderthals occupied Central Europe are critical for understanding the role that climatic and associated environmental factors played in Neanderthal migrations and in their ultimate extinction. Neanderthals were continuously present in the relatively warm regions of southern and Western Europe in the Pleistocene but only temporarily settled Central Europe (CE), presumably because of its colder and less hospitable climate. Here, we present a new approach for more spatially and temporally accurate estimation of palaeotemperatures based on the stable oxygen isotope composition of phosphates extracted from animal teeth found at sites linked directly to concurrent Neanderthal occupation. We provide evidence that Neanderthals migrated along the Odra Valley of CE during warmer periods throughout the Upper Pleistocene. The MATs during these migrations were about 6.8 °C for the warm phase of Oxygen Isotope Stage OIS 5a-d (prior to the OIS4 cold event) at ˜115-74,000 yr BP and about 6.3 °C during the early OIS 3 warm phase ˜59-41,000 yr BP. Our results show that temperatures during these phases peaked 2-4 °C above longer term estimates from ice cores and pollen records. We argue that our approach can provide valuable insights into evaluating the role of climate in human migration patterns in the Pleistocene.

  3. Sources and pathways of polycyclic aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons in the Arkona Basin (Southern Baltic Sea, Central Europe)

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, H.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltic Sea (Central Europe) is surrounded by coastal regions with long histories of industrialization. The heavy metal profiles in the sediments in the center of the Arkona Basin, one of the depressions of the southern Baltic Sea area, clearly reflect the historical anthropogenic influence. The Arkona Basin-is the final sink for materials derived from the Oder river which drains a highly polluted industrial area of Eastern Europe. Surficial muddy sediments from a close-meshed field of sampling-points were analyzed for distribution patterns of aliphatics and quantities and ratios of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). These compounds are thought to reflect anthropogenic pollution related to emissions from traffic, heating, etc. We use these marker substances to test if the basin sediments reflect riverine input, and if additional sources can be identified.

  4. Full stellar kinematical profiles of central parts of nearby galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vudragović, A.; Samurović, S.; Jovanović, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. We present the largest catalog of detailed stellar kinematics of the central parts of nearby galaxies, which includes higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) function represented by the Gauss-Hermite series. The kinematics is measured on a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (Alfalfa) survey using spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Aims: The SDSS DR7 offers measurements of the LOSVD based on the assumption of a pure Gaussian shape of the broadening function caused by the combination of rotational and random motion of the stars in galaxies. We discuss the consequences of this oversimplification since the velocity dispersion, one of the measured quantities, often serves as the proxy to important modeling parameters such as the black-hole mass and the virial mass of galaxies. Methods: The publicly available pPXF code is used to calculate the full kinematical profile for the sample galaxies including higher moments of their LOSVD. Both observed and synthetic stellar libraries were used and the related template mismatch problem is discussed. Results: For the whole sample of 2180 nearby galaxies reflecting morphological distribution characteristic for the local Universe, we successfully recovered stellar kinematics of their central parts, including higher order moments of the LOSVD function, for signal-to-noise above 50. Conclusions: We show the consequences of the oversimplification of the LOSVD function with Gaussian function on the velocity dispersion for the empirical and the synthetic stellar library. For the empirical stellar library, this approximation leads to an increase in the virial mass of 13% on average, while for the synthetic library the effect is weaker, with an increase of 9% on average. Systematic erroneous estimates of the velocity dispersion comes from the use of the synthetic stellar library instead of the empirical one and is much larger than the value imposed by

  5. Family medicine in post-communist Europe needs a boost. Exploring the position of family medicine in healthcare systems of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The countries of Central and Eastern Europe have experienced a lot of changes at the end of the 20th century, including changes in the health care systems and especially in primary care. The aim of this paper is to systematically assess the position of family medicine in these countries, using the same methodology within all the countries. Methods A key informants survey in 11 Central and Eastern European countries and Russia using a questionnaire developed on the basis of systematic literature review. Results Formally, family medicine is accepted as a specialty in all the countries, although the levels of its implementation vary across the countries and the differences are important. In most countries, solo practice is the most predominant organisational form of family medicine. Family medicine is just one of many medical specialties (e.g. paediatrics and gynaecology) in primary health care. Full introduction of family medicine was successful only in Estonia. Conclusions Some of the unification of the systems may have been the result of the EU request for adequate training that has pushed the policies towards higher standards of training for family medicine. The initial enthusiasm of implementing family medicine has decreased because there was no initiative that would support this movement. Internal and external stimuli might be needed to continue transition process. PMID:22409775

  6. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia.

    PubMed

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo; López-Martínez, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe's alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  7. Solar modulation of flood frequency in central Europe during spring and summer on interannual to multi-centennial timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czymzik, Markus; Muscheler, Raimund; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Solar influences on climate variability are one of the most controversially discussed topics in climate research. We analyze solar forcing of flood frequency in central Europe during spring and summer on interannual to multi-centennial timescales, integrating daily discharge data of the River Ammer (southern Germany) back to AD 1926 (˜ solar cycles 16-23) and the 5500-year flood layer record from varved sediments of the downstream Ammersee. Flood frequency in the River Ammer discharge record is significantly correlated to changes in solar activity when the flood record lags the solar signal by 2-3 years (2-year lag: r = -0.375, p = 0.01; 3-year lag: r = -0.371, p = 0.03). Flood layer frequency in the Ammersee sediment record depicts distinct multi-decadal variations and significant correlations to a total solar irradiance reconstruction (r = -0.4, p < 0.0001) and 14C production rates (r = 0.37, p < 0.0001), reflecting changes in solar activity. On all timescales, flood frequency is higher when solar activity is reduced. In addition, the configuration of atmospheric circulation associated with periods of increased River Ammer flood frequency broadly resembles that during intervals of reduced solar activity, as expected to be induced by the so-called solar top-down mechanism by model studies. Both atmospheric patterns are characterized by an increase in meridional airflow associated with enhanced atmospheric blocking over central Europe. Therefore, the significant correlations as well as similar atmospheric circulation patterns might provide empirical support for a solar influence on hydroclimate extremes in central Europe during spring and summer by the so-called solar top-down mechanism.

  8. DECLINE OF MONTANE BOREAL ECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL EUROPE AND THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than a decade scientists from Western Europe and New England have documented an insidious dieback and/or decline of certain forest types, in particular high-altitude coniferous forests. Silver fir and Norway spruce are undergoing a severe decline in Hartz Mts., Black Mts...

  9. Assessing the completeness of historical earthquake records in Austria and surrounding Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Asma; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    formula for each country. In order to get the completeness periods for various magnitude ranges, the combined catalogue as well as each subcatalogue have been analyzed following the method of Stepp (1972). We can show that the new composite catalogue fulfills the critical minimum observation period for all intensity classes except IX and higher. A stable estimate of mean recurrence period of intensity IV is 80 years of homogeneous observations from 1900 to 1980 and for intensity V, the observation period is 120 years. A stable estimate of mean recurrence period for intensity VI is about 115 years and for intensity vii is 30 years. The homogeneous interval for maximum intensity VIII is 200 years. Maximum intensity IX earthquakes are not completely definitive for whole 962 years period. In addition, the analysis of each subcatalogue leads to similar results, except the ACORN catalogue. Therefore, the newly complied catalogue for Austria and surrounding areas is a suitable data base for seismic hazard assessment in Austria. References: ACORN, 2004, Catalogue of Earthquakes in the Region of the Alps - Western Carpathians - Bohemian Massif for the period from 1267 to 2004, Computer File, Vienna (Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Department of Geophysics) - Brno (Institute of Physics of the Earth, University Brno). Van Gils, J.M. and G. Leydecker (1991): Catalogue of European earthquakes with intensities higher than 4. -- Commission of the European Communities - nuclear science and technology. 353 pp., 14 fig., 1 tab.- ISBN 92-826-2506-0, Catalogue number: CD-NA-13406-EN-C. Brussels - Luxembourg 1991. Shebalin, N. V., Leydecker, G., et al. (1998): Earthquake Catalogue for Central and Southeastern Europe 342 BC - 1990 AD. -- European Commission, Report No. ETNU CT 93 - 0087, Brussels. Stepp, J.C., 1972. Analysis of completeness of the earthquake sample in the Puget Sound area and its effect on statistical estimates of earthquake hazard. Proc. of the 1st Int

  10. Chromium isotope inventory of Cr(VI)-polluted groundwaters at four industrial sites in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Martinkova, Eva; Chrastny, Vladislav; Stepanova, Marketa; Curik, Jan; Szurmanova, Zdenka; Cron, Marcel; Tylcer, Jiri; Sebek, Ondrej

    2016-04-01

    Chromium is one of the most toxic elements, especially in its dissolved Cr(VI) form. In the Czech Republic (Central Europe), massive contamination of groundwater has been reported at more than 200 industrial operations. Under suitable conditions, i.e., low Eh, and high availability of reductive agents, Cr(VI) in groundwater may be spontaneously reduced to solid, largely non-toxic Cr(III). This process is associated with a Cr isotope fractionation, with the residual liquid Cr(VI) becoming enriched in the heavier isotope 53Cr. At industrial operations that have been closed and/or where no further leakage of Cr(VI) occurs, the contaminated groundwater plume may be viewed as a closed system. At such sites, an increasing degree of Cr(VI) reduction should result in an increasing del53/52Cr value of the residual liquid. Here we present del53/52Cr systematics at four contaminated Czech sites, focusing on groundwaters. At two of the four sites (Zlate Hory, Loucna) we were also able to analyze the source of contamination. Chromium in the electroplating solutes was isotopically relatively light, with del53/52Cr values <1 per mil. At the remaining two sites (Letnany and Velesin), the Cr isotope signature of the source of contamination was not known. At all four sites, most del53/52Cr values were positive, with means higer than 1 per mil: At Zlate Hory, del53/52Cr ranged between -2.2 and +3.0 per mil (mean of +1.5 per mil); at Loucna, del53/52Cr ranged between 0 and +4.0 per mil (mean of +1.7 per mil); at Letnany, del53/52Cr ranged between +2.0 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +3.2 per mil); and at Velesin, del53/52Cr ranged between +0.5 and +4.5 per mil (mean of +2.7 per mil). Cr(VI) reduction may proceed at Zlate Hory and Loucna, where del53/52Cr(VI) values in groundwater were on average higher than those of the contamination source. At these two sites, our Cr isotope data are not consistent with the existing estimates of the amount of dissolved and precipitated Cr: The pool size of

  11. Strong aerosol-cloud interaction in altocumulus during updraft periods: lidar observations over central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, J.; Ansmann, A.; Bühl, J.; Wandinger, U.

    2015-09-01

    For the first time, a liquid-water cloud study of the aerosol-cloud-dynamics relationship, solely based on lidar, was conducted. Twenty-nine cases of pure liquid-water altocumulus layers were observed with a novel dual-field-of-view Raman lidar over the polluted central European site of Leipzig, Germany, between September 2010 and September 2012. By means of the novel Raman lidar technique, cloud properties such as the droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) in the lower part of altocumulus layers are obtained. The conventional aerosol Raman lidar technique provides the aerosol extinction coefficient (used as aerosol proxy) below cloud base. A collocated Doppler lidar measures the vertical velocity at cloud base and thus updraft and downdraft occurrence. Here, we present the key results of our statistical analysis of the 2010-2012 observations. Besides a clear aerosol effect on cloud droplet number concentration in the lower part of the altocumulus layers during updraft periods, turbulent mixing and entrainment of dry air is assumed to be the main reason for the found weak correlation between aerosol proxy and CDNC higher up in the cloud. The corresponding aerosol-cloud interaction parameter based on changes in cloud droplet number concentration with aerosol loading was found to be close to 0.8 at 30-70 m above cloud base during updraft periods and below 0.4 when ignoring vertical-wind information in the analysis. Our findings are extensively compared with literature values and agree well with airborne observations.

  12. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe

    PubMed Central

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ≤10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere. PMID:20736979

  13. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine

  14. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m-3) with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  15. Infertility in Poland--present status, reasons and prognosis as a reflection of Central and Eastern Europe problems with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2003-03-01

    Poland has been considered a representative country for the population of Central and Eastern Europe as it has genetically homogenous population and reveals profound similarities in economical and historical processes common for all countries of the region. According to our observations there is approximately 20% of infertile couples in Poland (lack of concentration after at least 12 month of unprotected intercourse) and 40-60% of them are infertile because of the male factor. However, studies of infertility in Poland that have been conducted so far need to be verified. The changes connected with the style of life and new tendencies observed during the tedious political changes had considerable influence on childbearing rate in Poland. Additional factors diminishing the fertility rate are: the change of the status of women in a society, raising amount of everyday stress, the high rate (17%) of unemployment and the low average income. Furthermore, in Poland, the diagnostics and treatment (assisted reproductive technology) are entirely financed from the private funds of a patient. Summing up, the problem of childlessness in Central and Eastern Europe is a complex one and very alarming therefore it is necessary to work out and to implement research, preventative and therapeutic programmes strengthened through the international cooperation of specialized centers of excellence. PMID:12640359

  16. Insects colonising carcasses in open and forest habitats of Central Europe: search for indicators of corpse relocation.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Szafałowicz, Michał; Jarmusz, Mateusz

    2013-09-10

    Several traces may reveal the post-mortem relocation of a corpse. Insects are particularly useful for that purpose. The use of insects for inferring the transfer of a corpse rests on a premise that particular species colonise corpses in different habitats. However, only some insects reveal a strong preference for a given type of habitat. In order to find those insects which colonise corpses exclusively in open habitats, as opposed to forest habitats, a pig carrion study was made in rural open and rural forest habitats of Central Europe. Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Dermestes frischi, Dermestes laniarius (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), Omosita colon, some species of Nitidula (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Necrobia rufipes (Coleoptera: Cleridae) were found to breed exclusively in open habitats. Only Oiceoptoma thoracicum (Coleoptera: Silphidae) avoided definitely breeding in open habitats. Sarcophaga caerulescens (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) regularly bred in open habitats but rarely bred in forests. Accordingly, L. sericata, D. frischi, O. colon, species of Nitidula and supposedly N. rufipes may be classified as indicators of corpse relocation from rural open to rural forest habitats of Central Europe. Only O. thoracicum may be classified as an indicator of the relocation in an opposite direction. PMID:23890643

  17. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  18. The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmens, Karin F.

    2014-02-01

    characterized the climate variability of MIS 3. Mild climate conditions in early MIS 3 caused large-scale deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, and ice-free conditions with Betula-dominated vegetation (including tree birch) persisted over large parts of Fennoscandia, possibly interrupted by glaciation, during major part of MIS 3 till ca 35 ka BP. Overall, MIS 5 was mostly mild with warmest or peak interglacial conditions at the very start during MIS 5e. MIS 4-2 was mostly cold with most extreme or peak glacial conditions in the closing phase during MIS 2. This points to a subdivision of the last climate cycle into an early, overall mild interglacial half and a late, overall cold glacial half, each with duration of ca 50 ka. This review also shows that the climate variability in central and northern Europe during the LI-G cycle was mostly in degrees of continentality with major shifts in winter temperature and precipitation values; summer temperatures, on the other hand, remained largely unchanged. It points to the waxing and waning of sea-ice over the North Atlantic Ocean as a possible characteristic feature of the Late Pleistocene. The present compilation, based on long terrestrial sequences, high-resolution multi-proxy data from the oceans, and quantified paleo-climate data, strongly favors a definition of entire Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 as the Last Interglacial similar as in the original marine stratigraphy and the stratigraphy at La Grande Pile in France. The proxy-based climate data places the start of the Last Glacial at the base of MIS 4 and the northwest European Pleniglacial. It shows that the division between the Eemian (MIS 5e) and the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-a) is not useful, as not relevant from a climate point of view.

  19. Local Moho Updoming Beneath The Western Eger Rift, Central Europe ? Results From Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, W. H.; Kind, R.; Kaempf, H.; Klinge, K.; Plenefisch, T.; Zednik, J.; Horalek, J.; W-Bohemia Working Group

    The Eger rift is part of the European Cainozoic rift system. The tectono-magmatic activity in this area started in the uppermost Cretaceous. The Quaternary to active period is associated with CO2-emanations at the surface, alkaline volcanic activity, neotectonic uplift in the Slavskovsky Les area, active basin formation of the Cheb basin and earthquake swarm activity in the German/Czech boundary region NW- Bohemia/Vogtland. In the past few years there are many efforts to investigate the re- lation of mantle-crust interaction (swarm earthquakes and CO2-degassing) in a close co-operation between Czech and German institutes. One of the key-questions of the research is the understanding of the dynamic of the asthenosphere-lithosphere system beneath the area. As the first step in this direction we present Moho depths for the surrounding of the earthquake swarm area NW-Bohemia/Vogtland. We analysed tele- seismic data from stationary broadband and short-period stations and from temporary networks in the region. We calculated the Moho depth and average vp/vs-values using Moho Ps-conversions and their multiples. We obtained good results at almost all of the broadband stations. With the exception of one station within the Cheb basin also the short period stations of local networks yielded good results. At almost all stations we see a strong converted phase with positive polarity (indicating velocity increase downwards) at about 3.7 s after the P-wave which originates from the Moho disconti- nuity. The multiple conversions from the Moho could not clearly be seen in the short period data. Moho depths range from possibly only 26 km beneath the Cheb basin to 38 km in the central Bohemian massif. The local Moho updoming in the order of 3 to 4 km in NW-Bohemia seems to correlate with the geometry of the Cheb basin and one of the main centres of CO2-mantle degassing. If this local Moho high can be supported by further investigations, it could indicate active magmatic underplating

  20. Comparison of Complete Genome Sequences of Usutu Virus Strains Detected in Spain, Central Europe, and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Busquets, Núria; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The complete genomic sequence of Usutu virus (USUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) strain MB119/06, detected in a pool of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in northeastern Spain (Viladecans, Catalonia) in 2006, was determined and analyzed. The phylogenetic relationship with all other available complete USUV genome sequences was established. The Spanish sequence investigated showed the closest relationship to the USUV prototype strain SA AR 1776 isolated in South Africa in 1959 (96.9% nucleotide and 98.8% amino acid identities). Conserved structural elements and enzyme motifs of the putative polyprotein precursor were identified. Unique amino acid substitutions were recognized; however, their potential roles as virulence markers could not be verified. Comparisons of the polyprotein precursor sequences of USUV strains detected in mosquitoes, birds, and humans could not confirm the predicted role of unique amino acid substitutions in relation to virulence in humans. Phylogenetic analysis of a partial coding section of the NS5 protein gene region indicated that USUV strains circulating in Europe form three different genetic clusters. Broad and targeted surveys for USUV in mosquitoes could reveal further details of the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the virus in Europe and in Africa. PMID:24746182

  1. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    PubMed

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis Reveals High Frequency of European Lactase Persistence Allele (T-13910) in Medieval Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71–80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  3. First molecular identification of Babesia gibsoni in dogs from Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Horská, Mária; Blaňarová, Lucia; Švihran, Milan; Andersson, Martin; Peťko, Branislav

    2016-02-01

    Canine babesiosis is a severe and potentially life threatening infection. In Europe, Babesia canis is considered to be the most common species responsible for the disease. We report two cases of babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni. The polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and further sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments from blood samples of both dogs revealed the identity of isolates with B. gibsoni genotypes from other dogs worldwide. This species was previously not known to infect dogs in Slovakia. It is resistant to traditional anti-babesial therapy. Therefore, correct diagnosis is crucial for the successful treatment, especially in dogs with hemolytic anemia and febrile conditions. PMID:26304014

  4. Genetic diversity of Bartonella genotypes found in the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Kraljik, Jasna; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Miklisová, Dana; Blaňarová, Lucia; Mošanský, Ladislav; Bona, Martin; Stanko, Michal

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the diversity of Bartonella in Apodemus agrarius, an important rodent of peri-domestic habitats, which has spread into Europe in the past 1000 years. Spleen samples of 344 A. agrarius from Eastern Slovakia were screened for the presence of Bartonella spp. using 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region and bacteria were detected in 9% of rodents. Based on sequencing of three housekeeping genes (gltA, rpoB and groEL) Bartonella genotypes were ascribed to the species typical for mice and voles: B. grahamii, B. taylorii and B. birtlesii. However, the study also confirmed presence of genotypes belonging to the B. clarridgeiae/B. rochalimae clade, and the B. elizabethae/B. tribocorum clade, which are not commonly found in woodland rodents. In addition, a potential recombination event between these two genotypes was noted, which highlights an important role of A. agrarius in shaping Bartonella diversity and evolution. PMID:27279125

  5. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    PubMed Central

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  6. Environmental noise and cardiovascular disease in adults: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Argalášová-Sobotová, L'ubica; Lekaviciute, Jurgita; Jeram, Sonja; Sevcíková, L'udmila; Jurkovicová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of noise on health have been intensely explored in the past 50 years. However, the scope of research conducted in the Central and Eastern Europe, South-East Europe, and Newly Independent States is not well-known. The aim of this review was to present studies on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults published since 1965 and to point out the most important issues that need to be addressed in the future. More than 100 papers on noise and health and about 20 papers on cardiovascular effects of environmental noise in adults were identified by literature search. The authors reviewed scientific international and local journals, conference proceedings, and local reports published in national languages. The major endpoints were high blood pressure, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction. The target populations were adults. Experimental and exposure-assessment studies, field, empirical studies, social surveys, and epidemiological studies are presented. The major sources of environmental noise were road and air traffic. The results were presented in tables and the most relevant articles were briefly discussed. The importance of this review is that it refers to some countries that no longer exist in the same political and governmental systems. The strength of this paper is that it includes publications that were not evaluated in earlier systematic reviews. Strategies for future noise-related research on national and global level are proposed. PMID:23412577

  7. Evidence for two karyotypic variants of the lesser horseshoe bat ( Rhinolophus hipposideros , Chiroptera, Mammalia) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Volleth, M; Biedermann, M; Schorcht, W; Heller, K-G

    2013-01-01

    Three different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 54, 56 and 58) have been reported in the lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros. Asia Minor and the Middle East are inhabited by R. hipposideros specimens with 58 chromosomes. In Europe, specimens with 56 chromosomes have been recorded from several localities in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy and Greece. Up to now, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and possibly from Switzerland. With the record of 54 chromosomes in specimens from Germany presented here, the distributional area of this variant is expanded into Central Europe. According to the cytogenetic data presently available, we presume that the European R. hipposideros population is divided into a western form (from Spain to Germany) with a 2n = 54 karyotype and an eastern form (from the Czech Republic to Greece) with a 2n = 56 karyotype. This study presents banded karyotypes for the 2n = 54 and 2n = 56 variants for the first time. In addition, chromosomal arm homology to the vespertilionid bat species Myotis myotis revealed by chromosome painting is reported. Whether the variants could represent separate species is also discussed. PMID:23635426

  8. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  9. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  10. Plastic Surgery Training Worldwide: Part 1. The United States and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Parisa; van Paridon, Maaike W.; Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Paul, Marek A.; Winters, Henri A.; Martinot-Duquennoy, Veronique; Noah, Ernst Magnus; Pallua, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major differences exist in residency training, and the structure and quality of residency programs differ between different countries and teaching centers. It is of vital importance that a better understanding of the similarities and differences in plastic surgery training be ascertained as a means of initiating constructive discussion and commentary among training programs worldwide. In this study, the authors provide an overview of plastic surgery training in the United States and Europe. Methods: A survey was sent to select surgeons in 10 European countries that were deemed to be regular contributors to the plastic surgery literature. The questions focused on pathway to plastic surgery residency, length of training, required pretraining experience, training scheme, research opportunities, and examinations during and after plastic surgery residency. Results: Plastic surgery residency training programs in the United States differ from the various (selected) countries in Europe and are described in detail. Conclusions: Plastic surgery education is vastly different between the United States and Europe, and even within Europe, training programs remain heterogeneous. Standardization of curricula across the different countries would improve the interaction of different centers and facilitate the exchange of vital information for quality control and future improvements. The unique characteristics of the various training programs potentially provide a basis from which to learn and to gain from one another. PMID:27257571

  11. Impacts of global change on water-related sectors and society in a trans-boundary central European river basin - Part 1: project framework and impacts on agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattermann, F. F.; Gömann, H.; Conradt, T.; Kaltofen, M.; Kreins, P.; Wechsung, F.

    2007-06-01

    Central Europe, the focus region of this study, is a region in transition, climatically from maritime to continental and politically from formerly more planning-oriented to more market-oriented management regimes, and in terms of climate change from regions of increasing precipitation in the west and north of Europe to regions of decreasing precipitation in central and southern Europe. The Elbe basin, a trans-boundary catchment flowing from the Czech Republic through Germany into the North Sea, was selected to investigate the possible impacts of global change on crop yields and water resources in this region. For technical reasons, the paper has been split into two parts, the first showing the overall model concept, the model set-up for the agricultural sector, and first results linking eco-hydrological and agro-economic tools for the German part of the basin. The second part describes the model set-up for simulating water supply and demand linking eco-hydrological and water management tools for the entire basin including the Czech part.

  12. Extreme floods in central Europe over the past 500 years: Role of cyclone pathway ``Zugstrasse Vb''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, M.; BöRngen, M.; Tetzlaff, G.; Grünewald, U.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropogenically induced climate change has been hypothesized to add to the risk of extreme river floods because a warmer atmosphere can carry more water. In the case of the central European rivers Elbe and Oder, another possibility that has been considered is a more frequent occurrence of a weather situation of the type "Zugstrasse Vb," where a low-pressure system travels from the Adriatic region northeastward, carrying moist air and bringing orographic rainfall in the mountainous catchment areas (Erzgebirge, Sudeten, and Beskids). Analysis of long, homogeneous records of past floods allows us to test such ideas. M. Mudelsee and co-workers recently presented flood records for the middle parts of the Elbe and Oder, which go continuously back to A.D. 1021 and A.D. 1269, respectively. Here we review the reconstruction and assess the data quality of the records, which are based on combining documentary data from the interval up to 1850 and measurements thereafter, finding both the Elbe and Oder records to provide reliable information on heavy floods at least since A.D. 1500. We explain that the statistical method of kernel occurrence rate estimation can overcome deficiencies of techniques previously used to investigate trends in the occurrence of climatic extremes, because it (1) allows nonmonotonic trends, (2) imposes no parametric restrictions, and (3) provides confidence bands, which are essential for evaluating whether observed trends are real or came by chance into the data. We further give a hypothesis test that can be used to evaluate monotonic trends. On the basis of these data and methods, we find for both the Elbe and Oder rivers (1) significant downward trends in winter flood risk during the twentieth century, (2) no significant trends in summer flood risk in the twentieth century, and (3) significant variations in flood risk during past centuries, with notable differences between the Elbe and Oder. The observed trends are shown to be both robust against

  13. Checklist and distribution of ciliates from the family Euplotidae Ehrenberg, 1838 (Protista: Ciliophora: Spirotrichea) in Slovakia, Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tirjaková, Eva; Botlíková, Simona; Vďačný, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of ciliates from the family Euplotidae recorded in the territory of Slovakia, Central Europe was assembled. Altogether, 11 species belonging to three genera of the family Euplotidae have been reported there: Euplotes alatus, Euplotes charon, Euplotes moebiusi, Euplotoides aediculatus, Euplotoides eurystomus, Euplotoides patella, Euplotoides woodruffi, Euplotopsis affinis, Euplotopsis finki, Euplotopsis muscicola, and Euplotopsis novemcarinata. However, records of the marine species E. alatus and E. charon are doubtful and very likely represent misidentifications of E. moebiusi. Since the euryhaline species E. woodruffi was found for the first time in Slovakia, its morphology is described. Based on the literature data and our own observations, the present checklist is also accompanied with distribution data on the 11 aforementioned species. As concerns ecology, Slovak euplotids typically occurred in freshwater bodies having higher trophic levels. Only two species, E. finki and E. muscicola, were isolated from terrestrial habitats, especially, from mosses, leaf-litter, and decaying wood mass. PMID:25781253

  14. Uncoupling of microbial community structure and function in decomposing litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Purahong, Witoon; Schloter, Michael; Pecyna, Marek J.; Kapturska, Danuta; Däumlich, Veronika; Mital, Sanchit; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Gutknecht, Jessica L. M.; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The widespread paradigm in ecology that community structure determines function has recently been challenged by the high complexity of microbial communities. Here, we investigate the patterns of and connections between microbial community structure and microbially-mediated ecological function across different forest management practices and temporal changes in leaf litter across beech forest ecosystems in Central Europe. Our results clearly indicate distinct pattern of microbial community structure in response to forest management and time. However, those patterns were not reflected when potential enzymatic activities of microbes were measured. We postulate that in our forest ecosystems, a disconnect between microbial community structure and function may be present due to differences between the drivers of microbial growth and those of microbial function. PMID:25388562

  15. Child Rights and Quality Education: Child-Friendly Schools in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…

  16. Distance-Learning in Higher Education: A Status Report on Teacher Education in Central Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsi, Tunde; Hoot, James L.; Miklosne, Ildiko Kis

    2003-01-01

    An overview of distance teaching in Hungary and other East/Central European countries identified barriers: lack of tuition reimbursement, institutional mergers, limited Internet access, teacher-directed instruction, English proficiency, and technical support. Promising signs are apparent in Hungarian teacher education programs using distance…

  17. Continuing Vocational Training [in Central and Eastern Europe]. Volume 1. Cross Country Analysis. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The current state of continuing vocational training in Central and Eastern European countries and its most important challenges were analyzed. The analysis found that the former continuing vocational training systems in these areas were characterized by generally low training levels and interdependence among the state-owned enterprises that…

  18. Institutions, Social Capital and Agricultural Change in Central and Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slangen, Louis H. G.; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Suchanek, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Data from a survey of agricultural stakeholders are used to demonstrate that institutions and social capital play an important role in agricultural success in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). Protection of private property, freedom of exchange, consistency in monitoring environmental laws, governments that act neutrally and are not…

  19. Agricultural Adjustment and the Diversification of Farm Households and Corporate Farms in Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Hannah; Davidova, Sophia; Gorton, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Survey evidence from three Central European Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland) is analysed to identify the degree of non-agricultural farm diversification and the factors facilitating or impeding it in individual and corporate farms. The effect of diversification on rural job creation and household incomes is investigated. The results…

  20. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air...

  2. Interannual drought index variations in Central Europe related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation—application and evaluation of statistical downscaling approaches based on circulation type classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2015-08-01

    This contribution investigates the relationship between the large-scale atmospheric circulation and interannual variations of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in Central Europe. To this end, circulation types (CT) have been derived from a variety of circulation type classifications (CTC) applied to daily sea level pressure (SLP) data and mean circulation indices of vorticity ( V), zonality ( Z) and meridionality ( M) have been calculated. Occurrence frequencies of CTs and circulation indices have been utilized as predictors within multiple regression models (MRM) for the estimation of gridded 3-month SPI values over Central Europe, for the period 1950 to 2010. CTC-based MRMs used in the analyses comprise variants concerning the basic method for CT classification, the number of CTs, the size and location of the spatial domain used for CTCs and the exclusive use of CT frequencies or the combined use of CT frequencies and mean circulation indices as predictors. Adequate MRM predictor combinations have been identified by applying stepwise multiple regression analyses within a resampling framework. The performance (robustness) of the resulting MRMs has been quantified based on a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure applying several skill scores. Furthermore, the relative importance of individual predictors has been estimated for each MRM. From these analyses, it can be stated that model skill is improved by (i) the consideration of vorticity characteristics within CTCs, (ii) a relatively small size of the spatial domain to which CTCs are applied and (iii) the inclusion of mean circulation indices. However, model skill exhibits distinct variations between seasons and regions. Whereas promising skill can be stated for the western and northwestern parts of the Central European domain, only unsatisfactory skill is reached in the more continental regions and particularly during summer. Thus, it can be concluded that the presented approaches feature the

  3. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL). PMID:25592912

  4. Simulation of air quality over Central-Eastern Europe - Performance evaluation of WRF-CAMx modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciejewska, Katarzyna; Juda-Rezler, Katarzyna; Reizer, Magdalena

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of presented work is to evaluate the accuracy of modelling the atmospheric transport and transformation on regional scale, performed with 25 km grid spacing. The coupled Mesoscale Weather Model - Chemical Transport Model (CTM) has been applied for Europe under European-American AQMEII project (Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative - http://aqmeii.jrc.ec.europa.eu/). The modelling domain was centered over Denmark (57.00°N, 10.00°E) with 172 x 172 grid points in x and y direction. The map projection choice was Lambert conformal. In the applied modelling system the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx) from ENVIRON International Corporation (Novato, California) was coupled off-line to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). WRF-CAMx simulations have been carried out for 2006. The anthropogenic emisions database has been provided by TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) under AQMEII initiative. Area and line emissions were proceeded by emission model EMIL (Juda-Rezler et al., 2012) [1], while for the point sources the EPS3 model (Emission Processor v.3 from ENVIRON) was implemented in order to obtain vertical distribution of emission. Boundary conditions were acquired from coupling the GEMS (Global and regional Earth-system Monitoring using Satellite and in-situ data) modelling system results with satellite observations. The modelling system has been evaluated for the area of Central-Eastern Europe, regarding ozone and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. For each pollutant measured data from rural background AirBase and EMEP stations, with more than 75% of daily data, has been used. Original 'operational' evaluation methodology, proposed by Juda-Rezler et al. (2012) was applied. Selected set of metrics consists of 5 groups: bias measures, error measures, correlation measures, measures of model variance and spread, which

  5. Centralized Authorization Using a Direct Service, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Wachsmann, A

    2004-06-09

    Authorization is the process of deciding if entity X is allowed to have access to resource Y. Determining the identity of X is the job of the authentication process. One task of authorization in computer networks is to define and determine which user has access to which computers in the network. On Linux, the tendency exists to create a local account for each single user who should be allowed to logon to a computer. This is typically the case because a user not only needs login privileges to a computer but also additional resources like a home directory to actually do some work. Creating a local account on every computer takes care of all this. The problem with this approach is that these local accounts can be inconsistent with each other. The same user name could have a different user ID and/or group ID on different computers. Even more problematic is when two different accounts share the same user ID and group ID on different computers: User joe on computer1 could have user ID 1234 and group ID 56 and user jane on computer2 could have the same user ID 1234 and group ID 56. This is a big security risk in case shared resources like NFS are used. These two different accounts are the same for an NFS server so that these users can wipe out each other's files. The solution to this inconsistency problem is to have only one central, authoritative data source for this kind of information and a means of providing all your computers with access to this central source. This is what a ''Directory Service'' is. The two directory services most widely used for centralizing authorization data are the Network Information Service (NIS, formerly known as Yellow Pages or YP) and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP).

  6. Multi-proxy approach detects heterogeneous habitats for primates during the Miocene climatic optimum in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Costeur, Loïc; Maridet, Olivier; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Göhlich, Ursula B

    2012-07-01

    The present study attempts to characterize the environmental conditions that prevailed along the western shores of the Central Paratethys and its hinterland during the early middle Miocene at the same time t primates reached their peak in species diversity in Central Europe. Based on faunal structure (using cenograms), paleotemperature reconstruction (using cricetid diversity), and dietary reconstruction of ruminants (using molar micro-wear analyses), four faunal assemblages are used to characterize the regional environmental context. The cenograms for Göriach and Devínska Novà Ves Zapfe's fissure site support the presence of mosaic environments with open areas under rather humid conditions. This is also supported by the dental micro-wear analyses of ruminants. The species of Palaeomerycidae were most probably the only predominant browsers. Surprisingly, the three cervids, Dicrocerus, Heteroprox, and Euprox, were highly involved in grazing. Pseudoeotragus seegrabensis was likely a generalist and the two specimens assigned to the second bovid, Eotragus clavatus, were browsers. The two species of tragulids plot between fruit browsers and generalists. Moreover, paleotemperatures based on cricetid diversity estimate mean annual temperature at about 18 °C with potential high seasonal variations. These data support the predominance of mosaic landscapes along the western shores of the Central Paratethys and its hinterland during the Miocene Climatic Optimum as primates reach a peak in species diversity. This result lends credence to the hypothesis that environmental heterogeneity favours radiation among mammals, and that the specific environmental context of the Central Paratethys western border might explain the high diversity of the middle Miocene primates. PMID:22658333

  7. Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in household dust in Central Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Karásková, Pavlína; Venier, Marta; Melymuk, Lisa; Bečanová, Jitka; Vojta, Šimon; Prokeš, Roman; Diamond, Miriam L; Klánová, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of 20 perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in dust samples from 41 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic, and United States in the spring-summer of 2013. The most frequently detected compounds were perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) had the highest concentrations of PFASs in all countries. PFOS median concentrations for the three countries were between 9.1 and 14.1ng/g, and PFOA medians ranged between 8.2 and 9.3ng/g. In general, concentrations in North America were higher than in the Czech Republic, which is consistent with usage patterns. No differences were found for perfluorooctane sulfonamides/sulfonamidoethanols (FOSA/Es) levels due to the low number of detections. Homologue profiles suggest that the shift from longer to shorter chain PFASs is more advanced in North America than in Europe. Significant relationships were found among individual homologues and between PFAS concentrations in dust and type of floor, number of people living in the house, and building age. PMID:27295048

  8. Stalagmite geochemistry and the timing of the last interglacial-glacial transition in Central Europe (NE Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siklosy, Z.; Demeny, A.; Pilet, S.; Leel-Ossy, Sz.; Lin, K.; Shen, C.-C.

    2009-04-01

    Speleothems can provide accurate chronologies for reconstructions of climate change by combination of U/Th dating and climate-related geochemical compositions. Geochemical studies of speleothems from Central Europe are mostly based on stable C and O isotope analyses, thus, complex geochemical studies combining isotope and trace element measurements are needed for more reliable climate models for this transitional area between oceanic and continental regions. We present stable H-C-O isotope and trace element records obtained on speleothems covering the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) and the transition to MIS 5d. A stalagmite from Baradla Cave grew from 127.5 to 110 ka. Accelerated growth rates have been detected by U/Th age data in the 127 to 126 ka and 119 to 117 ka parts. Trace element compositions and 230Th/232Th ratios suggest changes in the hydrological regime, whereby early calcite precipitates formed in fissures during the dry and cold glacial period were dissolved by the starting flux of infiltrating meteoric water (producing elevated dissolved ion concentration but low detrital Th component), then the increasing amount of dripwater during the interglacial period resulted in trace element dilution. Temperature and precipitation amount variations are also reflected by the stable isotope compositions. Oxygen isotope composition shows a continuous increase from 127.5 ka until about 118 ka most probably related to temperature rise, whereas C isotope values are shifted in negative direction suggesting increasing humidity in accordance with trace element contents. The presumably warmest period at ca. 118 ka is associated with rather arid climate as indicated by peak d18O values coinciding with the highest dD values of fluid inclusion water. This is followed by a pronounced negative shift in both O and H isotope values, similarly to recent Alpine studies (Meyer et al., 2008), most probably related to cooling. Hydrogen isotope compositions of fluid inclusion water

  9. A Decision Support System for Climate Change Adaptation in Rainfed Sectors of Agriculture for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mátyás, Csaba; Berki, Imre; Drüszler, Áron; Eredics, Attila; Gálos, Borbála; Illés, Gábor; Móricz, Norbert; Rasztovits, Ervin; Czimber, Kornél

    2013-04-01

    • Background and aims: Rainfed sectors of agriculture such as nature-close forestry, non-irrigated agriculture and animal husbandry on nature-close pastures are threatened by projected climate change especially in low-elevation regions in Southeast Europe, where precipitation is the limiting factor of production and ecosystem stability. Therefore the importance of complex, long term management planning and of land use optimization is increasing. The aim of the Decision Support System under development is to raise awareness and initiate preparation for frequency increase of extreme events, disasters and economic losses in the mentioned sectors. • Services provided: The Decision Support System provides GIS-supported information about the most important regional and local risks and mitigation options regarding climate change impacts, projected for reference periods until 2100 (e.g. land cover/use and expectable changes, potential production, water and carbon cycle, biodiversity and other ecosystem services, potential pests and diseases, tolerance limits etc.). The projections are referring first of all on biological production (natural produce), but the System includes also social and economic consequences. • Methods: In the raster based system, the latest image processing technology is used. We apply fuzzy membership functions, Support Vector Machine and Maximum Likelihood classifier. The System is developed in the first step for a reference area in SW Hungary (Zala county). • Novelty: The coherent, fine-scale regional system integrates the basic information about present and projected climates, extremes, hydrology and soil conditions and expected production potential for three sectors of agriculture as options for land use and conservation. • Funding: The development of the Decision Support System "Agrárklíma" is supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV and 4.2.2.B-10/1-2010-0018 "Talentum" joint EU-national research projects. Keywords: climate change

  10. A transportable mb(Lg) scale for central Europe and implications for low-magnitude Ms-mb discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Howard J.; Schlittenhardt, Jörg

    2005-10-01

    We have extended the mb(Lg) method of Nuttli using root-mean-square (rms) amplitudes corrected for noise and a Δ-1 dependence for geometrical spreading. Lg waves recorded on the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN) for earthquakes in south-central Europe were used to develop an mb(Lg) formula requiring a new calibration constant Crms to keep rms mb(Lg) on the same baseline as Nuttli's traditional formula based on 3rd-peak amplitudes. GRSN stations had to be calibrated for site terms and for Lg attenuation. Lateral variations in LgQ appear to be significant across the study area, and a regional Q model consisting of constant-Q partitions north, south and in the central Alps was developed using measurements based on interstation and two-event, single-station methods. When plotted against surface wave estimates of Mw, rms mb(Lg) measurements in central Europe are found to be consistent with Mw-mb(Lg) relationships for north America and southern Asia, thus supporting the transportability of our mb(Lg) formula. Frequency-wavenumber processing of Gräfenberg Array data enabled us to extract Rayleigh waves for small events, and regional Ms were measured using the Marshall and Basham formula. Our Ms-mb(Lg) relationship extends to Ms 2.5 and agrees well with observations in other regions including the western United States. The discrimination potential of Ms-mb(Lg) observations was examined under realistic monitoring conditions, where path corrections were inferred from earthquake data and applied uniformly to natural sources and explosions. Under these conditions, mb(Pn, P) are greater than mb(Lg) for large NTS explosions; however, Ms-mb scaling slopes are steeper for P waves than they are for Lg, and Ms-mb observations for NTS explosions converge near mb 4. Thus, allowing for measurement errors and additional uncertainty in mb(Pn) due to regional bias, there is little difference in the discrimination potential for Pn and Lg waves at small magnitudes. As such, a

  11. The extreme drought episode of August 2011-May 2012: A scenario for future droughts in Central Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahradníček, P.; Trnka, M.; Brázdil, R.; Mozny, M.; Stepanek, P.; Hlavinka, P.; Malý, A.; Dubrovsky, M.

    2014-12-01

    The weather conditions from August 2011 to May 2012 produced an extreme drought in the eastern Czech Republic (Moravia), whereas the patterns were nearly normal in its western region (Bohemia). The Southern and Central Moravia regions, which represent the most important agricultural areas, were most affected by the drought. The precipitation totals for the studied period were 50% to 70% of the long-term mean, which was calculated for 1961-2000. In autumn 2011, the total precipitation accounted for 10% to 30% of the long-term mean for most of Moravia, increasing to 30% to 50% in spring 2012. Moreover, 7.5% of the Czech Republic experienced a 100-year drought; 20% of the country experienced a 20-year drought. According to the Palmer Drought Severity Index, the 2012 drought was classified as the worst in the past 130 years. The drought patterns were related to the prevailing high-pressure systems over Central Europe and the occurrence of weather types with different precipitation amounts in Bohemia and Moravia. The most substantial drought effects occurred in the agricultural sector. A decrease in cereal yields was observed in the analyzed production areas in Moravia, which was unprecedented in the past 52 years. Moreover, winter crops were affected more than spring crops. An increased risk of fire occurred due to the drought conditions; the largest forest fire in the past 15 years was recorded during this period. Furthermore, signs of hydrological drought were also reported in rivers. The 2011-2012 drought was compared with the significant droughts in 2000, 2003 and 2007. Austria and Slovakia, which neighbor the Czech Republic, experienced a similar drought. This drought analysis can be used as a scenario for future droughts and their impacts in Central Europe due to the global warming projected by GCMs.Acknowledgements:This study was made possible by the generous support of the "Establishment of International Scientific Team Focused on Drought Research" project (no

  12. Misperceived invasion: the Lusitanian slug (Arion lusitanicus auct. non-Mabille or Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon 1855) is native to Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Pfenninger, Markus; Weigand, Alexander; Bálint, Miklós; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The Lusitanian slug, presumed to be native to south-west Europe, was ranked among the 100 worst invading species in Central Europe. However, from the very beginning of its recognition in the presumed invasion area, there was little evidence that the species was actually anthropogenically introduced. We investigated the invasive status of the species by comparing specific predictions on the population genetic structure in the invasion area with the pattern actually found. In a DNA-taxonomy approach, the species could not be found in its presumed native range. Using statistical phylogeographic techniques on a mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ZF) marker and species distribution modelling, we could show that the species is with very high probability not an invasor, but native to Central Europe. The study underlines the value of statistical phylogeography in rigorously testing hypotheses on the dynamics of biological invasions. PMID:25067951

  13. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  14. Lack of concordance in parapneumonic effusion management in children in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hafen, Gaudenz M; Grenzbach, Andrea-Claudia; Moeller, Alexander; Rochat, Mascha K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of parapneumonic effusion in children remains controversial in the literature and in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether mutual consensus exists in the diagnosis and treatment of parapneumonic effusion in Central European countries. A questionnaire was sent to all directors of pediatric respiratory units in four adjacent Central European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Switzerland). The response rate was 61.8%. Responses reflected acceptable agreement regarding initial diagnostic procedures, as most centers performed chest X-ray and biological exams, followed by ultrasound, thoracocentesis, or computed tomography. However, antibiotic regimens were very heterogeneous, and the survey revealed complete lack of agreement on the indications and effusion volume threshold for invasive procedures, such as fibrinolytic instillation and thoracoscopy. In conclusion, apart from initial diagnostic procedures, this study showed a lack of mutual consensus among the four countries regarding the management of pediatric parapneumonic effusion. Multicenter prospective trials are clearly needed to acquire more evidence on the management of childhood parapneumonic effusion, enabling the development of evidence-based algorithms that could help to avoid unnecessary examinations with potential long-term side effects, such as radiation exposure at a young age. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:411-417. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26291694

  15. Education in Multi-Ethnic Societies of Central and Eastern Europe. A Skills Exchange Workshop (Bulgaria, November 7-10, 1997). Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minority Rights Group, London (England).

    To address problems in public education for majority and minority ethnic groups in Central and Eastern Europe, Minority Rights Group International and the Inter Ethnic Initiative for Human Rights Foundation organized a skills exchange workshop in Sofia, Bulgaria in November 1997. Representatives from Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovkia…

  16. Development of microsatellites from Cornus mas L. (Cornaceae) and characterization of genetic diversity of cornelian cherries from China, central Europe, and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) is indigenous to central and southeastern Europe and is an ecologically and economically important shrub or small tree. The aim of this study was to develop molecular tools for assessing genetic diversity and provide unique molecular identification of C. mas cultivar...

  17. From the Party/State to Multi-Ethnic Democracy: Education and Its Influence on Social Cohesion in the Europe and Central Asia Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    In the last 6 years, 27 countries have emerged anew in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). Many countries have moved away from having a single political party manage the state and its economic apparatus. This paper aims to answer whether educational mechanisms can lower social tension and help achieve social cohesion in these countries, and how these…

  18. A Cross Country Analysis of Curricular Reform in Vocational Education and Training in Central and Eastern Europe. Integration of Work and Learning. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, David, Ed.; Gronwald, Detlef; Grootings, Peter; Nielsen, Soren

    Curriculum reform in vocational education and training (VET) in Central and Eastern Europe was examined through case studies of VET in 10 countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. Special attention was paid to the following: each country's VET system; curriculum…

  19. Reshaping the Focus of Vocational Teacher and Trainer Training. A Cross Country Review of Needs, Achievements and Obstacles in Central and Eastern Europe. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Soren P.

    This document reports the results of a comparative analysis of the current situation and future needs of teacher and trainer training in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Following an introductory section explaining the methodology of the study, the second section focuses on features common to teacher and trainer training in all Central…

  20. The Role of Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries: The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The vocational education and training (VET) reforms currently under way in Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States are distinguished by the breadth, range, depth, and speed of the reforms proposed or already initiated. The European Union has assisted the reform process through its Phare and Tacis programs. The following have been…

  1. The Role of Technical Vocational Education and Training in Transition Countries. The Case of Central and Eastern Europe and the New Independent States. Working Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    In comparison with the context in which reforms usually occur, the current vocational education and training (VET) reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and New Independent States (NIS) have these two unusual aspects: breadth, range, and depth of VET reforms are extremely large; and the reform process is exceptionally rapid. The European…

  2. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of education…

  3. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  4. Y-chromosomal diversity of the Valachs from the Czech Republic: model for isolated population in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ehler, Edvard; Vaněk, Daniel; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Vančata, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate Y-chromosomal diversity of the Moravian Valachs of the Czech Republic and compare them with a Czech population sample and other samples from Central and South-Eastern Europe, and to evaluate the effects of genetic isolation and sampling. Methods The first sample set of the Valachs consisted of 94 unrelated male donors from the Valach region in northeastern Czech Republic border-area. The second sample set of the Valachs consisted of 79 men who originated from 7 paternal lineages defined by surname. No close relatives were sampled. The third sample set consisted of 273 unrelated men from the whole of the Czech Republic and was used for comparison, as well as published data for other 27 populations. The total number of samples was 3244. Y-short tandem repeat (STR) markers were typed by standard methods using PowerPlex® Y System (Promega) and Yfiler® Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems) kits. Y-chromosomal haplogroups were estimated from the haplotype information. Haplotype diversity and other intra- and inter-population statistics were computed. Results The Moravian Valachs showed a lower genetic variability of Y-STR markers than other Central European populations, resembling more to the isolated Balkan populations (Aromuns, Csango, Bulgarian, and Macedonian Roma) than the surrounding populations (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Saxons). We illustrated the effect of sampling on Valach paternal lineages, which includes reduction of discrimination capacity and variability inside Y-chromosomal haplogroups. Valach modal haplotype belongs to R1a haplogroup and it was not detected in the Czech population. Conclusion The Moravian Valachs display strong substructure and isolation in their Y chromosomal markers. They represent a unique Central European population model for population genetics. PMID:21674832

  5. The cardiovascular risk factors of the Roma (Gypsies) people in Central-Eastern Europe: a review of the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Dobranici, M; Buzea, A; Popescu, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Estimated number of the Roma people in central-eastern Europe cannot be precisely appreciated, but official data suggest that in the 2004 they were approximately 4.2 million. At this time, there are few available data about the health status of the Roma people, mostly assessing genetic and infectious diseases, which reflect poverty, overcrowding, and lack of education. There is even less data regarding non–communicable and chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. Methods: We searched the published literature on the cardiovascular risk factors in Roma people using PubMed from January 2000 to July 2011. The searching criteria were: (1) randomized, prospective observational, retrospective and meta-analysis; (2) adult patients with cardiac diseases or cardiovascular risk factors (3) data available for cardiovascular patients. Search terms included dyslipidemia, obesity, tobacco, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Results: Twenty-five studies were identified. Approximately 75% of them were related to just four countries: Slovakia, Croatia, Czech Republic, and Serbia. This paper is a review based on existing literature concerning classical risk factors in Roma people with emphasis on their ethnical features. Despite limited data, the results showed that this ethnicity has the incriminated risk factors more frequently than the majority and consequently a higher cardiovascular morbidity rate. Conclusions: Quantification of the cardiovascular risk factor and their implication in the shortening of life expectancy in Roma population was a provocation due to a paucity of reliable data. At this time, we should pay more attention on the Roma health issues and the cultural concerns that might affect them in the context of borderless Europe. PMID:23390466

  6. Environmental noise and sleep disturbance: research in Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe and Newly Independent States.

    PubMed

    Ristovska, Gordana; Lekaviciute, Jurgita

    2013-01-01

    Countries from South-East Europe (SEE), Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Newly Independent States (NIS) are in the process of harmonization with European environmental noise legislation. However, research work on noise and health was performed in some countries independently of harmonization process of adoption and implementation of legislation for environmental noise. Aim of this review is to summarize available evidence for noise induced sleep disturbance in population of CEE, SEE and NIS countries and to give directions for further research work in this field. After a systematic search through accessible electronic databases, conference proceedings, PhD thesis, national reports and scientific journals in English and non-English language, we decided to include six papers and one PhD thesis in this review: One paper from former Yugoslavia, one paper from Slovakia, one paper from Lithuania, two papers from Serbia and one paper, as also one PhD thesis from The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Noise exposure assessment focused on road traffic noise was mainly performed with objective noise measurements, but also with noise mapping in case of Lithuanian study. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the questionnaire based surveys and was assumed from dose-effect relationship between night-time noise indicator (Lnight ) for road traffic noise and sleep disturbance (for Lithuanian study). Although research evidence on noise and sleep disturbance show to be sufficient for establishing dose response curves for sleep disturbance in countries where studies were performed, further research is needed with particular attention to vulnerable groups, other noise sources, development of laboratory research work and common methodology in assessment of burden of diseases from environmental noise. PMID:23412575

  7. Ten years of establishment of the satellite reference station system EUPOS in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, J.; Graszka, W.; Rosenthal, G.

    2012-04-01

    The project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) was initiated in 2002 by the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development and European Academy of the Urban Development Berlin. The project consists in establishment of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern European countries. At the moment 20 European and West-Asiatic countries intend to participate in the project.One common project standard set is observed by all countries. The system will use as main satellite signal the signal of the system Galileo as soon as this system is available. The network of reference stations provides signals for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy are offered by the system services. In the presentation there will be given some details concerning organisation of the project and offered services, up-to-now gained experiences and cooperation with other scientific organisations.

  8. Public health in central and eastern Europe and the role of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Little, R E

    1998-01-01

    The central and eastern European countries that composed the former Eastern Bloc have experienced an alarming decline in public health since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Death rates have increased in most age groups. Life expectancy, especially among males, has decreased in many countries; in Russia, male life expectancy dropped by six years between 1989 and 1994. By 2020, these countries are projected to have smaller increases in life expectancy than any other geographic region. The conditions responsible for the excess mortality are cardiovascular disease, cancer, and injuries among adults. The major factors in the sharp increase are poverty, social disintegration, and crime, overlaid on historically high rates of smoking, alcohol use, and psychosocial stress. Environmental pollution, although common and sometimes severe in the former Eastern Bloc, is another, albeit not the chief, cause of the sharp decline in public health since 1989. PMID:9611616

  9. Evaluation of water resources in part of central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.; Duffin, G.; Flores, R.; Lynch, T.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources in the Brazos, Red, Colorado, and Trinity River basins, in central Texas, were evaluated. In 1985 there was a little less than 81,000 acre-ft of groundwater pumped from all aquifers in the study area, with a little less than 77,000 acre-ft of groundwater pumped from the Trinity Group aquifer. Irrigation accounted for about 56% of all groundwater pumped. A serious problem associated with the development of groundwater from the Trinity Group aquifer is the decline of artesian pressure in areas of large groundwater withdrawals. Degradation of groundwater within the Antlers and Travis Peak Formations from oil-field brines and organic material are problems in several counties. The deterioration of water qualify for the City of Blum has occurred over a 26-year period and is associated with water level declines in the Hensell Member of the Travis Peak Formation. The Woodbine Group yields good quality water at or near the outcrop; however, the residual sodium carbonate and percent sodium limits its use for irrigation, while high iron and fluoride content restricts its use for public supply. Existing surface reservoirs in the study area alone can supply 296,400 acre-ft of water under 2010 conditions. Nearly all of this water is either currently owned or under contract to supply current and future needs. An additional 176,000 acre-ft of surface water could become available with the development of the proposed Lake Bosque and Paluxy Reservoir projects and with reallocation of storage in existing Lakes Waco and Whitney. The amount of groundwater currently pumped exceeds the estimated annual effective recharge to the Trinity Group aquifer; the groundwater supply for the area will continue to be drawn from storage within the aquifer. 84 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. How useful are geological data derived from seismogenic faults for SHA in intraplate Central Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, K.; Hintersberger, E.

    2011-12-01

    Current earthquake hazard assessments in intra-continental Europe rely heavily on the assumption that the locations of earthquakes shown in the historical record reflect sites of future earthquakes. Such traditional SHA is exclusively based on historical and instrumental earthquake data, neglecting the challenges of intraplate regions characterized by slow deformation and low seismicity. Average fault-slip rates below or just at the resolution of strain measured by GPS networks are associated with recurrence rates of strong earthquakes exceeding the historical records. These facts together with the sparse record of strong earthquakes, the incompleteness and the epistemic uncertainties of historical earthquake data make it unlikely that traditional SHA identifies all seismic sources and provides realistic hazard estimates for each source. The described situation is particularly unsatisfying for highly vulnerable regions or in cases, where SHA needs to provide hazard levels for very long recurrence intervals exceeding the length of historical records. In our contribution, we discuss the impact of an active-fault model on the seismic hazard concept for the high-risk area of the Vienna Basin. Geological, geophysical and (paleo)seismological data allow us to describe a system of seismogenic faults. It consists of a segmented sinistral strike-slip fault moving at velocities of 1-2mm/y (GPS velocities), and of normal splay faults branching from the strike-slip system, which move at velocities ≤0.1mm/y (geological data). Comparison of active fault locations with the distribution of seismicity shows that seismicity (Imax/Mmax=8/5.2) is restricted to the main strike-slip fault. Along this fault, seismicity concentrates on specific segments, whereas other segments show large seismic slip deficits. No seismicity has been recorded on the normal splay faults. In order to assess the seismic potential of the faults, we estimated the maximum credible earthquake magnitude using a

  11. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus-and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  12. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-01

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars. PMID:23916060

  13. Characterization of a Messer – The late-Medieval single-edged sword of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfar, Peter; Medved, Jožef; Klančnik, Grega; Lazar, Tomaž; Nečemer, Marijan; Mrvar, Primož

    2013-12-15

    Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. - Highlights: • A metallurgical characterization of a medieval sword blade has been performed. • The carbon content decreased from the surface to the core of the blade. • The dominant microstructure in the outer layer is pearlite and in the core is ferrite. • The presence of lump shaped and elongated non-metallic inclusions was observed. • The sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet.

  14. Seismic tomography of the upper mantle beneath the Bohemian Massif (central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karousova, H.; Plomerova, J.; Vecsey, L.; Munzarova, H.

    2012-04-01

    We present a comprehensive test for teleseismic tomography of the upper mantle beneath the southern part of the Bohemian Massif (BM) based on data of passive experiments BOHEMA III and the northern part of the ALPASS (Mitterbauer et al., Tectonophysics 2011) as well as preliminary results. A new semi-automatic picker was applied for measuring P-wave arrival times from correlated extremes of waveforms recorded at 58 temporary seismic stations and 55 permanent observatories during 2005-2006. To calculate P-velocity perturbations, we selected 173 events from epicentral distances between 25° and 90°, and with magnitude higher than 4.5. Before the travel-time inversion itself, we analysed carefully relative P-wave residuals and cleaned the dataset of the travel-times from outliers and instabilities in timing for further processing. To eliminate leakage of crustal effects into the upper mantle velocity images, we corrected the observed travel-times for crustal structure according to 3D models of the BM and Eastern Alps crust (Karousova et al., Studia Geophys. Geod. 2012; Behm et al., GJI 2007). In order to optimize model parameterization, initial velocities and damping factors we perform different synthetic tests. Checkerboard and synthetic tests with artificial heterogeneities and shifted parameterization are calculated to explore sensitivity and resolution in individual nodes. Models with indistinctive velocity perturbations in the resolved parts tend to be more sensitive to ray geometry in the upper mantle and consequently could accentuate even insignificant heterogeneities. We show series of velocity perturbation images in three parts of the BM retrieved in three successive passive seismic experiments BOHEMA I-III. No distinct 'tube-like' low velocity heterogeneity, which could be interpreted as a small plume beneath the Eger Rift is imaged in tomography in western BM from the BOHEMA I data. Relatively small velocity perturbations exist in the upper mantle beneath

  15. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  16. Habitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes in the lowland rivers of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Jażdżewski, M; Marszał, L; Przybylski, M

    2016-02-01

    The pattern of microhabitat preferences of Ukrainian brook lamprey Eudontomyzon mariae ammocoetes was examined in two rivers of central Poland: the Pilica River (the Vistula River basin) and the Grabia River (the Odra River basin). A comparison of abiotic factors of the rivers revealed differences in water speed and principal components: PC1 (determining gradient from decreasing medium sand to the increasing share of three fractions of gravel), PC2 (a gradient from the declining share of very coarse and coarse sand fractions to the growing content of fine sand) and PC3 (correlated with an increasing proportion of silt). The sites did not differ significantly in terms of water depth. Relative abundance and frequency of ammocoete occurrence in the Grabia River were higher than in the Pilica River. Only speed, PC1 and PC2 made a significant contribution to the prediction of larval occurrence. Eudontomyzon mariae larvae preferred substrata with a reduced amount of medium sand and increased content of gravel (PC1) as well as with a lower content of coarse sand and higher proportion of fine-grained sand (PC2). The ammocoetes also preferred areas with a water speed of 0·2 m s(-1) but avoided speeds ≥ 0·6 m s(-1). The abundance of E. mariae was affected by water speed, as well as by all PCs. The mean ± s.e. optimal current speed was 0·265 ± 0·007 m s(-1), while abundance decreased with increasing amounts of gravel (PC1) and increased with increasing amounts of fine sand and silt in the bottom substratum (PC2 and PC3). Comparison of ammocoete microhabitat use in the Pilica and Grabia Rivers showed the lack of differences in distribution in the preferred values of current speed, PC1 and PC2. PMID:26511588

  17. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: access in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-02-14

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  18. Biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Access in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Bortlik, Martin; Zagorowicz, Edyta; Hlavaty, Tibor; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Diculescu, Mihai M; Kupcinskas, Limas; Gecse, Krisztina B; Gulácsi, László; Lakatos, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Biological drugs opened up new horizons in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study focuses on access to biological therapy in IBD patients across 9 selected Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Literature data on the epidemiology and disease burden of IBD in CEE countries was systematically reviewed. Moreover, we provide an estimation on prevalence of IBD as well as biological treatment rates. In all countries with the exception of Romania, lower biological treatment rates were observed in ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn’s disease despite the higher prevalence of UC. Great heterogeneity (up to 96-fold) was found in access to biologicals across the CEE countries. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and the Baltic States are lagging behind Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in their access to biologicals. Variations of reimbursement policy may be one of the factors explaining the differences to a certain extent in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, but association with other possible determinants (differences in prevalence and incidence, price of biologicals, total expenditure on health, geographical access, and cost-effectiveness results) was not proven. We assume, nevertheless, that health deterioration linked to IBD might be valued differently against other systemic inflammatory conditions in distinct countries and which may contribute to the immense diversity in the utilization of biological drugs for IBD. In conclusion, access to biologicals varies widely among CEE countries and this difference cannot be explained by epidemiological factors, drug prices or total health expenditure. Changes in reimbursement policy could contribute to better access to biologicals in some countries. PMID:25684937

  19. Health impact assessment of Roma housing policies in Central and Eastern Europe: A comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Agnes; Adam, Balazs; Antova, Temenujka; Bosak, Lubos; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mileva, Hristina; Pekarcikova, Jarmila; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Gulis, Gabriel; Adany, Roza; Kosa, Karolina

    2012-02-15

    Marginalised Roma communities in European countries live in substandard housing conditions the improvement of which has been one of the major issues of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the ongoing intergovernmental European Roma programme. The paper presents EU-funded health impact assessments of national Roma housing policies and programmes in 3 Central and Eastern European countries in light of the evaluation of a completed local project in a fourth CEE country so as to compare predicted effects to observed ones. Housing was predicted to have beneficial health effects by improving indoor and outdoor conditions, access to services, and socioeconomic conditions. Negative impacts were predicted only in terms of maintenance expenses and housing tenure. However, observed impacts of the completed local project did not fully support predictions especially in terms of social networks, satisfaction with housing and neighbourhood, and inhabitant safety. In order to improve the predictive value of HIA, more evidence should be produced by the careful evaluation of locally implemented housing projects. In addition, current evidence is in favour of planning Roma housing projects at the local rather than at the national level in alignment with the principle of subsidiarity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictive validity of HIA of national Roma housing policies - in light of current evidence - is low. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Implemented housing projects should be comprehensively evaluated to improve reliability of HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Roma housing projects should be planned at the local rather than at the national level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HIA should be used to plan Roma housing projects at the local level.

  20. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. I Appendix I to Part 305—Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's...

  1. HIV in Europe.

    PubMed

    Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. PMID:24559564

  2. Mapping seismic anisotropy of the lithospheric mantle beneath the northern and eastern Bohemian Massif (central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plomerová, Jaroslava; Vecsey, Luděk; Babuška, Vladislav

    2012-09-01

    We evaluate 3D body-wave anisotropic parameters—shear-wave splitting (fast S polarizations and delay times of the split slow shear waves) and directional terms of relative P-wave residuals from data of passive seismic experiment BOHEMA II (2004-2005). Data from 34 temporary stations increased substantial density of observations in the Bohemain Massif (BM) and allowed us to scan in detail the upper mantle structure of its northern and eastern parts. For the first time, we delimit domains of the mantle lithosphere in this part of the BM and infer 3D self-consistent models of their fabrics by a joint inversion of the body-wave anisotropic parameters. Fabrics of the northern and north-eastern parts of the BM are approximated best by peridotite aggregates with the (a,c) foliations dipping approximately to the N and NE, respectively, whereas a model with the westerly dipping a lineation fits best the fabric of the south-eastern domain. The Saxothuringian fabric, NW of the Eger Rift, extends to the east across the Elbe Fault Zone and continues along this zone to the southeast beneath the Cretaceous Basin. The south-eastward continuation of the Elbe Fault Zone seems to be related to the boundary between two different fabrics of the northern and southern Brunovistulian domains below the Moravo-Silesian zone. This study shows an underthrusting of the Brunovistulian micro-plate beneath the eastern rim of the BM and indicates that its northern and southern fragments might have originally belonged to Baltica and to Gondwana, respectively. According to a zone of distinctly decreased anisotropic signals, the Brunovistulian micro-plate extends at least about 100 km westward beneath the Moldanubian. With these new findings we update the domain-like mantle structure of the BM and compare the results with inferences from the upper mantle velocity tomography and depth changes of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary retrieved in a detailed model from relative residuals and from the

  3. The fight for reproductive rights in Central and Eastern Europe. Poland: Catholic backlash.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, W

    1995-01-01

    In Poland, some of the changes brought about after the collapse of communism in 1989 have damaged women's rights and reproductive health. The liberal abortion law passed in 1956 was overturned in 1993. The post-communists elected to Parliament in 1992 will not challenge right-wing groups and their social agendas. The influence of Roman Catholicism on education began in state schools in 1990. The nature of the influence is illustrated in the example of a school board ruling preventing embryos and other anatomical specimens from being used as educational models in schools. Sex education textbooks use non-scientific language and the descriptions reflect a philosophical notion of sexuality rather than a biological one. A girl is called "a closed garden, a secret source." Human female organs are referred to as the source of life located in "the lower part of her body, inside the body..." The male source of life is described as lying partly outside the body. The Catholic influence affects the practice of medicine. Doctors instruct patients on the Roman Catholic doctrine on contraception and try to convince women that contraception is the same as abortion. Some women's health texts refer to only natural family planning methods. The legal changes affect the programs of in vitro fertilization. The Commission of Medical Ethics decreed that freezing embryos is a violation of the new Law on Family Planning, Protection of Human Embryos, and Condition of Admittance of Abortion. Women must now make a choice between seeking an illegal abortion or bearing an unwanted child. One gynecologist committed suicide after a failed abortion attempt rather than face criminal charges. In Poland political priorities are sacrificing high-quality family planning information and services and balanced sex education. PMID:12346473

  4. Stable isotope evidence for shifting Mediterranean climatic influences in Western Romania, East-Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Viorica, Nagavciuc; Carmen, Bădăluţă

    2015-04-01

    composition of precipitation in north and central Romania is similar, while during periods of low NAO index, precipitations in NW and SW Romania have different isotopic patterns, clearly showing the influence of the Mediterranea moisture (i.e., a shift towards more positive values and a higer d-excess, closer to the Eastern Mediterranan Water Line, in SW). These finding suggest that it is possible to reconstruct past change in the strength of the NAO and the northward expansion of Mediterranean climatic influences, by analyzing (for their isotopic composition) pairs of similar sedimentary archives from N and S Romania.

  5. Evaluation of permafrost conditions in non-alpine scree slopes in Central Europe by geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gude, M.; Hauck, C.; Kneisel, C.; Krause, S.; Molenda, R.; Ruzicka, V.; Zacharda, M.

    2003-04-01

    Many slope sections covered with blocky material situated in Central European highlands display special microclimatic conditions that resemble those of high latitude or high altitude periglacial areas. In some of these screes even permafrost-like conditions are detected although they are located on elevations fairly below 1000 m a.s.l. These conditions are accompanied by a circulation of air through the open void system, which effects a formation of an ice body during winter by re-sublimation of air humidity, supported by refreezing water from snow melt and precipitation. This ice body is assumed to prevail during the entire summer. Population genetic investigations on alpine and polar beetle species that inhabit the screes proof the continuous existence of the extraordinary cool conditions with probable permafrost throughout the Holocene - i.e. these periglacial-like condition are relatively stable despite all Holocene climatic variations. Observations of summer ice and numerous temperature measurements lead to the assumption of permafrost with enduring ice in the open voids as an integral factor of the microclimatic system. To evaluate its existence the underground was investigated in seven European screes by means of DC resistivity and refraction seismic in early summer. In order to solve the multi-phase subsurface structures, tomographic survey and inversion techniques are necessary, as 1-dimensional plane layer approximations are usually invalid. The results clearly reveal seismic and resistivity anomalies e.g. in the Klic scree (50°49'N, 14°04'E, base at 524 m a.s.l.) in Northern Bohemia. Within a blocky layer of about 10 m high thickness velocity anomalies (2000-3000 m/s) indicate the existence of a small ground ice body, which is confirmed by the synchronous detection of resistivity anomalies in the same place. These conditions are confined to steep scree slopes in regions with thin winter snow cover to enable air circulation. It is probable, that these

  6. High-resolution Rayleigh-wave velocity maps of central Europe from a dense ambient-noise data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J.; Boschi, L.; Stehly, L.; Kissling, E.; Michelini, A.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new database of surface wave group and phase-velocity dispersion curves derived from seismic ambient noise, cross-correlating continuous seismic recordings from the Swiss Network, the German Regional Seismological Network (GRSN), the Italian national broad-band network operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geosica e Vulcanologia (INGV). To increase the aperture of the station array, additional measurements from the Mediterranean Very Broad-band Seismographic Network (MedNet), the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), the French, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Romanian and Greek stations obtained through Orfeus are also included. The ambient noise, we are using to assemble our database, was recorded at the above-mentioned stations between 2006 January and 2006 December. Correlating continuous signal recorded at pairs of stations, allows to extract coherent surface wave signal travelling between the two stations. Usually the ambient-noise cross-correlation technique allows to have informations at periods of 30 s or shorter. By expanding the database of noise correlations, we seek to increase the resolution of the central Europe crustal model. We invert the resulting data sets of group and phase velocities associated with 8-35 s Rayleigh waves, to determine 2-D group and phase-velocity maps of the European region. Inversions are conducted by means of a 2-D linearized tomographic inversion algorithm. The generally good agreement of our models with previous studies and good correlation of well-resolved velocity anomalies with geological features, such as sedimentary basins, crustal roots and mountain ranges, documents the effectiveness of our approach.

  7. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation. PMID:26586561

  8. Comparing different algorithms for estimating satellite-based vertically integrated water vapor for Central/Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, A.; Bartholy, J.; Gelybó, G. Y.; Pongrácz, R.; Barcza, Z.; Borbás, E.; Woolf, H. M.; Ferencz, C. S.

    There is a growing need in the meteorologist community for high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric water vapor data since it is essential to understand the hydrological cycle aerosol properties aerosol-cloud interactions energy budget the greenhouse effect and the climate system Atmospheric water vapor is estimated in several places worldwide using the signal of the GPS Global Positional System satellites measured in a network of ground-based meteorological stations and also in a sparse network of radiosondes Remote sensing provides an alternative method to estimate the water vapor content of the atmosphere in high spatial resolution Many techniques have been proposed to estimate atmospheric water vapor content using satellite data primarily in the form of total column precipitable water using a variety of electromagnetic spectrum In this poster we compare different estimation techniques of the vertically integrated water vapor VIWV for Hungary located in Central Eastern Europe using remotely sensed data One of the applications of VIWV data is also presented namely an atmospheric correction algorithm the so-called SMAC method Simplified Method for the Atmospheric Correction In order to determine the VIWV observations of the AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer the ATOVS Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder onboard the NOAA meteorological satellites and measurements of the MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard the satellites Terra and Aqua are used Our comparisonal study is based on the

  9. Public health research support through the European structural funds in central and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health research provides evidence for practice across fields including health care, health promotion and health surveillance. Levels of public health research vary markedly across European Union (EU) countries, and are lowest in the EU's new member states (in Central and Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean). However, these countries now receive most of the EU's Structural Funds, some of which are allocated to research. Methods STEPS, an EU-funded study, sought to assess support for public health research at national and European levels. To identify support through the Structural funds, STEPS drew information from country respondents and internet searches for all twelve EU new member states. Results The EU allocates annually around €7 billion through the Structural Funds for member states' own use on research. These funds can cover infrastructure, academic employment, and direct research grants. The programmes emphasise links to business. Support for health research includes major projects in biosciences, but direct support for public health research was found in only three countries - Cyprus, Latvia and Lithuania. Conclusions Public health research is not prioritised in the EU's Structural Funds programme in comparison with biomedicine. For the research dimension of the new European programme for Structural Funds 2014-2002, ministries of health should propose public health research to strengthen the evidence-base for European public health policy and practice. PMID:22480250

  10. Susceptibility to acidic precipitation contributes to the decline of the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2008-04-01

    The effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in photosystem II (Phi2) was shown to be reduced in the terricolous lichens Cetraria aculeata and Cetraria islandica by short-term exposure to aqueous SO2 at pH values occurring in the precipitation of areas with high SO2 pollution. Significant reduction of Phi2 was found at pHcentral Europe. In C. islandica, but not in C. aculeata, thalli with the natural content of lichen substances were more tolerant to SO2 than thalli where the extracellular lichen substances were extracted before the experiment. This supports published results that the depsidone fumarprotocetraric acid, a major lichen substance of C. islandica, increases the pollution tolerance in lichens. PMID:18053625

  11. Detection and genome analysis of a novel (dima)rhabdovirus (Riverside virus) from Ochlerotatus sp. mosquitoes in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Gábor; Boros, Ákos; Pál, József; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Delwart, Eric; Pankovics, Péter

    2016-04-01

    During an investigation for potential arboviruses present in mosquitoes in Hungary (Central Europe) three highly similar virus strains of a novel rhabdovirus (family Rhabdoviridae) called Riverside virus (RISV, KU248085-KU248087) were detected and genetically characterized from Ochlerotatus sp. mosquito pools collected from 3 geographical locations using viral metagenomic and RT-PCR methods. The ssRNA(-) genome of RISVs follows the general genome layout of rhabdoviruses (3'-N-P-M-G-L-5') with two alternatives, small ORFs in the P and G genes (Px and Gx). The genome of RISVs contains some unusual features such as the large P proteins, the short M proteins with the absence of N-terminal region together with the undetectable "Late budding" motif and the overlap of P and M genes. The unusually long 3' UTRs of the M genes of RISVs probably contain a remnant transcription termination signal which is suggesting the presence of an ancestral gene. The phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons show that the closest known relative of RISVs is the recently identified partially sequenced mosquito-borne rhabdovirus, North Creek virus (NOCRV), from Australia. The RISVs and NOCRV form a distinct, basally rooted lineage in the dimarhabdovirus supergroup. The host species range of RISVs is currently unknown, although the presence of these viruses especially in Ochlerotatus sp. mosquitoes which are known to be fierce biting pests of humans and warm-blooded animals and abundant and widespread in Hungary could hold some potential medical and/or veterinary risks. PMID:26883377

  12. Wavelet analysis of low-frequency variability in oak tree-ring chronologies from east Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Asok K.; Kern, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the low-frequency (interannual and longer period) variability in three hydroclimatic records from east Central Europe. Two of these records consist of climate proxies derived from oak-tree rings in Bakta forest, and Balaton Highlands in Hungary, for the time interval 1783-2003. The third record consists of homogenized instrumental precipitation data from Budapest, Hungary, from 1842 to 2003. Using wavelet analysis, the three time series are analyzed and compared with one another. It is found that all three time series exhibit strong interannual variability at the 2-4 years timescales, and these variations occur intermittently throughout the length of each record. Significant variability is also observed in all the records at decadal timescales, but these variations persist for only two to three cycles. Wavelet coherence among the various time series is used to explore their time-varying correlation. The results reveal significant coherence at the 2-4 years band. At these timescales, the climatic variations are correlated to the tree-ring signal over different time intervals with changing phase. Increased (decreased) contribution of large-scale stratiform precipitation offers a potential explanation for enhanced (faded) coherence at the interannual timescale. Strong coherence was also observed occasionally at decadal timescales, however these coherences did not appear uniformly. These results reinforce the earlier assertion that neither the strength nor the rank of the similarity of the local hydroclimate signals is stable throughout the past two centuries.

  13. The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps and The Akron Story Part II: Europe on $15 a Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durden, John D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Two articles combined here describe aspects of the Akron, Ohio Public Schools' summer foreign language immersion camps for both students and teachers. The first article, "The Akron Story Part I: Summer Foreign Language Camps" (John D. Durden and Sandra K. Strauber), outlines the structure of the camps, in which students live in simulated cultures,…

  14. A multidisciplinary study in the geodynamic active western Eger rift (Central Europe): The Quaternary volcanic complex Mytina and the recent CO2-degassing zone Hartousov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechsig, C.; Heinicke, J.; Kaempf, H. W.; Nickschick, T.; Mrlina, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Eger rift (Central Europe) belongs to the European Cenozoic rift system and represents an approximately 50 km wide and 300 km long ENE-WSW striking continental rift that formed during the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. This rift zone is one of the most active seismic regions in Central Europe. Especially, the western part of the Eger rift area is dominated by ongoing hidden magmatic processes in the intra-continental lithospheric mantle. Besides of known quaternary volcanoes, these processes take place in absence of any presently active volcanism at the surface. However, they are expressed by a series of phenomena distributed over a relatively large area, like occurrence of repeated earthquake swarms, surface exhalation of mantle-derived and CO2-enriched fluids at mofettes and mineral springs, and enhanced heat flow. At present this is the only known intra-continental region where such deep-seated, active lithospheric processes currently occur. The aim of the project is to investigate the tectonic/geologic near surface structure and the degassing processes of the mofette field of Hartousov, where soil gas measurements (concentration and flux rate) in an area of appr. 3x2 km traced a permeable NS extended segment of a fault zone and revealed highly permeable Diffuse Degassing Structures (DDS). The second target is volcanic environment of the Quaternary volcanic complex Mytina maar and the cinder cone Zelezna hurka/Eisenbühl. The investigations are intended to clarify: a) the spatio-temporal reconstruction of the maar complex, and the palaeo volcanic scenario (geological model, tectonic settings, distribution of pyroclastica, b) the geological structure and the tectonic control of the recent degassing zone, and c) the comperative interpretation of both regions in the consideration of potential future volcanic risk assessment in sub-regions of the western Eger Rift. To investigate both regions the following methods are used: geoelectrics, geomagnetics

  15. The 2014-2015 earthquake series in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homuth, B.; Rümpker, G.

    2016-05-01

    Since March 2014, an unusually large amount of earthquakes occur southeast of the city of Darmstadt in the northern Upper Rhine Graben. During the period, until April 2015, we have recorded 356 earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from ML = -0.6 to 4.2. We identified two source clusters separated laterally by about 5 km. The hypocentres within these clusters are aligned vertically extending over a depth range from 1 to 8 km with a lateral extent of about 1 to 2 km. Focal mechanisms show left-lateral strike-slip movements; b values are changing with time between b = 0.6 and b = 0.9. This is the first time in almost 150 years that such high earthquake rates have been observed in the region. Historical accounts dating back to the nineteenth century report of over 2000 felt earthquakes over a time span from 1869 to 1871. From these, maximum intensities of VII have been estimated. Other seismic activities in the region were reported in the 1970s. The observations of the 2014-2015 earthquake series do not completely match a typical main shock-aftershock sequence or a typical earthquake swarm. Especially the activity at the beginning of the earthquake series may be considered as a mixture of a main shock-aftershock sequence and a short-lasting swarm event. Whether or not the time gap between the current seismic activity, which actually takes place at the same locations as parts of the seismic swarm in 1869-1871, and the seismic activity in the nineteenth century or the seismic activity in the 1970s can be interpreted as a seismic cycle remains unclear.

  16. Nuclear disengagement in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Lodgaard, S.; Thee, M.

    1983-01-01

    A combined withdrawal of nuclear and major conventional arms from central Europe would not only raise the nuclear threshold but also reduce the danger of surprise attack. In northern and southern Europe, nuclear weapon-free zones (NWFZs) would aim at enhancing stability and inducing confidence. In the North, limitations on nuclear weapons deployed in the vicinity of the zone, and particularly suited for use against targets within it, would have to be part of the arrangement. This might reduce the risk of inadvertent escalation in an area where conventional, tactical and strategic nuclear weapons are intermingled. Whereas 20 years ago Nordic NWFZ proposals were aimed at shielding the Nordic area from the repercussions of arms buildup in central Europe and concomitant East-West tension, today they also have to be designed so as to stabilize relations between the major powers in an area of great strategic significance. This book comprises 18 contributions discussing the possibilities for and ways of arriving at nuclear weapon-free zones in Europe.

  17. Fireball observations in central Europe and western Australia: instruments, methods, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurny, P.

    2012-01-01

    Penetration of larger meteoroids through the atmosphere which gives rise to spectacular luminous events - fireballs or even superbolides - is of the greatest interest. Their registrations, especially photographic and newly also photoelectric recordings, provide excellent means to examine physical properties as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of extraterrestrial matter in near-Earth space. The most efficient tools for registration of these very scarce events are the fireball networks: systems covering large areas of the Earth's surface, with multiple camera stations designed to image a large fraction of the night sky. Such camera networks for fireball observations have been set up in several nations at various times in the past (European Fireball Network (EN) in the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, and Slovakia; the Prairie Network in the USA; and the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) in Canada). Of these networks, only the European fireball network is still in operation, and this continuously since it was started up, but recently new networks were established in South-West Australia and in Ontario, Canada. The two main scientific aims of all these programs remain the same as in the very beginning - first, to constrain the flux of extraterrestrial material to the Earth over a range of masses, and second, to provide a statistically significant group of meteorites with accurate orbits. This contribution was focused on the current work and some particular recent results from the European Fireball Network, especially from its Czech part (current status is described, for example, by Spurny et al., 2006) and from the Desert Fireball Network in the Nullarbor Plains of South-West Australia (Bland, 2004; Spurny et al., 2012; and Bland et al., 2012). The mode of operation of both networks and the analysis methods used were described in detail and illustrated by some examples. Similarly, the most important recent results, especially from the

  18. Visible and Infrared Wavefront Sensing detectors review in Europe - part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-luc

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the state of the art wavefront sensor detectors developments held in Europe for the last decade. A major breakthrough has been achieved with the development by e2v technologies of the CCD220 between 2004 and 2012. Another major breakthrough is currently achieved with the very successful development of fast low noise infrared arrays called RAPID. The astonishing results of this device will be showed for the first time in an international conference at AO4ELT3.The CCD220, a 240x240 pixels 8 outputs EMCCD (CCD with internal multiplication), offers less than 0.2 e readout noise at a frame rate of 1500 Hz with negligible dark current. The OCAM2 camera is the commercial product that drives this advanced device. This system, commercialized by First Light Imaging, is quickly described in this paper. An upgrade of OCAM2 is currently developed to boost its frame rate to 2 kHz, opening the window of XAO wavefront sensing for the ELT using 4 synchronized cameras and pyramid wavefront sensing. This upgrade and the results obtained are described extensively elsewhere in this conference (Gach et al).Since this major success, new detector developments started in Europe. The NGSD CMOS device is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with ESO involvement. The spot elongation from a LGS Shack Hartman wavefront sensor necessitates an increase of the pixel format. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate. New technologies will be developed for that purpose: advanced CMOS pixel architecture, CMOS back thinned and back illuminated device for very high QE, full digital outputs with signal digital conversion on chip. This innovative device will be used on the European ELT but also interests potentially all giant telescopes.Additional developments also started in 2009 for wavefront sensing in the infrared based on a new technological breakthrough

  19. Pb isotopes in sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe constrain the heavy metal pathways and the pollution history of the catchment, the lake and the regional atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kober, B.; Wessels, M.; Bollhoefer, A.; Mangini

    1999-05-01

    Pb isotope ratios and Pb concentrations of well-dated sediments of Lake Constance, Central Europe have been analyzed using thermal ion mass spectrometry. Sequential extraction studies indicated isotope homogeneity of the leachable Pb components within the investigated layers. Since the middle of the 19th century a significant anthropogenic Pb component appeared in the lake sediments, and rapidly approaches concentration levels similar to that of the geogenic Pb background (20 ppm) at the beginning of the 20th century. Anthropogenic Pb was predominantly transferred to the lake sediments via the atmosphere. Pb sources were coal combustion, industrial ore processing and leaded gasoline. The flux of a fluvial Pb component to the lake sediments, additive to atmospheric Pb deposition, peaked in about 1960. This flux is attributed to (re)mobilization of Pb from polluted parts of the lake catchment, and indicates the change of catchment soils from a pollution sink to a heavy metal source. The strong reduction of anthropogenic Pb in the uppermost lake sediments since the 1960s has been caused by advances of environmental protection. The lake sediments record the changing fluxes and the isotope composition of the deposited aeolian Pb pollution. During the 20th century aeolian Pb fluxes to the lake sediments were in the range of 1--4 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}/a. During peak emission periods of gasoline Pb to the atmosphere (1960--1990) the aerosol Pb isotope composition was rather constant ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb: 1.12--1.13) and probably a mixture of Canadian and Australian with Russian and Central European Pb types. Aeolian Pb isotope and Pb flux trends in the lake sediments as a whole agree well with the trends found in Alpine glaciers (Doering et al., 1997a,b) and in ombrotrophic peat bogs of Switzerland (Shotyk et al., 1996). However, different industrial Pb components were deposited in the archives of aeolian pollution during the early 20th century.

  20. Lithospheric structure beneath Central Europe from the POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, and SUDETES 2003 seismic refraction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guterch, A.; Grad, M.; Keller, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    Beginning in 1997, Central Europe between the Baltic and Adriatic Seas, has been covered by an unprecedented network of seismic refraction experiments POLONAISE'97, CELEBRATION 2000, ALP 2002, and SUDETES 2003, have only been possible due to a massive international consortium consisted of more than 30 institutions from 16 countries in Europe and North America. The majority of recording instruments was provided by the IRIS/PASSCAL Instrument Center and the University of Texas at El Paso (USA), and several other countries also provided instrumentation. Total length of seismic profiles in all experiments is about 20,000 km. The main results of these experiments are: 1) the delineation of the deep structure of the southwestern margin of the East European Craton (southern Baltica) and its relationship to younger terranes; delineation of the major terranes and crustal blocks in the Trans European Suture Zone; determination of the structural framework of the Pannonian basin; elucidation of the deep structure and evolution of the Western Carpathian Mountains and Eastern Alps; determination of the structural relationships between the structural elements of the Bohemian massif and adjacent features; construction of 3-D models of the lithospheric structure; and evaluation and develop geodynamic models for the tectonic evolution of the region. Experiment Working Groups Members: K. Aric, M. Behm, E. Brueckl, W. Chwatal, H. Grassl, S. Hock, V. Hoeck, F. Kohlbeck, E.-M. Rumpfhuber, Ch. Schmid, R. Schmoller, C. Tomek, Ch. Ullrich, F.Weber (Austria), A.A. Belinsky (Belarus), I. Asudeh, R. Clowes, Z. Hajnal (Canada), F. Sumanova (Croatia), M. Broz , P. Hrubcova, M. Korn, O. Karousova, J. Malek, A. Spicak (Czech Republic), S.L. Jensen, P. Joergensen, H. Thybo (Denmark), K. Komminaho, U. Luosto, T. Tiira, J. Yliniemi (Finland), F. Bleibinhaus, R. Brinkmann, B. Forkmann, H. Gebrande, H. Geissler, A. Hemmann, G. Jentzsch, D. Kracke, A. Schulze, K. Schuster (Germany), T. Bodoky, T

  1. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part I--Preliminary survey.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Didier

    2010-11-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts. PMID:21465995

  2. 5,000 years of water level changes infered from ostracod assemblages in a lowland lake in Romania (Central Eastern Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Hutchinson, Simon; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Feurdean, Angelica

    2014-05-01

    Oscillations of lake levels in Central Eastern Europe during the Holocene are crucial records of past regional climatic conditions reflecting the balance between evaporation and precipitation in their catchment. Lake Stiucii (38 ha, 10 m depth) is located in Transylvanian Plain (NW Romania) at 296 m asl. A recently extracted sediment core from the central part of the lake provides the first ostracod sediment record of the lake water level fluctuations in this region covering the last 5000 cal years BP. The sediment sequence yielded approximately 1600 valves of 18 freshwater and halophile ostracod species of 11 genera. The most abundant and frequent in the entire record were Heterocypris salina (Brady 1868), Limnocythere inopinata (Baird 1843) and Plesiocypridopsis newtoni (Brady & Robertson 1870) (abundance range between 16-25%). The ostracod assemblages also show a marked variability in diversity and abundance over the past 5000 years, which appear to closely follow water level oscillations. The assemblages indicate three periods of low diversity and density of ostracods primarily represented by Candonidae between (i) 3800 and 3150 cal yr BP, (ii) 2900 and 2400 cal yr BP and (iii) 1600 and 1200 cal yr BP and probably reflect a response to low lake water levels. This inference is supported by the deposition of gyttja and low Zr concentrations. The dominance of Cyclocypris ovum (Jurine, 1820) and Candoninae in a ostracod community of otherwise poor density and diversity between 2200 and 1800 cal yr BP probably reflects littoral environments in the central, deepest part of the present lake. The ostracod assemblages diversified (up to 10 species) between 1100 and 250 cal yr BP and are dominated by co-occurrences of halophile species e.g. Heterocypris salina and Plesiocypridopsis newtoni until 700 cal yr BP, suggesting increased supply of salty water into the lake by salt springs. Thereafter Limnocythere inopinata, a typical shallow water species (<10 m) is dominant

  3. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Cuschieri, Kate S; Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-12-31

    negative public perception. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332298

  4. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. H Appendix H to Part 305—Cooling Performance and...

  5. Molecular screening for bacteria and protozoa in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) nesting in Slovakia, central Europe.

    PubMed

    Víchová, Bronislava; Reiterová, Katarína; Špilovská, Silvia; Blaňarová, Lucia; Hurníková, Zuzana; Turčeková, Ĺudmila

    2016-09-01

    This study brings the data about the occurrence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens in 32 great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), representing approximately 20% of the population nesting in the surroundings of water basin Liptovská Mara (northern part of Central Slovakia). A survey revealed the presence of tick-borne bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum (6.25%) and parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii (3.1%). These data indicate an infectious status of the great cormorant population nesting in Slovakia; they might suggest a degree of environmental contamination by infectious agents and demonstrate the role of migratory seabirds in the circulation and dispersal of pathogens with zoonotic potential. PMID:27447224

  6. Improving estimates of N2O emissions for western and central Europe using a Bayesian inversion approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Gerbig, C.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) mixing ratio has been increasing in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution, from 270 ppb in 1750 to 320 ppb in 2007 with a steady growth rate of around 0.26% since the early 1980's. The increase in N2O is worrisome for two main reasons. First, it is a greenhouse gas; this means that its atmospheric increase translates to an enhancement in radiative forcing of 0.16 ± 0.02 Wm-2 making it currently the fourth most important long-lived greenhouse gas and is predicted to soon overtake CFC's to become the third most important. Second, it plays an important role in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Human activities are the primary cause of the atmospheric N2O increase. The largest anthropogenic source of N2O is from the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture but fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes, such as adipic and nitric acid production, are also important. We present a Bayesian inversion approach for estimating N2O fluxes over central and western Europe using high frequency in-situ concentration data from the Ochsenkopf tall tower (50 °01′N, 11 °48′, 1022 masl). For the inversion, we employ a Lagrangian-type transport model, STILT, which provides source-receptor relationships at 10 km using ECMWF meteorological data. The a priori flux estimates used were from IER, for anthropogenic, and GEIA, for natural fluxes. N2O fluxes were retrieved monthly at 2 x 2 degree spatial resolution for 2007. The retrieved N2O fluxes showed significantly more spatial heterogeneity than in the a priori field and considerable seasonal variability. The timing of peak emissions was different for different regions but in general the months with the strongest emissions were May and August. Overall, the retrieved flux (anthropogenic and natural) was lower than in the a priori field.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  8. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  9. Climate variability and associated vegetation response throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) between 60 and 8 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, A.; Perşoiu, A.; Tanţău, I.; Stevens, T.; Magyari, E. K.; Onac, B. P.; Marković, S.; Andrič, M.; Connor, S.; Fărcaş, S.; Gałka, M.; Gaudeny, T.; Hoek, W.; Kolaczek, P.; Kuneš, P.; Lamentowicz, M.; Marinova, E.; Michczyńska, D. J.; Perşoiu, I.; Płóciennik, M.; Słowiński, M.; Stancikaite, M.; Sumegi, P.; Svensson, A.; Tămaş, T.; Timar, A.; Tonkov, S.; Toth, M.; Veski, S.; Willis, K. J.; Zernitskaya, V.

    2014-12-01

    Records of past climate variability and associated vegetation response exist in various regions throughout Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). To date, there has been no coherent synthesis of the existing palaeo-records. During an INTIMATE meeting (Cluj Napoca, Romania) focused on identifying CEE paleo-records, it was decided to address this gap by presenting the palaeo-community with a compilation of high-quality climatic and vegetation records for the past 60-8 ka. The compilation should also serve as a reference point for the use in the modelling community working towards the INTIMATE project goals, and in data-model inter-comparison studies. This paper is therefore a compilation of up to date, best available quantitative and semi-quantitative records of past climate and biotic response from CEE covering this period. It first presents the proxy and archive used. Speleothems and loess mainly provide the evidences available for the 60-20 ka interval, whereas pollen records provide the main source of information for the Lateglacial and Holocene. It then examines the temporal and spatial patterns of climate variability inferred from different proxies, the temporal and spatial magnitude of the vegetation responses inferred from pollen records and highlights differences and similarities between proxies and sub-regions and the possible mechanisms behind this variability. Finally, it identifies weakness in the proxies and archives and their geographical distribution. This exercise also provides an opportunity to reflect on the status of research in the area and to identify future critical areas and subjects of research.

  10. Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Sumilo, Dana; Bormane, Antra; Asokliene, Loreta; Vasilenko, Veera; Golovljova, Irina; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Hubalek, Zdenek; Randolph, Sarah E

    2008-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most serious widespread vector-borne disease of humans in Europe, increased from 2- to 30-fold in many Central and Eastern European countries from 1992 to 1993, coinciding with independence from Soviet rule. Unemployment and low income have been shown in Latvia to be statistically associated with high-risk behaviour involving harvest of wild foods from tick-infested forests, and also with not being vaccinated against TBE. Archival data for 1970--2005 record major changes in the agricultural and industrial sectors, and consequent changes in the abiotic and biotic environment and socio-economic conditions, which could have increased the abundance of infected ticks and the contact of humans with those ticks. For example, abandoned agricultural fields became suitable for rodent transmission hosts; use of pesticides and emissions of atmospheric industrial pollutants plummeted; wildlife hosts for ticks increased; tick populations appear to have responded; unemployment and inequality increased in all countries. These factors, by acting synergistically but differentially between and within each country, can explain the marked spatio-temporal heterogeneities in TBE epidemiology better than can climate change alone, which is too uniform across wide areas. Different degrees of socio-economic upheaval caused by political transition in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia and the Czech Republic can apparently explain the marked variation in TBE upsurge. Causal linkage between national socio-economic conditions and epidemiology is strongly indicated by striking correlations across eight countries between the degree of upsurge of TBE and both poverty and household expenditure on food (R2 = 0.533 and 0.716, respectively). PMID:18183571

  11. Stable isotope geochemistry of sediment-hosted groundwater from a Late Paleozoic Early Mesozoic section in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, S. R.

    2000-08-01

    The boron isotopic composition, in combination with oxygen, hydrogen and sulfur isotopes and hydrochemical tracers, is utilized to investigate the evolution of groundwaters from a Late Paleozoic (Permian) to Early Mesozoic (Triassic) section of the sedimentary cover in central Europe (N Switzerland-SW Germany). Four distinct groundwater types have been identified: (a) saline groundwater from Permian (Rotliegend) sediments ( δ11B=+13.7 to +33.0‰, δ18O=-6.7 to -5.3‰, δD=-53.4 to -37.8‰, δ34S=+16.4 to +17.1‰); (b) brackish to saline groundwater from Lower Triassic (Buntsandstein) sediments ( δ11B=+6.4 to +22.3‰, δ18O=-10.3 to -6.9‰, δD=-71.8 to -60.5‰, δ34S=+18.2 to +18.4‰); (c) fresh to saline groundwater from Middle Triassic (Muschelkalk) sediments ( δ11B=-10.2 to +7.7‰, δ18O=-11.8 to -8.8‰, δD=-86.6 to -63.0‰, δ34S=+15.8 to +21.4‰); and (d) saline groundwater from Upper Triassic (Keuper) sediments ( δ11B=+26.3‰, δ18O=-6.4‰, δD=-41.2‰, δ34S=+16.1‰). As evidenced by B-O-H-S stable isotope and hydrochemical (e.g. Na/Cl, Br/Cl, Ca/SO 4, (Ca+Mg)/SO 4, K/B, and Li/B) constraints, interactions with sedimentary host rocks and inter-aquifer mixing have contributed to the evolution of the investigated groundwaters.

  12. Topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary below the Upper Rhine Graben Rift and the volcanic Eifel region, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiberlich, C. K. A.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Wawerzinek, B.

    2013-09-01

    We study the crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries (Moho and LAB) in Central Europe, specifically below the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) rift, the Eifel volcanic region and their surrounding areas. Teleseismic recordings at permanent and mobile stations are analysed to search for shear (S) wave to compressional (P) wave converted phases. After a special processing these phases are identified in shear wave receiver functions (S-RFs). Conversions from the Moho at 2.9-3.3 s arrival time are the clearest signals in the S-RFs and indicate a relatively flat Moho at 27-30 km depth. A negative polarity conversion signal at 7-9 s arrival time can be explained with a low shear wave velocity zone (LVsZ) in the upper mantle. We use forward S-RF waveform modelling and Monte-Carlo techniques to determine shear wave velocity (vs)-depth (z) profiles which explain the observed S-RF and which outline variations of the lithospheric thickness in the study region. Across the URG rift and its surrounding mountain ranges (Black Forest, Odenwald etc.) the LAB is at a depth of about 60 ± 5 km. This depth is found for the rift itself as well as for the rift shoulders. Southeast and southwest of the URG, in the regions of the Swabian Alb and Vosges Mountains, the LAB dips to about 78 ± 5 km depth. In the volcanic Eifel region the LAB is at a much shallower depth of just 41 ± 5 km. There an upwelling mantle plume thermally eroded the lower lithosphere. The reduction of vs is about 2%-4% in the upper asthenosphere compared to the lower lithosphere. This vs contrast may be explained with a low portion of partial melt or hydrous minerals in the asthenosphere.

  13. Temporal evolution of stable water isotopologues in cloud droplets in a hill cap cloud in central Europe (HCCT-2010)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiegel, J.K.; Aemisegger, F.; Scholl, M.; Wienhold, F.G.; Collett, J.L., Jr.; Lee, T.; van Pinxteren, D.; Mertes, S.; Tilgner, A.; Herrmann, H.; Werner, Roland A.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present the first study resolving the temporal evolution of δ2H and δ18O values in cloud droplets during 13 different cloud events. The cloud events were probed on a 937 m high mountain chain in Germany in the framework of the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 campaign (HCCT-2010) in September and October 2010. The δ values of cloud droplets ranged from −77‰ to −15‰ (δ2H) and from −12.1‰ to −3.9‰ (δ18O) over the whole campaign. The cloud water line of the measured δ values was δ2H=7.8×δ18O+13×10−3, which is of similar slope, but with higher deuterium excess than other Central European Meteoric Water Lines. Decreasing δ values in the course of the campaign agree with seasonal trends observed in rain in central Europe. The deuterium excess was higher in clouds developing after recent precipitation revealing episodes of regional moisture recycling. The variations in δ values during one cloud event could either result from changes in meteorological conditions during condensation or from variations in the δ values of the water vapor feeding the cloud. To test which of both aspects dominated during the investigated cloud events, we modeled the variation in δ values in cloud water using a closed box model. We could show that the variation in δ values of two cloud events was mainly due to changes in local temperature conditions. For the other eleven cloud events, the variation was most likely caused by changes in the isotopic composition of the advected and entrained vapor. Frontal passages during two of the latter cloud events led to the strongest temporal changes in both δ2H (≈ 6‰ per hour) and δ18O (≈ 0.6‰ per hour). Moreover, a detailed trajectory analysis for the two longest cloud events revealed that variations in the entrained vapor were most likely related to rain out or changes in relative humidity and temperature at the moisture source region or both. This study illustrates the sensitivity of stable isotope

  14. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  15. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon) experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  16. CENTRALIZED TREATMENT OF METAL FINISHING WASTES AT A CLEVELAND RESOURCE RECOVERY PARK: PART 1. DESIGN AND COSTS. PART 2. FINANCING. PART 3. SITE INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, in three parts, describes the characteristics of the Cleveland (OH) area electroplating industry and an approach and design for a centralized facility to treat cyanide and heavy metal wastes generated by this industry. The facility is termed the Resource Recovery Park...

  17. Borderlines: Maps and the spread of the Westphalian state from Europe to Asia Part One - The European Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, S.

    2013-11-01

    For researchers and students of International Relations (IR), one date looms larger than all others: 1648. The end of the Thirty Years War, formalised by the signing of the Treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, led to a period known as the 'Peace of Westphalia'. Westphalia represented a fundamental change in the power balance of European politics: instead of the Holy Roman Empire holding supreme authority, power would now rest with states themselves, manifested in terms of sovereignty, territory and equality. One of the chief ways in which these 'Westphalian' states would cement this authority was through the use of maps. Before 1648, there was little on a European map to indicate where one country ended and another one began. But after 1648, this all changes: these new Westphalian states are represented with bright colours and clearly marked boundaries, defining borders and becoming an important part in creating the state and justifying its sovereignty. The role which maps have played in the spread of the Westphalian state is only just beginning to be researched. Yet the limited efforts to date have all focussed on Europe. This is unfortunate, as today, while Europe has, according to some observers, moved into a stage in which Westphalia is no longer a useful model with which to understand the state and the ways in which it relates to sovereignty, government, power and the individual, the old Westphalian model of the state has more recently been exported all around the world. Many have contended that while the Westphalian state is no longer relevant to Europe, it was never relevant to the rest of the world. In existing work, the researcher has mapped the spread of the Westphalian state in the twentieth century, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS; see Pickering 2012). This paper, while complementary to the earlier research, will employ a quite different methodology. Having studied hundreds of European maps provided by European libraries, it is clear that the

  18. GRACE Solutions for the Gravity Field over Central Europe Compared to the Surface Field as Recorded by the GGP Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, D. J.; de Linage, C.; Hinderer, J.; Boy, J.

    2007-12-01

    As the number of different solutions from the GRACE satellite gravity project evolves, we can make more meaningful comparisons between the satellite-derived field and the surface field as recorded by superconducting gravimeters. On the GRACE side, we use CSR Level 2 products RL01 and the recent RL04 solutions, GFZ RL04 solutions, and the CNES/GRGS 10-day solutions, all for the time periods these are available. On the GGP side, we take advantage of the 10 years of SG data since July 1997 from 6-8 ground stations in Europe, allowing for the change in the network configuration as stations begin and end recording. Only data since 2002 can be compared directly to GRACE. Our primary measure of variability is the first principal component of the EOF analysis of all the fields. Unsurprisingly, the seasonal components for all the comparisons are similar in phase, but different in amplitude, to the predictions from a global hydrology model (GLDAS), provided allowance is made for the location of the SG stations above or below the soil moisture horizon that controls the gravity signature. We use detailed modeling at the Strasbourg station, as well as published results for Moxa and Membach, to confirm the gravity effect of hydrology. Good agreement is found between the GGP and the CNES/GRGS 10-day solutions, indicating the higher temporal resolution of this satellite solution is valid for our limited geographical area. We also synthesize the gravity field over the sub-group of GGP stations in N.E. Asia to see how the GRACE variability compares to that for the European array and to assess future ground validation using new GGP stations in that part of the world.

  19. Homosexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention: the challenge of transferring lessons learned from Western Europe to Central and Eastern European Countries.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michael T

    2005-03-01

    In order to stem the rapidly growing HIV/AIDS epidemics in Eastern Europe a transfer of prevention know-how and experience from Western European countries is necessary. The success of such a transfer is contingent on addressing a number of challenging issues. Monolithic ideas of East/West difference need to give way to the growing empirical evidence which not only shows a tremendous diversity but also many similarities among the 51 countries within the WHO European region. These include similarities regarding sexual attitudes and HIV prevention needs. Western constructs such as a gay identity need to be de-emphasized however, when it comes to promoting human rights (and thus improving HIV prevention for men who have sex with men) in Central and Eastern Europe. In asking the question of what should be transferred from Western Europe to other countries, both the strengths and weaknesses of the last 20 years of prevention need to be considered. In terms of Western European research the strength lies in identifying the social structural causes of HIV transmission. In terms of practice, the successes of instituting country-level structures while also working within the gay community are to be emphasized. Short-comings are evident in terms of reaching men of lower socio-economic status, cultural minorities and sex workers. On such questions, the expertise of Europe as a whole is needed in order to find new answers. PMID:15668214

  20. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  1. Benchmark campaign and case study episode in central Europe for development and assessment of advanced GNSS tropospheric models and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douša, Jan; Dick, Galina; Kačmařík, Michal; Brožková, Radmila; Zus, Florian; Brenot, Hugues; Stoycheva, Anastasia; Möller, Gregor; Kaplon, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Initial objectives and design of the Benchmark campaign organized within the European COST Action ES1206 (2013-2017) are described in the paper. This campaign has aimed to support the development and validation of advanced Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tropospheric products, in particular high-resolution and ultra-fast zenith total delays (ZTDs) and tropospheric gradients derived from a dense permanent network. A complex data set was collected for the 8-week period when several extreme heavy precipitation episodes occurred in central Europe which caused severe river floods in this area. An initial processing of data sets from GNSS products and numerical weather models (NWMs) provided independently estimated reference parameters - zenith tropospheric delays and tropospheric horizontal gradients. Their provision gave an overview about the product similarities and complementarities, and thus a potential for improvements of a synergy in their optimal exploitations in future. Reference GNSS and NWM results were intercompared and visually analysed using animated maps. ZTDs from two reference GNSS solutions compared to global ERA-Interim reanalysis resulted in accuracy at the 10 mm level in terms of the root mean square (rms) with a negligible overall bias, comparisons to Global Forecast System (GFS) forecasts showed accuracy at the 12 mm level with the overall bias of -5 mm and, finally, comparisons to mesoscale ALADIN-CZ forecast resulted in accuracy at the 8 mm level with a negligible total bias. The comparison of horizontal tropospheric gradients from GNSS and NWM data demonstrated a very good agreement among independent solutions with negligible biases and an accuracy of about 0.5 mm. Visual comparisons of maps of zenith wet delays and tropospheric horizontal gradients showed very promising results for future exploitations of advanced GNSS tropospheric products in meteorological applications, such as severe weather event monitoring and weather nowcasting

  2. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  3. Periodicity analysis of δ18O in precipitation over Central Europe: Time-frequency considerations of the isotopic 'temperature' effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamalikis, V.; Argiriou, A. A.; Dotsika, E.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the periodic patterns of the isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18O) for 22 stations located around Central Europe are investigated through sinusoidal models and wavelet analysis over a 23 years period (1980/01-2002/12). The seasonal distribution of δ18O follows the temporal variability of air temperature providing seasonal amplitudes ranging from 0.94‰ to 4.47‰; the monthly isotopic maximum is observed in July. The isotopic amplitude reflects the geographical dependencies of the isotopic composition of precipitation providing higher values when moving inland. In order to describe the dominant oscillation modes included in δ18O time series, the Morlet Continuous Wavelet Transform is evaluated. The main periodicity is represented at 12-months (annual periodicity) where the wavelet power is mainly concentrated. Stations (i.e. Cuxhaven, Trier, etc.) with limited seasonal isotopic effect provide sparse wavelet power areas at the annual periodicity mode explaining the fact that precipitation has a complex isotopic fingerprint that cannot be examined solely by the seasonality effect. Since temperature is the main contributor of the isotopic variability in mid-latitudes, the isotope-temperature effect is also investigated. The isotope-temperature slope ranges from 0.11‰/°C to 0.47‰/°C with steeper values observed at the southernmost stations of the study area. Bivariate wavelet analysis is applied in order to determine the correlation and the slope of the δ18O - temperature relationship over the time-frequency plane. High coherencies are detected at the annual periodicity mode. The time-frequency slope is calculated at the annual periodicity mode ranging from 0.45‰/°C to 0.83‰/°C with higher values at stations that show a more distinguishable seasonal isotopic behavior. Generally the slope fluctuates around a mean value but in certain cases (sites with low seasonal effect) abrupt slope changes are derived and the slope becomes

  4. Preparing for Future Water Resources Conflicts through Climate Change Adaptation Planning: A Case Study in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, B. B.; Neumann, J. E.; Strzepek, K.; Sutton, W.; Srivastava, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties posed by climate change and rapidly rising global water demand suggest that existing conflicts over water resources are likely to be exacerbated and new conflicts will appear where little or no conflict occurs today. Successfully planning for and preventing conflicts first requires a sound scientific understanding of the timing, location, and magnitude of water resource shortfalls, identification of the most appropriate climate adaptation options based on multiple criteria, and development of broad, multi-level consensus within the affected community. We recently applied this approach in a World Bank-funded adaptation assessment for the agricultural sectors of four countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia-Albania, Macedonia, Moldova, and Uzbekistan. For each major basin, we first used a hydrological model to project changes in water availability through 2050 under country-specific high, medium, and low climate impact scenarios. Next, under the three climate scenarios, we projected changes in agricultural water demand using a crop model (i.e., AquaCrop and DSSAT), and changes in water demand in other sectors based on population projections and sectoral forecasts of changes in per capita use. We incorporated these water availability and demand projections-along with other characteristics of the water system such as water supply priorities, environmental and transboundary flow requirements, irrigation efficiency, and reservoir locations and volumes-into a monthly integrated water resource planning tool (the Water Evaluation And Planning tool, or WEAP) to generate projected unmet water demand under each climate scenario and to each sector through 2050. The findings suggest that the agricultural sector in each country (except the relatively water-rich Albania) would experience significant unmet water demands, up to 52 percent in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya River basins of Uzbekistan. Potential adaptation responses to address unmet water demands-such as

  5. Variability of floods, droughts and windstorms over the past 500 years in Central Europe based on documentary and instrumental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazdil, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological and meteorological extremes (HMEs) in Central Europe during the past 500 years can be reconstructed based on instrumental and documentary data. Documentary data about weather and related phenomena represent the basic source of information for historical climatology and hydrology, dealing with reconstruction of past climate and HMEs, their perception and impacts on human society. The paper presents the basic distribution of documentary data on (i) direct descriptions of HMEs and their proxies on the one hand and on (ii) individual and institutional data sources on the other. Several groups of documentary evidence such as narrative written records (annals, chronicles, memoirs), visual daily weather records, official and personal correspondence, special prints, financial and economic records (with particular attention to taxation data), newspapers, pictorial documentation, chronograms, epigraphic data, early instrumental observations, early scientific papers and communications are demonstrated with respect to extraction of information about HMEs, which concerns usually of their occurrence, severity, seasonality, meteorological causes, perception and human impacts. The paper further presents the analysis of 500-year variability of floods, droughts and windstorms on the base of series, created by combination of documentary and instrumental data. Results, advantages and drawbacks of such approach are documented on the examples from the Czech Lands. The analysis of floods concentrates on the River Vltava (Prague) and the River Elbe (Děčín) which show the highest frequency of floods occurring in the 19th century (mainly of winter synoptic type) and in the second half of the 16th century (summer synoptic type). Reported are also the most disastrous floods (August 1501, March and August 1598, February 1655, June 1675, February 1784, March 1845, February 1862, September 1890, August 2002) and the European context of floods in the severe winter 1783/84. Drought

  6. Towards Cooperation among Researchers of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Europe. Platform Meeting of VET Researchers from EC, EFTA and Central Europe (Berlin, Germany, October 23, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grootings, Peter, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    A meeting held in Berlin provided a forum for researchers from the Central European countries of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland to discuss the research situation in vocational education and training (VET) in their countries and to discuss the possibilities for developing forms of cooperation with researchers from the 10 Western European…

  7. Following spread of fire blight in Western, Central and Southern Europe by molecular differentiation of Erwinia amylovora strains with PFGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Jock, Susanne; Donat, Victoria; López, Maria M; Bazzi, Carlo; Geider, Klaus

    2002-02-01

    Fire blight has been detected recently in several areas of northern Spain and north-eastern Italy. To follow spread of the disease within Europe, more than 120 Erwinia amylovora strains isolated from 1957-1900 in England, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Italy and Spain were assayed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of genomic DNA after XbaI digestion. Pattern types Pt1 and Pt4 were found for strains from England. Pt1 was also found in central Europe and eastern France, Pt4 in western France. Pt2 appeared first in Egypt, from where strains with this pattern disseminated northwards as far as into the Balkans. Pt3 was typical for northern France and Belgium. Strains from Spain displayed the pattern types Pt3 and Pt4. In Italy, Pt2 was found in the south-eastern areas, Pt3 in the north-eastern areas, and Pt1 was found very recently in orchards adjacent to the Austrian border, together with Pt3. Despite barely controlled trade with fire blight host plants and associated plant products within Europe, the PFGE patterns of the E. amylovora isolates were ordered indicating sequential spread. On the other hand, the appearance of Pt3 in northern Italy and central Spain can be explained by the import of contaminated plants by nurseries. PMID:11972620

  8. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D.; Petersson, K. F.; White, I. R.; Henshaw, S. J.; Nickless, G.; Lovelock, A.; Barlow, J. F.; Dunbar, T.; Wood, C. R.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2009-11-01

    There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from cyclic perfluorocarbon tracer experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment) campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study dispersion over a large vertical gradient. These gradients are then compared with classical Gaussian profiles of the relevant stability classes over a range of distances as well as interpretation of data with reference to both anemometry and LIDAR measurements made. Data are then compared with an operational model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign looking at dosage compared with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analysis illustrates the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  9. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans C Appendix C to Part 225 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN...

  10. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cost allocations or billings for are allowable in accordance with the requirements of 2 CFR Part 225... motor pools, computer centers, purchasing, accounting, etc., to operating agencies on a centralized... include computer services, transportation services, insurance, and fringe benefits. 2. “Allocated...

  11. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 225 - State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cost allocations or billings for are allowable in accordance with the requirements of 2 CFR Part 225... Plans A. General. 1. Most governmental units provide certain services, such as motor pools, computer... basis. Typical examples of billed central services include computer services, transportation...

  12. Ozone, Carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides time series at four Alpine GAW mountain stations in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-08-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of Ozone (O3) and its precursor gases Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites. This was observed independent of wind sector and for most seasons, with a tendency to higher positive trends in winter and lower and partly negative trends in summer. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the highest rate of O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti

  13. Ozone, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides time series at four alpine GAW mountain stations in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilge, S.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Fricke, W.; Kaiser, A.; Ries, L.; Buchmann, B.; Steinbacher, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term, ground based in-situ observations of ozone (O3) and its precursor gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) from the four sites Hohenpeissenberg and Zugspitze (D), Sonnblick (A) and Jungfraujoch (CH) are presented for the period 1995-2007. These Central European alpine mountain observatories cover an altitude range of roughly 1000 to 3500 m. Comparable analytical methods and common quality assurance (QA) procedures are used at all sites. For O3 and CO, calibration is linked to primary calibrations (O3) or CO standards provided by the Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) at NOAA/ESRL. All stations have been audited by the World Calibration Centre (WCC) for CO and O3 (WCC-Empa; CH). Data from long-term measurements of NO2 and CO are only available from Hohenpeissenberg and Jungfraujoch. Both sites show slightly decreasing mixing ratios of the primarily emitted NO2 and the partly anthropogenically emitted CO between 1995 and 2007. The findings are generally consistent with shorter observation periods at Zugspitze and Sonnblick and thus are considered to represent regional changes in Central European atmospheric composition at this altitude range. Over the same period, 1995-2007, the O3 mixing ratios have slightly increased at three of the four sites independent of wind sector. Trends are often more pronounced in winter and less in summer; highest declines of NO2 and CO are observed in winter and the lowest in summer, whereas the strongest O3 increase was detected in winter and lowest or even decline in summer, respectively. Weekly cycles demonstrate anthropogenic impact at all elevations with enhanced NO2 on working days compared to weekends. Enhanced O3 values on working days indicating photochemical production from anthropogenic precursors are only observed in summer, whereas in all other seasons anti-correlation with NO2 was found due to reduced O3 values on working days. Trends are discussed with respect to anthropogenic impacts and vertical

  14. Dust flux estimates for the Last Glacial Period in East Central Europe based on terrestrial records of loess deposits: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Varga, György; Raucsik, Béla; Marković, Slobodan B.

    2010-11-01

    Loess-paleosol sequences are significant records of the mineral dust cycle of glacial-interglacial periods. As dust particles give rise to direct and indirect radiative forcing, obtaining a reliable picture of the global and regional patterns of mineral dust fluxes during glacial periods can lead to a better understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to past climate changes. Recent progress in absolute dating of loess deposits in the Carpathian Basin in East Central Europe made it possible to provide correct aeolian flux estimates for the Last Glacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 2. Mass accumulation rates (MARs) from chronological data of 33 loess sites exhibited a wide range of values, from 150 to 1422 g m -2 a -1, centered around median and mean values of 338 and 417 g m -2 a -1. MAR and MAR estimates have been also calculated using grain size measurements of many loess samples and loess MARs in order to facilitate comparison with models, and since particles larger than 10 μm have a negligible radiative effect. Here we show that some previous model simulations of the dust cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) significantly underestimated the real aeolian flux (ranges of our estimates: MAR=34-324 and MAR=9.3-88.2 g m a) in East Central Europe. For this reason, some simulations of dust-induced direct radiative forcing of the LGM climate failed to yield reliable results for this mid-latitude region as they have been based on three-dimensional dust field models that are not capable of estimating the real aeolian fluxes in Central Europe. A recent global model of top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing by mineral aerosols at the LGM that has been based on more realistic parameterization of dust sources, transport, and deposition revealed zonally averaged surface cooling of -2 °C for the latitudes of our study area. This surface cooling and TOA radiative forcing (-2 to -3 W m -2) are greater than recognized in other models and draws our

  15. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Rock Fall Hazard and Risk In The Central Part of The Nera Valley, Umbria Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghigi, S.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Detti, R.

    Rock falls are one of the most common types of fast moving landslides in mountain areas. They represent the most abundant landslides triggered by earthquakes. Rock falls are one of the primary causes of fatalities and of damage caused by landslides. Despite being widespread and highly destructive, only a few attempts have been made to establish rock fall hazard and the associate risk along transportation corridors in mountain areas. We present a preliminary assessment of rock fall hazard and risk for the central part of the Nera River Valley, in the Umbria Region of Central Italy. The Nera River, a tributary of the Tiber River, flows across the Apennines in a deep and narrow valley. Two national roads, the SS 305 and the SS 209, and several mountain villages are located along the valley bottom. The villages and the roads are frequently affected by rock falls. On October 1997, aftershocks of the Umbria-Marche earth- quake triggered hundreds of rock falls, ranging in size from few cubic decimeters, to some tens of cubic meter. Damage was severe and the two national roads were closed for several weeks. Following the earthquake defensive measures (including scaling, rock fences, elastic fences, and artificial tunnels) were installed along the valley. These costly defensive measures were installed without any specific assessment of rock fall hazard and the associated risk. Using a 3-dimensional, spatially distributed rock falls simulation program, we have quantitatively evaluated rock fall hazard along a 20 kilo- metres section of the central part of the valley. The source areas of rock falls (i.e., the detachment zones) were identified from vertical aerial photographs and in the field. Parameters controlling the loss of energy at impact points and during rolling were ob- tained from a surface geology map prepared updating a geological map through the analysis of aerial photographs and field surveys. Maps of the expected rock fall count, a proxy for the probability of

  17. Adult Education Research in the Countries in Transition. Adult Education Research Trends in the Former Socialist Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic Region. Research Project Report. Studies and Researches 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelenc, Zoran

    This document presents results of an investigation into the state of the art of research on the education of adults in Central and Eastern European and Baltic countries. The first section discusses the background and implementation of the research. Section 2 is "Adult Education Research Trends in Central and Eastern Europe: Research Project…

  18. The long distance transport of airborne Ambrosia pollen to the UK and the Netherlands from Central and south Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Weger, Letty A.; Pashley, Catherine H.; Šikoparija, Branko; Skjøth, Carsten A.; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Thibaudon, Michel; Magyar, Donat; Smith, Matt

    2016-04-01

    The invasive alien species Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common or short ragweed) is increasing its range in Europe. In the UK and the Netherlands, airborne concentrations of Ambrosia pollen are usually low. However, more than 30 Ambrosia pollen grains per cubic metre of air (above the level capable to trigger allergic symptoms) were recorded in Leicester (UK) and Leiden (NL) on 4 and 5 September 2014. The aims of this study were to determine whether the highly allergenic Ambrosia pollen recorded during the episode could be the result of long distance transport, to identify the potential sources of these pollen grains and to describe the conditions that facilitated this possible long distance transport. Airborne Ambrosia pollen data were collected at 10 sites in Europe. Back trajectory and atmospheric dispersion calculations were performed using HYSPLIT_4. Back trajectories calculated at Leicester and Leiden show that higher altitude air masses (1500 m) originated from source areas on the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine. During the episode, air masses veered to the west and passed over the Rhône Valley. Dispersion calculations showed that the atmospheric conditions were suitable for Ambrosia pollen released from the Pannonian Plain and the Rhône Valley to reach the higher levels and enter the airstream moving to northwest Europe where they were deposited at ground level and recorded by monitoring sites. The study indicates that the Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the episode in Leicester and Leiden were probably not produced by local sources but transported long distances from potential source regions in east Europe, i.e. the Pannonian Plain and Ukraine, as well as the Rhône Valley in France.

  19. Constrains on the Latest Volcanic Eruptions in Eastern-Central Europe: Zircon Geochronology and Magma Residence Time at the Ciomadul Volcano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harangi, S.; Lukács, R.; Dunkl, I.; Molnár, K.; Schmitt, A. K.; Kiss, B.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of volcanic hazard is often difficult, particularly at those areas, where no volcanic events have been documented in the historical time or even longer. Here, we present new geochronological data to demonstrate that relatively young volcanism occurred in eastern-central Europe, at the Ciomadul volcano (southeast Carpathians, Romania) and there is a potential for future rejuvenation. The eruption ages of the Ciomadul are constrained by (U-Th)/He zircon dating corrected for U-series disequilibrium and this suggests that the volcanic activity occurred from 150 ka to 32 ka. Following a lava dome building stage, a more explosive eruption phase took place at 50-32 ka. Subplinian to plinian eruptions produced volcanic ash clouds that blanketed extended areas. The U-Th and U-Pb age spectra of the zircons from the 50-32 ka volcanic rocks ranges over 300 ka and is thus indicative of a long-lasting intrusive body beneath the volcano. Interior-rim age difference within individual zircons is as much as 340-88 ka. Thus, a subterraneous magma system was already under construction ca. 150-200 ka before the onset of volcanic eruptions. The peak zircon crystallization age falls between 220-100 ka, and there are only sparse age data <100 ka indicating that conditions became unfavourable for zircon crystallization, possibly due to sluggish precipitation at low temperatures or complete solidification within some parts of the magma system. Nevertheless, rim-analysis (outer 4 μm) of the youngest, 32 ka zircons shows that crystallization occurred also at 60-80 ka, but this still precedes the eruption age by about 30-40 ka. All samples contain zircons with widely differing ages which cover the entire 300 ka period of magma evolution at Ciomadul. These data reflect that a melt-bearing crystal mush body could have continuously existed beneath the volcano. Intermittent injections of hotter magma into the cold crystal mush could help to maintain the magma system over 100's ka

  20. Summer/winter stratification variability in the central part of the South Brazil Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Belmiro M.

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of the hydrographic data collected during seven consecutive high resolution summer/winter cruises in the central part of the South Brazil Bight off the coastal city of Ubatuba confirmed an observable summer/winter stratification variability of the shelf waters. The maximum bulk stratification occurred at mean distances of 85.6 km and 39.1 km from the coast in the austral winter and summer cruises, respectively. Estimates of the equivalent mixing power of the physical processes that increase or decrease the stratification in the inner and middle shelves showed that both shelf regions would be vertically well mixed were it not for buoyancy advection. In the inner shelf, buoyancy advection was associated with the along-shelf transport of low salinity waters originating from river runoff. In the middle shelf, buoyancy advection was due to the oceanic South Atlantic Central Water intrusions toward the coast.

  1. Geomagnetic field variations in Western Europe from 1500 BC to 200 AD. Part II: New intensity secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, Gwenaël; Chauvin, Annick; Lanos, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    In order to extend the secular variation curve (SVC) of archaeointensity in Western Europe to the first millennium BC, we studied 24 kilns and hearths in place, two displaced hearths and six sets of pottery sherds from French archaeological sites. Archaeological artefacts, radiocarbon and dendrochronology dated the acquisition of the thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) carried by the studied objects. Rock magnetism experiments suggest that the main carrier of the magnetization is a Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Archaeointensity was determined by the Thellier-Thellier classical protocol with pTRM-checks. A strict criteria set was applied to select only the most reliable results with linear NRM-TRM diagrams (55% of total specimens). This study demonstrates that pottery sherds with two TRMs give reliable archaeointensities in the low-temperature interval, if the NRM-TRM diagram is adequately adjusted. Eighteen new mean archaeointensities (14 corrected from the anisotropy of TRM and 16 from cooling rate) were computed. The comparison with previously published Western Europe paleointensities show a strong dispersion between data primarily due to their variable quality. Western Europe data were weighted following the archaeointensity protocol, the number of specimens per site and the type of studied materials, in order to better highlight the secular variation of archaeointensity during the first millennium BC. The SVC, built with sliding windows of 160 years shifted every 50 years, presents (at Paris) a maximum of 90 μT around 800 BC and a minimum of 60 μT around 250 BC. These archaeointensity maximum and minimum correspond to cusps of the geomagnetic field direction in Western Europe. This new curve is consistent with Mesopotamian and Eastern Europe data. The archaeointensity secular variation in Western Europe predicted by global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, ARCH3k.1 and ARCH3k_cst.1 is smoother than our SVC. We used our directional dataset (Hervé et al., 2013) to build

  2. High resolution operational air quality forecast for Poland and Central Europe with the GEM-AQ model - EcoForecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jacek W.; Struzewska, Joanna

    2013-04-01

    The air quality forecast is an important component of the environmental assessment system. The "Clean Air for Europe" (CAFE) Directive 2008/50/EC stipulates a need for numerical modelling in order to support public information services to interpret measurements of pollutants concentrations and to prepare and evaluate air quality plans. Most European countries have developed model-based air quality modelling and information services. We will present the design strategy, development and implementation of a regional high resolution forecasting system that was implemented in Poland. The new national high resolution air quality forecasting system has evolved from a semi-operational chemical weather system EcoForecast.EU which is based on the GEM-AQ model (Kaminski et al., 2008). GEM-AQ is a comprehensive chemical weather model where air quality processes (chemistry and aerosols), troposphere and stratospheric chemistry are implemented on-line in the operational weather prediction model, the Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model (Cote et al, 1998), developed at Environment Canada. For these applications, the model is run on a global variable resolution grid with horizontal spacing of 15 km over Europe. In the vertical there are 28 hybrid levels, with the top at 10 hPa. A high resolution nested forecast at 5 km resolution over Poland (and surrounding countries) was implemented in December 2012. The forecast is published once a day at www.EcoForecast.EU. The air quality forecast is presented for ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, PM10 and PM2.5 as maps of daily maxima and daily averages. We will present results from the on-going model evaluation study over Central Europe (2010-2012). Modelling results were evaluated and compared with available observation of ozone and primary pollutants from air quality monitoring stations and from meteorological synoptic stations. Ozone exposure indices, as defined in the CAFE Directive, will be shown for the

  3. Micro-seismic Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2005-05-01

    Having experience with monitoring Earthquakes plus the fact that Riyadh is yconstantly subjected to Micro-earthquakes through out the year. Riyadh city and ycentral part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a yrelativity stable platform. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at yKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed 9 earthquake portable ystations in central part of Saudi Arabia to record micro-seismicty that caused by local yfaults and natural artificial. We recorded many events in study area mostly theses yevents were not felt. We used digital digitizer recorders ( RefTek 72A) in collecting ythe data and SAISAN software for analyses. The main objective of this study is to ydefine the active faults in Riyadh city and surrounded area that can affect the city. y

  4. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W

    2015-09-01

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK. PMID:26283359

  5. The massacre mass grave of Schöneck-Kilianstädten reveals new insights into collective violence in Early Neolithic Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christian; Lohr, Christian; Gronenborn, Detlef; Alt, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    Conflict and warfare are central but also disputed themes in discussions about the European Neolithic. Although a few recent population studies provide broad overviews, only a very limited number of currently known key sites provide precise insights into moments of extreme and mass violence and their impact on Neolithic societies. The massacre sites of Talheim, Germany, and Asparn/Schletz, Austria, have long been the focal points around which hypotheses concerning a final lethal crisis of the first Central European farmers of the Early Neolithic Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) have concentrated. With the recently examined LBK mass grave site of Schöneck-Kilianstädten, Germany, we present new conclusive and indisputable evidence for another massacre, adding new data to the discussion of LBK violence patterns. At least 26 individuals were violently killed by blunt force and arrow injuries before being deposited in a commingled mass grave. Although the absence and possible abduction of younger females has been suggested for other sites previously, a new violence-related pattern was identified here: the intentional and systematic breaking of lower limbs. The abundance of the identified perimortem fractures clearly indicates torture and/or mutilation of the victims. The new evidence presented here for unequivocal lethal violence on a large scale is put into perspective for the Early Neolithic of Central Europe and, in conjunction with previous results, indicates that massacres of entire communities were not isolated occurrences but rather were frequent features of the last phases of the LBK. PMID:26283359

  6. A new species of Docosia Winnertz from Central Europe, with DNA barcoding based on four gene markers (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ševčík, Jan; Kaspřák, David; Rulik, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Docosia Winnertz, Docosia dentata sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on a single male specimen collected in Muránska planina National Park in Central Slovakia. DNA sequences (COI, COII, CytB, and ITS2) are included and compared for 13 species of Docosia. There was found only little congruence between the molecular results and previous scarce data about interspecific relationships based on morphology. The COI and CytB gene markers showed the highest interspecific gene distances while ITS2 showed the lowest ones. An updated key to the 23 Central European species of Docosia is also presented. PMID:26843833

  7. Assessment of the Physicochemical Quality of Drinking Water Resources in the Central Part of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Shahryari, Ali; Hajiannejad, Mehdi; Saffari, Hossein; Kachuei, Zahra Moosavian; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this article was to assess the physicochemical quality of water resources in Isfahan province, located in the central part of Iran, from June to November 2012. Comparison of the results with the acceptable limits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water showed that nitrate, chloride, iron, and fluoride concentrations exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 12.3%, 9.2%, 6.8%, and 1.5% of samples, respectively. Total dissolved solids (TDS) and turbidity values also exceeded the maximum acceptable level in 9.2% and 3.1% of samples, respectively. In general, the quality of drinking water resources in the central part of Iran at present is mostly acceptable and satisfactory. It may be deteriorated in the future, however, because water quantity and quality in arid and semiarid areas are highly variable over time. Therefore, continued monitoring of the water resources quality is extremely important to environmental safety. PMID:26867290

  8. Quasi-biennial and decadal variability obtained from long-term measurements of nighttime radio wave reflection heights over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürschner, D.; Jacobi, Ch.

    The nighttime reflection height of low-frequency (LF) radio waves at oblique incidence over Central Europe is measured using 1.8 kHz sideband phase comparisons between the sky wave and the ground wave of a commercial 177 kHz LF transmitter. The measurements have been carried out continuously since September 1982, now justifying the analysis of trends and regular variations of the reflection height. In the time series is found a) a long-term negative trend and b) a solar cycle dependence, both confirming earlier measurements and theoretical estimations. Moreover, a significant oscillation of quasi-biennial period is visible in LF reflection heights, indicating a reaction of the midlatitude mesosphere/lower thermosphere region on the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation.

  9. New data on age of the Pleistocene fauna from the Trlica locality (Montenegro, Central Balkans) and its correlation with other faunas of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislobokova, I. A.; Agadjanyan, A. K.

    2016-03-01

    New data specifying the age of the fauna from the Trlica locality near Pljevlja (Montenegro, Central Balkans) derived from material of excavations in 2010-2014 are discussed with the biostratigraphic analysis of two defined faunal levels TRL11-10 and TRL6-5 and its correlation with other faunas of Europe. It is shown that the fauna from the lower faunal level (TRL11-10) is correlative with the second half of the Early Pleistocene (Late Villafranchian, Zone MNQ 18, while the fauna from the upper faunal level existed in the post-Villafranchian time and its age is estimated to be the early Middle Pleistocene (MIS 19), not older.

  10. Substrate-independent feeding mode of the ichnogenus Phymatoderma from the Lower Jurassic shelf-sea deposits of central and western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Kentaro; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Piñuela, Laura; García-Ramos, José Carlos

    2014-10-01

    Deposit-feeding strategies recorded in the ichnogenus Phymatoderma from the Lower Jurassic shelf-sea deposits in central (Dotternhausen, southwest Germany) and western Europe (Asturias, north Spain) are revealed by geochemical and microscopic analyses. Thin-section observations showed that the trace-maker of Phymatoderma from Asturias ingested bioclastic skeletal sediments, and that from Dotternhausen ingested fine-grained siliciclastic sediments. Geochemical analysis elucidated that the trace-makers of Phymatoderma from both Asturias and Dotternhausen were non-selective deposit feeders (i.e., indiscriminately ingesting sediment particles on the seafloor), although the ingested sediments were significantly different in lithology. Microscopic analysis revealed that the Early Jurassic Phymatoderma-producers mainly fed on calcareous nannoplankton, i.e., coccolithophores, dinoflagellates, as well as their phytodetritus. Here, we demonstrate a substrate-independent feeding mode in the Early Jurassic Phymatoderma-producers, which accords with the similar morphologic, paleogeographic, and chronologic context of Phymatoderma from Asturias and Dotternhausen.

  11. Modeling and measurement of the volcanic ash plume transport from the Eyjafjallajökull volcano towards Central Europe in April 2010-Methods applied and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, G.; Kerschbaum, M.

    2010-09-01

    On 14 April 2010, a VEI-4 eruption occurred at the Eyjafjallajoekull volcano in Iceland, which continued for a number of days. Within the first 72 hours, more than 0.1 km3 Tephra were released. Due to the prevailing weather conditions, volcanic ash was rapidly transported from Iceland towards Central Europe. The ash plume reached Southern England on 15 April, crossed Germany on 16 April and reached the Alps in the morning hours of 17 April. As a consequence, European air travel broke down almost completely, and flights were grounded for a number of days. In this presentation, we describe the methods applied by the national weather service of Austria and the Austrian national aviation authorities to handle the situation, taking into account also international response systems and mechanisms. Furthermore, we discuss the model results in combination with available observations, and outline the lessons learned from this event. Based on this analysis, improvements in modeling and enhancement of procedures are proposed.

  12. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  13. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR. PMID:22673688

  14. Trends in Education Access and Financing during the Transition in Central And Eastern Europe. Social Challenges of Transition Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Bruno; Ringold, Dena

    This paper is one in a series of reports based upon data from the "Social Challenges of Transition (SCT)" database. This cross-country study examines empirical trends in access to and financing of education in nine Central and East European countries. The study substantially improves the understanding of the impact of transition on education…

  15. Re-evaluation of moisture sources for the August 2002 extreme rainfall episode in central Europe: Evaporation from falling precipitation included in a mesoscale modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangoiti, G.; Sáez de Cámara, E.; Gómez-Domenech, I.; Alonso, L.; Navazo, M.; Iza, J.; García, J. A.; Millán, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    Discriminating moisture sources with precision is an important requirement to better understand the processes involved in extreme rainfall episodes. In a previous contribution by Gangoiti et al. (2011b), an innovative technique was presented to assess surface moisture sources contributing to a target precipitation within a Lagrangian framework. The technique was based in transporting parcels of vapor, representing the target precipitation, across a set of nested grids covering a large area at different resolutions. A mesoscale model estimated the meteorological variables to transport and redistribute the vapor back into its original sources, all of them assumed to be at the surface. The sequence of extreme rainfall events, which occurred over central Europe on August 11-13, 2002, was chosen to put the methodology to test. An important innovation has now been introduced. This new advance allows discriminating not only the terrestrial and oceanic sources but also the evaporation from precipitation occurring below the clouds and falling either on land or on the open sea. It is also able to detect with greater precision the relative importance of remote versus local sources, together with the sequence of evaporation of a rainfall event. After its application to the same episode and targets, our results confirm a similar distribution and strength of surface terrestrial and marine sources. Furthermore, the estimated direct evaporation from precipitation columns contributes to the precipitation episode with a significant amount of moisture which averages around 18% of the total sources, with a main fraction evaporated over land and close to the target regions in central Europe. This contribution adds to the surface sources, and it is consistent with the existence of an important mechanism of positive feedback for the inland transport efficiency of moisture and precipitation, operating at the regional level for this type of episodes. Significant regional differences are

  16. Polyommatus ripartii: the biological basis for the conservation and the morphology of the developmental stages of a critically endangered, relict population in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowicz, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Ripart's Anomalous Blue Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is one of the most seriously endangered butterfly species in central Europe, a small, relict population of which has survived in two localities in Poland. This isolated population is undoubtedly the last and northernmost remnant of a once much wider range in central Europe. P. ripartii is associated with highly xerophilous vegetation on gypsum and calcareous soils. Only active conservation measures can ensure its survival. For these to be successful, however, precise information on the butterfly's biology, behavior and also its morphology is crucial. The first to do so, this article describes the butterfly's egg-laying preferences, and specifies the numbers of eggs on a single shoot and their placement on it. A unique behavioral trait of the female--the secretion of oviposition-deterring pheromones--is reported. The preferred plant associations and nectar sources have been investigated, and information on overnight roosts is given. In addition, an exhaustive description of the morphologies of the egg, final instar and pupa, as well as new details of adult behavior are provided. The main conclusion of the this study is that the existence of a stable population in the Nida Region is determined by the presence of large patches of sainfoin, which is both the larval host plant and a source of nectar for the imago. Moreover, stress is laid on the importance of Inula ensifolia L. as the secondary nectaring plant, which may facilitate dispersion among patches of suitable habitat. Finally, the study shows that searching for the easily detected eggs may be the best method for proving the existence of the species in a given locality. PMID:25525109

  17. Lithospheric structure of Central Europe: Puzzle pieces from Pannonian Basin to Trans-European Suture Zone resolved by geophysical-petrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alasonati Tašárová, Zuzana; Fullea, Javier; Bielik, Miroslav; Środa, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    We have analyzed the thermochemical structure of the mantle in Central Europe, a complex area with a highly heterogeneous lithospheric structure reflecting the interplay of contraction, strike slip, subduction, and extension tectonics. Our modeling is based on an integrative 3-D approach (LitMod) that combines in a self-consistent manner concepts and data from thermodynamics, mineral physics, geochemistry, petrology, and solid Earth geophysics. This approach minimizes uncertainties of the estimates derived from modeling of various data sets separately. To further constrain our 3-D model we have made use of the vast geophysical and geological data (2-D and 3-D, shallow/crustal versus deep lithospheric experiments) based on experiments performed in Central Europe in the past decades. Given the amount and the different nature/resolution of the available constraints, one of the most challenging tasks of this study was to consistently combine them, finding a trade-off between all local and regional data sets available in a way that (i) preserves as many structural details as possible and (ii) summarizes those data sets into a single robust regional model. The resulting P/T-dependent mantle densities are in LitMod 3-D calculated based on a given mineralogical composition. They therefore provide more reliable estimates compared to pure gravity models, which enhance modeling of the crustal structures. Our results clearly indicate presence of several lithospheric domains characterized by distinct features, Pannonian Basin being one of the most outstanding ones. It has the thinnest crust and lithosphere in the area modeled, characterized by relatively fertile composition.

  18. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

    We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

  19. Integrated seismic model of the crust and upper mantle of the Trans-European Suture zone between the Precambrian craton and Phanerozoic terranes in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Świeczak, Marzena; Grad, Marek; Majdański, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    (lower temperature) and/or the presence of water and FeO. The result of this paper is a new compiled and integrated seismic velocity model, available in digital form down to 900 km depth ( http://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/p4-mantle), which can be used as a preliminary model of the crust and upper mantle in the TESZ area in Central Europe.

  20. Structural and stratigraphic analysis of the Dinaride thrust belt; A frontier exploration province in central-Southern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Tasker, D.R.; Weir, G.M.; Dale, R.C. )

    1993-09-01

    The Dinarides are a 200-300-km-wide southwest vergent fold and thrust belt extending along the eastern margin of the Adriatic Sea. The complex and varied structural and stratigraphic relationships can be used to define three major tectonic units: the internal, central, and external Dinarides. In the Internal Dinarides, platform sequences deposited in the Early and Middle Triassic underwent rapid subsidence and drowning in the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic along with rifting and subsequent formation of oceanic crust. Melange and flysch were deposited during the late Jurassic through Cretaceous as the developing thrust belt encroached upon the northeastern margin of the Dinaride carbonate platform. The Dinaride carbonate platform forms the cores of the central and external Dinarides and is composed primarily of Permian-Triassic clastics and evaporites overlain by Middle Triassic through early Eocene platform carbonates. The entire sequence is overlain by late Eocene and early Oligocene synorogenic flysch. In the central Dinarides, late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous unconformities suggest structural uplift prior to the onset of thrusting. Deformation involves Paleozoic basement and includes a major decollement in the Permian Triassic clastic and evaporite unit. Thrusting in the external Dinarides occurred in the late Eocene-early Oligocene and is restricted to Middle Triassic and younger units with major detachments forming near the base of the Ladinian and within a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous evaporite. Important oil source and seal lithofacies occur within intraplatform basins and lagoons in the Mesozoic sequences of the central and external Dinarides. Widespread dolomitized units within the Mesozoic carbonate sequence are potential reservoir zones. The presence of surface hydrocarbon seeps and of existing production on trend to the Dinarides in the thrust belt of Italy and Albania suggest the potential for hydrocarbon discoveries in this underexplored area.

  1. The Late Pleistocene-Holocene community development in Central and SE-Europe in direct fossil record: scope of the approach, common patterns and inter-regional differences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, Ivan; Lozek, Vojen

    2010-05-01

    continuous sedimentary sequences from different regions of Czech Republic and Slovakia (850 community samples, 29,800 MNI) and neighbouring countries of Central Europe. Despite common general trends we demonstrated stricking local and regional specificities. Among other they include (a) continuous survival of several woodland elements (Clethrionomys glareolus, Sorex araneus, Micotus subterraneus, Microtus agrestis) throughout Weichselian (including LGM) in the Carpathians, (b) prolonged survival of the glacial elements Ochotona pusilla and Microtus gregalis in Pannonian basin and (c) Dicrostonyx gulielmi in the Carpathian foredeep, contrasting to (d) the early disappearance of them in S-Germany and Bohemia, and (e) similar difference were found also in other cenologic traits. While the glacial communities were nearly homogenous in their structure throughout whole the region, the Holocene development produced a considerable faunal provincialism, which was the most pronounced during Boreal. In contrast to central Europe, the available sequences from the SE-Europe and Asia Minor show only minute faunal changes during the Vistulian and Holocene, no essential rearrangements in community structure were observed (at least as the core species are concerned) and except for Lagurus no glacial immigrant did invade the region. At the same time a degree of local provincialism was continuously high and, in a regional scale, it continuously exceeded that of the Boreal central Europe.

  2. Is the Central America forearc sliver part of the North America plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman-Speziale, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Central America Forearc sliver is located between the Central America volcanic arc and the Middle America trench. Several authors have suggested that the forearc is being displaced to the northwest with respect to the Caribbean plate; they point to right-lateral, normal-faulting earthquakes along the Central America volcanic arc as prime evidence of this displacement. Apparently, the forearc continues to the northwest into southeastern Mexico, although this portion of the forearc is not being displaced. I present evidence that suggests that the forearc indeed continues into southeastern Mexico and that it belongs to the North America plate. Physiographically, there is a continuity of the forearc into the Coastal plains of southeastern (Chiapas) Mexico, across the Motagua and Polochic faults. Offshore, cross-sections of the Middle America trench are similar along the mexican (Chiapas) segment, and the Central American segment. Furthermore, at the northwestern end of the coastal plain there are no compressive structures, which suggests that the coastal plain is not being displaced to the northwest. As a matter of fact, fault-plane solutions for shallow earthquakes show extension rather than compression. Shallow, interplate earthquakes along the trench show similar parameters along both segments. P-axes and earthquake slip vectors have consistent azimuths, which relate better with Cocos-North America convergence than with Cocos-Caribbean. Azimuth of T-axes for normal-faulting earthquakes also agree well with Cocos-North America convergence. Similarity in several parameters is thus found across both segments, the Chiapas coastal plain and the Central America forearc sliver proper. This suggests that both segments are continuous and probably one and the same, and belonging to the North America plate. Perhaps more properly, the forearc sliver extends into southeastern Mexico and is part of the zone of deformation associated to the Cocos-North America-Caribbean plates

  3. A geologic history of the north-central Appalachians, part 3. The Alleghany orogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faill, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The north-central Appalachians occupy a critical position within the 3000+ km-long Appalachian orogen, lying southwest of the boundary between the central and northern Appalachians (CNAB). The one-billion-year-long history of tectonic activity in eastern Laurentia includes the creation and evolution of the Appalachian orogen during the Paleozoic and the Mesozoic transformation of the orogen into a passive margin during Pangea's disassembly. A most important ingredient in the evolution of the orogen was the Alleghany orogeny, which was driven by the convergence and collision between Laurentia (Laurussia) and West Gondwana (Africa). The Alleghany orogeny in the central and southern Appalachians was a de??collement tectonism that involved a larger part of eastern Laurentia than had the previous three orogenies. The fundamental element was a very low-angle thrust (de??collement) that originated in mid-crustal levels east of the presently-exposed Appalachians and rose westwardly to progressively higher levels in the upper crust and the supra-crustal Paleozoic section. Alleghany deformation was widely developed in the hanging-wall block (allochthon), primarily in the form of thrust faults and fold-and-thrust structures, both of which splayed upward from the basal de??collement. The youngest manifestations of the Alleghany orogeny were northeast-trending strike-slip faults and dextral shear zones in the Piedmont. In the north-central Appalachians, the exposed allochthon consists of two parts: the sedimentary externides (Appalachian Plateau and Valley and Ridge provinces) and the crystalline externides (Reading Prong, Blue Ridge belt, and Piedmont province). Long, thrust-cored anticlines predominate in the sedimentary externides. A widespread layer-parallel shortening preceded the folding; it is largely coaxial with the folding but extends considerably farther to the northwest toward the craton. It is hypothesized that the folding developed in reverse order, sequentially

  4. Thermochronological record of long term faulting, burial and exhumation history in the Sudetes (Bohemian Massif, Central Europe): a multi-system thermochronological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpančíková, P..; Danišík, M.; Evans, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    Reconstructing erosional and faulting history in the old crystalline basement terrains, with lacking or sparse post-tectonic geological records, is a challenging task where even radiometric data on the basement rocks need not to provide ultimate answers. NE part of the Bohemian Massif (known as the Sudetes) represents a classic example where numerous attempts to constrain denudation, faulting and relief formation on the Variscan basement, often based on incomplete lines of evidence, led to formulation of controversial models. In this study we aim to reconstruct the post-orogenic exhumation history of the Rychlebské hory Mts. in the eastern Sudetes and constrain paleo-activity along the Sudetic Marginal Fault (SMF) - one of the morphologically most prominent, but poorly understood features of Central Europe, forming a >140 km long escarpment separating the Sudetic Mountains from the foreland in the northeast. We do so by applying zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe), apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) dating methods to the basement samples from different fault-bounded blocks and sparsely preserved post-orogenic sedimentary samples. New thermochronological data reveals that in the Late Cretaceous at ~95-80 Ma, the Carboniferous-Permian basement blocks SW and NE of the SMF were buried to ~4-7 km and >6.5 km depths, respectively, by sediments of the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin System. This finding contradicts the traditional paleogeographic reconstructions suggesting exposure of large portions of the Sudetes for most of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. During the burial, the SMF acted as a normal fault as documented by offset in ZHe ages across the fault. At 85-70 Ma, the basin was inverted, Cretaceous strata eroded and basement blocks were exhumed to the near-surface at exhumation rate of ~300 m/Ma as evidenced by Late Cretaceous-Paleocene AFT ages and thermal modelling results. There is no appreciable difference in AFT and AHe ages across the fault suggesting that the

  5. Geology and Geochronology of the Central Part of Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layer, P. W.

    2006-12-01

    The Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc (CVA) is a 150 km stretch of volcanoes irregularly aligned in a northwest direction, including El Chichón volcano located in the central portion of the State of Chiapas, southern Mexico. It lies between two great volcanic features: the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Arc to the northwest, and the Central American Volcanic Arc to the southeast, in a complex zone of the interaction of the North American, Caribbean and Cocos Plates. The central part of the CVA is composed of an irregular northwest alignment of at least 12 volcanic structures located 80 km to the southeast of El Chichón (the only currently active volcano in the CVA). These structures include one explosion crater (Navenchauc), one collapse structure (Apas), one dome complex (Tzontehuitz) and nine volcanic domes (Navenchauc, Huitepec, Amahuitz, La Iglesia, Mispía, La Lanza, Venustiano Carranza, Miguel Hidalgo and Santotón) with associated pyroclastic flow deposits. The juvenile lithics from these deposits have a porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (±), amphibole (±), clinopyroxene (±), orthopyroxene (±) and Fe-Ti oxides surrounded by a matrix composed by microlites of plagioclase and glass. The chemical results obtained from representative samples from the deposits and structures indicate that these belong to the series of subalkaline rocks, and fall into the calcalkaline field with medium to high contents of potassium. They vary in their composition from andesite to dacite with an interval of silica between a 56 to a 66% (wt.). The ages reported in the literature and obtained in this study by means of the K-Ar and the 40Ar/39Ar methods, respectively, indicated that volcanism was episodic and spanned a time from 2100 ky ago (Tzontehuitz) to 225 ky ago (Venustiano Carranza).

  6. The origin of grasslands in the temperate forest zone of east-central Europe: long-term legacy of climate and human impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuneš, Petr; Svobodová-Svitavská, Helena; Kolář, Jan; Hajnalová, Mária; Abraham, Vojtěch; Macek, Martin; Tkáč, Peter; Szabó, Péter

    2015-05-01

    The post-glacial fate of central European grasslands has stimulated palaeoecological debates for a century. Some argued for the continuous survival of open land, while others claimed that closed forest had developed during the Middle Holocene. The reasons behind stability or changes in the proportion of open land are also unclear. We aim to reconstruct regional vegetation openness and test the effects of climate and human impact on vegetation change throughout the Holocene. We present a newly dated pollen record from north-western fringes of the Pannonian Plain, east-central Europe, and reconstruct Holocene regional vegetation development by the REVEALS model for 27 pollen-equivalent taxa. Estimated vegetation is correlated in the same area with a human activity model based on all available archaeological information and a macrophysical climate model. The palaeovegetation record indicates the continuous presence of open land throughout the Holocene. Grasslands and open woodlands were probably maintained by local arid climatic conditions during the early Holocene delaying the spread of deciduous (oak) forests. Significantly detectable human-made landscape transformation started only after 2000 BC. Our analyses suggest that Neolithic people spread into a landscape that was already open. Humans probably contributed to the spread of oak, and influenced the dynamics of hazel and hornbeam.

  7. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries. PMID:17980813

  8. Historical Public Health in Central Europe With Special Reference to Hungary. Long-Term Environmental Effects of a Historical Cataclysm

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Csaba; Ember, István; Murányi, Edit; Kiss, István

    2012-01-01

    Hungary, in the centre of Carpathian basin grapples with numerous challenges in order to improve catastrophic indices of environmental conditions of the country, as well as the state of health of the population. Some of these problems are subjects of financial and health policy, and can be solved internally. The remaining environmental problems can only be remedied by cooperation with neighbouring younger countries. This vitally important cooperation is hampered by severe historical conflicts burdening even the present political affiliations. The authors give a short introduction and explanation of the recent sensitive situation in this central European region, as a late consequence of an historical cataclysm happened more than nine decades ago. PMID:25170445

  9. Spatial and temporal characteristics of heat waves over Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhotka, Ondřej; Kyselý, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The study examines the capability of regional climate models (RCMs) to reproduce spatial and temporal characteristics of severe Central European heat waves. We analysed an ensemble of seven RCM simulations driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis over the 1961-2000 period, in comparison to observed data from the E-OBS gridded dataset. Heat waves were defined based on regionally significant excesses above the model-specific 95 % quantile of summer daily maximum air temperature distribution and their severity was described using the extremity index. The multi-model mean reflected the observed characteristics of heat waves quite well, but considerable differences were found among the individual RCMs. The RCMs had a tendency to simulate too many heat waves that were shorter but their temperature peak was more pronounced on average compared to E-OBS. Deficiencies were found also in reproducing interannual and interdecadal variability of heat waves. Using as an example the most severe Central European heat wave that occurred in 1994, we demonstrate that its magnitude was underestimated in all RCMs and that this bias was linked to overestimation of precipitation during and before the heat wave. By contrast, a simulated precipitation deficit during summer 1967 in the majority of RCMs contributed to an "erroneous" heat wave. This shows that land-atmosphere coupling is crucial for developing severe heat waves and its proper reproduction in climate models is essential for obtaining credible scenarios of future heat waves.

  10. The Impact of the Collapse of Communism and EU Accession on Language Education Policy and Practice in Central and Eastern Europe: Two Case-Studies Focussing on English and Russian as Foreign Languages in Hungary and Eastern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruen, Jennifer; Sheridan, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of geopolitical factors, and in particular the collapse of Communism and EU accession, on language education policy and practice in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). CEE is understood here as referring to the former soviet-controlled, eastern bloc counties of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary,…

  11. Options for Braille Centralization. Study I--Implementation Study of Centralized Braille Book Storage and Distribution System. Part 1--Options for Braille Centralization. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ManTech Technical Services Corp., Fairfax, VA.

    This final report presents results of the first phase of an effort to develop in detail the resource requirements, operating procedures, and estimated costs for several centralized braille service options at the Library of Congress. Existing procedures and services were analyzed, and three models for centralized braille services were formulated.…

  12. The role of particular tick developmental stages in the circulation of tick-borne pathogens affecting humans in Central Europe. 1. The general pattern.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Biernat, Beata; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens are common in the natural environment, but their occurrence has a focal character. They occur in the natural environment in the form of the enzootic sources of infection. The general components include the animal reservoir, amplifiers and the efficient vector. However, the particular role of components can differ depending on the pathogen, the host range and possible transmission routes. Animal reservoir of pathogen are vertebrate animals, being the hosts of pathogens. In Europe these are small or medium-sized mammals and sometimes birds that feed on the ground. The competence of an animal reservoir is determined by the ability to communicate the infection; long-term persistence of the pathogen in the host; long-duration of infectivity of the animal for ticks; a sufficient number of animals in the endemic region. Amplifiers for ticks are artiodactyls. They are hosts for nymphs and adult ticks, thereby making it possible for ticks to propagate and maintain the proper size of their population. Efficient vector for pathogen are ticks. The first characteristic feature of efficient vectors is feeding duration exceeding 24 hours; the high density of the tick population. The conditions necessary to consider ticks as efficient vectors are met in Central Europe by the Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and D. marginatus ticks. There are the general differences in biology between Ixodes persulcatus complex ticks and Dermacentor ticks, affecting their different role and ability in pathogens spreading - the range of hosts; the ability to inhabiting of various environments and resistance to unfavourable conditions; the duration of larvae and nymphs activity. The combination of tick's biology, pathogen ability to transmission, and mammal hosts' competence, determines the particular role of larvae, nymphs and adults in pathogen circulation in the natural environment, as well as transmission to new hosts. PMID:26878618

  13. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  14. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by Guenther et al. (1995) and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1x1km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. PMID:19773106

  15. The Climate and Landscape of the Middle Part of the Weichselian Glaciation in Europe: The Stage 3 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    2002-01-01

    Oxygen isotope stage 3 (OIS 3) was a mild interval between the two cold maxima of the last (Weichselian) glaciation marked by climate changes oscillating on a 100-1000 yr time scale between near-interglacial and peak-glacial conditions. During OIS 3, modern humans entered Europe, and somewhat later their Neanderthal predecessors became extinct. Our understanding of this momentous event depends on an answer to the question, Did the unstable environmental conditions of the time play a significant role in early human history? The Stage 3 Project is an interdisciplinary study with two main goals: (1) to describe with existing data and to simulate the climates and landscapes of typical warm and cold phases between 45,000 and 30,000 yr ago and (2) to compare the results with the spatial and temporal distribution of human beings in this context. This paper introduces the Stage 3 Project and provides background to a set of papers on the climate and landscape aspects of the Project that will appear in Quaternary Research and to studies of their relevance to the Early Upper Paleolithic of Europe to appear in journals yet to be determined.

  16. Geology and geophysics of south-central Zavala and adjoining parts of Dimmit Counties, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    Gravity, magnetic, and seismic surveys combined with subsurface geologic investigations resulted in very intriguing interpretations of an area east of Crystal City, Texas. The study area includes the south-central part of Zavala County east of the Nueces River and the adjoining parts of Dimmit County to the south. The Elaine field is included in the study area. Gravity and magnetic residuals were calculated using the least-squares method, and the magnetic surveys revealed several serpentine plugs, which are confirmed by seismic interpretations. Although no geophysics work was done, subsurface study shows that Elaine field is the largest of these plugs. Seismic studies also show that the Austin Chalk, on whose surface the lava was extruded, is highly fractured and faulted. The Austin under the Elaine field is the lowest structural feature in the area. The Anacacho was deposited on the lava surface, and in the Elaine area it has a reeflike appearance. Isopachs of younger sediments show that they are draped and differentially compacted over the plugs, and that the Elaine plug affects sediments as young as Escondido. Production in the area is mainly from the San Miguel, but significant amounts of hydrocarbons have also been produced from Eagle Ford, Austin, Anacacho, and Olmos reservoirs.

  17. 50 CFR Table 28b to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species 28b Table 28b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28b Table 28b to Part 679—Qualifying...

  18. 50 CFR Table 28 to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates in the Central GOA Primary Rockfish Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates in the Central GOA Primary Rockfish Species 28 Table 28 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28 Table 28 to Part 679—Qualifying Season...

  19. 50 CFR Table 28a to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species 28a Table 28a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28a Table 28a to Part 679—Qualifying...

  20. 50 CFR Table 28 to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates in the Central GOA Primary Rockfish Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates in the Central GOA Primary Rockfish Species 28 Table 28 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28 Table 28 to Part 679—Qualifying Season...

  1. 50 CFR Table 28a to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species 28a Table 28a to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28a Table 28a to Part 679—Qualifying...

  2. 50 CFR Table 28b to Part 679 - Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualifying Season Dates for Central GOA Rockfish Primary Species 28b Table 28b to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 28b Table 28b to Part 679—Qualifying...

  3. The unconventional hydrocarbon potential in the central part of the Baltic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazauskiene, Jurga; Zdanaviciute, Onyte

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Basin is an intracratonic Phanerozoic sedimentary basin, situated on the Western margin of the East European Craton. The unconventional hydrocarbon potential is mostly related to the several organic-rich source rock complexes within the Early Palaeozoic section. In the south-eastern part of the Baltic Basin the Cambrian shales (Alum shales and Middle Cambrian), Ordovician black shales of the Caradocian age and Silurian Llandovery shales are considered as the major potential shale oil/gas playes. The depth of the the base of the Silurian shales varies from 2120 to 1125 m in the Lithuanian part of the basin. The thickness of the Lower Silurian shales in - varies from 110m to160 m. The organic matter of the source rocks is of similar composition - predominantly "oil-producing" sapropel (type II) and mixed "oil-gas liquids producing" type II-III. Pyrolisis yields (32 - 76(~100) kg HC/ton rock) suggests a good hydroacarbon generation potential. Total organic carbon content varies from 0.2-3 to 8-11%. Maximal values of the total organic carbon (up to 17%) have been recorded near the base of the Silurian (2-11 m Middle Llandovery interval) and its content generally decreases upwards the section. The Rock-Eval screening pyrolysis, biomarker data, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerals and conodont colour alteration index show considerable variations of the source rocks maturity through the basin. Maturity of the organic matter increases southwestwards from 0.6 up to 1.94% (Ro). Thermal maturity in this area ranges from immature in the Eastern part of Lithuania and to "oil window" in the Western Lithuania. In some places in central part of the basin (wells Ramučiai-1, Pajūris-1 and others) the anomalously high maturity of organic matter, indicating the lower part of the wet gas/condensate window have been recorded, most probably being related to the locally increased paleo-temperatures. Llandovery shales are clay-rich, an average values range from 28-59vol

  4. Seismicity and geodynamics in the central part of the Vanuatu Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillard, C.; Crawford, W. C.; Ballu, V.; Regnier, M. M.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Vanuatu Arc (VA) in the southwest Pacific ocean (167°E, 13-20°S), is highly seismically active, with more than 35 events of magnitude Mw ≥ 7 since 1973 (USGS catalog). The geodynamics are dominated by the east-dipping subduction of the Australian Plate under the North Fiji Basin microplate. Convergence rates are estimated to be between 130 and 170 mm/yr, except in the central part of the VA where convergence slows to 30-40 mm/yr. This slowing appears to be the result of blockage by the subducting d'Entrecastaux ridge. To quantify the tectonics of this blocked section, we deployed 30 seismometers in 2008-2009 and 8 GPS stations since 2008, in the forearc region of the central VA. The seismometers recorded more than 100 events/day. Detailed analysis of the earthquake catalog reveals: 1) a seismic gap between 40 and 60 km deep under the two largest islands of the VA (Santo and Malekula); 2) subduction plane and intraplate faulting within the down-going plate; and 3) reduced activity beneath Malekula island , perhaps indicating a locked patch on the subduction plane. We infer the geometry of the subduction interface by combining our catalog with unpublished data from the 2000 Santo Mw 6.9 earthquake and aftershocks and the USGS and Global CMT catalogs. The subduction interface appears to be composed of two different panels: a shallow one with a small dip angle and a deeper one with higher dip starting at a depth of ~50 km. We compare finite-element modeling of these panels to the geodetic data to test the connectedness of the two panels and their degree of locking.

  5. Epidemiology and Treatment Guidelines of Negative Symptoms in Schizo-phrenia in Central and Eastern Europe: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Szkultecka-Dębek, Monika; Walczak, Jacek; Augustyńska, Joanna; Miernik, Katarzyna; Stelmachowski, Jarosław; Pieniążek, Izabela; Obrzut, Grzegorz; Pogroszewska, Angelika; Paulić, Gabrijela; Damir, Marić; Antolić, Siniša; Tavčar, Rok; Indrikson, Andra; Aadamsoo, Kaire; Jankovic, Slobodan; Pulay, Attila J; Rimay, József; Varga, Márton; Sulkova, Ivana; Veržun, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aim : To gather and review data describing the epidemiology of schizophrenia and clinical guidelines for schizophrenia therapy in seven Central and Eastern European countries, with a focus on negative symptoms. Methods : A literature search was conducted which included publications from 1995 to 2012 that were indexed in key databases. Results : Reports of mean annual incidence of schizophrenia varied greatly, from 0.04 to 0.58 per 1,000 population. Lifetime prevalence varied from 0.4% to 1.4%. One study reported that at least one negative symptom was present in 57.6% of patients with schizophrenia and in 50–90% of individuals experiencing their first episode of schizophrenia. Primary negative symptoms were observed in 10–30% of patients. Mortality in patients with schizophrenia was greater than in the general population, with a standardized mortality ratio of 2.58–4.30. Reasons for higher risk of mortality in the schizophrenia population included increased suicide risk, effect of schizophrenia on lifestyle and environment, and presence of comorbidities. Clinical guidelines overall supported the use of second-generation antipsychotics in managing negative symptoms of schizophrenia, although improved therapeutic approaches are needed. Conclusion : Schizophrenia is one of the most common mental illnesses and poses a considerable burden on patients and healthcare resources alike. Negative symptoms are present in many patients and there is an unmet need to improve treatment offerings for negative symptoms beyond the use of second-generation antipsychotics and overall patient outcomes. PMID:26535049

  6. POPE study: rationale and methodology of a study to phenotype patients with COPD in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zbozinkova, Zuzana; Barczyk, Adam; Tkacova, Ruzena; Valipour, Arschang; Tudoric, Neven; Zykov, Kirill; Somfay, Attila; Miravitlles, Marc; Koblizek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major health challenge in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. However, clinical phenotypes, symptom load, and treatment habits of patients with COPD in CEE countries remain largely unknown. This paper provides a rationale for phenotyping COPD and describes the methodology of a large study in CEE. Methods/design The POPE study is an international, multicenter, observational cross-sectional survey of patients with COPD in CEE. Participation in the study is offered to all consecutive outpatients with stable COPD in 84 centers across the CEE region if they fulfill the following criteria: age >40 years, smoking history ≥10 pack-years, a confirmed diagnosis of COPD with postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7, and absence of COPD exacerbation ≥4 weeks. Medical history, risk factors for COPD, comorbidities, lung function parameters, symptoms, and pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical treatment are recorded. The POPE project is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT02119494. Outcomes The primary aim of the POPE study was to phenotype patients with COPD in a real-life setting within CEE countries using predefined classifications. Secondary aims of the study included analysis of differences in symptoms, and diagnostic and therapeutic behavior in participating CEE countries. Conclusion There is increasing acceptance toward a phenotype-driven therapeutic approach in COPD. The POPE study may contribute to reveal important information regarding phenotypes and therapy in real-life CEE. PMID:27042048

  7. Mapping the extent of abandoned farmland in Central and Eastern Europe using MODIS time series satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Baumann, Matthias; Bragina, Eugenia V.; Griffiths, Patrick; Hostert, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Müller, Daniel; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Sieber, Anika; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2013-09-01

    The demand for agricultural products continues to grow rapidly, but further agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental costs, making recultivating currently unused farmland an interesting alternative. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to widespread abandonment of agricultural lands, but the extent and spatial patterns of abandonment are unclear. We quantified the extent of abandoned farmland, both croplands and pastures, across the region using MODIS NDVI satellite image time series from 2004 to 2006 and support vector machine classifications. Abandoned farmland was widespread, totaling 52.5 Mha, particularly in temperate European Russia (32 Mha), northern and western Ukraine, and Belarus. Differences in abandonment rates among countries were striking, suggesting that institutional and socio-economic factors were more important in determining the amount of abandonment than biophysical conditions. Indeed, much abandoned farmland occurred in areas without major constraints for agriculture. Our map provides a basis for assessing the potential of Central and Eastern Europe’s abandoned agricultural lands to contribute to food or bioenergy production, or carbon storage, as well as the environmental trade-offs and social constraints of recultivation.

  8. Study of seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunova, Ella; Sanina, Irina; Ivanchenko, Galina; Nesterkina, Margarita; Konstantinovskaya, Natalya

    2015-04-01

    A measurement system for location seismic events in the Central Part of East European Platform is situated within the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory of the RAS Institute of Geospheres Dynamics and consists of 12 seismic stations. One vertical station is located in the center of the group in a shaft tunnel. The other stations are located on the periphery in three concentric circles and are almost equally spaced with regard to the terrain to ensure full azimuth coverage to the maximum extent possible. The unique array identifies events with a magnitude up to 3 at the distances until 1000 km within the Central Part of East European platform. Most of the events recorded by the Mikhnevo array at a distance of 60-500 km are man-made events represented by explosions in quarries during the development of mineral deposits. Long-term seismic records of explosions in quarries have been processed for the period from 2004 to 2014 to generate a database containing standard waveforms for each quarry. Some events of unknown origin appear in the records for this period; these do not correspond to the identified seismic forms for explosions in known quarries. Epicenter coordinates for these events do not match the coordinates of the known quarries. A cosmotectonic map of the Central Part of East European Platform was compiled during the studies using the LESSA software package (Lineament Extraction and Stripe Statistical Analysis) and data on the deep crustal structure, which made it possible to define the morphostructural plan and evaluate the geodynamic conditions in the area. The deep basement structure through the sedimentary cover is expressed in the surface texture of the area under study. The region's neotectonics is closely related to the history of deep structures, in particular, aulacogens extending in different directions, which may show in the contemporary morphostructural plan, mainly as inversion and partially inherited forms. Out of events of unknown nature

  9. Replacement names and nomenclatural comments for problematic species-group names in Europe's Neogene freshwater Gastropoda. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Thomas A; Harzhauser, Mathias; Kroh, Andreas; Elisavet, Georgopoulou; Mandic, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    In the course of a new database project on Miocene to Recent freshwater gastropods of Europe, a great many of primary and secondary homonyms were revealed. Such nomenclatural issues need clarification in order to avoid misunderstandings and wrong statements about geographical distributions and temporal ranges. The following 16 new names are introduced to replace existing homonyms: Theodoxus militaris jurisicpolsakae nom. n., Viviparus stevanovici nom. n., Melanopsis haueri ripanjensis nom. n., Melanopsis wolfgangfischeri nom. n., Micromelania ramacanensis nom. n., Pseudamnicola welterschultesi nom. n., Muellerpalia haszprunari nom. n., Muellerpalia pseudovalvatoides nom. n., Lithoglyphus gozhiki nom. n., Valvata heidemariae willmanni nom. n., Radix macaleti nom. n., Gyraulus okrugljakensis nom. n., Gyraulus rasseri nom. n., Gyraulus vrapceanus nom. n., Planorbarius halavatsi nom. n., and Segmentina mosbachensis nom. n. Additionally, six cases of homonyms are discussed that are not replaced by new names, because they are considered junior synonyms. PMID:25147468

  10. Estimation of uncertainty of direct radiative forcing of the aerosol for a rural site in central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feczkó, T.; Marton, A.; Molnár, A.; Szentes, G.

    Direct climate forcing due to scattering and absorption of the main aerosol components (ammonium sulfate and total carbon) was estimated seasonally in Hungary by a box model. Ammonium sulfate played an important role in the direct forcing while the carbonaceous aerosol contributed significantly to the development of extinction. In summer, the scattering effect of both species showed a maximum (ammonium sulfate: -2.21±1.73 W m -2, total carbon: -0.88±0.73 W m -2), while the absorption of carbon was the most significant in autumn (+0.40±0.41 W m -2). Uncertainty of these data was obtained by using the theory of error propagation and by taking into consideration the standard deviation of the experimental parameters. The relatively high values of the calculated relative standard deviations of the climate forcing data were attributed partly to the large number of the model parameters (9 and 11) and partly to their large uncertainty. The calculated uncertainties of various forcings were found to be in between the factors of 1.7 and 2.1 which were lower than those generally applied in forcing calculations. Parameter sensitivity analysis of the model equation proved that the reliability of the calculated data could be improved if attention is paid to the measurement of certain parameters such as: mass concentration, cloud coverage, surface albedo, upscattered fraction, single-scattering albedo and the fractional transmittance of the atmosphere.

  11. Preliminary Results of Occurrence and Mineralogical Properties of Opals from Northwest part of Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    The study area, is located in northwest part of central Anatolian, consists of Eskişehir and Kütahya region where are important for finding occurrence of opaline silica mineralization as well as chalcedonic silica mineralization. In this study preliminary results of mineralogical properties of opals from four different area (Sabuncupınar, Belkavak, Gokçekısık and Derekoy), located between Eskisehir and Kutahya region, have been given. In the Kütahya region, dendritic opal nodules present in Pliocene pyroclastic rocks - Kanoturaǧı hill and white opals outcrop in stockwork veins with serpentinites in Küçükali hill around Sabuncupınar village. The mainly whitish - blue and gray opal nodules range from millimetres in diameter to about five and ten centimetres in Kanoturagı hill. White opals, called milky opal, are white color and present in veins within serpentinites. The Kanoturagı opal is made up of tiny spheres, the milky opal is made up tiny sphere with fibrous texture based on the SEM. Green opals present in Miocene pyroclastic rocks in Belkavak village. The Belkavak opals are greenish color and having a brecciated appearance. Opals outcrops around Sabuncu pınar and Belkavak villages consist of opal - CT, alpha quartz and, moganite, and a lesser amount of opal - C based on the results of XRD analysis. In the Eskişehir region, the dendritic opals occur as nodules in volcanogenetic conglomerates of Pliocene age in the Dereyalak area. The Dereyalak opals vary in size from millimetres in diameter to about ten centimetres. Their color are mainly white, beige, greenish, yellowish orange and black. On the other hand, Pliocene pyroclastic rocks are the host rock of opals in Gökçekısık village - Eskişehir. Gökçekısık Opals are mainly colorless, pale shades of yellow, whitish blue and gray colors and display a reinous to sub vitreous luster. Dereyalak dendiritic opals consist of opal - CT, opal - C and a lesser amount of alpha quartz and, moganite

  12. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps). Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more widespread in the past, leading

  13. The spread of modern humans in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hoffecker, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The earliest credible evidence of Homo sapiens in Europe is an archaeological proxy in the form of several artifact assemblages (Bohunician) found in South-Central and possibly Eastern Europe, dating to ≤48,000 calibrated radiocarbon years before present (cal BP). They are similar to assemblages probably made by modern humans in the Levant (Emiran) at an earlier date and apparently represent a population movement into the Balkans during a warm climate interval [Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI 12)]. A second population movement may be represented by a diverse set of artifact assemblages (sometimes termed Proto-Aurignacian) found in the Balkans, parts of Southwest Europe, and probably in Eastern Europe, and dating to several brief interstadials (GI 11–GI 9) that preceded the beginning of cold Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) (≈40,000 cal BP). They are similar to contemporaneous assemblages made by modern humans in the Levant (Ahmarian). The earliest known human skeletal remains in Europe that may be unequivocally assigned to H. sapiens (Peçstera cu Oase, Romania) date to this time period (≈42,000 cal BP) but are not associated with artifacts. After the Campanian Ignimbrite volcanic eruption (40,000 cal BP) and the beginning of HE4, artifact assemblages assigned to the classic Aurignacian, an industry associated with modern human skeletal remains that seems to have developed in Europe, spread throughout the continent. PMID:19571003

  14. Impact of urban emission on air-quality over central Europe: present day and future emissions perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas; Karlicky, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the impact of present-day and future urban emission from central European cities on the regional air-quality (AQ), based on a modeling couple of the regional climate model RegCM4.2 and the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the present (2001-2010) decade and two future decades (2026-2035 and 2046-2055) either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. As we are interested on the impact of emission changes only, the impact of different driving meteorological conditions in the future (due to climate change) are not considered. The emissions used is the TNO MEGAPOLI European emission database that includes country/sector based scenarios for years 2030 and 2050, which were used for the encompassing decades. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20% emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The model was also validated using surface measurements of key pollutants. Selected air-quality measures were used as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas further from, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70% for NOx and SO2 , and up to 55% for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20%). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. The future urban emission AQ fingerprint is, in general, slightly smaller than in

  15. Stabilizing the Central Part of Tropomyosin Increases the Bending Stiffness of the Thin Filament

    PubMed Central

    Nabiev, Salavat R.; Ovsyannikov, Denis A.; Kopylova, Galina V.; Shchepkin, Daniil V.; Matyushenko, Alexander M.; Koubassova, Natalia A.; Levitsky, Dmitrii I.; Tsaturyan, Andrey K.; Bershitsky, Sergey Y.

    2015-01-01

    A two-beam optical trap was used to measure the bending stiffness of F-actin and reconstructed thin filaments. A dumbbell was formed by a filament segment attached to two beads that were held in the two optical traps. One trap was static and held a bead used as a force transducer, whereas an acoustooptical deflector moved the beam holding the second bead, causing stretch of the dumbbell. The distance between the beads was measured using image analysis of micrographs. An exact solution to the problem of bending of an elastic filament attached to two beads and subjected to a stretch was used for data analysis. Substitution of noncanonical residues in the central part of tropomyosin with canonical ones, G126R and D137L, and especially their combination, caused an increase in the bending stiffness of the thin filaments. The data confirm that the effect of these mutations on the regulation of actin-myosin interactions may be caused by an increase in tropomyosin stiffness. PMID:26200873

  16. Stabilizing the central part of tropomyosin increases the bending stiffness of the thin filament.

    PubMed

    Nabiev, Salavat R; Ovsyannikov, Denis A; Kopylova, Galina V; Shchepkin, Daniil V; Matyushenko, Alexander M; Koubassova, Natalia A; Levitsky, Dmitrii I; Tsaturyan, Andrey K; Bershitsky, Sergey Y

    2015-07-21

    A two-beam optical trap was used to measure the bending stiffness of F-actin and reconstructed thin filaments. A dumbbell was formed by a filament segment attached to two beads that were held in the two optical traps. One trap was static and held a bead used as a force transducer, whereas an acoustooptical deflector moved the beam holding the second bead, causing stretch of the dumbbell. The distance between the beads was measured using image analysis of micrographs. An exact solution to the problem of bending of an elastic filament attached to two beads and subjected to a stretch was used for data analysis. Substitution of noncanonical residues in the central part of tropomyosin with canonical ones, G126R and D137L, and especially their combination, caused an increase in the bending stiffness of the thin filaments. The data confirm that the effect of these mutations on the regulation of actin-myosin interactions may be caused by an increase in tropomyosin stiffness. PMID:26200873

  17. Field and petrochemical studies of pegmatites in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omada, J. I.; Kolawole, M. S.; Odoma, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    Field, petrological and geochemical studies of pegmatite bodies in parts of Lokoja, Central Nigeria, have been undertaken with a view to characterizing them and determining the rare earth mineralization potentials. Pegmatite bodies which are zoned or poorly zoned occur as dykes trending N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE consisting dominantly of feldspar-quartz, feldspar-quartz-mica, and feldspar-mica-quartz, respectively. Trace elements concentration in the Na-rich and K-rich feldspars is such that Rb > Ba > Sr > Pb > Ga and the pegmatites contain rare metals with moderately high contents of Nb, Sn, Rb, Li and Cs. The muscovite samples have enrichment pattern of Rb > Nb > Sn > Gn > Ta > Cs: each of the elements has concentration values that are higher than those in either the K-rich or Na-rich feldspars suggesting that muscovite and to a lesser extent feldspars, are the possible carriers of Ta, Sn and REE that are associated with the pegmatite bodies in the Lokoja area. The mineralogy and composition of the pegmatite bodies are indicative of post tectonic anorogenic acidic igneous protolith which underwent alkali metasomatism involving selective enrichment of trace elements and REE, fractionation and rock-fluid interactions.

  18. Anomalous folds associated with the east-central part of the Garlock Fault, southeast California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The east-central part of the left-lateral Garlock Fault, in southeast California, is associated with three broad folds that trend and plunge northeast. The folds, which lie north, south, and astride the fault, postdate deposition of alluvial gravels that at one time formed a continuous northwest-sloping fan. Corrected tilting rates vary from about 2.5?? to 4.7??/m.y.; the total shortening of about 7.5 m developed at a minimum rate of 12.5 m/m.y. The orientations of these folds imply northwest-southeast compression, which is anomalous when viewed in the context of regional tectonics. These anomalous features are interpreted as evidence that episodes of NW-SE compression along the Garlock Fault do occur, and although oriented about 90?? from the average of conventional - and presently observed - compression directions, they have occurred during much (most?) of the Cenozoic Era, including the past 0.6 m.y. -from Author

  19. New data on the structure of the central part of the White Sea paleorift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluev, A. S.; Zhuravlev, V. A.; Przhiyalgovskii, E. S.

    2009-08-01

    Complex geological and geophysical data obtained during recent research by the Marine Arctic Geological Survey Expedition OJSC (MAGSE) indicate that the Riphean Chapoma graben located on the southeastern shore of the Kola Peninsula has its extension under the Gorlo Strait of the White Sea water area and joins the Leshukonsk riftogenous graben as an extended narrow trench in the crystal foundation of the platform. From this it follows that the Chapoma graben is the central segment of the White Sea paleorift system. Only the northwestern edge and probably the upper part of the graben section outcrop on the Kola Peninsula, which represents a highly elevated block of the platform foundation. To emphasize the unity of this paleorift zone, it makes sense to call it the Chapomo-Leshukonsk Paleorift in contrast to the traditional name Kerets-Leshukonsk. The echelon position of the riftogenous troughs of the Chapomo-Leshukonsk paleorift, the form itself of the Leshukonsk and Azopolsk troughs being close to pull-apart assumes their occurrence and development under transtension conditions with elements of the right-side shear along the steep northeastern edges of the grabens.

  20. Serotypes and genotypes of invasive pneumococci in the central part of Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Müller Premru, Manica; Beović, Bojana; Pokorn, Marko; Cvitković Špik, Vesna

    2015-09-01

    To investigate epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the central part of Slovenia in a population with no routine pneumococcal vaccination, we carried out serotyping of isolates by sequential multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and some by multilocus sequence typing. IPD was confirmed in 134 (26.5 %) of 510 acutely ill patients, either by a positive blood culture or real-time PCR (rt-PCR). In 94 patients, isolates were available for typing (24 from blood and 70 from nasopharynx). They belonged to 12 different serotypes; the most prevalent were 14 (27.6 % isolates), 9V, 3 (12.7 % each), 7F (9.5 %), 19A, and 1 (7.4 % each) followed by 4, 6A/B, 19F, 23F, 18C, and 33F. Genotyping yielded 34 rep-PCR genotypes and 13 subtypes; six were found in serotype 14, one in 9V, four each in 3, 19A, and 6A/B, three each in 7F and 1, and two each in 4, 19F, 23F, and 18C. Serotype 9V was the most homogenous and 14 and 19A were heterogenous and had two divergent clonal groups each. The most common genotypes belonged to virulent widespread clones, like ST162, ST9, ST15, ST156, ST191, and ST1377; however, sporadic clones were also observed. PMID:25829264

  1. Ground-water availability in the central part of Lake Ontario basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.; Krebs, Martha M.

    1988-01-01

    A set of three maps showing surficial geology, distribution of glacial aquifers, and potential well yield in the 708 sq mi central part of the Lake Ontario basin are presented at a scale of 1:125,000. The basin is parallel to Lake Ontario and extends from Rochester in the west to Oswego in the east. Aquifers consisting primarily of sand and gravel formed where meltwaters from glaciers deposited kame and outwash sand and gravel and where wave action along shores of glacial lakes eroded, reworked , and deposited beaches. Thick deposits of well-sorted sand and gravel yield relatively large quantities of water - typically more than 100 gal/min. Aquifers consisting of thin beds of sa