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Sample records for central incisors based

  1. Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Versus Agenesis of the Maxillary Central Incisor.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Arid, Juliana; De Rossi, Andiara; Paula-Silva, Francisco W G; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is rare and affected individuals may carry a potentially serious condition known as SMMCI syndrome. However, many of these cases do not receive proper attention because they are misdiagnosed as agenesis of the maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this manuscript is to report two cases of children with only one maxillary central incisor and draw diagnostic differences between the entities. A correct diagnosis is very important because if an SMMCI is confirmed, the patient should be referred for genetic counseling. PMID:27098718

  2. Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    Shilpa, G.; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V.

    2012-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI. PMID:23230364

  3. Relationship of the lingual frenum to the mandibular central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Garg, Sanchit; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Agarwal, Garima

    2015-01-01

    Clinical implication The purpose of this study is to record the vertical distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum and incisal edge of mandibular central incisors in dentulous subjects and then determine the mean vertical distance and to suggest guidelines for positioning of mandibular central incisors in complete dentures. Method In this study, 150 dentulous subjects (75 males and 75 females) were chosen based on predecided inclusion criteria. A mandibular cast was obtained from irreversible hydrocolloid impression in modified stock trays for each subject. All subjects were instructed to elevate the tongue while the impressions were made. The vertical distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors was measured on the casts and then the values were statistically analyzed. Result The distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum (AALF) mesioincisal edge of mandibular central incisor (CI) in male, female and total (male + female) subjects was measured. In males it ranged from 7.3 to 8.9 mm with mean (±SD) 8.29 ± 0.36 mm while in females it ranged from 7.1 to 9.0 mm with mean (±SD) 8.21 ± 0.38 mm. Conclusion It is believed that the application of this anatomic relation can provide a reliable point for arranging and checking the position of the mandibular central incisors for complete dentures in patients with class I ridge relationship. PMID:25853047

  4. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th-38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18-22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  5. Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roger K

    2006-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) is a complex disorder consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects of development resulting from unknown factor(s) operating in utero about the 35th–38th day(s) from conception. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. Aetiology is uncertain. Missense mutation in the SHH gene (I111F) at 7q36 may be associated with SMMCI. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor, in that the crown form is symmetric; it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Congenital nasal malformation (choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis or congenital pyriform aperture stenosis) is positively associated with SMMCI. The presence of an SMMCI tooth can predict associated anomalies and in particular the serious anomaly holoprosencephaly. Common congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI are: severe to mild intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, cleft lip and/or palate and less frequently, microcephaly, hypopituitarism, hypotelorism, convergent strabismus, oesophageal and duodenal atresia, cervical hemivertebrae, cervical dermoid, hypothyroidism, scoliosis, absent kidney, micropenis and ambiguous genitalia. Short stature is present in half the children. Diagnosis should be made by eight months of age, but can be made at birth and even prenatally at 18–22 weeks from the routine mid-trimester ultrasound scan. Management depends upon the individual anomalies present. Choanal stenosis requires emergency surgical treatment. Short stature may require growth hormone therapy. SMMCI tooth itself is mainly an aesthetic problem, which is ideally managed by combined orthodontic, prosthodontic and oral surgical treatment; alternatively, it can be left untreated. PMID:16722608

  6. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge.

    PubMed

    Walia, Pawanjit Singh; Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  7. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Mutidisciplinary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rohilla, Ajit Kumar; Choudhary, Shweta; Kaur, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may interfere with the development of permanent dentition. Among the many malformations, dilaceration is particularly important to the clinician. Management of dilacerated maxillary central incisor requires a multidisciplinary approach. The main purpose of this review is to present the etiological factors, the mechanism, clinical features, radiographic features and treatment of dilaceration of the maxillary central incisors. How to cite this article: Walia PS, Rohilla AK, Choudhary S, Kaur R. Review of Dilaceration of Maxillary Central Incisor: A Multidisciplinary Challenge. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):90-98. PMID:27274164

  8. Dental transposition of canine and lateral incisor and impacted central incisor treatment: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gebert, Tarcisio Jacinto; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dental transposition and impaction are disorders related to ectopic eruption or failure in tooth eruption, which can affect child physical, mental and social development and may be difficult to be clinically solved. Methods We describe a case of transposition between the upper left canine and lateral incisor associated with impaction of the central incisor on the same side, in a 12-year-old patient. Conservative treatment involving surgical-orthodontic correction of transposed teeth and traction of the central incisor was conducted. Conclusion The option of correcting transposition and orthodontic traction by means of the segmented arch technique with devices such as cantilever and TMA rectangular wire loops, although a complex alternative, was proved to be esthetically and functionally effective. PMID:24713567

  9. An efficient biomechanical approach for the management of an impacted maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Chandhoke, Taranpreet K; Agarwal, Sachin; Feldman, Jonathan; Shah, Raja A; Upadhyay, Madhur; Nanda, Ravindra

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of an impacted maxillary central incisor poses a unique challenge to the orthodontist because of its position within the esthetic zone, requiring careful management of the soft tissues and an effective biomechanical setup for alignment. This article describes a novel method of extending an extrusion wire from cross tubes attached on the base archwire for forced eruption of impacted central incisors. The effectiveness and versatility of this method are demonstrated with 2 patients. PMID:25085308

  10. Elastic Band Causing Exfoliation of the Upper Permanent Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before. PMID:25874135

  11. Elastic band causing exfoliation of the upper permanent central incisors.

    PubMed

    Alves, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira; Kitakawa, Dárcio; Becker, Joao Batista Macedo; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before. PMID:25874135

  12. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Uçar, Faruk Izzet; Gümüş, Hüsniye; Aydınbelge, Mustafa; Sisman, Yildiray

    2012-01-01

    A single median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly that may occur alone or be associated with growth deficiency or other systemic abnormalities. The best known association is with holoprosencephaly (HPE). HPE is a complex brain malformation that affects both the forebrain and the face. Early diagnosis of SMMCI is important, since it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. Therefore, systematic follow-up and close monitoring of the growth and development of SMMCI patients is crucial. The purpose of this paper was to report the cases of 2 children, each with a single median maxillary central incisor, and describe important symptoms of this syndrome that have not yet been reported. PMID:22583889

  13. [Two cases of solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome].

    PubMed

    Catania, P; Conti, C; Poggi, G M; Bardelli, T; Lasagni, D; De Martino, M

    2010-02-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome (SMMCI) syndrome is a unique developmental abnormality arising from an unknown event occurring between the 35th and 38th days in utero, and involving mieline structure of the head including the cranial bones, the maxilla and its container dentition (specifically the central incisor tooth germ), together with other midline structures of the body. The SMMCI tooth may be possibly occur as an isolated trait or in association with many other midline developmental anomalies. It is estimated to occur in 1:50000 live births. There is a wide variability in the phenotypic spectrum. SMMCI is considered one of the most minimal expressions of the holoprosencephaly spectrum. Mutation in the Sonic Hedgehog homolog (SHH) gene may be associated with SSMMCI, but recent studies suggests the existence of several other candidate genes. We described two patients with SMMCI. They presented a solitary median maxillary incisor, short stature, hipotelorism and corpus callosus anomalies found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They also present severe hiponatremia. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cases of SMMCI with hiponatremia. We suggest that the sodium disorder may be secondary to syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). PMID:20212404

  14. Management of non-syndromic double tooth affecting permanent maxillary central incisors: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smail-Faugeron, Violaine; Terradot, Jeanne; Muller Bolla, Michèle; Courson, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    To assess management of non-syndromic double tooth affecting permanent maxillary central incisors, we performed a systematic review and also present 2 case reports. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed and the reference lists of included reports. Eligible studies were any type of clinical studies describing the management of non-syndromic double tooth affecting the crown of a permanent maxillary central incisor. We included 68 studies corresponding to 72 relevant case reports. Therapeutic options in descending order of priority were restorative dentistry (35%), hemisection (33%), abstention (17%) or extraction (15%). Orthodontic management resulted in 57% of cases. We report an 11-year-old boy with bilateral fusion of the two maxillary central incisors and a 9-year-old boy with a double left central incisor and a supernumerary lateral right incisor. A multidisciplinary approach is key to management of permanent maxillary central incisors affected by coronary anomalies. PMID:27307427

  15. Surgical Management of Mandibular Central Incisors with Dumbbell Shaped Periapical Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Patil, Jayaprakash D.; Jayaprakash, Thumu; Chaitanya, C. H. Krishna; Kalluru, Rama S.

    2014-01-01

    Dental traumatic injuries may affect the teeth and alveolar bone directly or indirectly. Pulpal necrosis and chronic and apical periodontitis with cystic changes are the most common sequelae of the dental traumatic injuries, if the teeth are not treated immediately. This case report focuses on the conventional and surgical management of mandibular central incisors. A twenty-four-year-old male patient presented with pain in the mandibular central incisors. Radiographic examination revealed mandibular central incisors with dumbbell shaped periapical lesion. After root canal treatment, parendodontic surgery was performed for mandibular central incisors. After one-year recall examination, the teeth were asymptomatic and periapical lesion had healed. PMID:25105031

  16. Alveolar bone thickness around maxillary central incisors of different inclination assessed with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Sun, Hong-jing; Lv, Pin; Cao, Yu-ming; Yu, Mo; Yue, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness in adults with maxillary central incisors of different inclination by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods Ninety maxillary central incisors from 45 patients were divided into three groups based on the maxillary central incisors to palatal plane angle; lingual-inclined, normal, and labial-inclined. Reformatted CBCT images were used to measure the labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness (ABT) at intervals corresponding to every 1/10 of the root length. The sum of labial ABT and lingual ABT at the level of the root apex was used to calculate the total ABT (TABT). The number of teeth exhibiting alveolar fenestration and dehiscence in each group was also tallied. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The labial ABT and TABT values at the root apex in the lingual-inclined group were significantly lower than in the other groups (p < 0.05). Lingual and labial ABT values were very low at the cervical level in the lingual-inclined and normal groups. There was a higher prevalence of alveolar fenestration in the lingual-inclined group. Conclusions Lingual-inclined maxillary central incisors have less bone support at the level of the root apex and a greater frequency of alveolar bone defects than normal maxillary central incisors. The bone plate at the marginal level is also very thin. PMID:26445719

  17. [Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome:a case of report].

    PubMed

    Kang, Li-ying; Liu, Xin-qiang

    2014-04-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly characterized by a symmetric central incisor of normal size, developed and erupted precisely in the midline of the maxilla in both primary and permanent dentitions. SMMCI may occur alone or be associated with other midline structures defects of the body or other systemic disorders. The best known association is holoprosencephaly (HPE). This paper reported a case of SMMCI that companied with other midline structures defects of the body. PMID:24935855

  18. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The endodontic management of immature permanent incisors in young children can be challenging. This case reported an avulsed immature maxillary central incisors that underwent complete endodontic obturation using mineral trioxide aggregate. A 10-year-old male who suffered a fall injury avulsed both his central incisors. The revascularization process was not possible due to patient compliance and geographic reasons. Mineral trioxide aggregate was utilized as a novel endodontic treatment. After one year post-injury, the teeth remained symptom-free, the clinical and radiographic follow-up showed evidence of healthy periodontium. How to cite this article: Al-Kahtani A. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):88-96. PMID:24155609

  19. Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Amirian Chaijan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores. Materials and Methods Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and composite core (group 2), composite post and core (group 3), and controls (group 4). Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4). Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Results Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4) > cast post and core (group 1) > fiber post and composite core (group 2) > composite post and core (group 3). All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58%) in group 1 were non-restorable. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors. PMID:26295027

  20. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  1. Innovative biomechanics for orthodontic correction of torsiversion of maxillary central incisor caused by twin mesiodens

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Nitika; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Duggal, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. Early and proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is critical in eluding the extent of treatment needed. This case report presents the successful orthodontic and esthetic management of an unusual case of Indian origin with twin mesiodens in the maxillary arch causing torsiversion and attrition of mandibular incisors due to occlusal trauma. PMID:24963264

  2. A maxillary central incisor with three root canals: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Eudes; Setzer, Frank; Zingg, Paula; Karabucak, Bekir

    2009-10-01

    Maxillary central incisors have been reported with 1, 2, and occasionally 3 root canals. The complete biomechanical instrumentation and obturation of the root canal system are mandatory to achieve endodontic success. Root canal systems with abnormal variations present a challenge in diagnosis and clinical management to the practitioner. This article presents a detailed case report of the endodontic treatment of a 3-canal maxillary incisor with an associated periodontal defect. PMID:19801248

  3. Rehabilitation of the dominance of maxillary central incisors with refractory porcelain veneers requiring minimal tooth preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Saab, Rafaella; Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    Central dominance is an important element of an esthetic smile. Color, form, and size have been suggested as tools for assessing the dominance of maxillary teeth. A spectrophotometer can be used to determine the value, hue, and chroma. Correct sizing of restorations according to the central incisor dominance principle improves not only esthetics but also aspects of occlusion, such as anterior guidance. Refractory porcelain systems can effectively restore the color, shape, emergence profile, and incisal translucency. This report illustrates the esthetic and occlusal rehabilitation of the dominance of maxillary central incisors using fabricated minimal thickness refractory porcelain veneers. PMID:26345102

  4. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: A case report of a rare dental anomaly.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Yezdani, Arif; Tajir, Faizal; Saravanan, B; Rajasekar, L

    2015-04-01

    The solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly and has an incidence of 1:50,000 live births. In SMMCI, there is only one central incisor present, and it develops exactly at the midline. SMMCI occurrence has been described with growth hormone deficiency or other structural anomalies in the midline of the body. In this case, the 8-year-old female patient reported a single median maxillary central incisor with missing maxillary and mandibular frena, with apparently no other abnormalities. Early diagnosis and recognition of SMMCI are important for all practicing Orthodontists, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. PMID:26015739

  5. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: A case report of a rare dental anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Yezdani, Arif; Tajir, Faizal; Saravanan, B.; Rajasekar, L.

    2015-01-01

    The solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly and has an incidence of 1:50,000 live births. In SMMCI, there is only one central incisor present, and it develops exactly at the midline. SMMCI occurrence has been described with growth hormone deficiency or other structural anomalies in the midline of the body. In this case, the 8-year-old female patient reported a single median maxillary central incisor with missing maxillary and mandibular frena, with apparently no other abnormalities. Early diagnosis and recognition of SMMCI are important for all practicing Orthodontists, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. PMID:26015739

  6. Solitary median maxillary central incisor, short stature, choanal atresia/midnasal stenosis (SMMCI) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, R K; Bankier, A; Aldred, M J; Kan, K; Lucas, J O; Perks, A G

    1997-12-01

    This article describes a series of 21 consecutive cases, each involving a solitary median maxillary central incisor; the patients were seen in the Department of Dentistry or the Victorian Clinical Genetics Unit, Murdoch Institute, at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, from 1966 to 1997. The spectrum of anomalies and associated features present in these cases--solitary median maxillary central incisor, choanal atresia, and holoprosencephaly--is described, and the literature related to the features, including genetic studies in these conditions, is reviewed. We relate our findings in these cases to current knowledge of developmental embryology. It is hoped that the findings, together with our interpretation of them, will help to clarify understanding of solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome. This syndrome was previously considered a simple midline defect of the dental lamina, but it is now recognized as a possible predictor of holoprosencephalies of varying degrees in the proband, in members of the proband's family, and in the family's descendants. PMID:9431535

  7. Re – treatment of a Two-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor – A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garlapati, Roopadevi; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Chintamani, Rammohan; Thumu, Jayaprakash

    2014-01-01

    This case report is on endodontic retreatment of a maxillary central incisor with two roots. A twenty-year-old male patient presented with pain in maxillary left central incisor. Radiographic examination showed an incompletely filled canal and an additional palatal root with periapical radiolucent lesion. Conventional cleaning and shaping of both the roots, i.e., buccal and additional palatal root canals was performed and obturation was done. After one year recall examination, the tooth was asymptomatic and periapical lesion had healed. PMID:24701549

  8. Endocrine and anatomical findings in a case of Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Szakszon, Katalin; Felszeghy, Enikő; Csízy, István; Józsa, Tamás; Káposzta, Rita; Balogh, Erzsébet; Oláh, Eva; Balogh, István; Berényi, Ervin; Knegt, Alida C; Ilyés, István

    2012-02-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor Syndrome (SMMCI) is a rare malformation syndrome consisting of multiple, mainly midline defects. Some authors suggest that it is a mild manifestation of the wide spectrum of holoprosencephaly, others classify it rather as a distinct entity. Authors report a case of SMMCI presenting with growth retardation, mild intellectual disability and absence of puberty. Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic investigations could identify no abnormalities. The presence of a single maxillary incisor called for further investigations to clarify hidden anomalies, these were empty sella, panhypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, and hypoplasia of the inner genitals. Based on the above findings, growth hormone, estrogen, and L-thyroxine substitution was introduced, which resulted in satisfactory longitudinal growth and onset of sexual maturation. We suggest genetic counselling and if needed, invasive investigations in female patients with short stature and absent/delayed puberty, with or without sex chromosomal anomalies, as the adequate therapy and even the quality of life of patient depends largely on the knowledge of their anatomical and endocrine status. PMID:22138217

  9. Maxillary canine substitution for the severely resorbed root of central incisor: 12-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yoshiyuki; Park, Jae Hyun; Tai, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Ectopically erupting maxillary canines can cause problems that necessitate surgical, orthodontic, and restorative treatment. When a canine eruption disturbance causes resorption and requires subsequent extraction of the affected teeth, the resulting spaces are candidates for orthodontic repositioning and recontouring of the remaining teeth. To achieve successful results, the clinician must have a proper knowledge of tooth anatomy, root angulation, gingival margin position, restorative techniques, and occlusion. A collaborative effort from the pediatric dentist, orthodontist, and surgeon is required to produce an esthetic and functional result. This case report describes the substitution of maxillary canines for both the left central and right lateral incisors and substitution of the maxillary right lateral incisor for the maxillary right central incisor. PMID:24640069

  10. An unusual case of compound odontome associated with maxillary impacted central incisor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nadia; Shrivastava, Neha; Shrivastava, Tarun Vijay; Samadi, Fahad Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    Odontomas are the most common type of odontogenic tumor occurring within the jaws and are frequently associated with the retained deciduous teeth interfering with the eruption of permanent teeth. Compound odontomas are usually diagnosed in the anterior portion of the jaws and resemble tooth-like structure. These are usually asymptomatic. Complex odontomas are normally diagnosed in the posterior part of the jaws and consist of a disorganized mass with no morphologic resemblance to a tooth. The present case report of a 16-year-old female is a typical case of compound odontoma in the maxillary anterior region associated with retained deciduous incisor, which also resulted in failure of eruption of the permanent maxillary right central incisor. An intraoral periapical radiograph revealed the presence of a radio-opaque tooth-like structure in the apical region of retained deciduous incisor and an impacted permanent right central incisor whose path of eruption was impeded by the structure. Treatment included the surgical removal of the lesion followed by orthodontic extrusion of the impacted incisor. Follow-up was done for one 1 year and no recurrence was seen. PMID:25937733

  11. Correlation between maxillary central incisor crown morphology and mandibular dental arch form in normal occlusion subjects.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Lima, Carolina Souto; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Daruge Júnior, Eduardo; Torres, Fernando Cesar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the morphology of the mandibular dental arch and the maxillary central incisor crown. Cast models from 51 Caucasian individuals, older than 15 years, with optimal occlusion, no previous orthodontic treatment, featuring 4 of the 6 keys to normal occlusion by Andrews (the first being mandatory) were observed. The models were digitalized using a 3D scanner, and images of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular dental arch were obtained. These were printed and placed in an album below pre-set models of arches and dental crowns, and distributed to 12 dental surgeons, who were asked to choose which shape was most in accordance with the models and crown presented. The Kappa test was performed to evaluate the concordance among evaluators while the chi-square test was used to verify the association between the dental arch and central incisor morphology, at a 5% significance level. The Kappa test showed moderate agreement among evaluators for both variables of this study, and the chi-square test showed no significant association between tooth shape and mandibular dental arch morphology. It may be concluded that the use of arch morphology as a diagnostic method to determine the shape of the maxillary central incisor is not appropriate. Further research is necessary to assess tooth shape using a stricter scientific basis. PMID:22666773

  12. Solitary median maxillary central incisor in association with Goldenhar's syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Garcia de Paula e Silva, Francisco Wanderley; de Carvalho, Fabricio Kitazono; Diaz-Serrano, Kranya Victória; de Freitas, Aldevina Campos; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2007-01-01

    Goldenhar's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by several anomalies that include dermal epibulbar cysts, auricular appendices and malformations and vertebral anomalies. In this article, the authors report a case of Goldenhar's syndrome in a 10-year-old child who presented with the classical signs of this condition and a solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI). PMID:17658185

  13. DiGeorge syndrome associated with solitary median maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huai-Chih; Shyur, Shyh-Dar; Huang, Li-Hsin; Chang, Yi-Chi; Wen, Da-Chin; Liang, Pei-Hsuan; Lin, Mao-Tsair

    2005-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by dysgenesis of the thymus and parathyroid glands, conotruncal cardiac anomalies, and other dysmorphic features. Although most patients have a common microscopic deletion in chromosome 22q11.2, marked clinical variability exists. A solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly which may be an isolated occurrence or associated with congenital nasal airway abnormalities or holoprosencephaly. We report a patient with DiGeorge syndrome who was diagnosed at nearly 1 month of age and was later found to have a solitary median central incisor. Initially, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of respiratory distress attributed to partial airway obstruction, one of the phenotypic features of SMMCI. A fluorescence in situ hybridization study showed a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. PMID:16252847

  14. Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome associated with unique cleft palate: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Holla, Goda; Ramakrishna, Yeluri; Holla, Anup; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2014-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly that affects 1:50,000 live births. SMMCI syndrome is characterized by the presence of a single central incisor located on the maxillary midline in both primary and permanent dentitions. It may occur as an isolated finding or in association with developmental defects and systemic involvement. Congenital anomalies associated with SMMCI syndrome can include short stature, mild forms of deviation in craniofacial morphology, mild to severe intellectual disability, congenital heart disease, and cleft lip and/or palate. This report describes a clinical case of a 7-year-old girl with SMMCI syndrome--in addition to bilateral residual cleft and associated nasal regurgitation--that was treated with a removable maxillary obturator. PMID:24598504

  15. A three-dimensional finite-element stress analysis of an endodontically prepared maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Williamson, L J; Fotos, P G; Goel, V K; Spivey, J D; Rivera, E M; Khera, S C

    1995-07-01

    This study is an application of a three-dimensional Finite-Element Method to investigate the changes in stress characteristics of a prepared maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this study was to analyze stress distributions in this tooth after simulated canal preparation and static loading. A maxillary central incisor was embedded in acrylic, sectioned, photographed, and digitized. A three-dimensional finite-element model was generated by a computer and appropriately modified to simulate canal preparation. Data identified the highest stress magnitudes to be located between the middle and coronal thirds of the root; an area clinically observed to be prone to fracture during treatment. In addition, the magnitude of generated stresses was directly correlated with the simulated prepared canal diameter. The development of a validated three-dimensional finite-element method could identify areas that may predispose a tooth to structural failure during condensation loads. PMID:7499976

  16. Surgical management of iatrogenic perforation in maxillary central incisor using mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Pandit, I K; Rallan, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Root perforations are undesired complications of endodontic treatment. The repair of root perforation can be accomplished using different materials and techniques. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used to seal perforations because of its biocompatibility and sealability. This article describes a case report where an iatrogenic root perforation was repaired successfully with MTA in maxillary right central incisor of a 13-year-old boy. PMID:23845686

  17. Orthodontic-restorative treatment as an option for biologic replacement of a maxillary central incisor: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; Closs, Luciane Quadrado; Freitas, Maria Perpétua Mota; Rizzatto, Laura Escobar

    2012-09-01

    The maxillary central incisor is the tooth most often affected by trauma, especially in the age range of 7 to 10 years, when high-impact sports are prevalent. The options for conservative treatment should be prioritized in these patients, aiming to achieve a biologic response that might provide continuity of growth of the alveolus, to provide functional and esthetic development of the affected region. This case report describes a patient with a history of trauma during the deciduous dentition with consequent intrusion, root dilaceration, and retention of the maxillary left central incisor. The treatment involved extraction of the traumatized tooth and mesial movement of the lateral incisor and posterior segments. PMID:22920706

  18. Simultaneous Replacement of Maxillary Central Incisors with CEREC Biogeneric Reference Technique: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Akgungor, Gokhan; Sen, Deniz; Bal, Eray; Özcan, Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Biogeneric Reference Technique (BRT) of the CEREC 3D v.3.8 software is an effective technique for single anterior ceramic crowns because it provides computer-controlled match of the tooth form to the contralateral tooth. BRT also enables the fabrication of two or more anterior all-ceramic crowns simultaneously. This clinical report demonstrates the clinical application of BRT for designing and milling two central incisors in one appointment using a single optical impression. After completing the virtual design of the first central incisor, it was copied and a mirror image was created. The second central incisor was designed using this replicated image and therefore a computer-controlled symmetry was obtained. The crowns were milled from monolithic feldspathic ceramic blocks and adhesively luted with dual-cured resin cement following dentin conditioning. At the two-year follow-up appointment, the restorations were intact, no adverse effects were noted, and the resultant appearance was highly satisfactory for the patient. A step-by-step protocol is described from design to cementation of these restorations. PMID:23875091

  19. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Namineni, Srinivas; Tupalli, Abhinaya Reddy; Challa, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Concordance is an identical expression of phenotype in two related individuals. Concordance expression of hypodontia is an uncommon condition where associated individuals are affected with exactly similar kind and number of missing teeth. There is very limited documentation of this condition either in twins or in siblings, and literature shows paucity of data with regard to this anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the literature, which has actually showed similar missing lower central incisors in siblings. This report presents a case of two girl siblings aged 11 and 13 years with congenital bilateral missing of permanent mandibular central incisors, which is an absolute concordant condition. Apart from discussing etiology, clinical implications and management, this article highlights the significance of concordant and discordant condition of hypodontia and expression of this condition in twins and siblings. How to cite this article: Kagitha PK, Namineni S, Tupalli AR, Challa SK. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):74-77. PMID:27274160

  20. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings.

    PubMed

    Kagitha, Pawwan Kumar; Namineni, Srinivas; Tupalli, Abhinaya Reddy; Challa, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Concordance is an identical expression of phenotype in two related individuals. Concordance expression of hypodontia is an uncommon condition where associated individuals are affected with exactly similar kind and number of missing teeth. There is very limited documentation of this condition either in twins or in siblings, and literature shows paucity of data with regard to this anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, there is only one such case reported in the literature, which has actually showed similar missing lower central incisors in siblings. This report presents a case of two girl siblings aged 11 and 13 years with congenital bilateral missing of permanent mandibular central incisors, which is an absolute concordant condition. Apart from discussing etiology, clinical implications and management, this article highlights the significance of concordant and discordant condition of hypodontia and expression of this condition in twins and siblings. How to cite this article: Kagitha PK, Namineni S, Tupalli AR, Challa SK. Agenesis of Permanent Mandibular Central Incisors: A Concordant Condition in Siblings. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):74-77. PMID:27274160

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic variation in six patients with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poelmans, Simon; Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Cristofoli, Francesca; Politis, Constantinus; Vermeesch, Joris; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Hens, Greet; Devriendt, Koenraad; Verdonck, Anna; Carels, Carine

    2015-10-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor occurs in 1 of 50,000 live births. It is the mildest manifestation of the holoprosencephaly spectrum and is genetically heterogeneous. Here we report six patients with solitary median maxillary central incisor, and a range of other phenotypic anomalies with different degrees of severity, varying from mild signs of holoprosencephaly to associated intellectual disability, and with different genetic background. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, pathogenic copy number variants were found in three of the six patients. Two patients had a deletion at the 18p11 chromosomal region that includes TGIF1 while the other patient had a deletion at 7q36, including the SHH gene. In one patient, a mutation in SIX3 was detected with exome sequencing, while in the two remaining patients all known holoprosencephaly genes were excluded using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and sequencing, and remain unsolved. One of the two latter patients had isolated solitary median maxillary central incisor without other visible dentofacial anomalies, while the other had clinical features not part of the known holoprosencephaly spectrum. PMID:26080100

  2. Rare Root Morphology of a Maxillary Central Incisor Associated With Gingival Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Monea, Monica; Moldovan, Cosmin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dilaceration is a developmental disturbance characterized by the angulation of the crown or root of a permanent tooth, which is often related to trauma of primary dentition. We report a case of a dilacerated root in a maxillary central incisor associated with gingival hyperplasia in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment, a combination of pathological conditions that had never been mentioned before in the scientific literature. A 10-year-old female patient presented to the Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology with tenderness to palpation and bleeding from the oral aspect of the central incisor, alerted by the proliferation of the gingiva. During clinical examination, the palpation performed with a dental probe revealed a carious lesion with dental pulp exposure on the distal aspect of right central incisor and the presence of a sessile mass of inflamed gingival tissue that proliferated inside the defect. On the preoperative radiograph a dilacerated root canal was noted, without periapical bone resorption. The main diagnosis was irreversible pulpitis and gingival hyperplasia and the treatment option was surgical removal of the inflamed tissue with histopathological examination and root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment with a good prognosis was recorded. The measurement of the root curvature proved to be extremely helpful in choosing the right endodontic technique and made the treatment easier than expected. An important observation was that, despite the rare clinical and radiographic aspect of this dilacerated tooth, the endodontic treatment proved to be relatively easy to perform and, therefore, the prognosis was considered favorable. PMID:27149498

  3. A case of solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome with bilateral pyriform aperture stenosis and choanal atresia.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Kate; Wynne, David M

    2010-08-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome is a rare disorder involving midline abnormalities. It may present with life threatening respiratory distress in the neonate secondary to nasal malformations. These include pyriform aperture stenosis and choanal atresia. We present the first reported case of simultaneous choanal atresia and pyriform aperture stenosis in a neonate with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome. The clinical presentation and the management of congenital pyriform aperture stenosis are discussed. PMID:20627328

  4. A case of solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome with bilateral pyriform aperture stenosis and choanal atresia.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Kate; Wynne, David M

    2010-08-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome is a rare disorder involving midline abnormalities. It may present with life threatening respiratory distress in the neonate secondary to nasal malformations. These include pyriform aperture stenosis and choanal atresia. We present the first reported case of simultaneous choanal atresia and pyriform aperture stenosis in a neonate with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome. The clinical presentation and the management of congenital pyriform aperture stenosis are discussed. PMID:20626079

  5. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed

  6. Management of a Central Incisor with Horizontal Root Fracture for Esthetic and Functional Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karin; Schneider, Eva; Dommisch, Henrik; Jepsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Severely traumatized incisors in young adults are a very common problem, and one that is difficult to treat because healing of these teeth is not always predictable and implant placement has to be delayed until adulthood. This case report of a horizontal root fracture in an avulsed central incisor illustrates the ability to maintain crucial tooth structure. A lateral socket augmentation procedure after extraction of a root fragment combined with an endodontic and regenerative periodontal treatment approach could preserve natural esthetics and function, which are directly related to quality of life. The preservation of alveolar bone volume following partial root removal will eventually facilitate later placement of a dental implant with an improved esthetic and functional prosthodontic result in a patient with a high-risk esthetic profile. PMID:26697554

  7. Morphometric analysis of pulp size in maxillary permanent central incisors correlated with age: An indirect digital study

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, S. V.; Mamatha, G. P.; Sunita, J. D.; Balappanavar, Aswini Y.; Sardana, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Teeth are hardest part of the body and are least affected by the taphonomic process. They are considered as one of the reliable methods of identification of a person in forensic sciences. Aim: The aim of the following study is to establish morphometeric measurements by AutoCad 2009 (Autodesk, Inc) of permanent maxillary central incisors in different age groups of Udaipur population. Setting and Design: Hospital-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Udaipur. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out on 308 subjects of both genders with the age range of 9-68 years. Standardized intra-oral radiographs were made by paralleling technique and processed. The radiographs were scanned and the obtained images were standardized to the actual size of radiographic film. This was followed by measuring them using software AutoCad 2009. Statistical Analysis Used: F-test, post-hoc test, Pearson's correlation test. Results: For left maxillary central incisor, the total pulp area was found to be of 38.41 ± 12.88 mm and 14.32 ± 7.04 mm respectively. For right maxillary central incisor, the total pulp size was 38.39 ± 14.95 mm and 12.35 ± 5 mm respectively. Males (32.50, 32.87 mm2) had more pulp area when compared with females (28.82, 30.05 mm2). Conclusion: There was a decrease in total pulp area with increasing age which may be attributed to secondary dentin formation. PMID:26816461

  8. The non-vital discolored central incisor dilemma.

    PubMed

    Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Stanley, Kyle; Magne, Michel; Magne, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of anterior teeth is frequently a demanding mission. Patients generally have high expectations for the anterior region, which makes the emotional side of treatment especially important. When this involves discolored endodontically treated teeth, consensus can hardly ever be found as to the chosen approach. Bleaching with direct composites is undoubtedly the most conservative choice for these cases. However, this may require more maintenance (touch-up bleaching and repairs) in the long term, which is an important issue for adult patients. On the other hand, bonded porcelain veneers represent a more 'high-end' option, as they recover the original biomechanics of the intact tooth, allow an optimal masking of the substrate, remain stable, and have a reasonable biological cost when compared to full-coverage crowns. This strategy is explained in this article and documented with a clinical case. We describe treatment planning based on the biomimetic concept, taking into consideration what is possible with current materials and techniques when combined with the patient's particular needs, including the introduction of an innovative step during dentin sealing--the microsuction. The laboratory work was totally accomplished by 'teledentistry', with no direct contact between the dental technologist and the patient. PMID:26794051

  9. Dental Items of Interest: The Case of Delphic Sibyl by Michelangelo: Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor or Mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Perciaccante, Antonio; Coralli, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    A case of an anomaly in the maxillary dental arch on "Delphic Sibyl," a fresco by Michelangelo is reported. An accurate analysis of this fresco shows a single incisor tooth is present precisely in the midline. We hypothesize that it may be a case of solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) and discuss the differential diagnosis with another similar anomaly--the mesiodens. PMID:26930847

  10. Rare Root Morphology of a Maxillary Central Incisor Associated With Gingival Hyperplasia: An Endodontic Case Report.

    PubMed

    Monea, Monica; Moldovan, Cosmin

    2016-05-01

    Dilaceration is a developmental disturbance characterized by the angulation of the crown or root of a permanent tooth, which is often related to trauma of primary dentition. We report a case of a dilacerated root in a maxillary central incisor associated with gingival hyperplasia in a patient under fixed orthodontic treatment, a combination of pathological conditions that had never been mentioned before in the scientific literature.A 10-year-old female patient presented to the Department of Odontology and Oral Pathology with tenderness to palpation and bleeding from the oral aspect of the central incisor, alerted by the proliferation of the gingiva. During clinical examination, the palpation performed with a dental probe revealed a carious lesion with dental pulp exposure on the distal aspect of right central incisor and the presence of a sessile mass of inflamed gingival tissue that proliferated inside the defect. On the preoperative radiograph a dilacerated root canal was noted, without periapical bone resorption.The main diagnosis was irreversible pulpitis and gingival hyperplasia and the treatment option was surgical removal of the inflamed tissue with histopathological examination and root canal treatment. Successful endodontic treatment with a good prognosis was recorded.The measurement of the root curvature proved to be extremely helpful in choosing the right endodontic technique and made the treatment easier than expected. An important observation was that, despite the rare clinical and radiographic aspect of this dilacerated tooth, the endodontic treatment proved to be relatively easy to perform and, therefore, the prognosis was considered favorable. PMID:27149498

  11. Solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome: clinical case with a novel mutation of sonic hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Garavelli, Livia; Zanacca, C; Caselli, G; Banchini, G; Dubourg, C; David, V; Odent, S; Gurrieri, F; Neri, G

    2004-05-15

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly. It is usually considered as a minor manifestation of holoprosencephaly (HPE). Some reported families had severe cases of HPE in some members and SMMCI in others. Mutations of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) have been documented in these families. SMMCI has also been found as an isolated finding or together with other anomalies such as microcephaly, short stature, endocrine pathology, and choanal atresia. We describe a patient with SMMCI and a novel SHH mutation: Val332Ala. PMID:15103725

  12. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah; Ghorbanzadeh, Atiyeh

    2015-04-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  13. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  14. Finite elements study of the Flexi Post and Flexi Flange post systems in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Lewgoy, Hugo Roberto; Youssef, Michel Nicolau; Matson, Maurício Rufaiel; Bocangel, Jorge Antônio Javier Saldivar; Netto, Camillo Anauate; Amore, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    The use of post and core systems has become an excellent alternative for restoring endodontically treated teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the von Mises, maximal compressive and tensile stresses distribution using the Finite Element Method (FEM) on human teeth restored with different post and core systems. The analysis was made on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. The post systems used in this investigation were the stainless steel or titanium Flexi Post/Flexi Flange. Composite resin was used as core material and resin cement was the cement material of choice to seat a full porcelain crown. The bi-dimensional mathematical model was created from pictures taken from an intact human maxillary central incisor and prefabricated posts. This image was transferred to a personal computer in the MSC/Nastran 4.5 software. A static and linear analysis treatment was performed when a 45 load of 100 N was applied on the lingual surface of the tooth. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the post design and its material can alter the stress pattern distribution. PMID:14569354

  15. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kalaskar, Ritesh R.; Kalaskar, Ashita R.

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens) is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. The present case reports describe the successful management of the impacted permanent maxillary central incisor positioned high in the vestibule. A combination of surgical and orthodontic techniques was employed to improve treatment outcome with greater hard and soft tissue preservation and to prevent psychological problems. In the surgical phase, supernumerary teeth and dentigerous cyst were removed. Subsequently traction was employed by bonding bracket on the labial surface using closed and open eruption techniques. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was started to align permanent maxillary central incisors in an occlusal plane. Thus, combination of surgical and orthodontic method can be the treatment of choice over surgical extraction, implant placement, and surgical repositioning. PMID:22114457

  16. Multidisciplinary management of impacted central incisors due to supernumerary teeth and an associated dentigerous cyst.

    PubMed

    Kalaskar, Ritesh R; Kalaskar, Ashita R

    2011-01-01

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomaly resulting from hyperactivity of dental lamina, dichotomy, environmental factor, or polygenetic process of atavism. Supernumerary teeth present classical oral complication such as impaction of adjacent teeth, crowding, diastema formation, rotation, displacement of teeth, and occlusal interference. A dentigerous cyst associated with anterior supernumerary teeth (mesiodens) is rare and accounts for 5% of all dentigerous cysts. The present case reports describe the successful management of the impacted permanent maxillary central incisor positioned high in the vestibule. A combination of surgical and orthodontic techniques was employed to improve treatment outcome with greater hard and soft tissue preservation and to prevent psychological problems. In the surgical phase, supernumerary teeth and dentigerous cyst were removed. Subsequently traction was employed by bonding bracket on the labial surface using closed and open eruption techniques. Successively, fixed orthodontic treatment was started to align permanent maxillary central incisors in an occlusal plane. Thus, combination of surgical and orthodontic method can be the treatment of choice over surgical extraction, implant placement, and surgical repositioning. PMID:22114457

  17. Corono-radicular biological restoration of maxillary central incisors by direct method.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Sonia; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Pandharkar, Kartik

    2014-11-01

    This case report refers to the esthetic and functional restorations of extensively damaged maxillary central incisors with dental caries in a 32-year-old woman, with the use of posts and crowns made from natural extracted teeth. Proper restoration of such teeth with the use of natural teeth fragments are known as "biological restoration." Biological restorations can be done by using the fragments of the patients own tooth and if that is not available, tooth fragment can be obtained from an extracted tooth. These biological posts and crowns present a low cost option and an alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged teeth. There are limitations with the use of natural extracted teeth (homogenous bonding) for restoration such as the difficulty of finding teeth with a similar color and shape as that of the destroyed element, or patient may refuse to accept a tooth fragment from another patient, which prevents execution of the restoration. PMID:25540666

  18. Replacement of mandibular central incisors with implant-supported crowns: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bäumer, Daniel; Zuhr, Otto; Hürzeler, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Anterior teeth are often affected by accidental dental trauma and may eventually be lost. When the neighboring teeth are unharmed, implant-supported crowns are often the preferred treatment choice. When not only the teeth but also the supporting hard and soft tissue has been lost, surgical reconstruction may be needed. However, in combined horizontal and vertical class III defects, the available augmentation techniques are often not predictable. In this case report, two neighboring mandibular central incisors were replaced by two implants after soft and hard tissue augmentation with the cortical bone plate method. The interdental soft tissue was reconstructed with remarkable success, making this an example of what can be achieved in cases such as this. PMID:27092347

  19. A case of impacted central incisor due to dentigerous cyst associated with impacted compound odontome.

    PubMed

    Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Bandlapalli, Anila; Patel, Nikunj; Choudhary, Rama Shankar Kashinath

    2014-01-01

    Odontomes are hamartomatous growths of odontogenic origin. Odontomes usually do not erupt into oral cavity and can cause several difficulties like swelling, displacement of teeth and adjacent structures, cystic changes and carcinomatous transformation. Odontomes are treated by surgical removal. Dentigerous cysts arise due to accumulation of fluid between reduced enamel epithelium and crown of unerupted tooth. Dentigerous cysts cause several difficulties such as swelling, non-eruption of involved teeth and displacement of adjacent teeth, thus requiring early detection and prompt treatment. Treatment for dentigerous cyst ranges from marsupialisation to enucleation. In children, marsupialisation is more commonly used when compared with enucleation treatment. This study discusses successful treatment of impacted central incisor due to obstruction from dentigerous cyst originating from impacted compound odontome. The paper also throws light into importance to radiography while diagnosing odontome. PMID:24654240

  20. [Differences between laypersons and orthodontists in recognizing the light reflection zone on the maxillary central incisors crowns].

    PubMed

    Shmuli, T; Wasserstein, A; Turgeman, R; Brezniak, N

    2014-07-01

    The light reflection zone (LRZ) is a new parameter that may serve as a tool for the diagnosis of smile esthetics. It is a bright white dot or area that appears on the surface of the maxillary central incisors and/or the gingiva of the front teeth, visible in intra-oral and smile extra-oral photographs. Recently it was found that the general population defines a nicer smile when the LRZ is located in the gingival area of the upper central incisors' surface rather than the incisal third. The aim of this study was to find out in two populations that are not aware of this new parameter, laypersons and orthodontists, whether there is a difference in the identification of the LRZ and the importance of the LRZ in determining the quality of the smile. Twelve pairs of facial photographs, including 10 of ordinary smiling persons and 2 of smiling models, were presented to 108 laypersons and 30 orthodontists. The only difference between each pair was the location of the LRZ that was moved, compared to the original photograph, gingivally or incisally respectively, using Photoshop (Adobe). Each participant was asked to mark whether he/she noticed a difference between the 2 pictures, and if so, to score the nicer smile. Data analysis was carried out using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test (SPSS v17). The results showed that both populations had difficulty in recognizing the differences between the pictures that were based solely on the LRZ parameter. However, when differences were recognized, most of the participants in both populations pointed on the smile where the LRZ was located gingivally as the nicer one. The orthodontic population recognized the difference between the two pictures, in which only the LRZ was changed, to a lesser extent compared to the laypersons populations. This result was with statistical significance (p = 0.007). PMID:25219098

  1. Biometric analysis of the dental casts of Maasai following traditional extraction of mandibular permanent central incisors and of Kikuyu children.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, J; Amwayi, P

    1993-12-01

    Dental plaster casts of 93 Maasai and 79 Kikuyu children age 12-15 years were analysed. Four biometric measurements were taken of the maxillary and mandibular casts: intercanine distance (C-C), inter-molar distance (M-M), canine arch circumference (C-C ACirc.), and molar arch circumference (M-M ACirc.). Incisor space (IS) was also measured in the mandibular casts. The mean values of all measurements except (M-M) in the mandibular casts were significantly reduced in the Maasai who had permanent central incisors extracted compared to the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. The mean incisor space in the Maasai with extractions was 6.3 mm compared to 11.7 mm in the non-extracted Maasai group. The extent of reduction of IS, C-C, C-C ACirc. and M-M ACirc. following extractions of the incisors may depend on the mesial drift of lateral incisors, jaw growth and soft tissue influence. The position of the tongue and occlusal relationship of the molars may prevent bucco-lingual movements maintaining a constant M-M. There was no significant difference in the mandibular cast dimensions of the non-extracted Maasai and the Kikuyu. Analysis of the maxillary cast dimensions of the Maasai with extraction, non-extracted Maasai and Kikuyu showed no significant differences suggesting that the extraction of mandibular incisors has no effect on maxillary arch dimensions. The variability in growth of the dento-alveolar complex itself may explain why the dental arch dimensions are similar in the Maasai and Kikuyu despite ethnic differences. There was no significant difference between the male and female dental arch dimensions. PMID:8112417

  2. Surgical management of multiple supernumerary teeth and an impacted maxillary permanent central incisor.

    PubMed

    Rallan, Mandeep; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh; Goswami, Mousumi; Rawat, Kamini

    2013-01-01

    Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. The most common site is the maxillary incisor region; but the prevalence of more than three teeth supernumerary tooth is less than 1%. A case of 13 year male patient is reported with a multiple impacted supernumerary tooth in maxillary anterior region hindering the eruption of right permanent central incisor. The supernumerary tooth was treated via surgical approach followed by an interim prosthesis for permanent central incisor which later on erupted in due course of time. Background Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. The presence of supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region often poses unique diagnostic and managerial concerns for the practitioner. Rarely is the surplus number compensated by an absence or deficiency of other teeth. Therefore, the dysfunctional nature of supernumerary teeth and their ability to create a variety of pathological disturbances in the normal eruption and position of adjacent teeth warrants their early detection and prudent management. Approximately 76-86% of cases represent single-tooth hyperdontia, with two supernumerary teeth noted in 12-23% and three or more extra teeth noted in less than 1% of cases. Multiple supernumerary teeth are also associated with many syndromes like cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner’s syndrome etc. However, it is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. In such cases, the maxillary anterior region is the common site of occurrence. The exact aetiology is not clearly understood. The supernumerary teeth result from any disturbance in the initiation and proliferation stages of odontogenesis. There are several theories regarding the

  3. Solitary median maxillary central incisor in association with hemifacial microsomia: A rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Utreja, Ashok; Zahid, Syed Naved; Gupta, Richa

    2011-01-01

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a rare dental anomaly. It is estimated to occur in 1:50,000 live births. The SMMCI tooth differs from the normal central incisor in that the crown form is symmetric and it develops and erupts precisely in the midline of the maxillary dental arch in both primary and permanent dentitions. Presence of SMMCI with hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a very rare clinical condition. We report a case of HFM in a male of Indian origin who presented with SMMCI in both primary and permanent dentitions. The association of HFM with SMMCI may be due to defective development of neural crest cells and/or lack of space in maxilla. PMID:22346174

  4. Finite element analysis of stress concentration in three popular brands of fiber posts systems used for maxillary central incisor teeth

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Shalini; Garg, Vaibhav

    2011-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To study the stress concentrations in endodontically treated maxillary central incisor teeth restored with 3 different fiber post systems subjected to various oblique occlusal loads. Materials and Methods: FEM analysis was used to analyze stress concentrations generated in maxillary anterior teeth. Computer aided designing was used to create a 2-D model of an upper central incisor. Post systems analyzed were the DT Light Post (RDT, Bisco), Luscent Anchor (Dentatus) & RelyX (3M-ESPE). The entire design assembly was subjected to analysis by ANSYS for oblique loading forces of 25N, 80N & 125 N Results: The resultant data showed that the RelyX generated the least amount of stress concentration. Conclusions: Minimal stress buildups contribute to the longevity of the restorations. Thus RelyX by virtue of judicious stress distribution is the better option for restoration of grossly decayed teeth. PMID:22025836

  5. Strain Distribution in Root Surface Dentin of Maxillary Central Incisors during Lateral Compaction

    PubMed Central

    Pilo, Raphael; Metzger, Zvi; Brosh, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Aim To precisely quantify the circumferential strains created along the radicular dentin of maxillary incisors during a simulated clinical procedure of lateral compaction. Methods Six miniature strain gauges were bonded on the roots of fourteen recently extracted maxillary central incisors that were subjected to root canal instrumentation. The strain gauges were bonded at three levels (apical, middle, and coronal) and four aspects (buccal, lingual, mesial, and distal) of the roots. Each tooth was embedded in a PVC cylinder containing polyvinyl-siloxane impression material. Root filling was then performed by simulating the clinical procedure of lateral compaction using nickel-titanium finger spreaders. The force applied to the spreader and the strains developing in the surface root dentin were continuously recorded at a frequency of 10 Hz. Results The highest strains that developed during lateral compaction were in the mesial and distal aspects at the apical level of the root. The magnitudes of the maximal mesial/distal strains at the apical as well as the mid-root levels were approximately 2.5–3 times higher than those at the buccal/lingual aspects (p = 0.041). The strains decreased significantly (p<0.04) from the apical through the mid-root levels to the coronal level, yielding gradients of 2.5- and 6-fold, respectively. The mesial and distal strains were consistently tensile and did not differ significantly; however, the buccal strains were generally 35–65% higher than the lingual strains (p = 0.078). Lateral compaction resulted in the gradual build-up of residual strains, resulting in generation of a 'stair-step' curve. These strains declined gradually and almost completely disappeared after 1000 sec. Conclusions With proper mounting of several miniature strain gauges at various levels and aspects of the root, significant circumferential strains can be monitored under clinically relevant compaction forces. The residual strains at the end of lateral

  6. Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics™ for retreatment of a patient with diminished root length and absence of the maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Montesinos F, Armando; Linares T, Silvana; Pérez-Gasque B, Marisol

    2015-10-01

    An 18-year-old female patient visited a university orthodontics department with a chief complaint of an unesthetic appearance of her teeth, including a protruded upper central incisor and unsatisfactory results from previous orthodontic treatment. Pretreatment records showed a Class II skeletal and dental relation with proclined upper and lower incisors, replacement of an absent upper left central incisor with the left upper cuspid, presence of the upper left deciduous cuspid, mild crowding, and 4 mm of overbite and overjet. The panoramic radiograph showed shortened roots of multiple teeth. Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics™ (AOO™) was recommended as an approach to reduce the treatment time and the risk of further root shortening. Despite being more expensive and requiring a surgical procedure, this treatment option was very attractive to the patient. The overall treatment time was 14 months. Facial balance was improved, and good occlusal relationships were achieved from the functional and esthetic perspectives. In conclusion, surgically facilitated orthodontics (specifically, AOO™) is an efficient and safe therapeutic tool for treating or retreating orthodontic patients with diminished root length. PMID:26644760

  7. Impacted stapler pin in fractured maxillary central incisor with open apex: Advanced endodontic management using biodentine as innovative apical matrix.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikram; Tanwar, Renu; Gupta, Vidhi; Mehta, Palkin

    2015-01-01

    The presence of foreign objects in the pulp chamber of fractured permanent teeth is a rare phenomenon and often diagnosed accidently .These foreign bodies are most commonly self inflicted by young patients and remain impacted within the pulp canal thereby acting as potential source of infection and painful conditions1. In the present case report, we present successful endodontic management of stapler pin lodged in fractured maxillary central incisor with challenge of open apex in young patient using biodentine as a novel apical matrix. PMID:26888245

  8. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with varying ferrule heights and configurations: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Thareja, Prerna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the best ferrule configuration of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were collected. Teeth were allocated into following four groups of each having 10 teeth. Group 1 teeth restored with crowns (CRN), Group 2 endodontically treated teeth restored with crowns (RCT and CRN), Group 3 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 2 mm ferrule (2 FRL), Group 4 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 1 mm ferrule (1 FRL). Crown preparation was performed with varying ferrule heights, crowns were cemented with resin modified glass ionomer cement and were kept in 100% humidity for 3 days, all specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Results were obtained in the form of kilo Newton and Newton. Result: The statistical analysis applied was an analysis of variance to detect the presence of group differences. Pair wise comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Tukey Kramer significant difference test for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Ferrule had a significant role in the fracture resistance of custom cast post core restored teeth. Endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with a uniform 2 mm ferrule were more fracture resistant than those with a uniform 1 mm ferrule. PMID:24778504

  9. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  10. SHH mutation is associated with solitary median maxillary central incisor: a study of 13 patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nanni, L; Ming, J E; Du, Y; Hall, R K; Aldred, M; Bankier, A; Muenke, M

    2001-07-22

    Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) or single central incisor is a rare dental anomaly. It has been reported in holoprosencephaly (HPE) cases with severe facial anomalies or as a microform in autosomal dominant HPE (ADHPE). In our review of the literature, we note that SMMCI may also occur as an isolated finding or in association with other systemic abnormalities. These anomalies include short stature, pituitary insufficiency, microcephaly, choanal atresia, midnasal stenosis, and congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis. SMMCI can also be a feature of recognized syndromes or associations or a finding in patients with specific chromosomal abnormalities. We performed a molecular study on a cohort of 13 SMMCI patients who did not have HPE. We studied two genes, Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and SIX3, in which mutations have been reported in patients showing SMMCI as part of the HPE spectrum. A new missense mutation in SHH (I111F), segregating in one SMMCI family, was identified. Our results suggest that this mutation may be specific for the SMMCI phenotype since it has not been found in the HPE population or in normal controls. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11471164

  11. A Fused Maxillary Central Incisor and Its Multidisciplinary Treatment: An 18-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Cahuana, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Fused teeth may cause aesthetic, spacing, periodontal, eruption, and caries problems. The present case report describes a 7-year-old boy patient with a chief complaint of unerupted maxillary incisor. Radiographic examination indicated a fused tooth which had two fused roots but two independent root canals. A complex management of a fused tooth is really difficult to standardize. In this case an orthodontic, endodontic, and surgical treatment (intentional replantation) allowed the tooth to be retained until 18 years following intervention. Maintenance of the root and alveolar bone in young adults at least until full skeletal maturation should be the main treatment objective. PMID:24738034

  12. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a root-fractured maxillary central incisor: A 12-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    Incerti Parenti, Serena; Ciocci, Maurizio; Checchi, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Single-tooth implantation has become a common treatment solution for replacement of a root-fractured maxillary incisor in adults, but the long-term esthetic results can be unfavorable due to progressive marginal bone loss, resulting in gingival recession. In this case report, a maxillary central incisor with a root fracture in its apical one-third was orthodontically extruded and extracted in a 21-year-old female. Implant surgery was performed after a 3-month healing period, and the final crown was placed about 12 months after extraction. After 12 years, favorable osseous and gingival architectures were visible with adequate bone height and thickness at the buccal cortical plate, and no gingival recession was seen around the implant-supported crown. Although modern dentistry has been shifting toward simplified, clinical procedures and shorter treatment times, both general dentists and orthodontists should be aware of the possible long-term esthetic advantages of orthodontic extrusion of hopelessly fractured teeth for highly esthetically demanding areas and should educate and motivate patients regarding the choice of this treatment solution, if necessary. PMID:25133136

  13. Compound odontoma associated with impacted maxillary central incisor dictates a need to be vigilant to canine eruption pattern: A 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Shilpy; Gupta, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Canine deviation from its path of eruption is usually followed by either delayed or impaction of canine. One of the important and not so noticed reasons for canine displacement is formerly impacted central incisor. The difference in age of eruption of these two teeth is 4 years; however, the absence of maxillary incisor should be perceived with utmost conviction about impending canine displacement leading to its impaction as well. This case presents similar picture where composite, compound odontoma with respect to maxillary central incisor led to its impaction resulted in deviated path of eruption for erupting canine. This canine displacement to worsen prognosis ended up getting impacted if not dealt with cautiously in the later stages of occlusal development. PMID:27307685

  14. Preservative management of traumatized maxillary central incisor using fiber reinforced composite and mineral trioxide aggregate: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Sai Kalyan; Chandki, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The myriads of technological advancements in dentistry in last two decades have led to a dramatic shift from conventional invasive procedures to more conservative biomimetic therapies. In this series, management of traumatic dental injuries has taken a big leap in that now it is possible to conserve many of these teeth which were otherwise doomed to extraction. Depending on the extent of injury, esthetic and functional requirements, traumatic dental injuries can be managed by a variety of clinical procedures including composite resin restorations, reattachment of fractured fragment, endodontic therapy with or without post and core or lastly extraction. Reattaching natural tooth structure offers an advantage over the others in that it is instant, provides superior esthetics, preserves the natural tooth structure and is best accepted by the patient. This paper describes the comprehensive management of traumatized maxillary central incisor involving pulp exposure while maintaining pulp vitality and natural appearance of a tooth. PMID:26604608

  15. The Shape of the Maxillary Central Incisors and Its Correlation with Maxillary Anterior Papillary Display: A Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Nichani, Ashish S; Ahmed, Arshia Zainab; Ranganath, V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define shapes of maxillary central incisors and determine their relationship with the visual display of interdental papillae during smiling. A sample of 100 patients aged 20 to 25 years were recruited. Photographs were taken and gingival angle, crown width (CW), crown length (CL), contact surface (CS), CW/CL ratio, CS/CL ratio, gingival smile line (GSL), and interdental smile line (ISL) were measured. The data showed an increase in GA leading to an increase in CW and CS/CL ratio. Women showed a higher percentage of papillary display compared with men. This study reinforces the proposed hypothesis that the shape of the teeth and papilla affect the periodontium. PMID:27333012

  16. Orthodontic movement of a maxillary central incisor with a horizontal root fracture treated using an intra-radicular fibre splint

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Aditi; Utreja, A.; Goyal, A.; Pankaj, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a 15-year-old boy with a horizontal root fracture in the left maxillary central incisor along with class II division 1 malocclusion for whom a fixed orthodontic treatment was planned. The fracture was present at the junction of apical and middle-third as a result of trauma 2 years back. No splinting was carried out at that time and the tooth was found to be vital, asymptomatic and showed a type-1 repair pattern. An intentional root canal treatment was carried out for placement of an intra-radicular fiber splint, nearly 3 mm beyond the fracture line. Orthodontic treatment was initiated after a month; to which the fractured and splinted tooth responded successfully. This report highlights the successful use of an intra-radicular splint for horizontally fractured tooth requiring orthodontic treatment. PMID:24015026

  17. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post. PMID:26543733

  18. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carolina Castro; Chalub, Loliza; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard). 49 children (aged 7-9 years) were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67) and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49%) compared with the photographic method (36.7%). The photographic method presented higher specificity (96%) than sensitivity (70.8%), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis. PMID:19488486

  19. Influence of post and resin cement on stress distribution of maxillary central incisors restored with direct resin composite.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, A O; Galafassi, D; de Meira-Júnior, A D; Braz, R; Garbin, C A

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated the influence of two endodontic post systems and the elastic modulus and film thickness of resin cement on stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor (MCI) restored with direct resin composite using finite element analysis (FEA). A three-dimensional model of an MCI with a coronary fracture and supporting structures was performed. A static chewing pressure of 2.16 N/mm2 was applied to two areas on the palatal surface of the composite restoration. Zirconia ceramic (ZC) and glass fiber (GF) posts were considered. The stress distribution was analyzed in the post, dentin and cement layer when ZC and GF posts were fixed to the root canals using resin cements of different elastic moduli (7.0 and 18.6 GPa) and different layer thicknesses (70 and 200 microm). The different post materials presented a significant influence on stress distribution with lesser stress concentration when using the GF post. The higher elastic modulus cement created higher stress levels within itself. The cement thicknesses did not present significant changes. PMID:19363979

  20. A new syndrome with overlapping features of Townes-brocks syndrome and single median maxillary central incisor syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh; Balachandran, Sathish

    2012-01-01

    A 14-month-old boy with overlapping features of Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) and single median maxillary incisor syndrome (SMMCIS) is being reported with brief review of the above syndromes and possible differential diagnosis. PMID:23716951

  1. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. Results: 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. Conclusion: With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule. PMID:26464537

  2. Incisor crown bending strength correlates with diet and incisor curvature in anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Deane, Andrew S

    2015-02-01

    Anthropoid incisors are large relative to the postcanine dentition and function in the preprocessing of food items. Previous analyses of anthropoid incisor allometry and shape demonstrate that incisor morphology is correlated with preferred foods and that more frugivorous anthropoids have larger and more curved incisors. Although the relationship between incisal crown curvature and preferred foods has been well documented in extant and fossil anthropoids, the functional significance of curvature variation has yet to be conclusively established. Given that an increase in crown curvature will increase maximum linear crown dimensions, and bending resistance is a function of linear crown dimensions, it is hypothesized that incisor crown curvature functons to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces. This study uses beam theory to calculate the mesiodistal and labiolingual bending strengths of the maxillary and mandibular incisors of hominoid and platyrrhine taxa with differing diets and variable degrees of incisal curvature. Results indicate that bending strength correlates with incisal curvature and that frugivores have elevated incisor bending resistance relative to folivores. Maxillary central incisor bending strengths further discriminate platyrrhine and hominoid hard- and soft-object frugivores suggesting this crown is subjected to elevated occlusal loading relative to other incisors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that incisor crown curvature functions to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces but does not preclude the possibility that incisor bending strength is a composite function of multiple dentognathic variables including, but not limited to, incisor crown curvature. PMID:25156755

  3. Amalgamation of allogenic bone graft, platelet-rich fibrin gel, and PRF membrane in auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Zainab; Kumar, Yuvika Raj; Mohanty, Sujata; Khetrapal, Ambica

    2015-01-01

    “Social six” teeth refers to the maxillary incisors and canines that play a vital role in the appearance of an individual and absence of any one of them has a significant psycho-social impact. Hence, early treatment and rehabilitation of the same are extremely important. A multitude of treatment options ranging from orthodontic extrusion, extraction followed by implant placement, fixed partial denture, and auto-transplantation have been advocated. This case report discusses the unique amalgamation of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), demineralized freeze-dried bone graft with use of PRF membrane during auto-transplantation of an impacted central incisor. The authors have focused on maximum usage of autogenous materials in the most economic and least invasive manner. Furthermore, this amalgamation has been used to provide rehabilitation in the least span of time. PMID:26097366

  4. Age estimation by pulp/tooth ratio in lateral and central incisors by peri-apical X-ray.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Cunha, E; Wasterlain, S N; De Luca, S; Sassaroli, E; Pagliara, F; Nuzzolese, E; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, several papers on the analysis of the apposition of secondary dentine have been published. The aim of this paper was to study a sample of peri-apical X-ray images of upper and lower incisors, both lateral and medial, to examine the application of pulp/tooth area ratio as an indicator of age. A sample of 116 individuals, 62 men and 54 women, aged between 18 and 74 years, was studied. Data were fitted with age as a linear function of the pulp/tooth ratio of incisors. The total variance explained by the regression equation ranged from 51.3% of age, when lower lateral incisors were used as explanatory variable, to 81.6% when upper lateral incisors were used. The accuracy of the corresponding regression model yielded ME = 8.44 and 5.34 years, respectively. These results show that, although incisors are less reliable than canines or lower premolars, they can be used to estimate age-at-death when the latter are absent. PMID:23756528

  5. Effect of labiolingual inclination of a maxillary central incisor and surrounding alveolar bone loss on periodontal stress: A finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether labial tooth inclination and alveolar bone loss affect the moment per unit of force (Mt/F) in controlled tipping and consequent stresses on the periodontal ligament (PDL). Methods Three-dimensional models (n = 20) of maxillary central incisors were created with different labial inclinations (5°, 10°, 15°, and 20°) and different amounts of alveolar bone loss (0, 2, 4, and 6 mm). The Mt/F necessary for controlled tipping (Mt/Fcont) and the principal stresses on the PDL were calculated for each model separately in a finite element analysis. Results As labial inclination increased, Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm decreased. In contrast, increased alveolar bone loss caused increases in Mt/Fcont and the length of the moment arm. When Mt/F was near Mt/Fcont, increases in Mt/F caused compressive stresses to move from a predominantly labial apical region to a palatal apical position, and tensile stresses in the labial area moved from a cervical position to a mid-root position. Although controlled tipping was applied to the incisors, increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in maximum compressive and tensile stresses at the root apices. Conclusions Increases in alveolar bone loss and labial tooth inclination caused increases in stresses that might cause root resorption at the root apex, despite the application of controlled tipping to the incisors. PMID:27226961

  6. Management of bilateral invasive cervical resorption lesions in maxillary incisors using a novel calcium silicate-based cement: A case report.

    PubMed

    Karypidou, Athanasia; Chatzinikolaou, Ino-Dimitra; Kouros, Pantelis; Koulaouzidou, Elisabeth; Economides, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a pathologic process leading to progressive and usually destructive loss of tooth structure. The pathogenic mechanism is not completely understood and the diagnosis may be challenging. The aim of this article is to present an unusual case of bilateral presence of invasive cervical resorption lesions in maxillary central incisors and to discuss the treatment procedures using a novel repair material. The management of the present case was carried out in three phases. The first stage of the treatment aimed at curetting the active tissue from the resorption cavity and restoring the defect with the novel calcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine, Septodont). In the maxillary left central incisor it was not possible to remove the resorptive tissue without exposing the pulp, and therefore root canal treatment was performed. At the second phase, a full-thickness flap was raised in order to expose and repair the defect that was extending subgingivally. At the third phase teeth were restored with composite resin. The patient was kept under review and after a follow-up period of 2 years neither signs of periradicular lesion nor recurrence of resorption were observed. The teeth were asymptomatic, and restorations appeared to be in excellent condition. In conclusion, Biodentine seems to be a promising material for the treatment of invasive cervical resorption lesions. PMID:27341468

  7. The effect of central incisor's root proximity to the cortical plate and apical root resorption in extraction and non-extraction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Akhil; Sharma, Vijay P; Singh, Gulshan K; Tikku, Tripti; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mengi, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The present study was conducted to investigate the relevance of cortical plate proximity of maxillary central incisor root, maxillary alveolar bone width, and the apical root resorption in extraction and non-extraction orthodontically treated cases. Further, the correlation between the apical root resorption and the various parameters was investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 lateral head cephalographs, 40 pre-treatment and 40 post-treatment, of orthodontic subjects with a mean age of 15 years treated with fixed standard edgewise appliance were obtained. All subjects were divided into two groups as extraction and non-extraction cases. Twelve linear and three angular parameters were measured and evaluated. The paired “t”-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the stepwise regression analysis were done to test the relationship between the apical root resorption and the various parameters. Results and Conclusions: The study revealed slightly greater amount of apical root resorption in extraction subjects as compared to non-extraction subjects. However, no statistically significant difference was found between the two treatment modalities. In extraction subjects, the apical root resorption was directly proportional to the pre-treatment length of maxillary central incisor and inversely proportional to the root width in apical one-third region, though there was a weak correlation. In non-extraction subjects, the pre-treatment anteroposterior position of the root apex of maxillary central incisor in the alveolar bone, in combination with its root width in the apical one-third region formed the predictive factors for the variance in the amount of the apical root resorption, though there was a weak correlation. Furthermore, the changes in the alveolar widths at the root apex and mid-root region were considered as predictive factors for the amount of apical root resorption during extraction and non-extraction treatment, respectively. PMID

  8. Clinical course and implications of congenital nasal pyriform stenosis and solitary median maxillary central incisor in a newborn: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and solitary median maxillary central incisor are uncommon anomalies and are associated with further malformations. Solitary median maxillary central incisor itself has initially no impact on a child’s health, but congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Case presentation A Caucasian baby boy showed severe dyspnoea and was intubated orotracheally. Multiple anomalies were detected, including urogenital and craniofacial malformations. Computed tomography scans revealed congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis with a diameter of 4.9mm and a solitary median maxillary central incisor. A 3.0mm tube was inserted in his left nasal cavity, and the baby was able to breathe sufficiently and spontaneously. The nasal tube was removed after seven days, and the baby was discharged under application of decongestant drops. After seven months, the baby was readmitted with respiratory distress, and surgery was carried out using an intraoral sublabial approach. The stenotic area of the pyriform aperture was widened, and 3.0mm tubes were inserted in both nasal cavities for 10 days. Over a period of six months, no further respiratory distress has occurred. Conclusions The decision to perform surgery was delayed since the baby’s nasal breathing was adequate as a result of the insertion of a nasal tube. Since treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, it is appropriate in some cases to take a conservative approach at first, and to keep surgery as a last resort. Once a conservative approach has been selected for congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis, awareness of the life-threatening nature of the condition should be kept in mind, and a surgical approach must still be taken into account. PMID:24950703

  9. Esthetic restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Carranza, F; García-Godoy, F

    1999-04-01

    A simple and esthetic technique for restoring cariously involved primary maxillary incisors is described. The technique includes mini-pins, a preformed celluloid crown and resin-based composite. PMID:10477982

  10. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Srilatha, KT; Nandlal, B; Dhull, Kanika Singh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load-bearing capacity of fractured incisal edge of maxillary permanent central incisors restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite. Materials and methods: Thirty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors randomly divided in three groups were used for the present study. Group I (control) contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II and III were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third) part of the crown horizontally and subjected to enamel preparations and restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite respectively. All restored teeth were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was evaluated as peak load at failure (Newton) for samples tested in a cantilever-bending test using Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were microscopically examined. Results: Highest mean peak failure load (Newton) among experimental groups was observed in glass fiber-reinforced nano composite group (863.50 ± 76.12 N) followed by nanocomposite group (633.67 ± 40.14 N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the restoration technique significantly affected the load-bearing capacity (p < 0.001). Scheffe’s post-hoc comparison test (subset for α = 0.05) revealed that there was significant difference in the mean peak failure load values of nanocomposite and glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite groups when considered together (p < 0.001). Experimental groups showed similar types of failure modes with majority occurring ascohesive and mixed type. Fifty-eight percent of the teeth in glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. Conclusion: By using fiber-reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in the repair of fractured incisors, the load-bearing capacity of the restored incisal edge could be substantially

  11. Unusual Transalveolar and Transmuco-Gingival Root Avulsion of a Fractured Primary Central Incisor: A Case with an 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Ferrés-Amat, E.; Díaz-Martínez, C.; Herrera-Martínez, S.; Maura-Solivellas, I.; Ferrés-Padró, E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this unique case report is to describe a very unusual dentoalveolar fracture associated with avulsion of the near-complete root. A 3-year-old male patient came for consultation after a dentoalveolar trauma with a “fragment that looks like canine” found in his mouth by his mother. This boy suffered root fracture of the upper primary central right incisor, accompanied by transalveolar and transmuco-gingival avulsion of the tooth root fragment, leaving the crown in its position in the dental arch. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed in order to follow up the case: 15 days, one month, and three months after trauma, the crown had a slight mobility without other clinical or radiological signs. After six months, the upper primary central right incisor's crown was exfoliated. Open bite due to the persistence of the pacifier habit favored the crown retention in the mouth. This case emphasizes the importance of primary diagnosis and follow-up of trauma cases. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of dental injury has not been previously described in the literature nor in the current Dental Trauma guidelines for the management of traumatic dental injuries in the primary dentition. PMID:25793129

  12. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

    2003-06-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  13. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  14. Endodontic and Esthetic Management of a Dilacerated Maxillary Central Incisor Having Two Root Canals Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Aid

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Mittal, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics. PMID:24955260

  15. Relationship of central incisor implant placement to the ridge configuration anterior to the nasopalatine canal in dentate and partially edentulous individuals: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the ridge contour anterior to the nasopalatine canal, and the difference between the incidences of the nasopalatine canal perforation in dentate and partially edentulous patients by cone-beam computed tomography. Methods. Cone-beam computed tomography scan images from 72 patients were selected from database and divided into dentate and partially edentulous groups. The configuration of the ridge anterior to the canal including palatal concavity depth, palatal concavity height, palatal concavity angle, bone height coronal to the incisive foramen, and bone width anterior to the canal was measured. A virtual implant placement procedure was used, and the incidences of perforation were evaluated after implant placement in the cingulum position with the long axis along with the designed crown. Results. Comparing with variable values from dentate patients, the palatal concavity depth and angle were greater by 0.9 mm and 4°, and bone height was shorter by 1.1 mm in partially edentulous patients, respectively. Bone width in edentulous patients was narrower than in dentate patients by 1.2 mm at incisive foramen level and 0.9 mm at 8 mm subcrestal level, respectively. After 72 virtual cylindrical implants (4.1 × 12 mm) were placed, a total of 12 sites (16.7%) showed a perforation and three-fourths occurred in partially edentulous patients. After replacing with 72 tapered implants (4.3 × 13 mm), only 6 implants (8.3%) broke into the canal in the partially edentulous patient group. Conclusions. The nasopalatine canal may get close to the implant site and the bone width anterior to the canal decreases after the central incisor extraction. The incidence of nasopalatine canal perforation may occur more commonly during delayed implant placement in central incisor missing patients. PMID:26557434

  16. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8. PMID:26939157

  17. Estimation of the rate of tooth wear in permanent incisors: a cross-sectional digital radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Ray, D S; Wiemann, A H; Patel, P B; Ding, X; Kryscio, R J; Miller, C S

    2015-06-01

    This study used conventional digital radiography to estimate the rate of tooth wear (TW) of maxillary and mandibular central incisors based on a cross-sectional study design. The crown length of 1239 permanent maxillary and mandibular central incisors from 346 persons (age groups: 10, 25, 40, 55 and 70 years ± 3) were measured by three calibrated dentists. Study teeth were intact incisally, had clearly visible incisal edges and cementoenamel junctions and had natural tooth antagonists. Measures were based on digital radiographic images (N = 666) archived in MiPACS within the electronic health record (axiUm(®)) from the College of Dentistry patient database. Incisor crown length decreased at a linear rate in both arches over the 60 years represented by the age groups. The average crown length for maxillary incisors in the youngest age group was 11.94 mm, which decreased by an average of 1.01 mm by median age 70. For mandibular incisors, the average crown length in the youngest age group was 9.58 mm, which decreased by an average of 1.46 mm in the oldest age group. Males and females showed similar rates of TW. Regardless of age, females demonstrated smaller mean crown height for maxillary incisors than males (P < 0.0001). Measures by the examiners demonstrated good agreement, with an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.869 and an average intra-examiner correlation of 99.5%, based on repeated measurements (n = 100). TW was estimated to average 1.01 mm for maxillary central incisors and 1.46 mm for mandibular central incisors by age 70 years. PMID:25756187

  18. Lower molar and incisor displacement associated with mandibular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Bravo, L A; Ben-Bassat, Y; Curry, S; Korn, E L

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the amount of alveolar modeling at the apices of the mandibular incisor and first molar specifically associated with appositional and resorptive changes on the lower border of the mandible during growth and treatment. Cephalometric data from superimpositions on anterior cranial base, mandibular implants of the Björk type, and anatomical "best fit" of mandibular border structures were integrated using a recently developed strategy, which is described. Data were available at annual intervals between 8.5 and 15.5 years for a previously described sample of approximately 30 children with implants. The average magnitudes of the changes at the root apices of the mandibular first molar and central incisor associated with modeling/remodeling of the mandibular border and symphysis were unexpectedly small. At the molar apex, mean values approximated zero in both anteroposterior and vertical directions. At the incisor apex, mean values approximated zero in the anteroposterior direction and averaged less than 0.15 mm/year in the vertical direction. Standard deviations were roughly equal for the molar and the incisor in both the anteroposterior and vertical directions. Dental displacement associated with surface modeling plays a smaller role in final tooth position in the mandible than in the maxilla. It may also be reasonably inferred that anatomical best-fit superimpositions made in the absence of implants give a more complete picture of hard tissue turnover in the mandible than they do in the maxilla. PMID:9107373

  19. Platyrrhine incisors and diet.

    PubMed

    Deane, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Despite the relatively large size of anthropoid incisors in relation to the remainder of the dental arcade, and their prominent role in the preprocessing of food prior to ingestion, comparatively little is known about the functional morphology of anthropoid incisor shape and crown curvature. The relationship between incisor allometry and diet is well documented for both platyrrhines and catarrhines; however, similar relationships between incisor shape and crown curvature have to date only been reported for living and fossil members of the superfamily Hominoidea. Given the limited taxonomic diversity among the extant members of that group, it is difficult to firmly establish the relative influence of phylogeny and dietary function in the governance of incisor crown curvature. Unlike hominoids, which are represented by only five living genera, extant platyrrhines are a more varied group that includes 16 ecologically diverse genera. In an effort to clarify the functional relationship between maxillary and mandibular incisor crown curvature and diet, this study uses high resolution polynomial curve fitting to quantify mesiodistal and cervicoincisal curvature for a taxonomically diverse platyrrhine sample (n = 133 individuals representing 18 taxa) with well documented dietary behavior. Results were consistent with prior analyses of hominoid incisor curvature and identify a significant and positive correlation between incisor crown curvature and diet such that increasing curvature is associated with a proportionate increase in frugivory. These results are independent confirmation of the results reported from a previous analysis of hominoid incisor curvature and provide new evidence to suggest that diet is the primary governing factor influencing anthropoid incisor curvature. PMID:22610900

  20. Incisor microwear of Sumatran anthropoid primates.

    PubMed

    Ungar, P S

    1994-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that incisor microwear reflects diet and feeding adaptations of anthropoids. However, such studies have been largely qualitative, and interpretations have relied on anecdotal references to diet and tooth use reported in the socioecology literature. The current study relates incisor microwear in four anthropoid primates to specific ingestive behaviors and food types. Central incisor casts of wild-shot museum specimens of Hylobates lar, Macaca fascicularis, Pongo pygmaeus, and Presbytis thomasi were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and analyzed using a semiautomated image analysis procedure. Microwear patterns were used to generate predictions regarding diet and anterior tooth use. These predictions were evaluated using data collected during a 1 year study of feeding behavior of these same taxa in the wild (Ungar, 1992, 1994a,b). Results suggest that (1) enamel prism relief is associated with the effectiveness of etching reagents in foods, (2) dental calculus buildup results from a lack of incisor use and perhaps the ingestion of sugar-rich foods, (3) striation density varies with degree of anterior tooth use in the ingestion of abrasive food items, (4) striation breadth is proposed to relate to the ratio of exogenous grit to phytoliths consumed; and (5) preferred striation orientation indicates the direction that food items are pulled across the incisors during ingestion. It is concluded that incisor microwear studies can contribute to the understanding of diets and feeding behaviors of extinct primates. PMID:7943190

  1. Spontaneous re-eruption of a permanent maxillary central incisor after 15 years of ankylosis--a case report.

    PubMed

    Schott, Timm Cornelius; Engel, Eva; Göz, Gernot

    2012-06-01

    Intrusion injuries are considered among the most severe forms of dental trauma, potentially leading to ankylosis as a late consequence. In 1991, a 7-year-old boy suffered a traumatic intrusion leading to an infraposition of tooth 21 along with its immobility. Based on the clinical findings, including bright-sounding percussion testing, disappearance of the periodontal space and a failed attempt at orthodontic movement, a diagnosis of ankylosis was made. Following prosthetic restoration of the infrapositioned tooth, spontaneous re-eruption occurred 15 years later. With the help of a partial multibracket appliance, the tooth could be adjusted to occlusal level and was then restored to the patient's satisfaction. Radiographically, it was demonstrated that extrusion of the tooth had been accompanied by a significant gain in local alveolar bone volume. While a wait-and-see strategy cannot be recommended as a treatment option following ankylosis, considering that spontaneous re-eruption after several years is an extremely rare finding, elucidating the mechanisms at work in spontaneous re-eruption at a cellular level might create an opportunity for iatrogenic triggering of re-eruption, thus paving the way to new forms of therapy. PMID:21790990

  2. Association between Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Schoolchildren and Both Prenatal and Postnatal Factors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Vale, Miriam Pimenta

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies throughout the world have investigated potential factors involved in the occurrence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH), the findings are varied and inconclusive. Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MIH and identify associated prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors among Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 and 9 years. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with a randomly selected population-based sample of 1181 schoolchildren. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal aspects was obtained through questionnaires. The clinical examination included the investigation of MIH based on the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. Dental caries in the permanent dentition and developmental defects of enamel (DDE) on the primary second molars were also recorded. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate tests and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results The prevalence of MIH was 20.4%. MIH was more frequent among children with dental caries in the permanent dentition (PR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.98–3.61), those with DDE on the primary second molars (PR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.87–3.45) and those who experienced asthma/bronchitis in the first four years of life (PR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.45–2.56). Conclusions The prevalence of MIH was high and was associated with dental caries, the presence of DDE on primary second molars and the experience of asthma/bronchitis in early life. These findings could be useful in the identification of children in need of shorter recall intervals to prevent the consequences of MIH, such as enamel breakdown dental caries. PMID:27280451

  3. Multi-disciplinary management of a patient with a post-traumatised incisor presenting concurrent replacement and inflammatory resorption: a case report.

    PubMed

    Doğramaci, Esma J; Rossi-Fedele, Giampiero; Jonest, Allan G

    2015-11-01

    This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of a young male who presented with a Class I incisor relationship and bi-maxillary dento-alveolar protrusion on a Class I skeletal base. The occlusion was complicated by an ankylosed and moderately infra-positioned upper left permanent central incisor, an anterior crossbite, crowding, a reduced overbite and centreline discrepancy. The incisor was traumatised and avulsed when the root was immature and the tooth was reimplanted with delay. On referral for orthodontic treatment at age 11 .5 years, the upper left central incisor was experiencing ankylosis-related (osseous replacement) resorption and external root resorption simultaneously. Aside from the orthodontic aims, it was important to address the disrupted alveolar development to facilitate later prosthodontic replacement of the upper left permanent central incisor by idealising the inter-coronal and inter-radicular spaces. Treatment consisted of fixed orthodontic appliances in conjunction with the extraction of all second premolars and the upper left permanent central incisor with episodic surgical curettage. An upper Hawlix retainer was provided immediately at debond and a cantilevered resin-retained bridge was placed four months later. PMID:26999896

  4. Case report: endodontic and surgical treatment of an upper central incisor with external root resorption and radicular cyst following a traumatic tooth avulsion.

    PubMed

    Lux, Hans-Christian; Goetz, Falko; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-11-01

    In the age group between 6 and 12 years, trauma to the upper incisors happens frequently. In the case of avulsion, a replantation is the state-of-the-art treatment; however, it may lead to several complications, particularly if suitable posttraumatic management is not carried out. External cervical resorptions as well as apical granuloma and cysts due to microbial contamination of the root canal are common complications. In the presented trauma case, a conservative approach was chosen to treat a large cystic lesion combined with cervical and apical resorptions. After initial placement of Ledermix and calcium hydroxide into the root canal, a marsupialization with the temporary insertion of an obturator was performed. The gradual reduction led to a fast recovery of the bony defect and a root canal filling was placed. The 2-year follow-up showed an improved condition. All adjacent teeth remained vital during the course of the treatment. PMID:20692191

  5. The fusion of three primary incisors: report of case.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, K; Yonezu, T; Yakushiji, M; Machida, Y

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of a fusion of three primary incisors is rare. A two-year-old Japanese girl was brought to the pediatric dental outpatient clinic, Tokyo Dental College, to receive a caries-prevention treatment. The fused tooth consisted of the maxillary primary central incisors and right maxillary lateral incisor. Primary left lateral incisor erupted normally and the other primary teeth were erupted. The radicular pulp chambers were fused into one for three fourths of the length from the apex, and only one root. The hair and skin of the patient appeared normal and no systemic abnormality or congenital disease was noted in the medical history of the patient and her family. The occurrence of a three-tooth fusion, and no supernumerary tooth was confirmed. PMID:10656127

  6. Moments with the edgewise appliance: incisor torque control.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R J; Lindauer, S J; Rubenstein, L K

    1993-05-01

    Traditional edgewise orthodontic mechanics are significantly limited in their ability to provide incisor torque control because of the limitations of bracket-to-bracket mechanics and the poorly defined reciprocal actions inherently produced. Attempts to address this issue clinically have been largely empirical. The science of mechanics dictates that all incisor torque control mechanisms must act through one of two basic principles: the moment of a couple or the moment of a force. The torquing arch is a modification of the traditional edgewise system and employs the moment of a couple to achieve incisor torque control and precise definition of reciprocal effects. The torquing arch force system includes a large moment to rotate incisors in a crown facial/root lingual direction, and concurrent equilibrium forces to extrude incisors and intrude molars. Alternatively, the base arch uses the moment of a force to also rotate incisors in a crown facial/root lingual direction. The base arch, however, includes a large moment to rotate molars in a crown distal/root mesial direction, and concurrent equilibrium forces to intrude incisors and extrude molars. Depending on how they are employed, torquing arches and base arches may also rotate molars in a faciolingual direction, enhance or diminish posterior anchorage, and increase or conserve arch perimeter. Contemporary quality orthodontic care requires an awareness and control of all of the forces created by orthodontic appliances. PMID:8480711

  7. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics. PMID:24812742

  8. Effect of coffe and a cola-based soft drink on the color stability of bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching

    PubMed Central

    PIROLO, Rodrigo; MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; CORRER, Gisele Maria; GONZAGA, Carla Castiglia; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max) and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO) before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD) at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E) and lightness (∆L) variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001). All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L). The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively). Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching. PMID:25075672

  9. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Rao, Murali H; Aluru, Srikanth C; Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Bandlapalli, Anila; Patel, Nikunj

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect affecting teeth. High prevalence rates of MIH and its clinical implications are significant for both the patients and clinicians. A wide variation in defect prevalence (2.4-40.2%) is reported. It seems to differ with regions and various birth cohorts. Some of the recent prevalence studies are tabulated. Patient implications include hypersensitive teeth, rapid progression of caries, mastication impairment due to rapid attrition, and esthetic repercussions. Implications for clinicians include complexity in treatment planning and treatment implementation, poor prognosis of the restorations, difficulty in achieving pain control during treatment, and behavior management problems. Intention of this paper is to review the etio-pathogenesis, prevalence, clinical features, diagnostic features, and eventually present a sequential treatment approach, i.e., in accordance with current clinical practice guidelines. PMID:27595731

  10. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  11. Orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors: a 3D finite element method study

    PubMed Central

    Saga, Armando Yukio; Maruo, Hiroshi; Argenta, Marco André; Maruo, Ivan Toshio; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In orthodontic treatment, intrusion movement of maxillary incisors is often necessary. Therefore, the objective of this investigation is to evaluate the initial distribution patterns and magnitude of compressive stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL) in a simulation of orthodontic intrusion of maxillary incisors, considering the points of force application. Methods: Anatomic 3D models reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to simulate maxillary incisors intrusion loading. The points of force application selected were: centered between central incisors brackets (LOAD 1); bilaterally between the brackets of central and lateral incisors (LOAD 2); bilaterally distal to the brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 3); bilaterally 7 mm distal to the center of brackets of lateral incisors (LOAD 4). Results and Conclusions: Stress concentrated at the PDL apex region, irrespective of the point of orthodontic force application. The four load models showed distinct contour plots and compressive stress values over the midsagittal reference line. The contour plots of central and lateral incisors were not similar in the same load model. LOAD 3 resulted in more balanced compressive stress distribution. PMID:27007765

  12. Dual embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors: clinical implications in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Rosar, Julia Petruccelli; Sathler, Renata; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are craniofacial anomalies highly prevalent in the overall population. In oral clefts involving the alveolar ridge, variations of number, shape, size and position are observed in maxillary lateral incisors. The objective of this manuscript is to elucidate the embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors in order to understand the etiology of these variations. Contextualization: The hypothesis that orofacial clefts would split maxillary lateral incisor buds has been previously reported. However, recent studies showed that maxillary lateral incisors have dual embryonic origin, being partially formed by both the medial nasal process and the maxillary process. In other words, the mesial half of the lateral incisor seems to come from the medial nasal process while the distal half of the lateral incisor originates from the maxillary process. In cleft patients, these processes do not fuse, which results in different numerical and positional patterns for lateral incisors relating to the alveolar cleft. In addition to these considerations, this study proposes a nomenclature for maxillary lateral incisors in patients with cleft lip and palate, based on embryology and lateral incisors position in relation to the alveolar cleft. Conclusion: Embryological knowledge on the dual origin of maxillary lateral incisors and the use of a proper nomenclature for their numerical and positional variations renders appropriate communication among professionals and treatment planning easier, in addition to standardizing research analysis. PMID:26560830

  13. Two-dimensional photoelastic stress analysis of traumatized incisor.

    PubMed

    Topbasi, B; Gunday, M; Bas, M; Turkmen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this study, stress of traumatized incisor and the effect of stress on tooth and alveolar bone was studied with two-dimensional photoelasticity. Two homogeneous two-dimensional maxillary central incisor models were prepared. Loads were applied to the labial side of incisal edge and middle third of the crown at angles of 45 degrees and 90 degrees. It was observed that stress was increased on teeth and alveolar bone when load was applied 90 degrees on labial side of incisal edge. PMID:11445918

  14. Radicular Cyst associated with Deciduous Incisor: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, P Latha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Radicular cysts are considered rare in the primary dentition, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3% of the total number of radicular cysts in both primary and permanent dentitions. The aim of this case report is to present the clinical, radiographic and histological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with primary central incisor. Extraction and enucleation of the cyst was carried out under local anesthesia after elevation of the mucoperiosteal flap, which led to uneventful healing. How to cite this article: Subramanya PL. Radicular Cyst associated with Deciduous Incisor: A Rare Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):217-219. PMID:25206172

  15. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Parisa; Gerami, Alayar; Najafi, Amirhosein; Torkan, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth. PMID:26636119

  16. Familial aggregation of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pallavi; Ansari, Afroz Alam; Choudhary, Kartik; Saxena, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular second premolars is the most frequent form of hypodontia. Its prevalence varies across population from 0.8% to 4.5%. Genetic aberrations and environmental factors may cause agenesis of one or more teeth. The management of child having such a problem is very important since diastema in teeth especially in upper anteriors not only affects child's physical appearance but also its psychological development as the child wants to look like other children. In this article is presented a case of non-syndromic agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors (MLIA) and mandibular central incisors in a 10-year-old boy (patient) in permanent dentition with its management along with the radiographic investigations and photographic presentations of the other members of his family affected with this condition. PMID:23536620

  17. On the Etiology of Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Kup, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a condition that is defined based on its peculiar clinical presentation. Reports on the etiology of the condition and possible risk factors are inconclusive and the original suggestion that MIH is an idiopathic condition is often cited. Our group was the first to suggest MIH has a genetic component that involves genetic variation in genes expressed during dental enamel formation. In this report, we provide a rationale to explain the preferential affection of molars and incisors. We suggest that MIH is a genetic condition based on its prevalence, which varies depending on the geographic location, and the evidence that on occasion second primary molars, permanent canines, and premolars can show signs of hypomineralization of enamel when molars and incisors are affected. PMID:27111773

  18. Mandibular incisor extraction treatment in Angle's Class I malocclusion with peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ankit H; Shah, Darshit H

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning are essential for obtaining ideal treatment result in cases involving mandibular incisor extraction. This case report describes a 15-year-old female with balanced soft-tissue profile, peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors, and moderate mandibular anterior crowding treated with a mandibular incisor extraction. Ideal overbite and overjet were achieved. “Black triangle” formation was avoided due to the bodily movement of mandibular incisors and the use of uprighting springs for ideal axial inclination of mandibular incisors. A mandibular incisor extraction can be an effective treatment option in carefully selected clinical situations. PMID:27556022

  19. Ectopic eruption of permanent incisors after predecessor pulpectomy: five cases.

    PubMed

    Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; Barcelos, Roberta; Gleiser, Rogerio; Primo, Laura Guimaraes

    2011-01-01

    Pulpectomy in primary teeth is a common technique that preserves teeth in the oral environment and maintains or recovers periapical tissues to a healthy condition. This article describes the ectopic eruption of permanent incisors whose primary predecessors underwent pulpectomy using ZOE filler paste. In a group of 135 teeth that received pulpectomy therapy due to caries, 10 primary maxillary incisors had overretention and were followed for at least 3.5 years (mean time of 4.2 years), both clinically and radiographically, until the permanent teeth erupted. The proposed treatment included extraction of the overretained primary incisors based on permanent successor eruption chronology and contralateral eruption. Seven permanent teeth erupted ectopically. Autocorrection of the permanent tooth positions was observed in five cases. It can be concluded that periodic clinical and radiographic assessments are essential to verify radicular and filling paste resorptions and to avoid overretention and any subsequent malocclusion. PMID:21903556

  20. Impacted permanent incisors associated with compound odontoma.

    PubMed

    Machado, Cintia de Vasconcellos; Knop, Luégya Amorin Henriques; da Rocha, Maria Celina Barreiros Siquara; Telles, Paloma Dias da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours of the maxillary bones, characterised by a slow growth and benign behaviour. They are usually small, asymptomatic and diagnosed after routine radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to report a case of a compound odontoma in the anterior maxilla of a 7-year-old girl, which was causing the impaction of the maxillary right central and lateral incisors, as well as the prolonged retention of the corresponding primary teeth. We also aimed to review the literature about these tumours, since they are not part of the dentist's day-to-day clinical practice. The clinical and radiographic features, the diagnosis and treatment of the case were discussed in this work. PMID:25583937

  1. Aggressive dentigerous cyst with ectopic central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Mitra, Malay; Bandlapalli, Anila; Jana, Biswanath

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dentigerous cysts form from accumulation of fluid between reduced enamel epithelium and the crown of an unerupted tooth. They cause several difficulties such as swelling, non-eruption of the involved teeth, and displacement of adjacent teeth, and thus require early detection and prompt treatment. Treatment ranges from marsupialisation to enucleation. Enucleation is rarely used in children compared with marsupialisation. This paper discusses successful use of enucleation for treating a dentigerous cyst and explains the need for such a radical procedure. PMID:24913076

  2. [Incisor repositioning: a new approach in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Dallel, Ines; Khemiri, Mourad; Fathallah, Safa; Ben Rejeb, Salwa; Tobji, Samir; Ben Amor, Adel

    2015-12-01

    Lower incisors axis has a "key" position in different cephalometric analysis. However, several critics are directed towards the cephalometric profile and cephalometric landmarks (point, line and angle). The published norms and the cephalometric standards recommended for the optimal positioning of incisors could only be used as general clinical guidelines. Incisor repositioning to achieve optimal facial aesthetics requires taking into consideration the hard and soft tissues of the face, the profile, the muscular dynamics as well as the facial growth. In this work, we propose a new approach of incisor repositioning taking into account the variability of periodontal, functional and aesthetic factors. PMID:26655419

  3. A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

    2010-07-01

    The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood. PMID:20544874

  4. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ∼0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  5. Biomechanical considerations in mandibular incisor extraction cases.

    PubMed

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Dasari, Arun Kumar; Sinojiya, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction can be regarded as a valuable treatment option in certain malocclusions to obtain excellence in orthodontic results in terms of function, aesthetics and stability. This treatment alternative is indicated in clinical situations like mild to moderate class III malocclusion, mild anterior mandibular tooth size excess, periodontally compromised teeth, ectopic eruption of mandibular incisor and minimal openbite tendencies. Unlike in premolar extraction cases, space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases is unique in which the extraction space will be in the middle of the arch. The end result of space closure in these cases should be well aligned, upright, anterior teeth with parallel roots and the goal can be achieved with the bodily tooth movement through proper application of biomechanics. The purpose of this article is to explain the biomechanics of space closure in mandibular incisor extraction cases. PMID:25881386

  6. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  7. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Ozel, Emre; Arukaslan, Goze; Tekce, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention. PMID:26962321

  8. Clinical management of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth: A case report.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Seda; Ozel, Emre; Arukaslan, Goze; Tekce, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a fused mandibular lateral incisor with supernumerary tooth with a follow-up for 18-months. A 35-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic with an extraoral sinus tract in the chin. The intraoral diagnosis revealed the fusion of her mandibular lateral incisors. Vitality pulp tests were negative for mandibular right central and lateral incisors. Radiographic examinations showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers, two distinct roots, and two separate root canals. There were also periapical lesion of fused teeth and mandibular right central incisor, so endodontic treatment was carried out the related teeth. Radiographic examination revealed a complete healing of the lesion postoperatively at the end of 18-months. This paper reports the successful endodontic and restorative treatment of unilateral fused incisors. Because of the abnormal morphology of the crown and the complexity of the root canal system in fused teeth, treatment protocols require special attention. PMID:26962321

  9. Age estimation from pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary incisors among Egyptians using dental radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Jaklin Fekri; Fawzy, Irene Atef; Habib, Sahar Refaat; Ali, Magdy Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Age estimation from dental radiographs is a non-destructive, simple method to obtain information. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of age estimation from Egyptians' incisors radiographs. 144 periapical radiographs of maxillary (central & lateral) incisors (both sexes) aged 12-60 were used. Digital camera was used to image the radiographs. Images were computed and pulp/tooth area ratios were determined by AutoCAD Program. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis which showed statistically significant correlation (r = 0.23 &P = 0.006 for maxillary central incisors and r = -0.2 &P = 0.05 for maxillary lateral incisors) between age and pulp tooth area ratio. Linear regression equations were determined separately for both central and lateral incisors along with the corresponding Standard Error of Estimate, which ranged from 1.2 to 5.08 years. Consequently, it was concluded that pulp/tooth area ratios of incisors are reliable for estimation of age among Egyptians in forensic work. PMID:21315299

  10. Deciduous molar hypomineralization and molar incisor hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; ten Cate, J M; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Moll, H A; Veerkamp, J S J

    2012-06-01

    This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. This study focused on the relationship between Deciduous Molar Hypomineralization (DMH) and Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). First permanent molars develop during a period similar to that of second primary molars, with possible comparable risk factors for hypomineralization. Children with DMH have a greater risk of developing MIH. Clinical photographs of clean, moist teeth were taken with an intra-oral camera in 6,161 children (49.8% girls; mean age 74.3 mos, SD ± 5.8). First permanent molars and second primary molars were scored with respect to DMH or MIH. The prevalence of DMH and MIH was 9.0% and 8.7% at child level, and 4.0% and 5.4% at tooth level. The Odds Ratio for MIH based on DMH was 4.4 (95% CI, 3.1-6.4). The relationship between the occurrence of DMH and MIH suggests a shared cause and indicates that, clinically, DMH can be used as a predictor for MIH. PMID:22370445

  11. Is bodily advancement of the lower incisors possible?

    PubMed

    Strahm, Catherine; De Sousa, Ana Paula; Grobéty, Dominique; Mavropoulos, Anestis; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2009-08-01

    Some Class II malocclusions are due, at least in part, to a retruded lower dental arch relative to the mandibular body. The purpose of this study was to determine if a direct anterior force on the lower incisors could lead to bodily movement of these teeth. Twenty-seven patients (9 males, 18 females; mean age: 9.8 years) were treated with a reverse headgear (RHG) in the lower dental arch combined with labial root torque of the lower incisors. An activator was added to disclude the arches. This group was compared with 26 patients (10 males, 16 females; mean age: 9.7 years) treated with an activator combined with conventional posterior extraoral traction on the upper molars. All patients had a second stage of treatment with fixed appliances and Class II elastic wear. At the end of treatment, all patients had a Class I relationship and a normal overjet. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T1), after the first stage (T2), and at the end of active (T3) treatment. Independent sample t-tests were used to assess the differences between the two groups of patients. In the RHG group, despite the applied root torque, the lower incisors showed anterior crown tipping. Labial root displacement was not observed. At T2, this labial tipping partially relapsed. Furthermore, the use of RHG appeared to decrease bone apposition in the anterior part of the symphysis, leading to a reduction in width. Bodily advancement of the lower incisors was not achieved with the application of labial root torque and anteriorly directed force on the mandibular arch. The width limit of the lower anterior apical base should be respected during orthodontic treatment planning. PMID:19395370

  12. Incisor toothwear caused by a dietary habit involving chillies-a case report.

    PubMed

    Addy, Liam; Antonarakis, Gregory

    2005-05-01

    Toothwear cases can vary dramatically in their presentation, with some displaying quite peculiar patterns. This case report outlines a patient's unusual eating habit that had led to a localized pattern of toothwear affecting his maxillary and mandibular central incisors. The patient had a habit of eating fresh chillies between his incisors after most evening meals; this was followed by immediate toothbrushing, which he had done for many years. This case illustrates that, not only is diet analysis important in identifying aetiological factors in toothwear cases, but also dietary habits. PMID:15938340

  13. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnapriya, V; Sriram, CH; Reddy, Maheshwar KR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surgical derotation is a method of placing a rotated tooth in normal alignment in a dental arch; surgically, immediately and permanently. It is a potentially convenient and cost-effective treatment modality as compared to conventional orthodontic procedure for rotated maxillary incisor with open apex. Here is a presentation of a severely rotated maxillary left permanent central incisor in a nine and half years old girl, with a radiographic evidence of immature root apex which was surgically derotated, orthodontically retroclined and intruded to its normal position. Postsurgical clinical and radiographic evaluation was done for a period of one and half years to confirm the vitality and continued physiological root formation of the affected tooth. How to cite this article: Dutta B, Krishnapriya V, Sriram CH, Reddy MKR. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):220-223. PMID:26604541

  14. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    PubMed

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum. PMID:1659854

  15. Comparative studies between mice molars and incisors are required to draw an overview of enamel structural complexity

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Michel; Kellermann, O.; Dimitrova-Nakov, S.; Harichane, Y.; Baudry, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the field of dentistry, the murine incisor has long been considered as an outstanding model to study amelogenesis. However, it clearly appears that enamel from wild type mouse incisors and molars presents several structural differences. In incisor, exclusively radial enamel is observed. In molars, enamel displays a high level of complexity since the inner part is lamellar whereas the outer enamel shows radial and tangential structures. Recently, the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2BR) was shown to be involved in ameloblast function and enamel mineralization. The incisors from 5HT2BR knockout (KO) mice exhibit mineralization defects mostly in the outer maturation zone and porous matrix network in the inner zone. In the molars, the mutation affects both secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis since pronounced alterations concern overall enamel structures. Molars from 5HT2BR KO mice display reduction in enamel thickness, alterations of inner enamel architecture including defects in Hunter-Schreger Bands arrangements, and altered maturation of the outer radial enamel. Differences of enamel structure were also observed between incisor and molar from other KO mice depleted for genes encoding enamel extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, upon mutation, enamel analysis based exclusively on incisor defects would be biased. In view of the functional relationship between enamel structure and tooth morphogenesis, identification of molecular actors involved in amelogenesis requires comparative studies between mice molars and incisors. PMID:25285079

  16. Molars and incisors: show your microarray IDs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the key questions in developmental biology is how, from a relatively small number of conserved signaling pathways, is it possible to generate organs displaying a wide range of shapes, tissue organization, and function. The dentition and its distinct specific tooth types represent a valuable system to address the issues of differential molecular signatures. To identify such signatures, we performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing murine lower incisors, mandibular molars and maxillary molars at the developmental cap stage (E14.5). Results 231 genes were identified as being differentially expressed between mandibular incisors and molars, with a fold change higher than 2 and a false discovery rate lower than 0.1, whereas only 96 genes were discovered as being differentially expressed between mandibular and maxillary molars. Numerous genes belonging to specific signaling pathways (the Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, FGF, TGFβ/BMP, and retinoic acid pathways), and/or to the homeobox gene superfamily, were also uncovered when a less stringent fold change threshold was used. Differential expressions for 10 out of 12 (mandibular incisors versus molars) and 9 out of 10 selected genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). A bioinformatics tool (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) used to analyze biological functions and pathways on the group of incisor versus molar differentially expressed genes revealed that 143 genes belonged to 9 networks with intermolecular connections. Networks with the highest significance scores were centered on the TNF/NFκB complex and the ERK1/2 kinases. Two networks ERK1/2 kinases and tretinoin were involved in differential molar morphogenesis. Conclusion These data allowed us to build several regulatory networks that may distinguish incisor versus molar identity, and may be useful for further investigations of these tooth-specific ontogenetic programs. These programs may be dysregulated in

  17. Reattachment of fractured teeth fragments in mandibular incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Mohammed K

    2015-01-01

    The majority of dental trauma involves anterior teeth, especially the maxillary central incisors. A mandibular incisor fracture with or without pulp tissue involvement is considerably less common. Different approaches for treating these fractured teeth have been reported in the literature. The type of treatment rendered depends mainly on the extent of fracture, pulp involvement, radicular fracture, biologic width infringement or violation, and presence of the fractured piece. This case report illustrates reattachment of fractured fragments on two mandibular incisors without pulp exposure using a new proposed reattachment method using a combination of two different types of composite materials together with an orthodontic lingual retention wire. An 8-year-old female patient presented with fractured mandibular left incisors (Ellis class II fracture). Broken pieces were saved and brought in a closed container in water. Periapical radiographs revealed no evidence of pulpal involvement in either tooth and no periapical radiolucency was noticed. Fractured fragments and the broken teeth were prepared with circumferential bevels. Reattachment of the fractured fragments were done using two types of composite resin materials and a lingual orthodontic retention wire was also used. The patient was recalled after 8 months to follow up both teeth. Clinical examination revealed excellent composite restorations covering the fracture lines. PMID:25897267

  18. MTA resorption and periradicular healing in an open-apex incisor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Ehsani, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the periradicular healing and resorption of an unintentional extrusion of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in an open-apex central incisor. A 22-year old female with a symptomatic open-apex right maxillary central incisor associated with a periradicular lesion was referred for evaluation and treatment. After chemomechanical debridement, the apical third of the root canal was filled with MTA to create an apical plug. Postoperative radiographs showed the extrusion of MTA into the periradicular lesion. The tooth was then restored with a post and crown. At the 2-year follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and radiographs revealed complete healing of the periradicular area. At the 7-year follow-up, complete resorption of the extruded MTA was evident. The results of this case study indicate that complete resorption of extruded MTA is possible in the long term; however, the extrusion of MTA in open-apex tooth should still be avoided. PMID:23960529

  19. How much incisor decompensation is achieved prior to orthognathic surgery?

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Calum; Laverick, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify incisor decompensation in preparation for orthognathic surgery. Study design: Pre-treatment and pre-surgery lateral cephalograms for 86 patients who had combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment were digitised using OPAL 2.1 [http://www.opalimage.co.uk]. To assess intra-observer reproducibility, 25 images were re-digitised one month later. Random and systematic error were assessed using the Dahlberg formula and a two-sample t-test, respectively. Differences in the proportions of cases where the maxillary (1100 +/- 60) or mandibular (900 +/- 60) incisors were fully decomensated were assessed using a Chi-square test (p<0.05). Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify if there were any differences in the amount of net decompensation for maxillary and mandibular incisors between the Class II combined and Class III groups (p<0.05). Results: Random and systematic error were less than 0.5 degrees and p<0.05, respectively. A greater proportion of cases had decompensated mandibular incisors (80%) than maxillary incisors (62%) and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.029). The amount of maxillary incisor decompensation in the Class II and Class III groups did not statistically differ (p=0.45) whereas the mandibular incisors in the Class III group underwent statistically significantly greater decompensation (p=0.02). Conclusions: Mandibular incisors were decompensated for a greater proportion of cases than maxillary incisors in preparation for orthognathic surgery. There was no difference in the amount of maxillary incisor decompensation between Class II and Class III cases. There was a greater net decompensation for mandibular incisors in Class III cases when compared to Class II cases. Key words:Decompensation, orthognathic, pre-surgical orthodontics, surgical-orthodontic. PMID:25136421

  20. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    PubMed

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique. PMID:1884866

  1. Orthodontic force decreases the eruption rate of rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Drevensek, M; Volk, J; Sprogar, S; Drevensek, G

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a force applied in an antero-posterior direction would adequately reduce incisor eruption. This is needed to achieve a constant direction of force which is one of the demands for a good model for studying orthodontic tooth movement. Twenty male Wistar rats aged 11-12 weeks were divided into two equal groups: in the appliance group, a superelastic closed coil spring (25 cN) was placed between the upper left first molar and the incisors. The control group consisted of animals without an appliance. In both groups, cuts were created on the labial surfaces of the upper and lower incisors. The distance from the gingival reference point to the midpoint of the cut was measured for 10 days at 2 day intervals. Upper incisor inclination was determined as the distance from the most mesial point of the upper left first molar to the incisal edge of the ipsilateral incisor on days 0 and 10. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post- test to estimate reliability. The eruption rates of the maxillary incisors in the appliance group were significantly decreased when compared with the control group during the whole experiment. In the appliance group, the eruption rates of the mandibular incisors were decreased more than those of the maxillary incisors (P<0.01). There was no difference in incisor inclination between the appliance and control groups on day 10 (P=0.81). The applied force of 25 cN in an antero-posterior direction diminished incisor eruption to a level which enabled a constant direction of orthodontic force for 10 days. PMID:19073954

  2. Cone beam-computed topographic evaluation of a central incisor with an open apex and a failed root canal treatment using one-step apexification with Biodentine™: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Patil, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    A symptomatic endodontically treated immature tooth with periapical pathology presents multiple challenges to the clinician. Owing to incomplete root formation, gutta percha removal has to be done carefully without further damaging the periapical tissue or pushing the obturating material beyond the apex. Nonsurgical approach toward treating such a tooth would necessitate the creation of an apical barrier followed by conventional root canal treatment. Current literature suggests one-step apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), with an apical matrix as the treatment of choice. A new calcium silicate-based cement also called as dentine substitute by the manufacturers with good handling properties has been introduced recently by the trade name Biodentine™ (Septodont, St. Maurdes Fossés, France). This case report presents management of a secondary endodontic case with an open apex treated with the concept of ‘lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR)’ using triantibiotic paste and Biodentine™ for apical barrier formation. A 12-month follow up with cone beam-computed topography (CBCT) exhibited progressive involution of periapical radiolucency with indications of good healing of the periapical tissues and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:24944456

  3. An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

  4. Lower incisor retraction with a modified corticotomy.

    PubMed

    Germeç, Derya; Giray, Bahadir; Kocadereli, Ilken; Enacar, Ayhan

    2006-09-01

    This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment facilitated with a new conservative corticotomy technique to shorten the treatment time during lower incisor retraction. The patient was a 22-year-old woman with protrusive profile, severe anterior crowding, an anterior crossbite, and Class III dental relationship. Orthodontic treatment consisted of the extraction of four first premolars with maximum anchorage. A modified corticotomy technique, in which the lingual vertical and subapical horizontal cuts were eliminated, was combined with orthodontic therapy for the retraction of the lower anterior teeth. Corticotomy-facilitated orthodontics dramatically reduced the treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of the teeth. The main advantages of this modified corticotomy technique were the elimination of the lingual cuts and flap, the reduction of surgery time, and minimum discomfort to the patient. At the end of active orthodontic therapy, balanced occlusion and facial esthetics were achieved. PMID:17029527

  5. The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  6. Management of invasive cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Senthil; Kumar, N. S. Mohan; Karunakaran, J. V.; Nagendran, S.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is often not diagnosed properly, leading to improper treatment or unnecessary loss of the tooth structure. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are the keys to a successful outcome of therapy. Invasive cervical resorption is often seen in the cervical area of the tooth, but because it is initiated apical to the epithelial attachment, it can present anywhere in the root. In the early stages, it may be symmetrical, but larger lesions have the tendency to be asymmetrical. It can expand apically or coronally. PMID:26538950

  7. Upper incisor to Soft Tissue Plane (UI-STP): a new reference for diagnosis and planning in dentofacial deformities.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Alfaro, Federico

    2010-09-01

    Planning in orthognathic surgery has been and still is an open issue. We have evolved from 2D classical cephalometric hard-tissue planning to 2D soft tissue planning, and finally to 3D and hard and soft tissue evaluation. This, to our knowledge, is the first description of a new Soft Tissue Plane (STP) and its relationship with the anterior position of the upper incisor (UI). Profile photographs of 110 "attractive individuals" with lips at rest or smiling and with upper incisor shown were used. The photographs used were of 65 professional models from two international agencies and 45 individuals considered most attractive in the internet forums, which included catwalk models and actors. In 86 cases (78.18 %), the incisor was located in front of the STP (A). In 15 cases (13.63%), it was on the plane (N); and in the remaining 9 cases (8.18%), it was behind (P). Despite the limitations of this study and based on our series, we can conclude that the upper incisor is located at or in front of the Soft Tissue Plane (STP) in 91.81% of the attractive facial profiles studied. On the other hand, the relative position of the upper incisor to the soft tissue plane (UI-STP) could be a useful diagnostic and planning tool in orthodontic and surgical management of dentofacial deformities. PMID:20383095

  8. Morphology of Mandibular Incisors: A Study on CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Kamtane, Smita; Ghodke, Monali

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of the study was to identify the number of root canals and examine root canal morphology of permanent mandibular incisors in an Indian sub-population of Pune, Maharashtra, India using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material/Methods This study was conducted at Elite CBCT & Dental Diagnostics, Pune. One hundred mandibular incisors were evaluated for the number of root, root canals and root morphology. Results In the present study, amongst 102 mandibular incisors, all had one root, 36% of them had a second canal, and Vertucci Type I was the most common type. Conclusions CBCT imaging is an excellent method for detection of different canal configurations of mandibular incisors. PMID:26834865

  9. beta-Catenin initiates tooth neogenesis in adult rodent incisors.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Dangaria, S; Andl, T; Zhang, Y; Wright, A C; Damek-Poprawa, M; Piccolo, S; Nagy, A; Taketo, M M; Diekwisch, T G H; Akintoye, S O; Millar, S E

    2010-09-01

    beta-Catenin signaling is required for embryonic tooth morphogenesis and promotes continuous tooth development when activated in embryos. To determine whether activation of this pathway in the adult oral cavity could promote tooth development, we induced mutation of epithelial beta-catenin to a stabilized form in adult mice. This caused increased proliferation of the incisor tooth cervical loop, outpouching of incisor epithelium, abnormal morphology of the epithelial-mesenchymal junction, and enhanced expression of genes associated with embryonic tooth development. Ectopic dental-like structures were formed from the incisor region following implantation into immunodeficient mice. Thus, forced activation of beta-catenin signaling can initiate an embryonic-like program of tooth development in adult rodent incisor teeth. PMID:20530729

  10. β-catenin Initiates Tooth Neogenesis in Adult Rodent Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F.; Dangaria, S.; Andl, T.; Zhang, Y.; Wright, A.C.; Damek-Poprawa, M.; Piccolo, S.; Nagy, A.; Taketo, M.M.; Diekwisch, T.G.H.; Akintoye, S.O.; Millar, S.E.

    2010-01-01

    β-catenin signaling is required for embryonic tooth morphogenesis and promotes continuous tooth development when activated in embryos. To determine whether activation of this pathway in the adult oral cavity could promote tooth development, we induced mutation of epithelial β-catenin to a stabilized form in adult mice. This caused increased proliferation of the incisor tooth cervical loop, outpouching of incisor epithelium, abnormal morphology of the epithelial-mesenchymal junction, and enhanced expression of genes associated with embryonic tooth development. Ectopic dental-like structures were formed from the incisor region following implantation into immunodeficient mice. Thus, forced activation of β-catenin signaling can initiate an embryonic-like program of tooth development in adult rodent incisor teeth. PMID:20530729

  11. Treatment options for the replacement of missing mandibular incisors.

    PubMed

    Fleigel, Jeffrey D; Salmon, Cade A; Piper, James M

    2011-07-01

    The replacement of a mandibular incisor is a dental treatment warranting special consideration. Some of the challenges associated with the anterior mandible are limited space, challenging surrounding anatomy, and tough esthetic requirements. Proper diagnosis and treatment planning may require a multidisciplinary approach to successfully meet the demands of replacing a missing tooth in this sextant. Several treatment options currently exist for mandibular incisor replacement. These options include (1) resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs), (2) orthodontic treatment, (3) full-veneer fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), (4) dental implants for single-tooth replacement, (5) possible extraction of one or more incisors and restoration with implant-supported FDPs, (6) possible extraction of one or more teeth and restoration with FDPs from #22 to 27, (7) possible extraction of one or more teeth and restoration with removable dental prostheses (RDPs). This manuscript outlines the various treatment options for the replacement of mandibular incisors and discusses benefits and drawbacks of each. PMID:21631631

  12. 24. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM. BASE POWER PANEL VISIBLE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM. BASE POWER PANEL VISIBLE ON RIGHT WALL OF HALLWAY. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  13. Maxillary lateral incisor with two roots: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mithun; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subba Rao, C V

    2011-01-01

    Although the dental literature has indicated that 100% of maxillary lateral incisors have a single canal anatomy, it is possible for these teeth to have extra canals. These extra canals must be identified and debrided to prevent endodontic failure. This report presents an uncommon case involving a maxillary lateral incisor with two roots. Even when the frequency of radicular anatomy abnormality is extremely low, dentists must consider the possibility that a tooth has extra root canals or even extra roots. PMID:21613043

  14. [Failure in anterior rehabilitation of agenesic maxillary lateral incisors].

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philippart-Rochaix, Martine; Philip-Alliez, Camille

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors poses particular problems for dentists, orthodontists and patients. Treatment of these ageneses is still highly controversial, both functionally and esthetically. The patient's smile and anterior guidance are affected and must be restored. The diagnosis is easy. Few mistakes are possible. However, managing patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors can be a challenge, commonly involving two possible treatment approaches: space opening to replace the missing lateral incisor with a prosthetic unit (denture, bridge or implant) or orthodontic space closure replacing the missing lateral incisor with the maxillary canine camouflaged to mimic the appearance of a lateral incisor. One of these two options will be adopted using multiple means...liable to trigger a multitude of possible errors. Ultimately, optimal results can only be achieved if there is excellent coordination between different practitioners in various specialties. Each clinician will have a specific role to play. Also, the patient and family are at the heart of the decision-making process, by virtue of their consent (treatment duration, financial resources) and their motivation. This multi-factorial, multi-disciplinary decision process means that treatment of the lateral incisor is an ongoing challenge for the clinician striving for the best possible result. Each case is different. No set rules exist. No single factor can be neglected if we are to avoid "failure". PMID:27083223

  15. Fitness consequences of centrality in mutualistic individual-based networks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José M.; Perfectti, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The relationships among the members of a population can be visualized using individual networks, where each individual is a node connected to each other by means of links describing the interactions. The centrality of a given node captures its importance within the network. We hypothesize that in mutualistic networks, the centrality of a node should benefit its fitness. We test this idea studying eight individual-based networks originated from the interaction between Erysimum mediohispanicum and its flower visitors. In these networks, each plant was considered a node and was connected to conspecifics sharing flower visitors. Centrality indicates how well connected is a given E. mediohispanicum individual with the rest of the co-occurring conspecifics because of sharing flower visitors. The centrality was estimated by three network metrics: betweenness, closeness and degree. The complex relationship between centrality, phenotype and fitness was explored by structural equation modelling. We found that the centrality of a plant was related to its fitness, with plants occupying central positions having higher fitness than those occupying peripheral positions. The structural equation models (SEMs) indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was not merely an effect of the abundance of visits and the species richness of visitors. Centrality has an effect even when simultaneously accounting for these predictors. The SEMs also indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was because of the specific phenotype of each plant, with attractive plants occupying central positions in networks, in relation to the distribution of conspecific phenotypes. This finding suggests that centrality, owing to its dependence on social interactions, may be an appropriate surrogate for the interacting phenotype of individuals. PMID:22158957

  16. The Grooved Rodent Incisor Recapitulates Rudimentary Teeth Characteristics of Ancestral Mammals.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Tang, Q; Jung, H-S

    2016-07-01

    It is known from the paleontology studies of eutherian mammals that incisor numbers were reduced during evolution. The evolutionary lost incisors may remain as vestigial structures at embryonic stages. The recapitulation of the incisor patterns among mammalian species will potentially uncover the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic transition of incisors during evolution. Here, we showed that a minute tooth formed in the presumptive groove region of the gerbil upper incisor at the early developmental stages, during which multiple epithelial swellings and Shh transcription domains spatiotemporally appeared in the dental epithelium, suggests the existence of vestigial dental primordia. Interestingly, when we trimmed the surrounding mesenchyme from incisor tooth germs at or before the bud stage prior to ex vivo culture, the explants developed different incisor phenotypes ranging from triplicated incisors, duplicated incisors, to Lagomorpha-like incisors, corresponding to the incisor patterns in the eutherian mammals. These results imply that the phenotypic transition of incisors during evolution, as well as the achievement of ultimate incisors in adults, arose from differential integrations of primordia. However, when the incisor tooth germ was trimmed at the cap stage, a grooved incisor developed similar to the normal condition. Furthermore, the incisor tooth germ developed a small but smooth incisor after the additional removal of the minute tooth and a lateral rudiment. These results suggest that multiple dental primordia integrated before the cap stage, with the labial primordia contributing to the labial face of the functional incisor. The minute tooth that occupied the boundary of the 2 labial primordia might be implicated in the groove formation. This study sheds light on how rudiments incorporate into functional organs and aids the understanding of incisor evolution. PMID:26912224

  17. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post.

    PubMed

    Manju, M; Shanthraj, Srinivas L; Savitha, K C; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  18. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Savitha, K. C.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  19. Treatment of horizontal root-fractured maxillary incisors--a case report.

    PubMed

    Polat-Ozsoy, Omür; Gülsahi, Kamran; Veziroğlu, Firdevs

    2008-12-01

    Traumatic dental injuries often occur to the teeth and their supporting tissues and they are the main reasons for emergency visit to a dental clinic. Management of a fracture depends on its position and the extent of root involvement. Horizontal root fractures are not seen frequently and the treatment consists of reduction and long-term rigid fixation of the coronal segment. The present case demonstrates the successful management of two horizontally fractured maxillary central incisors with a follow-up period of 9 months. PMID:19021647

  20. Conventional Treatment of Maxillary Incisor Type III Dens Invaginatus with Periapical Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; Nadalin, Michele Regina; Pedro, Fábio Luís Miranda; da Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2011-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental dental anomaly clinically characterized by a palatine furrow that can be limited to the coronal pulp or may extend to the radicular apex. The purpose of this paper was to present a clinical case of type III dens invaginatus, identified on the maxillary right central incisor in anterior periapical radiographs, in which the tooth was submitted to conventional endodontic treatment. The results obtained after five years of clinical and radiographic followup demonstrated that conventional endodontic treatment is a clinically viable alternative in cases of type III dens invaginatus. PMID:21991460

  1. Electron microprobe analyses of Ca, S, Mg and P distribution in incisors of Spacelab-3 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, G. D.; Simmons, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of Ca, S, Mg and P was mapped within the incisors of Spacelab-3 rats using an electron microprobe. The data indicate that Flight rats maintained in orbit for 7 days have significantly higher Ca/Mg ratios in dentin due to both higher Ca and lower Mg content than in dentin of ground-based Controls. There is no statistical difference in distribution of either P or S within Fligth animals and Controls, but there is clear indication that, for P at least, the reason is the greater variability of the Control data. These results are consistent with those obtained on a previous NASA/COSMOS flight of 18.5 days duration, although they are not pronounced. The results further suggest that continuously growing rat incisors provide useful records of the effects of weightlessness on Ca metabolism.

  2. Hidden link prediction based on node centrality and weak ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifeng; Hu, Zheng; Haddadi, Hamed; Tian, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Link prediction has been widely used to extract missing information, identify spurious interactions, evaluate network evolving mechanisms, and so on. In this context, similarity-based algorithms have become the mainstream. However, most of them take into account the contributions of each common neighbor equally to the connection likelihood of two nodes. This paper proposes a model for link prediction, which is based on the node centrality of common neighbors. Three node centralities are discussed: degree, closeness and betweenness centrality. In our model, each common neighbor plays a different role to the node connection likelihood according to their centralities. Moreover, the weak-tie theory is considered for improving the prediction accuracy. Finally, extensive experiments on five real-world networks show that the proposed model can outperform the Common Neighbor (CN) algorithm and gives competitively good prediction of or even better than Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index.

  3. A comparative study of different intrusion methods and their effect on maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Prachi; Tandon, Ragni; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate and compare the rate of intrusion and root resorption of maxillary incisors by three different intrusion techniques: Rickett's utility arch, Kalra's Simultaneous Intrusion & Retraction arch and arch with Reverse Curve of Spee. Methods The study was conducted over 30 patients aged between 14 and 25 yrs with deep bite requiring at least 2–4 mm intrusion of maxillary incisors. These patients were equally divided into three groups based on intrusion technique used, Rickets utility arch (Group I), K-SIR arch (Group II) and RCS arch (Group III). For each patient, amount of intrusion and root resorption occurring during intrusion was measured. Seven angular and six linear cephalometric measurements were made to evaluate skeletal and dental changes before and after incisor intrusion. Results The mean true incisor intrusion achieved with utility arch was 1.6 mm, with K-SIR, 1.25 mm and with RCS, 0.70 mm respectively. The rate of intrusion of utility arch was 0.44 mm/month, K-SIR – 0.33 mm/month, RCS – 0.35 mm/month, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.451). Utility arch had significantly higher mean root resorption of 1.56 mm as compared to K-SIR of 1.08 mm and RCS of 0.96 mm. Conclusion Both the intrusion rate and root resorption is more by utility arch while with K-SIR arch, though the rate of intrusion is almost same; the root resorption is much less. PMID:25737942

  4. A new algorithm CNM-Centrality of detecting communities based on node centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fang; Liu, Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    The discovery and analysis of community structure in complex networks is a hot issue in recent years. In this paper, based on the fast greedy clustering algorithm CNM with the thought of local search, the introduction of the idea of node centrality and the optimal division of the central nodes and their neighbor nodes into correct communities, a new algorithm CNM-Centrality of detecting communities in complex networks is proposed. In order to verify the accuracy and efficiency of this algorithm, the performance of this algorithm is tested on several representative real-world networks and a set of computer-generated networks by LFR-benchmark. The experimental results indicate that this algorithm can identify the communities accurately and efficiently. Furthermore, this algorithm can also acquire higher values of modularity and NMI than the CNM, Infomap, Walktrap algorithms do.

  5. Effect of Fluoride and Simplified Adhesive Systems on the Bond Strength of Primary Molars and Incisors.

    PubMed

    Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Noleto, Lawanne Ellen Carvalho; Gomes, Isabella Azevedo; Bauer, José Roberto de Oliveira; Ferreira, Meire Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate in vitro the influence of simplified adhesive systems (etch-and-rinse and self-etching) and 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) on the microshear bond strength (μ-SBS) of composite resins on primary molars and incisors. Forty primary molars and forty incisors vestibular enamel was treated with either the self-etching Clearfil SE Bond (CSE, Kuraray) or etch-and-rinse Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2, 3M/ESPE) adhesive system. Each group was subdivided based on the prior treatment of the enamel with or without the topical application of 1.23% APF. Thereafter, matrices were positioned and filled with composite resin and light cured. After storage in distilled water at 37 ± 1°C for 24 h, the specimens were submitted to μ-SBS in a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p < 0.05) showed that the prior application of 1.23% APF led to a significant reduction in bond strength. The type of adhesive exerted no significant influence bond strength. In the inter-group analysis, however, significantly bond strength reduction was found for the incisors when CSE was employed with APF. Adhesive failure was the most common type of fracture. The bond strength was affected by the prior application of 1.23% APF and type of tooth. PMID:26312974

  6. a New Centrality Metric Based on Clustering Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Guo, Shi-Ze; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Qiao, Yu-Long; Song, Guang-Hua

    2013-07-01

    Many centrality metrics have been proposed over the years to compute the centrality of nodes, which has been a key issue in complex network analysis. The most important node can be estimated through a variety of metrics, such as degree, closeness, eigenvector, betweenness, flow betweenness, cumulated nominations and subgraph. Simulated flow is a common method adopted by many centrality metrics, such as flow betweenness centrality, which assumes that the information spreads freely in the entire network. Generally speaking, the farther the information travels, the more times the information passes the geometric center. Thus, it is easy to determine which node is more likely to be the center of the geometry network. However, during information transmission, different nodes do not share the same vitality, and some nodes are more active than others. Therefore, the product of one node's degree and its clustering coefficient can be viewed as a good factor to show how active this node is. In this paper, a new centrality metric called vitality centrality is introduced, which is only based on this product and the simulated flow. Simulation experiments based on six test networks have been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of our new metric.

  7. A study on evaluation of center of resistance of maxillary four incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction: A finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the center of resistance of maxillary incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction. Subjects and Methods: In this study, the following steps were employed namely, (1) Preprocessing - the creation of geometric model, mesh generation and boundary conditions. (2) Postprocessing - the tooth movement and determination of center of resistance. Results: The center of the mid-sagittal plane approximately 6 mm apical and 4 mm posterior to a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane from the labial alveolar crest of the central incisor resistance for the maxillary four incisors was located within the. Conclusion: Finite element is a sound mechanical method of analysis as it was sufficient enough to provide insight into interactions between orthodontic forces, and dental tissues and reliability of this study. Further by using this study clinically, the center of resistance can be precisely located in single rooted tooth during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25210384

  8. Localized periodontal defect associated with unusual furcation involvement on a mandibular incisor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeHyun; Intini, Giuseppe; Kim, David M; Levin, Liran

    2013-10-01

    A localized periodontal defect associated with an unusual furcation on a mandibular central incisor and its treatment sequences are presented. A 54-year-old woman presented with a persistent localized periodontal defect, which was not responsive to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. An exploratory surgery revealed complete through and through furcation involvement on the right mandibular central incisor, resulting in a three-walled infrabony defect. Following thorough mechanical debridement and root planing, the infrabony aspect of the defect was grafted with freeze-dried bone allograft combined with the recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB. The flaps were positioned to enable patient's home care and professional dental cleaning. Follow-up examination revealed uneventful healing and resolution of the infrabony periodontal defect. Clinicians should be aware of this unusual condition and consider it as a potential etiology when dealing with a persistent localized periodontal defect in the mandibular anterior sextant, which may not respond to the conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Eliminating the active disease as well as enabling careful maintenance and oral hygiene may prevent further deterioration and result in a stable long-term outcome preserving the compromised tooth. PMID:23878844

  9. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, HL; Nagarathna, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  10. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, H L; Nagarathna, J; Kumar, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  11. Use of a Resin-Bonded Bridge to Replace a Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisor: Treatment of "Intrusion" of Teeth.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Paul S; Bahat, Oded; Froum, Stuart J; Daftary, Fereidoun; Rosenthal, Howard; Feldman, Sylvan

    2016-07-01

    Craniofacial growth is an important factor to consider when providing dental implant treatment for adolescents to replace missing teeth. Ongoing longitudinal observation has demonstrated that such tooth replacements may appear intruded over time, because there may be ongoing downward and anterior movement of both the alveolus and the teeth at a rate exceeding that of the dental implant, which acts like an ankylosed unit. This case reports on a 23.5-year-old female patient who, at age 16, had orthodontics completed and was left with a space where the maxillary right lateral incisor was congenitally missing with the hope of future restoration with a dental implant. A resin-bonded bridge had been placed to fill the space in the interim. After approximately 7.5 years, the bridge loosened and the patient sought an implant option as its replacement. Clinical images revealed that the bridge, which contained two bonded wings, may have limited physiologic growth, causing both the maxillary right central incisor and canine to appear intruded compared with the left central incisor and canine. This case illustrates, at the very least, that growth and development may not be complete in females aged 16 years and that the way in which a missing tooth is replaced must be carefully considered given the impact that ongoing growth and development may have on restorative care. Moreover, further growth and development may also impact adults. PMID:27548400

  12. Nonsurgical Endodontic Management of a Molar-Incisor Malformation-affected Mandibular First Molar: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yue, Wonyoung; Kim, Euiseong

    2016-04-01

    A molar-incisor malformation (MIM) is a newly reported type of dental anomaly that involves a characteristic root malformation in permanent first molars and deciduous second molars and a crown defect in permanent central incisors. This case report describes a nonsurgical root canal treatment of a MIM-affected molar by aid of a reformatted axial view of the tooth cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A MIM-affected molar has calcified canal orifices and a few immature accessory furcal canals. Conventional root canal treatment with the aid of CBCT followed by resin restoration was performed on the tooth. The malformed roots of MIM teeth generally make it difficult to apply conventional endodontic treatment; however, it was possible to do with the aid of the reformatted axial view of the CBCT. PMID:26706790

  13. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. Materials and Methods The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. Results The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. Conclusion These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration. PMID:23071964

  14. Two betweenness centrality measures based on Randomized Shortest Paths

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Ilkka; Lebichot, Bertrand; Saramäki, Jari; Saerens, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces two new closely related betweenness centrality measures based on the Randomized Shortest Paths (RSP) framework, which fill a gap between traditional network centrality measures based on shortest paths and more recent methods considering random walks or current flows. The framework defines Boltzmann probability distributions over paths of the network which focus on the shortest paths, but also take into account longer paths depending on an inverse temperature parameter. RSP’s have previously proven to be useful in defining distance measures on networks. In this work we study their utility in quantifying the importance of the nodes of a network. The proposed RSP betweenness centralities combine, in an optimal way, the ideas of using the shortest and purely random paths for analysing the roles of network nodes, avoiding issues involving these two paradigms. We present the derivations of these measures and how they can be computed in an efficient way. In addition, we show with real world examples the potential of the RSP betweenness centralities in identifying interesting nodes of a network that more traditional methods might fail to notice. PMID:26838176

  15. Mouse Incisor Stem Cell Niche and Myb Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Svandova, E; Vesela, B; Smarda, J; Hampl, A; Radlanski, R J; Matalova, E

    2015-10-01

    Dental hard tissues are formed particularly by odontoblasts (dentin) and ameloblasts (enamel). Whereas the reparation of dentin is often observed, enamel does not regenerate in most species. However, in mouse incisor, a population of somatic stem cells in the cervical loop is responsible for the incisor regeneration. Understanding of the specificities of these cells is therefore of an interest in basic research as well as regenerative therapies. The Myb transcription factors are involved in essential cellular processes. B-Myb is often linked to the stem cell phenotype, and c-Myb expression marks undifferentiated and proliferating cells such as the stem cells. In the presented study, temporo-spatial expression of B-Myb and c-Myb proteins was correlated with localisation of putative somatic stem cells in the mouse incisor cervical loop by immunohistochemistry. B-Myb expression was localised mostly in the zone of transit-amplifying cells, and c-Myb was found in the inner enamel epithelium, the surrounding mesenchyme and in differentiated cells. Taken together, neither B-Myb nor c-Myb was exclusively present or abundant in the area of the incisor stem cell niche. Their distribution, however, supports recently reported novel functions of c-Myb in differentiation of hard tissue cells. PMID:25182175

  16. Immediate maxillary lateral incisor implants with nonocclusal loading provisional crowns.

    PubMed

    Peñarrocha, Miguel; Lamas, Joana; Peñarrocha, Maria; Garcia, Berta

    2008-01-01

    This clinical report series describes a treatment modality involving immediately placed dental implants in maxillary lateral incisor sites using noncemented immediate provisional crowns retained with calcinable copings (prosthetic complement used in preparing the metal for the definitive prosthesis). Ten implants were placed in eight patients for the replacement of maxillary lateral incisors: two immediate and eight corresponding to cases of agenesis. All were subjected to immediate rehabilitation with provisional acrylic resin crowns in nonocclusal loading. One implant failed 3 weeks after placement due to acute local trauma. The other nine remained functional within the mouth, with normal clinical and radiological characteristics after a minimum of 12-month follow-up. Immediate placement of implant fixed provisional restorations retained by friction in maxillary lateral incisors offers an esthetic solution, eliminates the need for a removable provisional restoration, and avoids implant failures associated with excess cement or screw loosening. Moreover, in the case of extractions, immediate placement and provisionalization of implants in maxillary lateral incisors can effectively optimize the peri-implant esthetic results by maintaining the existing hard and soft tissue architecture of the replaced tooth. As no cement or screws are required, and the provisional crowns are placed in nonocclusal loading, the risk of complications is minimized. PMID:17927733

  17. Continuous and Short Fiber Reinforced Composite in Root Post-Core System of Severely Damaged Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V.J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the static load-bearing capacity of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with post-core complex made of experimental fiber composite resin (FC) and complete crown made of particulate filler composite (PFC). Further aim was to evaluate the effect of FC resin on the failure mode of the restoration. Material and Methods: The experimental composite resin (FC) was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers (3 mm in length) and 22.5 wt% of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) resin with 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers. Thirty extracted sound upper central incisors were used. Twenty teeth were prepared by cutting the clinical crown 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction horizontally. Restorations were made by two techniques (n=10). Group A (control group) contained samples of sound incisor teeth. Group B had teeth restored using glass fiber post (everStick, Stick- Teck) and PFC (Filtek Z250, 3M-ESPE) to build up core and complete crown. In Group C, the teeth were restored with FC as post-core and complete crown of PFC. The root canals were prepared and posts were cemented with a dual cure resin cement. The restorations were polymerized with a hand-light curing unit. All restored teeth were stored in water at room temperature for 24 h before they were statically loaded with speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p=0.05). Failure modes were visually examined. Results: ANOVA revealed that restored incisors (Group B and C) had a statistically significantly lower load-bearing capacity (p<0.05) than the control group. Restorations made from FC post-core and PFC coverage (Group C) gave force value of 363 N (112 SD), which was higher than the value of Group B (211 N, 50 SD). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the teeth restored with experimental fiber composite post-core demonstrated higher load bearing capacity than those with fiber post and PFC core

  18. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens

    PubMed Central

    Sidiq, Mohsin; Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhargava, Neha; Ganta, Shravani

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this case study was to report a potentially convenient approach instead of a conventional orthodontic procedure for correcting severe rotation of anterior tooth of an 11-year-old Indian boy, with a mixed dentition class I malocclusion. The child reported seeking treatment for severely rotated upper right central incisor with mesiodens and a single tooth crossbite. The supernumerary tooth was first extracted and bondable buttons were placed on the rotated tooth, an appliance composed of a removable plate with Adam’s clasp with distal extension and a loop for engagement of elastics was delivered. Circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy was performed on the corrected derotated tooth. Then, Hawley’s appliance with a z-spring and posterior bite plane was fabricated and placed for correction of crossbite. Thus, this removable appliance can be a simplified and a cost-effective treatment alternative for derotation of anterior tooth, especially during the mixed dentition period. How to cite this article: Sidiq M, Yousuf A, Bhat M, Sharma R, Bhargava N, Ganta S. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):234-238. PMID:26604544

  19. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Sidiq, Mohsin; Yousuf, Asif; Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhargava, Neha; Ganta, Shravani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case study was to report a potentially convenient approach instead of a conventional orthodontic procedure for correcting severe rotation of anterior tooth of an 11-year-old Indian boy, with a mixed dentition class I malocclusion. The child reported seeking treatment for severely rotated upper right central incisor with mesiodens and a single tooth crossbite. The supernumerary tooth was first extracted and bondable buttons were placed on the rotated tooth, an appliance composed of a removable plate with Adam's clasp with distal extension and a loop for engagement of elastics was delivered. Circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy was performed on the corrected derotated tooth. Then, Hawley's appliance with a z-spring and posterior bite plane was fabricated and placed for correction of crossbite. Thus, this removable appliance can be a simplified and a cost-effective treatment alternative for derotation of anterior tooth, especially during the mixed dentition period. How to cite this article: Sidiq M, Yousuf A, Bhat M, Sharma R, Bhargava N, Ganta S. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):234-238. PMID:26604544

  20. The Dance of Tusks: Rediscovery of Lower Incisors in the Pan-American Proboscidean Cuvieronius hyodon Revises Incisor Evolution in Elephantimorpha.

    PubMed

    Mothé, Dimila; Ferretti, Marco P; Avilla, Leonardo S

    2016-01-01

    The incisors of proboscideans (tusks and tushes) are one of the most important feature in conservation, ecology and evolutionary history of these mammals. Although the absence of upper incisors is rare in proboscideans (occurring only in deinotheres), the independent losses of lower incisors are recognized for most of its lineages (dibelodont condition). The presence of lower incisors in the Pan-American gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon was reported a few times in literature, but it was neglected in systematic studies. We analyzed several specimens of Cuvieronius hyodon from the Americas and recognized that immature individuals had lower incisors during very early post-natal developmental stages. Subsequently, these are lost and lower incisors alveoli close during later developmental stages, before maturity. Moreover, for the first time in a formal cladistic analysis of non-amebelodontine trilophodont gomphotheres, Rhynchotherium and Cuvieronius were recovered as sister-taxa. Among several non-ambiguous synapomorphies, the presence of lower incisors diagnoses this clade. We recognize that the presence of lower incisors in Cuvieronius and Rhynchotherium is an unique case of taxic atavism among the Elephantimorpha, since these structures are lost at the origin of the ingroup. The rediscovery of the lower incisors in Cuvieronius hyodon, their ontogenetic interpretation and the inclusion of this feature in a revised phylogenetic analysis of trilophodont gomphotheres brought a better understanding for the evolutionary history of these proboscideans. PMID:26756209

  1. The Dance of Tusks: Rediscovery of Lower Incisors in the Pan-American Proboscidean Cuvieronius hyodon Revises Incisor Evolution in Elephantimorpha

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The incisors of proboscideans (tusks and tushes) are one of the most important feature in conservation, ecology and evolutionary history of these mammals. Although the absence of upper incisors is rare in proboscideans (occurring only in deinotheres), the independent losses of lower incisors are recognized for most of its lineages (dibelodont condition). The presence of lower incisors in the Pan-American gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon was reported a few times in literature, but it was neglected in systematic studies. We analyzed several specimens of Cuvieronius hyodon from the Americas and recognized that immature individuals had lower incisors during very early post-natal developmental stages. Subsequently, these are lost and lower incisors alveoli close during later developmental stages, before maturity. Moreover, for the first time in a formal cladistic analysis of non-amebelodontine trilophodont gomphotheres, Rhynchotherium and Cuvieronius were recovered as sister-taxa. Among several non-ambiguous synapomorphies, the presence of lower incisors diagnoses this clade. We recognize that the presence of lower incisors in Cuvieronius and Rhynchotherium is an unique case of taxic atavism among the Elephantimorpha, since these structures are lost at the origin of the ingroup. The rediscovery of the lower incisors in Cuvieronius hyodon, their ontogenetic interpretation and the inclusion of this feature in a revised phylogenetic analysis of trilophodont gomphotheres brought a better understanding for the evolutionary history of these proboscideans. PMID:26756209

  2. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient. PMID:26734563

  3. Sex determination using the mesio-distal dimension of permanent maxillary incisors and canines in a modern Chilean population.

    PubMed

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Logar, Ciara; Garrido-Varas, Claudia E; Meek, Susan; Pinto, Ximena Toledo

    2016-03-01

    The pelvis and skull have been shown to be the most accurate skeletal elements for the determination of sex. Incomplete or fragmentary bones are frequently found at forensic sites however teeth are often recovered in forensic cases due to their postmortem longevity. The goal of the present research was to investigate sexual dimorphism between the mesio-distal dimension of the permanent maxillary incisors and canines for the determination of sex in a contemporary Chilean population. Three hundred and three dental models (126 males and 177 females) from individuals ranging in age from 13 years to 37 years old were used from the School of Dentistry, University of Chile. The statistical analyses showed that only the central incisors and canines were sexually dimorphic. Discriminant function score equations were generated for use in sex determination. The average accuracy of sex classification ranged from 59.7% to 65.0% for the univariate analysis and 60.1% to 66.7% for the multivariate analysis. Comparisons to other populations were made. Overall, the accuracies ranged from 54.4% to 63.3% with males most often identified correctly and females most often misidentified. The determination of sex from the mesio-distal width of incisors and canines in Chilean populations does not adhere to the Mohan and Daubert criteria and therefore would not be presented as evidence in court. PMID:26976465

  4. Method to find community structures based on information centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, Santo; Latora, Vito; Marchiori, Massimo

    2004-11-01

    Community structures are an important feature of many social, biological, and technological networks. Here we study a variation on the method for detecting such communities proposed by Girvan and Newman and based on the idea of using centrality measures to define the community boundaries [M. Girvan and M. E. J. Newman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 7821 (2002)]. We develop an algorithm of hierarchical clustering that consists in finding and removing iteratively the edge with the highest information centrality. We test the algorithm on computer generated and real-world networks whose community structure is already known or has been studied by means of other methods. We show that our algorithm, although it runs to completion in a time O(n4) , is very effective especially when the communities are very mixed and hardly detectable by the other methods.

  5. A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

    The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

  6. Structural and Morphometric Comparison of Lower Incisors in PACAP-Deficient and Wild-Type Mice.

    PubMed

    Sandor, B; Fintor, K; Reglodi, D; Fulop, D B; Helyes, Z; Szanto, I; Nagy, P; Hashimoto, H; Tamas, A

    2016-06-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with widespread distribution. PACAP plays an important role in the development of the nervous system, it has a trophic and protective effect, and it is also implicated in the regulation of various physiological functions. Teeth are originated from the mesenchyme of the neural crest and the ectoderm of the first branchial arch, suggesting similarities with the development of the nervous system. Earlier PACAP-immunoreactive fibers have been found in the odontoblastic and subodontoblastic layers of the dental pulp. Our previous examinations have shown that PACAP deficiency causes alterations in the morphology and structure of the developing molars of 7-day-old mice. In our present study, morphometric and structural comparison was performed on the incisors of 1-year-old wild-type and PACAP-deficient mice. Hard tissue density measurements and morphometric comparison were carried out on the mandibles and the lower incisors with micro-CT. For structural examination, Raman microscopy was applied on frontal thin sections of the mandible. With micro-CT morphometrical measurements, the size of the incisors and the relative volume of the pulp to dentin were significantly smaller in the PACAP-deficient group compared to the wild-type animals. The density of calcium hydroxyapatite in the dentin was reduced in the PACAP-deficient mice. No structural differences could be observed in the enamel with Raman microscopy. Significant differences were found in the dentin of PACAP-deficient mice with Raman microscopy, where increased carbonate/phosphate ratio indicates higher intracrystalline disordering. The evaluation of amide III bands in the dentin revealed higher structural diversity in wild-type mice. Based upon our present and previous results, it is obvious that PACAP plays an important role in tooth development with the regulation of morphogenesis, dentin, and enamel mineralization. Further studies are

  7. Structural analysis of metabolic networks based on flux centrality.

    PubMed

    Koschützki, Dirk; Junker, Björn H; Schwender, Jörg; Schreiber, Falk

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic reactions are fundamental to living organisms, and a large number of reactions simultaneously occur at a given time in living cells transforming diverse metabolites into each other. There has been an ongoing debate on how to classify metabolites with respect to their importance for metabolic performance, usually based on the analysis of topological properties of genome scale metabolic networks. However, none of these studies have accounted quantitatively for flux in metabolic networks, thus lacking an important component of a cell's biochemistry. We therefore analyzed a genome scale metabolic network of Escherichia coli by comparing growth under 19 different growth conditions, using flux balance analysis and weighted network centrality investigation. With this novel concept of flux centrality we generated metabolite rankings for each particular growth condition. In contrast to the results of conventional analysis of genome scale metabolic networks, different metabolites were top-ranking dependent on the growth condition. At the same time, several metabolites were consistently among the high ranking ones. Those are associated with pathways that have been described by biochemists as the most central part of metabolism, such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway. The values for the average path length of the analyzed metabolite networks were between 10.5 and 12.6, supporting recent findings that the metabolic network of E. coli is not a small-world network. PMID:20471988

  8. A rare occurrence of geminated-taloned maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, R; Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-05-01

    The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  9. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  10. Effects of cephalometric landmark validity on incisor angulation.

    PubMed

    Chan, C K; Tng, T H; Hägg, U; Cooke, M S

    1994-11-01

    An experimental cephalometric study on the accuracy of independently locating eight landmarks and the subsequent effects on the maxillary (ILs/NL) and mandibular (ILi/ML) incisor angulation was carried out on 30 dry skulls. The true location of each landmark was marked with a steel ball glued onto the skulls. Two additional steel balls were used as reference markers. A purpose-designed skullholder was made to assure a firm and reproducible positioning of the skulls in the cephalostat. Six series of cephalograms were recorded. One reference series with all the steel balls, four series each with a single steel ball marker removed, one at a time, from each jaw and one series with all the steel ball markers removed, except the reference markers. The combined method error in relocating and replacing the steel ball markers, repositioning the skulls into the skull holder, and digitizing, was low. From the first series, the true position of the palatal plane (NL), the maxillary incisor line (ILs), the mandibular plane (ML) and the mandibular incisor line (ILi) were assessed. From series 2 to 5, each of the landmarks without the steel ball markers was estimated. The accuracy of each landmark was then assessed relative to the true cephalometric plane and its perpendicular. On average, the accuracy was high for all the landmarks except posterior nasal spine (PNS), which was estimated 1.2 mm too far anteriorly (p < 0.05). The standard deviations of the accuracy of the dental and skeletal landmarks were similar, being 1.4 to 2.4 mm. The maxillary incisors were proclined 1.1 degrees (p < 0.05) by the estimates of incision superior (Is).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7977189

  11. The effect of epidermal growth factor on neonatal incisor differentiation in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Topham, R T; Chiego, D J; Gattone, V H; Hinton, D A; Klein, R M

    1987-12-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on cellular differentiation of the neonatal mouse mandibular incisor was examined autoradiographically using tritiated thymidine ([3H]TDR) and tritiated proline ([3H]PRO). On days 0 (day of birth), 1, and 2, EGF was administered (3 micrograms/g body wt) sc to neonates. Mice were killed on Days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 13 after birth and were injected with either [3H]TDR or [3H]PRO 1 hr before death. [3H]TDR was used to analyze cell proliferation in eight cell types in the developing mouse incisor including upper (lingual) and lower (buccal) pulpal fibroblasts, preodontoblasts, inner and outer enamel epithelial cells (IEE and OEE), stratum intermedium (SI), stellate reticulum (SR), and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. [3H]PRO was used to analyze protein synthesis in ameloblasts, and their secretion products (enamel and dentin), as well as PDL fibroblasts. The selected EGF injection scheme elicited acceleration of incisor eruption with minimal growth retardation. At Day 1, the upper and lower pulp, preodontoblasts, SI, and SR showed a significant decrease in labeling index (LI) 24 hr after a single EGF injection. After multiple injections (Days 0, 1, 2), two LI patterns were observed. In lower pulp, preodontoblasts, IEE, SI, SR, and OEE, a posteruptive change in LI was observed. In contrast, the upper pulp and PDL regions demonstrated a direct temporal relationship with eruption. Autoradiographic analysis with [3H]PRO indicated that EGF treatment caused significant increases in grain counts per unit area in ameloblast, odontoblast, and PDL regions studied. Significant differences were found in all four regions studied (ameloblasts, enamel, odontoblasts, dentin) at the 45-microns-tall ameloblast level as well as ameloblasts and odontoblasts at the 30-microns level at 13 days of age. The PDL demonstrated significant differences at all locations studied (base, 30 microns, 45 microns,) in 4-, 7-, and 13-day-old mice

  12. Interdisciplinary Approach for Management of Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aseemkumar; Jain, Nimit; Jose, Nidhin Philip; Shetty, Siddarth

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary lateral incisors are frequently found congenitally missing, and their replacement has to be done prosthodontically. However, there are a variety of treatment options; a justified solution after orthodontic correction is the use of Maryland Bridges. Following is a case report of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors and an impacted canine and their orthodontic correction followed by prosthetic replacement of the lateral incisors using Maryland bridges. PMID:27029086

  13. Risk factors in the occurrence of molar-incisor hypomineralization amongst a group of Iraqi children.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise; Mariño, Rodrigo; Morgan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  Despite the worldwide increasing interest in the prevalence studies of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), there is still insufficient evidence to verify the aetiological factors of this condition. AIMS.  To investigate risk factors involved in the development of MIH in a group of school-aged Iraqi children. DESIGN.  Seven- to nine-year-old school children (823 of 1000 eligible, response rate of 82.3%) had their first permanent molars and incisors evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry evaluation criteria for MIH. Mothers completed a medical history questionnaire-based interview performed in the schools by a trained examiner. RESULTS.  For children with MIH, 6% reported no relevant medical history; the remaining 94% reported various medical conditions putatively associated with MIH compared with 70% for the non-affected group. Post-natal medical conditions (33.3%) were most frequently reported. When data were split into the possible risk effect groups, maternal psychological stress (OR, 3.24), frequent exposure to ultrasonic scans during the last gestational trimester (OR, 2.51) and birth order as a fourth sibling or later (OR, 3.17 and 5.73, respectively) were previously unreported significant risk factors and postulated as contributing to, or causing the defect. CONCLUSIONS.  Children with MIH had experienced a greater number of medical conditions than their unaffected peers with no single health event identified as a risk factor. PMID:22646757

  14. Longitudinal clinical and radiographic evaluation of severely intruded permanent incisors in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Neto, José Jeová Siebra Moreira; Gondim, Juliana Oliveira; de Carvalho, Fernanda Matias; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida

    2009-10-01

    Intrusion is defined as the axial dislodgment of the tooth into its socket and is considered one of the most severe types of dental trauma. This longitudinal outcome study was undertaken to evaluate clinically and radiographically severely intruded permanent incisors in a population of children and adolescents. All cases were treated between September 2003 and February 2008 in a dental trauma service. Clinical and radiographic data were collected from 12 patients (eight males and four females) that represented 15 permanent maxillary incisors. Mean age at the time of injury was 8 years and 9 months (range 7-14 years and 8 months). Mean time elapsed to follow-up was 26.6 months (range 10-51 months). The analysis of data showed that tooth intrusion was twice as frequent in males. The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly intruded teeth (93.3%), and falling at home was the main etiologic factor (60%). More than half of the cases (53.3%) were multiple intrusions, 73.3% of the intruded teeth had incomplete root formation and 66.6% of the teeth suffered other injuries concomitant to intrusion. Immediate surgical repositioning was the treatment of choice in 66.7% of the cases, while watchful waiting for the tooth to return to its pre-injury position was adopted in 33.3% of the cases. The teeth that suffered additional injuries to the intrusive luxation presented a fivefold increased relative risk of developing pulp necrosis. The immature teeth had six times more chances of presenting pulp canal obliteration that the mature teeth and a lower risk of developing root resorption. The most frequent post-injury complications were pulp necrosis (73.3%), marginal bone loss (60%), inflammatory root resorption (40%), pulp canal obliteration (26.7%) and replacement root resorption (20%). From the results of this study, it was not possible to determine whether the type immediate treatment had any influence on the appearance of sequelae like pulp necrosis and root

  15. Three-dimensional evaluation of upper anterior alveolar bone dehiscence after incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion malocclusion*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qing-yuan; Zhang, Shi-jie; Liu, Hong; Wang, Chun-ling; Wei, Fu-lan; Lv, Tao; Wang, Na-na; Liu, Dong-xu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone during incisor retraction and intrusion in adult patients with maximum anchorage. Methods: Twenty adult patients with bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion had the four first premolars extracted. Miniscrews were placed to provide maximum anchorage for upper incisor retraction and intrusion. A computed tomography (CT) scan was performed after placement of the miniscrews and treatment. The 3D reconstructions of pre- and post-CT data were used to assess the dehiscence of upper anterior alveolar bone. Results: The amounts of upper incisor retraction at the edge and apex were (7.64±1.68) and (3.91±2.10) mm, respectively, and (1.34±0.74) mm of upper central incisor intrusion. Upper alveolar bone height losses at labial alveolar ridge crest (LAC) and palatal alveolar ridge crest (PAC) were 0.543 and 2.612 mm, respectively, and the percentages were (6.49±3.54)% and (27.42±9.77)%, respectively. The shape deformations of LAC-labial cortex bending point (LBP) and PAC-palatal cortex bending point (PBP) were (15.37±5.20)° and (6.43±3.27)°, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, for adult patients with bimaxillary protrusion, mechanobiological response of anterior alveolus should be taken into account during incisor retraction and intrusion. Pursuit of maximum anchorage might lead to upper anterior alveolar bone loss. PMID:22135148

  16. Orthodontic treatment of bilateral geminated maxillary permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Aboudharam, Gérard

    2011-05-01

    Geminated teeth occur more frequently in the deciduous dentition than in the permanent dentition, with prevalence figures of 0.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Bilateral presentation is rare. A survey of the literature showed that the prevalence estimates for bilateral double teeth range from 0.01% to 0.04% in the deciduous dentition, and 0.05% in the permanent dentition. In this article, we report a rare case of bilateral fusion of the maxillary permanent incisors, discuss possible histogenetic mechanisms related to this anomaly, and explain the treatment management. PMID:21536214

  17. Non-linear viscoelastic finite element analysis of the effect of the length of glass fiber posts on the biomechanical behaviour of directly restored incisors and surrounding alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Marco; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Apicella, Davide; Aversa, Raffaella; Apicella, Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The study aimed at estimating the effect of insertion length of posts with composite restorations on stress and strain distributions in central incisors and surrounding bone. The typical, average geometries were generated in a FEA environment. Dentin was considered as an elastic orthotropic material, and periodontal ligament was coupled with nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties. The model was then validated with experimental data on displacement of incisors from published literature. Three post lengths were investigated in this study: root insertion of 5, 7, and 9 mm. For control, a sound incisor model was generated. Then, a tearing load of 50 N was applied to both sound tooth and simulation models. Post restorations did not seem to affect the strain distribution in bone when compared to the control. All simulated post restorations affected incisor biomechanics and reduced the root's deforming capability, while the composite crowns underwent a higher degree of deformation than the sound crown. No differences could be noticed in incisor stress and strain. As for the influence of post length, it was not shown to affect the biomechanics of restored teeth. PMID:18833761

  18. A centralized quantum switch network based on probabilistic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Min; Wu, Re-Bing; Li, Hui; Zhang, Zeng-ke

    2013-01-01

    We present a practical scheme for deterministically teleporting quantum information via probabilistic communication channels in a centralized quantum switch network. In the network, a central quantum switch agent is assigned for regulating probabilistic channels so as to construct a direct deterministic channel between the sender and the receiver. This scheme is further extended to a hierarchical network and a tree network involving multiple agents. The advantage of the scheme is that all required multi qubit gates from distributed terminal agents are uniformly performed by a central agent, with which the physical design of terminal nodes is greatly simplified and more reliable deterministic teleportation can be realized in a centralized quantum probabilistic network.

  19. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization.

    PubMed

    Negre-Barber, A; Montiel-Company, J M; Boronat-Catalá, M; Catalá-Pizarro, M; Almerich-Silla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9-86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6-88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9-17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47-0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39-35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  20. The relationship of crowding to the eruptive position of the lower permanent incisors.

    PubMed

    Deery, C

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the positions of newly erupted lower permanent incisors and their relationship to crowding. Forty-one crowded and 37 uncrowded dental casts of children in the early mixed dentition were examined by means of digitization using a reflex microscope. Two aspects of alignment were considered: rotation and labio-lingual displacement. Rotations of the incisors were defined as deviations from 'ideal' predicted angles. Displacement of the incisors was measured as the distance between the most labial and most lingually placed incisors. The study showed an increase in rotations amongst the crowded sample. The result of the investigation of the relationship between crowding and displacement was inconclusive. There would appear to be significant differences between the positions of newly erupted crowded and uncrowded incisors. Crowding, however, was not the only factor causing irregularity. PMID:8286302

  1. Modulation of clinical expression of plaque-induced gingivitis: effect of incisor crown form.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R; Manfrini, R; Tatakis, D N

    2004-09-01

    Evidence indicates that incisor crown form correlates with clinical periodontal features. It was hypothesized that incisor crown form may explain subject differences in gingivitis expression. The present experimental gingivitis study aimed to assess the effect of incisor crown form on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and on individual susceptibility to plaque-induced gingivitis. Eighty-five periodontally healthy subjects were evaluated. A negative correlation was found between incisor crown width/crown length ratio and bleeding score (p = 0.045). From the 85 subjects, two groups of subjects with either 'long-narrow' or 'short-wide' incisor form were identified. The 'long-narrow' group had a significantly higher bleeding score than the 'short-wide' group (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found in the incisor crown width/crown length ratio between previously identified 'high responder' and 'low responder' subjects (Trombelli et al., 2004a). In conclusion, incisor crown form appears to affect the bleeding response of inflamed gingival tissues, while it exerts no influence on explaining differences in individuals' susceptibility to plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:15329381

  2. Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars as Predictor of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Negre-Barber, A.; Montiel-Company, J. M.; Boronat-Catalá, M.; Catalá-Pizarro, M.; Almerich-Silla, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a developmental defect of dental enamel that shares features with hypomineralized second primary molars (HSPM). Prior to permanent tooth eruption, second primary molars could have predictive value for permanent molar and incisor hypomineralization. To assess this possible relationship, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 8 and 9 years from the INMA cohort in Valencia (Spain). A calibrated examiner (linear-weighted Kappa 0.83) performed the intraoral examinations at the University of Valencia between November 2013 and 2014, applying the diagnostic criteria for MIH and HSPM adopted by the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 100 children (24.2%) presented MIH and 60 (14.5%) presented HSPM. Co-occurrence of the two defects was observed in 11.1% of the children examined. The positive predictive value was 76.7% (63.9–86.6) and the negative predictive value 84.7% (80.6–88.3). The positive likelihood ratio (S/1-E) was 10.3 (5.9–17.9) and the negative likelihood ratio (1-S/E) 0.57 (0.47–0.68). The odds ratio was 18.2 (9.39–35.48). It was concluded that while the presence of HSPM can be considered a predictor of MIH, indicating the need for monitoring and control, the absence of this defect in primary dentition does not rule out the appearance of MIH. PMID:27558479

  3. Notching and anterior beveling on fossil horse incisors: Indicators of domestication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Richard A.; Rogers, Laurine A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the lines of evidence cited for possible late Pleistocene human control of horses has been the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth recovered from upper and middle Paleolithic sites in Europe. Similar forms of wear have been found on the incisor teeth of wild horses from early and middle Pleistocene deposits in North America. Notching appears partly due to malocclusion and chipping. The causes of beveling are less certain but may involve the eating of bark. Therefore, the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth may not be a reliable indicator of human control.

  4. Space-Based Detection of Sinkhole Activity in Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver-Cabrera, T.; Kruse, S.; Wdowinski, S.

    2015-12-01

    Central Florida's thick carbonate deposits and hydrological conditions have made the area prone to sinkhole development. Sinkhole collapse is a major geologic hazard in central Florida threatening human life and causing substantial damage to property. According to the Florida Senate report in 2010, between 2006-2010 total insurance claims due to sinkhole activity were around $200 million per year. Detecting sinkhole deformation before a collapse is a very difficult task, due to small or sometimes unnoticeable surface changes. Most techniques used to monitor sinkholes provide very localized information and cannot be implemented to study broad areas. This is the case of central Florida, where the active zone spans over hundreds of square-kilometers. In this study we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations acquired over several locations in central Florida to detect possible pre-collapse deformation. The study areas were selected because they have shown suspicious sinkhole behavior. One of the sites collapsed on March 2013 destroying a property and killing a man. To generate the InSAR results we use six datasets acquired by the TerraSAR-X and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites with various acquisition modes reflecting pixel resolutions between 25cm and 2m. Preliminary InSAR results show good coherence over constructed areas and low coherence in vegetated zones, justifying our analysis that focuses on the man-made structures. After full datasets will be acquired, a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) time series analysis will be performed for detecting localized deformation at spatial scale of 1-5 meters. The project results will be verified using Ground Penetrating Radar.

  5. Excess NF-κB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-κB signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-κB signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKKβ, an essential component of the NF-κB pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikkβ). K5-Ikkβ mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikkβ mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikkβ mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-κB activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. PMID:25376721

  6. Extraction of an incisor embedded within the nasal cavity in two guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; ONO, Kaori; OMIYA, Tomoko; OGUCHI, Yukio; SETOGAWA, Moemi; MACHIDA, Yuuki

    2015-01-01

    Oral examination of two guinea pigs revealed that the unilateral incisor was absent. On radiographic examination, the incisor was identified within the nasal cavity in both patients. Under anesthesia in both patients, the skin was incised from the nostril to 1.5 cm proximal, and the premaxilla and part of the maxilla were exposed. The bone was removed using a surgical drill, and the incisor was exposed in the nasal cavity. The root was grasped with forceps and carefully extracted as it was degraded and very fragile. Diagnosis was easy using oral and radiographic examination. In guinea pig patients where an incisor is absent on oral examination, this condition should be considered. PMID:26118492

  7. Class II, Division 1 Angle malocclusion with severe proclination of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    Montanha, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    Protrusion of maxillary incisors is a common complaint among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. This report addresses the correction of Class II Angle malocclusion with excessively bucally proclined maxillary incisors, in an adolescent female patient, through the use of extraoral and fixed appliances. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:27007768

  8. [Treatment of complete traumatic avulsion of an incisor tooth in adults].

    PubMed

    Benmansour, A

    2013-05-01

    It is possible to replant an incisor tooth completely avulsed after trauma in adults. These cases are relatively frequent among athletes. It is essential to conserve the tooth in saline solution. The time before replantation must be as short as possible. The simple technique described here, which requires a minimum of material and no dental chair, makes it possible to replant an avulsed incisor with a good success rate. PMID:23803559

  9. Wear in the upper and lower incisors in relation to incisal and condylar guidance.

    PubMed

    Bauer, W; van den Hoven, F; Diedrich, P

    1997-01-01

    The incisors of 85 patients were examined for tooth wear with the aim to evaluate possible association between the degree of wear and anterior guidance. Apart from clinical functional analysis electronic axiography using the system CADIAX was carried out. Anterior guidance in protrusive movement was marked on individually mounted plaster casts and scanned using a pantograph. The cephalometric analysis program CADIAS was used for the metric determination of the anterior guidance angle to the axis-orbital plane, and in order to relate the anterior guidance to the horizontal condylar inclination. The interincisal angle was included in the evaluation as a further functional angle and according to overjet and overbite there were classified typical incisor relations. Where both anterior guidance and incisor inclination and relation were in the normal range, there was an increase in incisal tooth wear in the group investigated. With reduced functional space, frequently found together with anterior deep bite, incisor wear was less extensive. While the occurrence of parafunction was shown not to be related to anterior guidance and incisor inclination and relation parafunctions were the decisive factor in the occurrence of severe incisor wear. Where anterior guidance and incisor inclination and relation are normal, the area of enamel under load is smaller and the space for bruxism larger. Parafunctional forces thus appear to result in a higher degree of wear than is found with the reduced functional space of a steep incisor position. Anterior guidance could not be evaluated as a parafunctonal inducing factor, but only as determining the wear pattern in the individual. PMID:9433050

  10. Surgical Treatment of an Immature Short-Rooted Traumatized Incisor with an Extensive Apical Lesion Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Severe traumatic injuries to immature teeth often cause damage to periodontal ligament as well as dental pulp; pulp necrosis, root resorption and subsequent apical lesion are common consequences. This article reports the surgical management of an infected immature maxillary central incisor associated with a gigantic periradicular lesion and severe root resorption. The tooth had a history of trauma and the patient suffered from purulent sinus tract and tooth mobility. After unsuccessful multi-session disinfection with calcium hydroxide, root end surgery was planned. During flap surgery and lesion enucleation, the root end was cleaned and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After one year, the radiographic examination revealed that the lesion was almost completely replaced with newly formed bone. In addition, clinical examination showed favorable outcomes; the tooth was symptom-free and in function. Due to chemical, physical and biological properties of CEM cement, this biomaterial might be considered as the root-end filling material of choice. PMID:25834603

  11. Aesthetic Rehabilitation of a Complicated Crown-Root Fracture of the Maxillary Incisor: Combination of Orthodontic and Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Campos Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a complex rehabilitation, of fractured tooth, with implants in anterior region considering the orthodontics extrusion to clinical success. At 7 years old, the patient fractured the maxillary left central incisor and the dentist did a crown with the fragment. Twenty years later, the patient was referred to a dental clinic for orthodontic treatment, with the chief complaint related to an accentuated deep bite, and a professional started an orthodontic treatment. After sixteen months of orthodontic treatment, tooth 21 fractured. The treatment plan included an orthodontic extrusion of tooth 21 and implant placement. This case has been followed up and the clinical and radiographic examinations show excellence esthetic results and satisfaction of patient. The forced extrusion can be a viable treatment option in the management of crown root fracture of an anterior tooth to gain bone in a vertical direction. This case emphasizes that to achieve the esthetic result a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. PMID:24872900

  12. Extraction of the lateral incisors to treat maxillary protrusion: quantitative evaluation of the stomatognathic functions.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sumiyoshi, Kumi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2013-03-01

    To treat morphological abnormalities, impaction, and severe malposition of the teeth, the lateral incisors are sometimes extracted, followed by orthodontic space closure. This procedure often requires special consideration, not only with regard to esthetics but also for functional issues. However, thus far, few reports that have performed a functional evaluation in such cases. The purpose of this article is to report the successful treatment of an adult patient with a Class II division 1 malocclusion who was treated with extraction of the upper lateral incisors. The female patient, aged 23 years and 6 months, had a chief complaint of maxillary incisal protrusion and crooked teeth. In this patient, the upper lateral incisors were extracted to fulfill the patient's strong request, followed by orthodontic treatment using edgewise appliances. A high-pull J-hook headgear on the lower dental arch was used to prevent further labial inclination of the lower incisors. The total active treatment period was 37 months. The resulting occlusion and a satisfactory facial profile were maintained during a 4-year retention period. Additionally, this treatment did not affect the stomatognathic functions as assessed by the following criteria: range of the incisal path or condylar motion during maximal open-close movement, protrusive excursion, lateral excursion, and the chewing test. In conclusion, extraction of the upper lateral incisors can be an effective treatment choice when the upper lateral incisors are dwarfed, are nonvital, or demonstrate severe malposition. PMID:22908948

  13. New prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary mandibular canine and premolar widths from mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths: A digital model study

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Fazal; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of the study was to generate new prediction equations for the estimation of maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths based on mandibular incisors and first permanent molar widths. Methods A total of 2,340 calculations (768 based on the sum of mandibular incisor and first permanent molar widths, and 1,572 based on the maxillary and mandibular canine and premolar widths) were performed, and a digital stereomicroscope was used to derive the the digital models and measurements. Mesiodistal widths of maxillary and mandibular teeth were measured via scanned digital models. Results There was a strong positive correlation between the estimation of maxillary (r = 0.85994, r2 = 0.7395) and mandibular (r = 0.8708, r2 = 0.7582) canine and premolar widths. The intraclass correlation coefficients were statistically significant, and the coefficients were in the strong correlation range, with an average of 0.9. Linear regression analysis was used to establish prediction equations. Prediction equations were developed to estimate maxillary arches based on Y = 15.746 + 0.602 × sum of mandibular incisors and mandibular first permanent molar widths (sum of mandibular incisors [SMI] + molars), Y = 18.224 + 0.540 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 16.186 + 0.586 × (SMI + molars) for both genders, and to estimate mandibular arches the parameters used were Y = 16.391 + 0.564 × (SMI + molars), Y = 14.444 + 0.609 × (SMI + molars), and Y = 19.915 + 0.481 × (SMI + molars). Conclusions These formulas will be helpful for orthodontic diagnosis and clinical treatment planning during the mixed dentition stage. PMID:27226963

  14. An efficient community detection method based on rank centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Community detection is a very important problem in social network analysis. Classical clustering approach, K-means, has been shown to be very efficient to detect communities in networks. However, K-means is quite sensitive to the initial centroids or seeds, especially when it is used to detect communities. To solve this problem, in this study, we propose an efficient algorithm K-rank, which selects the top-K nodes with the highest rank centrality as the initial seeds, and updates these seeds by using an iterative technique like K-means. Then we extend K-rank to partition directed, weighted networks, and to detect overlapping communities. The empirical study on synthetic and real networks show that K-rank is robust and better than the state-of-the-art algorithms including K-means, BGLL, LPA, infomap and OSLOM.

  15. [Multi-bed & multi-parameter central monitoring system based on TCP/IP protocol].

    PubMed

    Lian, S J; Hu, D K; Zhao, M H; Tang, L H

    2000-02-01

    Communication is one of the key problems to a central monitoring system. In this paper we put forward a central monitoring system using TCP/IP as the network protocol, Windows NT4.0 as the platform, forming a Intranet in a hospital. We also discussed the communication problem between the bed-side monitoring station and the central monitoring station in detail and then put forward a new protocol--Hospital Central Monitor Protocol (HCMP) based on TCP/IP to transfer monitoring data. It is easy to achieve tele-monitoring through the current communication subsystem. PMID:12583091

  16. An Agent-Based Model of Centralized Institutions, Social Network Technology, and Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Makowsky, Michael D.; Rubin, Jared

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the general mechanisms underlying large-scale social and institutional change. We employ an agent-based model to test the impact of authority centralization and social network technology on preference falsification and institutional change. We find that preference falsification is increasing with centralization and decreasing with social network range. This leads to greater cascades of preference revelation and thus more institutional change in highly centralized societies and this effect is exacerbated at greater social network ranges. An empirical analysis confirms the connections that we find between institutional centralization, social radius, preference falsification, and institutional change. PMID:24278280

  17. Two cases with supernumerary teeth in lower incisor region.

    PubMed

    Yokose, Taishi; Sakamoto, Teruo; Sueishi, Kenji; Yatabe, Kenichi; Tsujino, Keiichirou; Kubo, Shuhei; Yakushiji, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Hideharu

    2006-02-01

    Abnormalities in number of teeth are occasionally noted in clinical cases. Many theories have been proposed as regards the causes of the occurrence of supernumerary teeth, including atavism theory, mechanical tooth germ separation theory, tissue induction theory, and dental laminar morphological disturbance theory. However, none of these theories alone offers a sufficient explanation for this phenomenon. The incidence of supernumerary permanent teeth is approximately 1-3%. These are the maxillary anterior teeth, the maxillary molars, and the maxillo-mandibular premolars in terms of descending order of site of occurrence. On the other hand, incidence in the mandibular anterior tooth area, of which there have been few detailed reports, is about 0.01%, a markedly low value. In this paper, we report two rare cases of supernumerary teeth in the mandibular incisor area. We discuss their etiology and orthodontic treatment, and detail a differential diagnosis between the normal and supernumerary teeth. We found that it was difficult to establish a clear etiology and differentiation between the normal and supernumerary teeth. PMID:16924155

  18. Chytridiomycosis risk among Central European amphibians based on surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Balá, Vojtech; Vojar, Jirří; Civi, Petr; Andera, Martin; Rozínek, Roman

    2014-11-13

    The Czech Republic hosts a surprisingly rich biodiversity of amphibians representing the majority of amphibian species present in all of Central and Eastern Europe. Surveillance data of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) collected during 2008 to 2012 were analysed for basic patterns of prevalence and infection intensity among species, age groups and localities. In addition, an investigation was made into possible data bias due to varying PCR inhibition. Infection prevalence in the genus Pelophylax was significantly higher than in other sampled taxa, while Bombina and Bufo were infected with intermediate prevalence. Individual mortalities putatively caused by chytridiomycosis were detected in Bombina and Bufo, but not in Pelophylax. Differences among localities were seen to modulate the pathogen's infection rate and influence overall individual infection intensities. PCR inhibition occurred significantly more often in samples from the genus Pelophylax than in other tested taxa (Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus and Rana dalmatina). Although we found no completely inhibited samples within the genus Bombina, the infection loads were lower in the sample set processed without bovine serum albumin, suggesting some level of PCR inhibition. The combination of high Bd prevalence with no apparent deleterious effect and the high dispersal abilities of water frogs predispose them to act as vectors for chytridiomycosis. It is possible that the role of Pelophylax frogs in the spread of Bd is overlooked due to a large proportion of unrecognized false negatives, but this issue needs further confirmation. PMID:25392037

  19. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, Eddy; Stremme, Wolfgang; Bezanilla, Alejandro; Baylon, Jorge; Grutter, Michel; Blumenstock, Thomas; Hase, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Altzomoni is a high altitude station in central Mexico (19.12 N, 98.65 W, 4000 m a.s.l.) for continuous measurements of various atmospheric parameters. It is located within the Izta-Popo National Park and is operated remotely from the UNAM campus. Since May 2012, high resolution solar absorption spectra have been recorded from this site using a FTIR from Bruker (HR120/5) equipped with MCT, InSb and InGaAs detectors and various optical filters. In this contribution we present a detailed description of the measurement site and the instrumental set-up including a record of the instrumental line-shapes (modulation efficiency and phase error) obtained from cell measurements and analyzed with the LINEFIT code. A preliminary analysis of almost two years of spectra recorded at the Altzomoni site resulting in profile retrievals of four NDACC gases O3, CO, HF and HCl is presented. The retrieval code PROFFIT is used and the Averaging Kernels and an error analysis are used to describe the quality of the measurements. The annual cycles in the time series of O3 and CO are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of anomalies due to volcanic gas emissions of HF and HCl are shown. The presented work is part of an effort to certify this station as part of the NDACC international network.

  20. A development-based compartmentalization of the Drosophila central brain

    PubMed Central

    Pereanu, Wayne; Kumar, Abilasha; Jennett, Arnim; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The neuropile of the Drosophila brain is subdivided into anatomically discrete compartments. Compartments are rich in terminal neurite branching and synapses; they are the neuropile domains in which signal processing takes place. Compartment boundaries are defined by more or less dense layers of glial cells, as well as long neurite fascicles. These fascicles are formed during the larval period when the approximately 100 neuronal lineages that constitute the Drosophila central brain differentiate. Each lineage forms an axon tract with a characteristic trajectory in the neuropile; groups of spatially related tracts congregate into the brain fascicles that can be followed from the larva throughout metamorphosis into the adult stage. In this paper we provide a map of the adult brain compartments and the relevant fascicles defining compartmental boundaries. We have identified the neuronal lineages contributing to each fascicle, which allowed us to directly compare compartments of the larval and adult brain. Most adult compartments can be recognized already in the early larval brain where they form a “protomap” of the later adult compartments. Our analysis highlights the morphogenetic changes shaping the Drosophila brain; the data will be important for studies that link early acting genetic mechanisms to the adult neuronal structures and circuits controlled by these mechanisms. PMID:20533357

  1. Development-based compartmentalization of the Drosophila central brain.

    PubMed

    Pereanu, Wayne; Kumar, Abilasha; Jennett, Arnim; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-08-01

    The neuropile of the Drosophila brain is subdivided into anatomically discrete compartments. Compartments are rich in terminal neurite branching and synapses; they are the neuropile domains in which signal processing takes place. Compartment boundaries are defined by more or less dense layers of glial cells as well as long neurite fascicles. These fascicles are formed during the larval period, when the approximately 100 neuronal lineages that constitute the Drosophila central brain differentiate. Each lineage forms an axon tract with a characteristic trajectory in the neuropile; groups of spatially related tracts congregate into the brain fascicles that can be followed from the larva throughout metamorphosis into the adult stage. Here we provide a map of the adult brain compartments and the relevant fascicles defining compartmental boundaries. We have identified the neuronal lineages contributing to each fascicle, which allowed us to compare compartments of the larval and adult brain directly. Most adult compartments can be recognized already in the early larval brain, where they form a "protomap" of the later adult compartments. Our analysis highlights the morphogenetic changes shaping the Drosophila brain; the data will be important for studies that link early-acting genetic mechanisms to the adult neuronal structures and circuits controlled by these mechanisms. PMID:20533357

  2. A compilation of partial sequences of randomly selected cDNA clones from the rat incisor.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Y; Nakashima, M; Amizuka, N; Warshawsky, H; Goltzman, D; Yamada, K M; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    The formation of tooth organs is regulated by a series of developmental programs. We have initiated a genome project with the ultimate goal of identifying novel genes important for tooth development. As an initial approach, we constructed a unidirectional cDNA library from the non-calcified portion of incisors of 3- to 4-week-old rats, sequenced cDNA clones, and classified their sequences by homology search through the GenBank data base and the PIR protein data base. Here, we report partial DNA sequences obtained by automated DNA sequencing on 400 cDNA clones randomly selected from the library. Of the sequences determined, 51% represented sequences of new genes that were not related to any previously reported gene. Twenty-six percent of the clones strongly matched genes and proteins in the data bases, including amelogenin, alpha 1(I) and alpha 2(I) collagen chains, osteonectin, and decorin. Nine percent of clones revealed partial sequence homology to known genes such as transcription factors and cell surface receptors. A significant number of the previously identified genes were expressed redundantly and were found to encode extracellular matrix proteins. Identification and cataloging of cDNA clones in these tissues are the first step toward identification of markers expressed in a tissue- or stage-specific manner, as well as the genetic linkage study of tooth anomalies. Further characterization of the clones described in this paper should lead to the discovery of novel genes important for tooth development. PMID:7876422

  3. Observations on the eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Hurlin, J C; Lebel, S; Chardonnet, P

    1997-08-01

    The eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of 14 farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) of known birth date and their live weights were observed about every 2 weeks from 12 to 30 months of age. The permanent incisor pattern was 11, 14-17 months; 12, 18-23 months; 13, 20-26 months; and 14, 22-27 months. There was no significant relationship between body weight and timing of permanent incisor eruption. PMID:16031978

  4. Comparison between an Acrylic Splint Herbst and an Acrylic Splint Miniscrew-Herbst for Mandibular Incisors Proclination Control

    PubMed Central

    Manni, Antonio; Pasini, Marco; Nuzzo, Claudio; Grassi, Felice Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study is to compare dental and skeletal effects produced by an acrylic splint Herbst with and without skeletal anchorage for correction of dental class II malocclusion. Methods. The test group was formed by 14 patients that were treated with an acrylic splint miniscrew-Herbst; miniscrews were placed between mandibular second premolars and first molars; controls also consisted of 14 subjects that were treated with an acrylic splint Herbst and no miniscrews. Cephalometric measurements before and after Herbst treatment were compared. The value of α for significance was set at 0.05. Results. All subjects from both groups were successfully treated to a bilateral Class I relationship; mean treatment time was 8,1 months in the test group and 7.8 in the controls. Several variables did not have a statistical significant difference between the two groups. Some of the variables, instead, presented a significant difference such as incisor flaring, mandibular bone base position, and skeletal discrepancy. Conclusions. This study showed that the Herbst appliance associated to miniscrews allowed a better control of the incisor flaring with a greater mandibular skeletal effect. PMID:24963293

  5. Biofilm-based central line-associated bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Ammar; Jamal, Mohamed A; Raad, Issam

    2015-01-01

    Different types of central venous catheters (CVCs) have been used in clinical practice to improve the quality of life of chronically and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, indwelling devices are usually associated with microbial biofilms and eventually lead to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs).An estimated 250,000-400,000 CLABSIs occur every year in the United States, at a rate of 1.5 per 1,000 CVC days and a mortality rate of 12-25 %. The annual cost of caring for patients with CLABSIs ranges from 296 million to 2.3 billion dollars.Biofilm formation occurs on biotic and abiotic surfaces in the clinical setting. Extensive studies have been conducted to understand biofilm formation, including different biofilm developmental stages, biofilm matrix compositions, quorum-sensing regulated biofilm formation, biofilm dispersal (and its clinical implications), and multi-species biofilms that are relevant to polymicrobial infections.When microbes form a matured biofilm within human hosts through medical devices such as CVCs, the infection becomes resistant to antibiotic treatment and can develop into a chronic condition. For that reason, many techniques have been used to prevent the formation of biofilm by targeting different stages of biofilm maturation. Other methods have been used to diagnose and treat established cases of CLABSI.Catheter removal is the conventional management of catheter associated bacteremia; however, the procedure itself carries a relatively high risk of mechanical complications. Salvaging the catheter can help to minimize these complications.In this article, we provide an overview of microbial biofilm formation; describe the involvement of various genetic determinants, adhesion proteins, organelles, mechanism(s) of biofilm formation, polymicrobial infections, and biofilm-associated infections on indwelling intravascular catheters; and describe the diagnosis, management, and prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections

  6. Transoral robotic surgery of the central skull base: preclinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Nogueras, F J J; Katati, M J; Arraez Sanchez, M A; Molina Martinez, M; Sanchez Carrion, M

    2014-06-01

    In this study we explored possible applications of the da Vinci system in approaching the skull base at optic chiasm level on two cryopreserved cadavers, using an entirely transoral robotic technique (TORS). We used a standard 12 mm endoscopy and 8 mm terminals. Bone drilling was performed manually. The da Vinci system is equipped with very good illumination and 3D viewing, thus providing excellent vision and great maneuverability even in the less accessible areas of the skull. Our experience demonstrates that an entirely transoral skull base robotic approach to this complex anatomical region has many advantages as compared to traditional techniques. PMID:24077869

  7. School-Based Management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or Decentralizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, I-Wah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the debate on a reform of school-based management in Hong Kong, which was to set up the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) to manage the subsidized school. The nature of the debate during legislation and the characteristics of the reform were examined. The advantages, disadvantages and the implications of the reform were…

  8. [Local application of simvastatin to rat incisor sockets augments bone].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kenichi

    2008-03-01

    Decrease of the alveolar ridge after tooth extraction causes difficulties in prosthodontic treatment, especially in implant supported prostheses. Statins, which are inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis and therapeutic drugs for hypercholestemia, stimulate BMP-2 expression in osteoblasts. The purpose of the present study was to examine how local application of simvastatin, one of the statins, to the tooth socket after tooth extraction affects alveolar bone. A mixture of lactic acid/glycolic acid copolymer (PLGA), alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP), calcium carbonate was prepared as a carrier for simvastatin. Ninety-six male Wistar rats, 10 weeks old, were used. After right mandibular incisor extraction, they were divided into eight groups and tooth sockets were treated differently: no treatment (control), PLGA carrier only, or PLGA containing 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg simvastatin, respectively. They were sacrificed at 4 and 8 weeks. Bone mineral content (BMC) of the alveolar ridge was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and histological analyses were performed. All groups treated with simvastatin showed higher BMC compared to the control group and PLGA carrier group at 4 and 8 weeks. Histological analyses revealed that the thickness of cortical bone of the statin group increased compared to the control group at 4 and 8 weeks; however, newly-formed bone in the tooth socket of the statin group was less than in those of the control group and PLGA carrier group. The results of this study show that local application of simvastatin may enhance bone formation and preserve the alveolar ridge after tooth extraction. PMID:18421951

  9. A diagnostic dilemma of central skull base osteomyelitis mimicking neoplasia in a diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Ganhewa, Aparna Dasunmalee; Kuthubutheen, Jafri

    2013-01-01

    We present a case which illustrates the diagnostic difficulty in distinguishing between osteomyelitis of the central skull base and base of skull tumours. A woman in her early forties presented with seizures and multiple cranial nerve palsies. She also had a background of chronic otalgia and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The clinical diagnosis of skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) was made, but both MRI and bone scans were unable to distinguish this from a skull base malignancy on imaging criteria. Eventually biopsies were required to exclude the diagnosis of malignancy and the patient was treated for central SBO. PMID:23355560

  10. Critical appraisal: clinical considerations for restoring mandibular incisors with porcelain laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Walter, Robert D; Raigrodski, Ariel J

    2008-01-01

    Porcelain laminate veneers have been proven to be a successful treatment modality for maxillary incisors in clinical practice and in controlled clinical studies. However, the data in clinical studies on the success of veneers for restoring mandibular incisors are limited. Clinically, the successful restoration of mandibular incisors with porcelain laminate veneers is one of the more challenging procedures in all of esthetic restorative dentistry. Limited coronal dimensions, the small amount of enamel available for bonding (particularly in the cervical areas), materials and techniques for the bonding procedures, and the response of the tooth-veneer complex to forces generated during the incisal loading in both functional as well as parafunctional contacts must be considered as potential sources of success or failure. This Critical Appraisal reviews three recent scientific articles to shed some light on these issues and, as in all research endeavors, leads the reader to identify additional areas of concern that might stimulate further scientific inquiry. The first publication studied predictors for enamel thickness for mandibular incisors. The second examined bonding protocols for exposed dentin and suggested immediate dentin sealing. The third paper addressed fracture behavior of mandibular incisors restored with porcelain laminate veneers in vitro. PMID:18768002

  11. Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population

    PubMed Central

    Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. Materials and Methods: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Armed Forces of Greece during the period 1997-2011 were initially analyzed for lateral incisor agenesis by two observers. After exclusion of the known orthodontic cases, a subgroup of 1636 examinees (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.44 years) was evaluated for canine impaction and supernumerary teeth. Results: Twenty-eight missing lateral incisors were observed in 22 military students, indicating an incidence of 1.3% in the investigated population. No lateral incisor agenesis was detected in the mandibular arch. A prevalence rate of 0.8% was determined for canine impaction in the sample of young adults. The majority of impacted teeth (86.7%) were diagnosed in the maxillary arch. Thirty-five supernumerary teeth were observed in 24 examinees (prevalence rate: 1.5%). The ratio of supernumerary teeth located in the maxilla versus the mandible was 2.2:1. The most common type of supernumerary tooth was the upper distomolar. Conclusion: The prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction, and supernumerary teeth ranged from 0.8 to 1.5% in the sample of male Greek military students. PMID:24926206

  12. Inhibition of Notch Signaling During Mouse Incisor Renewal Leads to Enamel Defects.

    PubMed

    Jheon, Andrew H; Prochazkova, Michaela; Meng, Bo; Wen, Timothy; Lim, Young-Jun; Naveau, Adrien; Espinoza, Ruben; Cox, Timothy C; Sone, Eli D; Ganss, Bernhard; Siebel, Christian W; Klein, Ophir D

    2016-01-01

    The continuously growing rodent incisor is an emerging model for the study of renewal of mineralized tissues by adult stem cells. Although the Bmp, Fgf, Shh, and Wnt pathways have been studied in this organ previously, relatively little is known about the role of Notch signaling during incisor renewal. Notch signaling components are expressed in enamel-forming ameloblasts and the underlying stratum intermedium (SI), which suggested distinct roles in incisor renewal and enamel mineralization. Here, we injected adult mice with inhibitory antibodies against several components of the Notch pathway. This blockade led to defects in the interaction between ameloblasts and the SI cells, which ultimately affected enamel formation. Furthermore, Notch signaling inhibition led to the downregulation of desmosome-specific proteins such as PERP and desmoplakin, consistent with the importance of desmosomes in the integrity of ameloblast-SI attachment and enamel formation. Together, our data demonstrate that Notch signaling is critical for proper enamel formation during incisor renewal, in part by regulating desmosome-specific components, and that the mouse incisor provides a model system to dissect Jag-Notch signaling mechanisms in the context of mineralized tissue renewal. PMID:26179131

  13. Comparison of rates of enamel synthesis in impeded and unimpeded rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Skobe, Z; Heeley, J D; Dobeck, J M; Prostak, K S; Maravelis, L; Stern, D N

    1993-01-01

    Periodic intubations of rats with solutions of fluoride (F) lead to the appearance of bands of disrupted pigmentation in continuously erupting incisors. Distances between fluorotic bands reflect time intervals between intubations. In this experiment, the periodicity of fluorotic banding was used for estimation of the rate of enamel synthesis in impeded and unimpeded rat incisors. Rats kept on a low-F diet and distilled water were intubated two or four times per week with 2 mg NaF/150 g body weight. In a group of rats, one of the mandibular incisors was cut at the gingival margin after two weeks, and intubations were continued for an additional two weeks. In another group of F-intubated rats, incisors were cut or notched at the gingival margin twice, six days apart. Control rats either received the same periodic F intubations or were maintained on the low-F diet without intubation. Measurements of spacing between fluorotic bands were identical in impeded and unimpeded teeth, even though the latter erupted at a faster rate. In an unimpeded mandibular incisors, there was a significant elongation of the secretory zone and a shortening of the pigmentation zone, resulting in reduced pigmentation intensity of the erupted portions of the teeth. The results show that the rate of enamel synthesis is independent of the eruption rate. PMID:8418106

  14. The Effect of Changes in Lower Incisor Inclination on Gingival Recession

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Gulen; Kamak, Hasan; Keklik, Hakan; Gurel, Hakan Gurcan

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Orthodontic treatment may promote development of recessions. The mechanism by which orthodontic treatment influences occurrence of recessions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a change of mandibular incisor inclination promotes development of labial gingival recessions. Materials and Methods. The study sample comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms obtained from 109 subjects before orthodontic treatment (Tb) and after orthodontic treatment (Ta). Depending on the change of lower incisor inclination during treatment, the subjects were divided into three groups: Retroclination (R), Stable Position (S), and Proclination (P). The presence of gingival recessions of mandibular incisors and clinical crown heights were assessed on plaster models. Results and Conclusions. From Tb to Ta, Inc_Incl showed a statistically significant change in the R, P, and S groups (p < 0.05). Increase of clinical crown heights of the lower incisors (42, 4, and 31) was not statistically significant in any group. The only statistically significant intergroup difference was the greater increase of the clinical crown height of tooth number 32 in the P group in comparison with the R group (p = 0.049). The change of lower incisor inclination during treatment did not lead to development of labial gingival recessions in the study sample. PMID:25961071

  15. Gastrin-releasing peptide expression and its effect on the calcification of developing mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Joon; Jin, Chengri; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Jong-Min; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-09-01

    Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is considered to be one of the cancer growth factors. This peptide's receptor (GRPR) is known as a G protein-coupled receptor, regulating intracellular calcium storage and releasing signals. This study is the first to investigate the function of GRP during mouse incisor development. We hypothesized that GRP is one of the factors that affects the regulation of calcification during tooth development. To verify the expression pattern of GRP, in situ hybridization was processed during incisor development. GRP was expressed at the late bell stage and hard tissue formation stage in the epithelial tissue. To identify the genuine function of GRP during incisor development, a gain-of-function analysis was performed. After GRP overexpression in culture, the phenotype of ameloblasts, odontoblasts and predentin was altered compared to control group. Moreover, enamel and dentin thickness was increased after renal capsule transplantation of GRP-overexpressed incisors. With these results, we suggest that GRP plays a significant role in the formation of enamel and dentin by regulating ameloblasts and predentin formation, respectively. Thus, GRP signaling is strongly related to calcium acquisition and secretion during mouse incisor development. PMID:26126650

  16. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor.

    PubMed

    Achary, Ravindranath C; Ravi, G R

    2016-01-01

    Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939

  17. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dilaceration of the permanent tooth usually is a consequence of traumatic injuries to the primary teeth. Although it may appear anywhere in the long axis of the tooth, i.e., crown, cementoenamel junction, or root, most often the root is involved. However, crown dilaceration is a rare condition representing 3% of the total injuries. Maxillary incisors are more susceptible to such injury and affected tooth may either erupt buccally or lingually or remain impacted. Hitherto, the treatment options also differ as per the clinical scenario. This article proposes a novel technique of restoring esthetic function of the affected permanent maxillary lateral incisor with crown-root dilaceration while preserving the vitality of tooth. How to cite this article: Achary RC, Ravi GR. A Novel approach of Esthetic Management and preserving Vitality of Dilacerated Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):152-155. PMID:27365939

  18. Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor fenestration resulting from a broken retainer.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B; da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; Assaf, Jamal Hassan; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. PMID:26232842

  19. Experience Based Career Education Project Administered by Iowa Central Community College, Fort Dodge, Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusseldorp, Ralph A.

    The third-party evaluation of the second year of the Iowa Central Community College Experience Based Career Education (EBCE) Project was based on examination of project records, interviews with project staff, student and resource persons, questionnaires completed by students, parents and resource persons, and test data collected on students at the…

  20. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  1. Spectrophotometric color evaluation of permanent incisors, canines and molars. A cross-sectional clinical study

    PubMed Central

    POP-CIUTRILA, IOANA-SOFIA; COLOSI, HORATIU ALEXANDRU; DUDEA, DIANA; BADEA, MANDRA EUGENIA

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims An accurate color reproduction represents the final validation level of an esthetic anterior or posterior restoration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color of permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars, using a clinical spectrophotometer. Methods The Vita Easyshade Advance 4.0® intraoral spectrophotometer was used by one clinician to determine the color of 369 permanent maxillary incisors, canines and molars. The best matches to Vitapan Classical® and 3D-Master® shade guides were recorded. A one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare L*, a*, b*, c* and h* color coordinates among the 3 types of teeth. Differences between the mean values of all color coordinates were evaluated by use of Bonferroni corrections. Color difference (ΔE*) between incisors, canines and molars was calculated from ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* data and the results were compared to ΔE*=3.3 acceptability threshold. Results Except for Δa* and Δh* between canines and molars, statistically significant differences among the mean differences of all color coordinates were found when the 3 types of teeth were compared by pairs. The most frequently measured shades were A1 (48.4%), respectively 1M1 (31.5%) for incisors, B3 (36.6%), respectively 2M3 (39.8%) for canines and B3 (44.7%), respectively 2M3 (52%) for molars. Incisors had the highest lightness values, followed by canines and molars. Molars were the most chromatic with the highest a* and b* values. Conclusions Despite the limitations of this study, color differences among incisors, canines and molars were found to be statistically significant, above the clinical acceptability threshold established. In conclusion, successful esthetic restorations of permanent teeth of the same patient need an individual color assessment and reproduction of every type of tooth. PMID:26733753

  2. Bilateral Supernumerary Deciduous Maxillary Lateral Incisors with Fusion: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Rafiee, Azade

    2016-01-01

    Dental anomaly in number, size and shape might be due to excessive activation of dental lamina during the morpho-differentiation stage. Fusion is one of the most unusual and rare anomalies of shape of the teeth. It frequently involves the supernumerary teeth resulting in a challenging differential diagnosis with gemination. Dental anomalies may result in different problems such as delayed eruption and crowding; thus, early diagnosis is required for effective intervention and proper in-time treatment. The case reported here is a 4-year-old girl with bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary lateral incisors associated with fusion between primary maxillary left lateral incisor and supernumerary lateral tooth. PMID:26966712

  3. Orthodontic and prosthetic treatment of a patient with cystic fibrosis and agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Harold; Greenberg, Joseph R

    2011-06-01

    The young dental patient with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis, maxillary canine impaction, and cystic fibrosis presents considerable challenges to the dentist. An interdisciplinary approach is described here for the orthodontist and restorative dentist to plan and work together with the patient's and parents' cooperation and consent. Despite some compromises, a successful outcome was achieved, as demonstrated in this case report. The use of conservative yet esthetic and durable fixed replacement prostheses is highlighted. Congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisors, impacted maxillary canines, and cystic fibrosis are clinical conditions that can significantly complicate and compromise dental treatment for any young patient. All three can be present simultaneously, as described in this case report. PMID:23738937

  4. Agenesis of Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Treatment Involves Much More Than Just Canine Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Giordani Santos; Mucha, José Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed highlight some clinical features present in patients whose maxillary lateral incisors are missing, and proposed more logical, rational and predictable solutions to inform decision making in rehabilitation procedures. Methods: Literature review and discussion. Conclusion: Choosing the best possible treatment for congenital absence of maxillary lateral incisors depends on the multidisciplinary diagnosis of facial, occlusal, functional and periodontal features. It also depends on the individual long-term stability, and it does not only rely on canine-guided disocclusion. PMID:27006720

  5. Perivascular Stem Cells at the Tip of Mouse Incisors Regulate Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yvonne Wy; Feng, Jifan; Daltoe, Felipe; Fatscher, Robert; Gentleman, Eileen; Gentleman, Molly M; Sharpe, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Cells with in vitro properties similar to those of bone marrow stromal stem cells are present in tooth pulp as quiescent cells that are mobilized by damage. These dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) respond to damage by stimulating proliferation and differentiation into odontoblast-like cells that form dentine to repair the damage. In continuously growing mouse incisors, tissue at the incisor tips is continuously being damaged by the shearing action between the upper and lower teeth acting to self-sharpen the tips. We investigated mouse incisor tips as a model for the role of DPSCs in a continuous natural repair/regeneration process. We show that the pulp at the incisor tip is composed of a disorganized mass of mineralized tissue produced by odontoblast-like cells. These cells become embedded into the mineralized tissue that is rapidly formed and then lost during feeding. Tetracycline labeling not only revealed the expected incorporation into newly synthesized dentine formation of the incisor but also a zone covering the pulp cavity at the tips of the incisors that is mineralized very rapidly. This tissue was dentine-like but had a significantly lower mineral content than dentine as determined by Raman spectroscopy. The mineral was more crystalline than dentine, indicative of small, defect-free mineral particles. To identify the origin of cells responsible for deposition of this mineralized tissue, we genetically labeled perivascular cells by crossing NG2(ERT2) Cre and Nestin Cre mice with reporter mice. A large number of pericyte-derived cells were visible in the pulp of incisor tips with some having elongated, odontoblast-like shapes. These results show that in mouse incisors, rapid, continuous mineralization occurs at the tip to seal off the pulp tissue from the external environment. The mineral is formed by perivascular-derived cells that differentiate into cells expressing dentin sialo-phosphoprotein (DSPP) and produce a dentine-like material in a process that

  6. Bilateral Supernumerary Deciduous Maxillary Lateral Incisors with Fusion: Report of a Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Rafiee, Azade

    2016-03-01

    Dental anomaly in number, size and shape might be due to excessive activation of dental lamina during the morpho-differentiation stage. Fusion is one of the most unusual and rare anomalies of shape of the teeth. It frequently involves the supernumerary teeth resulting in a challenging differential diagnosis with gemination. Dental anomalies may result in different problems such as delayed eruption and crowding; thus, early diagnosis is required for effective intervention and proper in-time treatment. The case reported here is a 4-year-old girl with bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary lateral incisors associated with fusion between primary maxillary left lateral incisor and supernumerary lateral tooth. PMID:26966712

  7. Treating dental crowding with mandibular incisor extraction in an Angle Class I patient.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gislana Braga

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26154463

  8. Simulating certain aspects of hypogravity: Effects on the mandibular incisors of suspended rats (PULEH model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Winter, F.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a hypogravity simulating model on the rate of mandibular incisor formation, dentinogenesis and, amelogenesis in laboratory rats was studied. The model is the partial unloading by elevating the hindquarters. In this system, rat hindquarters are elevated 30 to 40 deg from the cage floors to completely unload the hindlimbs, but the animals are free to move about using their forelimbs. This model replicates the fluid sift changes which occur during the weightlessness of spaceflight and produces an osteopenia in the weight bearing skeletons. The histogenesis and/or mineralization rates of the mandibular incisor during the first 19d of PULEH in young growing rats are recorded.

  9. Treating dental crowding with mandibular incisor extraction in an Angle Class I patient

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gislana Braga

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26154463

  10. Spatial drought reconstructions for central High Asia based on tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Keyan; Davi, Nicole; Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu; Cook, Edward; Li, Jinbao; D'Arrigo, Rosanne

    2010-11-01

    Spatial reconstructions of drought for central High Asia based on a tree-ring network are presented. Drought patterns for central High Asia are classified into western and eastern modes of variability. Tree-ring based reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) are presented for both the western central High Asia drought mode (1587-2005), and for the eastern central High Asia mode (1660-2005). Both reconstructions, generated using a principal component regression method, show an increased variability in recent decades. The wettest epoch for both reconstructions occurred from the 1940s to the 1950s. The most extreme reconstructed drought for western central High Asia was from the 1640s to the 1650s, coinciding with the collapse of the Chinese Ming Dynasty. The eastern central High Asia reconstruction has shown a distinct tendency towards drier conditions since the 1980s. Our spatial reconstructions agree well with previous reconstructions that fall within each mode, while there is no significant correlation between the two spatial reconstructions.