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1

[Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome].  

PubMed

Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor syndrome is a rare condition (prevalence 1:50,000), with the characteristic dental feature of a solitary central incisor in the maxilla, positioned exactly in the midline. This single incisor is symmetrical and can be present in the deciduous as well as in the permanent dentition. The syndrome can occur as a mild form of the broad holoprosencephaly-spectrum, but can also be associated with other characteristics. The etiology is still largely unknown, but the syndrome is probably based especially on genetic causes. Early recognition of the syndrome is of great importance for establishing the diagnosis, for additional investigation, for possible treatment of associated anomalies and for the correct advice concerning the risk of inheritance of severe congenital birth defects, related to holoprosencephaly. Dentists and orthodontists can play an important role in this regard and should therefore be able to recognise the clinical features of this condition and know how to refer a patient for further diagnostic counselling. PMID:25296470

Scholtes, E; Kawamoto, T; Ockeloen, C W; Kleefstra, T; Carels, C E L

2014-09-01

2

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI

Roger K Hall

2006-01-01

3

Extraction of Maxillary Central Incisors: An Orthodontic-Restorative Treatment  

PubMed Central

Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy.

Hedayati, Zohreh; Zare, Maryam; Bahramnia, Fateme

2014-01-01

4

An efficient biomechanical approach for the management of an impacted maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

Treatment of an impacted maxillary central incisor poses a unique challenge to the orthodontist because of its position within the esthetic zone, requiring careful management of the soft tissues and an effective biomechanical setup for alignment. This article describes a novel method of extending an extrusion wire from cross tubes attached on the base archwire for forced eruption of impacted central incisors. The effectiveness and versatility of this method are demonstrated with 2 patients. PMID:25085308

Chandhoke, Taranpreet K; Agarwal, Sachin; Feldman, Jonathan; Shah, Raja A; Upadhyay, Madhur; Nanda, Ravindra

2014-08-01

5

Bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors: a case report.  

PubMed

Hyperdontia is a developmental anomaly that is hypothesized to arise from multiple causes. Supernumerary teeth may remain embedded in the alveolar bone or can erupt into the oral cavity. When such teeth remain embedded, they may cause disturbances to developing teeth. Erupted supernumerary teeth can cause aesthetic or functional problems, especially when situated in the maxillary anterior region. Before a definitive diagnosis and treatment plan can be developed, it is essential to clinically and radiographically enumerate and identify supernumerary teeth. Supplemental central incisors are rare and bilateral cases are even rarer: only five cases have been reported in the literature to date. We describe a case of bilateral supplemental maxillary central incisors and discuss the management of supernumerary teeth. PMID:21959671

Hans, Manoj K; Shetty, Shashit; Shekhar, Rhitu; Sirohi, Sanjula

2011-09-01

6

Concomitant dilaceration, transposition, and intraosseous migration: Report of a patient treated with maxillary canine-central incisor substitution.  

PubMed

This case report describes the multidisciplinary treatment of a male with a dilacerated maxillary left central incisor and transposition of the ipsilateral maxillary canine and lateral incisor. The initial treatment plan involved removal of the dilacerated incisor with mechanical eruption and alignment of the ectopic left canine, aiming to substitute the lateral incisor for the missing central incisor. However, the plan was modified to include eruption of the canine in the central incisor region in response to progressive ectopic development and mesial transmigration of the maxillary left canine. Although substitution of a maxillary canine for a central incisor is comparatively rare, the canines offer a relatively favorable template to simulate a central incisor. For this growing patient with a combination of dental trauma and developmental anomalies, maxillary canine-central incisor replacement was a viable option, offering excellent esthetic results without recourse to prosthetic replacement. PMID:25263154

Campbell, Ciara M; DiBiase, Andrew; Fleming, Padhraig S

2014-10-01

7

Endodontic Management of a Mandibular Central Incisor with Type IV Canal Pattern: A Case Report.  

PubMed

The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Mandibular incisor's anatomy presents a challenge when an endodontic access is made, because of its small size and high prevalence of two canals. We are describing a Weine's Type IV root canal configuration that was detected in a mandibular central incisor, which was demonstrated by a radiographic examination. This article also focuses on the successful endodontic treatment of a mandibular central incisor with a single canal at the pulp chamber, which divided into two distinct and separate canals (buccolingual) at the middle third of the root. PMID:24783153

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali; Ahuja, Tarun

2014-03-01

8

Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion. PMID:25395777

Jain, Mahesh; Mogra, Subraya; Chalasani, Srikrishna; D'mello, Kuldeep; Dhakar, Nidhi

2014-10-01

9

Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Maxillary incisors are the most frequently injured teeth in the primary and permanent dentition. Stage of adolescence show a significant number of dental injuries as they engage in contact sports. Children with accident prone profile, i.e. class II division I or class I type II malocclusion are more prone for injuries because of the proclined maxillary incisors. Supernumerary teeth are those that are additional to the normal complement. They occur in single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral in either of the jaws. This paper reports the presence of an inverted supernumerary tooth in the right maxillary central incisor region with trauma involving both maxillary central incisors and also the management of the supernumerary tooth and traumatized teeth in a 14-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Pavuluri C, Nuvvula S. Management of Traumatic Injury to Maxillary Central Incisors associated with Inverted Mesiodens: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):30-32. PMID:25206184

Nuvvula, Sivakumar

2013-01-01

10

Upper central incisor and canine tooth crown size in 47,XXY males.  

PubMed

Enamel and dentin thicknesses were measured in permanent tooth crowns of 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) males. In 47,XXY males, enamel thickness in maxillary central incisors was significantly greater than that in control males or females, and dentin thickness in incisors and canines was significantly greater than that in control females, but smaller than that in normal males. These findings confirm the concept that human dental growth is affected by sex chromosomes. Amelogenesis is promoted by both X and Y chromosome genes, and sexual dimorphism in average tooth size is evidently determined by a promoting effect of the Y chromosome on dentin growth, probably through cell proliferation. This effect can also explain sex predilection for males in the numbers of supernumerary and ordinary teeth. PMID:2066487

Alvesalo, L; Tammisalo, E; Townsend, G

1991-07-01

11

A Labially Positioned Mesiodens and Its Repositioning as a Missing Central Incisor  

PubMed Central

Hyperdontia is an increased number of teeth within the dental arches. This is of particular interest to pediatric dentists who commonly make the initial diagnosis. Most often a large portion of these teeth is completely embedded or impacted within the jaws and can be viewed only radiographically. Hyperdontia can occur on virtually every tooth-bearing surface. However, the most frequent is the mesiodens, in the anterior maxillary region. Anterior maxillary teeth are one of the most important features contributing to aesthetics of an individual. Missing anterior teeth can cause undue psychological stress in children, during their growing years. Most of the literature available show that the mesiodens are situated on the palatal aspect of the permanent incisors. Their treatment frequently involves an early recognition, extraction through a traditional palatal technique and guiding the associated permanent tooth to its original position. The purpose of this article is to enlighten the clinician of the need of deviating from the traditional approach of early extraction in particular situations and to conserve the mesiodens if favorable as an alternative treatment to a malformed permanent tooth, which may fail to erupt. This report describes a successful multidisciplinary approach to treatment of a unerrupted, labially placed mesiodens in conjunction with a dilacerated and impacted permanent tooth, in a child with a missing left central incisor. Treatment consisted of localizing and confirming the placement of the mesiodens to be labial, surgically exposing the crown of the mesiodens through a labial surgical approach, orthodontically guiding it to the position of the missing central incisor, extracting the malformed permanent incisor, and restoring the mesiodens to the required anatomy with composites, to establish aesthetics and function of the affected region.

Ephraim, Rena; Dilna, N C; Sreedevi, S; Shubha, M

2014-01-01

12

Surgical and Orthodontic Management of Fused Maxillary Central and Lateral Incisors in Early Mixed Dentition Stage  

PubMed Central

Fusion is one of the developmental dental anomalies in which two adjacent teeth are joined at the crown level forming a single tooth with an enlarged crown. Fusion causes some clinical problems such as unaesthetic appearance, pain, caries, and malocclusion. The management of fusion often needs multidisciplinary approach to give best possible esthetic and functional outcome. This paper reports a case of 9-year-old boy with fused maxillary left central and lateral incisors who was treated with 2 × 4 fixed orthodontic appliances after surgical separation of fused teeth. PMID:25371828

Ramamurthy, Suresh; Satish, Ramaswamy; Priya, Kalidass

2014-01-01

13

A morphometric analysis of maxillary central incisor on the basis of facial appearance in Korea  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We aimed to identify a more esthetic width-to-length ratio by analyzing maxillary central incisor of Korean adult population. Information regarding tooth ratio in the Korean population may be useful to clinicians when restoring anterior teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 40 men and 40 women were included in this study. The NON-MEDIA group included 40 non-celebrities, who were healthy and 25 to 39 years old, with normal dentofacial appearance. The MEDIA group consisted of 40 celebrities selected only on the basis of their soft-tissue facial appearance. The facial photographs of 40 celebrities were collected from the Internet websites. The width and length of the maxillary central incisor were measured using Adobe Photoshop® 7.0, a software for analysis, measurement and edition of photographs. Data were analyzed statistically using the Independent t-test at 5% statistical significance level. RESULTS The mean ratio for the MEDIA group was 0.77, whereas that of the NON-MEDIA group was 0.88. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No significant gender differences were found in the width-to-length ratio in MEDIA group. In NON-MEDIA group, however, there were significant differences between female and male. CONCLUSION After analyzing maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults, our results were in accordance with the general Western standards of esthetics. A dentist restoring the natural look and beauty of teeth will have to consider those standards. PMID:22439095

Ku, Ji-Eun; Yang, Hong-So

2012-01-01

14

Replacement of maxillary permanent central incisors lost due to trauma in the mixed-dentition.  

PubMed

Traumatic injuries to anterior teeth in children range from minor chipping to total tooth loss and occur more often in boys than in girls. The treatment of permanent tooth loss in younger patients is complicated by the difficulty of doing restorative procedures which may be influenced by pulpal size, clinical crown height, and a dental profile which is constantly changing. This case report presented a situation involving a 9-year-old boy who had experienced traumatic loss of the maxillary central incisors. Innovative materials coupled with sound principles of removable partial denture design were utilized to fabricate a cast metal removable denture prosthesis to satisfy the esthetic, functional and psychological dental needs of the patient and his parents. PMID:25265859

Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

2014-08-01

15

Surgical retreatment of an invaginated maxillary central incisor following overfilled endodontic treatment: a case report.  

PubMed

This case report presents the periapical surgical retreatment of an Oehlers Class III invaginated maxillary central incisor with extruded root canal filling into the periapical lesion. After local anesthesia, a full-thickness mucoperiosteal flap was reflected, and the granulomatous tissue and extruded gutta-percha points were curetted carefully. A deep and wide root-end cavity was prepared and filled with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). At 6 months and 2 years after the treatment, the tooth exhibited no clinical symptoms, and the radiograph performed during the 2-year follow-up showed a complete periapical healing around the root end. The present report indicates that MTA retrofilling can be used successfully in the surgical retreatment of dens invaginatus type III cases in which the invagination exits apically. PMID:20613922

Ozbas, Hakan; Subay, Rustem Kemal; Ordulu, Melike

2010-07-01

16

Surgical management of multiple supernumerary teeth and an impacted maxillary permanent central incisor.  

PubMed

Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. The most common site is the maxillary incisor region; but the prevalence of more than three teeth supernumerary tooth is less than 1%. A case of 13 year male patient is reported with a multiple impacted supernumerary tooth in maxillary anterior region hindering the eruption of right permanent central incisor. The supernumerary tooth was treated via surgical approach followed by an interim prosthesis for permanent central incisor which later on erupted in due course of time. Background Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. The presence of supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region often poses unique diagnostic and managerial concerns for the practitioner. Rarely is the surplus number compensated by an absence or deficiency of other teeth. Therefore, the dysfunctional nature of supernumerary teeth and their ability to create a variety of pathological disturbances in the normal eruption and position of adjacent teeth warrants their early detection and prudent management. Approximately 76-86% of cases represent single-tooth hyperdontia, with two supernumerary teeth noted in 12-23% and three or more extra teeth noted in less than 1% of cases. Multiple supernumerary teeth are also associated with many syndromes like cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner’s syndrome etc. However, it is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. In such cases, the maxillary anterior region is the common site of occurrence. The exact aetiology is not clearly understood. The supernumerary teeth result from any disturbance in the initiation and proliferation stages of odontogenesis. There are several theories regarding the development of a supernumerary tooth-phylogenetic reversion (atavism) theory, dichotomy of tooth germ theory and hyperactivity of the dental lamina. The latter being the most accepted theory, states that the remnants of dental lamina or palatal offshoots of active dental lamina are induced to develop into an extra tooth bud, which results in the formation of a supernumerary tooth. Genetics is also considered to contribute to the development of supernumerary teeth, as these have been diagnosed in twins, siblings and sequential generations of a family. Classification of supernumerary teeth may be on the basis of position or form. Positional variations include mesiodens, paramolars, distomolars and parapremolars. Variations in form consist of conical types, tuberculate types, supplemental teeth and odontomes. Supernumerary teeth may, therefore, vary from a simple odontome, through a conical or tuberculate tooth to a supplemental tooth which closely resembles a normal tooth. Also, the site and number of supernumeraries can vary greatly. This report presents a case of a non-syndromic male patient with multiple supernumerary teeth and a permanent impacted tooth in the maxillary anterior region. PMID:23704467

Rallan, Mandeep; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh; Goswami, Mousumi; Rawat, Kamini

2013-01-01

17

Repair of incomplete horizontal mid-root fracture of maxillary central incisor with mineral trioxide aggregate: A follow up report  

PubMed Central

Incomplete horizontal fractures occur in teeth with developing root as it cannot withstand traumatic force during injury. Diagnosis and management of such cases are difficult. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) served as efficient diagnostic tool and follow up measure and the use of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in treatment had shown a better prognostic importance. In present case, treatment outcome of one year is reported in incompletely fractured mid-root of central incisor and the clinical approach is discussed. PMID:25125859

Chute, Ashwinkumar Krushnarao; Toshniwal, Archana; Gade, Vandana; Chute, Manisha

2014-01-01

18

Effects of active and passive lacebacks on antero-posterior position of maxillary first molars and central incisors.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of active and passive lacebacks on antero-posterior position of maxillary first molars and central incisors during leveling phase. Twenty-three subjects with Class I and Class II malocclusion were treated with first premolars extraction using preadjusted appliances (MBT 0.022-inch brackets). The leveling phase was performed with stainless steel archwires only. The sample was divided into 2 groups: 14 subjects received active lacebacks (Group 1) and 9 subjects received passive lacebacks (Group 2). Lacebacks were made from 0.008-inch ligature wire. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken pre- and post-leveling phase. Student's t-test was applied to determine the differences between pre- and post-leveling mean values and to determine the mean differences between groups. In Group I, the first molars showed a significant mesial movement, whereas no change was observed in Group 2. In both groups, maxillary central incisor crowns moved to lingual side. In conclusion, active laceback produced anchorage loss of maxillary first molars whereas passive laceback did not affect the position of these teeth. Active and passive lacebacks were effective in preventing central incisor proclination. PMID:23207862

Moresca, Ricardo Cesar; Vigorito, Julio Wilson; Dominguez, Gladys Cristina; Tortamano, André; Moraes, Danielle Rodrigues; Moro, Alexandre; Correr, Gisele Maria

2012-01-01

19

Treatment of class II malocclusion with open bite and absence of central maxillary incisor lost by trauma aided by use of orthodontic mini-implants.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to report the clinical case of non-surgical treatment of a Class II malocclusion with anterior open bite, associated with absence of a maxillary central incisor avulsed due to trauma. Treatment proceeded with the use of orthodontic mini-implants as an anchorage device for intrusion of the maxillary molars and for mesial movement of the lateral incisor to replace the central incisor. Treatment resulted in good occlusion, with anterior and lateral guides, enhancement of the facial profile, and good dental esthetic appearance without the need for prosthetic treatment. The treatment outcome was satisfactory but needs long-term or permanent retention. PMID:23331427

Pithon, Matheus Melo

2014-02-01

20

Treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and compromised ferrule: a clinical report.  

PubMed

This clinical report presents the treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and a compromised ferrule. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy combined with periodontal surgery was provided for debridement. Direct light-polymerizing resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a zirconia crown were used to repair the defect. Symptomatic endodontic complication was diagnosed with localized cone beam computed tomography at 6-month follow-up, and periapical microsurgery was rendered. The patient was followed-up for 30 months after treatment and had no further complications. PMID:24423455

Harris, Bryan T; Caicedo, Ricardo; Lin, Wei-Shao; Morton, Dean

2014-05-01

21

Horizontal Root Fracture Accompanied by Luxation of Coronal Fragment in a Maxillary Central Incisor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Root fracture injuries affect up to 7% of permanent teeth. This type of injury is rarely seen in teeth with open apices and depending on the fracture site, the prognosis is good. This case report describes a horizontal intra-alveolar root fracture in the middle third of a maxillary central incisor associated with an extrusive luxation of the coronal segment and its treatment in a 6-year-old girl. The patient was observed under a regular follow-up regime. After 2 years, clinical examination showed normal tooth color and position, with a positive response to the pulp test. PMID:24578824

Gharechahi, Maryam

2013-01-01

22

Incisors' proportions in smile esthetics  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine whether alteration of the maxillary central and lateral incisors’ length and width, respectively, would affect perceived smile esthetics and to validate the most esthetic length and width, respectively, for the central and lateral incisors. Materials and Methods: Photographic manipulation was undertaken to produce two sets of photographs, each set of four photographs showing the altered width of the lateral incisor and length of the central length. The eight produced photographs were assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Results: Alteration in the incisors’ proportion affected the relative smile attractiveness for laypeople (n=124), dentists (n=115) and orthodontists (n=68); dentists and orthodontists did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 0.5 mm (P<0.01), which suggests that the lateral to central incisor width ratio ranges from 54% to 62%. However, laypeople did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 1 mm (P<0.01), widening the range to be from 48% to 62%. All groups had zero tolerance for changes in central crown length (P<0.01). Conclusion: All participants recognized that the central incisors’ length changes. For lateral incisors, laypeople were more tolerant than dentists and orthodontists. This suggests that changing incisors’ proportions affects the relative smile attractiveness. PMID:24987650

Alsulaimani, Fahad F; Batwa, Waeil

2013-01-01

23

A comparative study to evaluate the vertical position of maxillary central incisor and canine in relation to incisive papilla line  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the vertical distance of maxillary central incisor (CI) and maxillary canine (CA) from the incisive papilla (IP) line and their variation with age and sex. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentulous subjects following the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly selected from the local population. On the basis of gender and age, subjects were divided into four groups: Ma, Mb, Fa and Fb . Maxillary impressions of selected subjects were made and corresponding casts were retrieved. The cast was positioned on the surveyor and the center of IP was transferred to the labial side of maxillary right CI and CA regions with the help of analyzing rod of the surveyor and a line was drawn in this region which was referred to as “IP line”. The measurements were made from the IP line to the mesio-incisal line angle of right maxillary CI-IP and cusp tip of right maxillary CA with the help of digital vernier caliper (CA to IP). Result: The mean vertical distance of maxillary CI-IP ranged from 6.31 ± 0.74 mm to 7.04 ± 0.87 mm and the mean vertical distance of maxillary CA-IP ranged from 5.83 ± 0.80 mm to 6.30 ± 0.82 mm. Conclusion: The CA position in relation to the IP line is more stable to its position than the CI position irrespective of age and sex. PMID:25125915

Shah, Mayank; Verma, Ashok Kumar; Chaturvedi, Saurabh

2014-01-01

24

Evaluation of the relation of maxillary canine and edge of central incisor to incisive papilla in Indian population with respect to arch form.  

PubMed

Finding the most suitable position for artificial anterior teeth in the absence of pre-extraction records presents a new challenge with every denture and has resulted in a variety of measurements. It encompasses the knowledge of anatomy and physiology of oral tissue. In this study, the relation between anatomical landmarks the tips of the maxillary canines, edge of central incisor and center of incisive papilla was evaluated and compared with respect to arch form in Indian population. Arch forms were accessed by their morphological description as square, tapering or ovoid arch. Measurements on the casts were recorded for incisive papilla and maxillary central incisor distance, by digital vernier caliper and photographic technique was used to record the relation between tips of the canine and the centre of the incisive papilla. The mean distance between edge of central incisor to center of incisive papilla for square arch, oval arch and tapered arch was found as 9.667, 9.991 and 10.912 mm respectively. When all the 300 casts were taken together, it indicated that 51.3 % of intercanine lines passed through the center, 18.1 % of inter canine lines passed posterior and 30.6 % of the intercanine lines passed anterior to the center of incisive papilla. ?(2) (Chi square) values concluded they differ significantly and significant number of intercanine lines crossed through the center of the incisive papilla irrespective of the arch form. PMID:25183906

Avhad, Rajendra; Tembhurne, Jyoti; Sar, Ranjukta

2014-09-01

25

Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

2003-06-01

26

Endodontic and Esthetic Management of a Dilacerated Maxillary Central Incisor Having Two Root Canals Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Aid  

PubMed Central

Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics. PMID:24955260

Sharma, Sarang; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Mittal, Meenu

2014-01-01

27

Miniscrews for upper incisor intrusion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate if true incisor intrusion can be achieved using miniscrews. Eleven patients (three males and eight females; mean age: 19.8 +/- 4.8 years) with normal vertical dimension showing a pre-treatment deep bite of 5.9 +/- 0.9 mm and a 'gummy' smile were enrolled in the study. After levelling of the maxillary central and lateral incisors with a segmental arch, an intrusive force of 80 g using closed coil springs was applied from two miniscrews placed between the roots of the lateral and canine teeth. The amount of incisor intrusion was evaluated on lateral cephalometric headfilms taken at the end of levelling (T1) and at the end of intrusion (T2). Statistical analysis of the data was performed using a paired t and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. A significance level of P < 0.05 was predetermined. The mean upper incisor intrusion was 1.92 mm and the mean overbite decrease 2.25 +/- 1.73 mm in 4.55 months. Upper incisor angulation resulted in a 1.81 +/- 3.84 degree change in U1-PP angle and a 1.22 +/- 3.64 degree change in U1-NA angle. However, these were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). True intrusion can be achieved by application of intrusive forces close to the centre of resistance using miniscrews. However, studies with a larger number of subjects and long-term follow-up are necessary. PMID:19289539

Polat-Ozsoy, Omur; Arman-Ozcirpici, Ayca; Veziroglu, Firdevs

2009-08-01

28

[The influence of the home position operator's posture on the prepared abutment contour of jacket crown--the maxillary right central incisor].  

PubMed

The abutment teeth preparation with jacket crown for the maxillary right central incisor was prepared in Home Position. The following are the result of a study made on the influence to the prepared tooth form. The operators were five dentists who had 2-4 years clinical experiences and were made to prepare with 1.0 mm width shoulder. 1. The reduction of incisal edge was like the indication. 2. As for the subgingival reductions, the proximal surfaces were deep and the facial and lingual surfaces were shallow. 3. As for the degree of axial taper, angles of convergence were comparatively like the indication, and prepared teeth were inclined to distal direction for imaginary axis of tooth crown before operation. 4. The width of shoulder were insufficient except at the facial surface. 5. The surface roughness on axial wall was almost acceptable, but the roughness on shoulder was sufficient at facial surface, while insufficient at others. 6. As for Rough Value, smoothness of curve on finishing line was questionable. 7. Tooth preparation of maxillary anterior teeth in Home Position, compared with posterior, is fairly easy to operate under mirror view, and the method is stable and available. PMID:2135321

Sasagawa, T

1990-06-01

29

Replantation and transplantation following avulsion of two maxillary incisors.  

PubMed

Here we describe replantation and transplantation as a treatment conducted in a 16-year-old patient following a bicycle accident. An avulsed left central incisor in maxilla was replanted after extra-oral root canal treatment, and the lost right central incisor of the maxilla was replaced by a left lateral incisor of the mandible in the region of the fracture fissure. Follow-up examination at 34 months showed validity of treatment, although slight evidence of replacement resorption in the transplanted and replanted teeth was revealed. PMID:17227384

Swiatkowski, Wojciech; Rahnama, Mansur; Tomaszewski, Tomasz

2007-02-01

30

A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Odontomas are a common type of odontogenic tumor, usually asymptomatic and mostly detected on routine radiographic examination. An 11-years-old male child with the chief complaint of mobility of deciduous dentition in the upper front region was diagnosed with an odontome with an impacted central incisor, missing lateral incisor and retained deciduous incisors following radiographic analysis. Histopathology revealed a compound odontoma following a conservative enucleation. Odontomas associated with primary dentition, impacted teeth and erupting into oral cavity have been described, but the association with a missing lateral incisor makes this an interesting case report. How to cite this article: Nammalwar RB, Moses J. A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):50-53.

Moses, Joyson

2014-01-01

31

Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology  

PubMed Central

Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB), atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P = 0.01). The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P = 0.001), adenoiditis (P = 0.001), asthma (P = 0.001), fever (P = 0.014), and antibiotics intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake. PMID:24949012

Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

2014-01-01

32

Upper incisors' positions after extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

2014-01-01

33

Orthodontic retraction of autotransplanted premolar to replace ankylosed maxillary incisor with replacement resorption.  

PubMed

This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult with lip protrusion and a previously traumatized maxillary central incisor that had experienced replacement root resorption. An extracted premolar was transplanted into the incisor space and retracted orthodontically. Autotransplantation was successful with complete root formation and, combined with orthodontic treatment, provided a satisfying esthetic outcome. PMID:24703290

Choi, Yoon Jeong; Shin, Sujung; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Chooryung J

2014-04-01

34

Transplantation of a Lower Bicuspid after Traumatic Loss of Three Upper Incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prosthodontic and orthodontic procedures have been described for the treatment of patients with traumatic loss of teeth. Patient and Methods: Both upper central incisors and the upper right lateral incisor had to be extracted in an 8-year-old patient after failure of conservative procedures following a sports accident. The patient was treated on a temporary basis with a space retainer

Matthias Kalwitzki; Thomas Ney; Gernot Göz

2003-01-01

35

Middle Paleolithic human deciduous incisor from Khudji, Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997 a human mandibular second deciduous incisor was discovered during excavations at the central Asian Middle Paleolithic site of Khudji, Tajikistan. The specimen was associated with a late Middle Paleolithic assemblage in a minimally disturbed cultural layer. The specimen is average in size for Late Pleistocene archaic human di2s and differs from many late archaic human di2s in having

Erik Trinkaus; Vadim A. Ranov; Stanislav Lauklin

2000-01-01

36

[Occurrence of muscle contraction headache in children with abnormal incisor occlusion].  

PubMed

The principal result of the investigation indicates that children with abnormal incisor occlusion must be regarded as a risk group concerning muscle contraction headache (MCH). The need for orthodontic treatment of children with abnormal incisor occlusion is usually by layman regarded as being based upon psychosocial considerations. These considerations shall not be underestimated. For children as well as for grown up persons an appearance dominated by a visible abnormal incisor occlusion will be loading in contact with other people. From a professional point of view need for orthodontic treatment of children with abnormal incisor occlusion has usually been defined from the demand for stability. Grown up people with abnormal incisor relations are frequently referred to orthodontic specialists because of problems, such as migration of the incisors, extreme attrition or functional disturbances in the masticatory system. These problems are closely related to the abnormal incisor occlusion. With our present knowledge of the importance of the incisor relation for the function of the masticatory system, this condition must have high priority in the evaluation of need for orthodontic treatment of children. The treatment will, by improving the functional condition of the masticatory system and normalizing the function, have importance as prophylaxis and/or early treatment of a risk group concerning muscle contraction headache. PMID:2635431

Lous, I; Jacobsen, R; Seidler, B

1989-12-01

37

A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.  

PubMed

The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood. PMID:20544874

Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

2010-07-01

38

E-cadherin regulates the behavior and fate of epithelial stem cells and their progeny in the mouse incisor$  

E-print Network

of stem cell-based organ renewal. A well-studied model is the mouse incisor, which contains dentalE-cadherin regulates the behavior and fate of epithelial stem cells and their progeny in the mouse online 18 April 2012 Keywords: E-cadherin Epithelial stem cells Cell migration Cell proliferation Incisor

Klein, Ophir

39

Biomechanics of incisor retraction with mini-implant anchorage.  

PubMed

Mini-implants have been successfully incorporated into orthodontic practice all over the world. One of the most popular applications of mini-implant anchorage is to facilitate retraction of the anterior teeth. This article reviews the mechanics involved in anterior tooth retraction with mini-implant supported anchorage. An attempt has been made to synthesize information available in the literature and present it in a manner that is easily understandable from a clinical perspective. We discuss the fundamental differences mini-implant based incisor retraction has when compared to conventional techniques, mechanical factors affecting this process and provide a step-by-step analysis of incisor retraction. In addition, various models of space closure are discussed that have evolved through careful evaluation of in vitro and in vivo experiments. PMID:25138361

Upadhyay, Madhur; Yadav, Sumit; Nanda, Ravindra

2014-09-01

40

Complete Bilateral Gemination of Maxillary Incisors with Separate Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. PMID:25254121

Mahendra, Lodd; Govindarajan, Sujatha; Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohammed; Kumar, Nalin; Madasamy, Ramasamy

2014-01-01

41

Talon Cusps in Mandibular Incisors: An Unusual Presentation in a Child Patient  

PubMed Central

Talon cusp is a dental anomaly also known as an eagle’s talon. It is an extra cusp on an anterior tooth which arises as a result of evagination on the surface of a crown before calcification has occurred. The exact etiology is unknown. The inci-dence of talon cusp is less than 6%. Commonly involved teeth are maxillary incisors, usually unilateral but in some instanc-es bilateral. The classical radiographical feature of talon cusp is double teeth appearance. The anomaly has been reported to be unusual in the mandibular dentition. This article reports an unusual case of talon cusp of permanent mandibular central incisors. PMID:23019506

Kumar Rao, Prasanna; Ram Shetty, Shishir; V. Prabhu, Rachana; Veena, K.M.; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Shenai, Prashanth

2011-01-01

42

Assessment of open and incomplete bite correction by incisor overlap and optical density of polyvinyl siloxane bite registration.  

PubMed

Open bite (OB) is a generalized term, which could incorporate subgroups that react differently to vertical correction. The objectives of the present study were to detect vertical treatment changes in incomplete bite (IB: inter-incisor overlap with no lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) and OB (no inter-incisor overlap) groups compared with a complete bite (CB: inter-incisor overlap with full lower incisor contact with teeth or palate) control group, to evaluate treatment response of the central and lateral incisors, and to study the vertico-sagittal interaction. Dental casts were taken at three time points, pre-treatment, post-treatment, and after one year of retention, from 54 Class II patients (22 males and 32 females with a mean age of 11 years 6 months) divided into three groups: CB (n = 21), IB (n = 18) and OB (n = 15). Measurements included incisor overlap (mm) and optical density (OD/mm2) of occlusal bite registration made of polyvinl siloxane. Both CB and IB groups demonstrated post-retention bite opening. However, bite opening in the CB group was three times greater than that in the IB group (e.g. lower lateral = -1.42 mm, 118 OD/mm2 versus -0.40 mm, 107 OD/mm2). Conversely, the OB group showed a significant (P < 0.001) bite closure (e.g. lower lateral = 1.30 mm, -377 OD/mm2). Overjet changes affected OD measurements, causing diversity in OD and millimetric measurements of the lateral incisors in the IB group. In conclusion, the OB group demonstrated a significant stable vertical correction; a post-treatment non-contact inter-incisor relationship was determined by a vertico-sagittal relapse; and full compensation of an IB was not possible. PMID:16267127

Shpack, Nir; Einy, Shmuel; Beni, Lea; Vardimon, Alexander D

2006-04-01

43

Autogenous bonding of lower incisors: case report and 17-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Among injuries that affect permanent teeth, the most prevalent is an uncomplicated crown fracture. Currently, autogenous bonding of the fragments is still the procedure of choice to restore fractured anterior teeth if the fragments are recovered by the patient and taken to a dental office within a reasonable time in an appropriate storage medium. There is no study or case report in the literature regarding autogenous bonding of lower incisors. This study presents a case with a 17-year follow-up for a 9-year-old patient who underwent uncomplicated crown fractures of the permanent mandibular central incisors and was treated by autogenous bonding of the tooth fragments. After 17 years, clinical and radiographic dental elements present vitality, and the restorations remain without major cosmetic changes. This case shows that autogenous bonding can be considered as a treatment option in the management of fractured lower incisors. PMID:23649586

Lima, Marina Deus Moura; Lima, Cacilda Castelo Branco; Dantos-Neta, Neusa Barros; Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Moura, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares; Moura, Lucia Fatima Almeida Deus

2013-01-01

44

Quantum-walk-based search and centrality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the discrete-time quantum-walk-based search for a marked vertex on a graph. By considering various structures in which not all vertices are equivalent, we investigate the relationship between the successful search probability and the position of the marked vertex, in particular, its centrality. We find that the maximum value of the search probability does not necessarily increase as the marked vertex becomes more central, and we investigate an interesting relationship between the frequency of the successful search probability and the centrality of the marked vertex.

Berry, Scott D.; Wang, Jingbo B.

2010-10-01

45

Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

2010-11-01

46

Molars and incisors: show your microarray IDs  

PubMed Central

Background One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGF?/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NF?B complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in transgenic animal models and related human diseases leading to dental anomalies. PMID:23531410

2013-01-01

47

Comparative studies between mice molars and incisors are required to draw an overview of enamel structural complexity  

PubMed Central

In the field of dentistry, the murine incisor has long been considered as an outstanding model to study amelogenesis. However, it clearly appears that enamel from wild type mouse incisors and molars presents several structural differences. In incisor, exclusively radial enamel is observed. In molars, enamel displays a high level of complexity since the inner part is lamellar whereas the outer enamel shows radial and tangential structures. Recently, the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2BR) was shown to be involved in ameloblast function and enamel mineralization. The incisors from 5HT2BR knockout (KO) mice exhibit mineralization defects mostly in the outer maturation zone and porous matrix network in the inner zone. In the molars, the mutation affects both secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis since pronounced alterations concern overall enamel structures. Molars from 5HT2BR KO mice display reduction in enamel thickness, alterations of inner enamel architecture including defects in Hunter-Schreger Bands arrangements, and altered maturation of the outer radial enamel. Differences of enamel structure were also observed between incisor and molar from other KO mice depleted for genes encoding enamel extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, upon mutation, enamel analysis based exclusively on incisor defects would be biased. In view of the functional relationship between enamel structure and tooth morphogenesis, identification of molecular actors involved in amelogenesis requires comparative studies between mice molars and incisors. PMID:25285079

Goldberg, Michel; Kellermann, O.; Dimitrova-Nakov, S.; Harichane, Y.; Baudry, A.

2014-01-01

48

First records of talon cusps on baboon maxillary incisors argue for standardizing terminology and prompt a hypothesis of their formation.  

PubMed

Dental characters can provide vital clues for understanding intra- and intertaxonomic morphological variation and its underlying genetic and environmental components. However, the unambiguous identification of particular traits and their comparative study is often confounded by lack of consistent terminology in the relevant literature. This difficulty is exacerbated when the etiologies are not completely understood, as is the case with talon cusps. To date, research on talon cusps has focused on modern humans. In many instances, descriptions of talon cusps appear in clinical case studies focusing on their treatment and removal. What is lacking in those discussions, though, is a comparative framework, in which the occurrence of talon cusps in nonhuman primates, and possibly other mammals, is established and understood. Here, we report on a taloned upper central incisor of a wild baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) from South Africa. The anomalous incisor of this individual includes an exaggerated accessory cusp diagnosed as a Type II talon. Microcomputed tomographic and radiographic analyses show that the taloned cusp possesses enamel, dentin, and pulp. In addition, we identified an unclassifiable talon cusp on a central maxillary incisor of a baboon skull housed in the Smithsonian Institution's Natural History Museum collection. Our observations of talon cusps on baboon incisors demonstrate that, with regard to this phenomenon, systematic study of nonhuman primates is much needed, along with a consistent use of terminology in the anatomical and anthropological literature. Finally, we present a hypothesis of the formation of talon cusps on mammalian incisors. PMID:24173685

Heaton, Jason L; Pickering, Travis Rayne

2013-12-01

49

How much incisor decompensation is achieved prior to orthognathic surgery?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To quantify incisor decompensation in preparation for orthognathic surgery. Study design: Pre-treatment and pre-surgery lateral cephalograms for 86 patients who had combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment were digitised using OPAL 2.1 [http://www.opalimage.co.uk]. To assess intra-observer reproducibility, 25 images were re-digitised one month later. Random and systematic error were assessed using the Dahlberg formula and a two-sample t-test, respectively. Differences in the proportions of cases where the maxillary (1100 +/- 60) or mandibular (900 +/- 60) incisors were fully decomensated were assessed using a Chi-square test (p<0.05). Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify if there were any differences in the amount of net decompensation for maxillary and mandibular incisors between the Class II combined and Class III groups (p<0.05). Results: Random and systematic error were less than 0.5 degrees and p<0.05, respectively. A greater proportion of cases had decompensated mandibular incisors (80%) than maxillary incisors (62%) and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.029). The amount of maxillary incisor decompensation in the Class II and Class III groups did not statistically differ (p=0.45) whereas the mandibular incisors in the Class III group underwent statistically significantly greater decompensation (p=0.02). Conclusions: Mandibular incisors were decompensated for a greater proportion of cases than maxillary incisors in preparation for orthognathic surgery. There was no difference in the amount of maxillary incisor decompensation between Class II and Class III cases. There was a greater net decompensation for mandibular incisors in Class III cases when compared to Class II cases. Key words:Decompensation, orthognathic, pre-surgical orthodontics, surgical-orthodontic. PMID:25136421

McNeil, Calum; Laverick, Sean

2014-01-01

50

An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

2006-01-01

51

The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

2014-01-01

52

Traumatic injuries of the permanent incisors in children in southern Turkey: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence, etiologic factors and results of dental trauma and the effects of age and gender on the trauma in permanent incisors. Over a 3-year period, 514 permanent incisor teeth in 317 patients with trauma history, who applied to Suleyman Demirel University School of Dentistry, Department of Pedodontics from the southern cities of Turkey, were evaluated. Standardized trauma forms were filled for each patient. In all age groups, the most frequent cause of trauma was found to be unspecified falls (47.6%). Maxillary teeth (88.5%) and central incisors (87.5%) were the most affected teeth from dental trauma. Ellis class II crown fracture was the most frequently seen type of injury (43.8%). The percent of the patients who applied to a dental clinic in the first 3 days after the trauma occurred (22.8%) was less than the percent of the patients who applied after 3 months and more time period (45.1%). It reveals that it is important to inform the public about dental trauma and the importance of time in these cases. PMID:15660751

Zuhal, Kirzio?lu; Semra, Ozay Ertürk M; Hüseyin, Karayilmaz

2005-02-01

53

Management of chronic luxated central incisor with hopeless prognosis  

PubMed Central

Traumatic injuries are the most studied yet most challenging for a dentist. Extrusive luxation injuries are usually managed by repositioning tooth in the original position and pulp sensibility is evaluated at regular periodic intervals. However, when injuries are chronic, tooth is necrotic with compromised periodontal support, treatment is a challenge. Intentional replantation utilizing growth factors in fibrin rich network of platelet rich fibrin can be a treatment modality in such patients where other restorative modalities to establish function-esthetics rehabilitation is not possible. PMID:24174766

Patel, Gauresh Kumar; Gujjari, Sheela Kumar; Annapoorna, B. M.; Veerendra Kumar, S. C.

2013-01-01

54

Electron microprobe analyses of Ca, S, Mg and P distribution in incisors of Spacelab-3 rats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution of Ca, S, Mg and P was mapped within the incisors of Spacelab-3 rats using an electron microprobe. The data indicate that Flight rats maintained in orbit for 7 days have significantly higher Ca/Mg ratios in dentin due to both higher Ca and lower Mg content than in dentin of ground-based Controls. There is no statistical difference in distribution of either P or S within Fligth animals and Controls, but there is clear indication that, for P at least, the reason is the greater variability of the Control data. These results are consistent with those obtained on a previous NASA/COSMOS flight of 18.5 days duration, although they are not pronounced. The results further suggest that continuously growing rat incisors provide useful records of the effects of weightlessness on Ca metabolism.

Rosenberg, G. D.; Simmons, D. J.

1985-01-01

55

Establishment of crown-root domain borders in mouse incisor.  

PubMed

Teeth are composed of two domains, the enamel-covered crown and the enamel-free root. The understanding of the initiation and regulation of crown and root domain formation is important for the development of bioengineered teeth. In most teeth the crown develops before the root, and erupts to the oral cavity whereas the root anchors the tooth to the jawbone. However, in the continuously growing mouse incisor the crown and root domains form simultaneously, the crown domain forming the labial and the root domain the lingual part of the tooth. While the crown-root border on the incisor distal side supports the distal enamel extent, reflecting an evolutionary diet adaptation, on the incisor mesial side the root-like surface is necessary for the attachment of the interdental ligament between the two incisors. Therefore, the mouse incisor exhibits a functional distal-mesial asymmetry. Here, we used the mouse incisor as a model to understand the mechanisms involved in the crown-root border formation. We analyzed the cellular origins and gene expression patterns leading to the development of the mesial and distal crown-root borders. We discovered that Barx2, En1, Wnt11, and Runx3 were exclusively expressed on the mesial crown-root border. In addition, the distal border of the crown-root domain might be established by cells from a different origin and by an early Follistatin expression, factor known to be involved in the root domain formation. The use of different mechanisms to establish domain borders gives indications of the incisor functional asymmetry. PMID:23684768

Juuri, Emma; Saito, Kan; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Michon, Frederic

2013-10-01

56

Glassfiber Post: An Alternative for Restoring Grossly Decayed Primary Incisors  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Restoration of primary incisors, which have been severely damaged by rampant caries or trauma, is a difficult task for the pediatric dentist. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, alternative approaches for treating these teeth have been proposed. This paper discusses the restoration of carious primary maxillary incisors using composite resin restoration reinforced with fiberglass post. Two case reports are presented here to describe the procedure. Over a 1 year period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. How to cite this article: Mehra M, Grover R. Glassfiber Post: An Alternative for Restoring Grossly Decayed Primary Incisors. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):159-162. PMID:25206160

Grover, Rashu

2012-01-01

57

Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign  

PubMed Central

Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

Zawawi, Khalid H.

2014-01-01

58

Three-dimensional evaluation of upper anterior alveolar bone dehiscence after incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion malocclusion*  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone during incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with maximum anchorage. Methods: Twenty adult patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion had the four first premolars extracted. Miniscrews were placed to provide maximum anchorage for upper incisor retraction and intrusion. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after placement of the miniscrews and treatment. The 3D reconstructions of pre- and post-CT data were used to assess the dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone. Results: The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the edge and apex were (7.64±1.68) and (3.91±2.10) mm, respectively, and (1.34±0.74) mm of upper central incisor intrusion. Upper alveolar bone height losses at labial alveolar ridge crest (LAC) and palatal alveolar ridge crest (PAC) were 0.543 and 2.612 mm, respectively, and the percentages were (6.49±3.54)% and (27.42±9.77)%, respectively. The shape deformations of LAC-labial cortex bending point (LBP) and PAC-palatal cortex bending point (PBP) were (15.37±5.20)° and (6.43±3.27)°, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion, mechanobiological response of anterior alveolus should be taken into account during incisor retraction and intrusion. Pursuit of maximum anchorage might lead to upper anterior alveolar bone loss. PMID:22135148

Guo, Qing-yuan; Zhang, Shi-jie; Liu, Hong; Wang, Chun-ling; Wei, Fu-lan; Lv, Tao; Wang, Na-na; Liu, Dong-xu

2011-01-01

59

Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (<4 mm and <1/3 original root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes. PMID:25139200

Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

2014-01-01

60

Fitness consequences of centrality in mutualistic individual-based networks.  

PubMed

The relationships among the members of a population can be visualized using individual networks, where each individual is a node connected to each other by means of links describing the interactions. The centrality of a given node captures its importance within the network. We hypothesize that in mutualistic networks, the centrality of a node should benefit its fitness. We test this idea studying eight individual-based networks originated from the interaction between Erysimum mediohispanicum and its flower visitors. In these networks, each plant was considered a node and was connected to conspecifics sharing flower visitors. Centrality indicates how well connected is a given E. mediohispanicum individual with the rest of the co-occurring conspecifics because of sharing flower visitors. The centrality was estimated by three network metrics: betweenness, closeness and degree. The complex relationship between centrality, phenotype and fitness was explored by structural equation modelling. We found that the centrality of a plant was related to its fitness, with plants occupying central positions having higher fitness than those occupying peripheral positions. The structural equation models (SEMs) indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was not merely an effect of the abundance of visits and the species richness of visitors. Centrality has an effect even when simultaneously accounting for these predictors. The SEMs also indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was because of the specific phenotype of each plant, with attractive plants occupying central positions in networks, in relation to the distribution of conspecific phenotypes. This finding suggests that centrality, owing to its dependence on social interactions, may be an appropriate surrogate for the interacting phenotype of individuals. PMID:22158957

Gómez, José M; Perfectti, Francisco

2012-05-01

61

Environmental seasonality and incremental growth rates of beaver ( Castor canadensis) incisors: implications for palaeobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periradicular bands are incremental structures seen on the external dentin surfaces of rodent incisors. They correspond to circadian developmental rhythms in dentin growth and provide a record of the growth rate of the incisor along its longitudinal axis. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between daily environmental temperatures and longitudinal growth rates of incisors in 40 Recent beavers

Caroline Rinaldi; Theodore M. Cole

2004-01-01

62

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 2 Workplans  

E-print Network

1 Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional and academic institutions and NGOs is implementing a regional IPM program in Central Asia. The three host countries include - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia

63

Intrusion of migrated incisors with infrabony defects in adult periodontal patients.  

PubMed

This report describes the orthodontic treatment of 10 adult patients who had severe periodontal disease, with migration and radiological evidence of an infrabony defect on a maxillary central incisor. Orthodontic tooth movement, using light and continuous forces, was initiated 7 to 10 days after periodontal surgical therapy. Mean orthodontic treatment time was 10 months. Before surgery and at the end of orthodontic treatment, the following parameters were registered clinically and with standardized intraoral radiographs: probing depth, clinical crown length, marginal bone level, bone defect radiological dimension, and root length. Comparison of pre- and posttreatment values showed a statistically significant improvement for all parameters without a remarkable decrease of root length. The mean residual probing depth was 2.80 mm, and the mean intrusion of the incisors was 2.05 mm. Moreover, radiographs showed a reduction of the infrabony defects. These results show the efficacy of a combined orthodontic-periodontal approach. Intrusive movement, after proper periodontal surgical therapy, can positively modify both the alveolar bone and the soft periodontal tissues. PMID:11742313

Cardaropoli, D; Re, S; Corrente, G; Abundo, R

2001-12-01

64

[Dento-alveolar cleft and the lateral incisor].  

PubMed

In the period of 1980 to 1990, 55 cleft, lip and palate patients, ranging in age from nine to twelve years, were treated. With 52% of them the lateral incisor on the cleft side was agenetic, in 24% normally developed and in 24% malformed. The malformed and the fissural teeth were removed during bone grafting of the dento-alveolar cleft. In almost all cases a well-formed tooth arch could be obtained by orthodontic treatment. PMID:11917879

van der Wal, K G

1993-10-01

65

A comparative study of mandibular incisor relation to the lingual frenum in natural dentition and in complete denture wearers.  

PubMed

The determination of the occlusal vertical dimension and proper positioning of the anterior teeth are major factors in making complete dentures which will give optimum service. In this study, efforts were made to evaluate the reliability of measurement of vertical distance between the anterosuperior most point on the lingual frenum and mesioincisal edges of mandibular central incisors in natural dentition among different age groups and in complete denture wearers. Three hundred dentulous subjects belonging to different age groups and hundred edentulous patients wearing complete dentures were selected. The dentulous group was divided into three groups, group I (20-40 years), group II (41-60 years), group III (61 years and above) and the edentulous subjects being group IV ( 40-60 years). Mandibular irreversible hydrocolloid impression (Alginate) was made using modified stock tray. In edentulous subjects impression was made with denture in position. The vertical distance between anterosuperior most point on the lingual frenum and mesioincisal edges of mandibular central incisors was measured on the dentulous casts and casts of complete denture wearer using dental surveyor and the vernier calipers. The values were tabulated and statistically analysed. The mean vertical distance between anterosuperior most point on the lingual frenum and mesioincisal edges of mandibular central incisors among dentulous subjects was 12.3 mm and among complete denture wearers was found to be 13.2 mm. There was no significant variation in the mean vertical distance among dentulous subjects belonging to different age groups. At 5 % significance level, statistically there was a significant difference in the mean vertical distance between group I and group IV; group II and group IV. PMID:24293917

Parimala, B K; Prithviraj, D R

2012-12-01

66

Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: A Study of Prevalence and Etiology in a Group of Iranian Children  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and its relationship with systemic conditions in a group of Iranian children. Methods The study population comprised of 433 7-9 year olds, from four schools in Zahedan, Iran. Subjects were evaluated clinically by one examiner, and at a separate session, their mothers completed a coded medical history questionnaire. Hypo-mineralized molars and incisors were recorded based on DDE (developmental defects of enamel) index and DMFT (number of decayed, filled and missing teeth) was determined. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square and independent sample t-tests. Findings Fifty-five (12.7%) children showed MIH. The overall mean number of affected teeth was 0.2. The mean value of DMFT in MIH children was greater than in normal children. Demarcated opacities were the most frequent (76%) enamel defect. Mother's and child's medical problems during prenatal, perinatal and post natal period were significantly remarkable in MIH children. Conclusion The prevalence of MIH in a group of Iranian children was 12.7%. Prenatal, perinatal and post natal medical conditions were more prevalent in children affected by MIH. PMID:23056894

Ahmadi, Rahil; Ramazani, Nahid; Nourinasab, Rahmatollah

2012-01-01

67

Risk factors in the occurrence of molar-incisor hypomineralization amongst a group of Iraqi children.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND.? Despite the worldwide increasing interest in the prevalence studies of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), there is still insufficient evidence to verify the aetiological factors of this condition. AIMS.? To investigate risk factors involved in the development of MIH in a group of school-aged Iraqi children. DESIGN.? Seven- to nine-year-old school children (823 of 1000 eligible, response rate of 82.3%) had their first permanent molars and incisors evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry evaluation criteria for MIH. Mothers completed a medical history questionnaire-based interview performed in the schools by a trained examiner. RESULTS.? For children with MIH, 6% reported no relevant medical history; the remaining 94% reported various medical conditions putatively associated with MIH compared with 70% for the non-affected group. Post-natal medical conditions (33.3%) were most frequently reported. When data were split into the possible risk effect groups, maternal psychological stress (OR, 3.24), frequent exposure to ultrasonic scans during the last gestational trimester (OR, 2.51) and birth order as a fourth sibling or later (OR, 3.17 and 5.73, respectively) were previously unreported significant risk factors and postulated as contributing to, or causing the defect. CONCLUSIONS.? Children with MIH had experienced a greater number of medical conditions than their unaffected peers with no single health event identified as a risk factor. PMID:22646757

Ghanim, Aghareed; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise; Mariño, Rodrigo; Morgan, Michael

2013-05-01

68

Splitting placodes: effects of bone morphogenetic protein and Activin on the patterning and identity of mouse incisors.  

PubMed

The single large rodent incisor in each jaw quadrant is evolutionarily derived from a mammalian ancestor with many small incisors. The embryonic placode giving rise to the mouse incisor is considerably larger than the molar placode, and the question remains whether this large incisor placode is a developmental requisite to make a thick incisor. Here we used in vitro culture system to experiment with the molecular mechanism regulating tooth placode development and how mice have thick incisors. We found that large placodes are prone to disintegration and formation of two to three small incisor placodes. The balance between one large or multiple small placodes was altered through the regulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Activin signaling. Exogenous Noggin, which inhibits BMP signaling, or exogenous Activin cause the development of two to three incisors. These incisors were more slender than normal incisors. Additionally, two inhibitor molecules, Sostdc1 and Follistatin, which regulate the effects of BMPs and Activin and have opposite expression patterns, are likely to be involved in the incisor placode regulation in vivo. Furthermore, inhibition of BMPs by recombinant Noggin has been previously suggested to cause a change in the tooth identity from the incisor to the molar. This evidence has been used to support a homeobox code in determining tooth identity. Our work provides an alternative interpretation, where the inhibition of BMP signaling can lead to splitting of the large incisor placode and the formation of partly separate incisors, thereby acquiring molar-like morphology without a change in tooth identity. PMID:20618434

Munne, Pauliina M; Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Jussila, Maria; Suomalainen, Marika; Thesleff, Irma; Jernvall, Jukka

2010-01-01

69

Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)  

PubMed Central

Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

2001-01-01

70

Longitudinal clinical and radiographic evaluation of severely intruded permanent incisors in a pediatric population.  

PubMed

Intrusion is defined as the axial dislodgment of the tooth into its socket and is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma. This longitudinal outcome study was undertaken to evaluate clinically and radiographically severely intruded permanent incisors in a population of children and adolescents. All cases were treated between September 2003 and February 2008 in a dental trauma service. Clinical and radiographic data were collected from 12 patients (eight males and four females) that represented 15 permanent maxillary incisors. Mean age at the time of injury was 8 years and 9 months (range 7-14 years and 8 months). Mean time elapsed to follow-up was 26.6 months (range 10-51 months). The analysis of data showed that tooth intrusion was twice as frequent in males. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly intruded teeth (93.3%), and falling at home was the main etiologic factor (60%). More than half of the cases (53.3%) were multiple intrusions, 73.3% of the intruded teeth had incomplete root formation and 66.6% of the teeth suffered other injuries concomitant to intrusion. Immediate surgical repositioning was the treatment of choice in 66.7% of the cases, while watchful waiting for the tooth to return to its pre-injury position was adopted in 33.3% of the cases. The teeth that suffered additional injuries to the intrusive luxation presented a fivefold increased relative risk of developing pulp necrosis. The immature teeth had six times more chances of presenting pulp canal obliteration that the mature teeth and a lower risk of developing root resorption. The most frequent post-injury complications were pulp necrosis (73.3%), marginal bone loss (60%), inflammatory root resorption (40%), pulp canal obliteration (26.7%) and replacement root resorption (20%). From the results of this study, it was not possible to determine whether the type immediate treatment had any influence on the appearance of sequelae like pulp necrosis and root resorption after intrusive luxation, but the existence of additional injuries and the stage of root development influenced the clinical case outcome in a negative and positive manner, respectively. PMID:19614934

Neto, José Jeová Siebra Moreira; Gondim, Juliana Oliveira; de Carvalho, Fernanda Matias; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida

2009-10-01

71

A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

72

Survival rate and fracture strength of incisors restored with different post and core systems and endodontically treated incisors without coronoradicular reinforcement.  

PubMed

This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture resistance of maxillary central incisors restored with different post and core systems. The post and core systems investigated were a prefabricated high precious metal post with cast core (group A), zirconia post with a prefabricated bonded ceramic core (group B), and a resin-ceramic interpenetrating phase composite post (experimental) with a prefabricated bonded ceramic core (group C). The all-ceramic copings were cemented using Panavia 21 TC. In the group without coronoradicular reinforcement, the access cavity was closed with a light-cured composite in combination with a dentine-bonding agent (group D). Each specimen was intermittently loaded and thermocycled before final stress tests in a Zwick machine. The survival rates after 1,200,000 cycles in the artificial mouth were 90% (group A), 80% (group B), 60% (group C), and 100% (group D). Statistically significant differences were found between all groups with the exception of A and B, when failure during cyclic loading was included (Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test). Samples restored with a cast post and core demonstrated more vertical root fractures. It was concluded that the preservation of both internal and external tooth structure is of utmost importance when restoring endodontically treated teeth. PMID:12398170

Pontius, Oliver; Nathanson, D; Giordano, R; Schilder, H; Hutter, Jeffrey W

2002-10-01

73

Orthodontic Management of Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a woman, aged 15 years, with permanent dentition, brachyfacial typology, with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. Multibracket straightwire fixed appliance was used to open the space for dental implant placement, and treat the impaired occlusion. The missing lateral incisors were substituted with oral implants. PMID:24711929

Rongo, Roberto; Cupo, Antonello; Valletta, Rosa

2014-01-01

74

Comparison of Rates of Enamel Synthesis in Impeded and Unimpeded Rat Incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodic intubations of rats with solutions of fluoride (F) lead to the appearance of bands of disrupted pigmentation in continuously erupting incisors. Distances between fluorotic bands reflect time intervals between intubations. In this experiment, the periodicity of fluorotic banding was used for estimation of the rate of enamel synthesis in impeded and unimpeded rat incisors. Rats kept on a low-F

Z. Skobe; J. D. Heeley; J. M. Dobeck; K. S. Prostak; L. Maravelis; D. N. Stern

1993-01-01

75

Enamel-free teeth: Tbx1 deletion affects amelogenesis in rodent incisors Javier Catn a  

E-print Network

Enamel-free teeth: Tbx1 deletion affects amelogenesis in rodent incisors Javier Catón a , Hans-box genes Tbx1 Transcription factors Sprouty genes Amelogenin FGF Incisor Ameloblast Enamel Amelogenesis Tooth development Mouse Epithelial stem cells TBX1 is a principal candidate gene for DiGeorge syndrome

Klein, Ophir

76

Evidence-based Decision Making: Influences on Central-Office Administrators' Decision-Making Practices  

E-print Network

through rigorous, scientifically-based research. This mandate required central office administrators who managed federal budgets to make evidence-based decisions when purchasing interventions and programs with federal funds. In this study, central office...

Haecker, Bonnie Minnia

2013-12-05

77

A cross-sectional clinical study on shape of nose inner-canthal distance and geometric progression as predictors for width of the maxillary incisor teeth  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of anatomical landmarks of the face and geometric progression as predictors for the width of the maxillary incisor teeth. Materials and Methods: The central incisor width (CIW), lateral incisor width (LIW), inner-canthal distance (ICD) and inter-alar distance (IAD) from a total of 150 subjects were measured clinically. The width of the root of the nose (WRN) was measured on standard photographs of the subjects. Student t-test has been used to find the significance of parameters between male and female. Pearson correlation has been used to find any relation of the parameters. Results: The IAD and the WRN measurements suggest that the shape of the nose is wider and more triangular in males. The mean maxillary CIW and ICD was significantly higher in males than females. Conclusion: The proportion of IAD to WRN seems to be a reliable guide for deciding the proportion of the maxillary central and LIW. The ICD, when multiplied by a decreasing function value of the geometric progression term 0.618 and divided by 2, was a reliable predictor of the maxillary CIW. PMID:25097395

Reddy, Naveen; Singh, T. Rajesh; Reddy, Swetha; Guruprasad, Yadavalli

2014-01-01

78

Comprehensive restoration and mandibular incisor esthetic exposure: a clinical report.  

PubMed

Complete mouth rehabilitation allows the dentist to solve multiple problems by controlling the restoration of many teeth. Guidelines and objective criteria for each area to be treated are essential when planning an extensive case. Esthetics, phonetics, and anterior guidance are affected by the height and inclination of the mandibular incisors. Placement of the mandibular incisal plane is important, as the mandibular anterior teeth may be more visible than the maxillary anterior teeth during speaking or when at rest. Provisional restorations can be adjusted and recorded so that the final restorations are predictably successful. This case illustrates the use of a trial incisal edge and digital videography of the provisional restoration to facilitate correct placement of the mandibular incisal plane. PMID:24192736

Solow, Roger A

2013-01-01

79

Angle Class I malocclusion treated with lower incisor extraction.  

PubMed

In planning orthodontic cases that include extractions as an alternative to solve the problem of negative space discrepancy, the critical decision is to determine which teeth will be extracted. Several aspects must be considered, such as periodontal health, orthodontic mechanics, functional and esthetic alterations, and treatment stability. Despite controversies, extraction of teeth to solve dental crowding is a therapy that has been used for decades. Premolar extractions are the most common, but there are situations in which atypical extractions facilitate mechanics, preserve periodontal health and favor maintenance of the facial profile, which tends to unfavorably change due to facial changes with age. The extraction of a lower incisor, in selected cases, is an effective approach, and literature describes greater post-treatment stability when compared with premolar extractions. This article reports the clinical case of a patient with Angle Class I malocclusion and upper and lower anterior crowding, a balanced face and harmonious facial profile. The presence of gingival and bone recession limited large orthodontic movements. The molars and premolars were well occluded, and the discrepancy was mainly concentrated in the anterior region of the lower dental arch. The extraction of a lower incisor in the most ectopic position and with compromised periodontium, associated with interproximal stripping in the upper and lower arches, was the alternative of choice for this treatment, which restored function, providing improved periodontal health, maintained facial esthetics and allowed finishing with a stable and balanced occlusion. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diplomate title. PMID:24094026

Barbosa, Vanessa Leal Tavares

2013-01-01

80

Delayed orthodontic extrusion of a traumatically intruded immature upper permanent incisor - a case report.  

PubMed

Dental injuries are probably the most common orofacial injuries sustained during sports and play. Intrusion or intrusive luxations occur when the teeth are driven into the alveolus by an axially directed impact. This article describes the clinical case of an 8-year-old patient who suffered complete intrusive luxation of an immature permanent central incisor following an accident. An attempt at spontaneous re-eruption failed to facilitate re-emergence of the tooth beyond 2 mm. The recommended wait-and-see strategy in anticipation of spontaneous re-eruption should cease to be an option when no further elongation can be observed. Orthodontic extrusion or surgical re-positioning is a valid treatment alternative when the former fails. In this case, although the recommended time period for effecting orthodontic extrusion had elapsed, this procedure was undertaken successfully presumably owing to the application of controlled, biologically optimal forces. A review of the extruded tooth a year later revealed no clinical or radiographic signs of loss of vitality. This was confirmed radiographically by the completion of root development, an intact lamina dura and no evident signs of resorption. PMID:24112650

Umesan, Uday Kumar; Chua, Kui Lay; Kok, Ei Chuen

2014-10-01

81

Interesting presentation of a retained upper deciduous incisor with apical fenestration.  

PubMed

A case is described where intrusion of a primary incisor resulting in apical fenestration may have occurred secondary to occlusal forces. The effects on the permanent dentition and possible aetiological factors are discussed. PMID:10816926

Edney, M B

2000-04-01

82

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 3 Work plans  

E-print Network

1 Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional and academic institutions and NGOs is implementing a regional IPM program in Central Asia. The three host countries include Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia

83

Late Paleozoic paleogeographic reconstruction of Western Central Asia based upon paleomagnetic data and its geodynamic implications  

E-print Network

Late Paleozoic paleogeographic reconstruction of Western Central Asia based upon paleomagnetic data Paleozoic poles of Central Asia blocks show: (1) counter clockwise rotation of West Junggar with respect;1. Introduction Paleozoic continental growth in Central Asia results from successive accretion, collision

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

84

A role for suppressed incisor cuspal morphogenesis in the evolution of mammalian heterodont dentition  

PubMed Central

Changes in tooth shape have played a major role in vertebrate evolution with modification of dentition allowing an organism to adapt to new feeding strategies. The current view is that molar teeth evolved from simple conical teeth, similar to canines, by progressive addition of extra “cones” to form progressively complex multicuspid crowns. Mammalian incisors, however, are neither conical nor multicuspid, and their evolution is unclear. We show that hypomorphic mutation of a cell surface receptor, Lrp4, which modulates multiple signaling pathways, produces incisors with grooved enamel surfaces that exhibit the same molecular characteristics as the tips of molar cusps. Mice with a null mutation of Lrp4 develop extra cusps on molars and have incisors that exhibit clear molar-like cusp and root morphologies. Molecular analysis identifies misregulation of Shh and Bmp signaling in the mutant incisors and suggests an uncoupling of the processes of tooth shape determination and morphogenesis. Incisors thus possess a developmentally suppressed, cuspid crown-like morphogenesis program similar to that in molars that is revealed by loss of Lrp4 activity. Several mammalian species naturally possess multicuspid incisors, suggesting that mammals have the capacity to form multicuspid teeth regardless of location in the oral jaw. Localized loss of enamel may thus have been an intermediary step in the evolution of cusps, both of which use Lrp4-mediated signaling. PMID:20018657

Ohazama, Atsushi; Blackburn, James; Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Ota, Masato S.; Choi, Hong Y.; Johnson, Eric B.; Myers, Philip; Oommen, Shelly; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kessler, John A.; Kondo, Takashi; Fraser, Gareth J.; Streelman, J. Todd; Pardiñas, Ulyses F. J.; Tucker, Abigail S.; Ortiz, Pablo E.; Charles, Cyril; Viriot, Laurent; Herz, Joachim; Sharpe, Paul T.

2009-01-01

85

Extraction of the lateral incisors to treat maxillary protrusion: quantitative evaluation of the stomatognathic functions.  

PubMed

To treat morphological abnormalities, impaction, and severe malposition of the teeth, the lateral incisors are sometimes extracted, followed by orthodontic space closure. This procedure often requires special consideration, not only with regard to esthetics but also for functional issues. However, thus far, few reports that have performed a functional evaluation in such cases. The purpose of this article is to report the successful treatment of an adult patient with a Class II division 1 malocclusion who was treated with extraction of the upper lateral incisors. The female patient, aged 23 years and 6 months, had a chief complaint of maxillary incisal protrusion and crooked teeth. In this patient, the upper lateral incisors were extracted to fulfill the patient's strong request, followed by orthodontic treatment using edgewise appliances. A high-pull J-hook headgear on the lower dental arch was used to prevent further labial inclination of the lower incisors. The total active treatment period was 37 months. The resulting occlusion and a satisfactory facial profile were maintained during a 4-year retention period. Additionally, this treatment did not affect the stomatognathic functions as assessed by the following criteria: range of the incisal path or condylar motion during maximal open-close movement, protrusive excursion, lateral excursion, and the chewing test. In conclusion, extraction of the upper lateral incisors can be an effective treatment choice when the upper lateral incisors are dwarfed, are nonvital, or demonstrate severe malposition. PMID:22908948

Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sumiyoshi, Kumi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

2013-03-01

86

Comparisons of nipple attachment and incisor growth among four species of voles (Microtus).  

PubMed

Patterns of nipple attachment and incisor growth were compared between four species of voles (Microtus). Offspring of two highly social species, prairie voles (M. ochrogaster) and pine voles (M. pinetorum), were shown to cling tightly to the nipples of their dams on Days 2, 6, and 10. This pattern contrasted to weak nipple attachment displayed by two less-social species, meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus) and montane voles (M. montanus). Lengths of the upper (maxillary) and lower (mandibular) incisors of the four species were recorded throughout the first 10 days of age and in adults. Incisors of the pine and prairie voles typically erupted earlier and grew longer than those of the meadow or montane voles during the first few days of development. Incisors grew at a substantial rate in the latter two species, such that they equalled or surpassed the incisor lengths of the former two species as Day 10 and weaning approached. Patterns of incisor growth, in part, reflected those for nipple attachment, but do not appear to account substantially for differences in nipple attachment. PMID:7926283

Salo, A L; Shapiro, L E; Dewsbury, D A

1994-07-01

87

A role for suppressed incisor cuspal morphogenesis in the evolution of mammalian heterodont dentition.  

PubMed

Changes in tooth shape have played a major role in vertebrate evolution with modification of dentition allowing an organism to adapt to new feeding strategies. The current view is that molar teeth evolved from simple conical teeth, similar to canines, by progressive addition of extra "cones" to form progressively complex multicuspid crowns. Mammalian incisors, however, are neither conical nor multicuspid, and their evolution is unclear. We show that hypomorphic mutation of a cell surface receptor, Lrp4, which modulates multiple signaling pathways, produces incisors with grooved enamel surfaces that exhibit the same molecular characteristics as the tips of molar cusps. Mice with a null mutation of Lrp4 develop extra cusps on molars and have incisors that exhibit clear molar-like cusp and root morphologies. Molecular analysis identifies misregulation of Shh and Bmp signaling in the mutant incisors and suggests an uncoupling of the processes of tooth shape determination and morphogenesis. Incisors thus possess a developmentally suppressed, cuspid crown-like morphogenesis program similar to that in molars that is revealed by loss of Lrp4 activity. Several mammalian species naturally possess multicuspid incisors, suggesting that mammals have the capacity to form multicuspid teeth regardless of location in the oral jaw. Localized loss of enamel may thus have been an intermediary step in the evolution of cusps, both of which use Lrp4-mediated signaling. PMID:20018657

Ohazama, Atsushi; Blackburn, James; Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Ota, Masato S; Choi, Hong Y; Johnson, Eric B; Myers, Philip; Oommen, Shelly; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kessler, John A; Kondo, Takashi; Fraser, Gareth J; Streelman, J Todd; Pardiñas, Ulyses F J; Tucker, Abigail S; Ortiz, Pablo E; Charles, Cyril; Viriot, Laurent; Herz, Joachim; Sharpe, Paul T

2010-01-01

88

Reactive Robot Navigation Based on a Combination of Central and Peripheral Vision  

E-print Network

Reactive Robot Navigation Based on a Combination of Central and Peripheral Vision Abstract In this paper, we present a new method for vision-based, reactive robot navigation that enables a robot to move in the middle of the free space by exploiting both central and peripheral vision. The system employs a forward

Trahanias, Panos

89

Comparison between an Acrylic Splint Herbst and an Acrylic Splint Miniscrew-Herbst for Mandibular Incisors Proclination Control  

PubMed Central

Aim. The aim of this study is to compare dental and skeletal effects produced by an acrylic splint Herbst with and without skeletal anchorage for correction of dental class II malocclusion. Methods. The test group was formed by 14 patients that were treated with an acrylic splint miniscrew-Herbst; miniscrews were placed between mandibular second premolars and first molars; controls also consisted of 14 subjects that were treated with an acrylic splint Herbst and no miniscrews. Cephalometric measurements before and after Herbst treatment were compared. The value of ? for significance was set at 0.05. Results. All subjects from both groups were successfully treated to a bilateral Class I relationship; mean treatment time was 8,1 months in the test group and 7.8 in the controls. Several variables did not have a statistical significant difference between the two groups. Some of the variables, instead, presented a significant difference such as incisor flaring, mandibular bone base position, and skeletal discrepancy. Conclusions. This study showed that the Herbst appliance associated to miniscrews allowed a better control of the incisor flaring with a greater mandibular skeletal effect. PMID:24963293

Manni, Antonio; Pasini, Marco; Nuzzo, Claudio; Grassi, Felice Roberto

2014-01-01

90

Embrasure morphology and central papilla recession  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of vertical and horizontal distances between the maxillary central incisors on the presence of interproximal dental papilla and to assess the association between the embrasure morphology and central papilla recession. Materials and Methods: The central papilla was visually assessed in 50 subjects using the standardized periapical radiographs of maxillary central incisors. The following vertical distances were measured; distance from the contact point to papilla tip, CP to proximal cementoenamel (pCEJ) junction, bone crest to CP (BC-CP) and BC-PT. The horizontal distance measured was interdental width (IDW) at pCEJ level. The measurements were recorded using a digital electronic caliper. Results: Significant association between the embrasure morphology and central papilla recession was observed for all study groups. All the interdental variables were significantly related to the presence of interdental papillae, with BC-CP distance being the strongest determinant of central papilla presence. The percentage of interdental papilla presence was 100% when the BC-CP distance was ?6 mm and IDW ranged between 0.5 and 1.5 mm. Central papilla recession was observed most frequently with wide-long and narrow-long embrasure morphology. Conclusion: In relation to maxillary central incisors, all the interdental variables have significant influences on the presence of interdental papillae, with distance from BC to CP being the strongest determinant of central papilla presence. PMID:24872628

Saxena, Divya; Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Grover, Vishakha

2014-01-01

91

Weighting links based on edge centrality for community detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Link weights have the equally important position as links in complex networks, and they are closely associated with each other for the emergence of communities. How to assign link weights to make a clear distinction between internal links of communities and external links connecting communities is of vital importance for community detection. Edge centralities provide a powerful approach for distinguishing internal links from external ones. Here, we first use edge centralities such as betweenness, information centrality and edge clustering coefficient to weight links of networks respectively to transform unweighted networks into weighted ones, and then a weighted function that both considers links and link weights is adopted on the weighted networks for community detection. We evaluate the performance of our approach on random networks as well as real-world networks. Better results are achieved on weighted networks with stronger weights of internal links of communities, and the results on unweighted networks outperform that of weighted networks with weaker weights of internal links of communities. The availability of our findings is also well-supported by the study of Granovetter that the weak links maintain the global integrity of the network while the strong links maintain the communities. Especially in the Karate club network, all the nodes are correctly classified when we weight links by edge betweenness. The results also give us a more comprehensive understanding on the correlation between links and link weights for community detection.

Sun, Peng Gang

2014-01-01

92

Neurogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells isolated from murine incisors  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interest in the use of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) to enhance neurological recovery following stroke and traumatic injury is increasing following successful pre-clinical studies. A murine model of autologous neural stem cell transplantation would be useful for further pre-clinical investigation of the underlying mechanisms. However, while human-derived DPSC have been well characterised, the neurogenic potential of murine DPSC (mDPSC) has been largely neglected. In this study we demonstrate neuronal differentiation of DPSC from murine incisors in vitro. Methods mDPSC were cultured under neuroinductive conditions and assessed for neuronal and glial markers and electrophysiological functional maturation. Results mDPSC developed a neuronal morphology and high expression of neural markers nestin, ßIII-tubulin and GFAP. Neurofilament M and S100 were found in lower abundance. Differentiated cells also expressed protein markers for cholinergic, GABAergic and glutaminergic neurons, indicating a mixture of central and peripheral nervous system cell types. Intracellular electrophysiological analysis revealed the presence of voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels in a majority of cells with neuronal morphology. No voltage-gated Na+ or K+ currents were found and the cultures did not support spontaneous action potentials. Neuronal-like networks expressed the gap junction protein, connexin 43 but this was not associated with dye coupling between adjacent cells after injection of the low-molecular weight tracers Lucifer yellow or Neurobiotin. This indicated that the connexin proteins were not forming traditional gap junction channels. Conclusions The data presented support the differentiation of mDPSC into immature neuronal-like networks. PMID:24572146

2014-01-01

93

Gemination of a Permanent Lateral Incisor- A Case Report with Special Emphasis on Management  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this case report is to describe the successful endodontic treatment and surgical management of a unesthetic geminated permanent maxillary lateral incisor tooth. Geminated maxillary incisor clinically revealed bifid crown with coronal groove and intraoral periapical radiograph showing radiolucent lesion with sclerotic border. orthograde root canal treatment was performed. surgery was done by reflecting limited thickness mucoperiosteal flap, cyst enucleated, root end resected and retrograde filling done using mineral trioxide aggregate. During the follow up examination, post operative intra oral periapical radiographs revealed healing of periapical lesion. How to cite this article: Sharada H L, Deo B, Briget B. Gemination of a Permanent Lateral Incisor - A Case Report with Special Emphasis on Management. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):55-59. PMID:24155591

Sharada, H L; Deo, Bharathi; Briget, Biji

2013-01-01

94

An Agent-Based Model of Centralized Institutions, Social Network Technology, and Revolution  

PubMed Central

This paper sheds light on the general mechanisms underlying large-scale social and institutional change. We employ an agent-based model to test the impact of authority centralization and social network technology on preference falsification and institutional change. We find that preference falsification is increasing with centralization and decreasing with social network range. This leads to greater cascades of preference revelation and thus more institutional change in highly centralized societies and this effect is exacerbated at greater social network ranges. An empirical analysis confirms the connections that we find between institutional centralization, social radius, preference falsification, and institutional change. PMID:24278280

Makowsky, Michael D.; Rubin, Jared

2013-01-01

95

An efficient community detection method based on rank centrality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Community detection is a very important problem in social network analysis. Classical clustering approach, K-means, has been shown to be very efficient to detect communities in networks. However, K-means is quite sensitive to the initial centroids or seeds, especially when it is used to detect communities. To solve this problem, in this study, we propose an efficient algorithm K-rank, which selects the top-K nodes with the highest rank centrality as the initial seeds, and updates these seeds by using an iterative technique like K-means. Then we extend K-rank to partition directed, weighted networks, and to detect overlapping communities. The empirical study on synthetic and real networks show that K-rank is robust and better than the state-of-the-art algorithms including K-means, BGLL, LPA, infomap and OSLOM.

Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

2013-05-01

96

Central neurocytoma: Management recommendations based on a 35-year experience  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the outcomes of patients with histologically confirmed central neurocytomas. Methods and Materials: The data from 45 patients with central neurocytomas diagnosed between 1971 and 2003 were retrospectively evaluated. Various combinations of surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy had been used for treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 10.0 years. The 10-year overall survival and local control rate was 83% and 60%, respectively. Patients whose tumor had a mitotic index of <3 (per 10 high-power fields) experienced a 10-year survival and local control rate of 89% and 74%, respectively, compared with 57% (p = 0.040) and 46% (p = 0.14) for patients with a tumor mitotic index of {>=}3. The 10-year survival and local control rate was 90% and 74% for patients with typical tumors compared with 63% (p = 0.055) and 46% (p = 0.41) for those with atypical tumors. A comparison of gross total resection with subtotal resection showed no significant difference in survival or local control. Postoperative RT improved local control at 10 years (75% with RT vs. 51% without RT, p = 0.045); however, this did not translate into a survival benefit. No 1p19q deletions were found in the 19 tumors tested. Conclusion: Although the overall prognosis is quite favorable, one-third of patients experienced tumor recurrence or progression at 10 years, regardless of the extent of the initial resection. Postoperative RT significantly improved local control but not survival, most likely because of the effectiveness of salvage RT. For incompletely resected atypical tumors and/or those with a high mitotic index, consideration should be given to adjuvant RT because of the more aggressive nature.

Leenstra, James L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Rodriguez, Fausto J. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Frechette, Christina M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Giannini, Caterina [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Stafford, Scott L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Pollock, Bruce E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Schild, Steven E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Scheithauer, Bernd W. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Jenkins, Robert B. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Buckner, Jan C. [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Brown, Paul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States)

2007-03-15

97

Splitting placodes: effects of bone morphogenetic protein and Activin on the patterning and identity of mouse incisors  

E-print Network

and identity of mouse incisors Pauliina M. Munne,a Szabolcs Felszeghy,b Maria Jussila,a Marika Suomalainen identity from the incisor to the molar. This evidence has been used to support a homeobox code in determining tooth identity. Our work provides an alternative interpretation, where the inhibition of BMP

Jernvall, Jukka

98

Europe needs a central, transparent, and evidence-based approval process for behavioural prevention interventions.  

PubMed

Fabrizio Faggiano and colleagues discuss how a central, transparent, and evidence-based approval process is needed for behavioral prevention interventions in Europe and propose a way forward. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:25291521

Faggiano, Fabrizio; Allara, Elias; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Molinar, Roberta; Sumnall, Harry; Wiers, Reinout; Michie, Susan; Collins, Linda; Conrod, Patricia

2014-10-01

99

Chytridiomycosis risk among Central European amphibians based on surveillance data.  

PubMed

The Czech Republic hosts a surprisingly rich biodiversity of amphibians representing the majority of amphibian species present in all of Central and Eastern Europe. Surveillance data of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) collected during 2008 to 2012 were analysed for basic patterns of prevalence and infection intensity among species, age groups and localities. In addition, an investigation was made into possible data bias due to varying PCR inhibition. Infection prevalence in the genus Pelophylax was significantly higher than in other sampled taxa, while Bombina and Bufo were infected with intermediate prevalence. Individual mortalities putatively caused by chytridiomycosis were detected in Bombina and Bufo, but not in Pelophylax. Differences among localities were seen to modulate the pathogen's infection rate and influence overall individual infection intensities. PCR inhibition occurred significantly more often in samples from the genus Pelophylax than in other tested taxa (Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus and Rana dalmatina). Although we found no completely inhibited samples within the genus Bombina, the infection loads were lower in the sample set processed without bovine serum albumin, suggesting some level of PCR inhibition. The combination of high Bd prevalence with no apparent deleterious effect and the high dispersal abilities of water frogs predispose them to act as vectors for chytridiomycosis. It is possible that the role of Pelophylax frogs in the spread of Bd is overlooked due to a large proportion of unrecognized false negatives, but this issue needs further confirmation. PMID:25392037

Balá, Vojtech; Vojar, Jir?í; Civi, Petr; Andera, Martin; Rozínek, Roman

2014-11-14

100

Ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Altzomoni is a high altitude station in central Mexico (19.12 N, 98.65 W, 4000 m a.s.l.) for continuous measurements of various atmospheric parameters. It is located within the Izta-Popo National Park and is operated remotely from the UNAM campus. Since May 2012, high resolution solar absorption spectra have been recorded from this site using a FTIR from Bruker (HR120/5) equipped with MCT, InSb and InGaAs detectors and various optical filters. In this contribution we present a detailed description of the measurement site and the instrumental set-up including a record of the instrumental line-shapes (modulation efficiency and phase error) obtained from cell measurements and analyzed with the LINEFIT code. A preliminary analysis of almost two years of spectra recorded at the Altzomoni site resulting in profile retrievals of four NDACC gases O3, CO, HF and HCl is presented. The retrieval code PROFFIT is used and the Averaging Kernels and an error analysis are used to describe the quality of the measurements. The annual cycles in the time series of O3 and CO are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of anomalies due to volcanic gas emissions of HF and HCl are shown. The presented work is part of an effort to certify this station as part of the NDACC international network.

Plaza, Eddy; Stremme, Wolfgang; Bezanilla, Alejandro; Baylon, Jorge; Grutter, Michel; Blumenstock, Thomas; Hase, Frank

2014-05-01

101

A development-based compartmentalization of the Drosophila central brain  

PubMed Central

The neuropile of the Drosophila brain is subdivided into anatomically discrete compartments. Compartments are rich in terminal neurite branching and synapses; they are the neuropile domains in which signal processing takes place. Compartment boundaries are defined by more or less dense layers of glial cells, as well as long neurite fascicles. These fascicles are formed during the larval period when the approximately 100 neuronal lineages that constitute the Drosophila central brain differentiate. Each lineage forms an axon tract with a characteristic trajectory in the neuropile; groups of spatially related tracts congregate into the brain fascicles that can be followed from the larva throughout metamorphosis into the adult stage. In this paper we provide a map of the adult brain compartments and the relevant fascicles defining compartmental boundaries. We have identified the neuronal lineages contributing to each fascicle, which allowed us to directly compare compartments of the larval and adult brain. Most adult compartments can be recognized already in the early larval brain where they form a “protomap” of the later adult compartments. Our analysis highlights the morphogenetic changes shaping the Drosophila brain; the data will be important for studies that link early acting genetic mechanisms to the adult neuronal structures and circuits controlled by these mechanisms. PMID:20533357

Pereanu, Wayne; Kumar, Abilasha; Jennett, Arnim; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

2010-01-01

102

School-Based Management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or Decentralizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examined the debate on a reform of school-based management in Hong Kong, which was to set up the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) to manage the subsidized school. The nature of the debate during legislation and the characteristics of the reform were examined. The advantages, disadvantages and the implications of the reform were…

Pang, I-Wah

2008-01-01

103

Endodontic treatment and esthetic management of a geminated central incisor bearing a talon cusp.  

PubMed

Gemination with talon cusps is an uncommon morphologic dental anomaly, characterized by the formation of clinically wide tooth that can cause significant aesthetic and clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries susceptibility, and tooth crowding. These morphological dental anomalies have specific treatment needs due to the abnormal morphology and need virtuous radiologic diagnosis. Multidisciplinary approach can supply success of the treatment plan that can provide esthetic and occlusal requirements. In this case report, the multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of geminated tooth with talon cusp is presented with the clinical and radiographic findings. PMID:24715989

Tar?m Erta?, Elif; Y?rcal? At?c?, Meral; Arslan, Hakan; Ya?a, Bilal; Erta?, Hüseyin

2014-01-01

104

Endodontic Treatment and Esthetic Management of a Geminated Central Incisor Bearing a Talon Cusp  

PubMed Central

Gemination with talon cusps is an uncommon morphologic dental anomaly, characterized by the formation of clinically wide tooth that can cause significant aesthetic and clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries susceptibility, and tooth crowding. These morphological dental anomalies have specific treatment needs due to the abnormal morphology and need virtuous radiologic diagnosis. Multidisciplinary approach can supply success of the treatment plan that can provide esthetic and occlusal requirements. In this case report, the multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of geminated tooth with talon cusp is presented with the clinical and radiographic findings. PMID:24715989

Tar?m Ertas, Elif; Y?rcal? At?c?, Meral; Arslan, Hakan; Yasa, Bilal; Ertas, Huseyin

2014-01-01

105

Incisor trauma and early treatment for Class II Division 1 malocclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated incisor trauma in children with overjets greater than or equal to 7 mm who were enrolled in a clinical trial of 2-phase early orthodontic treatment for Class II malocclusion. In phase 1, children were randomly assigned to treatment in the mixed dentition with either modified bionator or combination headgear or to a group in which treatment was

Lorne D. Koroluk; J. F. Camilla Tulloch; Ceib Phillips

2003-01-01

106

Characterization of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Mouse Incisor with Two-Dimensional  

E-print Network

Characterization of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Mouse Incisor with Two.D., M.S.,3 Tejal A. Desai, Ph.D.,2 and Ophir D. Klein, M.D., Ph.D.1,6 Dental epithelial stem cells of these cells or the minimal extracellular scaffolding that is necessary to maintain the epithelial stem cell

Klein, Ophir

107

Expression of MicroRNAs in the Stem Cell Niche of the Adult Mouse Incisor  

E-print Network

Expression of MicroRNAs in the Stem Cell Niche of the Adult Mouse Incisor Andrew H. Jheon1 , Chun but under-utilized model organ for studying the behavior of adult stem cells. This remarkable tooth grows continuously throughout the animal's lifetime and houses two distinct epithelial stem cell niches called

Klein, Ophir

108

Growth and the modeling/remodeling of the alveolar bone of the rat incisor.  

PubMed

The modeling and remodeling of the rat incisor alveolar bone was followed as the animals grew. The weight of the hemimandible, the length of the socket, and the width of the lower incisor were measured. Osteoclasts and resorption areas were identified by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Fluorochrome markers were used to detect and measure osteogenic activities. In the socket related to the periodontal ligament, osteoclasts appeared in scattered sites as well as isolated sites of osteogenic activity, apparently without any variation related to the age of the animals. At the socket facing the dental follicle of young rats, the inner surface was lined with osteoclasts. The number of osteoclasts decreased steadily as the rats grew. In 1-year-old rats, in addition to a few scattered osteoclasts, the internal aspect of the labial wall showed some sites lined with osteoblasts and cement lines indicative of prior bone formation. In young rats, there was a continuous osteogenic activity at the external surface of this wall. The thickness of the labial wall of the socket remained apparently constant; therefore, bone resorption must have occurred at the internal side of the wall. Such osteogenic activity was not observed in old rats. The main forces acting on rat incisors, biting and eruption, are continuous through the life of the animals. Thus, these results indicate that the modeling of the alveolar bone related to the dental follicle, in young rats, can only be associated with another force, specifically, the growth of the incisor. PMID:18461598

Merzel, José; Salmon, Cristiane R

2008-07-01

109

Isolation and Culture of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Incisor  

PubMed Central

Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest1-4, and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give rise to ameloblasts that generate enamel, the outer covering of teeth, on the labial surface. This asymmetric enamel formation allows abrasion at the incisor tip, and progenitors and stem cells in the proximal incisor ensure that the dental tissues are constantly replenished. The ability to isolate and grow these progenitor or stem cells in vitro allows their expansion and opens doors to numerous experiments not achievable in vivo, such as high throughput testing of potential stem cell regulatory factors. Here, we describe and demonstrate a reliable and consistent method to culture cells from the labial CL of the mouse incisor. PMID:24834972

Chavez, Miquella G.; Hu, Jimmy; Seidel, Kerstin; Li, Chunying; Jheon, Andrew; Naveau, Adrien; Horst, Orapin; Klein, Ophir D.

2014-01-01

110

Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Central pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and often refractory to treatment. Methods: We conducted a single-center, 5-week (1-week run-in, 4-week treatment), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in 66 patients with MS and central pain states (59 dysesthetic, seven painful spasms) of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM), containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) delivered via an oromu- cosal spray, as adjunctive

David J. Rog; Turo J. Nurmikko; Tim Friede; Carolyn A. Young

2005-01-01

111

Progenitor Cell-Based Myelination as a Model for Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases of the brain and spinal cord are especially daunting challenges for cell-based strategies of repair, given the multiplicity of cell types within the adult central nervous system, and the precision with which they must interact in both space and time. Nonetheless, a number of diseases are especially appropriate for cell-based therapy, in particular those in which single phenotypes are

S. A. Goldman; J. Lang; N. Roy; S. Schanz; F. Sim; S. Wang; V. Washco; M. Windrem

112

Another one bites the dust: Does incisor-arcade size affect mass gain and survival in grazing  

E-print Network

in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, over 9 years. In adult ewes, incisor'Am�rique (Ovis canadensis) � Ram Mountain, Alberta (Canada), durant 9 ann�es. Chez les brebis adultes, la largeur

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

113

Reattachment of fractured maxillary incisors using fiber-reinforced post: Two case reports  

PubMed Central

Objective: The reattachment of the crown fragment to a fractured tooth is a conservative treatment that should be considered for young patients with crown-root fractures to the maxillary incisors if the subgingival fracture can be exposed to provide isolation. Gingivectomy, the surgical or orthodontic extrusion of the apical fragment is necessary to expose the subgingival fracture. This report demonstrates the treatment of two cases with the combination of gingivectomy or resective osseous surgery, reattachment of coronal fracture and fiber-reinforced polymer posts and shows three years long term follow-up. Subgingivally extended crown-root fractures of maxillary incisors were restored with a combination of chemically cured resin material, light cured resin material and polyethylene fiber. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this case report, it was demonstrated that reattachment of tooth fragments can successfully benefit periodontal health, aesthetic needs and normal functioning after three years. PMID:22509128

Tosun, Gul; Yildiz, Esma; Elbay, Mesut; Sener, Yagmur

2012-01-01

114

Non-Syndromic Bilateral Supplemental Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Rare Case  

PubMed Central

Supernumerary teeth or hyperdontia are defined as the teeth that exceeds the normal dental formula, regardless of their location and morphology. A supernumerary tooth is a developmental anomaly and it has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. Supernumerary teeth with orthodox shapes and sizes, that resemble the normal dentition are called ‘supplemental teeth’. The supplemental teeth are often overlooked because of their normal shapes and sizes. Supplemental lateral incisors are rare and bilateral cases are even rarer, with only two cases being reported in the literature till date. Therefore, we are describing a rare case of non–syndromic, bilateral, supplemental, maxillary, lateral incisors and we have discussed the management of supernumerary teeth. PMID:24086923

Nagpal, Ajay; Hans, Manoj Kumar; Shetty, Shashit; Kaur, Navpreet; Kumar, Sunil

2013-01-01

115

Surgical resection technique of a fused supernumerary lateral incisor: a clinical report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

This case report presents the surgical and restorative management of a fused supernumerary left lateral incisor. The diagnosis was confirmed using conventional radiographs and CT. The case report discusses the value of CT for evaluation of the root relationships and describes the varied morphology associated with supernumerary incisors, the surgical resection technique, partial pulpotomy, and restoration with composite resin after mechanical exposure of the remaining tooth's pulp. PMID:22782063

Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Widmann, Gerlig; Puelacher, Wolfgang

2012-01-01

116

Alveolar bone loss around incisors in Class I bidentoalveolar protrusion patients: a retrospective three-dimensional cone beam CT study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the alveolar bone thickness, bone loss or incidence of fenestrations between upper and lower incisors in skeletal Class I bidentoalveolar protrusive patients before orthodontic treatment. Methods Three-dimensional (3D) cone beam CT (CBCT) images were taken of 24 patients from the Republic of Korea (17 females and 7 males). Reformatted CBCT images were used to measure labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness (ABT) of the 4 upper incisors and 4 lower incisors of the 24 patients (total n = 192 incisors) at every 1/10 of root length (Level 0, cementoenamel junction (CEJ) area; Level 10, root apex area) as well as alveolar bone area (ABA) and alveolar bone loss (%BL) rate to dental root length. The numbers of fenestration teeth were also tallied. Results All anterior teeth were supported by <1 mm of ABT on the labial surfaces up to root length Level 8. ABA was statistically greater on the lingual aspect than the labial aspect in lower incisors. The %BL was 26.98% in the lower labial region, 19.27% in upper labial aspect and most severe on the lower lingual plate 31.25% compared with the labial plate. There were no significant differences in %BL between subgroups when categorized by sex or age. Fenestrations were 1.37 times more frequent on lower incisors (37) than upper incisors (27). Conclusion The null hypothesis was rejected, confirming that incisor periodontal support is poor and alveolar bone loss is severe even prior to the start of orthodontic treatment. Careful diagnosis using 3D CBCT images is needed to avoid iatrogenic degeneration of periodontal support around anterior teeth, particularly in the lower lingual bone plate region. PMID:22184474

Nahm, K-Y; Kang, J-H; Moon, S-C; Choi, Y-S; Kook, Y-A; Kim, S-H; Huang, JC

2012-01-01

117

Stability of upper incisor inclination changes in Class II division 2 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in incisor inclination following orthodontic treatment in Class II division 2 patients, and to assess the long-term stability after retention. Dental casts and cephalograms of 61 Class II division 2 patients (31 males and 30 females, mean age 13.4 years) with a closed lip seal were available before (T1), at

H. Devreese; G. de Pauw; G. van Maele; A. M. Kuijpers-Jagtman; L. Dermaut

2007-01-01

118

Expression of MicroRNAs in the Stem Cell Niche of the Adult Mouse Incisor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mouse incisor is a valuable but under-utilized model organ for studying the behavior of adult stem cells. This remarkable tooth grows continuously throughout the animal's lifetime and houses two distinct epithelial stem cell niches called the labial and lingual cervical loop (laCL and liCL, respectively). These stem cells produce progeny that undergo a series of well-defined differentiation events en

Andrew H. Jheon; Chun-Ying Li; Timothy Wen; Frederic Michon; Ophir D. Klein; Songtao Shi

2011-01-01

119

Visualization of glycosaminoglycans in rat incisor extracellular matrix using a hyaluronidase-gold complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The enzyme-gold technique was used on dental tissues. Hyaluronidase was complexed with gold, and ultrathin sections of rat incisors were incubated with the hyaluronidase-gold complex to localize chondroitin-sulphate and hyaluronic acid at the ultrastructural level. The hyaluronidase-gold complex was, found in predentine and dentine, especially at the mineralization front, in interglobular spaces and around dentinal canaficuli. The very young enamel

H. Chardin; I. Londono; M. Goldberg

1990-01-01

120

Ankylosis of traumatized permanent incisors: pathogenesis and current approaches to diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Ankylosis is a known complication of replanted or severely intruded permanent incisors and can be diagnosed by the characteristic sound emitted when the tooth is tapped. The ankylosed incisor demonstrates a lack of physiologic mobility and, later, radiographic evidence of replacement resorption. If the patient is pre-adolescent or adolescent at the time of trauma, infraocclusion relative to adjacent teeth will become apparent during jaw growth. Despite considerable knowledge about the pathogenesis of ankylosis garnered from animal studies and observation of human replanted teeth, there is no known treatment to arrest this condition. Management techniques and rehabilitation options for addressing ankylosis and its consequences are supported by little evidence, do not appear to be widely adopted and do not offer any proven long-term benefit. Avulsion and severe intrusion of permanent incisors are rare injuries. Should the decision be made to intervene by replantation or reduction of the intrusion, the clinician must be prepared to diagnose ankylosis, identify its negative consequences and develop treatment plans accordingly. PMID:16324230

Campbell, Karen M; Casas, Michael J; Kenny, David J

2005-11-01

121

The multidisciplinary management of fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth in cleft lip adolescence.  

PubMed

Fusion, an uncommon anomaly of the hard dental tissues, is potentially the cause of clinical problems related to esthetics, tooth spacing, and other periodontal complications. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgical, endodontic, restorative, and orthodontic attention for the successful, functional, and esthetic rehabilitation of a maxillary left lateral incisor fused with a supernumerary tooth in unilateral cleft lip adolescence in contralateral side. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a fusion between the left maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth was diagnosed in the patient, and a small connection was detected between the pulp systems of the two root canals. The case reported in this paper presents the successful resolution of a fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth, using endodontic, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic management. The decision made in extracting or retaining the fused tooth depends on the arch discrepancy and esthetic needs. Future studies, with long-term followup, will be helpful in evaluating the long-term efficacy of the different treatment options. PMID:24516763

Yagci, Ahmet; Cantekin, Kenan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Pala, Kansad

2014-01-01

122

A case of maloccluded incisor teeth in a beaver: castor canadensis.  

PubMed

A three-year-old female beaver (Castor canadensis) was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Chungbuk National University. It had been raised in the Cheong-ju zoo and had a history of malocclusion caused by improper feeding. General anesthesia was induced, and preoperative intraoral dental radiographs of the rostal maxillary and mandibular dentition were taken and lateral and ventrodorsal extraoral radiographs of the cheek teeth were also taken. The radiographs were negative for apical pathology and revealed a normal appearance of the cheek teeth. The lesion was likely to be related to the excessive length of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Odontoplasty was performed to reduce overgrowth of the crowns of the incisors. Sequential transverse sections were removed until the crown was reduced by approximately its original length. The pulp chamber was not approached during the operation, as confirmed by postoperative intraoral radiographic evaluation of the incisors. Recovery from anesthesia was uneventful and the beaver returned to normal masticatory activities immediately after the operation. PMID:15933441

Kim, Joong-hyun; Lee, Jae Yeong; Han, Tae-Sung; Han, Kyu-bo; Kang, Seong Soo; Bae, Chun Sik; Choi, Seok Hwa

2005-06-01

123

The upper dentition and face of Pondaungia cotteri from central Myanmar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specimen of Pondaungia from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation in central Myanmar includes maxillary fragments and parts of the dentition, some hitherto undocumented, including the upper central incisor, canine, premolars and molars. Pondaungia has a large spatulate I1 closely resembling that of crown anthropoids. It possesses a stout projecting upper canine (like anthropoids) but differs from that tooth

Nobuo Shigehara; Masanaru Takai; Richard F. Kay; Aye Ko Aung; Aung Naing Soe; Soe Thura Tun; Takehisa Tsubamato; Tin Thein

2002-01-01

124

Zero Based Staffing/Services Analysis for the Central State University Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zero Based Staffing/Services (ZBS/S)--a management tool designed to portray the relationship between the people or staff of an agency and the services they perform--was used in this study to inventory library services and staffing at the Central State University Library and provide a long-range planning analysis for library and university…

Lolley, John, Ed.

125

How to decide intervention thresholds based on FRAX in central south Chinese postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

The FRAX tool has been used to determine possible thresholds for therapeutic intervention; however, there are no FRAX-based intervention thresholds available for China, we proposed that the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture of about 4.0 and 1.3%, respectively, may be acceptable intervention thresholds for central south Chinese postmenopausal women. PMID:24146412

Zhang, Zhimin; Ou, Yangna; Sheng, Zhifeng; Liao, Eryuan

2014-03-01

126

Central Asia IPM CRSP 2008-09 Annual Report 1 Ecologically-Based Participatory and Collaborative Research and  

E-print Network

Central Asia IPM CRSP 2008-09 Annual Report 1 Ecologically-Based Participatory and Collaborative Research and Capacity Building in IPM in the Central Asia Region U.S. Team Members: Karim Maredia, Michigan of California, Davis Research Fellows in Central Asia: Dr. Nurali Saidov (Tajikistan), Dr. Barno Tashpulatova

127

Ecologically-based Participatory and Collaborative Research and Capacity Building in Integrated Pest Management in Central Asia  

E-print Network

Pest Management in Central Asia By using an ecologically-based and multidisciplinary systems approach for Integrated Pest Management in Central Asia (IPM-CRSP). The project is designed to foster development building in IPM in Central Asia. The project consists of three components: landscape ecology, biological

128

Differentiating Obstructive from Central and Complex Sleep Apnea Using an Automated Electrocardiogram-Based Method  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Complex sleep apnea is defined as sleep disordered breathing secondary to simultaneous upper airway obstruction and respiratory control dysfunction. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of an electrocardiogram (ECG)-based cardiopulmonary coupling technique to distinguish obstructive from central or complex sleep apnea. Design: Analysis of archived polysomnographic datasets. Setting: A laboratory for computational signal analysis. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: The PhysioNet Sleep Apnea Database, consisting of 70 polysomnograms including single-lead ECG signals of approximately 8 hours duration, was used to train an ECG-based measure of autonomic and respiratory interactions (cardiopulmonary coupling) to detect periods of apnea and hypopnea, based on the presence of elevated low-frequency coupling (e-LFC). In the PhysioNet BIDMC Congestive Heart Failure Database (ECGs of 15 subjects), a pattern of “narrow spectral band” e-LFC was especially common. The algorithm was then applied to the Sleep Heart Health Study–I dataset, to select the 15 records with the highest amounts of broad and narrow spectral band e-LFC. The latter spectral characteristic seemed to detect not only periods of central apnea, but also obstructive hypopneas with a periodic breathing pattern. Applying the algorithm to 77 sleep laboratory split-night studies showed that the presence of narrow band e-LFC predicted an increased sensitivity to induction of central apneas by positive airway pressure. Conclusions: ECG-based spectral analysis allows automated, operator-independent characterization of probable interactions between respiratory dyscontrol and upper airway anatomical obstruction. The clinical utility of spectrographic phenotyping, especially in predicting failure of positive airway pressure therapy, remains to be more thoroughly tested. Citation: Thomas RJ; Mietus JE; Peng CK; Gilmartin G; Daly RW; Goldberger AL; Gottlieb DJ. Differentiating obstructive from central and complex sleep apnea using an automated electrocardiogram-based method. SLEEP 2007;30(12):1756-1769. PMID:18246985

Thomas, Robert Joseph; Mietus, Joseph E.; Peng, Chung-Kang; Gilmartin, Geoffrey; Daly, Robert W.; Goldberger, Ary L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.

2007-01-01

129

Bioenergy and economic analysis of soybean-based crop production systems in central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the energy requirement and energy input–output relationship of soybean-based crop production systems viz., soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean–mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.) and soybean–chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in central India. Using a pre-tested questionnaire, 135 farmers were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Results revealed that manures and chemical

K. G Mandal; K. P Saha; P. K Ghosh; K. M Hati; K. K Bandyopadhyay

2002-01-01

130

Usability Studies of Web-Based Portal Structures in Academia (Specifically, iCentral)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Central Michigan University (CMU) uses a web-based portal for its students, staff, and faculty to pay bills, register for\\u000a classes, stay current with school events, and to accomplish many other important and useful tasks. Since so many people depend\\u000a on this portal structure, the interface must be intuitive and easy to use and navigational hierarchies must be clearly organized.\\u000a In

Matt Brooks; David Munro; Roger Lee

131

Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation in Betul Belt, central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,\\u000a central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed. Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by\\u000a the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits in other parts of the world.\\u000a Synvolcanic hydrothermal alteration is crudely zoned with an

Biswajit Ghosh; M. N. Praveen

2008-01-01

132

Management of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: an evidence-based  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retinal vein occlusions are common retinal vascular disorders with the potential for significant vision-related morbidity.\\u000a Retinal vein occlusions are classified as either branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO),\\u000a or hemiretinal vein occlusion (HRVO) based on the specific occlusion site. Decreased vision in patients afflicted with CRVO\\u000a may result from retinal ischemia and\\/or the accumulation of fluid

Ahmad A. Aref; Ingrid U. Scott

2011-01-01

133

Deformations in Central Europe: finite element approach and comparison with GPS-based strain determinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geological point of view, the area of Central Europe is very complex. At the same time Europe is being affected by the forces associated with tectonic Africa, as well as Atlantic (ridge) push. In our study the general strain pattern of Central Europe was determined from two different approaches. The first one was finite element approach (FEM). The area of Europe was subdivided into more than 50 elements corresponding to the main geological units and the two-dimensional model of strain field in Central Europe was developed. In order to model a diverse nature of geological structures two approaches were investigated: elastic and more sophisticated made by adding some viscosity properties. Various parameters (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, lithosphere thickness, etc.) with the use of the ABAQUS software were implemented. The second approach was based on the method using sites' velocities determined by continuous GPS measurements. EPN network as well as ASG-EUPOS Polish system were utilised. More than 300 European sites with the precisely known velocities in global ITRF2008 reference frame formed the basis for these determinations by using GRID_STRAIN software. This geometrical method allows determining the magnitude and the main strain directions as well. The presentation describes results of numerical calculations and their comparison on the area of Central Europe.

Bogusz, Janusz; Jarosinski, Marek; Araszkiewicz, Andrzej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna; Kontny, Bernard

2013-04-01

134

Indirect usage of miniscrew anchorage to intrude overerupted mandibular incisors in a Class II patient with a deep overbite.  

PubMed

Vertical dentoalveolar discrepancies are a common problem in orthodontic patients but are often difficult to treat with traditional mechanics. This case report illustrates the successful treatment of overerupted mandibular incisors via the indirect use of miniscrew anchorage. A woman (age, 22 years 9 months) had chief complaints of maxillary incisor protrusion and crooked teeth. An excessive curve of Spee caused by elongation of the mandibular incisors was also found. The patient was diagnosed with a severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion and a deep overbite. After extraction of the mandibular first premolars and the subsequent leveling phase, the elongated incisors were intruded with a novel method, which involved the combined use of sectional archwires and miniscrews placed in the premolar areas. After the procedure, the mandibular incisors had been intruded by 6.5 mm with no undesirable side effects. The total active treatment period was 42 months. The resultant occlusion and satisfactory facial profile were maintained after 30 months of retention. Our novel intrusion approach shows potential for correcting a deep overbite. PMID:23540627

Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Balam, Tarek A; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

2013-04-01

135

Bedside prediction of airway length by measuring upper incisor manubrio-sternal joint length  

PubMed Central

Background: Malpositioning of endotracheal tube may lead to serious complications like endobronchial intubation or accidental extubation. Using anatomical measurements for prediction of airway length would be more practical in resource constrained settings. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 or 2, without any evidence of difficult airway, were randomly allocated to two cohorts — a model cohort of 70 (50 males) and test cohort of 30 (20 males) subjects. Height, the straight length from the upper incisor to manubrio-sternal joint in fully extended head position (IncManustL), the length from upper incisor to the carina in neutral head position (IncCarinaL), and degree of neck extension were measured in all subjects. Relationship between the two lengths in the model cohort was explored by Pearson's coefficient (r). Predictions were made for subjects in the test cohort and actual and predicted values assessed for agreement using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Good agreement was found between IncManustL and IncCarinaL for both male (r = 0.69) and female (r = 0.54) subjects. Multiple regression analysis suggested height to be another significant predictor, unlike age, weight, and neck extension. The gender-specific regression equations were used to predict IncCarinaL for the test cohort. ICC for absolute agreement between the actual and predicted values was 0.723 (95% CI 0.495-0.858). Conclusions: It is possible to predict airway length in adult Indian subjects by making two simple anatomical measurements, namely stature and incisor manubrio-sternal joint length. PMID:24803755

Mukherjee, Sudipta; Ray, Manjushree; Pal, Rita

2014-01-01

136

Quantitative analysis of the central-chest lymph nodes based on 3D MDCT image data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In lung-cancer staging, central-chest lymph nodes and associated nodal stations, as observed in three-dimensional (3D) multidetector CT (MDCT) scans, play a vital role. However, little work has been done in relation to lymph nodes, based on MDCT data, due to the complicated phenomena that give rise to them. Using our custom computer-based system for 3D MDCT-based pulmonary lymph-node analysis, we conduct a detailed study of lymph nodes as depicted in 3D MDCT scans. In this work, the Mountain lymph-node stations are automatically defined by the system. These defined stations, in conjunction with our system's image processing and visualization tools, facilitate lymph-node detection, classification, and segmentation. An expert pulmonologist, chest radiologist, and trained technician verified the accuracy of the automatically defined stations and indicated observable lymph nodes. Next, using semi-automatic tools in our system, we defined all indicated nodes. Finally, we performed a global quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the observed nodes and stations. This study drew upon a database of 32 human MDCT chest scans. 320 Mountain-based stations (10 per scan) and 852 pulmonary lymph nodes were defined overall from this database. Based on the numerical results, over 90% of the automatically defined stations were deemed accurate. This paper also presents a detailed summary of central-chest lymph-node characteristics for the first time.

Lu, Kongkuo; Bascom, Rebecca; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

2009-02-01

137

Assessing the ecological base and peak flow of the alpine streams in Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological base and peak flow are crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may severely damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme conditions. Aquatic insects are selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base and peak flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. Two streams located at the alpine area in central Taiwan are selected as the study area to evaluate the base and peak flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to Dec 2008) collected from one stream Creek C originating from Sitou Area in Central Taiwan shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 32.47% and 31.11%, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Good" and "Very Good" level while the river pollution index (RPI) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 95% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.0234 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate result and ecological peak flow in rainy and typhoon seasons.

Wei, C.; Yang, P. S.; Tian, P. L.

2009-04-01

138

Background factors of molar-incisor hypomineralization in a group of Finnish children.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental enamel defect characterized by demarcated opacities in permanent molars and incisors. Its etiology still remains unclear. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess if the socioeconomic environment of the child is associated with MIH. Materials and methods. The study was located in two rural towns and three urban cities in Finland. A total of 818 children, between 7-13 years old, were examined for MIH using the evaluation criteria in line with those of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry, but excluding opacities smaller than 2 mm in diameter. The mothers filled in a questionnaire which included questions related to the family's way of living (e.g. area of residency, farming, day care attendance) and socioeconomic status (family income, number of mother's school years, level of maternal education). Results. The prevalence of MIH in the study population was 17.1%. Family income, urban residency and day care attendance were associated with MIH in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis using binary logistic regression, only urban residency during a child's first 2 years of life remained associated with MIH. The prevalence of MIH in urban areas was 21.3% and in rural areas 11.5% (OR = 2.18, CI = 1.35-3.53, p = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH was related to urban residency and could not be explained by any other factor included in the study. PMID:25005624

Wuollet, Emma; Laisi, Sakari; Salmela, Eija; Ess, Anneli; Alaluusua, Satu

2014-11-01

139

Prevalence of lesions in incisors of mule deer from Colorado Springs, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Lesions in teeth may be influenced by exposure to fluorides, malnutrition and trauma. Incisors of 228 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) taken from the USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, CO during the 1993 hunting season were examined for lesions. A classification scheme (scale = 0--5) for lesions was derived from the method of Shupe et al. 1963. Lesions were present in at least one incisor of 84.6% of deer. Of the deer with lesions, 86% had at least one tooth with very slight effect (one to few white spots), 9.8% had a slight effect (generalized mottling), 2.6% had a moderate effect (generalized mottling and wear), 10.04% had a marked effect (mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel) , and 0.5 % ad severe effects (hypoplasia of the enamel and abnormal wear). Lesions that affect the enamel are produced during the period of formation of the tooth. The severity of lesions depends on the cause and the length of exposure to the causative agent. Generally mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel are associated with fluorosis. The relationship of lesions to bone and tooth fluoride concentrations was examined.

Borrero, L.M.; Scanlon, P.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife Science

1995-12-31

140

Shear bond strength of dentin and deproteinized enamel of AI mouse incisors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the adhesion through shear bond strength (SBS) testing of a resin composite bonded with a self-etching bonding system (SEB) to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-affected deproteinized mouse enamel or dentin; and to compare wild-type (WT), amelogenin null (AmelxKO) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 null (Mmp20KO) enamel and dentin phenotypes using microCT and nanoindentation. Methods Enamel incisor surfaces of WT, AmelxKO and Mmp20KO mice were treated with SEB with and without NaOCl and tested for SBS. Incisor dentin was also treated with SEB and tested for SBS. These surfaces were further examined by SEM. MicroCT and nanoindentation analyses were performed on mouse dentin and enamel. Data were analyzed for significance by ANOVA. Results Deproteinization did not improve SBS of SEB to these AI-affected enamel surfaces. SBS of AmelxKO teeth was similar in dentin and enamel; however, it was higher in Mmp20KO dentin. The nanohardness of knockout enamel was significantly lower than WT, while knockout dentin nanohardness was not different from WT. Conclusions Using animal AI models, it was demonstrated that enamel NaOCl deproteinization of hypoplastic and hypoplastic-hypomaturation enamel did not increase shear bond strength while removal of the defective enamel allowed optimal dentin bonding. PMID:25303500

Pugach, M.K.; Ozer, F.; Mulmadgi, R.; Li, Y.; Suggs, C.; Wright, J.T.; Bartlett, J.D.; Gibson, C.W.; Lindemeyer, R.G.

2014-01-01

141

Use of Forsus fatigue-resistant device in a patient with Class I malocclusion and mandibular incisor agenesis.  

PubMed

Orthodontic treatment in patients with congenitally missing teeth can be challenging. In this case report, we describe the treatment of a 15-year-old girl with mild dental crowding and 2 congenitally missing mandibular incisors. The Forsus fatigue-resistant device was used to move the mandible and the mandibular teeth forward. A new balanced and stable occlusion was achieved after treatment. When the treatment plan includes moving the mandibular teeth forward in a patient with mandibular incisor agenesis, the profile and the skeletal and dental features should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that balanced and esthetic results are achieved. PMID:24880853

Zhang, Ruofang; Bai, Yuxing; Li, Song

2014-06-01

142

Study of the Extent of Torque, Protrusion and Intrusion of the Incisors in the Context of Class II, Division 2 Treatment in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the relative contribution of torque and protrusion to the change in incisor inclination in the treatment of Class II, Division 2 malocclusion with fixed appliances. Furthermore, the extent of incisor intrusion was to be evaluated. The second part of the study was aimed at documenting the stability of the therapeutic outcome

Jürgen Kinzel; Petra Aberschek; Irene Mischak; Helmut Droschl

2002-01-01

143

Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

Jacobsson, R.

2012-10-01

144

Genetic Structure of Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from Central United States Based on Mitochondrial ND5 Sequences  

E-print Network

States Based on Mitochondrial ND5 Sequences ALLEN L. SZALANSKI,1 CARRIE B. OWENS,1, 2 JENNIFER A. LEWTER of the primary vectors of dog heartworm in central Michigan. Viruses vec- tored by Ae. vexans include St. Louis

Szalanski, Allen L.

145

Statistics of Met-Ocean Conditions Between West and Central Gulf of Mexico Based on Field Measurements  

E-print Network

Statistics of met-ocean conditions including wind, current and wave at the location between west and central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are derived based on about three year of field measurements. Two-parameter Weibull distribution has been employed...

Su, Lin

2012-07-16

146

The effect of removal of the coagulum in the alveolus before replantation upon periodontal and pulpal healing of mature permanent incisors in monkeys.  

PubMed

The effect of removal of the coagulum in the alveolus before replantation upon periodontal and pulpal healing was studied in green Vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Mandibular lateral incisors were extracted. The extra-alveolar period before replantation was 60 min. The storage medium for the extracted teeth was physiologic saline. On the right side of the mandible, the coagulum was removed before replantation, using syringe with saline assisted by a spoon-shaped excavator. On the left side, the tooth was replanted with the coagulum in situ. The replanted teeth were examined histologically after 8 weeks. The histometric analysis showed no significant difference in periodontal or pulpal healing between the two groups. Based on this finding, it is suggested that replantation of avulsed mature teeth be carried out immediately, without any attempt to remove the coagulum. PMID:6783573

Andreasen, J O

1980-12-01

147

Base Excision Repair in Physiology and Pathology of the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Relatively low levels of antioxidant enzymes and high oxygen metabolism result in formation of numerous oxidized DNA lesions in the tissues of the central nervous system. Accumulation of damage in the DNA, due to continuous genotoxic stress, has been linked to both aging and the development of various neurodegenerative disorders. Different DNA repair pathways have evolved to successfully act on damaged DNA and prevent genomic instability. The predominant and essential DNA repair pathway for the removal of small DNA base lesions is base excision repair (BER). In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of BER proteins in the maintenance of genetic stability in different brain regions and how changes in the levels of these proteins contribute to aging and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23203191

Bosshard, Matthias; Markkanen, Enni; van Loon, Barbara

2012-01-01

148

[Central wavelength shift analysis between laboratory and field spectral calibrations of grating based imaging spectrometer].  

PubMed

Spectral calibration must be carried out in order to determine its central wavelength and half-wave band width of each pixel before the usage of imaging spectrometer. But it was found out that these parameters vary as environment changes. The present paper studies the effect based on test field data. The authors analyzed the optical structure and compared the working environmental parameters. Then a theoretical model is established and the influences of vibration, distortion and temperature parameters are evaluated. The theoretical model and the caculation results are in good consistency, which testifies the theoretical model. This research will shed some light on the high accuracy spectral calibration of the grating based imaging spectrometer and its manufacture. PMID:24159894

Wang, Ming-Zhi; Yan, Lei; Yang, Bin; Gou, Zhi-Yang

2013-08-01

149

Abstract Rodents have a toothless diastema region be-tween the incisor and molar teeth which may contain ru-  

E-print Network

Abstract Rodents have a toothless diastema region be- tween the incisor and molar teeth which may of diastema teeth represents a natural "experi- ment" which can be compared to the loss of teeth in gene knockout experiments. All teeth, regardless of shape or identity, pass through the same developmental

Jernvall, Jukka

150

Long-term effects of Herbst treatment on the mandibular incisor segment: A cephalometric and biometric investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze mandibular incisor changes during and after Herbst treatment with respect to tooth inclination and anterior crowding. The sample consisted of 24 Class II, Division 1 subjects (15 boys and 9 girls) treated with the Herbst appliance. Dental casts and lateral head films from before and after treatment, 6 months after treatment and

Ken Hansen; Theodoros G. Koutsonas; Hans Pancherz

1997-01-01

151

Prediction of width of un-erupted incisors, canines and premolars in a Ugandan population: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate prediction of the space forms an important part of an orthodontic assessment in the mixed dentition. However the most commonly used methods of space analysis are based on data developed on Caucasian populations. In order to provide more accurate local data we set out to develop a formula for predicting the widths of un-erupted canines and premolars for a Ugandan population and to compare the predicted widths of the teeth from this formula with those obtained from Moyers’ tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Methods Dental casts were prepared using mandibular and maxillary arch impressions of 220 children (85 boys/135 girls) aged 12–17?years recruited from schools in Kampala, Uganda. The mesio-distal width of the mandibular incisors, mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars were measured with a pair of digital calipers. Based on regression analysis, predictive equations were derived and the findings were compared with those presented in Moyers’ probability tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the tooth widths predicted by our equations and those from Moyers’ probability tables at the 65th and 75th percentile probabilities for the girls and at 75th level in boys in the mandibular arch. While in the maxillary arch no statistically significant differences at the 75th and 95th levels were noted in girls. There were statistically significant differences between predicted tooth sizes using equations from the present study and those predicted from the Tanaka and Johnston regression equations. Conclusions In this Ugandan population, Moyers’ probability tables could be used to predict tooth widths at specific percentile probabilities, but generally, Tanaka and Johnston technique tends to overestimate the tooth widths. PMID:22824246

2012-01-01

152

Force eruption of mandibular second incisor in an 11- year old boy: a technical report.  

PubMed

There is a great challenge in the treatment of deeply fractured and un-restorable teeth among dentists. Orthodontic force eruption is a method of treatment for these teeth to preserve natural root system and periodontal structures. This technical report is a new modification of this procedure presented in an 11- year old boy with deeply fractured left second mandibular incisor. The fractured teeth were treated with root canal therapy and a file #80 was modified to become a hook cemented into the fractured tooth. Anterior teeth were splinted and used as anchorage to help the root extrusion. 1-year follow up of the tooth showed the convenience of the treatment. This simple and low-cost method can be an acceptable alternative to the current high cost techniques, achieving the same results. PMID:24724126

Sobhnamayan, F; Moazami, F; Hamedi, S; Meshki, R

2013-06-01

153

Force Eruption of Mandibular Second Incisor in an 11- Year Old Boy: A Technical Report  

PubMed Central

There is a great challenge in the treatment of deeply fractured and un-restorable teeth among dentists. Orthodontic force eruption is a method of treatment for these teeth to preserve natural root system and periodontal structures. This technical report is a new modification of this procedure presented in an 11- year old boy with deeply fractured left second mandibular incisor. The fractured teeth were treated with root canal therapy and a file #80 was modified to become a hook cemented into the fractured tooth. Anterior teeth were splinted and used as anchorage to help the root extrusion. 1-year follow up of the tooth showed the convenience of the treatment. This simple and low-cost method can be an acceptable alternative to the current high cost techniques, achieving the same results. PMID:24724126

Sobhnamayan, F; Moazami, F; Hamedi, S; Meshki, R

2013-01-01

154

Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material.  

PubMed

Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future. PMID:25191081

Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, Sundeep K; Adhikari, Fardin; Bhat, Vidya S

2014-07-01

155

Long-term Effects of Traumatic Injuries to Incisors and Periodontal Tissues during Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim:\\u000a   The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence\\u000a of dentoalveolar growth disturbances, loss of teeth and esthetic\\u000a impairment after the end of growth following traumatic injuries\\u000a to incisors and periodontal tissues during childhood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods:\\u000a   41 patients having sustained dentoalveolar\\u000a trauma before age 10 and who were now at least aged 16\\u000a years, and a

Susanne Wriedt; Monika Martin; Bilal Al-Nawas; Heiner Wehrbein

2010-01-01

156

Bilateral supplemental permanent maxillary lateral incisors in a non-syndromic patient.  

PubMed

A supernumerary tooth is an additional entity to the normal series and can be seen in all quadrants of the jaw. Occurrence may be single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral, erupted or impacted in one or in both jaws. Multiple supernumeraries are rare in individuals with no other associated disease or syndromes. The conditions commonly associated with an increased prevalence of supernumerary teeth include cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner syndrome. The supplemental supernumerary refers to a duplication of teeth in normal series and is found at the end of a tooth series. A supplemental tooth may closely resemble the teeth of the group to which it belongs or it may bear little resemblance in size or shape to the teeth with which it is associated. This report presents a case with bilateral supplemental upper permanent lateral incisors without any symptoms of associated disorders. PMID:25168674

Bhullar, Mandeep Kaur; Uppal, Amandeep Singh; Kochhar, Gulsheen Kaur; Singh, Ranjit

2014-01-01

157

Visualization of a central bleed jet in an axisymmetric, compressible base flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central bleed jet in an axisymmetric, compressible base flow with a Mach 2.46 free stream was visualized using an acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Three bleed flow rates, a low-bleed case (I=0.0038) and two others that bracket the optimal bleed case (I=0.0113 and I=0.0226), were examined. The injection parameter, I, is defined here as the bleed mass flow rate normalized by the product of the base area and freestream mass flux. This study shows that the bleed jet in the low-bleed case is almost instantly deflected outward toward the outer shear layer after it exits from the bleed orifice. When I=0.0113, the bleed fluid carries enough momentum that the bleed jet remains coherent and generally aligned along the symmetry axis for approximately one base radius before it is deflected outward by the primary recirculation region. For the highest bleed rate examined (I=0.0226), the bleed jet remains coherent and aligned along the symmetry axis for approximately 2.5 base radii downstream, where the impingement of freestream fluid causes the bleed jet to symmetrically eject mass downstream. Because the behavior of the bleed jet is much different for pre- and post-optimal bleed rates, some general conclusions can be made about the effect of bleed rate on base drag. For the two lower-bleed cases, there is a base pressure increase because the bleed fluid partially isolates the primary recirculation region from the outer flow, and provides part of the mass necessary for entrainment in the outer shear layer. The bleed jet in the high-bleed case is not as effective at increasing the base pressure, because the jet is shielded from the outer shear layer by the secondary recirculation region, which exists in the annulus between the bleed orifice and the base corner.

Bourdon, C. J.; Dutton, J. C.

2003-02-01

158

New neonatal classification of unilateral cleft lip and palate part 2: to predict permanent lateral incisor agenesis and maxillary growth.  

PubMed

Objectives : To bring a neonatal classification system of unilateral cleft lip and palate and to correlate this classification with the distribution of the permanent lateral incisor and maxillary growth. Design : Retrospective with longitudinal follow-up. Setting : Tertiary. Patients : A total of 112 individuals with treated unilateral cleft lip and palate and 30 controls. Main Outcome Measures : Unilateral cleft lip and palate neonatal casts were classified anatomically in four categories, in which Class 1 corresponds to a maxillary arch with a narrow alveolar cleft; Class 2 corresponds to a balanced form; Class 3 corresponds to a wide cleft and short maxilla; and Class 4 corresponds to a wide cleft and long maxilla. The classification was correlated with the distribution of the permanent lateral incisor. Maxillary growth was evaluated using a cephalometric analysis after the age of 10 years. Results : Clinical classification of unilateral cleft lip and palate found 10 cases of Class 1 (8.9%), 34 cases of Class 2 (30.4%), 46 cases of Class 3 (41.1%), and 22 cases of Class 4 (19.6%). The permanent lateral incisor was most often present in narrower clefts (Classes 1 and 2); whereas, large clefts (Classes 3 and 4) were relatively more frequently associated with an agenesis of the permanent lateral incisor (P = .019). Maxillary growth impairment was most severe in Class 3, with a mean sella-nasion-A point angle at 71.9° ± 4.6° (P < .001). Conclusions : Using the cleft width, arch form, and shape of the nasal septum, unilateral cleft lip and palate can be classified into four different classes at birth, which can all give information about permanent lateral incisor agenesis and maxillary growth. PMID:23621660

Doucet, Jean-Charles; Delestan, Christian; Montoya, Pedro; Matei, Lucia; Bigorre, Michèle; Herlin, Christian; Baümler, Caroline; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Captier, Guillaume

2014-09-01

159

Meteorological factors-based spatio-temporal mapping and predicting malaria in central China.  

PubMed

Despite significant reductions in the overall burden of malaria in the 20th century, this disease still represents a significant public health problem in China, especially in central areas. Understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria is essential in the planning and implementing of effective control measures. In this study, normalized meteorological factors were incorporated in spatio-temporal models. Seven models were established in WinBUGS software by using Bayesian hierarchical models and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. M?, M?, and M? modeled separate meteorological factors, and M?, which modeled rainfall performed better than M? and M?, which modeled average temperature and relative humidity, respectively. M? was the best fitting models on the basis of based on deviance information criterion and predicting errors. The results showed that the way rainfall influencing malaria incidence was different from other factors, which could be interpreted as rainfall having a greater influence than other factors. PMID:21896823

Huang, Fang; Zhou, Shuisen; Zhang, Shaosen; Zhang, Hongwei; Li, Weidong

2011-09-01

160

Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash) into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2). These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

Loyola, D.; van Geffen, J.; Valks, P.; Erbertseder, T.; van Roozendael, M.; Thomas, W.; Zimmer, W.; Wißkirchen, K.

2008-01-01

161

Measuring Long-Term Impact Based on Network Centrality: Unraveling Cinematic Citations  

PubMed Central

Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of ‘greatest’ films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

Spitz, Andreas; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes

2014-01-01

162

Measuring long-term impact based on network centrality: unraveling cinematic citations.  

PubMed

Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of 'greatest' films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

Spitz, Andreas; Horvát, Em?ke-Ágnes

2014-01-01

163

Centralized and decentralized process and sensor fault monitoring using data fusion based on adaptive extended Kalman filter algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated design framework to utilize multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) techniques for process monitoring enhancement to detect and diagnose sensor and process faults. Two different distributed and centralized architectures are presented to integrate the multi-sensor data based on extended Kalman filter (EKF) data fusion algorithm. The distributed integration architecture uses the state-vector fusion method, while the centralized

Karim Salahshoor; Mohsen Mosallaei; Mohammadreza Bayat

2008-01-01

164

Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV: Central Florida Flow Regime Based Climatologies of Lightning Probabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

Bauman, William H., III

2009-01-01

165

Assessing the ecological base flow in an experimental watershed of Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological base flow is crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme low conditions. Aquatic insect is selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. A stream located at the alpine area in central Taiwan is selected as the study area to evaluate the base flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to May 2009) collected from Creek C of Sitou watershed (area: 1.3 km^2) shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 26.3 and 17.2 %, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Excellent" and "Good" level while the EPT Index (Index of three orders: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 90%, 95% and 96% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.1582, 0.0476 and 0.0378 cms; the threshold value evaluated by curve of abundance vs. discharge is 0.0154 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate results.

Wei, Chiang; Yang, Ping-Shih; Tian, Pei-Ling

2010-05-01

166

Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15 +/- 8 Mm(exp -1); PM(sub 10) concentration: 33 +/- 17 miro-g/ cubic m and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 +/- 3.6miro-g/ cubic m; EC: 2.0 2.3 miro-g/ cubic m and secondary species (SO4(2-): 6.4 +/- 3.7 miro-g/ cubic m, NH4(+): 2.2 +/- 1.3 miro-g/ cubic m). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 +/- 0.33 micro-g/ cubic m). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 +/- 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 +/- 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

2012-01-01

167

Replacement of missing lateral incisors with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses: a clinical report  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message This report describes the use of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses in replacing congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. This kind of prosthesis has an advantage over a lingual-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis in its capability of changing the color and shape of the abutment teeth. The prostheses provided an acceptable esthetics and comfort for the patient.

Bissasu, Sami M; Al-houri, Nabil A

2014-01-01

168

Evidence-Based Decision Making in School District Central Offices: Toward a Policy and Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

District central office administrators increasingly face policy demands to use "evidence" in their decision making. These demands up the ante on education policy researchers and policy makers to better understand what evidence use in district central offices entails and the conditions that may support it. To that end, the authors conducted a…

Honig, Meredith I.; Coburn, Cynthia

2008-01-01

169

Population-based study of central post-stroke pain in Rimini district, Italy  

PubMed Central

Central post-stroke pain (CPSP) is still an underestimated complication of stroke, resulting in impaired quality of life and, in addition to the functional and cognitive consequences of stroke, the presence of CPSP may be associated with mood disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. This type of pain may also impair activities of daily living and further worsen quality of life, negatively influencing the rehabilitation process. The prevalence of CSPS in the literature is highly variable (1%–12%) according to different studies, and this variability could be influenced by selection criteria and the different ethnic populations being investigated. With this scenario in mind, we performed a population-based study to assess the prevalence of CPSP and its main features in a homogeneous health district (Rimini, Italy), including five hospitals for a total population of 329,970 inhabitants. From 2008 to 2010, we selected 1,494 post-stroke patients and were able to interview 660 patients, 66 (11%) of whom reported pain with related tactile and thermal hyperesthesia, accompanied by needle puncture, tingling, swelling, and pressure sensations. Patients reported motor impairment and disability, which influenced their working ability, rehabilitation, and social life. Despite this severe pain state, there was a high percentage of patients who did not receive adequate treatment for pain. PMID:24092996

Raffaeli, William; Minella, Cristina E; Magnani, Francesco; Sarti, Donatella

2013-01-01

170

Er:YAG Laser and Fractured Incisor Restorations: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an Er:YAG laser on enamel and dentine in cases of dental restorations involving fractured teeth, utilizing the dental fragment. Materials and Methods. Seventy-two freshly extracted bovine incisors were fractured at the coronal level by using a hammer applied with a standardized method, and the fragment was reattached by using three different methods: Er:YAG laser, orthophosphoric acid, and laser plus acid. The different groups were evaluated by a test realized with the dynamometer to know the force required to successfully detach the reattached fragment and by a microinfiltration test by using a 0.5% methylene blue solution followed by the optic microscope observation. Results. The compression test showed only a slight difference between the three groups, without any statistical significance. The infiltration test used to evaluate the marginal seal between the fracture fragment and the tooth demonstrated that etching with Er:YAG laser alone or in combination with orthophosphoric acid gives better results than orthophosphoric acid alone, with a highly significant statistical result. Discussion. Reattaching a tooth fragment represents a clinically proven methodology, in terms of achieving resistance to detachment, and the aim of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of Er:YAG laser on this procedure. Conclusion. This “in vitro” study confirms that Er:YAG laser can be employed in dental traumatology to restore frontal teeth after coronal fracture. PMID:23091491

Fornaini, C.; Petruzzella, S.; Podda, R.; Merigo, E.; Nammour, S.; Vescovi, P.

2012-01-01

171

Effect of high phosphorus diet on tooth microstructure of rodent incisors.  

PubMed

Enamel hypoplasia and disruption of dentinogenesis are the most common abnormalities of development and mineralization of human teeth. Several reports are available in the literature on the influence of dietary calcium on the formation of human and rodent tooth; however, the information about the influence of dietary phosphorus on the tooth formation is scarce. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the chronic effect of high phosphorus diet and improper dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio on the mandibular incisor microstructure in a hystricomorph rodent--Octodon degu--using macroscopic observation, histopathological examination, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The present study shows that enamel and dentin development is disturbed under high phosphorus diet and improper calcium to phosphorus ratio. Disturbed mineral metabolism resulted in enamel depigmentation, enamel hypoplasia, enamel pitting and altered dentin morphology. The results suggest that more attention should be focused on dietary phosphorus content when facing altered tooth structure in young patients with deciduous or permanent dentition. Furthermore, we showed that degus can be used as an experimental animal model for the study of the developmental teeth disturbances. PMID:21571111

Jekl, Vladimir; Krejcirova, Lenka; Buchtova, Marcela; Knotek, Zdenek

2011-09-01

172

Genes Expressed in Dental Enamel Development Are Associated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization  

PubMed Central

Genetic disturbances during dental development influence variation of number and shape of the dentition. In this study, we tested if genetic variation in enamel formation genes is associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), also taking into consideration caries experience. DNA samples from 163 cases with MIH and 82 unaffected controls from Turkey, and 71 cases with MIH and 89 unaffected controls from Brazil were studied. Eleven markers in five genes [ameloblastin (AMBN), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), tuftelin (TUFT1), and tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11)] were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between cases with MIH and controls. In the Brazilian data, distinct caries experience within the MIH group was also tested for association with genetic variation in enamel formation genes. The ENAM rs3796704 marker was associated with MIH in both populations (Brazil: p=0.03; OR=0.28; 95% C.I.=0.06–1.0; Turkey: p=1.22e–012; OR=17.36; 95% C.I.=5.98–56.78). Associations between TFIP11 (p=0.02), ENAM (p=0.00001), and AMELX (p=0.01) could be seen with caries independent of having MIH or genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans detected by real time PCR in the Brazilian sample. Several genes involved in enamel formation appear to contribute to MIH. PMID:23790503

Jeremias, Fabiano; Koruyucu, Mine; Kuchler, Erika C.; Bayram, Merve; Tuna, Elif B.; Deeley, Kathleen; Pierri, Ricardo A.; Souza, Juliana F.; Fragelli, Camila M.B.; Paschoal, Marco A.B.; Gencay, Koray; Seymen, Figen; Caminaga, Raquel M.S.; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Vieira, Alexandre R.

2013-01-01

173

Genes expressed in dental enamel development are associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization.  

PubMed

Genetic disturbances during dental development influence variation of number and shape of the dentition. In this study, we tested if genetic variation in enamel formation genes is associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), also taking into consideration caries experience. DNA samples from 163 cases with MIH and 82 unaffected controls from Turkey, and 71 cases with MIH and 89 unaffected controls from Brazil were studied. Eleven markers in five genes [ameloblastin (AMBN), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), tuftelin (TUFT1), and tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11)] were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between cases with MIH and controls. In the Brazilian data, distinct caries experience within the MIH group was also tested for association with genetic variation in enamel formation genes. The ENAM rs3796704 marker was associated with MIH in both populations (Brazil: p=0.03; OR=0.28; 95% C.I.=0.06-1.0; Turkey: p=1.22e-012; OR=17.36; 95% C.I.=5.98-56.78). Associations between TFIP11 (p=0.02), ENAM (p=0.00001), and AMELX (p=0.01) could be seen with caries independent of having MIH or genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans detected by real time PCR in the Brazilian sample. Several genes involved in enamel formation appear to contribute to MIH. PMID:23790503

Jeremias, Fabiano; Koruyucu, Mine; Küchler, Erika C; Bayram, Merve; Tuna, Elif B; Deeley, Kathleen; Pierri, Ricardo A; Souza, Juliana F; Fragelli, Camila M B; Paschoal, Marco A B; Gencay, Koray; Seymen, Figen; Caminaga, Raquel M S; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Vieira, Alexandre R

2013-10-01

174

A river based stable isotope record of orographic precipitation: Taurus Mountains, south central Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing continental precipitation and vegetation patterns has become one of the most rapidly growing fields in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Furthermore, stable isotopes in precipitation within continental plateau regions represent an increasingly important tool for reconstructing the various effects of uplift related climate change within the world's largest plateau regions. With peak elevations of more than 3,000 m the Taurus Mountains represent the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau and must have played a pivotal role in controlling the drainage and sedimentation patterns within the plateau interior. However, their surface uplift history remains largely elusive. We sampled a series of tributaries and rivers along the Ermenek valley that crosscuts the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus Mountains on the d18O and dD values of river and spring waters and to compare these values to the d18O and dD of recent precipitation gathered by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Further we try to study the trends of the recent d18O and dD isotopic composition of local rivers and precipitation in the area to create a set of isotopic data that is comparable to isotopic studies on paleosoils and can therefore be used in future paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate studies. We sampled 6 individual rivers during the fall season 2008 to capture mostly groundwater runoff in the south central Taurus Mountains. All sampled rivers belong to the same local drainage system which drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The total elevation difference within the sampling area exceeds 2,000 m and we were able to collect samples over almost 1,800 m of elevation. Our measurements show that both d18O and dD values follow the same basic trend. d18O and dD values decrease systematically with increasing elevation. The lapse rate of d18O is about -2.2 per mil/km, whereas the lapse rate of dD is about -20 per mil/km. Select samples have higher d18O and dD values than expected for their respective elevations due to strong evaporative effects at the sampling sites. In areas of very steep topography (waterfalls, valley gorges) the d18O and dD values of water samples are biased towards values lower than expected for their respective elevations. However, such irregularities can be accounted for by plotting the measured isotopic compositions against the hypsometric mean elevations instead of the actual sampling elevations. Comparison with data gathered by the GNIP network at four neighboring stations (Adana, Antalya, Güzeloluk, and Kocebeyli) shows that the longer-term (1 to 18 years) isotopic composition of precipitation agrees very well with the data collected in this study. Collectively, the data presented here may serve as a modern template against which late Neogene proxy-based records of paleoprecipitation along the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau may be calibrated.

Schemmel, Fabian; Mulch, Andreas; Mikes, Tamás.; Schildgen, Taylor

2010-05-01

175

Validation and Application of a Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for Small Central Minnesota Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the performance of an index of biotic integrity (IBI) based on 16 fish population metrics of three types: species richness, community assemblage, and trophic composition. Two sets of central Minnesota lakes independent from the original set of lakes used to develop the IBI model were used to validate it. One set of lakes (n = 15) had physical

Melissa T. Drake; Ray D. Valley

2005-01-01

176

New Reforms in the Management of the University: Transition from Centralized to Decentralized (University-Based Management) in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on new reforms in Iran's higher education management system--Transition from centralized to decentralized (University-Based management--UBM). This is an important subject since Iran's Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology (MSRT) has begun to introduce new reforms for the improvement and the enhancement of Iranian…

Mehralizadeh, Y.

2005-01-01

177

Centralized route recovery based on multi-hop wakeup time estimation for wireless sensor networks with ultra low duty cycles  

E-print Network

Centralized route recovery based on multi-hop wakeup time estimation for wireless sensor networks packet flooding for route recovery and solves the high energy consumption problem caused by each node is the sum of the wakeup period and the sleep period. However, for existing routing protocols, it is very

Bahk, Saewoong

178

The Most Proficient Enzyme as the Central Theme in an Integrated, Research-based Biochemistry Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enzyme orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase is an attractive choice for the central theme of an integrated, research-based biochemistry laboratory course. A series of laboratory exercises common to most instructional laboratories, including enzyme assays, protein purification, enzymatic characterization, elementary kinetics, and…

Smiley, Jeffrey A.

2002-01-01

179

Soil microbial activities in tree-based cropping systems and natural forests of the Central Amazon, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available about the factors controlling soil C and N transformations in natural tropical forests and tree-based cropping systems. The aim of this work was to study the effects of single trees on soil microbiological activities from plantations of timber and non-timber species as well as species of primary and secondary forests in the Central Amazon. Soil samples

Oleg V. Menyailo; Johannes Lehmann; Manoel da Silva Cravo; Wolfgang Zech

2003-01-01

180

An EO-Based Approach to Modelling Ecosystem Health in Response to Wildfire in Central Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of ecosystem health is becoming more relevant in a world where ecosystems are being used unsustainably and have been showing increased signs of stress and dysfunction. Therefore, this research has set out to establish an Earth Observation (EO) based methodology in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to establish and monitor the indicators of ecosystem health in a region affected by wildfire in Central Greece. A further goal has been to assess the responses of ecosystem health to wildfire and urban expansion in the studied region. The methodology integrated GIS software and EO data to assess ecosystem characteristics including: vigour, organisation and resilience. The characteristics were quantified using remote sensing techniques focusing on Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images derived from Landsat imagery from 1999-2011. Topographic features including slope and aspect were extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). These elements were then assigned weightings based upon research and combined in a model to produce a map of ecosystem health. The map of ecosystem health was validated against a compound topographic index that was produced for the study region, completed by overlaying the layers in Google Earth. This software allowed for a direct comparison of each layer. The results of the model have demonstrated correlations with past wildfires and the associated recovery. The findings are in agreement with the hypothesis that ecosystem health maps can illustrate the effect wildfires have on ecosystem health, thus providing useful information to land managers and policy makers who manage wildfire. The results further demonstrate that the resolution of Landsat imagery is excellent for obtaining a general overview of ecosystem health mapping. The methods described in this study could provide more detailed information if applied to high resolution imagery such as Worldview or IKONOS data. Results could be further enhanced with hyperspectral sensors due to the possibility of detecting chemical processes associated with ecosystem process. The method is robust enough to be transferable to other regions, with some minor changes based on a specified climate for a given location. The launch of Landsat 8 will ensure the continued acquisition and availability of Landsat data as well as provide high quality images, also making it possible to develop this method to potentially contribute to an operational estimation of ecosystem health recovery after wildfire.

Evans, Aaron; Petropoulos, George P.

2014-05-01

181

Cluster-based centralized data fusion for tracking maneuvering targets using interacting multiple model algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interacting multiple model (IMM) algorithm has proved to be useful in tracking maneuvering targets. Tracking accuracy\\u000a can be further improved using data fusion. Tracking of multiple targets using multiple sensors and fusing them at a central\\u000a site using centralized architecture involves communication of large volumes of measurements to a common site. This results\\u000a in heavy processing requirement at the

V. Vaidehi; K. Kalavidya; S. Indira Gandhi

2004-01-01

182

Remote Sensing Based Biophysical Characterization of Tropical Deciduous Forest in Central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports the measurements of biophysical parameters using field and satellite data over a tropical deciduous forest Kanha National Park (KNP), central India. Field measurement (GBH, LAI, litter, soil moisture) was carried out over ten quadrates of 0.1ha in KNP for characterization of biophysical parameters with specified measurement protocol and sampling. Satellite based remote sensing analysis (LAI, Phenology, and NPP) was carried out using multi date observations of IRS-LISS-III, IMS-1MX, SPOT-VEGETATION and EOS-MODIS instruments. Rank correlation analysis using field data collected in the selected quadrates at KNP showed Sal (Shorea robusta) is dominant forest species followed by Lendia, Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Saja, Harra and Dhawda etc. Field measurement of Sal showed GBH range from 20 cm to 170 cm. Different forest classes such as Sal; Sal mixed with Jamun, Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) etc, including grasslands/scrubland were classified with overall accuracy of 85.56 percent using March, May and October multi spectral data. Sal has distinct growth characteristics (low vegetation growth/ leaf fall in March instead of May) as compared to other vegetation species. As per the Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurement using hemispherical photographs, Sal showed the highest LAI (6.95 m2/m2) during September and lowest LAI (2.63 m2/m2) during March. Overall good agreement (r= 0.79) was found between the LAI generated from LISS-III and MODIS data product. It was observed from SPOT-VEGETATION analysis that NPP varied from 8.4 tC/ha/year (dry deciduous forest) to 14.25 tC/ha/year (Moist deciduous forest) in KNP.

Singh, R. P.; Goroshi, S.; Sharma, N. K.; Bairagi, G. D.; Sharma, R.; Jalil, P.; Jain, A.; Sonakia, A.; Parihar, J. S.

2011-09-01

183

Classification of fast flows in central plasma sheet: Superposed epoch analysis based on THEMIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A statistical survey of 560 fast flows in midnight central plasma sheet is performed based on Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations during its first two tail phases. From superposed epoch analysis, no significant substorm activities are found to be associated with the occurrence of fast flows beyond X=-15 Re. Considering the associations with substorm activities, the fast flows inside of X=-15 Re can be classified into two obvious classes: short duration (< 2.0 min) and long duration (> 4.0 min). Substorm breakups are shown to be more closely correlated to short-duration fast flows. Furthermore, the onset of short-duration fast flows in the dipolarization region (X=-9 to -11 Re) is almost simultaneous with the onset of substorm breakups and dipolarizations. On the other hand, time delays of 2-4 min are both found in the near-Earth region (X=-7 to -9 Re) and in the near-tail region (X=-11 to -15 Re). Assuming that short-duration fast flows are generated by the force imbalance caused by cross-tail current disruption, these features are consistent with the predictions made by the cowling electrojet current loop and the cross-tail current disruption substorm models. In comparison, although more magnetic flux is transported toward Earth for long-duration fast flows, no clear substorm breakup is closely associated with them. The analysis of 2-D ion velocity distribution further shows some differences. For short-duration fast flows, multiple crescent-shaped ion populations are found. However, for long-duration fast flows, there exists only a single crescent-shaped ion population. The difference may be an important signature for distinguishing these two classes of fast flows.

Li, H.; Wang, C.; Fu, S. Y.

2014-09-01

184

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

185

Direct evidence of central European forest refugia during the last glacial period based on mollusc fossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there is evidence from molecular studies for the existence of central European last glacial refugia for temperate species, there is still a great lack of direct fossil records to confirm this theory. Here we bring such evidence in the form of fossil shells from twenty strictly forest land snail species, which were recorded in radiocarbon-dated late glacial or older mollusc assemblages of nine non-interrupted mollusc successions situated in the Western Carpathians, and one in the Bohemian Massif. We proposed that molluscs survived the last glacial period in central Europe in isolated small patches of broadleaf forest, which we unequivocally demonstrate for two sites of last glacial maximum age.

Ju?i?ková, Lucie; Horá?ková, Jitka; Ložek, Vojen

2014-07-01

186

Estimation of Evapotranspiration of Almond orchards using Remote Sensing based SEBAL model in Central Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration is one of the main components of the hydrologic cycle and its impact to hydrology, agriculture,forestry and environmental studies is very crucial. SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) is an image-processing model comprised of twenty-five computational sub-models that computes actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and other energy exchanges as a component of energy balance which is used to derive the surface radiation balance equation for the net surface radiation flux (Rn) on a pixel-by-pixel basis. For this study, SEBAL method is applied to Level 1B dataset of visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared radiation channels of MASTER instrument on-board NASA-DC 8 flight. This paper uses the SEBAL method to (1) investigate the spatial distribution property of land surface temperature (Ls), NDVI, and ETa over the San Joaquin valley. (2) Estimate actual evapotranspiration of almond class on pixel-by-pixel basis in the Central valley, California. (3) Comparison of actual Evapotranspiration obtained from SEBAL model with reference evapotranspiration (Eto) using Penman Monteiths method based on the procedures and available data from California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) stations. The results of the regression between extracted land surface temperature, NDVI and, evapotranspiration show negative (-) correlation. On the other hand Ls possessed a slightly stronger negative correlation with the ETa than with NDVI for Almond class. The correlation coefficient of actual ETa estimates from remote sensing with Reference ETo from Penmann Monteith are 0.8571. ETa estimated for almond crop from SEBAL were found to be almost same with the CIMIS_Penman Monteith method with bias of 0.77 mm and mean percentage difference is 0.10%. These results indicate that combination of MASTER data with surface meteorological data could provide an efficient tool for the estimation of regional actual ET used for water resources and irrigation scheduling and management. Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Hydrologic cycle, SEBAL, net surface radiation flux, MASTER, NDVI, Penman Monteith, CIMIS, Surface Temperature

Roy, S.; Ustin, S.; Kefauver, S. C.

2009-12-01

187

About the lithospheric structure of central Tibet, based on seismic data from the INDEPTH III profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Signals from 11 shots and 8 earthquakes, and numerous teleseismic events were recorded along the 400-km seismic line INDEPTH III in central Tibet and interpreted together with previous seismic and tectonic data. The abnormal behavior of various mantle phases reveals a complex Moho-transition zone, especially in the northern part of the line, in the Changtang Block, where the lower crust

Rolf Meissner; Frederik Tilmann; Seth Haines

2004-01-01

188

Modified Centrality Measure Based on Bidirectional Power Flow for Smart and Bulk Power  

E-print Network

, and F. R. Islam, Student Member, IEEE Abstract--A centrality measure has been proposed considering disturbances [4]. In August 1996, a cascading outage occurred in the Western power grids of North America.anwar@student.adfa.edu.au and f.m.islam@student.adfa.edu.au. which affected around 55 million people happened in August 2003 [6

Pota, Himanshu Roy

189

Isotopic constraints on the genesis of base-metal ores in southern and central Sardinia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of southwestern and central Sardinia occur within a restricted region, but comprise a variety of mineralization ages and styles. New Pb-isotope data, together with published data provide a reasonably coherent picture of possible sources for the various types of deposits. -from Authors

Ludwig, K.R.; Vollmer, R.; Turi, B.; Simmons, K.R.; Perna, G.

1989-01-01

190

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Reduce Health Disparities in East and Central Harlem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: It is important to teach community members about the causes, magnitude and effects of health disparities that affect them, and to partner with them to develop, test and disseminate programs that they can sustain to improve health. East and Central Harlem are two underserved, predominantly minority, inner-city communities whose residents have disproportionately high mor- bidity and mortality from chronic

CAROL R. HOROWITZ; AGUEDA ARNIELLA; SHERLINE JAMES; NINA A. BICKELL

191

Rationale and Strategies for Central Involvement of Educators in Effective School-Based Mental Health Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfortunately, for many mental health professionals classroom teachers and other educators are, at best, viewed primarily or solely as useful sources of information about a child, and their broader, invaluable roles as members of the “mental health team” are diminished or dismissed. This article examines the conceptual rationale and empirical support for central involvement of educators (especially classroom teachers) in

Carl E. Paternite; Therese Chiara Johnston

2005-01-01

192

Critical node identification of smart power system using complex network framework based centrality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of critical node identification in a power system is presented in this paper. Maximum flow in a network is used to measure centrality of various nodes in the power system. The proposed approach is an improvement of previous methodology in the sense that it does not take into consideration shortest electrical distance as path to flow power. Instead

A. B. M. Nasiruzzaman; H. R. Pota

2011-01-01

193

Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

Schenk, V.

194

Functional Anatomy of Incisal Biting in Aplodontia rufa and Sciuromorph Rodents – Part 2: Sciuromorphy Is Efficacious for Production of Force at the Incisors  

PubMed Central

The protrogomorph condition of the rodent masticatory apparatus is thought to be present in only one living species, the mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa. The major anatomical difference between protrogomorphs and sciuromorphs is that the relative size of one part of the masseter muscle, the anterior lateral masseter, is much greater in sciuromorphs than in protrogomorphs. The mechanics of force production at the incisors were compared in A. rufa and six sciuromorph rodents. Is the sciuroid masticatory apparatus more effective for production of forces at the incisors during biting than the primitive, protrogomorph condition? To answer this question, three measures of mechanical ability were employed and three hypotheses were tested: (1) the mechanical advantage of the adductor musculature is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa; (2) the relative force produced at the incisors is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa, and (3) the relative amount of force produced that can be used to drive the incisors into an object, is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa. The results demonstrated that the protrogomorph, A. rufa, is not as efficient at generating bite forces at the incisors as the sciuromorphs. PMID:20160427

Druzinsky, Robert E.

2010-01-01

195

Growth and wear of incisor and cheek teeth in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) fed diets of different abrasiveness.  

PubMed

Although patterns of tooth wear are crucial in palaeo-reconstructions, and dental wear abnormalities are important in veterinary medicine, experimental investigations on the relationship between diet abrasiveness and tooth wear are rare. Here, we investigated the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness (due to both internal [phytoliths] and external abrasives [sand]) or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on incisor and premolar growth and wear, and incisor and cheek tooth length. Wear and tooth length differed between diets, with significant effects of both internal and external abrasives. While diet abrasiveness was linked to tooth length for all tooth positions, whole forage had an additional effect on upper incisor length only. Tooth growth was strongly related to tooth wear and differed correspondingly between diets and tooth positions. At 1.4-3.2?mm/week, the growth of cheek teeth measured in this study was higher than previously reported for rabbits. Dental abnormalities were most distinct on the diet with sand. This study demonstrates that concepts of constant tooth growth in rabbits requiring consistent wear are inappropriate, and that diet form (whole vs. pelleted) does not necessarily affect cheek teeth. Irrespective of the strong effect of external abrasives, internal abrasives have the potential to induce wear and hence exert selective pressure in evolution. Detailed differences in wear effects between tooth positions allow inferences about the mastication process. Elucidating feedback mechanisms that link growth to tooth-specific wear represents a promising area of future research. PMID:24700486

Müller, Jacqueline; Clauss, Marcus; Codron, Daryl; Schulz, Ellen; Hummel, Jürgen; Fortelius, Mikael; Kircher, Patrick; Hatt, Jean-Michel

2014-06-01

196

Resolution limit of the white-light interferometric sensor for absolute position measurement based on central fringe maximum identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a simple theoretical analysis together with an experimental verification of the analysis that provides an estimation of the resolution limit of the white-light interferometric sensor for absolute position measurement based on central fringe maximum identification is presented. The resolution better than 10 pm is obtained in the white-light interferometric sensing system where the signal-to-noise ratio was greater than 80 dB.

Manojlovi?, L. M.; Živanov, M. B.; Slankamenac, M. P.; Stupar, D. Z.; Baji?, J. S.

2014-09-01

197

Prediction of extreme floods in the eastern Central Andes based on a complex networks approach.  

PubMed

Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events in the Central Andes of South America. These events are spatially extensive and often result in substantial natural hazards for population, economy and ecology. Here we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by introducing the concept of network divergence on directed networks derived from a non-linear synchronization measure. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and predict more than 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of rainfall events above the 99th percentile in the Central Andes. In addition to the societal benefits of predicting natural hazards, our study reveals a linkage between polar and tropical regimes as the responsible mechanism: the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics. PMID:25310906

Boers, N; Bookhagen, B; Barbosa, H M J; Marwan, N; Kurths, J; Marengo, J A

2014-01-01

198

Prediction of extreme floods in the eastern Central Andes based on a complex networks approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events in the Central Andes of South America. These events are spatially extensive and often result in substantial natural hazards for population, economy and ecology. Here we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by introducing the concept of network divergence on directed networks derived from a non-linear synchronization measure. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and predict more than 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of rainfall events above the 99th percentile in the Central Andes. In addition to the societal benefits of predicting natural hazards, our study reveals a linkage between polar and tropical regimes as the responsible mechanism: the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics.

Boers, N.; Bookhagen, B.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.; Marengo, J. A.

2014-10-01

199

A 750-year fire history based on lake sediment records in central Yellowstone National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 750-year fire history was reconstructed for the Central Plateau of Yellowstone National Park from the deep-water sediments of five lakes. The charcoal record from a large lake provided a chronology of regional fires. Data from four small lakes were used to study local and extralocal fires. The co-occurrence of abundant charcoal and high magnetic-susceptibility values at the same stratigraphic

Sarah H. Millspaugh; Cathy Whitlock

1995-01-01

200

Long-term, predation-based control of a central-west North Sea zooplankton community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term monitoring of the zooplankton community at a station 5.5 miles from the English coast in the central-west North Sea has been performed since 1968. Analyses of these data have revealed an inverse relationship between annual total zooplankton abundance and the position of the Gulf Stream North Wall (GSNW). This long-term relationship is opposite to the long-term positive association observed

Robin A. Clark; Chris L. J. Frid; Kirsty R. Nicholas

2003-01-01

201

A simple 1-dimensional, climate based dissolved oxygen model for the central basin of Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linked 1-dimensional thermal-dissolved oxygen model was developed and applied in the central basin of Lake Erie. The model was used to quantify the relative contribution of meteorological forcings versus the decomposition of hypolimnetic organic carbon on dissolved oxygen. The model computes daily vertical profiles of temperature, mixing, and dissolved oxygen for the period 1987–2005. Model calibration resulted in good

Daniel K. Rucinski; Dmitry Beletsky; Joseph V. DePinto; David J. Schwab; Donald Scavia

2010-01-01

202

Pollen-based reconstructions of late Holocene climate from the central and western Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lake-sediment cores from the western and central Canadian Arctic were used to investigate late Holocene climate variability\\u000a in the region. Both cores were analyzed for pollen, organic matter, biogenic silica, and magnetic susceptibility, and were\\u000a dated using a combination of 210Pb and 14C techniques. Core MB01, from southwestern Victoria Island, provides a 2600-year-long record. Fossil pollen percentages, along\\u000a with

Matthew C. Peros; Konrad Gajewski

2009-01-01

203

Tree-ring based drought reconstruction for the central Tien Shan area in northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust ring-width chronology developed from two sites of Picea schrenkiana in the central Tien Shan area of northwest China was employed to study regional drought variability. Our analyses demonstrate both temperature and precipitation have significant effects on tree growth, thus both should be considered for climate reconstruction. Regional drought history (1675–2002 A.D.) was therefore reconstructed by calibrating with the

Jinbao Li; Xiaohua Gou; Edward R. Cook; Fahu Chen

2006-01-01

204

Tree-ring based drought reconstruction for the central Tien Shan area in northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust ring-width chronology developed from two sites of Picea schrenkiana in the central Tien Shan area of northwest China was employed to study regional drought variability. Our analyses demonstrate both temperature and precipitation have significant effects on tree growth, thus both should be considered for climate reconstruction. Regional drought history (1675-2002 A.D.) was therefore reconstructed by calibrating with the

Jinbao Li; Xiaohua Gou; Edward R. Cook; Fahu Chen

2006-01-01

205

The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

Kolb, G. J.

206

The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

Kolb, G.J.

1991-01-01

207

The role of emotion on the recall of central and peripheral information from script-based text.  

PubMed

In three experiments, script-based stories were used to provide thematic emotion. Consistent with past research expressing emotion thematically, emotion aided recall of both central and peripheral information. However, emotion had to be directly associated with the central or peripheral information, and emotion only facilitated memory for peripheral information when peripheral information alone was associated with the emotion. Emotion did not aid overall recall of stories. Positive and negative emotions were generally better recalled when they were incongruent with the information they were associated with, such as a positive emotion associated with an interruptive action. These results provide evidence that thematically expressed, low arousal emotion can have facilitative effects on memory. Implications for the role of emotion on memory are discussed. PMID:24625271

Davidson, Denise; Vanegas, Sandra B

2015-01-01

208

A preliminary study of incisor exfoliation as an estimator of the postmortem interval using accumulated degree days.  

PubMed

This research shows the exfoliation of the anterior dentition has significant potential to aid in establishing the minimum length of the post-mortem interval. Accumulated degree days (ADD) were used to quantify the decomposition of the periodontal ligament, represented by post-mortem exfoliation of the incisors. After subjects were removed subsequent to disturbance by scavengers and time limitations on the study, the final sample size was 36 incisors from the maxillae and mandibles of seven pigs (Sus scrofa). Average daily temperature was calculated using hourly temperature data recorded using DS1921G thermochrons for the duration of the project (June 14-December 17, 2008). During this period, six teeth (16.7%) were exfoliated. ADD for these six teeth ranged from 1539.7 °C to 2006.7 °C. The average ADD required for exfoliation was 1788.0 °C (SD=198.1 °C). No differences in ADD required for exfoliation were observed between the maxillary and mandibular teeth (t=2.085; p=0.128). PMID:22459202

Granrud, Michelle A; Dabbs, Gretchen R

2012-07-10

209

Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables.

Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

2014-01-01

210

An Immature Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Lateral Incisor with Talon's Cusp: A Clinical Dilemma to Confront  

PubMed Central

Dens invaginatus (DI) is a malformation of teeth probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. DI is classified as type I, II, and III by Oehlers depending on the severity of malformation. The maxillary lateral incisor is the most commonly affected tooth. Structural defects do exist in the depth of the invagination pits, and as a consequence, the early development of caries and the subsequent necrosis of the dental pulp, as well as abscess and cyst formation are clinical implications associated with DI. Occasionally, we can see more than one developmental anomaly occurring in a single tooth. In such cases it becomes important to identify the anomalies and initiate a proper treatment plan for good prognosis. In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. PMID:24660071

Singal, Deepa; Giri, K. Y.; Keerthi, S. Sruthi

2014-01-01

211

Conservation Action Based on Threatened Species Capture Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Richness in Breeding and Wintering Populations of Central Asian Birds  

PubMed Central

Although phylogenetic diversity has been suggested to be relevant from a conservation point of view, its role is still limited in applied nature conservation. Recently, the practice of investing conservation resources based on threatened species was identified as a reason for the slow integration of phylogenetic diversity in nature conservation planning. One of the main arguments is based on the observation that threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree. However this argument seems to dismiss the fact that conservation action is a spatially explicit process, and even if threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree, the occurrence of threatened species could still indicate areas with above average phylogenetic diversity and consequently could protect phylogenetic diversity. Here we aim to study the selection of important bird areas in Central Asia, which were nominated largely based on the presence of threatened bird species. We show that although threatened species occurring in Central Asia do not capture phylogenetically more distinct species than expected by chance, the current spatially explicit conservation approach of selecting important bird areas covers above average taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of breeding and wintering birds. We conclude that the spatially explicit processes of conservation actions need to be considered in the current discussion of whether new prioritization methods are needed to complement conservation action based on threatened species. PMID:25337861

Schweizer, Manuel; Aye, Raffael; Kashkarov, Roman; Roth, Tobias

2014-01-01

212

Pliocene-Quaternary evolution of the continental shelf of central Vietnam based on high resolution seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental shelf of central Vietnam is characterized by complex geological structures in a strike-slip setting and thus by unique morphology compared to other parts of the Vietnam shelf. Studying the Pliocene-Quaternary sediments in this area allows the processes that control the stratigraphic evolution to be highlighted. In this paper, we present new results derived from high resolution seismic data that reveal the geological evolution of the continental shelf of central Vietnam during the Pliocene-Quaternary. Our results demonstrate that the continental shelf of central Vietnam is narrow relatively to other parts of the Vietnam shelf. The evolution of the shelf during the Pliocene-Quaternary was controlled by the pre-Pliocene rifting process. However, fault systems below the present shelf were not strongly active during the Pliocene-Quaternary period, except for several listric faults in the slope. Nonetheless, Quaternary volcanic activities occurred widely both offshore and onshore, especially near the major faults. The Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary deposits were subdivided into 7 units based on unconformities as result of marine regression corresponding to glacial cycles. Sedimentary environments during this period consist of coastal plain, fluvial, nearshore and shelf environments. Most of the Holocene sediments were trapped nearshore while the outer shelf is characterized by abundant lag gravels as a result of rapid sea level rise between ˜20 and 8 ka.

Tan, Mai Thanh; Dung, Le Van; Bach, Le Duy; Bieu, Nguyen; Nghi, Tran; Long, Hoang Van; Huong, Phan Thien

2014-01-01

213

Unnatural base pair systems toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet in the central dogma  

PubMed Central

Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet of DNA, several artificial third base pairs (unnatural base pairs) have been created. Synthetic DNAs containing the unnatural base pairs can be amplified faithfully by PCR, along with the natural A–T and G–C pairs, and transcribed into RNA. The unnatural base pair systems now have high potential to open the door to next generation biotechnology. The creation of unnatural base pairs is a consequence of repeating “proof of concept” experiments. In the process, initially designed base pairs were modified to address their weak points. Some of them were artificially evolved to ones with higher efficiency and selectivity in polymerase reactions, while others were eliminated from the analysis. Here, we describe the process of unnatural base pair development, as well as the tests of their applications. PMID:22850726

HIRAO, Ichiro; KIMOTO, Michiko

2012-01-01

214

Worst-Case Scenarios for Greedy, Centrality-Based Network Protection Strategies  

E-print Network

The task of allocating preventative resources to a computer network in order to protect against the spread of viruses is addressed. Virus spreading dynamics are described by a linearized SIS model and protection is framed by an optimization problem which maximizes the rate at which a virus in the network is contained given finite resources. One approach to problems of this type involve greedy heuristics which allocate all resources to the nodes with large centrality measures. We address the worst case performance of such greedy algorithms be constructing networks for which these greedy allocations are arbitrarily inefficient. An example application is presented in which such a worst case network might arise naturally and our results are verified numerically by leveraging recent results which allow the exact optimal solution to be computed via geometric programming.

Zargham, Michael

2014-01-01

215

Sustainability and cost of a community-based strategy against Aedes aegypti in northern and central Vietnam.  

PubMed

We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control that resulted in the elimination of Aedes aegypti in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam. During 2007 and 2008, we revisited Nam Dinh and Khanh Hoa provinces in northern and central Vietnam, respectively, to evaluate whether or not these programs were still being maintained 7 years and 4.5 years after formal project activities had ceased, respectively. Using a previously published sustainability framework, we compared 13 criteria from Tho Nghiep commune in Nam Dinh where the local community had adopted our community-based project model using Mesocyclops from 2001. These data were compared against a formal project commune, Xuan Phong, where our successful intervention activities had ceased in 2000 and four communes operating under the National Dengue Control Program with data available. In Khanh Hoa province, we compared 2008 data at Ninh Xuan commune with data at project completion in 2003 and benchmarked these, where possible, against an untreated control commune, Ninh Binh, where few control activities had been undertaken. The three communes where the above community-based strategy had been adopted were rated as well-sustained with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of $0.28-0.89 international dollars per person. PMID:20439962

Kay, Brian H; Tuyet Hanh, Tran T; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Quy, Tran Minh; Nam, Vu Sinh; Hang, Phan V D; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Hill, Peter S; Vos, Theo; Ryan, Peter A

2010-05-01

216

Review of progress at the UK Central Laser Facility in developing XUV lasers based on recombining laser produced plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program of research by UK universities and overseas collaborators at the SERC Central Laser Facility is directed to the development of XUV lasers based on recombining laser-produced plasmas. Laser amplification has been demonstrated for recombination to hydrogenic ions C VI and F IX with H-alpha laser amplification at 182 and 81 A respectively, and for lithiumlike ions. An initial study of Na-like Cu XIX has been made. Current work is looking for ways to improve the efficiency, increase the gain length and reduce the wavelength to reach the 44 A-edge of the water window.

Key, H. M.; Chenais-Popovics, C.; Carillon, A.; Corbett, R.; Edwards, J.

1988-01-01

217

Central issues in the use of computer-based materials for high volume entrepreneurship education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses issues relating to the use of computer-based learning (CBL) materials for entrepreneurship education at university level. It considers CBL as a means of addressing the increased volume and range of provision required in the current context. The issues raised in this article have importance for all forms of computer-based learning and also have relevance for emerging technologies

Billy Cooper

2007-01-01

218

Central Issues in the Use of Computer-Based Materials for High Volume Entrepreneurship Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses issues relating to the use of computer-based learning (CBL) materials for entrepreneurship education at university level. It considers CBL as a means of addressing the increased volume and range of provision required in the current context. The issues raised in this article have importance for all forms of computer-based

Cooper, Billy

2007-01-01

219

Noncollagenous proteins of dentin. A re-examination of proteins from rat incisor dentin utilizing techniques to avoid artifacts.  

PubMed

Noncollagenous proteins (NCPs) were obtained rrom rat dentin using several precautionary measures to prevent artifactual degradation and losses of the proteins. Prior to demineralization, rat incisor dentin was extracted with 4 M guanidine hydrochloride (GdmCl) containing enzyme inhibitors. The only major component extracted with GdmCl was a proteoglycan fraction. Most of the NCPs were extracted when the incisors were decalcified with an EDTA solution containing protease inhibitors. The EDTA extract contained four types of macromolecules: acidic glycoproteins, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing proteins, phosphoproteins, and proteoglycans. With two exceptions, the apparent molecular weights of these NCPs were greater than 50,000. Our observations contrast sharply with the results obtained by others for human dentin NCPs and suggest that artifactual degradation and losses of some NCPs occurred in these previous studies. The organic phosphate-containing fraction was biphasic when the EDTA extract was chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose. Rechromatography of this fraction by two different procedures separated the material into a complex glycoprotein-containing fraction and, a single rat incisor phosphoprotein peak (RIP). Thus, the earlier interpretation by others that the biphasic nature of the RIP-containing fraction represents two widely differing phosphoprotein species was premature. Highly purified RIP, prepared by passage through a sulfonated polystyrene column, contained no cysteine, valine, methionine, leucine, phenylalanine, or arginine, and the level of phosphoseryl residues was higher than for any previous report. When this preparation of phosphoprotein was dephosphorylated (dP-RIP) and rechromatographed on DEAE-cellulose, a partial separation into two fractions was observed. Automated Edman degradation of fraction dP-RIP suggested the presence of two NH2-terminal sequences: Asp-Asp-Asp-Asn and Asp-Asp-Pro-Asn. However, this material displayed a single protein band when applied to 7.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with Coomassie brilliant blue. The apparent molecular weight of dP-RIP, compared to standard globular proteins, was about 72,000. The data suggest that rat dentin contains at least two major molecular species of RIP that are closely related in size and-structure. In addition, preliminary evidence suggested that other minor forms of related phosphoproteins may exist. PMID:7380844

Linde, A; Bhown, M; Butler, W T

1980-06-25

220

Combined use of miniscrews and continuous arch for intrusive root movement of incisors in Class II division 2 with gummy smile.  

PubMed

Adequate intrusion and torque control of the retroclined maxillary incisors are critical for the treatment of Class II division 2 (div2) malocclusion. In addition, anterior retraction via lingual root movement can be challenging. This case report demonstrates a combined use of miniscrews and continuous arch with additional torque for intrusion, retraction, and torque control of maxillary incisors in the Class II div2 with gummy smile. A 20-year-old woman presented with multiple issues, including impacted canine, lip protrusion, prolonged retained mandibular primary molar, and two missing maxillary premolars. In order to improve her facial profile and eliminate the need for prosthetic work, the mandibular primary molar and contralateral premolar were extracted. Two miniscrews were placed at the maxillary buccal alveolar bone to apply the posterosuperior force for retraction of anterior teeth, with additional labial crown torque on the arch wire. The results were the intrusion (4 mm) and lingual root movement (17°) of the maxillary incisors without anchorage loss of maxillary molars, flattening of the Curve of Spee, and Class I molar relation that were maintained after 50 months of retention period. The combined use of miniscrews and continuous arch could be a reliable and effective treatment modality for torque control and intrusion of retroclined maxillary incisors in the Class II div2 patient. PMID:24512532

Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Wook; Choi, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Kee-Joon

2014-09-01

221

The generation of antiphase oscillations and synchrony by a rebound-based vertebrate central pattern generator.  

PubMed

Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left-right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony. PMID:24760866

Li, Wen-Chang; Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman

2014-04-23

222

The Generation of Antiphase Oscillations and Synchrony by a Rebound-Based Vertebrate Central Pattern Generator  

PubMed Central

Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left–right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony. PMID:24760866

Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman

2014-01-01

223

Kinematics of the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States, based on stepover models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) of the central United States is generally attributed to a stepover structure in which the Reelfoot thrust fault transfers slip between parallel strike-slip faults. However, some arms of the seismic zone do not fit this simple model. Comparison of the NMSZ with an analog sandbox model of a restraining stepover structure explains all of the arms of seismicity as only part of the extensive pattern of faults that characterizes stepover structures. Computer models show that the stepover structure may form because differences in the trends of lower crustal shearing and inherited upper crustal faults make a step between en echelon fault segments the easiest path for slip in the upper crust. The models predict that the modern seismicity occurs only on a subset of the faults in the New Madrid stepover structure, that only the southern part of the stepover structure ruptured in the A.D. 1811–1812 earthquakes, and that the stepover formed because the trends of older faults are not the same as the current direction of shearing.

Pratt, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

224

PHYSICS AND CONTROL OF ELMING H-MODE NEGATIVE CENTRAL SHEAR ADVANCED TOKAMAK SCENARIO BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES FOR ITER  

SciTech Connect

A271 PHYSICS AND CONTROL OF ELMING H-MODE NEGATIVE CENTRAL SHEAR ADVANCED TOKAMAK SCENARIO BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES FOR ITER. Key DIII-D AT experimental and modeling results are applied to examine the physics and control issues for ITER to operate in a negative central shear (NCS) AT scenario. The effects of a finite edge pressure pedestal and current density are included based on the DIII-D experimental profiles. Ideal and resistive stability analyses indicate that feedback control of resistive wall modes by rotational drive or flux conserving intelligent coils is crucial for these AT configurations to operate at attractive {beta}{sub N} values in the range of 3.0-3.5. Vertical stability and halo current analyses show that reliable disruption mitigation is essential and mitigation control using an impurity gas can significantly reduce the local mechanical stress to an acceptable level. Core transport and turbulence analyses demonstrate that control of the rotational shear profile is essential to maintain the good confinement necessary for high {beta}. Consideration of edge stability and core transport suggests that a sufficiently wide pedestal is necessary for the projected fusion performance. Heat flux analyses indicate that with core-only radiation enhancement the outboard peak divertor heat load is near the design limit of 10 MW/m{sup 2}

LAO,LL; CHAN,VS; EVANS,TE; HUMPHREYS,DA; LEUER,JA; MAHDAVI,MA; PETRIE,TW; SNYDER,PB; STJOHN,HE; STAEBLER,GM; STAMBAUGH,RD; TAYLOR,TS; TURNBULL,AD; WEST,WP; BRENNAN,DP

2002-11-01

225

Development of a Centralized Solvent Recovery System at Carswell Air Force Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With current regulatory trends, waste minimization has received increased attention during the last several years. The US Air Force has implemented waste minimization studies at Strategic Air Command bases to select options to reduce the volume of generat...

J. R. Summers, W. D. Nicholas, D. E. Tull

1989-01-01

226

Mosquito development in a macrophyte-based wastewater treatment plant in Cameroon (Central Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophyte-based wastewater treatment systems are recognized as an alternative for sewage purification in developing countries. Unfortunately, they also represent a favorable breeding ground for mosquitoes, thus a serious drawback that should be addressed despite the good promise of this technology.A 1-year study of mosquito production in seven ponds of a Pistia stratiotes-based domestic wastewater treatment plant in Cameroon revealed that

Ives Magloire Kengne; François Brissaud; Amougou Akoa; Roger Atangana Eteme; Jean Nya; Alomba Ndikefor; Theophile Fonkou

2003-01-01

227

The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe  

SciTech Connect

New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

Stefen, C.; Mors, T. [Museum Tierkunde, Dresden (Germany)

2008-09-15

228

The central role of chloride in the metabolic acid-base changes in canine parvoviral enteritis.  

PubMed

The acid-base disturbances in canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis are not well described. In addition, the mechanisms causing these perturbations have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to assess acid-base changes in puppies suffering from CPV enteritis, using a modified strong ion model (SIM). The hypothesis of the study was that severe acid-base disturbances would be present and that the SIM would provide insights into pathological mechanisms, which have not been fully appreciated by the Henderson-Hasselbalch model. The study analysed retrospective data, obtained from 42 puppies with confirmed CPV enteritis and 10 healthy control dogs. The CPV-enteritis group had been allocated a clinical score, to allow classification of the data according to clinical severity. The effects of changes in free water, chloride, l-lactate, albumin and phosphate were calculated, using a modification of the base excess algorithm. When the data were summated for each patient, and correlated to each individual component, the most important contributor to the metabolic acid-base changes, according to the SIM, was chloride (P<0.001). Severely-affected animals tended to demonstrate hypochloraemic alkalosis, whereas mildly-affected puppies had a hyperchloraemic acidosis (P=0.007). In conclusion, the acid-base disturbances in CPV enteritis are multifactorial and complex, with the SIM providing information in terms of the origin of these changes. PMID:24613416

Burchell, Richard K; Schoeman, Johan P; Leisewitz, Andrew L

2014-04-01

229

Proxy-based reconstructions of earthquakes and tsunamis over the past millennia, Quidico, central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilized geomorphic, sedimentological, and stratigraphic methods to describe the relative magnitude of historic tsunamis and better understand the paleoseismic history at Quidico, Chile (38.1° S, 73.2° W). The study site lies within the transition zone between two major subduction-zone earthquake events during the observational period: the great 1960 Mw 9.5 earthquake to the south and the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake to the north. Despite Chile's growing need to continue to refine earthquake and tsunami hazards, there are few studies aimed at quantifying the geologic impact of earthquake-rupture overlap through time in this region. A combination of pits, cores, and riverbank exposures provide stratigraphic evidence of 5, laterally-continuous sand layers within the Quidico River floodplain. The sand units display landward thinning and disappear completely from the stratigraphy approximately 1 km inland from the coast, characteristic of tsunami deposits. All of the sand units have similar grain-size distribution, ranging from 70-120 ?m, which contrasts with the broader, bimodal distribution of grain size (10-450 ?m) from an eolian dune at the site and the coarser grain size (155-430 ?m) of the local beach sand. Intervening sediment layers consists of organic-rich silts and peat. AMS radiocarbon dates of Scirpus seeds found in peat directly below each sand layer indicate deposition of the sand layers has occurred within the past 800 years. The surficial sand layer (? 2 cm thick) is identified as the deposit from the 2010 tsunami. 137Cs measurements taken above, within, and below the second sand unit (4-7 cm) confirmed 14C results that this layer was deposited by the 1960 tsunami. Preliminary microfossil analysis indicates a slightly more marine diatom assemblage in the 1960 sand layer than in the organic-rich silt units above and below it, indicating a marine incursion. Lithology of the sand layers will further constrain their provenance. Comparison of the chronology of these deposits with the 500-year record of historical earthquakes in this region of Chile will be used to identify which tsunami events are preserved in the stratigraphy at Quidico. This information will help characterize the relative magnitude, preservation pattern, and history of past tsunamis within this transition zone. Correlating this record with additional geologic studies and historic accounts of earthquakes and tsunamis throughout the region will collectively advance our understanding of potential seismic hazards in south-central Chile.

Hong, I.; Ely, L. L.; Horton, B.; Dura, T.; Cisternas, M.

2013-12-01

230

The effects of incisor inclination changes on the position of point A in Class II division 2 malocclusion using three-dimensional evaluation: a long-term prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate change in the sagittal position of point A due to orthodontic treatment by orthodontic community-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: 40 subjects (22 males and 18 females) who had Class II division 2 malocclusion were recruited, and 40 subjects (23 males and 17 females) who had minor crowding in the beginning of the treatment and required no or minimal maxillary anterior tooth movement were served as control. The changes in maxillary incisor inclination, sagittal position of point A, SNA angle, and movement of incisor root apex and incisal edge were calculated before and after CBCT treatment. Results: Maxillary incisors were significantly proclined in the study group but not in the control group. This proclination resulted in 2.95 mm backward movement of the root apex and 6.23 mm forward movement of the incisal edge of maxillary incisors. Point A moved 1.24 mm and 0.18 mm backward in the study and control groups, respectively. Incisor root apex and incisal edge almost remained stable in the control group. No significant change was observed in the SNA angle in both the study and control groups. However, the change in SNA between the two groups was found to be significant. Conclusions: Proclination of maxillary incisors with backward movement of incisor root apex caused posterior movement of point A. This posterior movement significantly affects the SNA angle.

Chen, Qiushuo; Zhang, Caixia; Zhou, Yu

2014-01-01

231

Central and Local Patrimonialism: State-Building in Kin-Based Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

How useful is the concept of patrimonialism to analyze state formation and political dynamics in postcolonial nation-states? Using Tunisia, Morocco, and Iraq during critical periods of state-building following the end of colonial rule, the author considers this question. The purpose of the article is to build on Max Weber by exploring how patrimonialism operates in kin-based social contexts where power

Mounira M. Charrad

2011-01-01

232

Evidence-based evaluation of information: the centrality and limitations of systematic reviews.  

PubMed

This introductory paper considers the value and limitations of the methodology of systematic reviews especially according to the evidence-based movement. It explains some terms and organisations producing systematic reviews. It also discusses controversies. The first concerns the criteria by which the quality of individual studies is assessed, the second the possible effects of the affiliation of some reviewers, and the third the value of formalisation of procedure (i.e. the tensions between formal tools and professional judgments). The article contrasts the evidence-based formalism with other formalisms as those by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. It discusses systematic reviews in social science where interventions are complex, difficult to blind, and depend on context. Systematic reviews in working life research are often focusing on prevention. The formal evidence-based process may devaluate or disregard findings from mechanistic and observational studies. Hence such reviews may falsely conclude that existing knowledge about the risk of the factor is limited or nonexistent. PMID:24553849

Järvholm, Bengt; Bohlin, Ingemar

2014-03-01

233

Association between dental erosion and diet in Brazilian adolescents aged from 15 to 19: a population-based study.  

PubMed

Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa = 0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion. PMID:24695943

Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; dos Santos, Fábio Gomes; Moura, Eline Freitas de Farias; da Costa, Fernanda Clotilde Mariz; Auad, Sheyla Marcia; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

2014-01-01

234

A conodont-based standard reference section in central Nevada for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ranges of conodonts in stratigraphic sections at five localities in the Monitor and Antelope ranges of central Nevada are used graphically to assemble a standard reference section for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series. The base of the series is officially 0.3 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in the stratotype in Whiterock Canyon (Monitor Range). The top is the level at which Baltoniodus gerdae makes a brief appearance in an exposure of the Copenhagen Formation on the flanks of Hill 8308 in the western Antelope Range. Graphic compilation of the sections considered in this report also indicates that a level correlative with the base of the Whiterockian Series in the stratotype section is 66 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in its de facto type section on Martin Ridge in the eastern part of the Monitor Range. Ranges, diversity, and the composition of the conodont faunas differ markedly in lithofacies adjacent to the basal boundary of the series; hence we are unable to identify a single conodont species, in a credible developmental sequence, to serve as biological marker of that boundary.

Sweet, W.C.; Ethington, R.L.; Harris, A.G.

2005-01-01

235

CENTRAL AVENUE CENTRAL AVENUE  

E-print Network

Mexican food. Mon.­Fri., 7 am­6 pm Sat., 8 am­2 pm; Sun., 9 am­2 pm 9 Home Run Pizza 1627 Central Avenue-7591 Breakfast burritos, hamburgers, and New Mexican food. Tues.­Fri., 6 am­1 pm Sat., 7 am­noon Closed Sunday salads and sandwiches. Daily, 6 am­12 am NOT SHOWN ON MAP 22 De Colores at the Gate 2470 East Road 662

236

CENTRAL AVENUE CENTRAL AVENUE  

E-print Network

am­3 pm Sat.­Sun., 7 am­3 pm 8 El Parasol 1903 Central Avenue 661-0303 Native New Mexican food. Mon, hamburgers, and New Mexican food. Tues.­Fri., 6 am­1 pm Sat., 7 am­noon Closed Sunday & Monday 11 Sonic Drive NOT SHOWN ON MAP 22 De Colores at the Gate 2470 East Road 662-6285 Native New Mexican cuisine, grilled

237

A new interpretation of the sedimentary cover in the western Siljan Ring area, central Sweden, based on seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new reflection seismic profiles over the Paleozoic successions of the western part of the Siljan Ring impact structure show a contrasting seismic signature. The more southerly c. 10 km long Mora profile reveals a highly disturbed structure, with only a few kilometers of relatively horizontally layered structures observed. However, interpretations of refracted arrivals in the data, that can be correlated to reflections, indicate the Silurian clastic rocks to be about 200 m thick in the central part of the profile. Weak reflections from about 600 m depth suggest a 400 m thick Ordovician limestone sequence to be present. Cores from the area show a mainly shale lithology for the Silurian and only a thin sequence of Ordovician strata, suggesting a rapid thickening of the Ordovician towards the north. On the more northern c. 12 km Orsa profile clear reflections from the Paleozoic successions are seen along the entire profile, except on the southernmost few kilometers. Based on interpretations of refracted arrivals, the Silurian succession appears to be considerably thinner here, and possibly absent at some locations. The Ordovician is also interpreted to be thinner in this area, with a maximum thickness of about 200-300 m along most of the profile. A deeper reflection from about 2 km within the crystalline basement may represent a dolerite sill. The lack of clear basement reflections on the Mora profile can be attributed to near-surface conditions and the acquisition geometry. The seismic data and recent coring in the area suggest the presence of a deeper paleo-basin towards the southwest with significantly more shales being deposited and the Paleozoic successions being severely disturbed. The shallow coring and seismic data will help form the basis for locating future boreholes for deeper drilling to study impact processes and the Paleozoic evolution of central Sweden.

Juhlin, Christopher; Sturkell, Erik; Ebbestad, Jan Ove R.; Lehnert, Oliver; Högström, Anette E. S.; Meinhold, Guido

2012-12-01

238

Electronic Medical Record in Central Polyclinic of Isfahan Oil Industry: A Case Study Based on Technology Acceptance Model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Today, health information technologies are base of health services and Electronic Medical Record is one of them. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) on EMR at Central Polyclinic Oil Industry that is a pioneer in implementation of EMR in Isfahan. Methods This study was an applied and analytical survey that it was done at the Central Polyclinic Oil Industry. Because statistical population were limited, sampling bas been done by conducting the census and the sample was according to the population. The data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire that it was validated by experts and its reliability was confirmed by test retest. The questionnaire was developed in 5 scopes including external factors (data quality and user interface), perceived usefulness, perceived ease of usefulness, attitude toward using, and behavioral intention to use. The Results analyzed by SPSS. Results There was a significant relationship between data quality with PU(r=/295, p/005). Discussion The survey of the scopes in the polyclinic showed that there is relationship among user interface, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of usefulness, attitude toward using, and behavioral intention to use, but data quality has no relationship with attitude. It seems the system designers didn’t consider to data quality characteristics. It is proposed that they consult with health information management professionals for improvement the existing system. PMID:23572857

Tavakoli, Nahid; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Shahin, Arash; Mokhtari, Habibollah; Rafiei, Maryam

2013-01-01

239

Aetiologies of central nervous system infections in adults in Kathmandu, Nepal: a prospective hospital-based study.  

PubMed

We conducted a prospective hospital based study from February 2009-April 2011 to identify the possible pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital (Patan Hospital) in Kathmandu, Nepal. The pathogens of CNS infections were confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using molecular diagnostics, culture (bacteria) and serology. 87 patients were recruited for the study and the etiological diagnosis was established in 38% (n = 33). The bacterial pathogens identified were Neisseria meningitidis (n = 6); Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 5) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) in 13/87(14%). Enteroviruses were found in 12/87 (13%); Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) in 2/87(2%). IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was detected in the CSF of 11/73 (15%) tested samples. This is the first prospective molecular and serology based CSF analysis in adults with CNS infections in Kathmandu, Nepal. JEV and enteroviruses were the most commonly detected pathogens in this setting. PMID:23924886

Giri, Abhishek; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Rishav; van Tan, Le; Thi Thuy Chinh, Bkrong Nguyen; Krishna K C, Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Shakya, Mila; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Doorn, H Rogier; Basnyat, Buddha

2013-01-01

240

Impurity of Stem Cell Graft by Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts - Implications for Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Stem cells have been demonstrated to possess a therapeutic potential in experimental models of various central nervous system disorders, including stroke. The types of implanted cells appear to play a crucial role. Previously, groups of the stem cell network NRW implemented a feeder-based cell line within the scope of their projects, examining the implantation of stem cells after ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Retrospective evaluation indicated the presence of spindle-shaped cells in several grafts implanted in injured animals, which indicated potential contamination by co-cultured feeder cells (murine embryonic fibroblasts – MEFs). Because feeder-based cell lines have been previously exposed to a justified criticism with regard to contamination by animal glycans, we aimed to evaluate the effects of stem cell/MEF co-transplantation. MEFs accounted for 5.3?±?2.8% of all cells in the primary FACS-evaluated co-culture. Depending on the culture conditions and subsequent purification procedure, the MEF-fraction ranged from 0.9 to 9.9% of the cell suspensions in vitro. MEF survival and related formation of extracellular substances in vivo were observed after implantation into the uninjured rat brain. Impurity of the stem cell graft by MEFs interferes with translational strategies, which represents a threat to the potential recipient and may affect the graft microenvironment. The implications of these findings are critically discussed. PMID:25249934

Molcanyi, Marek; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Schafer, Ute; Haj-Yasein, Nadia Nabil; Brockmann, Michael; Penner, Marina; Riess, Peter; Reinshagen, Clemens; Rieger, Bernhard; Hannes, Tobias; Hescheler, Jurgen; Bosche, Bert

2014-01-01

241

Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to improve the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Antiretroviral drug therapy plays a cornerstone role in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Despite obvious advances over the past 3 decades, new approaches toward improved management of infected individuals are still required. Drug distribution to the central nervous system (CNS) is required in order to limit and control viral infection, but the presence of natural barrier structures, in particular the blood-brain barrier, strongly limits the perfusion of anti-HIV compounds into this anatomical site. Nanotechnology-based approaches may help providing solutions for antiretroviral drug delivery to the CNS by potentially prolonging systemic drug circulation, increasing the crossing and reducing the efflux of active compounds at the blood-brain barrier, and providing cell/tissue-targeting and intracellular drug delivery. After an initial overview on the basic features of HIV infection of the CNS and barriers to active compound delivery to this anatomical site, this review focuses on recent strategies based on antiretroviral drug-loaded solid nanoparticles and drug nanosuspensions for the potential management of HIV infection of the CNS. PMID:24741312

Gomes, Maria João; Neves, José das; Sarmento, Bruno

2014-01-01

242

Aetiologies of Central Nervous System infections in adults in Kathmandu, Nepal: A prospective hospital-based study  

PubMed Central

We conducted a prospective hospital based study from February 2009-April 2011 to identify the possible pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital (Patan Hospital) in Kathmandu, Nepal. The pathogens of CNS infections were confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using molecular diagnostics, culture (bacteria) and serology. 87 patients were recruited for the study and the etiological diagnosis was established in 38% (n = 33). The bacterial pathogens identified were Neisseria meningitidis (n = 6); Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 5) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) in 13/87(14%). Enteroviruses were found in 12/87 (13%); Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) in 2/87(2%). IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was detected in the CSF of 11/73 (15%) tested samples. This is the first prospective molecular and serology based CSF analysis in adults with CNS infections in Kathmandu, Nepal. JEV and enteroviruses were the most commonly detected pathogens in this setting. PMID:23924886

Giri, Abhishek; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Rishav; van Tan, Le; Thi Thuy Chinh, Bkrong Nguyen; Krishna K. C., Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Shakya, Mila; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Basnyat, Buddha

2013-01-01

243

Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to improve the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in the central nervous system  

PubMed Central

Antiretroviral drug therapy plays a cornerstone role in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Despite obvious advances over the past 3 decades, new approaches toward improved management of infected individuals are still required. Drug distribution to the central nervous system (CNS) is required in order to limit and control viral infection, but the presence of natural barrier structures, in particular the blood–brain barrier, strongly limits the perfusion of anti-HIV compounds into this anatomical site. Nanotechnology-based approaches may help providing solutions for antiretroviral drug delivery to the CNS by potentially prolonging systemic drug circulation, increasing the crossing and reducing the efflux of active compounds at the blood–brain barrier, and providing cell/tissue-targeting and intracellular drug delivery. After an initial overview on the basic features of HIV infection of the CNS and barriers to active compound delivery to this anatomical site, this review focuses on recent strategies based on antiretroviral drug-loaded solid nanoparticles and drug nanosuspensions for the potential management of HIV infection of the CNS. PMID:24741312

Gomes, Maria Joao; Neves, Jose das; Sarmento, Bruno

2014-01-01

244

2006 Eastern National 4-H Horse Bowl 1 C1 Q. At what age do the permanent 3rd or corner incisors erupt?  

E-print Network

rd or corner incisors erupt? A. 4 1/2 years S. HIH 240-1 430/2 2 C2 Q. Night eyes are a common name Attached 20 Q. (Two Part) When considering vision, where are the horse's two blind spots? A. Directly of the medieval charger breed, its color is all shades of chestnut, and it originated in Suffolk County, England

New Hampshire, University of

245

Paediatric dentistryDental fluorosis in permanent incisor teeth in relation to water fluoridation, social deprivation and toothpaste use in infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in permanent incisor teeth in young children in a fluoridated and a fluoride-deficient community and to establish what relationship, if any, there was between the occurrence of dental fluorosis and the reported use of fluoride toothpaste in childhood.Design A prevalence study of children aged 8–9 years who had been continuous residents

R Ellwood; A J Rugg-Gunn; D J Evans; R M Davies; E D Tabari

2000-01-01

246

Clinical Evaluation of Resin Composite and Resin Modified Glass Ionomer in Class III Restorations of Primary Maxillary Incisors: A Comparative In Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

Restoration of primary teeth continues to be an important facet of restorative dentistry. In comparison to restorations in permanent dentition, the longevity of those in primary teeth is significantly different for all materials. This makes the assessment of these fillings as a separate group meaningful. As there is lack of supporting clinical data with regard to the restoration of primary incisors, it would be judicious to consider why this is so and determine if studies can be designed to gain new information. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of composite resins and resin-modified glass ionomer cement restorations of primary incisors, over a period of one year. Methods: The study group consisted of 40 patients (3½- 5 ½ years of age) with at least one pair of similar sized lesions in the middle1/3 of the same proximal surface of contralateral primary maxillary incisors. Composite resin and resinmodified glass ionomer cement restorations were placed in primary maxillary incisors using split-mouth design. The restorations were evaluated at different intervals of 3,6,9, months and 1 year using Ryge’s criteria. Data obtained was analyzed using Mann-Whitney test. Results: The results revealed no statistical significance in the difference of clinical characteristics between the two restorative materials. Interpretation and conclusion: (1) Resin-modified glass ionomer cement and composite resin restorative materials showed acceptable clinical performance after 1 year in primary teeth. (2) Resin-modified glass ionomer cement and composite resin restorative materials functioned well as class III restorative materials in primary teeth.

Mohan Das, Usha; Viswanath, Deepak; Azher, Umme

2009-01-01

247

Microtensile Bond Strength of Self-Adhesive Resin-Based Dental Cement to Bleached Enamel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of bleaching agents on the micro tensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-adhesive luting cement and enamel. A total of 126 samples were prepared from the labial surfaces of permanent human maxillary central incisors and assigned into three groups with 42 samples each as: control, enamel bleached with 10% hydrogen peroxide (HP), and enamel bleached with

Ev?en Tamam; Selda Keskin; Mine Betül Üçta?l?

2010-01-01

248

Base surge deposits, eruption history, and depositional processes of a wet phreatomagmatic volcano in Central Anatolia (Cora Maar)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cora Maar is a Quaternary volcano located to the 20 km northwest of Mount Erciyes, the largest of the 19 polygenetic volcanic complexes of the Cappadocian Volcanic Province in central Anatolia. Cora Maar is a typical example of a maar-diatreme volcano with a nearly circular crater with a mean diameter of c.1.2 km, and a well-bedded base surge-dominated maar rim tephra sequence up to 40 m in thickness. Having a diameter/depth ratio ( D/ d) of 12, Cora is a relatively "mature" maar compared to recent maar craters in the world. Cora crater is excavated within the andesitic lava flows of Quaternary age. The tephra sequence is not indurated, and consists of juvenile clasts up to 70 cm, non-juvenile clasts up to 130 cm, accretionary lapilli up to 1.2 cm in diameter, and ash to lapilli-sized tephra. Base surge layers display well-developed antidune structures indicating the direction of the transport. Both progressive and regressive dune structures are present within the tephra sequence. Wavelength values increase with increasing wave height, and with large wavelength and height values. Cora tephra display similarities to Taal and Laacher See base surge deposits. Impact sags and small channel structures are also common. Lateral and vertical facies changes are observed for the dune bedded and planar bedsets. According to granulometric analyses, Cora Maar tephra samples display a bimodal distribution with a wide range of Md ? values, characteristic for the surge deposits. Very poorly sorted, bimodal ash deposits generally vary from coarse tail to fine tail grading depending on the grain size distribution while very poorly sorted lapilli and block-rich deposits display a positive skewness due to fine tail grading.

Gençalio?lu-Ku?cu, Gonca; Atilla, Cüneyt; Cas, Ray A. F.; Ku?cu, ?lkay

2007-01-01

249

Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho.  

PubMed

Traumatic dental injuries are widespread in the population and the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries among school children in different parts of the world varies from about 3% to 45%. Most injuries involve the anterior teeth, which may lead to eating restrictions, changes in physical appearance, speech defects and psychological impacts that affect the child's quality of life. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence, aetiology and types of injuries to permanent incisors among schoolchildren aged 10-14 years from Maseru, Lesotho. Upper and lower permanent incisors were examined for dental injuries. The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisor teeth was 9.3% (13.3% boys and 6.3% girls). Significantly more boys than girls suffered injury. The most common type of injury was enamel fractures and most common cause was falls. Health promotion policies should aim to create an appropriate and safe environment for children. Soft playground surfaces, school-crossing patrols, marked zebra crossings and bicycle lanes would help create a safe environment. Speed limits for cars and the use of seat belts, air bags, special car seats for children and bicycle helmets should be enforced. Mouth guards should be used when playing sport, in particular contact sports. Education regarding the epidemiology of dental injuries and their prevention through health promotion may play a major role in reducing the prevalence of dental injury and avoiding the financial costs of treatment, especially in developing countries. PMID:18689347

Lin, H; Naidoo, Sudeshni

2008-04-01

250

Multiple traumatic injury to maxillary incisors in an adolescent female: treatment outcome with two years follow-up  

PubMed Central

Summary Number, type and severity of dental injuries per patient differ according to the patient’s age and the cause of accident. The trauma group resulting from pedestrian-, bicycle-, and car-related injuries is usually dominated by multiple dental injuries, injuries to the supporting bone and soft-tissue injuries. This report describes a case of a 16.2-year-old female who suffered traumatic injuries to her permanent maxillary incisors after a car accident. Concussion of tooth 12, extrusive luxation of tooth 11, avulsion of tooth 21 and subluxation with complicated crown fracture of tooth 22 were observed at the emergency visit 75 minutes after the trauma. Tooth 21 was dry stored for 15 minutes, then in milk for 60 minutes. The treatment plan according to IADT guidelines was performed with the satisfaction of the dentists and the patient. After 1 year follow- up a replacement root resorption of tooth 21 was diagnosed; it was then considered severe at the time of the 2 year control visit. Educational programs are essential to optimize the treatment outcome both at the accident site and also at the dental office. PMID:23991273

Biagi, Roberto; Cardarelli, Filippo; Storti, Ennio; Majorana, Alessandra; Farronato, Giampietro

2013-01-01

251

FUCHS ENDOTHELIAL CORNEAL DYSTROPHY: SUBJECTIVE GRADING VERSUS OBJECTIVE GRADING BASED ON THE CENTRAL TO PERIPHERAL THICKNESS RATIO  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess inter-observer agreement between two corneal specialists grading Fuchs dystrophy clinically, and to determine if the corneal central to peripheral thickness ratio (CPTR) might be an alternative and objective metric of disease severity. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Forty-five eyes (26 subjects) with mild and moderate Fuchs dystrophy, 73 eyes (60 subjects) with advanced Fuchs dystrophy, and 267 eyes (142 subjects) with normal corneas. Methods Corneas with Fuchs dystrophy were graded by two corneal specialists based on the confluence and area of guttae, and the presence or absence of edema. Central corneal thickness (CCT) and peripheral corneal thickness at 4 mm from the center (PCT4) were measured by using scanning-slit pachymetry. CPTR4 was the quotient of CCT and PCT4. Main Outcome Measures Inter-observer agreement for clinical grade; CPTR4. Results Inter-observer agreement for clinical grading of Fuchs dystrophy was moderate (?=0.32, 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.45). In normal corneas, CCT was not correlated with age (r= -0.10, p=0.28, n=267), PCT4 decreased with age (r= -0.33, p<0.001, n=254), and CPTR4 increased with age (r= 0.59, p<0.001, n=254). CCT was higher in Fuchs dystrophy (652 ± 61 ?m, n=118) than in normal corneas (559 ± 31 ?m, n=267, p<0.001). PCT4 was higher in Fuchs dystrophy (650 ± 51 ?m, n=107) than in normal corneas (643 ± 43 ?m, n=254, p<0.001 after adjusting thickness for age). CPTR4 was higher in advanced Fuchs dystrophy (1.03 ± 0.07, n=65) than in mild and moderate Fuchs dystrophy (0.95 ± 0.07, n=42, age-adjusted p<0.001), which in turn was higher than in normal corneas (0.87 ± 0.05, n=254, age-adjusted p<0.001). CPTR4 was highly correlated with clinical grade of Fuchs dystrophy (r=0.77, p<0.001, n=361). CPTR4 was repeatable (median coefficient of variation, 1.3%), and provided excellent discrimination between Fuchs dystrophy and normal (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.93). Conclusions Agreement between corneal specialists for the subjective and morphologic clinical grading of Fuchs dystrophy is only moderate. The corneal CPTR is an objective, repeatable, and possibly functional, metric of severity of Fuchs dystrophy that warrants further investigation to determine its role in monitoring disease progression and predicting the need for keratoplasty. PMID:23369486

Repp, Daniel J.; Hodge, David O.; Baratz, Keith H.; McLaren, Jay W.; Patel, Sanjay V.

2012-01-01

252

A three-dimensional slope stability model based on GRASS GIS and its application to the Collazzone area, Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide risk depends on landslide hazard, i.e. the probability of occurrence of a slope failure of a given magnitude within a specified period and in a given area. The occurrence probability of slope failures in an area characterized by a set of geo-environmental parameters gives the landslide susceptibility. Statistical and deterministic methods are used to assess landslide susceptibility. Deterministic models based on limit equilibrium techniques are applied for the analysis of particular types of landslides (e.g., shallow soil slips, debris flows, rock falls), or to investigate the effects of specific triggers, i.e., an intense rainfall event or an earthquake. In particular, infinite slope stability models are used to calculate the spatial probability of shallow slope failures. In these models, the factor of safety is computed on a pixel basis, assuming a slope-parallel, infinite slip surface. Since shallow slope failures coexist locally with deep-seated landslides, infinite slope stability models fail to describe the complexity of the landslide phenomena. Limit equilibrium models with curved sliding surfaces are geometrically more complex, and their implementation with raster-based GIS is a challenging task. Only few attempts were made to develop GIS-based three-dimensional applications of such methods. We present a preliminary implementation of a GIS-based, three-dimensional slope stability model capable of dealing with deep-seated and shallow rotational slope failures. The model is implemented as a raster module (r.rotstab) in the Open Source GIS package GRASS GIS, and makes use of the three-dimensional sliding surface model proposed by Hovland (1977). Given a DEM and a set of thematic layers of geotechnical and hydraulic parameters, the model tests a large number of randomly determined potential ellipsoidal slip surfaces. In addition to ellipsoidal slip surfaces, truncated ellipsoids are tested, which can occur in the presence of weak layers or hard bedrock. Any raster cell may be intersected by various sliding surfaces, each associated with a computed factor of safety. The lowest value of the factor of safety is stored for each raster cell together with the depth of the associated slip surface. This results in an overview of potentially unstable regions without showing the individual sliding areas. We test the model in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy, which is susceptible to landslides of different types. The presence of both shallow translational and deep-seated rotational landslides, and the availability of reference data, allow for the critical evaluation of the model in comparison with standard infinite slope stability models.

Mergili, M.; Marchesini, I.; Fellin, W.; Rossi, M.; Raia, S.; Guzzetti, F.

2012-04-01

253

Sensor-based profiles of the NO parameter in the central Arctic and southern Canada Basin: New insights regarding the cold halocline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the first optical, sensor-based profiles of nitrate from the central Makarov and Amundsen and southern Canada Basins of the Arctic Ocean. These profiles were obtained as part of the International Polar Year program during spring 2007 and 2008 field seasons of the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) and Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program (BGEP). These nitrate data were

Matthew B. Alkire; Kelly K. Falkner; James Morison; Robert W. Collier; Christopher K. Guay; Russell A. Desiderio; Ignatius G. Rigor; Miles McPhee

2010-01-01

254

Shallow-water and sub-storm-base deposition of Lewis Shale in Cretaceous Western interior seaway, south-central Wyoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow- and deep-water (below storm base) clastics of the Lewis Shale were deposited in south-central Wyoming during a part of the Late Cretaceous Core, log, and outcrop data indicate that the Lewis Shale consists of a thin, transgressive, marine shale overlain by a thicker, coarser, progradational interval. The sea in which the Lewis Shale was deposited opened eastward into the

R. D. Jr. Winn; M. G. Bishop; P. S. Gardner

1987-01-01

255

Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and

Jonathan S. Berman; Catherine Symonds; Rolfe Birch

2004-01-01

256

Nurse-led central venous catheter insertion—Procedural characteristics and outcomes of three intensive care based catheter placement services  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNurse-led central venous catheter placement is an emerging clinical role internationally. Procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes is an important consideration in appraisal of such advanced nursing roles.

Evan Alexandrou; Margherita Murgo; Eda Calabria; Timothy R. Spencer; Hailey Carpen; Kathleen Brennan; Steven A. Frost; Patricia M. Davidson; Ken M. Hillman

257

Seismicity in Central North Africa at low magnitudes: A first look at the TAM event detected data base  

SciTech Connect

Teleseismic observations of seismicity in the central North Africa region show that the region is aseismic. This is true for earthquakes with a body wave magnitude greater than about 4 or so. For earthquakes with body wave magnitudes substantially below about 4, the teleseismic observations of seismicity in the central Sahara are incomplete since smaller earthquakes would probably not be detected and located by the current teleseismic monitoring networks. Only one known open seismic station has been operating in the central Sahara. This is the Tamanrasset (TAM) seismic station in southern Algeria. A simple analysis of data records from this station can be used to determine if the central Sahara is also relatively aseismic at magnitudes substantially below 4. That is the primary purpose of this study.

Harben, P.E.,

1997-01-01

258

The Lilongwe Central Hospital Patient Management Information System: A Success in Computer-Based Order Entry Where One Might Least Expect It  

PubMed Central

Computer-based order entry is a powerful tool for enhancing patient care. A pilot project in the pediatric department of the Lilongwe Central Hospital (LCH) in Malawi, Africa has demonstrated that computer-based order entry (COE): 1) can be successfully deployed and adopted in resource-poor settings, 2) can be built, deployed and sustained at relatively low cost and with local resources, and 3) has a greater potential to improve patient care in developing than in developed countries. PMID:14728338

GP, Douglas; RA, Deula; SE, Connor

2003-01-01

259

Effects of aliskiren- and ramipril-based treatment on central aortic blood pressure in elderly with systolic hypertension: a substudy of AGELESS  

PubMed Central

Background Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in elderly patients. There is increasing evidence that measurement of central aortic pressure (CAP) better accounts for cardiovascular risk than brachial blood pressure (BP). The Aliskiren for GEriatric LowEring of SyStolic hypertension (AGELESS) study in elderly patients with systolic hypertension showed that aliskiren-based therapy provided greater reductions in peripheral BP than ramipril-based therapy over 12 and 36 weeks of treatment. Here, we present CAP results in a substudy of elderly patients from the AGELESS study. Methods This was a post hoc analysis of a 36-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, optional-titration study in patients ?65 years of age with systolic BP ?140 mmHg. Changes in both central and peripheral BP and pulse pressure (PP) and changes in systolic and PP amplification ratios from baseline to the week 36 end point with aliskiren-based versus ramipril-based therapy were analyzed. Results Of the 901 patients randomized in the overall study, 154 patients (aliskiren, n=78; ramipril, n=76) had CAP data. Numerically comparable reductions were seen for central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) in aliskiren-based therapy (baseline: 143.7±15.0; week 36: ?20.3±16.2) compared with ramipril-based therapy (baseline: 147.9±11.9; week 36: ?20.7±14.6). However, for the change in central aortic diastolic pressure, the least squares mean between-treatment difference (?3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, ?6.76, ?0.43; P=0.0263]) was in favor of aliskiren, while the other changes were comparable between the two groups with a trend in favor of aliskiren for CASP as well (?2.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, ?7.38, 2.19; P=0.2855)]. Correlation coefficients for change from baseline between CASP and systolic BP and between central aortic pulse pressure and PP (r=0.8, P<0.0001) were highly significant. Conclusion Aliskiren-based therapy provides comparable reductions in CASP to ramipril-based therapy. Although the results did not reach statistical significance, these findings, when coupled with those of the main study, suggest that aliskiren may offer effective control of central BP in elderly patients with systolic hypertension and may be a good alternative to ramipril. PMID:25061313

Baschiera, Fabio; Chang, William; Brunel, Patrick

2014-01-01

260

ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages  

PubMed Central

ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia. PMID:24266292

Huh, Sun

2013-01-01

261

injections based on a 200,000-year record of Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present for the first time a self-consistent methodology connecting volcanological field data to global climate model estimates for a regional time series of explosive volcanic events. Using the petrologic method, we estimated SO2 emissions from 36 detected Plinian volcanic eruptions occurring at the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) during the past 200,000 years. Together with simple parametrized relationships collected from past studies, we derive estimates of global maximum volcanic aerosol optical depth (AOD) and radiative forcing (RF) describing the effect of each eruption on radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In parallel, AOD and RF time series for selected CAVA eruptions are simulated with the global aerosol model MAECHAM5-HAM, which shows a relationship between stratospheric SO2 injection and maximum global mean AOD that is linear for smaller volcanic eruptions (<5 Mt SO2) and nonlinear for larger ones (?5 Mt SO2) and is qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the relationship used in the simple parametrized approximation. Potential climate impacts of the selected CAVA eruptions are estimated using an earth system model of intermediate complexity by RF time series derived by (1) directly from the global aerosol model and (2) from the simple parametrized approximation assuming a 12-month exponential decay of global AOD. We find that while the maximum AOD and RF values are consistent between the two methods, their temporal evolutions are significantly different. As a result, simulated global maximum temperature anomalies and the duration of the temperature response depend on which RF time series is used, varying between 2 and 3 K and 60 and 90 years for the largest eruption of the CAVA dataset. Comparing the recurrence time of eruptions, based on the CAVA dataset, with the duration of climate impacts, based on the model results, we conclude that cumulative impacts due to successive eruptions are unlikely. The methodology and results presented here can be used to calculate approximate volcanic forcings and potential climate impacts from sulfur emissions, sulfate aerosol or AOD data for any eruption that injects sulfur into the tropical stratosphere.

Metzner, D.; Kutterolf, S.; Toohey, M.; Timmreck, C.; Niemeier, U.; Freundt, A.; Krüger, K.

2014-10-01

262

Interdisciplinary management of severe intrusion injuries in permanent incisors: a case series.  

PubMed

Intrusion injuries to the permanent dentition are amoung the most severe types of dental injuries, occurring in 0.3-1.9% of all dental trauma cases. The current clinical guidelines in the management of intrusion injuries are based on level B evidence due to the infrequent nature of this type of injury, coupled with a lack of high quality evidence-based studies. This paper presents four cases of severe intrusion injuries that were successfully managed using an interdisciplinary approach. The cases described here highlight the benefits of orthodontic repositioning of severely intruded teeth in the short and medium terms. Although orthodontic repositioning was unsuccessful in the final case, this did not preclude subsequent surgical repositioning. Interdisciplinary collaboration allowed two of the cases described to be effectively managed with premolar autotransplantation alongside orthodontic treatment. The cases demonstrated here indicate the difficulties in providing the current recommended treatment modalities at non-specialist clinics. They accentuate the importance of an immediate referral of such complex cases to a specialist centre where interdisciplinary management is readily available. PMID:25377819

Nazzal, H; Dhaliwal, H K; Littlewood, S J; Spencer, R J; Day, P F

2014-11-01

263

Holocene glacier history of Bjørnbreen and climatic reconstruction in central Jotunheimen, Norway, based on proximal glaciofluvial stream-bank mires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holocene variations of Bjørnbreen, Smørstabbtinden massif, west-central Jotunheimen are reconstructed from the lithostratigraphy of two alpine stream-bank mires flooded episodically by meltwater. The approach uses multiple sedimentological indicators (weight loss-on-ignition, mean grain size, grain-size fractions, bulk density, moisture content and magnetic susceptibility), an a priori model of overbank deposition of suspended glaciofluvial sediments, a detailed chronology based on 56 radiocarbon dates, and a Little Ice Age sedimentological analogue. Rapid, late-Preboreal deglaciation was indicated by immigration of Betula pubescens by 9700 cal. BP. An interval of at least 3000 years in the early Holocene when glaciers were absent was interrupted by two abrupt episodes of glacier expansion around the time of the Finse Event, the first at ca 8270-7900 cal. BP (Bjørnbreen I Event) and the second at ca 7770-7540 cal. BP (Bjørnbreen II Event). Neoglaciation began shortly before ca 5730 cal. BP with gradual build-up to the maximum of the Bjørnbreen III Event at ca 4420 cal. BP. Later maxima occurred at ca 2750 cal. BP (Bjørnbreen IV Event) and at 1300, 1260, 1060 and 790 cal. BP (all within the Bjørnbreen V Event). Glaciers were smaller than today and possibly melted away on several occasions in the late Holocene (ca 3950, 1410 and 750 cal. BP). Minor maxima also occurred at ca 660 and 540 cal. BP, within the late Mediaeval Warm Period and the early Little Ice Age, respectively. The Little Ice Age maximum was dated to 213±25 BP (ca 205 cal. BP). The relative magnitudes of the main glacier maxima were determined: Erdalen Event>Little Ice Age Event (Bjørnbreen VI)>Bjørnbreen I (Finse Event) ? Bjørnbreen II>Bjørnbreen V?Bjørnbreen IV>Bjørnbreen III. These episodic events of varying magnitude and abruptness were used in conjunction with an independent summer-temperature proxy to reconstruct variations in equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) and a Holocene record of winter precipitation. Since the Preboreal, ELA varied within a range of about 390 m, and winter precipitation ranged between 40 and 160% of modern values. Winter precipitation variations appear to have been the main cause of these century- to millennial-scale Holocene glacier variations.

Matthews, John A.; Berrisford, Mark S.; Quentin Dresser, P.; Nesje, Atle; Olaf Dahl, Svein; Elisabeth Bjune, Anne; Bakke, Jostein; John, H.; Birks, B.; Lie, Øyvind; Dumayne-Peaty, Lisa; Barnett, Catherine

2005-01-01

264

Constraining the magma flow record based on magmatic and magnetic data in La Gloria Pluton, central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magmatic origin of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is examined in comparison with magmatic anisotropy data in a small, shallow, silicic magma reservoir in the upper crust. La Gloria Pluton (LGP) is a 10 Ma granodiorite/quartz monzonite of about 250 km3 located in the southern Andes, central Chile. LGP represents a particularly simple case of a silicic intrusion that was assembled in only a few pulses and cooled over a short time interval. Hornblende, biotite and minor magnetite are ubiquitous mafic phases. The AMS tensor indicates that magnetic fabric has an oblate shape (i.e. magnetic foliation is higher than magnetic lineation). Lineations are weak (values up to 1.05), have a N-NW trend with a nearly horizontal dip and are interpreted to represent axisymmetric convection parallel to the main pluton elongation. Foliations are more pronounced (values up to 1.14), having NW trends and dips that vary gradually from vertical at the walls, to horizontal at the center and near the roof of the chamber. We selected 12 samples from AMS sites to obtain petrographic data (well-distributed throughout the pluton, containing samples from the walls, the center and the roof of LGP), and then, determine the magmatic fabric (anisotropy, lineation, foliation). We made 3 oriented thin sections per sample oriented with the AMS. Magmatic anisotropy data were obtained by measuring mineral length, width and orientation in photomicrographs of the three main planes of the AMS tensor, producing 3-D mineral data which were collected for plagioclase and amphibole + bitotite independently. For each site, a Bingham distribution with 95% of confidence is used to determine the mean mineral orientations and their angle difference with the AMS axes. Magmatic anisotropy tensor and rotations with respect to the AMS tensor are determined using both eigenvalues and minimization algorithms. Preliminary results indicate that crystals are coherently oriented in both mineral groups, and that magmatic anisotropy values are similar for all crystals and consistent with AMS data. Based on fluid dynamical numerical simulations of LGP, we interpret both magmatic and magnetic anisotropy as a consequence of shear during late magmatic convection, near the magma locking point along solidification fronts. Acknowledgments This research has been developed by the FONDECYT N°11100241 and PBCT-PDA07 projects granted by CONICYT (Chilean National Commission for Science and Technology). Gutierrez and Bachmann were supported by U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) grant EAR-080982 during the completion of this research. Gelman was supported by U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) grant DGE-0718124.

Gutierrez, F. J.; Payacán, I.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Creative Physical Petrology Team

2013-05-01

265

Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences from Cereal-Based Farming in the Central Rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions—the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers’ perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new risks outside the range of current experiences. To enable farmers to adapt to these impacts critical technological, institutional, and market-access constraints need to be removed. Inconsistencies between farmers’ perceptions and observed climate trends (e.g., decrease in annual rainfall) could lead to sub-optimal or counterproductive adaptations, and therefore must be removed by better communication and capacity building, for example through Climate Field Schools. Enabling strategies, which are among others targeted at agricultural inputs, credit supply, market access, and strengthening of local knowledge and information services need to become integral part of government policies to assist farmers to adapt to the impacts of current and future climate change.

Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

2013-11-01

266

Utilization Patterns and Outcomes Associated with the Central Venous Catheter in Septic Shock: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objective In 2001 a randomized trial showed decreased mortality with early, goal-directed therapy in septic shock, a strategy later recommended by the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Placement of a central venous catheter (CVC) is necessary to administer goal-directed therapy. We sought to evaluate nationwide trends in: 1) CVC utilization and 2) the association between early CVC insertion and mortality in patients with septic shock. Design We retrospectively analyzed the proportion of septic shock cases receiving an early (day of admission) CVC and the odds of hospital mortality associated with receiving early CVC from years 1998-2001 compared with 2002-2009. Setting Non-federal acute care hospitalizations from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 1998-2009. Interventions None Patients 203,481 (population estimate: 999,545) cases admitted through an emergency department with principal diagnosis of septicemia and secondary diagnosis of shock. Measurements and Main Results From 1998-2009 population-adjusted rates of septic shock increased from 12.6 cases per 100,000 US adults to 78 cases per 100,000. During this time age-adjusted hospital mortality associated with septic shock declined from 40.4% to 31.4%. Early CVC insertion increased from 5.7% (95% CI 5.1-6.3%) to 19.2% (95% CI 18.7-19.5%) cases with septic shock, with an increased rate of early CVC placement identified after 2007. The rate of decline in age-adjusted hospital mortality was significantly greater for patients who received an early CVC (-4.2% per year, 95% CI -3.2, -4.2%) as compared with no CVC (-2.9% per year, 95% CI -2.3, -3.5%), p=0.016. Hospital mortality associated with early CVC insertion significantly decreased from a multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of 1.29 (95% CI 1.14-1.45) prior to 2001 to an adjusted odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI 0.84-0.90) after 2001. Conclusions Placement of a CVC early in septic shock has increased 3-fold since 1998. The mortality associated with early CVC insertion decreased after publication of evidence-based instructions for CVC use. PMID:23507718

Walkey, Allan J.; Soylemez-Wiener, Renda; Lindenauer, Peter K.

2013-01-01

267

Sensorimotor deficits in patients with central nervous system lesions: Explanations based on the ? model of motor control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflex and motor deficits such as spasticity, limitations in force regulation, inappropriate agonist\\/antagonist coactivation and movement segmentation are common sequelae of central nervous system (CNS) lesions. However, the disturbed control mechanisms underlying such deficits are still unclear. Data are presented according to which sensorimotor deficits in the elbow of adult stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy (CP) may be

Mindy F Levin

2000-01-01

268

Autoimmunity for Central Nervous System Maintenance, Regeneration, and Renewal: Development of a T Cell-Based Vaccination Against Neurodegeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adult central nervous system (CNS), despite its need for plasticity, has a poor capacity for cell renewal, regeneration, and repair. It also poorly tolerates immune activity, the body’s machinery for defense and repair. This latter feature, coupled with the limited immune responsiveness characteristic of immune-privileged sites such as the healthy CNS, seemed to substantiate the traditional view that any

Michal Schwartz; Jonathan Kipnis

269

Degradation of carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber based water born paints: Part 2 – Models to predict UV stability and water absorption through central composite design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central composite experimental design methods have been used to examine the simultaneous effects of talc (Viaton Viatalc® 30), titanium dioxide (modified Rutile, Tioxide® TR92) and additional hindered phenolic stabiliser (Aquanox® L, a 50% w\\/w aqueous dispersion of Winstay® L) on the water uptake and UV stability of composite films based on a carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber (c-SBR) latex. The talc

Elena Jubete; Christopher M. Liauw; Norman S. Allen

2007-01-01

270

Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA-DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure-function relationships  

PubMed Central

Understanding structure–function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450?km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235?m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130?m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions. PMID:21697960

Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Hofle, Manfred G

2012-01-01

271

Effect of an innovative community based health program on maternal health service utilization in north and south central Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Among Millennium Development Goals, achieving the fifth goal (MDG-5) of reducing maternal mortality poses the greatest challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. Ethiopia has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world with unacceptably low maternal health service utilization. The Government of Ethiopia introduced an innovative community-based intervention as a national strategy under the Health Sector Development Program. This new approach, known as the Health Extension Program, aims to improve access to and equity in essential health services through community based Health Extension Workers. Objective The objective of the study is to assess the role of Health Extension Workers in improving women’s utilization of antenatal care, delivery at health facility and postnatal care services. Methods A cross sectional household survey was conducted in early 2012 in two districts of northern and south central parts of Ethiopia. Data were collected from 4949 women who had delivered in the two years preceding the survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between visit by Health Extension Workers during pregnancy and use of maternal health services, controlling for the effect of other confounding factors. Results The non–adjusted analysis showed that antenatal care attendance at least four times during pregnancy was significantly associated with visit by Health Extension Workers [Odds Ratio 3.46(95% CI 3.07,3.91)], whereas health facility delivery (skilled attendance at birth) was not significantly associated with visit by Health Extension Workers during pregnancy [Odds Ratio 0.87(95% CI 0.25,2.96)]. When adjusted for other factors the association of HEWs visit during pregnancy was weaker for antenatal care attendance [Adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.35(95% CI: 1.05, 1.72)] but positively and significantly associated with health facility delivery [Adjusted Odds Ratio 1.96(1.25,3.06)]. Conclusion In general HEWs visit during pregnancy improved utilization of maternal health services. Health facility delivery is heavily affected by other factors. Meaningful improvement in skilled attendance at birth (health facility delivery) should include addressing other factors on top of visits by HEWs during pregnancy and specific target oriented interventions during visits by HEWs to support skilled attendance at birth. PMID:24708848

2014-01-01

272

Tree-ring based reconstruction of annual precipitation in the south-central United States from 1750 to 1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 231-year reconstruction of annual precipitation, from 1750 through 1980 A.D., was developed from 10 tree ring chronologies (9 post oak, Quercus stellata, and 1 white oak, Q. alba, series) in the south-central United States. Straight line regression was used to calibrate regionally averaged precipitation with ring width data, and the derived reconstruction was verified with independent climatic data and historical evidence. A variance trend in the tree ring data, which may have resulted from nonclimatic factors, was removed. The reconstructed precipitation series indicates that (1) a drought which appears to have been more severe than any in the instrumental record occurred about 1860 and (2) severe and prolonged droughts comparable to twentieth century events have occurred at roughly 15- to 25-year intervals throughout the past 231 years. It follows that serious droughts in the south-central United States could be expected to recur even in the absence of projected CO2-induced warming.

Blasing, T. J.; Stahle, D. W.; Duvick, D. N.

1988-01-01

273

SHORT REPORT: HIGH EFFICACY OF TWO ARTEMISININ-BASED COMBINATIONS (ARTESUNATE + AMODIAQUINE AND ARTEMETHER + LUMEFANTRINE) IN CAALA, CENTRAL ANGOLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 2004, 137 children 6-59 months of age with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria (Caala, Central Angola) were randomized to receive either artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) or artesunate + amo- diaquine (ASAQ). After 28 days of follow-up, there were 2\\/61 (3.2%) recurrent parasitemias in the Coartem group and 4\\/64 (6.2%) in the ASAQ group (P 0.72), all classified as re-infections after

JEAN-PAUL GUTHMANN; SANDRA COHUET; CHRISTINE RIGUTTO; FILOMENO FORTES; NILTON SARAIVA; JAMES KIGULI; JULIET KYOMUHENDO; MAX FRANCIS; FRÉDÉRIC NOËL; MARYLINE MULEMBA; SUNA BALKAN

2006-01-01

274

New data on age of ore-hosting sequence of the Saf'yanovka deposit, Central Urals, based on foraminifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Saf'yanovka copper massive sulfide deposit is situated 10 km northeast from the town of Rezh, on the eastern slope of the Central Urals. The ore-hosting plagiorhyolite-dacitic sequence consists of tephrites and tuffites with interlayers of dark gray siliceous-carboniferous pelites and psephytes from 0.1 to 1.5 m thick. The shells of the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer were identified

B. I. Chuvashov; A. L. Anfimov; E. I. Soroka; N. S. Yaroslavtseva

2011-01-01

275

Circulation of HIV-1 CRF02_AG among MSM Population in Central Italy: A Molecular Epidemiology-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The evolutionary and demographic history of the circular recombinant form CRF02_AG in a selected retrospective group of HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men (MSM) resident in Central Italy was investigated. Methods. A total of 55 HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG pol sequences were analyzed using Bayesian methods and a relaxed molecular clock to reconstruct their dated phylogeny and estimate population dynamics. Results. Dated phylogeny indicated that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG strains currently circulating in Central Italy originated in the early 90's. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a main HIV-1 CRF02_AG clade, introduced in the area of Rome before 2000 and subsequently differentiated in two different subclades with a different date of introduction (2000 versus 2005). All the sequences within clusters were interspersed, indicating that the MSM analyzed form a close and restricted network where the individuals, also moving within different clinical centers, attend the same places to meet and exchange sex. Conclusions. It was suggested that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG epidemic entered central Italy in the early 1990s, with a similar trend observed in western Europe. PMID:24369538

Giuliani, Massimo; Santoro, Maria M.; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Scognamiglio, Paola; Lai, Alessia; Latini, Alessandra; Fabeni, Lavinia; Gori, Caterina; Pinnetti, Carmela; Girardi, Enrico; Perno, Carlo F.; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

2013-01-01

276

Growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) in the regenerating periodontal Ruffini endings of the rat incisor following injury to the inferior alveolar nerve.  

PubMed

Alterations in the levels of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43)-like immunoreactivity (-LI) were examined in the lingual periodontal ligament of the rat incisor following two types of injury (resection and crush) to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). In normal animals, GAP-43-like immunoreactive (IR) structures were observed as tree-like ramifications in the alveolar half of the lingual periodontal ligament of incisors. Under immunoelectron microscopy, GAP-43-LI appeared in the Schwann sheaths associated with periodontal Ruffini endings; neither cell bodies of the terminal Schwann cells nor axonal profiles showed GAP-43-LI. During regeneration of the periodontal Ruffini endings following resection of the IAN, GAP-43-LI appeared in the cytoplasm of the terminal Schwann cell bodies and axoplasm of the terminals. The distribution of GAP-43-LI in the Ruffini endings returned to almost normal levels on days 28 and 56 following the injury. The changes in the distribution of GAP-43-LI following the crush injury were similar to those following resection; however, expression of GAP-43-LI was slightly higher for the entire experimental period compared with the resection. The transient expression of GAP-43 in the terminal Schwann cells and axonal profiles of the periodontal Ruffini endings following nerve injury suggests that GAP-43 is closely associated with axon-Schwann cells interactions during regeneration. PMID:9518545

Youn, S H; Maeda, T; Kurisu, K; Wakisaka, S

1998-03-16

277

Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model  

PubMed Central

Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7?±?0.3)?×?1017?N?m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900?±?400?yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

Zhang, Shimin

2013-01-01

278

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Zubovich, A.

2012-06-01

279

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

2013-02-01

280

Remote sensing and hydrological measurement based irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Aral Sea Basin, where the Central Asian countries compete for limited water resources, reliable information on the actual water use for eight million ha of irrigated land are rare. In this study, spatially distributed land use data, seasonal actual evapotranspiration, and reference evapotranspiration derived from multitemporal MODIS data were combined with in situ water flow measurements for irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta. The functioning of the major irrigation and drainage which supplies an agricultural area of 270,000 ha in the Uzbek province Khorezm was analysed using water balancing and adequacy indicators of irrigation water use. An average relative evapotranspiration of 95% indicated fulfilled water demands and partly over-irrigation, whereas values below 75% disclosed inadequate water supply in distant parts of the irrigation system. On the other hand, immense water withdrawals of approximately 24,000 m3 ha-1 recorded at the system boundaries between April and September 2005 clearly exceeded the field water demands for cotton cultivation. Only 46% of the total irrigation amounts were consumed for crop production at field level. Throughout the vegetation period, approximately 58% of the total available water left the region as drainage water. Monthly observations of the depleted fraction and the drainage ratio highlighted drainage problems and rising groundwater levels at regional scale. In the most distant downstream subsystem, a high risk of groundwater and soil salinity during the main irrigation phase was found. A combination of high conveyance losses, hydraulic problems, direct linkages between irrigation and drainage, and low field application efficiencies were identified as major reasons for underperforming irrigation. The findings underlined the necessity of water saving and of reconsidering water distribution in Khorezm. The remote sensing approach was concluded as a reliable data basis for regular performance assessments for all irrigation systems in Central Asia.

Conrad, C.; Dech, S. W.; Hafeez, M.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Tischbein, B.

281

Model-Based Radiation Dose Correction for Yttrium-90 Microsphere Treatment of Liver Tumors With Central Necrosis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objectives of this study were to model and calculate the absorbed fraction {phi} of energy emitted from yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere treatment of necrotic liver tumors. Methods and Materials: The tumor necrosis model was proposed for the calculation of {phi} over the spherical shell region. Two approaches, the semianalytic method and the probabilistic method, were adopted. In the former method, the range--energy relationship and the sampling of electron paths were applied to calculate the energy deposition within the target region, using the straight-ahead and continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) method. In the latter method, the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code was used to verify results from the first method. Results: The fraction of energy, {phi}, absorbed from {sup 90}Y by 1-cm thickness of tumor shell from microsphere distribution by CSDA with complete beta spectrum was 0.832 {+-} 0.001 and 0.833 {+-} 0.001 for smaller (r{sub T} = 5 cm) and larger (r{sub T} = 10 cm) tumors (where r is the radii of the tumor [T] and necrosis [N]). The fraction absorbed depended mainly on the thickness of the tumor necrosis configuration, rather than on tumor necrosis size. The maximal absorbed fraction {phi} that occurred in tumors without central necrosis for each size of tumor was different: 0.950 {+-} 0.000, and 0.975 {+-} 0.000 for smaller (r{sub T} = 5 cm) and larger (r{sub T} = 10 cm) tumors, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The tumor necrosis model was developed for dose calculation of {sup 90}Y microsphere treatment of hepatic tumors with central necrosis. With this model, important information is provided regarding the absorbed fraction applicable to clinical {sup 90}Y microsphere treatment.

Liu, Ching-Sheng [National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ko-Han [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Rheun-Chuan, E-mail: rclee@vghtpe.gov.tw [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hsiou-Shan [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ling-Wei; Huang, Pin-I; Chao, Liung-Sheau [Cancer Therapy Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Cheng-Yen [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yen, Sang-Hue [Cancer Therapy Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tung, Chuan-Jong [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Syh-Jen [National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Oliver Wong, Ching-yee [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/Cyclotron Center, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2011-11-01

282

Experiences from near-real-time satellite-based volcano monitoring in Central America: case studies at Fuego, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, remote sensing has been used increasingly in the study of active volcanoes and their associated hazards. Ground?based remote sensing techniques, such as those aimed at the analysis of volcanic gases or fumarole temperatures, are now part of routine monitoring operations with additional satellite?based remote sensing methods. It is likely that the use of satellite?based systems will

P. W. Webley; M. J. Wooster; W. Strauch; J. A. Saballos; K. Dill; P. Stephenson; J. Stephenson; R. Escobar Wolf; O. Matias

2008-01-01

283

An Individual-based Model Approach for the Conservation of the Sumatran Tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae Population in Central Sumatra.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation demonstrates the construction of the Panthera Population Persistence (PPP), an individual-based model for the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) which provides proper theoretical… (more)

Imron, Muhammad Ali

2011-01-01

284

Moho structure of Central America based on three-dimensional lithospheric density modelling of satellite-derived gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central American isthmus hosts a highly variable Moho structure due to the diverse origin and composition of the crustal basement and the influence of large-scale neotectonic processes. Gravity data from the combined geopotential model EGM2008 were interpreted via forward modelling to outline the three-dimensional lithospheric density structure along the Middle American Trench, as well as the segmentation of the oceanic Cocos and Nazca plates and the overriding Caribbean plate. In this work, results for the depth of the Moho obtained from the density model are presented. The Quaternary volcanic arc correlates with a maximum Moho depth of 44 km in western Guatemala. To the south-east of the continental shelf, the Caribbean plate shows Moho depths between 20 and 12 km whereas to the north, values as shallow as 8 km are observed at the Cayman trough. For the oceanic Cocos plate, depths between 16 and 21 km are obtained for the Moho along the Cocos ridge, contrasting with values between 15 and 12 km for the seamount segment and 8 and 11 km for the segments of the crust that are not affected by the Galapagos hot-spot track.

Lücke, Oscar H.

2014-10-01

285

Community-based study on knowledge, attitudes and perception of rabies in Gelephu, south-central Bhutan.  

PubMed

Community knowledge, attitudes and practices are important both for prevention of human deaths due to rabies and for control of the disease in animals. This study was a cross-sectional survey investigating the level of community knowledge as well as attitudes and perceptions about rabies in Gelephu, south-central Bhutan, a region endemic for rabies. A total of 615 household respondents were interviewed, of which 224 (36%) were male and 391 (64%) were female. The majority of respondents had a high level of knowledge, attitudes and perception of rabies and had a positive attitude towards the prevention and control of rabies. Multivariate logistic regression modelling showed that better knowledge of rabies was predicted by gender, educational level and dog ownership status of respondents, whilst health-seeking behaviour of animal bite injuries was predicted by dog ownership status, presence of children in the household and occupation of the respondents. The majority of respondents believed that stray dogs are a problem in the community and felt that it was important to control the dog population in Gelephu. These findings also indicate that there exists a knowledge gap about rabies in the community that could be improved by creating an awareness education programme. PMID:24029402

Tenzin; Dhand, Navneet K; Rai, Bir Doj; Changlo; Tenzin, Sangay; Tsheten, Karma; Ugyen, Pema; Singye, Karma; Ward, Michael P

2012-09-01

286

New data on age of ore-hosting sequence of the Saf'yanovka deposit, Central Urals, based on foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Saf'yanovka copper massive sulfide deposit is situated 10 km northeast from the town of Rezh, on the eastern slope of the Central Urals. The ore-hosting plagiorhyolite-dacitic sequence consists of tephrites and tuffites with interlayers of dark gray siliceous-carboniferous pelites and psephytes from 0.1 to 1.5 m thick. The shells of the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer were identified in one of the lightened interlayers in the siliceous-carboniferous sequence. The samples for study were taken from the southern part of the orebody in the open-pit between prospecting lines 2 and 3, horizons 170 and 157. The inner part of the shell is composed of quartz and apatite, and the wall, by apatite with rare calcite grains. One shell contains a tacking disk allowing us to refer these foraminifers to the attached benthos typical of the shallow marine basin (sublitoral). In the Urals, the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer is known in limestones from the Eifel-Givetian (Langurskii and Vysotinskii Horizons); the siliceous-carboniferous rocks from the ore-hosting sequence from the Saf'yanovka deposit has the same age.

Chuvashov, B. I.; Anfimov, A. L.; Soroka, E. I.; Yaroslavtseva, N. S.

2011-08-01

287

The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses  

PubMed Central

The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (ICSD-2) distinguishes 5 subtypes of central sleep apnea syndromes (CSAS) in adults. Review of the literature suggests that there are two basic mechanisms that trigger central respiratory events: (1) post-hyperventilation central apnea, which may be triggered by a variety of clinical conditions, and (2) central apnea secondary to hypoventilation, which has been described with opioid use. The preponderance of evidence on the treatment of CSAS supports the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Much of the evidence comes from investigations on CSAS related to congestive heart failure (CHF), but other subtypes of CSAS appear to respond to CPAP as well. Limited evidence is available to support alternative therapies in CSAS subtypes. The recommendations for treatment of CSAS are summarized as follows: CPAP therapy targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is indicated for the initial treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)Nocturnal oxygen therapy is indicated for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)Adaptive Servo-Ventilation (ASV) targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is indicated for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)BPAP therapy in a spontaneous timed (ST) mode targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) may be considered for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF only if there is no response to adequate trials of CPAP, ASV, and oxygen therapies. (OPTION)The following therapies have limited supporting evidence but may be considered for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF after optimization of standard medical therapy, if PAP therapy is not tolerated, and if accompanied by close clinical follow-up: acetazolamide and theophylline. (OPTION)Positive airway pressure therapy may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION)Acetazolamide has limited supporting evidence but may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION)The use of zolpidem and triazolam may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS only if the patient does not have underlying risk factors for respiratory depression. (OPTION)The following possible treatment options for CSAS related to end-stage renal disease may be considered: CPAP, supplemental oxygen, bicarbonate buffer use during dialysis, and nocturnal dialysis. (OPTION) Citation: Aurora RN; Chowdhuri S; Ramar K; Bista SR; Casey KR; Lamm CI; Kristo DA; Mallea JM; Rowley JA; Zak RS; Tracy SL. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. SLEEP 2012;35(1):17-40. PMID:22215916

Aurora, R. Nisha; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Ramar, Kannan; Bista, Sabin R.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Kristo, David A.; Mallea, Jorge M.; Rowley, James A.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Tracy, Sharon L.

2012-01-01

288

@central park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

289

Effects of metal(loid)-based nanomaterials on essential element homeostasis: the central role of nanometallomics for nanotoxicology.  

PubMed

The growing use of engineered nanomaterials in both commercial products and biomedical applications leads to increasing exposure for production line workers, consumers and patients. Therefore, the understanding of biological effects induced by nanomaterials is crucial for their safety assessment. An important group of nanomaterials is represented by metal(loid)-based nanoparticles, because of their unique physico-chemical properties. Metal(loid)-based nanoparticles themselves, the related ion release, and their nanometallomes, can potentially interact with essential elements causing dys-homeostasis and adverse biological effects. In this work, we describe the effects of metal(loid)-based nanoparticles on essential element homeostasis. In particular, we consider the most used and promising metal(loid)-based nanoparticles, highlighting that the new emerging concept of nanometallomics is important to disclose the impact of these nanoparticles on human health and the related long-term effects. PMID:24576883

Benetti, Federico; Bregoli, Lisa; Olivato, Iolanda; Sabbioni, Enrico

2014-04-01

290

Notes From the Field: Learning Cultural Humility Through Critical Incidents and Central Challenges in Community-Based Participatory Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural humility is critical in the education of community development and planning graduate students because they often work with communities—geographic and\\/or identity based—where there is a power differential based on privileges of race, income, and education. Cultural humility requires commitment to ongoing self-reflection and self-critique, particularly identifying and examining one's own patterns of unintentional and intentional racism (Israel, Eng, Schulz,

Laurie Ross

2010-01-01

291

Raman amplification-based WDM-PON architecture with centralized Raman pump-driven, spectrum-sliced erbium ASE and polarization-insensitive EAMs.  

PubMed

We propose a novel wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network (PON) architecture based on the distributed Raman amplification and pump recycling techniques, which features fully bidirectional transmission, relaxed signal power margin, and active light source-free, colorless subscriber units. The reuse of non-negligible residual Raman pump power as a pump for an erbium fiber-based upstream broadband ASE source allows for fully-centralized control of light sources at optical network units (ONUs), while distributed Raman amplification over a transmission link enables us to obtain lossless low power signal transmission. Furthermore, low-cost and colorless ONUs can be realized by use of the Raman pump-recycled erbium ASE and polarization-insensitive electroabsorption modulators. Error-free upstream transmission over a 50 km fiber link is successfully achieved at a data rate of 622 Mbit/s. PMID:19529284

Lee, Ju Han; Han, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang Bae; Kim, Chul Han

2006-10-01

292

Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 in record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ???1.2-0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ???500 ka. Foraminiferal preservation in sediments from the Arctic is influenced by primary (sea ice, organic input, and other environmental conditions) and secondary factors (syndepositional, long-term pore water dissolution). Taking these into account, the ACEX 4C record shows distinct maxima in agglutinated foraminiferal abundance corresponding to several interglacials and deglacials between marine isotope stages (MIS) 13-37, and although less precise dating is available for older sediments, these trends appear to continue through the Matuyama. The MPT is characterized by nearly barren intervals during major glacials (MIS 12, 16, and 22-24) and faunal turnover (MIS 12-24). Abundant calcareous planktonic (mainly Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin.) and benthic foraminifers occur mainly in interglacial intervals during the Brunhes and very rarely in the Matuyama. A distinct faunal transition from calcareous to agglutinated foraminifers 200-300 ka in ACEX 4C is comparable to that found in Arctic sediments from the Lomonosov, Alpha, and Northwind ridges and the Morris Jesup Rise. Down-core disappearance of calcareous taxa is probably related to either reduced sea ice cover prior to the last few 100-ka cycles, pore water dissolution, or both. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Cronin, T. M.; Smith, S. A.; Eynaud, F.; O'Regan, M.; King, J.

2008-01-01

293

Synthesis and characterization of a novel terthiophene-based quinodimethane bearing a 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene central unit.  

PubMed

The synthesis and a combined spectroscopic and density functional theoretical characterization of a 3',4'-ethylenedioxy-5,5' '-bis(dicyanomethylene)-5,5' '-dihydro-2,2':5',2' '-terthiophene analogue of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) are presented. Electrochemical data show that this novel trimer can be both reversibly reduced and oxidized at relatively low potentials. Quantum-chemical calculations show that the compound exhibits a quinoidal structure in its ground electronic state and that a certain degree of intramolecular charge transfer takes place from the central terthienyl moiety toward both =C(CN)2 end-caps. Therefore, the amphoteric redox behavior of this novel material can be related to the coexistence of an electron-impoverished terthienyl core endowed by two electron-enriched =C(CN)2 substituents. The UV-vis spectrum is dominated by the appearance of a strong absorption near 660 nm, attributable to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) --> lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) pi-pi electronic transition of the terthienyl spine on the basis of time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) computations. The DFT calculations performed on the minimum-energy molecular geometry about the equilibrium atomic charge distribution, topologies, and energies of the frontier orbitals around the gap and about the Raman-active vibrations associated with the strongest Raman features are also consistent with a rather effective pi-electron conjugation and the partial degree of intramolecular charge transfer mentioned above. Our study reveals this novel heteroquinoid trimer could act as a promising candidate in organic field-effect transistor (OFET) applications. PMID:16853905

Berlin, Anna; Grimoldi, Sara; Zotti, Gianni; Osuna, Reyes Malavé; Ruiz Delgado, Mari Carmen; Ortiz, Rocío Ponce; Casado, Juan; Hernandez, Víctor; López Navarrete, Juan T

2005-12-01

294

Dust flux estimates for the Last Glacial Period in East Central Europe based on terrestrial records of loess deposits: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loess-paleosol sequences are significant records of the mineral dust cycle of glacial-interglacial periods. As dust particles give rise to direct and indirect radiative forcing, obtaining a reliable picture of the global and regional patterns of mineral dust fluxes during glacial periods can lead to a better understanding of the contribution of mineral dust to past climate changes. Recent progress in absolute dating of loess deposits in the Carpathian Basin in East Central Europe made it possible to provide correct aeolian flux estimates for the Last Glacial period, marine isotope stage (MIS) 2. Mass accumulation rates (MARs) from chronological data of 33 loess sites exhibited a wide range of values, from 150 to 1422 g m -2 a -1, centered around median and mean values of 338 and 417 g m -2 a -1. MAR and MAR estimates have been also calculated using grain size measurements of many loess samples and loess MARs in order to facilitate comparison with models, and since particles larger than 10 ?m have a negligible radiative effect. Here we show that some previous model simulations of the dust cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) significantly underestimated the real aeolian flux (ranges of our estimates: MAR=34-324 and MAR=9.3-88.2 g m a) in East Central Europe. For this reason, some simulations of dust-induced direct radiative forcing of the LGM climate failed to yield reliable results for this mid-latitude region as they have been based on three-dimensional dust field models that are not capable of estimating the real aeolian fluxes in Central Europe. A recent global model of top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing by mineral aerosols at the LGM that has been based on more realistic parameterization of dust sources, transport, and deposition revealed zonally averaged surface cooling of -2 °C for the latitudes of our study area. This surface cooling and TOA radiative forcing (-2 to -3 W m -2) are greater than recognized in other models and draws our attention to the importance of further modeling the impact of mineral dust on LGM climate in order to gain insight into the spatial pattern of radiative forcing and better understand resulting climate response in mid-latitude loess regions such as East Central Europe.

Újvári, Gábor; Kovács, János; Varga, György; Raucsik, Béla; Markovi?, Slobodan B.

2010-11-01

295

Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)  

MedlinePLUS

... of central line Collarbone ATS PATIENT INFORMATION SERIES Infection— ? ? Any tube (catheter) entering the body can make it easier for ... catheter. 4 If you have any sign of infection or other catheter problem, call your health care provider immediately. Doctor’s ...

296

How Central and Connected Am I in My Family? Family-Based Social Capital of Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social network methods, this article explores the ways in which individuals with intellectual disability (ID) perceive their family contexts and the social capital that they provide. Based on a subsample of 24 individuals with ID, a subsample of 24 individuals with ID and psychiatric disorders, and a control sample of 24 pre-graduate and…

Widmer, E. D.; Kempf-Constantin, N.; Robert-Tissot, C.; Lanzi, F.; Carminati, G. Galli

2008-01-01

297

Mammalian cell transduction and internalization properties of ? phages displaying the full-length adenoviral penton base or its central domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years a strong effort has been devoted to the search for new, safe and efficient gene therapy vectors. Phage ? is a promising backbone for the development of new vectors: its genome can host large inserts, DNA is protected from degradation by the capsid and the ligand-exposed D and V proteins can be extensively modified. Current phage-based vectors

Stefania Piersanti; Gioia Cherubini; Yuri Martina; Barbara Salone; Daniele Avitabile; Fabiana Grosso; Enrico Cundari; Giovanni Di Zenzo; Isabella Saggio

2004-01-01

298

Garlic Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can garlic help repel mosquitoes? Find out the answer to this question and more at Garlic Central, an all-about-garlic website created by aficionado Trevor Mendham. The site contains an introductory section--titled Garlic 101--and sections that address culinary uses, medicinal benefits, and cultivation. The site's Cooking section includes a collection of recipes; and information about storing, freezing, and crushing garlic. The site also features a brief how-to guide for planting, growing, and harvesting garlic. Garlic Central even hosts a virtual shopping mall that connects site visitors to a wide range of garlic-related websites peddling foodstuffs, kitchen implements, posters, books, and garden supplies. This site is also reviewed in the September 17, 2004 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

299

Central Park  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As one of the worldâÂÂs greatest urban green spaces, Central Park is loved by dyed-in-the wool New Yorkers as well as visitors to the city. This reverential website provides detailed information about this fine public space and the activities that take place within its confines. On this site, visitors can look over maps of the park, learn about the parkâÂÂs many attractions, and browse a selection of photographs of this fine urban paradise. The homepage contains much of this material, along with a âÂÂCentral Park Newsâ feature, which provides news updates about goings on throughout Central Park. For those planning a visit to the park, the Events area will be most useful, as it provides information about such pastimes as rock climbing, ice skating lessons, and yoga.

2006-01-01

300

PE Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Virginia Polytechnic Institute Health and Physical Education Program developed this site, a clearinghouse of information about K-12 physical education and health. An extensive list of lesson plans and assessment ideas, arranged topically and by grade level, is the focal point of this site; the Classroom Teacher Lesson Ideas uses PE "across the curriculum" to help students learn concepts in other subjects. PE Central provides information for PE professionals on relevant journals, job announcements, and equipment purchases, among other topics.

1996-01-01

301

IPO Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IPO (Initial Public Offerings) Central, provided by The Reference Press, contains a wealth of information on IPOs. It features a complete list of companies that "filed for an initial public offering of common stock on or after May 6, 1996, the first day that all US companies were required to file electronically," along with EDGAR Online SEC filings. This directory can be accessed alphabetically or by date, and the latest filings are available under a separate menu item. IPO Central also highlights one featured IPO per week, with a free link to a Hoover Online profile on that company. "The Insider" offers short analytical columns on IPOs, and the "Beginner's Guide" has links to basic IPO information to help the novice. The site also offers links to other IPO-related sites. IPO Central does not at this time offer a searchable interface to its directory, but the providers promise improved search features soon. Note that listings are removed from the directory after six months and that EDGAR Online is in no way related to SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) EDGAR.

302

Profile of adults seeking voluntary HIV testing and counseling in rural Central India: results from a hospital-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural India has an undetected load of HIV-positive individuals. Few rural adults present for HIV testing and counseling due to stigma, discrimination, and fear of social ostracization. In this rural hospital clinic-based study, we document profiles of rural adults seeking voluntary testing and counseling, and analyze correlates of HIV seropositivity. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 450 participants presenting to

Nitika Pant Pai; Rajnish Joshi; Bharati Taksande; S. P. Kalantri; Madhukar Pai; Jacqueline P. Tulsky; Arthur Reingold

2009-01-01

303

Discovery of the first Quaternary maar in the Bohemian Massif, Central Europe, based on combined geophysical and geological surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on results of previous investigations of tephra-tuff volcaniclastic deposits and a geophysical survey in the surroundings of the Železná h?rka Quaternary volcano, West Bohemia, we performed detailed geophysical surveys using gravimetry, magnetometry and electrical conductivity techniques. Striking anomalies were revealed in a morphological depression near Mýtina, West Bohemia, as a strong evidence of the assumed maar-diatreme structure. The sharp

J. Mrlina; H. Kämpf; C. Kroner; J. Mingram; M. Stebich; A. Brauer; W. H. Geissler; J. Kallmeyer; H. Matthes; M. Seidl

2009-01-01

304

A GIS BASED MODEL FOR GOUNDWATER FLOW AND HEAT TRANSPORT IN ZARQA MA'IN - JIZA AREAS- CENTRAL JORDAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first application of the GeoSys\\/RockFlow Software to model the groundwater flow and heat transport based on GIS project. Where the hydrogeological conceptual model of the study area (Zarqa Ma'in-Jiza areas) is converted to (GIS Project) shape files using the ArcGIS software. All required data for modeling, such as aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, material properties, well positions

M. Beinhorn

305

A small change in central linker has a profound effect in inducing columnar phases of triazine-based unconventional dendrimers.  

PubMed

Four unconventional triazine-based dendrimers have been prepared and characterized by (1) H and (13) C?NMR spectroscopies, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Based on DSC studies, polarizing microscopy, and powder XRD, two of these dendrimers, containing linkers with an odd number of carbon atoms, were observed to display columnar liquid-crystalline phases during thermal treatment. However, the other two dendritic analogues, containing linkers with an even number of carbon atoms, were not observed to behave correspondingly. Based on computer simulation, we reasonably assume that the dendrimers with an odd number of carbon atoms in their linkers distort their molecular shape and adopt two isomeric structures due to asymmetrical congestion. This reduces the molecular ?-? face-to-face interaction, which in turn causes the dendrimers to form columnar LC phases during thermal treatment. However, the dendrimers with an even number of carbon atoms in their linkers have more symmetrical skeletons and do not display any liquid-crystalline phase upon thermal treatment. This new strategy should be applicable for eliciting the columnar liquid-crystalline properties of other types of unconventional dendrimers with rigid frameworks. PMID:24615743

Lai, Long-Li; Hsieh, Jei-Way; Cheng, Kung-Lung; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Lee, Jey-Jau; Hsu, Hsiu-Fu

2014-04-22

306

The outdoor air quality flag program in central California: a school-based educational intervention to potentially help reduce children's exposure to environmental asthma triggers.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel school-based, visual environmental public health educational intervention intended to help reduce the exposure of children-and adults-to outdoor air pollution, including known environmental asthma triggers like ozone and particles. The overarching goal was to enhance the learning, recreational, and work environments of students and staff. The specific purpose of the Asthma-Friendly Outdoor (Ambient) Air Quality Flag Program was to establish an education and communication tool for Central California communities that would accomplish two things: (1) Establish permanent local policy change to existing operating procedures in school districts and schools to help reduce the exposure of students, teachers, staff, and nearby communities to outdoor environmental asthma triggers and (2) provide education on air quality and potential health effects of exposure to air pollutants. Data on the program from its initial years are presented. To date, the following important lessons have been learned: (1) Science-based, simple, visual, low-cost school-based educational interventions to help reduce human exposure to outdoor environmental asthma triggers (i.e., ozone, particles, and pollens) can work in socioeconomically and ethnically diverse urban and rural or agricultural communities, and (2) local health and environmental justice groups such as asthma coalitions can successfully lead school-based environmental interventions to help improve children's quality of life. PMID:17941400

Shendell, Derek G; Rawling, Mary-Michal; Foster, Christine; Bohlke, Alicia; Edwards, Bobbie; Rico, Susie A; Felix, Justina; Eaton, Sandra; Moen, Stephanie; Roberts, Eric M; Love, Mary Beth

2007-10-01

307

Update of likelihood-based ground-motion model selection for seismic hazard analysis in western central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scherbaum et al. [(2004) Bull Seismolo Soc Am 94(6): 2164–2185] proposed a likelihood-based approach to select and rank ground-motion\\u000a models for seismic hazard analysis in regions of low-seismicity. The results of their analysis were first used within the\\u000a PEGASOS project [Abrahamson et al. (2002), In Proceedings of the 12 ECEE, London, 2002, Paper no. 633] so far the only application\\u000a of a

Esther Hintersberger; Frank Scherbaum; Sebastian Hainzl

2007-01-01

308

Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA–DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure–function relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding structure–function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450 km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235 m).

Ingrid Brettar; Richard Christen; Manfred G Höfle

2012-01-01

309

Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these Article 76 mapping missions comprises, by far, the most comprehensive contribution to the last Version 3.0 of IBCAO.

Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

2013-12-01

310

Neuropsychology Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neuropsychology Central is devoted to the subject of - "Neuropsychology, a new branch of science with the specific and unique aim of investigating the role of individual brain systems in complex forms of mental activity." - A.R. Luria "The Working Brain" The page aims to describe the importance of neuropsychology as a science of brain and behavior, and to act as a resource for the professional and layperson alike. See links to current technology for brain imaging, and sections covering different aspects of this ever growing field such as cognitive, developmental, and geriatric Neuropsychology. In addition, a reader survey is included to facilitate the expansion of the site.

Browndyke, J. N.

2007-03-24

311

Central pain.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed. PMID:25295639

Singh, Supreet

2014-12-01

312

Sarcoma: concordance between initial diagnosis and centralized expert review in a population-based study within three European regions  

PubMed Central

Background Sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors. Accurate determination of histological diagnosis and prognostic factors is critical for the delineation of treatment strategies. The contribution of second opinion (SO) to improve diagnostic accuracy has been suggested for sarcoma but has never been established in population-based studies. Methods Histological data of patients diagnosed with sarcoma in Rhone-Alpes (France), Veneto (Italy) and Aquitaine (France) over a 2-year period were collected. Initial diagnoses were systematically compared with SO from regional and national experts. Results Of 2016 selected patients, 1463 (73%) matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Full concordance between primary diagnosis and SO (the first pathologist and the expert reached identical conclusions) was observed in 824 (56%) cases, partial concordance (identical diagnosis of connective tumor but different grade or histological subtype) in 518 (35%) cases and complete discordance (benign versus malignant, different histological type or invalidation of the diagnosis of sarcoma) in 121 (8%) cases. The major discrepancies were related to histological grade (n = 274, 43%), histological type (n = 144, 24%), subtype (n = 18, 3%) and grade plus subtype or grade plus histological type (n = 178, 29%). Conclusion More than 40% of first histological diagnoses were modified at second reading, possibly resulting in different treatment decisions. PMID:22331640

Ray-Coquard, I.; Montesco, M. C.; Coindre, J. M.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Lurkin, A.; Ranchere-Vince, D.; Vecchiato, A.; Decouvelaere, A. V.; Mathoulin-Pelissier, S.; Albert, S.; Cousin, P.; Cellier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Rossi, C. R.; Blay, J. Y.

2012-01-01

313

Assessment of projected climate change signals over central Africa based on a multitude of global and regional climate projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted within the scientific community that only a large ensemble of different projections will allow achieving robust climate change information for a specific region. In the framework of the project "Climate changes scenarios for the Congo basin" (funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) a regional climate change assessment is conducted by the Climate Service Center (CSC) over the greater Congo basin region. The analysis is based on a state-of-the-art multi-model multi-scenario ensemble of global and regional climate change projections. In this ensemble the results of several GCM projections from the CMIP3 and the CMIP5 projects are combined with some of the recently downscaled regional CORDEX-Africa projections. Altogether data from 77 different climate change projections are analysed; separated into 31 projections for a "high" and 46 for a "low" emission scenario. In the study several parameters and indices related to temperature and precipitation are considered for the assessment of projected climate change. The large size of the analyzed ensemble is expected to be useful for not only quantifying the magnitude of projected changes, but also to analyze their robustness as well. Moreover, potential differences between projected changes from GCMs and RCMs can also be analysed.

Hänsler, Andreas; Saeed, Fahad; Jacob, Daniela

2013-04-01

314

Assessment of projected climate change signals over central Africa based on a multitude of global and regional climate projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted within the scientific community that only a large ensemble of different projections will allow achieving robust climate change information for a specific region. In the framework of the project "Climate changes scenarios for the Congo basin" (funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) a regional climate change assessment is conducted by the Climate Service Center (CSC) over the greater Congo basin region. The analysis is based on a state-of-the-art multi-model multi-scenario ensemble of global and regional climate change projections. In this ensemble the results of several GCM projections from the CMIP3 and the CMIP5 projects are combined with some of the recently downscaled regional CORDEX-Africa projections. Altogether data from 77 different climate change projections are analysed; separated into 31 projections for a "high" and 46 for a "low" emission scenario. In the study several parameters and indices related to temperature and precipitation are considered for the assessment of projected climate change. The large size of the analyzed ensemble is expected to be useful for not only quantifying the magnitude of projected changes, but also to analyze their robustness as well. Moreover, potential differences between projected changes from GCMs and RCMs can also be analysed.

Haensler, A.; Saeed, F.; Jacob, D.

2013-05-01

315

Clinical applications of gene-based risk prediction for lung cancer and the central role of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and nearly 90% of cases are attributable to smoking. Quitting smoking and early diagnosis of lung cancer, through computed tomographic screening, are the only ways to reduce mortality from lung cancer. Recent epidemiological studies show that risk prediction for lung cancer is optimized by using multivariate risk models that include age, smoking exposure, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), family history of lung cancer, and body mass index. It has also been shown that COPD predates lung cancer in 65–70% of cases, conferring a four- to sixfold greater risk of lung cancer compared to smokers with normal lung function. Genome-wide association studies of smokers have identified a number of genetic variants associated with COPD or lung cancer. In a case–control study, where smokers with normal lungs were compared to smokers who had spirometry-defined COPD or histology confirmed lung cancer, several of these variants were shown to overlap, conferring the same susceptibility or protective effects on both COPD and lung cancer (independent of COPD status). In this perspective article, we show how combining clinical data with genetic variants can help identify heavy smokers at the greatest risk of lung cancer. Using this approach, we found that gene-based risk testing helped engage smokers in risk mitigating activities like quitting smoking and undertaking lung cancer screening. We suggest that such an approach could facilitate the targeted selection of smokers for cost-effective life-saving interventions. PMID:23087706

Young, R. P.; Hopkins, R. J.; Gamble, G. D.

2012-01-01

316

Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers  

PubMed Central

Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

2012-01-01

317

Trends in the characteristics of allergenic pollen circulation in central Europe based on the example of Szeged, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study is to analyse trends of the pollination season with its start and end dates, as well as trends of the annual total pollen count and annual peak pollen concentration for the Szeged agglomeration in Southern Hungary. The data set covers an 11-year period (1999-2009) and includes one of the largest spectra, with 19 taxa, as well as seven meteorological variables (minimum-, maximum- and mean temperature, total radiation, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed). For highly skewed data, such as the annual total number of pollen counts or annual peak pollen concentrations, the Mann-Kendall test has a substantially greater predictive power than the t-test. After performing Mann-Kendall tests, the annual cycles of daily slopes of pollen concentration trends and annual cycles of daily slopes of climate variable trends are calculated. This kind of trend analysis is a novel approach as it provides information on annual cycles of trends. In order to represent the strength of their relationships an association measure (AM) and a multiple association measure (MAM) are introduced. Based on climate sensitivity, the individual taxa are sorted into three categories. The results obtained for the pollen quantity and phenological characteristics are compared with two novel climate change related categories, namely risk and expansion potential due to the climate change for each taxon. The total annual pollen count and annual peak pollen concentrations indicate a small number of changes when using ordinary linear trends, while the total annual pollen count calculated via daily linear trends show significant trends (70% of them positive) for almost all taxa. However, except for Poaceae and Urtica, there is no significant change in the duration of the pollination season. The association measure performs well compared to the climate change related forces. Furthermore, remarkable changes in pollen season characteristics are also in accordance with the risk and expansion potential due to climate change.

Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Deák, Áron József

2011-10-01

318

A centrality detector concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision “centrality”. In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This paper describes the concept of a centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Tarafdar, Sourav; Citron, Zvi; Milov, Alexander

2014-12-01

319

The mapping of ionospheric TEC for central Russian and European regions on the base of GPS and GLONASS measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total electron content (TEC) is a key parameter not only for space radio communication but also for addressing the fundamental problems of the ionosphere physics and near Earth space. Currently, the main sources of information on the TEC in the global scale are GNSS signals measurements. The spatial-temporal behavior of the ionosphere can be most effectively analyzed using TEC maps. To date, global IGS global ionospheric maps with a resolution of 2.5 degree in latitude and 5 in longitude and a time resolution of 2 h are most widely used. To study the detailed structure of the ionospheric gradients and rapid process as well as for precise positioning task it is necessary to use more precise regional TEC maps. The Regional TEC maps are currently constructed by different research groups for different regions: USA, Europe, Japan etc. The West Department of IZMIRAN research group is a one in Russia who works on the task of regional ionosphere mapping since 2000. It was developed the methodology for obtaining information on the spatial TEC distribution, TEC maps of the ionosphere on the basis of the algorithm for multi-station processing of GNSS observations. Using a set of algorithms and programs, regional TEC maps with a spatial resolution of 1° and a time resolution up to 15 min can be produced. Here is developed the approach to establish the regular online internet service for regional ionosphere mapping of the Western Russia and Eastern Europe. Nowadays the development of GLONASS navigation system is completely finished and it consists of a constellation of more than 24 satellites. It is good perspective for investigations of the ionosphere structure and dynamics on the base of the simultaneous observations of GPS and GLONASS systems. The GLONASS satellites have the inclination about 64 degrees as against GPS satellites with 56. So the GLONASS provides opportunity to study the high latitude ionosphere. The different scale electron density irregularities, presented in high latitude ionosphere, can complicate phase ambiguity resolution. As known the strong gradients are observed in polar ionosphere near equator and polar walls of the main ionospheric trough. At high latitudes GLONASS satellites are observed on higher elevations that decrease the influence of horizontal ionospheric gradients and as consequence enable represent with more true Total Electron Content over individual high latitude station. In the report we discuss the features determining TEC from GLONASS observations and demonstrate its advantages for the high latitude ionosphere's studies. A comparison with TEC measurements from GPS/GLONASS for quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions is also presented. This work is supported by RFBR grant 14-07-00512.

Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Ephishov, Ivan; Krankowski, Andrzej; Radievsky, Alexander

2014-05-01

320

Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report engaging in transactional sex. Respondents who were heterosexual, bisexual, or transgender were also more likely to both report multiple partnerships (OR: 1.44 [1.07–1.96], 1.99 [1.67–2.38], 1.79 [1.37–2.33], respectively) and more likely to report engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.52 [1.15–2.01], 1.38 [1.17–1.63], 1.47 [1.16–1.87], respectively), as compared to those identifying as homosexual. Conclusion Violence experienced by MSM and TW is widespread in Central America. The experience of violence is shown in this study to be independently associated with risk behaviors for HIV infections. Further research and studies are needed to identify the effects violence has on HIV risk behavior among this under-researched population to improve targeted HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25361722

Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

2014-01-01

321

Spatial extend and magnitude of urban heat island phenomena in selected cities in Central Europe - assessment based on land surface temperature from satellite observations and modelling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of urbanization is an important environmental and social issue the modern society has to face. According to current estimates half of world's population lives in urban areas. It is expected that urban population will grow in the future. Consequently, there is a pressing need for multidisciplinary studies of all aspects of the urban environment. Urbanization and subsequent release of anthropogenic heat pollution leads to a formation of an urban heat island (UHI). Development of UHI is a highly non-linear process (Kato et al., 2007) that depends on a number of factors such as magnitude of the anthropogenic heat flux, texture of a city, local geophysical conditions and mesoscale meteorology (Sailor and Lu, 2004 after Narumi et al., 2003). We will present analyses of the magnitude and spatial extend of UHI over major cities in Central Europe. We will use satellite observations and modeling results in our analysis. UHI characteristics will be identified based on the Land Surface Temperature (LST) product derived for MODIS observations for selected clear-sky periods in 2012. The Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model (Cote et al., 1998) with the Town Energy Balance parameterization module (Masson, 2000) will be used to simulate the development of UHI. The GEM model will be run in a self-nesting configuration over Central Europe. Resolution of modelling domains will be set at 10km for the global variable grid and cascaded down to 1 km over selected cities. At a given resolution the representation of urban areas will be defined by a simple urban cover description (Struzewska and Kaminski, 2012). A comprehensive representation of urban cover will be applied at the final resolution. Surface temperature from the model will be evaluated against the LST data.

Gawuc, Lech; Struzewska, Joanna; Kaminski, Jacek W.; Durka, Pawel

2013-04-01

322

The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current multi-proxy studies on a long sediment sequence preserved at Sokli (N Finland), i.e. in the central area of Fennoscandian glaciations, are drastically changing classic ideas of glaciations, vegetation and climate in northern Europe during the Late Pleistocene. The sediments in the Sokli basin have escaped major glacial erosion due to non-typical bedrock conditions. In this review, the Sokli record is compared in great detail with other long proxy records from central, temperate and northern, boreal Europe. These comprise the classic records of La Grande Pile (E France) and Oerel (N Germany) and more recently obtained records from Horoszki Du?e (E Poland) and Lake Yamozero (NW Russia). The focus of the review is on pollen, lithology and macrofossil- and insect-based temperature inferences. The long records are further compared with recent proxy data from nearby terrestrial sites as well as with the rapidly accumulating high-resolution proxy data from the ocean realm. The comparison allows a re-examination of the environmental history and climate evolution of the Last Interglacial-Glacial (LI-G) cycle (MIS 5-2). It shows that environmental and climate conditions during MIS 5 (ca 130-70 ka BP) were distinctly different from those during MIS 4-2 (ca 70-15 ka BP). MIS 5 is characterized by three long forested intervals (broadly corresponding to MIS 5e, 5c, 5a), both in temperate and northern boreal Europe. These mild periods were interrupted by two short, relatively cold and dry intervals (MIS 5d and 5b) with mountain-centered glaciation in Fennoscandia. Millennial scale climate events were superimposed upon these longer lasting climate fluctuations. The time interval encompassing MIS 4-2 shows open vegetation. It is characterized by two glacial maxima (MIS 4 and 2) with sub-continental scale glaciation over northern Europe and dry conditions in strongly continental eastern European settings. High amplitude climate oscillations of millennial duration characterized the climate variability of MIS 3. Mild climate conditions in early MIS 3 caused large-scale deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, and ice-free conditions with Betula-dominated vegetation (including tree birch) persisted over large parts of Fennoscandia, possibly interrupted by glaciation, during major part of MIS 3 till ca 35 ka BP. Overall, MIS 5 was mostly mild with warmest or peak interglacial conditions at the very start during MIS 5e. MIS 4-2 was mostly cold with most extreme or peak glacial conditions in the closing phase during MIS 2. This points to a subdivision of the last climate cycle into an early, overall mild interglacial half and a late, overall cold glacial half, each with duration of ca 50 ka. This review also shows that the climate variability in central and northern Europe during the LI-G cycle was mostly in degrees of continentality with major shifts in winter temperature and precipitation values; summer temperatures, on the other hand, remained largely unchanged. It points to the waxing and waning of sea-ice over the North Atlantic Ocean as a possible characteristic feature of the Late Pleistocene. The present compilation, based on long terrestrial sequences, high-resolution multi-proxy data from the oceans, and quantified paleo-climate data, strongly favors a definition of entire Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 as the Last Interglacial similar as in the original marine stratigraphy and the stratigraphy at La Grande Pile in France. The proxy-based climate data places the start of the Last Glacial at the base of MIS 4 and the northwest European Pleniglacial. It shows that the division between the Eemian (MIS 5e) and the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-a) is not useful, as not relevant from a climate point of view.

Helmens, Karin F.

2014-02-01

323

Determination of nickel in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after preconcentration and microextraction based ionic liquids using full factorial and central composite design.  

PubMed

In this research, a microextraction technique based on ionic liquids (ILs) termed in situ solvent formation microextraction (ISFME) was used for determination of nickel in solutions. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) was chosen as a complexing agent. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 50 ?L of ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Injection of 50 ?L volumes of analyte into an air-acetylene flame provided very sensitive spike-like and reproducible signals. ISFME is based on phase separation phenomenon of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions. This method is simple and rapid for extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from food samples and can be applied for the sample solutions containing very high concentrations of salt. Furthermore, this technique is much safer in comparison with the organic solvent extraction because of using ionic liquid. The effective parameters such as amount of IL, salt effect, concentration of the chelating agent and ion pairing agent were inspected by a full factorial design to identify important parameters and their interactions. Next, a central composite design was applied to obtain optimum point of the important parameters. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 2 to 80 ng/mL. The limit of detection and relative standard deviation (n= 6) were 0.6 ng/mL and 2%, respectively. PMID:22853633

Zarei, Zohre; Shemirani, Farzaneh

2012-12-01

324

The feasibility of a school-based VI polysaccharide vaccine mass immunization campaign in Hue City, central Vietnam: streamlining a typhoid fever preventive strategy.  

PubMed

We report the coverage, safety, and logistics of a school-based typhoid fever immunization campaign that took place in Hue City, central Vietnam; a typhoid fever endemic area. A cluster-randomized evaluation-blinded controlled trial was designed where 68 schools (cluster) were randomly allocated the single dose Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typherix) or the active control hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix). A safety surveillance system was implemented. A total of 32,267 children were immunized with a coverage of 57.5%. Strong predictors for vaccination were attending primary schools, peri-urban location of the school, and low family income. Human resources were mainly schoolteachers and the campaign was completed in about 1 month. Most adverse events reported were mild. Safe injection and safe sharp-waste disposal practices were followed. A typhoid fever school-based immunization campaign was safe and logistically possible. Coverage was moderate and can be interpreted as the minimum that could have been achievable because individual written informed consent procedures were sought for the first time in Hue City and the trial nature of the campaign. The lessons learned, together with cost-effectiveness results to be obtained by the end of follow-up period, will hopefully accelerate the introduction of Vi typhoid fever vaccine in Vietnam. PMID:17120972

Thiem, Vu Dinh; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Canh, Do Gia; Son, Nguyen Dinh; Hoa, Nyugen Thai; Thuy, Dang Thi Dieu; Ochiai, R Leon; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Hop, Tran Quang; Ali, Mohammad; Park, Jin Kyung; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Holliday, Kris; Ivanoff, Bernard; Anh, Dang Duc; Pang, Tikki; Donner, Allan; Galindo, Claudia M; Trach, Dang Duc; Clemens, John D; Acosta, Camilo J

2006-05-01

325

Central Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Central Pain Syndrome? Is there ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

326

Video Resources Central Asia  

E-print Network

Video Resources Central Asia � Central Asia Country Overviews: https://archive.org/details/central-asia phase of political and economic change, what new partnership opportunities will emerge? https://archive.org/details/Europe_And_Central_Asia

Qian, Ning

327

Debate Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Courtesy of the National Center for Policy Analysis (NCPA), Debate-Central.org offers resources related to this year's National Forensic League high school debate topic: "Resolved: That the United States federal government should establish a foreign policy significantly limiting the use of weapons of mass destruction." The site, which is updated daily, features a wealth of links sorted into ten categories (each of which is further divided into subcategories). Resources are collected from periodicals, think tanks, and other sources, and the collection should be useful not just for debaters but for anyone looking for authoritative resources on these topics. Other debate topics are listed on the right-hand side of the page, though these are covered in a less comprehensive manner. Also at the site is a bulletin board, through which users can ask questions of experts such as Dr. Hans Mark, former Secretary of the Air Force and Deputy Administrator of NASA, and a link to NCPA's Terrorism in America site. NCPA's mission is "to develop and promote private alternatives to government regulation and control, solving problems by relying on the strength of the competitive, entrepreneurial private sector."

2001-01-01

328

Sensor-based profiles of the NO parameter in the central Arctic and southern Canada Basin: New insights regarding the cold halocline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report the first optical, sensor-based profiles of nitrate from the central Makarov and Amundsen and southern Canada Basins of the Arctic Ocean. These profiles were obtained as part of the International Polar Year program during spring 2007 and 2008 field seasons of the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) and Beaufort Gyre Exploration Program (BGEP). These nitrate data were combined with in-situ, sensor-based profiles of dissolved oxygen to derive the first high-resolution vertical NO profiles to be reported for the Arctic Ocean. The focus of this paper is on the halocline layer that insulates sea ice from Atlantic water heat and is an important source of nutrients for marine ecosystems within and downstream of the Arctic. Previous reports based on bottle data have identified a distinct lower halocline layer associated with an NO minimum at about S=34.2 that was proposed to be formed initially in the Nansen Basin and then advected downstream. Greater resolution afforded by our data reveal an even more pronounced NO minimum within the upper, cold halocline of the Makarov Basin. Thus a distinct lower salinity source ventilated the Makarov and not the Amundsen Basin. In addition, a larger Eurasian River water influence overlies this halocline source in the Makarov. Observations in the southern Canada Basin corroborate previous studies confirming multiple lower halocline influences including diapycnal mixing between Pacific winter waters and Atlantic-derived lower halocline waters, ventilation via brine formation induced in persistent openings in the ice, and cold, O 2-rich lower halocline waters originating in the Eurasian Basin. These findings demonstrate that continuous sensing of chemical properties promises to significantly advance understanding of the maintenance and circulation of the halocline.

Alkire, Matthew B.; Falkner, Kelly K.; Morison, James; Collier, Robert W.; Guay, Christopher K.; Desiderio, Russell A.; Rigor, Ignatius G.; McPhee, Miles

2010-11-01

329

A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water represented somewhat diluted groundwater. Streamflow conductivity integrates the concentrations of the major ions, and the logistics of acquiring specific conductance at frequent time intervals are less complicated than data collection, sample processing, shipment, and analysis of water samples in a laboratory. The acquisition of continuous specific conductance data reduces uncertainty associated with less-frequently collected geochemical point data.

Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.

2010-01-01

330

Malaria overdiagnosis and burden of malaria misdiagnosis in the suburbs of central Sudan: special emphasis on artemisinin-based combination therapy era  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy of diagnosis is central for malaria control. Although microscopy is gold standard in malaria diagnosis, its reliability is largely dependent on user skill. In this study, we evaluated practitioners' clinical and microscopists' technical skills in diagnosis of malaria in central Sudan. In a retrospective study, 3203 blood smears from 95 peripheral health facilities (each represented by a general practitioner

Salwa M. E. A-Elgayoum; Abd El-Karim Ahmed El-Feki; Babiker Ahmed Mahgoub; El-Amin El-Rayah; Hayder A. Giha

2009-01-01

331

Epidemic of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Central India, an area where chloroquine has been replaced by artemisinin-based combination therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

India contributes greatly to the global incidence of malaria. The factors influencing malaria in India are highly diverse and vary greatly from the epidemiological setting of any other country. Central India is the most vulnerable area to malaria in India. This study was carried out in three community health centres in Dindori District, Madhya Pradesh (Central India). Dindori District is

Neeru Singh; Man M. Shukla; Gyan Chand; Praveen K. Bharti; Mrigendra P. Singh; Mohan K. Shukla; Rajiv K. Mehra; Ravendra K. Sharma; Aditya P. Dash

2011-01-01

332

[Suitability assessment of construction land in the central and southern parts of Hebei Province, China based on potential-limitation model].  

PubMed

The suitability assessment of regional construction land is one of the important prerequisites for the spatial arrangement in regional planning, and also, the important foundation for the reasonable utilization of regional land resources. With the support of GIS, and by using the regional comprehensive strength and spatial accessibility analysis and the eco-environmental sensitivity analysis, this paper quantitatively analyzed the development potential and its ecological limitation of the central and southern parts of Hebei Province. Besides, based on the cost-benefit analysis, the potential-limitation model was accordingly developed, and the three land suitability scenarios under different developmental concepts were captured through the interaction matrix. The results indicated that both the comprehensive strength and the development potential of the study area showed a primacy distribution pattern, and presented an obvious pole-axis spatial pattern. The areas with higher eco-environmental sensitivity were mainly distributed in the west regions, while those with lower eco-environmental sensitivity were in the east regions. Regional economic development concept had important effects on the regional ecological security pattern and urban growth. The newly developed principles and methods for the land suitability assessment in this paper could not only scientifically realize the spatial grid of regional development potential and capture the future land development trend and spatial distribution, but also provide scientific basis and effective ways for urban and regional planning to realize region 'smart growth' and 'smart conservation'. PMID:24380348

Yin, Hai-wei; Kong, Fan-hua; Luo, Zhen-dong; Yan, Wei-jiao; Sun, Chang-feng; Xu, Feng

2013-08-01

333

Groundwater Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a portal for internet-based groundwater information that may be publicly accessed for no fee. This site provides a one-stop shop to browse for a wide variety of information from on-line publications and bibliographies, to presentations, case studies, research descriptions, data repositories, and vendors. Each record includes an abstract, contact information, and one or more hyperlinks. Records can be searched by topic, keywords, author or publication date.

Center, Ground-Water R.

334

Student Based Services covers a number of closely related and centrally located offices which together aim to provide accessible and effective services to enhance the student experience.Working closely with other  

E-print Network

.lancs.ac.uk/sbs/mentalhealth Tel: 01524 592690 Disability Support Staff help disabled students from the first enquiry to graduation. About 5% of first year students declare a disability and many progress onto postgraduate courses. www.lancs.ac.uk/sbs/disabilityStudent Based Services covers a number of closely related and centrally located offices which

Meju, Max

335

Review of Central Asian Place-names – Lop nor and Tarim area – An Attempt at Classification and Explanation Based on Sven Hedin’s Diaries and Published Works, by Gunnar Jarring (1997).  

E-print Network

Citation: Dwyer, Arienne M. 2000. Review of Central Asian Place-names – Lop nor and Tarim area – An Attempt at Classification and Explanation Based on Sven Hedin’s Diaries and Published Works, by Gunnar Jarring (1997). Turkic Languages 4.1: 286–288. ...

Dwyer, Arienne M.

2000-01-01

336

Think Globally, Act Locally, Plan (Also) Centrally  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an environmental studies curriculum was developed for senior high schools in Israel, special attention was paid to the methodological approach, to content selection, and to the integration of central and school-based curriculum strategies. While central curriculum teams usually have an advantage in their better access to budgets, to specialized sources of information, and to central examination bodies, local teachers

Abraham Blum

1988-01-01

337

Regeneration of periodontal primary afferents of the rat incisor following injury of the inferior alveolar nerve with special reference to neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactive primary afferents.  

PubMed

Regeneration of primary afferents and the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the lingual periodontal ligament of the rat incisor were examined following different types of injury (resection or crush) of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) combined with superior cervical ganglionectomy. In normal animals, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5)-like immunoreactivity (-LI) was localized in the middle areas of the alveolus-related part of lingual periodontal ligament; some of these nerve fibers showed terminal ramification and morphologies resembling those of the periodontal Ruffini endings, and very few thin varicose NPY-like immunoreactive (-IR) nerve fibers were detected around the blood vessels. Three days following crush injury of the IAN, the number of PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers decreased, then increased to the normal levels around 10-15 days following injury. NPY-IR primary afferents first appeared around 5 days following crush injury, increased in number gradually, reaching a peak around 14 days, and then decreased. No NPY-IR primary afferents were detected 56 days following crush injury of the IAN. The terminal morphology of NPY-IR primary afferents observed around 10-14 days following injury was similar to that of PGP 9.5-IR nerve fibers in the normal animals, but less expanded. The changes in distribution of PGP 9.5-IR and NPY-IR nerve fibers following resection were similar to those observed following crush injury but regeneration was slightly delayed. The present results suggest that injury-evoked NPY is closely associated with the regeneration process of mechanoreceptors in the periodontal ligament following injury of the IAN. PMID:9106452

Youn, S H; Sakuda, M; Kurisu, K; Wakisaka, S

1997-03-28

338

Late Holocene evolution of playa lakes in the central Ebro depression based on geophysical surveys and morpho-stratigraphic analysis of lacustrine terraces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin and morpho-stratigraphic evolution of the largest playa-lake system (La Playa-El Pueyo) in the Bujaraloz-Sástago endorheic area, located in the semiarid central sector of the Ebro Depression, are analysed. The enclosed depressions are developed on gypsiferous Tertiary bedrock and show a prevalent WNW-ESE orientation parallel to the direction of the prevalent strong local wind (Cierzo). Yardangs have been carved in bedrock and unconsolidated terrace deposits in the leeward sector of the largest lake basins. A sequence of three lacustrine terrace levels has been identified by detailed geomorphological mapping. The treads of the upper, middle and lower terrace levels are situated at + 9 m, + 6 m and + 0.5 m above the playa-lake floors, respectively. Seismic refraction and electrical resistivity profiles acquired in La Playa reveal a thin basin fill (~ 2 m) with a planar base. These data allow ruling out the genetic hypothesis for the depressions involving the collapse of large bedrock cavities and support a mixed genesis of combined widespread dissolution and subsidence by groundwater discharge and eolian deflation during dry periods. The 5 m thick deposit of the middle terrace was investigated in hand-dug and backhoe trenches. Six AMS radiocarbon ages from this terrace indicate an aggradation phase between 3.9 ka and ca. 2 ka. These numerical ages yield a maximum average aggradation rate of 2.6 mm/yr and a minimum excavation rate by wind deflation of 3 mm/yr subsequent to the accumulation of the middle terrace. The latter figure compares well with those calculated in several arid regions of the world using yardangs carved in palaeolake deposits. The aggradation phase between 4 and 2 ka is coherent with other Iberian and Mediterranean records showing relatively more humid conditions after 4 ka, including the Iron Ages and the Iberian-Roman Period.

Gutiérrez, F.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Desir, G.; González-Sampériz, P.; Gutiérrez, M.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Moreno, A.; Guerrero, J.; Roqué, C.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.

2013-08-01

339

Temporary anti-cancer & anti-pain effects of mechanical stimulation of any one of 3 front teeth (1st incisor, 2nd incisor, & canine) of right & left side of upper & lower jaws and their possible mechanism, & relatively long term disappearance of pain & cancer parameters by one optimal dose of DHEA, Astragalus, Boswellia Serrata, often with press needle stimulation of True ST. 36.  

PubMed

One minute downward pressure on the tip of any one of the front 3 teeth (1st incisor, 2nd incisor, and canine) at the right and left sides of the upper and lower jaw by a wooden toothpick induced temporary disappearance (20 min approximately 4 hours) of abnormally increased pain parameters (pain grading, Substance P, & TXB2), and cancer parameters (Telomere, Integrin alpha5beta1, Oncogene C-fos Ab2, etc. of Astrocytoma, Glioblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, adenocarcinoma of lung, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of colon, prostate cancer). The effect included temporary disappearance of headache, toothache, chest and abdominal pain, and backache, often with improved memory & concentration. Since these beneficial changes resembled the effects of giving one optimal dose of DHEA, increase of DHEA was measured. Above mechanical stimulation of one of these front teeth increased abnormally reduced DHEA levels of less than 10 ng to norm1 100 approximately 130 ng BDORT units and normal cell (NC) telomeres from markedly reduced values to near normal values, and improved acetylcholine in the Hippocampus. Large organ representation areas for the Adrenal gland & Hippocampus may exist at these front teeth. This method can be used for emergency pain control and can explain the beneficial effect of bruxism and tooth brushing, through the increase of DHEA levels and activities of the Hippocampus by increasing Acetylcholine. Increasing NC telomere to optimally high level resulted in disappearance of pain and improvement or significant reduction of malignant tumor. Repeated daily press needle stimulation of True ST. 36 increased NC telomere 450-700 ng BDORT units. One optimal dose of DHEA increased NC telomere 525 ng DBORT units and eliminated the pain and abnormally increased cancer parameters; effect of one optimal dose lasted 0.5-11 months. One optimal dose of Boswellia Serrata or Astragalus not only increased NC telomere 650 ng BDORT units, eliminating pain and cancer parameters, but also reduced the size of the Astrocytoma grade I by 10-20% and the Glioblastoma by 15-90% in less than 2-6 months in some patients, as long as high NC telomere is maintained. PMID:20344885

Omura, Yoshiaki; Horiuchi, Nobuko; Jones, Marilyn K; Lu, Dominic P; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Duvvi, Harsha; Pallos, Andrew; Ohki, Motomu; Suetsugu, Akihiro

2009-01-01

340

Central Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

2002-01-01

341

Central American electrical interconnection  

SciTech Connect

A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

Not Available

1988-12-01

342

Additional Evidence for Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus Sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java)  

PubMed Central

This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

Zanolli, Clement

2013-01-01

343

A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this project were delivered at eleven different scientific meetings. Thus far, three publications have resulted from this project with another five in preparation. No subject inventions resulted from this research project.

McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

2003-01-01

344

Central bank Financial Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have

J. Ramon Martinez-Resano

2004-01-01

345

North America Europe Central &  

E-print Network

1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

Johnson, Matthew

346

The Crustal Structure of Central Tibet Based on Local Earthquake Records and a Reinterpretation of Seismic Data Along the INDEPTH III Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Summer 1998, a 400 km long seismic refraction profile (INDEPTH III) was shot in Central Tibet. Apart from recording the signals of 11 shots along the line, the stations also recorded a number of local earthquakes more or less in the extension of the line. Record sections and travel time data from both shots and earthquakes were compiled and

R. Meissner; F. Tilmann; S. Haines; J. Mechie

2002-01-01

347

Recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future solar central receiver power plants based on experience gained from the Solar One Pilot Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of solar central receiver power plants. During its operating years many data were collected regarding the efficiency and availability of the various plant systems. The author summarizes these statistics and compares them with goals developed by the Department of Energy. On the basis of this comparison, design and operation improvements are

Gregory J. Kolb

1989-01-01

348

Tree ring-based reconstruction of annual precipitation in the South-Central United State from 1750 to 1980. [Quercus stellata; Quercus alba  

SciTech Connect

A 231-year reconstruction of annual precipitation, from 1750 through 1980 A.D., was developed from 10 tree ring chronologies (9 post oak, Quercus stellata, and 1 white oak, Q. alba, series) in the south-central United States. Straight line regression was used to calibrate regionally averaged precipitation with ring width data, and the derived reconstruction was verified with independent climatic data and historical evidence. A variance trend in the tree ring data, which may have resulted from nonclimatic factors, was removed. The reconstructed precipitation series indicates that (1) a drought which appears to have been more severe than any in the instrumental record occurred about 1860 and (2) severe and prolonged droughts comparable to twentieth century events have occurred at roughly 15- to 25-years intervals throughout the past 231 years. It follows that serious droughts in the south-central United States could be expected to recur even in the absence of projected CO/sub 2/-induced warming.

Blasing, T.J.; Stahle, D.W.; Duvick, D.N.

1988-01-01

349

Treatment of wastewater and restoration of aquatic systems through an eco-technology based constructed treatment wetlands - a successful experience in Central India.  

PubMed

In the last couple of decades constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn considerable interest in Central India. CWs offer an effective means of integrating wastewater treatment and resource enhancement, often at competitive cost in comparison to conventional wastewater treatments, with additional benefits of Green Urban Landscaping and wildlife habitat. This paper describes treatment performances and the design of some Sub Surface Flow CWs (SSFCW) and Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) in Central India. Central Indian CWs show significant pollution reduction load for total suspended solids (TSS) (62-82%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (40-75%), NH(4)-N (67-78%) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (59-78%). Field scale SSFCWs installed so far in Central India are rectangular, earthen, single/multiple celled having similar depths of 0.60-0.90 m, hydraulic retention capacity 18-221 m(3) with effective size 41.8-1,050 m(2). The major components of CWs incorporate puddled bottom/side walls, sealed with impermeable low-density polyethylene, a bed of locally available river gravel planted with Phragmites karka, and an inlet distribution and outlet collection system. A new variant on CWs are AFIs working under hydroponics. The field scale experimental AFIs installed in-situ in a slowly flowing local river were composed of hollow bamboo, a bed of coconut coir, floating arrangements and Phragmites karka as nutrient stripping plant species. The AFIs polish the aquatic system by reducing 46.6% of TSS, 45-55% of NH(4)-N, 33-45% of NO(3)-N, 45-50% of TKN and 40-50% of BOD. The study established that there is a need for further research and sufficient data to assist the development of CWs by instilling confidence in policymakers, planners and in the public. PMID:24135106

Billore, S K; Sharma, J K; Singh, N; Ram, H

2013-01-01

350

Tree ring-based reconstruction of annual precipitation in the South-Central United State from 1750 to 1980. [Quercus stellata; Quercus alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 231-year reconstruction of annual precipitation, from 1750 through 1980 A.D., was developed from 10 tree ring chronologies (9 post oak, Quercus stellata, and 1 white oak, Q. alba, series) in the south-central United States. Straight line regression was used to calibrate regionally averaged precipitation with ring width data, and the derived reconstruction was verified with independent climatic data and

T. J. Blasing; D. W. Stahle; D. N. Duvick

1988-01-01

351

Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas, respectively. The highest median triazine concentration was found in the cropland/pastureland area. Chloroacetanilide concentra-tions ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, integrated, urban/built-up, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. Chlorophenoxy compound concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the urban/built-up, integrated, citrus, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. The maximum concentrations of triazines, chloroacetanilides, and chlorophenoxy compounds were 0.63, 1.0, and 14 micrograms per liter, respectively. Organophosphate was detected once at an integrated site at a concentration of 0.20 microgram per liter. Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has no aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. However, assuming that all triazine and metolachlor concentrations from ELISA and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses were the result of atrazine and metolachlor detections, no concentrations exceeded the Canadian aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. One organophosphate detection (0.2 microgram per liter) did exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life guideline for chlorpyrifos. The deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio (DAR) is an important indicator of atrazine transport in the environment. The DAR ranged from 0.25 to 0.33, indicating that postapplication runoff was the most likely source of atrazine to the environment at the time of sampling. Deisopropylatrazine is a metabolite of atrazine and structurally similar compounds, such as simazine and cyanazine. The deisopropylatrazine/deethylatrazine ratio (D2R) is an indicator of nonpoint sources of deisopropylatrazine to the environment. The ratio ranged from 1 to 3 in this study, indicating simazine was an important source of deisopropylatrazine to the environment at the time of sampling, as opposed to atrazine alone. Confirmation analyses by GC/MS for triazines detected by ELISA indicated t

Lietz, A.C.

2003-01-01

352

Central Tendency and Variability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter presents two important interrelated topics in statistics: central tendency and variability. Measures of central tendency show how similar the data points in a set of data are, while measures of variability show how much the

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

353

Centralize Printing, and Save.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the operations of a centralized printing office in a California school district. Centralization greatly increased the efficiency and lowered the cost of generating publications, information services, newsletters, and press releases throughout the school year. (TE)

McCormick, Kathleen

1984-01-01

354

Central line infections - hospitals  

MedlinePLUS

... and increase how long you are in the hospital. Your central line needs special care to prevent ... The hospital staff will use aseptic technique when a central line is put in your chest or arm. Aseptic ...

355

Central and peripheral demyelination  

PubMed Central

Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to adequately assess all these possibilities. PMID:24741263

Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Gulati, Natasha Singh

2014-01-01

356

New Central American Cinema (2001-2010)  

E-print Network

as an affordable technology; the Guatemala-based Ícaro Central American Film Festival as an alternative channel of distribution; and transnationalism as a global force that contributed to the development of a regional identity among Central American filmmakers... Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization URNG Unión Revolucionaria Nacional de Guatemala (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity) 1 Introduction This doctoral dissertation focuses on New Central American Cinema (hereafter NCAC...

Duró n, Hispano

2014-05-31

357

Structures and spectroscopic properties of meso-tetrasubstituted porphyrin complexes: Meso-substitutional and central metallic effect study based on density functional theory calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the meso-substituents and central metals on the molecular structures, atomic charges, molecular orbital energy gaps, electronic absorption spectra, and infrared (IR) spectra of 12 meso-tetrasubstituted porphyrin complexes including metal-free porphyrins H2P or (Por=TPP, TFPP, TClPP, TPyP) (1–4) and their metal complexes MPor (M=Mg, Zn; Por=TPP, TFPP, TClPP, TPyP) (5–12) [TPP=meso-tetrakis(phenyl)porphyrinate; TFPP=meso-tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl)porphyrinate; TClPP=meso-tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)porphyrinate; TPyP=meso-tetrakis(4-pyridyl) porphyrinate] are systematically studied by

Ping Yao; Shenghao Han; Yuexing Zhang; Xianyao Zhang; Jianzhuang Jiang

2009-01-01

358

Central Nervous System Cancers  

PubMed Central

Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN.org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes. PMID:24029126

Nabors, Louis Burt; Ammirati, Mario; Bierman, Philip J.; Brem, Henry; Butowski, Nicholas; Chamberlain, Marc C.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Friedman, Allan; Gilbert, Mark R.; Hesser, Deneen; Holdhoff, Matthias; Junck, Larry; Lawson, Ronald; Loeffler, Jay S.; Maor, Moshe H.; Moots, Paul L.; Morrison, Tara; Mrugala, Maciej M.; Newton, Herbert B.; Portnow, Jana; Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Recht, Lawrence; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Sills, Allen K.; Tran, David; Tran, Nam; Vrionis, Frank D.; Wen, Patrick Y.; McMillian, Nicole; Ho, Maria

2014-01-01

359

Central nervous system cancers.  

PubMed

Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN. org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes. PMID:24029126

Nabors, Louis Burt; Ammirati, Mario; Bierman, Philip J; Brem, Henry; Butowski, Nicholas; Chamberlain, Marc C; DeAngelis, Lisa M; Fenstermaker, Robert A; Friedman, Allan; Gilbert, Mark R; Hesser, Deneen; Holdhoff, Matthias; Junck, Larry; Lawson, Ronald; Loeffler, Jay S; Maor, Moshe H; Moots, Paul L; Morrison, Tara; Mrugala, Maciej M; Newton, Herbert B; Portnow, Jana; Raizer, Jeffrey J; Recht, Lawrence; Shrieve, Dennis C; Sills, Allen K; Tran, David; Tran, Nam; Vrionis, Frank D; Wen, Patrick Y; McMillian, Nicole; Ho, Maria

2013-09-01

360

Mitochondrial DNA in the Central European population. Human identification with the help of the forensic mt-DNA D-loop-base database.  

PubMed

Sequencing of mtDNA is an advanced method for the individualisation of traces. Disadvantages of this method are expensive and time-consuming analysis and evaluation procedures as well as the necessary stock of population-genetic data which is still insufficient. Central European institutes of forensic medicine from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland have been working together since the beginning of 1998 to establish a mtDNA database. The aim is to build up a large stock of forensically established data and provide population-genetic data for frequency investigations, which will serve as a basis for expert opinions and scientific research. Good data quality is ensured by using original sequences only. Ring tests, which have been conducted to enhance analytical reliability, revealed a high correspondence rate of the analytical results obtained by the individual member institutes. Today 1410 sequences are available for comparison, of which 1285 sequences in the HV1 and HV2 regions cover the full ranges from 16051 to 16365 and from 73 to 340 (according to Anderson). The major part is formed by Central European sequences comprising 1256 data sets from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Today the database contains sequences from a total of 12 European, six African and three Asian countries including 100 sequences from Japan. This paper is aimed at discussing the individualisation potentials of mtDNA as well as the possibilities and limits of ethnic differentiation by means of pairwise sequence differences on the basis of the data stock available. PMID:10978611

Wittig, H; Augustin, C; Baasner, A; Bulnheim, U; Dimo-Simonin, N; Edelmann, J; Hering, S; Jung, S; Lutz, S; Michael, M; Parson, W; Poetsch, M; Schneider, P M; Weichhold, G; Krause, D

2000-09-11

361

Abuse liability of centrally acting non-opioid analgesics and muscle relaxants--a brief update based on a comparison of pharmacovigilance data and evidence from the literature.  

PubMed

There is a lack of data regarding the abuse liability of centrally acting non-opioid analgesics (NOA) and muscle relaxants (MR). A comparison of data retrieved from a German pharmacovigilance database (BfArM; accessed May 2013) and data from the literature concerning the abuse liability of NOA and MR approved in Germany was performed. The BfArM-database demonstrated cases of abuse only for clonidine and paracetamol, whereas the literature suggests evidence for an abuse potential of baclofen, clonidine, ketamine, metamizole, methocarbamol, orphenadrine, paracetamol, propyphenazone, and tizanidine. The low number of detected cases in the BfArM-database could be a result of under-reporting. PMID:24552880

Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Eller, Jonas; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

2014-06-01

362

Probabilities of future VEI ? 2 eruptions at the Central American Volcanic Arc: a statistical perspective based on the past centuries' eruption record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic eruption forecast is provided for seven historically active volcanoes along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), as a pivotal empirical contribution to multi-disciplinary volcanic hazards assessment. The eruption probabilities are determined with a Kaplan-Meier estimator of survival functions, and parametric time series models are applied to describe the historical eruption records. Aside from the volcanoes that are currently in a state of eruptive activity (Santa María, Fuego, and Arenal), the highest probabilities for eruptions of VEI ? 2 occur at Concepción and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, which are likely to erupt to 70-85 % within the next 10 years. Poás and Irazú in Costa Rica show a medium to high eruption probability, followed by San Miguel (El Salvador), Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica), and Izalco (El Salvador; 24 % within the next 10 years).

Dzierma, Yvonne; Wehrmann, Heidi

2014-10-01

363

Centrality in networks of urban streets.  

PubMed

Centrality has revealed crucial for understanding the structural properties of complex relational networks. Centrality is also relevant for various spatial factors affecting human life and behaviors in cities. Here, we present a comprehensive study of centrality distributions over geographic networks of urban streets. Five different measures of centrality, namely degree, closeness, betweenness, straightness and information, are compared over 18 1-square-mile samples of different world cities. Samples are represented by primal geographic graphs, i.e., valued graphs defined by metric rather than topologic distance where intersections are turned into nodes and streets into edges. The spatial behavior of centrality indices over the networks is investigated graphically by means of color-coded maps. The results indicate that a spatial analysis, that we term multiple centrality assessment, grounded not on a single but on a set of different centrality indices, allows an extended comprehension of the city structure, nicely capturing the skeleton of most central routes and subareas that so much impacts on spatial cognition and on collective dynamical behaviors. Statistically, closeness, straightness and betweenness turn out to follow similar functional distribution in all cases, despite the extreme diversity of the considered cities. Conversely, information is found to be exponential in planned cities and to follow a power-law scaling in self-organized cities. Hierarchical clustering analysis, based either on the Gini coefficients of the centrality distributions, or on the correlation between different centrality measures, is able to characterize classes of cities. PMID:16599779

Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio

2006-03-01

364

Central American geologic map project  

SciTech Connect

During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

Dengo, G.

1986-07-01

365

Lack of correlation between tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and leakage in roots filled with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze possible correlations among tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and apical leakage in fillings performed with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin. Material and Methods Sixty similar, extracted human mandibular central incisors were irrigated, instrumented and filled following the same protocol. First, apical leakage was quantified by fluid filtration tests. Then, these same specimens were sectioned for analysis of tubular dentine cement penetration and the middle thirds were submitted to push-out tests to analyze the adhesiveness of the fillings. Results In brief, the means and standard deviations with a confidence interval of 95% were as follows: tubular dentine cement penetration (8.875±4.540), adhesiveness (4.441±2.683) and apical leakage (0.318±0.215). The data were confronted using the Pearson's test (P>0.05), and it was possible to prove that there was no correlation between (1) tubular dentine cement penetration and apical leakage (r2: 0.08276), (2) tubular dentine cement penetration and adhesiveness (r2: -0.2412) and (3) adhesiveness and apical leakage (r2: 0.1340). Conclusion After analysis of these data, it could be observed that there exists no correlation among the variables analyzed in this study. PMID:24626245

MACHADO, Ricardo; da SILVA NETO, Ulisses Xavier; CARNEIRO, Everdan; FARINIUK, Luiz Fernando; WESTPHALEN, Vania Portela Ditzel; CUNHA, Rodrigo Sanches

2014-01-01

366

17. Readiness Crew Building interior, lower level, central cross corridor, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Readiness Crew Building interior, lower level, central cross corridor, looking northeast from the central lower level tunnel entrance. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Bomber Alert Facility S-6, 1300 Alert Road, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

367

HealthCentral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HealthCentral (formerly HealthScout), a news service provided by Rx Remedy, Inc., posts fifteen to twenty short, easy-to-understand articles each day on a variety of medical and health topics in the news. Articles are based on interviews with experts and reports from medical journals, and HealthScout cites sources and provides links to related resources for each. HealthScout also summarizes newswire stories and links to the original newspaper or journal article. A Directory section contains an archive of older articles. Registration is not required to use the site; however, visitors can sign up to receive personalized health or medical news reports by filling out a personal survey. Quick registration allows users to select from nearly 350 topics; "7-Minute Checkup" requires extensive personal information, but provides a choice of over 700 topics and a detailed health-risk assessment based on the user's responses. The site contains a privacy statement and recommends that users select "Switch to Secure Server" [which requires a browser that supports Secure Socket Layers (SSL)] before submitting information. Searches of news sources are performed every four hours, and users can opt to receive email notification when HealthScout posts new information on their topic.

1998-01-01

368

A Resource-based View of the Competitive Advantages of Cities : Empirical Results on Advantages for Headquarters in Vienna for Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a resource-based approach to the competitive advantages of cities by combining Porter's diamond model with a re- source-based view of the firm. Locations may realize sustainable competitive advantage if they offer resources and competencies that are difficult to transfer to and imitate by other locations, and if these resources are complementary to the core competen- cies of multinational

Josef Windsperger

369

Spatio-temporal variations of optical properties of aerosols in East Asia measured by MODIS and relation to the ground-based mass concentrations observed in central Korea during 2001˜2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term variations and trends of atmospheric aerosols in the East Asian region were analyzed by using aerosol optical depth (AOD or ?), and ångström exponent (AE or ?) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2001 to 2010. The increased emission of anthropogenic fine aerosols in east China resulted in the high AOD in this region during summer. The steady increasing emission of anthropogenic fine aerosols caused an increasing trend of AOD in east China, and the large-scale transport of sandstorms and smoke plume caused by forest fires affected intense inter-annual variations of AOD in the East Asian region. While in the central part of South Korea, located in the lee side of the East Asian continent, AE tended to rise to a level higher than in east China, the ground-based mass concentrations continued to decline. A noticeable decrease of PM10 mass concentration in spring and winter in central Korea is most likely attributable to decreases in sandstorms in the source region of East Asia. However, the ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration to PM10 increases overall with a high level in summer. Aerosol types were classified into dust, smoke plume, and sulphate by using satellite data over Cheongwon in central Korea. The columnar AOD, with different aerosol types, was compared with the ground-based mass concentrations at Cheongwon, and the relatively high level of the correlations presented between PM2.5 and AOD produced in sulphate. Growth and increases of fine hygroscopic aerosols generated as gas-to-particle conversion particularly in summer contribute to increases of columnar AOD in the East Asian region.

Kim, Hak-Sung; Chung, Yong-Seung; Kim, Joon-Tae

2014-02-01

370

Attempts to cure and prevent HIV/AIDS in central Nigeria between 1997 and 2002: opening a way to a vaccine-based solution to the problem?  

PubMed

Like other sub-Saharan countries Nigeria is ravaged by HIV/AIDS. The author is a general surgeon with some training in Immunology and practises in central Nigeria. He conceived and developed a safe therapeutic HIV vaccine prepared from the blood of HIV-infected persons and applied the remedy to over 3500 such patients with their informed and written consent. He also developed a safe HIV preventive vaccine from the same source and applied it to himself and over 300 willing HIV antibody negative persons. This work reports his efforts and the findings so far even though some of the patients involved are still undergoing the therapy. The therapy has not affected, to any significant statistical level, either the overall weight gain in all the patients or the CD4+ count in those patients that were able to pay for the tests. The therapy also resulted in a maintained seroreversion to negative (normal) in some of the patients who, prior to therapy, had established seropositivity for HIV antibodies (20 patients), hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies (16 patients) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (50 patients). Neither the therapeutic nor the preventive vaccine is associated with the production of anti-HIV antibodies. PMID:15364427

Abalaka, Jeremiah Ojonemi Alabi

2004-09-28

371

Performance and robustness of probabilistic river forecasts computed with quantile regression based on multiple independent variables in the North Central USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study further develops the method of quantile regression (QR) to predict exceedance probabilities of flood stages by post-processing forecasts. Using data from the 82 river gages, for which the National Weather Service's North Central River Forecast Center issues forecasts daily, this is the first QR application to US American river gages. Archived forecasts for lead times up to six days from 2001-2013 were analyzed. Earlier implementations of QR used the forecast itself as the only independent variable (Weerts et al., 2011; López López et al., 2014). This study adds the rise rate of the river stage in the last 24 and 48 h and the forecast error 24 and 48 h ago to the QR model. Including those four variables significantly improved the forecasts, as measured by the Brier Skill Score (BSS). Mainly, the resolution increases, as the original QR implementation already delivered high reliability. Combining the forecast with the other four variables results in much less favorable BSSs. Lastly, the forecast performance does not depend on the size of the training dataset, but on the year, the river gage, lead time and event threshold that are being forecast. We find that each event threshold requires a separate model configuration or at least calibration.

Hoss, F.; Fischbeck, P. S.

2014-10-01

372

Prevalence of skeletal and eye malformations in frogs from north-central United States: estimations based on collections from randomly selected sites  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Skeletal malformation rates for several frog species were determined in a set of randomly selected wetlands in the north-central USA over three consecutive years. In 1998, 62 sites yielded 389 metamorphic frogs, nine (2.3%) of which had skeletal or eye malformations. A subset of the original sites was surveyed in the following 2 yr. In 1999, 1,085 metamorphic frogs were collected from 36 sites and 17 (1.6%) had skeletal or eye malformations, while in 2000, examination of 1,131 metamorphs yielded 16 (1.4%) with skeletal or eye malformations. Hindlimb malformations predominated in all three years, but other abnormalities, involving forelimb, eye, and pelvis were also found. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) constituted the majority of collected metamorphs as well as most of the malformed specimens. However, malformations were also noted in mink frogs (R. septentrionalis), wood frogs (R. sylvatica), and gray tree frogs (Hyla spp.). The malformed specimens were found in clustered sites in all three years but the cluster locations were not the same in any year. The malformation rates reported here are higher than the 0.3% rate determined for metamorphic frogs collected from similar sites in Minnesota in the 1960s, and thus, appear to represent an elevation of an earlier baseline malformation rate.

Schoff, P.K.; Johnson, C.M.; Schotthoefer, A.M.; Murphy, J.E.; Lieske, C.; Cole, R.A.; Johnson, L.B.; Beasley, V.R.

2003-01-01

373

A chronology of Holocene and Little Ice Age glacier culminations of the Steingletscher, Central Alps, Switzerland, based on high-sensitivity beryllium-10 moraine dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amplitude and timing of past glacier culminations are sensitive recorders of key climate events on a regional scale. Precisely dating young moraines using cosmogenic nuclides to investigate Holocene glacier chronologies has proven challenging, but progress in the high-sensitivity 10Be technique has recently been shown to enable the precise dating of moraines as young as a few hundred years. In this study we use 10Be moraine dating to reconstruct culminations of the Steingletscher, a small mountain glacier in the central Swiss Alps, throughout the Holocene. The outermost-recorded positions of Steingletscher most likely occurred in the Early Holocene and appear nearly synchronous with glacier culminations reported from other regions in the Alps. A Late-Holocene position corroborates the evidence for a significant glacier advance of similar extent to that of the Little Ice Age (LIA) ?3 kyr ago. Finally, fourteen boulders from different moraines yield 10Be ages between 580 and 140 years with analytical precisions mostly <10%, dating Steingletscher advances during the LIA. Because these LIA 10Be ages are in stratigraphic order, we tentatively distinguish four LIA glacier culminations: about 1470 CE, 1650 CE, 1750 CE and 1820 CE, which are in good agreement with existing independent records during the LIA in the Swiss Alps. These findings illustrate the high potential of the 10Be moraine dating method to directly link paleo-glacier-chronologies to historical records and thus present-day glacier evolution.

Schimmelpfennig, Irene; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Akçar, Naki; Koffman, Tobias; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Schwartz, Roseanne; Finkel, Robert C.; Zimmerman, Susan; Schlüchter, Christian

2014-05-01

374

Is bank supervision central to central banking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

1999-01-01

375

Central American update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers,

1987-01-01

376

Back to Central Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The establishment and maintenance of immunological tolerance entails both central and peripheral mechanisms. The latter have been highlighted in the past several years, mostly because of great interest in the activities of regulatory T cells. However, an important role for central tolerance mechanisms has been reemphasized by recent results on human autoimmune diseases, including APECED and type 1 diabetes.

Diane Mathis; Christophe Benoist

2004-01-01

377

CDF Central Outer Tracker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Outer Tracker is a large cylindrical drift chamber constructed to replace Collider Detector at Fermilab's original central drift chamber for the higher luminosity expected for Run 2 at the Fermilab Tevatron. The chamber's drift properties are described in the context of meeting the operating requirements for Run 2. The design and construction of the chamber, the front-end readout

T. Affolder; D. Allspach; D. Ambrose; J. Bialek; W. Bokhari; M. Brozovic; M. Binkley; K. Burkett; A. Byon-Wagner; F. Cogswell; N. Dressnandt; Z. Feng; M. Franklin; L. Galtieri; D. W Gerdes; J. Greenwood; V. Guarino; J Guimaraes da Costa; R. Haggerty; C. Hall; J. Heinrich; A. Holloway; T. Jacobi; K. Kephart; D. Khazins; Y. K Kim; M. Kirby; W. Kononenko; A. V. Kotwal; J. Kraus; T. M Liss; N. Lockyer; R. Madrak; T. Miao; A. Mukherjee; C. Neu; M. Newcomer; J. M Niczyporuk; L. Nodulman; W. Orejudous; T. J Phillips; K. T Pitts; W. Reigler; R. Richards; C. Rivetta; W. J Robertson; R. Roser; L. Sadler; R. Sandberg; S. Sansone; R. Schmitt; K. Schultz; D. Shuman; R. Silva; P. Singh; R. Snihur; P. Tamburello; J. Taylor; R. Thurman-Keup; D. Tousignant; F. Ukegawa; R Van Berg; G. Veramendi; T. Vickey; J. Wacker; R. L Wagner; R. Weidenbach; W. C Wester; H. H. Williams; P. Wilson; P. Wittich; A. Yagil; I. Yu; S. Yu; J. C Yun

2004-01-01

378

Central Banking Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Central Banks of the World is a pointers page to central banks and central bank information for over 45 countries, as well as multilateral financial institutions, research and training establishments, and conference information. To show how little is generally known about the history of central banking in the United States, this site includes an email message sent to the webmaster of the First Bank of the United States, promoting a certain software company's web interactivity applications. Of course, since the First Bank of the United States was closed in 1811, its web site is primarily historical. The Central Banks site lists over 30 Internet directories and pointers pages that list the First Bank of the United States as a functioning financial institution. To help remedy this situation, the site includes a pointer to a brief history of banking in the US.

1996-01-01

379

Remote sensing of aerosol optical depth over central Europe from MSG-SEVIRI data and accuracy assessment with ground-based AERONET measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the remote sensing of aerosol optical depth (tau a ) from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) is demonstrated. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a time series of SEVIRI's 0.6 mum channel images. Top-of-atmosphere reflectance is precorrected for the effect of atmospheric gases and a background

C. Popp; A. Hauser; N. Foppa; S. Wunderle

2007-01-01

380

A program for reducing teacher's resistance to changes in curriculum in centralized education systems. An experience on changes of mathematics text books in Iran based on distinction results.  

E-print Network

systems. An experience on changes of mathematics text books in Iran based on distinction results. Zohreh. This research first explains how math books of middle grade were changed as a result of investigations on TIMSS result in year 1995. These investigation show Iranian Books are weakness in problem solving methods

Spagnolo, Filippo

381

Alternative School Education: Using Web-Based Curriculum Programs to Assist At-Risk Students with High School Credit Recovery in Select East Central Indiana Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"We know that education can be an arduous process. Countries use different approaches based on societal acceptances, but effective education always requires enormous efforts. Whether success is achieved, depends on the development of a rigorous and progressive curriculum, while at the same time providing all students the opportunity to…

Robbins, William Shane

2011-01-01

382

Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

2012-01-01

383

Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus in a hospital-based study of 171 cases: the possible therapeutic role of intrathecal therapy.  

PubMed

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement represents a common complication in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Diagnosis and therapy of severe neuropsychiatric disease remain a challenge to the clinician. The clinical data of 171 inpatients with CNS-SLE in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1980 to June 1998 were retrospectively reviewed for understanding and better management of this challenging complication. The incidence of CNS involvement in SLE was 14.2%. The mean SLE duration at onset of CNS-SLE was 2.21 +/- 1.87 years, with 132 (77.2%) occurring within 2 years. A cerebral spinal fluid abnormality was seen in 91.4% (138 of 151) of CNS-SLE, with protein elevation in 113 (74.8%), pressure elevation in 69 (45.7%), and white cell elevation in 51 (33.8%, 42 cases were <100 x 10/L), glucose reduction 6 (4.0%). The positive rates of anti-P in diffuse CNS-SLE and SLE with epilepsy were significantly higher than in non-CNS-SLE (p < 0.05). Although not reaching a significant level, they were also tending to be higher than in focal CNS-SLE. On the contrary, the positive rate of ACL in focal CNS-SLE was significantly higher than in the diffuse type or non-CNS-SLE (p < 0.01). The total mortality rate in 171 patients with CNS-SLE was 18.7% (32 cases); however, the mortality rate since 1993 (4.0%, 3 of 75) was much lower than before (30.2%, 29 of 96, p < 0.01). Of 24 CNS-SLE patients who received intrathecal injections with dexamethasone plus methotrexate, 22 (91.7%) improved considerably. To improve the outcome of CNS-SLE, early diagnosis and aggressive therapy are essential. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis is proposed as the most fundamental test. Intrathecal injection might be a useful alternative for those patients with CNS-SLE refractory to conventional therapy. PMID:19078422

Xuan, Z; Yi, D; Fu-Lin, T; Fen-Chun, Z

1999-12-01

384

Flat versus normal subduction zones: a comparison based on 3-D regional traveltime tomography and petrological modelling of central Chile and western Argentina (29°-35°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study compares the seismic properties between the flat and normal subduction regions in central Chile, to better understand the links between the slab geometry, surface deformation and the deeper structures. In comparison with previous studies, we show the most complete 3-D regional seismic tomography images for this region, in which we use (1) a larger seismic data set compiled from several short-term seismic catalogues, (2) a denser seismic array allowing a better resolution of the subduction zone from the trench to the backarc and into the upper ˜30 km of the slab and (3) a starting 1-D background velocity model specifically calculated for this region and refined over the years. We assess and discuss our tomography results using regional seismic attenuation models and estimating rock types on the basis of pressure and temperature conditions computed from thermomechanical models. Our results show significant seismic differences between the flat and normal subduction zones. As expected, the faster seismic velocities and increased seismicity within the flat slab and overriding lithosphere are generally consistent with a cooler thermal state. Our results are also consistent with dehydration of the mantle above the subducted Juan Fernandez Ridge at the eastern tip of the flat slab segment, indicating that the latter retains some fluids during subduction. However, fluids in the upper portion of the flat slab segment are not seismically detected, since we report instead fast slab seismic velocities which contradict the argument of its buoyancy being the cause of horizontal subduction. The forearc region, above the flat slab, exhibits high Vs and very low Vp/Vs ratios, uncorrelated with typical rock compositions, increased density or reduced temperature; this feature is possibly linked with the aftershock effects of the Mw7.1 1997 Punitaqui earthquake, the flat slab geometry and/or seismic anisotropy. At the surface, the seismic variations correlate with the geological terranes. The Andean crust is strongly reduced in seismic velocities along the La Ramada-Aconcagua deformation belt, suggesting structural damage. Slow seismic velocities along the Andean Moho match non-eclogitized hydrated rocks, consistent with a previous delamination event or a felsic composition, which in turn supports the extent of the Chilenia terrane at these depths. We confirm previous studies that suggest that the Cuyania terrane in the backarc region is mafic and contains an eclogitized lower crust below 50-km depth. We also hypothesize major Andean basement detachment faults (or shear zones) to extend towards the plate interface and canalize slab-derived fluids into the continental crust.

Marot, M.; Monfret, T.; Gerbault, M.; Nolet, G.; Ranalli, G.; Pardo, M.

2014-12-01

385

Remote sensing of aerosol optical depth over central Europe from MSG-SEVIRI data and accuracy assessment with ground-based AERONET measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the remote sensing of aerosol optical depth (?a) from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) is demonstrated. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a time series of SEVIRI's 0.6 ?m channel images. Top-of-atmosphere reflectance is precorrected for the effect of atmospheric gases and a background aerosol amount.

C. Popp; A. Hauser; N. Foppa; S. Wunderle

2007-01-01

386

Feeding strategies for small-scale dairy systems based on perennial ( Lolium perenne ) or annual ( Lolium multiflorum ) ryegrass in the central highlands of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale dairying is an option for campesinos in Mexico. The costs of feeding are high and strategies based on quality forages are a priority. The performance, agronomic\\u000a variables and feeding costs were evaluated for dairy cows continuously grazing perennial ryegrass–white clover for 9 h\\/day\\u000a (PRG) or fed cut herbage from annual ryegrass for 8 weeks followed by 9 h\\/day for 6 weeks

D. Heredia-Nava; A. Espinoza-Ortega; C. E. González-Esquivel; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

2007-01-01

387

Waveform Correlation Based Detection of Aftershocks of the 6 August 2007 4.1 Mw Crandall Canyon Mine Collapse in Central Utah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 6 August 2007 at 08:48:40 (UTC) a 3.9 ML seismic event occurred about 22 km ESE of the town of Mount Pleasant in the coal mining district of central Utah [Pechmann et al., 2008]. An epicenter of 39.4675°N, 111.2249°W and source depth of 0.5 km were determined by University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS). It quickly became clear that the seismic event was associated with a catastrophic collapse at the Crandall Canyon coal mine in which six miners were killed. Subsequent moment tensor inversion showed that a pure double-couple mechanism did not fit the observed waveforms and instead a mechanism dominated by a closing crack (which incorporates an isotropic component) and a smaller residual double-couple and/or CLVD source was preferred [Ford et al., 2008]. The full moment tensor had a scalar moment corresponding to 4.1 Mw. In the 60 days following the mine collapse UUSS located 42 seismic events in the immediate source region. These events had magnitudes of 0.8-2.5 Mc and were detected using standard network association procedures with data from permanent stations of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (URSN), as well as 5 temporary seismometers that UUSS installed in the source area within 2-3 days of the main event. Simple inspection of continuous data from the nearest station shows evidence for a much larger number of seismic events, especially in the hours immediately following the collapse. These events originally went undetected because they were too small to be recorded at a significant number of the permanent URSN stations. Here we use waveform correlation methods to formally detect and locate these tiny aftershocks. We performed multi-channel cross-correlation [vanDecar and Crosson, 1990] on the 42 catalog events using data recorded at the nearest permanent broadband URSN station, MTPU, which was located about 19 km to the south of the mine. A 15-s long window starting 5 s before the expected P arrival was used on data that had been bandpass filtered at 0.5-3.0 Hz. The cross-correlations were done on all three components simultaneously, in a vector sense [Yang et al., 2009]. Dendogram analysis of the resulting matrix of correlation coefficients showed three dominant clusters of events, with 10, 14, and 6 members respectively. Templates for each cluster were determined by simply taking the waveform with the highest mean intracluster correlation coefficient, and these templates were cross-correlated against continuous MTPU data for several days before and after the main event. The occurrence of detection spikes increases dramatically for all three templates in the hour after the main event, and does not return to the background level for many days. This implies that there may be tens to hundreds of tiny aftershocks that were missed with standard network detection algorithms. We are currently determining threshold values of significance for correlation spikes at MTPU by comparison with data recorded on the temporary seismometers deployed in the mine area. In other words, false alarms at MTPU can be identified by the lack of significant energy at the mine seismometers at the appropriate corresponding time.

Koper, K. D.; Kubacki, T. M.; McCarter, M. K.; Pankow, K. L.

2012-12-01

388

MoneyCentral  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MoneyCentral is a new personal finance site by Microsoft now in public beta test. An expanded and more user-friendly form of MSN's Money Insider (discussed in the October 23, 1997 Scout Report for Business & Economics), MoneyCentral encompasses a wide variety of guides and tools on everything from Family Financing to Real Estate, Taxes and Investing. Visitors may view the full range of MoneyCentral topics from a clearly-arranged and clickable site map among other helpful links.

1999-01-01

389

Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program  

E-print Network

Central Asia Regional IPM Program The Collaborative Program USAID is sponsoring a Collaborative Research Support Program for Integrated Pest Management in Central Asia (IPM-CRSP). The project is designed, designed to facilitate capacity building in IPM in Central Asia. IPM Constraints Addressed Based

390

Lactase Persistence in Central Asia: Phenotype, Genotype, and Evolution  

E-print Network

Lactase Persistence in Central Asia: Phenotype, Genotype, and Evolution EVELYNE HEYER,1 LIONEL the evolution of the lactase persistence trait in Central Asia, a geographical area that is thought to have been genotype-phenotype study of lactase persistence in Central Asia based on 183 individuals, as well

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

391

Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is underlain by an extensive complex of rocks, ranging from Late Cambrian through Late Triassic in age, that are typically about 10 to perhaps 1,000 times less permeable than those composing the aquifer system. The Cretaceous rocks of the aquifer system are separated from the pre-Cretaceous rocks by an unconformity that spans about 60 million years of erosion during the Jurassic Period. The upper surface of the pre-Cretaceous rock complex forms the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. The configuration of the base reflects the original topography of the eroded pre-Cretaceous land surface plus the effects of subsequent deformation. The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

1992-01-01

392

A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2 (NOAA-11, -14) and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and Metop-A). A high accuracy is needed for climate related studies, which requires a careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. Especially data from NOAA-16 and prior satellites were prone to unwanted noise, e.g., due to transmission errors or fluctuations in the instrument's thermal state. This has resulted in partly corrupted thermal calibration data and may cause errors of up to several Kelvin in the final brightness temperatures. Therefore, a multistage correction scheme has been applied to the data, in order to minimize these artefacts in the satellite observations. For the LSWT retrieval we have tested three different methods. First, we applied the operational NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) and NOAA Pathfinder global sea surface temperature (SST) algorithms to our data set. In addition, we developed an optimized simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) Version 10 together with operational analysis and reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). All methods were validated extensively using in situ measurements from lakes with various sizes between 14 km2 (Lake Sempach) and 580 km2 (Lake Geneva). The simulation-based algorithm reduces the RMSE and Bias for the lakes in the study region of Switzerland compared to the global SST algorithms and even small lakes yield good results. Following these successful outcome, the model-based LSWT retrieval shall be expanded to all European lakes covered and recorded by the AVHRR data receiving station at the RSGB.

Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

2013-04-01

393

Fast network centrality analysis using GPUs  

PubMed Central

Background With the exploding volume of data generated by continuously evolving high-throughput technologies, biological network analysis problems are growing larger in scale and craving for more computational power. General Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) provides a cost-effective technology for the study of large-scale biological networks. Designing algorithms that maximize data parallelism is the key in leveraging the power of GPUs. Results We proposed an efficient data parallel formulation of the All-Pairs Shortest Path problem, which is the key component for shortest path-based centrality computation. A betweenness centrality algorithm built upon this formulation was developed and benchmarked against the most recent GPU-based algorithm. Speedup between 11 to 19% was observed in various simulated scale-free networks. We further designed three algorithms based on this core component to compute closeness centrality, eccentricity centrality and stress centrality. To make all these algorithms available to the research community, we developed a software package gpu-fan (GPU-based Fast Analysis of Networks) for CUDA enabled GPUs. Speedup of 10-50× compared with CPU implementations was observed for simulated scale-free networks and real world biological networks. Conclusions gpu-fan provides a significant performance improvement for centrality computation in large-scale networks. Source code is available under the GNU Public License (GPL) at http://bioinfo.vanderbilt.edu/gpu-fan/. PMID:21569426

2011-01-01

394

De-centralized and centralized control for realistic EMS Maglev systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative study of de-centralized and centralized controllers when used with real EMS Maglev Systems is introduced. This comparison is divided into two parts. Part I is concerned with numerical simulation and experimental testing on a two ton six-magnet EMS Maglev vehicle. Levitation and lateral control with these controllers individually and when including flux feedback control in combination with these controllers to enhance stability are introduced. The centralized controller is better than the de-centralized one when the system is exposed to a lateral disturbing force such as wind gusts. The flux feedback control when combined with de-centralized or centralized controllers does improve the stability and is more resistant and robust with respect to the air gap variations. Part II is concerned with the study of Maglev vehicle-girder dynamic interaction system and the comparison between these two controllers on this typical system based on performance and ride quality achieved. Numerical simulations of the ODU EMS Maglev vehicle interacting with girder are conducted with these two different controllers. The de-centralized and centralized control for EMS Maglev systems that interact with a flexible girder provides similar ride quality. Centralized control with flux feedback could be the best controller for the ODU Maglev system when operating on girder. The centralized control will guarantee the suppression of the undesired lateral displacements; hence it will provide smoother ride quality. Flux feedback will suppress air gap variations due to the track discontinuities.

Moawad, Mohamed M. Aly M.

395

Central serous choroidopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... studies found that people with aggressive, "type A" personalities who are under a lot of stress may be more likely to develop central serous retinopathy. The condition can also occur as a complication of steroid drug use.

396

Exploring Central Tendency  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed for 6th grade students. Student will work in small groups to apply central tendency to a real world scenario to finally answer the age old question of "when will I ever use this."

Friske, Monica

2012-08-14

397

Community-Based Technology Transfer in Rural Aquaculture: The Case of Mudcrab Scylla serrata Nursery in Ponds in Northern Samar, Central Philippines.  

PubMed

Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from <1.0 to 4.0 cm for 42 days, or by-phases. However, technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies. PMID:24817087

Baticados, Didi B; Agbayani, Renato F; Quinitio, Emilia T

2014-12-01

398

Central core disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical\\u000a features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies.\\u000a CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal\\u000a weakness pronounced in the hip girdle;

Heinz Jungbluth

2007-01-01

399

CDF Central Outer Tracker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Outer Tracker is a large cylindrical drift chamber constructed to replace Collider Detector at Fermilab's original central drift chamber for the higher luminosity expected for Run 2 at the Fermilab Tevatron. The chamber's drift properties are described in the context of meeting the operating requirements for Run 2. The design and construction of the chamber, the front-end readout electronics, and the high-voltage system are described in detail. Wire aging considerations are also discussed.

Affolder, T.; Allspach, D.; Ambrose, D.; Bialek, J.; Bokhari, W.; Brozovic, M.; Binkley, M.; Burkett, K.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Cogswell, F.; Dressnandt, N.; Feng, Z.; Franklin, M.; Galtieri, L.; Gerdes, D. W.; Greenwood, J.; Guarino, V.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Haggerty, R.; Hall, C.; Heinrich, J.; Holloway, A.; Jacobi, T.; Kephart, K.; Khazins, D.; Kim, Y. K.; Kirby, M.; Kononenko, W.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Liss, T. M.; Lockyer, N.; Madrak, R.; Miao, T.; Mukherjee, A.; Neu, C.; Newcomer, M.; Niczyporuk, J. M.; Nodulman, L.; Orejudous, W.; Phillips, T. J.; Pitts, K. T.; Reigler, W.; Richards, R.; Rivetta, C.; Robertson, W. J.; Roser, R.; Sadler, L.; Sandberg, R.; Sansone, S.; Schmitt, R.; Schultz, K.; Shuman, D.; Silva, R.; Singh, P.; Snihur, R.; Tamburello, P.; Taylor, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Tousignant, D.; Ukegawa, F.; Van Berg, R.; Veramendi, G.; Vickey, T.; Wacker, J.; Wagner, R. L.; Weidenbach, R.; Wester, W. C.; Williams, H. H.; Wilson, P.; Wittich, P.; Yagil, A.; Yu, I.; Yu, S.; Yun, J. C.

2004-07-01

400

Pre-Radiation Chemotherapy With Response-Based Radiation Therapy in Children With Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group  

PubMed Central

Background This Phase II study was designed to determine response to chemotherapy and survival after response-based radiation (RT) in children with CNS germ cell tumors. Procedure Children with germinomas and normal markers received cisplatin 100 mg/m2 + etoposide, alternating with vincristine + cyclophosphamide (CPM) 2 g/m2/d, for four cycles. Children with nongerminomatous tumors or with abnormal markers received doubled doses of cisplatin and CPM. For germinoma patients in complete response (CR), RT was decreased from 50.4 to 30.6 Gy. High-risk patients received neuraxis RT: 50.4 Gy local + 30.6 Gy neuraxis in CR; 54 Gy local + 36 Gy if less than CR. Results Of 12 germinoma patients, 4 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) 6.9-21 mIU/ml. Of 14 nongerminomatous patients, HCG in serum or CSF was > 50 mIU/ml in 9, ?-fetoprotein (AFP) abnormal in 9. Four germinoma patients attained CR, six PR, one SD, one not evaluable after resection. Two nongerminomatous patients had CR, three PR, three SD, one PD, four not evaluable after resection; one inadequately treated patient had progressive disease (PD). Both PD patients died; one SD patient died during a seizure. Eleven germinoma patients are PF at median 66 months; one patient in CR refused RT, had PD at 10 months, received RT, and was PF at 56 months. Eleven of 14 nongerminomatous patients were PF at median 58 months. Conclusion Response (germinoma, 91%; nongerminomatous, 55%) and survival are encouraging after this regimen plus response-based RT. PMID:16598761

Kretschmar, C.; Kleinberg, L.; Greenberg, M.; Burger, P.; Holmes, Emi; Wharam, M.

2014-01-01

401

Base of the upper layer of the phase-three Elkhorn-Loup groundwater-flow model, north-central Nebraska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elkhorn and Loup Rivers in Nebraska provide water for irrigation, recreation, hydropower produc­tion, aquatic life, and municipal water systems for the Omaha and Lincoln metropolitan areas. Groundwater is another important resource in the region and is extracted primarily for agricultural irrigation. Water managers of the area are interested in balancing and sustaining the long-term uses of these essential surface-water and groundwater resources. Thus, a cooperative study was established in 2006 to compile reliable data describing hydrogeologic properties and water-budget components and to improve the understanding of stream-aquifer interactions in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. A groundwater-flow model was constructed as part of the first two phases of that study as a tool for under­standing the effect of groundwater pumpage on stream base flow and the effects of management strategies on hydrologically connected groundwater and surface-water supplies. The third phase of the study was implemented to gain additional geologic knowledge and update the ELM with enhanced water-budget information and refined discretization of the model grid and stress periods. As part of that effort, the ELM is being reconstructed to include two vertical model layers, whereas phase-one and phase-two simulations represented the aquifer system using one vertical model layer. This report presents a map of and methods for developing the elevation of the base of the upper model layer for the phase-three ELM. Digital geospatial data of elevation contours and geologic log sites used to esti­mate elevation contours are available as part of this report.

Stanton, Jennifer S

2013-01-01

402

On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico (the Mexican volcanic belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent. However, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, that has been studied in detail. Studies have mainly focused on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred off coast of Michoacán. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects in the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data when obtaining attenuation parameters in future works, as well as some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with negligible site amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with significant site amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (<3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23 Hz. With these groups of stations, average levels of amplification were contrasted for the first time with those caused by the subduction zone earthquakes. With respect to the FAS shapes, most of them showed similarities at similar epicentral distances. Finally, some variations of site effects were found when compared to those obtained in previous studies on different seismicity regions. These variations were attributed to the location of the source. These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on central Mexico due