Sample records for central incisors based

  1. Relationship of the lingual frenum to the mandibular central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Garg, Sanchit; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Agarwal, Garima

    2015-01-01

    Clinical implication The purpose of this study is to record the vertical distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum and incisal edge of mandibular central incisors in dentulous subjects and then determine the mean vertical distance and to suggest guidelines for positioning of mandibular central incisors in complete dentures. Method In this study, 150 dentulous subjects (75 males and 75 females) were chosen based on predecided inclusion criteria. A mandibular cast was obtained from irreversible hydrocolloid impression in modified stock trays for each subject. All subjects were instructed to elevate the tongue while the impressions were made. The vertical distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors was measured on the casts and then the values were statistically analyzed. Result The distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum (AALF) mesioincisal edge of mandibular central incisor (CI) in male, female and total (male + female) subjects was measured. In males it ranged from 7.3 to 8.9 mm with mean (±SD) 8.29 ± 0.36 mm while in females it ranged from 7.1 to 9.0 mm with mean (±SD) 8.21 ± 0.38 mm. Conclusion It is believed that the application of this anatomic relation can provide a reliable point for arranging and checking the position of the mandibular central incisors for complete dentures in patients with class I ridge relationship. PMID:25853047

  2. A facial talon cusp on maxillary permanent central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Chinni, Suneelkumar; Nanneboyina, Mayuri; Ramachandran, Anilkumar; Chalapathikumar, Hanuman

    2012-01-01

    Talon cusp is a dental anomaly that occurs as an accessory cusp like structure, from the cingulum of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth. Lingual location is usually considered pathognomic. This case report discuss about the unusual appearance of talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary left permanent central incisor and a mild talon cusp on the facial surface of the maxillary right permanent central incisor. PMID:22368344

  3. Extraction of maxillary central incisors: an orthodontic-restorative treatment.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Zare, Maryam; Bahramnia, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy. PMID:25400954

  4. Age determination from central incisors of fetuses and infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sema Aka; Nergis Canturk; Rukiye Dagalp; Murat Yagan

    2009-01-01

    Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of this study is to determine the age of deceased fetuses

  5. Elastic Band Causing Exfoliation of the Upper Permanent Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before. PMID:25874135

  6. Elastic band causing exfoliation of the upper permanent central incisors.

    PubMed

    Alves, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira; Kitakawa, Dárcio; Becker, Joao Batista Macedo; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before. PMID:25874135

  7. Esthetic improvement in the patient with one missing maxillary central incisor restored with porcelain laminate veneers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Jin; Yang, Jae-Ho; Lee, Jai-Bong; Kim, Sung-Hun

    2010-01-01

    This article describes esthetic improvement in a patient with a missing maxillary left central incisor. Space analysis of the anterior dentition showed that minor tooth rearrangement was needed. Optimal space distribution for restorations was attained by orthodontic treatment. Through transforming tooth shape with porcelain laminate veneers, the maxillary left lateral incisor was transformed into central incisor and the maxillary left canine into a lateral incisor. The maxillary right central incisor was also restored for esthetic improvement. In a case of changing a tooth shape with porcelain laminate veneers, pre-treatment evaluation, space analysis and diagnostic wax-up are important factors. PMID:21165273

  8. Innovative biomechanics for orthodontic correction of torsiversion of maxillary central incisor caused by twin mesiodens.

    PubMed

    Monga, Nitika; Kharbanda, Om Prakash; Duggal, Ritu

    2014-04-01

    Mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary teeth found in the premaxilla between the two central incisors. Early and proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan is critical in eluding the extent of treatment needed. This case report presents the successful orthodontic and esthetic management of an unusual case of Indian origin with twin mesiodens in the maxillary arch causing torsiversion and attrition of mandibular incisors due to occlusal trauma. PMID:24963264

  9. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: A case report of a rare dental anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Yezdani, Arif; Tajir, Faizal; Saravanan, B.; Rajasekar, L.

    2015-01-01

    The solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly and has an incidence of 1:50,000 live births. In SMMCI, there is only one central incisor present, and it develops exactly at the midline. SMMCI occurrence has been described with growth hormone deficiency or other structural anomalies in the midline of the body. In this case, the 8-year-old female patient reported a single median maxillary central incisor with missing maxillary and mandibular frena, with apparently no other abnormalities. Early diagnosis and recognition of SMMCI are important for all practicing Orthodontists, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. PMID:26015739

  10. Transposition of maxillary canine to central incisor site: aetiology, treatment options and case report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Zohaib; Jaisinghani, Aneel C; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

    2014-09-01

    Dental transposition is relatively infrequent anomaly of the developing dentition. This article focuses on canine transposition and explores the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of this challenging anomaly. Specifically, the management of a case of canine transposition involving an unerupted maxillary central incisor is described. PMID:24521750

  11. TripleX syndrome accompanied by a single maxillary central incisor: case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mari Miura; Hiroshi Kojima; Haruhisa Oguchi

    1993-01-01

    Facial, oral, and dental findings of an 11-year-old girl with XXX syndrome are reported. Clinical examination reveals midfacial hypoplasia, congenital absence of teeth, and solitary maxillary central incisors both in primary and permanent dentitions. (Pediatr Dent 15:214-17, 1993 )

  12. A three-dimensional finite-element stress analysis of an endodontically prepared maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Ricks-Williamson, L J; Fotos, P G; Goel, V K; Spivey, J D; Rivera, E M; Khera, S C

    1995-07-01

    This study is an application of a three-dimensional Finite-Element Method to investigate the changes in stress characteristics of a prepared maxillary central incisor. The purpose of this study was to analyze stress distributions in this tooth after simulated canal preparation and static loading. A maxillary central incisor was embedded in acrylic, sectioned, photographed, and digitized. A three-dimensional finite-element model was generated by a computer and appropriately modified to simulate canal preparation. Data identified the highest stress magnitudes to be located between the middle and coronal thirds of the root; an area clinically observed to be prone to fracture during treatment. In addition, the magnitude of generated stresses was directly correlated with the simulated prepared canal diameter. The development of a validated three-dimensional finite-element method could identify areas that may predispose a tooth to structural failure during condensation loads. PMID:7499976

  13. Surgical management of iatrogenic perforation in maxillary central incisor using mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Rajni; Manuja, Naveen; Pandit, I K; Rallan, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Root perforations are undesired complications of endodontic treatment. The repair of root perforation can be accomplished using different materials and techniques. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is widely used to seal perforations because of its biocompatibility and sealability. This article describes a case report where an iatrogenic root perforation was repaired successfully with MTA in maxillary right central incisor of a 13-year-old boy. PMID:23845686

  14. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. PMID:25471836

  15. Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. PMID:25471836

  16. Surgical and Orthodontic Management of Fused Maxillary Central and Lateral Incisors in Early Mixed Dentition Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ramamurthy, Suresh; Satish, Ramaswamy; Priya, Kalidass

    2014-01-01

    Fusion is one of the developmental dental anomalies in which two adjacent teeth are joined at the crown level forming a single tooth with an enlarged crown. Fusion causes some clinical problems such as unaesthetic appearance, pain, caries, and malocclusion. The management of fusion often needs multidisciplinary approach to give best possible esthetic and functional outcome. This paper reports a case of 9-year-old boy with fused maxillary left central and lateral incisors who was treated with 2 × 4 fixed orthodontic appliances after surgical separation of fused teeth. PMID:25371828

  17. Multidisciplinary treatment approach to restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita P; Karandikar, Aamod B

    2014-01-01

    This case report demonstrates sequential periodontic, orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment modalities to save and restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor. The location of fracture was deep in the mucosa which reveals less than 2 mm of tooth structure to receive the crown. The procedures like surgical crown lengthening, endodontic post placement, orthodontic forced eruption, core build-up and metal-ceramic crown restoration were sequentially performed to conserve the fractured tooth. Forced eruption is preferred to surgical removal of supporting alveolar bone, since forced eruption preserves the biologic width, maintains esthetics, and at the same time exposes sound tooth structure for the placement of restorative margins. PMID:24939276

  18. Corono-radicular biological restoration of maxillary central incisors by direct method

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sonia; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Pandharkar, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    This case report refers to the esthetic and functional restorations of extensively damaged maxillary central incisors with dental caries in a 32-year-old woman, with the use of posts and crowns made from natural extracted teeth. Proper restoration of such teeth with the use of natural teeth fragments are known as “biological restoration.” Biological restorations can be done by using the fragments of the patients own tooth and if that is not available, tooth fragment can be obtained from an extracted tooth. These biological posts and crowns present a low cost option and an alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged teeth. There are limitations with the use of natural extracted teeth (homogenous bonding) for restoration such as the difficulty of finding teeth with a similar color and shape as that of the destroyed element, or patient may refuse to accept a tooth fragment from another patient, which prevents execution of the restoration. PMID:25540666

  19. Management of synodontia between dilacerated permanent maxillary central incisor and supernumerary tooth with aid of cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Das, Suroopa; Warhadpande, Manjusha M.; Redij, Saurabh Anil; Sabir, Husain; Shirude, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    A malformed tooth characterized by one or more developmental disturbances is often difficult to treat. When such teeth are present in anterior region, they pose a technical challenge for the clinician to restore esthetics as well as function. This case describes endodontic, surgical, and restorative management of fused and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used in the present case to aid in understanding of complicated tooth morphology and managing the case successfully. PMID:25829699

  20. Treatment of maxillary central incisor with external root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate: 18?months follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gandi, Padma; Disha, Saraswathi

    2013-01-01

    External cervical resorption is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. This case report demonstrates an external cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor of a 24-year-old male patient. After surgical intervention and root canal treatment, the resorption was subsequently sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The 18?months follow-up demonstrates no pathological changes on clinical and radiographic examination. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with external cervical resorption. PMID:23843419

  1. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with varying ferrule heights and configurations: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Thareja, Prerna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the best ferrule configuration of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were collected. Teeth were allocated into following four groups of each having 10 teeth. Group 1 teeth restored with crowns (CRN), Group 2 endodontically treated teeth restored with crowns (RCT and CRN), Group 3 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 2 mm ferrule (2 FRL), Group 4 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 1 mm ferrule (1 FRL). Crown preparation was performed with varying ferrule heights, crowns were cemented with resin modified glass ionomer cement and were kept in 100% humidity for 3 days, all specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Results were obtained in the form of kilo Newton and Newton. Result: The statistical analysis applied was an analysis of variance to detect the presence of group differences. Pair wise comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Tukey Kramer significant difference test for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Ferrule had a significant role in the fracture resistance of custom cast post core restored teeth. Endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with a uniform 2 mm ferrule were more fracture resistant than those with a uniform 1 mm ferrule. PMID:24778504

  2. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of a root-fractured maxillary central incisor: A 12-year follow-up case report

    PubMed Central

    Incerti Parenti, Serena; Ciocci, Maurizio; Checchi, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Single-tooth implantation has become a common treatment solution for replacement of a root-fractured maxillary incisor in adults, but the long-term esthetic results can be unfavorable due to progressive marginal bone loss, resulting in gingival recession. In this case report, a maxillary central incisor with a root fracture in its apical one-third was orthodontically extruded and extracted in a 21-year-old female. Implant surgery was performed after a 3-month healing period, and the final crown was placed about 12 months after extraction. After 12 years, favorable osseous and gingival architectures were visible with adequate bone height and thickness at the buccal cortical plate, and no gingival recession was seen around the implant-supported crown. Although modern dentistry has been shifting toward simplified, clinical procedures and shorter treatment times, both general dentists and orthodontists should be aware of the possible long-term esthetic advantages of orthodontic extrusion of hopelessly fractured teeth for highly esthetically demanding areas and should educate and motivate patients regarding the choice of this treatment solution, if necessary. PMID:25133136

  3. Adhesive reattachment rehabilitating a nonvital central incisor with a complicated crown-root fracture: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcilio Jorge Fernandes; Cohen-Carneiro, Flavia; Tino, Giselle Desideri; Franco Marques, Andre Augusto; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Dental trauma requires immediate treatment. However, some conventional treatments (such as an implant and/or partial fixed denture) will not always be immediately possible, due to the patient's age (mainly in pediatric cases) or lack of immediate financial resources. In such situations, the technique of adhesive reattachment plays an important role as a treatment option in the interim. This case report describes the use of adhesive fragment reattachment in the rehabilitation of a maxillary central incisor with a complicated crown-root fracture. A 1-year follow-up affirmed that the adhesive reattachment efficiently resolved the crown-root fracture, allowing for the retention of the tooth structure. This more conservative multidisciplinary approach restored function, esthetics, and self-esteem to the patient, while preserving all bone and gingival architecture for future implant treatment. PMID:26147175

  4. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Srilatha, KT; Nandlal, B; Dhull, Kanika Singh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load-bearing capacity of fractured incisal edge of maxillary permanent central incisors restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite. Materials and methods: Thirty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors randomly divided in three groups were used for the present study. Group I (control) contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II and III were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third) part of the crown horizontally and subjected to enamel preparations and restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite respectively. All restored teeth were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was evaluated as peak load at failure (Newton) for samples tested in a cantilever-bending test using Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were microscopically examined. Results: Highest mean peak failure load (Newton) among experimental groups was observed in glass fiber-reinforced nano composite group (863.50 ± 76.12 N) followed by nanocomposite group (633.67 ± 40.14 N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the restoration technique significantly affected the load-bearing capacity (p < 0.001). Scheffe’s post-hoc comparison test (subset for ? = 0.05) revealed that there was significant difference in the mean peak failure load values of nanocomposite and glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite groups when considered together (p < 0.001). Experimental groups showed similar types of failure modes with majority occurring ascohesive and mixed type. Fifty-eight percent of the teeth in glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. Conclusion: By using fiber-reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in the repair of fractured incisors, the load-bearing capacity of the restored incisal edge could be substantially increased. How to cite this article: Kumar PSP, Srilatha KT, Nandlal B, Dhull KS. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):22-29.

  5. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

    2003-06-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  6. Radiographic Investigation of Location and Angulation of Curvatures in Human Maxillary Incisors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brita Willershausen; Adrian Kasaj; Haki Tekyatan; Bernd Roehrig; Benjamin Briseno

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this radiographic study was to evaluate the degree and location of root canal curvatures of human maxillary incisors. A total of 286 extracted human maxillary incisors (145 central and 141 lateral incisors) were included in this investigation. Exclusion criteria were teeth with extensive carious lesions, restorations, and root canal treatment. For this in vitro study, the teeth

  7. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  8. Orthodontic treatment of severe anterior open bite and alveolar bone defect complicated by an ankylosed maxillary central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feiou; Sun, Hao; Yao, Linjie; Chen, Qiushuo; Ni, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Incisor trauma is common in children, and can cause severe complications during adolescent growth and development. This report describes the treatment of a 16-year-old patient with severe anterior open bite due to ankylosis of the maxillary left incisor after dental trauma as an 8-year-old. No examination or active treatment was undertaken until he was 16 years old. Clinical examination revealed that the maxillary left incisor was severely intruded accompanied by a vertical alveolar bone defect. Orthodontic treatment combined with surgical luxation took 3 years and 7 months. During treatment, the intruded incisor was moved to the occlusal level and the alveolar bone defect was restored, achieving normal occlusion. After two years of retention, the maxillary left incisor was retained in a stable normal position with a slightly reduced overbite. This case demonstrates that surgical luxation with orthodontic traction can be an effective approach, especially when the ankylosed tooth has a single root. Long-term monitoring of orthodontic stability and the maintenance of periodontal health are crucial in the post-treatment period. PMID:25414141

  9. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thereza C. C. G. Pinheiro Ladalardo; Mário Cappellette Jr.; Fátima A. A. Zanin; Aldo Brugnera Jr.; Ramiro Anthero de Azevedo; Shirley Pignatari; Luc L. M. Weckx

    2003-01-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus

  10. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization, Prevalence, and Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Allazzam, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alaki, Sumer Madani; El Meligy, Omar Abdel Sadek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the prevalence and possible etiological factors associated with molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among a group of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A group of 8-12-year-old children were recruited (n = 267) from the Pediatric Dental Clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Children had at least one first permanent molar (FPM), erupted or partially erupted. Demographic information, children's medical history, and pregnancy-related data were obtained. The crowns of the FPM and permanent incisors were examined for demarcated opacities, posteruptive breakdown (PEB), atypical restorations, and extracted FPMs. Children were considered to have MIH if one or more FPM with or without involvement of incisors met the diagnostic criteria. Results. MIH showed a prevalence of 8.6%. Demarcated opacities were the most common form. Maxillary central incisors were more affected than mandibular (P = 0.01). The condition was more prevalent in children with history of illnesses during the first four years of life including tonsillitis (P = 0.001), adenoiditis (P = 0.001), asthma (P = 0.001), fever (P = 0.014), and antibiotics intake (P = 0.001). Conclusions. The prevalence of MIH is significantly associated with childhood illnesses during the first four years of life including asthma, adenoid infections, tonsillitis, fever, and antibiotics intake. PMID:24949012

  11. The association between traumatic dental injuries and atypical external root resorption in maxillary primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Holan, Gideon; Yodko, Elizabeth; Sheinvald-Shusterman, Kineret

    2015-02-01

    Atypical root resorption (ARR), which is observed on radiographs of primary incisors, has been reported in the dental literature to result from digit sucking; thus ignoring any association between ARR and traumatic dental injuries (TDI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the contributions of sucking habits and TDI to external ARR in primary incisors. A history of dental trauma was assessed based on clinical and radiographic findings. Periapical radiographs of the premaxilla were evaluated for the presence of ARR. The presence or history of sucking habits was based on parents' report. Data were collected from files of 727 patients with a mean age of 52 months. Sixty-four children (8.8%) presented ARR in one or both central incisors. All 64 had experienced some type of TDI. Five hundred and forty-nine (76%) of the children had sucking habits; of them, 501 were pacifier-suckers and 48 digit suckers. Digit sucking was found in only 4 (6%) of the 64 children presenting ARR. These findings support the association of traumatic dental injury, and not of digit sucking, with ARR in primary incisors. PMID:25283588

  12. Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

  13. Pulp revascularization after repositioning of impacted incisor with a dilacerated root and a detached apex.

    PubMed

    Plakwicz, Pawe?; Kapu?ci?ska, Agnieszka; Kuku?a, Krzysztof; Czochrowska, Ewa Monika

    2015-06-01

    Severely impacted and dilacerated incisors are rarely considered for surgical exposure because they may not respond favorably to orthodontic extrusion. These incisors are often extracted, resulting in the need for tooth replacement; however, prosthetic solutions are limited in growing patients. Transalveolar autotransplantation of an impacted incisor may be the only method to preserve the natural tooth and maintain the shape of the alveolus. The severely impacted upper central incisor (#9) with a developing root was diagnosed in a 9-year-old girl. The unfavorable tooth position and dilaceration of its root made orthodontic extrusion of the impacted incisor impossible. Initial orthodontic space opening at the recipient site was performed before the surgery. Transalveolar transplantation of the impacted incisor to its normal position was performed to avoid tooth extraction. The incisor was later aligned using fixed orthodontic appliances. At the 5-year follow-up, the transplanted incisor presented features that were typical of a revascularized tooth (ie, obliteration of root canal but a positive response to vitality tests). Healthy periodontal tissues and continued root development were also noted. However, the root apex, which separated from the transplant at the time of the surgery, continued formation in its initial position. Transalveolar transplantation of an unfavorably impacted upper central incisor with a dilacerated root is a successful treatment, which stands the test of time. The early stage of root development allowed revascularization of the tooth despite dilaceration of the root and detachment of its apex. PMID:25770037

  14. Inverted Impacted Primary Maxillary Incisors: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, B.; Ghadimi, S.; Mighani, G.; Zare, H.; Rabbani, M.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth impaction rarely occurs in primary dentition. Most of the primary teeth impactions are seen in second molars. The purpose of this article is to present a 4-year-old girl with bilateral impaction of inverted primary maxillary central incisors which trauma had displaced their tooth germ before erupting. PMID:23066483

  15. Reestablishing Biology, Function, and Esthetics for Fractured, Immature Incisors.

    PubMed

    Pini, Nip; Nagata, J Y; Sundfeld-Neto, D; Correr-Sobrinho, L; Soares, AdJ; Aguiar, Fhb; Lima, Danl

    2015-01-01

    A seven-year-old boy with enamel-dentin fractures on both maxillary central incisors presented to the Piracicaba Dental School-UNICAMP seven days after the trauma. At the clinical evaluation, there were no clinical signs of pulp exposure, neither tooth was mobile, and both affected teeth presented a positive response to sensitivity tests and a negative response for percussion and palpation. The radiographic examination showed an undeveloped root and opened apex for both teeth. Indirect pulp capping was performed on the left maxillary central incisor, followed by a direct restoration. After one month, the patient complained of pain in the left central incisor, which responded negatively to sensitivity testing. Pulp revascularization was performed only on this tooth and was followed for 18 months. During this period, the left maxillary central incisor did not recover sensitivity, although radiographic examination showed apical closure, a slight increase in root length, and the formation of a mineralized barrier between the root canal and sealing material. The technique achieved its goal of restoring biological aspects, function, and esthetics of traumatized teeth when using this multidisciplinary approach. PMID:25575198

  16. Management of intrusive luxation of maxillary incisors with dens in dente: a case report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Anand C; Patil, Rajesh R

    2010-10-01

    Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe types of dental traumatic injuries. The risk of occurrence of pulpal necrosis and inflammatory or replacement resorption is high. In an attempt to prevent or delay the appearance of such lesions, endodontic intervention is required soon after the occurrence of trauma. A 17-year-old boy reported to the Department of Conservative dentistry and Endodontics, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, 2 days after a fall from a bicycle. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed an intrusive luxation of the left maxillary central incisor and lateral incisor. There were complicated crown fracture with the right maxillary central incisor and uncomplicated crown fracture with the left maxillary central incisor. Also, all the incisors showed the presence of Oelhers type II Dens-in-dente. The management was hence challenging. Immediate surgical repositioning was performed and the teeth were stabilized with a composite resin splint. Endodontic therapy was initiated with the right maxillary central incisor, and the canal was sealed with calcium hydroxide dressing. After 3 weeks, pulp sensitivity was repeated with the maxillary left central and lateral incisors. The result was negative. Considering the incidence of pulp necrosis and root resorption in intruded teeth with complete root formation, they also were dealt in a similar manner as the maxillary right central incisor. The splint was removed after 1 month. After 6 months of calcium hydroxide therapy, there was a satisfactory apical and periodontal healing. At this stage, the teeth were obturated and the fractures were restored with composite resin. A 1-year follow up revealed a satisfactory clinical and radiographic outcome. PMID:20636362

  17. Radiographic Investigation of Frequency and Location of Root Canal Curvatures in Human Mandibular Anterior Incisors In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brita Willershausen; Adrian Kasaj; Bernd Röhrig; Benjamin Briseño Marroquin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the degree and location of root canal curvatures of mandibular anterior incisors. A total of 396 extracted human permanent anterior incisors (248 central and 148 lateral) were included in this investigation. Exclusion criteria were teeth with extensive carious lesions, restorations, and root canal treatment. The specimens were fixed in

  18. Comparative morphometry of the bone structure in the dentoalveolar segments of maxillary incisors and canines.

    PubMed

    Efimova, E Yu; Krayushkin, A I; Efimov, Yu V

    2015-04-01

    We examined morphometric parameters of the bone tissue of 168 dentoalveolar segments that include maxillary incisors and canines regarding vertical midline. The area of dentoalveolar medial incisor segments was 1.81±0.14 cm(2); it did not differ significantly from the area of lateral incisor segments. The area of dentoalveolar segments including canines exceeded the corresponding figures in incisor segments. The thickness of the compact bone on the vestibular surface significantly increased from the cervical portion of the segment towards its base. The maximum thickness of the spongy bone on the vestibular surface was recorded in the apical part of canines dentition segments; the minimum thickness, in the middle portion of the dentoalveolar segments of lateral incisors. PMID:25894786

  19. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ???0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  20. Impacted maxillary incisors: diagnosis and predictive measurements

    PubMed Central

    Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Laganà, Giuseppina; Paoloni, Valeria; Cozza, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background When the incisors do not erupt at the expected time, it is crucial for the clinician to determine the etiology and formulate an appropriate treatment plan. Aim The aim of this report is to provide useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors using the interceptive treatment: removal of obstacles and rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Design An accurate diagnosis may be obtained with clinical and radiographic exam such as panoramic radiograph, computerized tomography (CT) and cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). It’s important to know the predictive measurements of eruption evaluated on panoramic radiograph: distance from the occlusal plane, maturity, angulation and vertical position of the unerupted incisors. Early diagnosis is important and interceptive orthodontic treatment, such as removal of obstacles and orthopedic rapid maxillary expansion (RME), may correct disturbances during the eruption through recovering space for the incisors and improving the intraosseus position of delayed teeth. Results RME treatment following the surgical removal of the obstacle to the eruption of maxillary incisors leads to an improvement of the intraosseus position of the tooth. Conclusions The angulation and the vertical position of the delayed tooth appear to be important in trying to predict eruption. The improvement of the intraosseus position of the unerupted incisor, obtained by removal of the odontoma and rapid maxillary expansion, permits a conservative surgery and the achievement of an excellent esthetics and periodontal result. PMID:23386930

  1. Autogenous bonding of lower incisors: case report and 17-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marina Deus Moura; Lima, Cacilda Castelo Branco; Dantos-Neta, Neusa Barros; Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Moura, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares; Moura, Lucia Fatima Almeida Deus

    2013-01-01

    Among injuries that affect permanent teeth, the most prevalent is an uncomplicated crown fracture. Currently, autogenous bonding of the fragments is still the procedure of choice to restore fractured anterior teeth if the fragments are recovered by the patient and taken to a dental office within a reasonable time in an appropriate storage medium. There is no study or case report in the literature regarding autogenous bonding of lower incisors. This study presents a case with a 17-year follow-up for a 9-year-old patient who underwent uncomplicated crown fractures of the permanent mandibular central incisors and was treated by autogenous bonding of the tooth fragments. After 17 years, clinical and radiographic dental elements present vitality, and the restorations remain without major cosmetic changes. This case shows that autogenous bonding can be considered as a treatment option in the management of fractured lower incisors. PMID:23649586

  2. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  3. Reattachment of fractured teeth fragments in mandibular incisors: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Mohammed K

    2015-01-01

    The majority of dental trauma involves anterior teeth, especially the maxillary central incisors. A mandibular incisor fracture with or without pulp tissue involvement is considerably less common. Different approaches for treating these fractured teeth have been reported in the literature. The type of treatment rendered depends mainly on the extent of fracture, pulp involvement, radicular fracture, biologic width infringement or violation, and presence of the fractured piece. This case report illustrates reattachment of fractured fragments on two mandibular incisors without pulp exposure using a new proposed reattachment method using a combination of two different types of composite materials together with an orthodontic lingual retention wire. An 8-year-old female patient presented with fractured mandibular left incisors (Ellis class II fracture). Broken pieces were saved and brought in a closed container in water. Periapical radiographs revealed no evidence of pulpal involvement in either tooth and no periapical radiolucency was noticed. Fractured fragments and the broken teeth were prepared with circumferential bevels. Reattachment of the fractured fragments were done using two types of composite resin materials and a lingual orthodontic retention wire was also used. The patient was recalled after 8 months to follow up both teeth. Clinical examination revealed excellent composite restorations covering the fracture lines. PMID:25897267

  4. Reattachment of fractured teeth fragments in mandibular incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Mohammed K

    2015-01-01

    The majority of dental trauma involves anterior teeth, especially the maxillary central incisors. A mandibular incisor fracture with or without pulp tissue involvement is considerably less common. Different approaches for treating these fractured teeth have been reported in the literature. The type of treatment rendered depends mainly on the extent of fracture, pulp involvement, radicular fracture, biologic width infringement or violation, and presence of the fractured piece. This case report illustrates reattachment of fractured fragments on two mandibular incisors without pulp exposure using a new proposed reattachment method using a combination of two different types of composite materials together with an orthodontic lingual retention wire. An 8-year-old female patient presented with fractured mandibular left incisors (Ellis class II fracture). Broken pieces were saved and brought in a closed container in water. Periapical radiographs revealed no evidence of pulpal involvement in either tooth and no periapical radiolucency was noticed. Fractured fragments and the broken teeth were prepared with circumferential bevels. Reattachment of the fractured fragments were done using two types of composite resin materials and a lingual orthodontic retention wire was also used. The patient was recalled after 8 months to follow up both teeth. Clinical examination revealed excellent composite restorations covering the fracture lines. PMID:25897267

  5. In vivo administration of dental epithelial stem cells at the apical end of the mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Giovanna; Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia; Natsiou, Despoina; Putignano, Angelo; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based tissue regeneration is an attractive approach that complements traditional surgical techniques for replacement of injured and lost tissues. The continuously growing rodent incisor provides an excellent model system for investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth renewal and regeneration. An active population of dental epithelial progenitor/stem cells located at the posterior part of the incisor, commonly called cervical loop area, ensures the continuous supply of cells that are responsible for the secretion of enamel matrix. To explore the potential of these epithelial cells in therapeutic approaches dealing with enamel defects, we have developed a new method for their in vivo administration in the posterior part of the incisor. Here, we provide the step-by-step protocol for the isolation of dental epithelial stem cells and their delivery at targeted areas of the jaw. This simple and yet powerful protocol, consisting in drilling a hole in the mandibular bone, in close proximity to the cervical loop area of the incisor, followed up by injection of stem cells, is feasible, reliable, and effective. This in vivo approach opens new horizons and possibilities for cellular therapies involving pathological and injured dental tissues. PMID:25914649

  6. An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

  7. Cone beam-computed topographic evaluation of a central incisor with an open apex and a failed root canal treatment using one-step apexification with Biodentine™: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Patil, Santosh

    2014-05-01

    A symptomatic endodontically treated immature tooth with periapical pathology presents multiple challenges to the clinician. Owing to incomplete root formation, gutta percha removal has to be done carefully without further damaging the periapical tissue or pushing the obturating material beyond the apex. Nonsurgical approach toward treating such a tooth would necessitate the creation of an apical barrier followed by conventional root canal treatment. Current literature suggests one-step apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), with an apical matrix as the treatment of choice. A new calcium silicate-based cement also called as dentine substitute by the manufacturers with good handling properties has been introduced recently by the trade name Biodentine™ (Septodont, St. Maurdes Fossés, France). This case report presents management of a secondary endodontic case with an open apex treated with the concept of 'lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR)' using triantibiotic paste and Biodentine™ for apical barrier formation. A 12-month follow up with cone beam-computed topography (CBCT) exhibited progressive involution of periapical radiolucency with indications of good healing of the periapical tissues and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:24944456

  8. A comparative study of different intrusion methods and their effect on maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Prachi; Tandon, Ragni; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate and compare the rate of intrusion and root resorption of maxillary incisors by three different intrusion techniques: Rickett's utility arch, Kalra's Simultaneous Intrusion & Retraction arch and arch with Reverse Curve of Spee. Methods The study was conducted over 30 patients aged between 14 and 25 yrs with deep bite requiring at least 2–4 mm intrusion of maxillary incisors. These patients were equally divided into three groups based on intrusion technique used, Rickets utility arch (Group I), K-SIR arch (Group II) and RCS arch (Group III). For each patient, amount of intrusion and root resorption occurring during intrusion was measured. Seven angular and six linear cephalometric measurements were made to evaluate skeletal and dental changes before and after incisor intrusion. Results The mean true incisor intrusion achieved with utility arch was 1.6 mm, with K-SIR, 1.25 mm and with RCS, 0.70 mm respectively. The rate of intrusion of utility arch was 0.44 mm/month, K-SIR – 0.33 mm/month, RCS – 0.35 mm/month, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.451). Utility arch had significantly higher mean root resorption of 1.56 mm as compared to K-SIR of 1.08 mm and RCS of 0.96 mm. Conclusion Both the intrusion rate and root resorption is more by utility arch while with K-SIR arch, though the rate of intrusion is almost same; the root resorption is much less. PMID:25737942

  9. Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (<4 mm and <1/3 original root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes. PMID:25139200

  10. Transposition of Mandibular Lateral Incisor–Canine (Mn.I2.C) Associated with Hypodontia: A Review and Rare Clinical Case

    PubMed Central

    Athimuthu, Anantharaj; Prasanna, Praveen; Jagadeesh, Ramya B

    2014-01-01

    Transposition is a unique and extreme form of ectopic eruption in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the position which is normally occupied by other permanent teeth. Tooth transpositions are rare and they can be complete or incomplete. The aetiology of transposition is still obscure. Various populations have been studied, to determine the prevalence of tooth transpositions. 20% of the transpositions which occur on the maxillary arch involve the canine and the lateral incisor. Although they are rare, transpositions may involve the maxillary lateral and central incisors. Among all transpositions, Mandibular Lateral Incisor-Canine (Mn.I2.C) is the rarest, with a prevalence rate of 0.03%. Although various reports have been published on tooth transpositions, very few have noted the agenesis of teeth, particularly Mn.I2.C and its management. We are reporting a rare clinical case with associated hypodontia. PMID:24959525

  11. Characteristics of incisor-premolar hypodontia in families.

    PubMed

    Arte, S; Nieminen, P; Apajalahti, S; Haavikko, K; Thesleff, I; Pirinen, S

    2001-05-01

    Nonsyndromic tooth agenesis is a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous condition. It is generally assumed that different phenotypic forms are caused by different mutated genes. We analyzed inheritance and phenotype of hypodontia and dental anomalies in 214 family members in three generations of 11 probands collected for genetic linkage study on incisor-premolar hypodontia (IPH). Our analysis confirms the autosomal-dominant transmission with reduced penetrance of IPH. The prevalence of hypodontia and/or peg-shaped teeth was over 40% in first- and second-degree relatives and 18% in first cousins of the probands. Four of nine noted obligate carriers of hypodontia gene had dental anomalies, including small upper lateral incisors, ectopic canines, taurodontism, and rotated premolars. These anomalies were also observed at higher than normal frequency in relatives affected with hypodontia. We conclude that incisor-premolar hypodontia is a genetic condition with autosomal-dominant transmission and that it is associated with several other dental abnormalities. PMID:11437217

  12. Early Degenerative Nerve Alterations in Feline Resorbing Deciduous Incisors as Observed by Electron Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Karlsson; David Johnsen; Anne Marie Herman

    1974-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to assess degenerative nerve alterations in resorbing deciduous incisors of the cat. Intradental nerve structural changes are described when minimal signs of root resorption are present. Intradental nerves in resorbing deciduous incisors are compared with those of fully developed deciduous incisors.

  13. 24. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM. BASE POWER PANEL VISIBLE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR OF CENTRAL ROOM. BASE POWER PANEL VISIBLE ON RIGHT WALL OF HALLWAY. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  14. Fitness consequences of centrality in mutualistic individual-based networks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, José M.; Perfectti, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The relationships among the members of a population can be visualized using individual networks, where each individual is a node connected to each other by means of links describing the interactions. The centrality of a given node captures its importance within the network. We hypothesize that in mutualistic networks, the centrality of a node should benefit its fitness. We test this idea studying eight individual-based networks originated from the interaction between Erysimum mediohispanicum and its flower visitors. In these networks, each plant was considered a node and was connected to conspecifics sharing flower visitors. Centrality indicates how well connected is a given E. mediohispanicum individual with the rest of the co-occurring conspecifics because of sharing flower visitors. The centrality was estimated by three network metrics: betweenness, closeness and degree. The complex relationship between centrality, phenotype and fitness was explored by structural equation modelling. We found that the centrality of a plant was related to its fitness, with plants occupying central positions having higher fitness than those occupying peripheral positions. The structural equation models (SEMs) indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was not merely an effect of the abundance of visits and the species richness of visitors. Centrality has an effect even when simultaneously accounting for these predictors. The SEMs also indicated that the centrality effect on fitness was because of the specific phenotype of each plant, with attractive plants occupying central positions in networks, in relation to the distribution of conspecific phenotypes. This finding suggests that centrality, owing to its dependence on social interactions, may be an appropriate surrogate for the interacting phenotype of individuals. PMID:22158957

  15. Restoration of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using mini implants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ron

    2013-11-01

    In this author's opinion, the advent of mini implants, or small diameter implants (SDIs) as they are more frequently being called, is becoming in many situations a viable alternative to the more traditional root form implants. They offer advantages of less cost, a more simplified placement technique, usually faster healing times, and generally less post-operative complications. A case presentation is given to demonstrate their usage for a narrow ridge application to restore congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:24428002

  16. Restoration of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors using mini implants.

    PubMed

    Collins, Ron

    2013-07-01

    In this author's opinion, the advent of mini implants, or small diameter implants (SDIs) as they are more frequently being called, are becoming in many situations a viable alternative to the more traditional root form implants. They offer advantages of less cost, a more simplified placement technique, usually faster healing times, and generally less post-operative complications. A case presentation is given to demonstrate their usage for a narrow ridge application to restore congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:24015452

  17. The relationship between sports activities and permanent incisor crown fractures in a group of school children aged 7-9 and 11-13 in Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetinba?, Tu?ba; Yildirim, Gözde; Sönmez, Hayriye

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the distribution, aetiology of the crown fractures of permanent anterior teeth in children aged 7-9 and 11-13 years and to identify the role of participation in sports associated with crown fractures. The study population comprised 2570 students from 10 primary schools randomly selected from five municipalities in Ankara, Turkey. Two paediatric dentists examined all permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors for evidence of fracture and completed a standardized examination form to obtain information on the age, gender, severity of incisor injury and frequency and type of sports participation for each child, as well as whether or not children used mouthguards during sports activities. Chi-square and z-tests were used to determine differences. A total of 191 (7.43%) of the 2570 subjects examined were affected by dental trauma. The proportion of fractured incisors was significantly higher in males than in females among older children (P < 0.01). Out of a total of 222 fractured teeth, 84% involved the maxillary central incisors. Bicycling caused significantly higher rates of crown fractures than other types of sports (P < 0.05). The percentage of incisal fractures caused by sports-related accidents was 14.14%. The number of children interested in sports is high, and the sports chosen are generally contact sports. The high rate (14.14%) of crown injuries caused by sports activities supports these findings. PMID:18821957

  18. a New Centrality Metric Based on Clustering Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chong; Guo, Shi-Ze; Lu, Zhe-Ming; Qiao, Yu-Long; Song, Guang-Hua

    2013-07-01

    Many centrality metrics have been proposed over the years to compute the centrality of nodes, which has been a key issue in complex network analysis. The most important node can be estimated through a variety of metrics, such as degree, closeness, eigenvector, betweenness, flow betweenness, cumulated nominations and subgraph. Simulated flow is a common method adopted by many centrality metrics, such as flow betweenness centrality, which assumes that the information spreads freely in the entire network. Generally speaking, the farther the information travels, the more times the information passes the geometric center. Thus, it is easy to determine which node is more likely to be the center of the geometry network. However, during information transmission, different nodes do not share the same vitality, and some nodes are more active than others. Therefore, the product of one node's degree and its clustering coefficient can be viewed as a good factor to show how active this node is. In this paper, a new centrality metric called vitality centrality is introduced, which is only based on this product and the simulated flow. Simulation experiments based on six test networks have been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of our new metric.

  19. Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: A Study of Prevalence and Etiology in a Group of Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Rahil; Ramazani, Nahid; Nourinasab, Rahmatollah

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and its relationship with systemic conditions in a group of Iranian children. Methods The study population comprised of 433 7-9 year olds, from four schools in Zahedan, Iran. Subjects were evaluated clinically by one examiner, and at a separate session, their mothers completed a coded medical history questionnaire. Hypo-mineralized molars and incisors were recorded based on DDE (developmental defects of enamel) index and DMFT (number of decayed, filled and missing teeth) was determined. Statistical analyses were performed using Chi-square and independent sample t-tests. Findings Fifty-five (12.7%) children showed MIH. The overall mean number of affected teeth was 0.2. The mean value of DMFT in MIH children was greater than in normal children. Demarcated opacities were the most frequent (76%) enamel defect. Mother's and child's medical problems during prenatal, perinatal and post natal period were significantly remarkable in MIH children. Conclusion The prevalence of MIH in a group of Iranian children was 12.7%. Prenatal, perinatal and post natal medical conditions were more prevalent in children affected by MIH. PMID:23056894

  20. Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)

    PubMed Central

    ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

    2001-01-01

    Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

  1. Hyaluronic acid-based scaffold for central neural tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiumei; He, Jin; Wang, Ying; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) regeneration with central neuronal connections and restoration of synaptic connections has been a long-standing worldwide problem and, to date, no effective clinical therapies are widely accepted for CNS injuries. The limited regenerative capacity of the CNS results from the growth-inhibitory environment that impedes the regrowth of axons. Central neural tissue engineering has attracted extensive attention from multi-disciplinary scientists in recent years, and many studies have been carried out to develop cell- and regeneration-activating biomaterial scaffolds that create an artificial micro-environment suitable for axonal regeneration. Among all the biomaterials, hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising candidate for central neural tissue engineering because of its unique physico-chemical and biological properties. This review attempts to outline current biomaterials-based strategies for CNS regeneration from a tissue engineering point of view and discusses the main progresses in research of HA-based scaffolds for central neural tissue engineering in detail. PMID:23741606

  2. Isolation and partial characterization of proteoglycans from rat incisors.

    PubMed Central

    Rahemtulla, F; Prince, C W; Butler, W T

    1984-01-01

    Newly synthesized proteoglycans of rat incisors were labelled in vivo for 6h with [35S]-sulphate in order to facilitate their detection during purification and characterization. Proteoglycans were extracted from non-mineralized portions (predentine) of rat incisors with 4M-guanidinium chloride and subsequently from dentine by demineralization with a 0.4M-EDTA solution containing 4M-guanidinium chloride. Both extractions were performed at 4 degrees C in the presence of proteinase inhibitors. Purification of proteoglycans was achieved with a procedure involving gel-filtration chromatography, selective precipitation of phosphoproteins, affinity chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. Two proteoglycan populations were found in the initial extract (Pd-PG I and Pd-PG II), whereas only one fraction (D-PG) was obtained after demineralization. The minor proteoglycan fraction from the first extract, Pd-PG I, although not totally characterized, differed sharply from the other proteoglycans in that it had a larger molecular size with larger glycosaminoglycan chains composed of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulphate isomers. In contrast, the major proteoglycans Pd-PG II and D-PG had smaller hydrodynamic sizes with smaller glycosaminoglycan chains (but larger than those from bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycans) composed exclusively of chondroitin 4-sulphate. The major proteoglycans were incapable of interacting with hyaluronic acid. In general, the amino acid compositions of the major proteoglycans of rat incisors resembled that of bovine nasal cartilage proteoglycans, but the former had lower proline, valine, isoleucine, leucine, and higher aspartic acid, contents. PMID:6721839

  3. Survival rate and fracture strength of incisors restored with different post and core systems and endodontically treated incisors without coronoradicular reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pontius, Oliver; Nathanson, D; Giordano, R; Schilder, H; Hutter, Jeffrey W

    2002-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture resistance of maxillary central incisors restored with different post and core systems. The post and core systems investigated were a prefabricated high precious metal post with cast core (group A), zirconia post with a prefabricated bonded ceramic core (group B), and a resin-ceramic interpenetrating phase composite post (experimental) with a prefabricated bonded ceramic core (group C). The all-ceramic copings were cemented using Panavia 21 TC. In the group without coronoradicular reinforcement, the access cavity was closed with a light-cured composite in combination with a dentine-bonding agent (group D). Each specimen was intermittently loaded and thermocycled before final stress tests in a Zwick machine. The survival rates after 1,200,000 cycles in the artificial mouth were 90% (group A), 80% (group B), 60% (group C), and 100% (group D). Statistically significant differences were found between all groups with the exception of A and B, when failure during cyclic loading was included (Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test). Samples restored with a cast post and core demonstrated more vertical root fractures. It was concluded that the preservation of both internal and external tooth structure is of utmost importance when restoring endodontically treated teeth. PMID:12398170

  4. Radiographic Investigation of Frequency and Degree of Canal Curvatures in Chinese Mandibular Permanent Incisors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-hua Zheng; Xue-dong Zhou; Ying Jiang; Tuo-qi Sun; Cheng-xia Liu; Hui Xue; Ding-ming Huang

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of root canal curvature is a critical factor in successful root canal procedures. The objective of this study was to determine the degree of root canal curvature and the frequency of curvature identified in different radiographic views in permanent incisors from a Chinese population. The curvature of canals from 299 permanent mandibular incisors was investigated by measuring the

  5. Preformed resin-veneered stainless steel crowns for restoration of primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Croll, T P; Helpin, M L

    1996-05-01

    Stainless steel crown forms with bonded resin veneers for primary incisors are commercially available to dentists. This type of preveneered crown was developed to serve as a convenient, durable, reliable, and esthetic solution to the difficult challenge of restoring severely carious primary incisors. This article describes preveneered crowns, reviews their advantages and disadvantages, and details a technique for placement of such restorations. PMID:8941812

  6. Expression of MicroRNAs in the Stem Cell Niche of the Adult Mouse Incisor

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    Expression of MicroRNAs in the Stem Cell Niche of the Adult Mouse Incisor Andrew H. Jheon1 , Chun-Ying Li1 , Timothy Wen1 , Frederic Michon2 , Ophir D. Klein1,3 * 1 Program in Craniofacial and Mesenchymal, Michon F, Klein OD (2011) Expression of MicroRNAs in the Stem Cell Niche of the Adult Mouse Incisor. PLo

  7. A cross-sectional clinical study on shape of nose inner-canthal distance and geometric progression as predictors for width of the maxillary incisor teeth

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Naveen; Singh, T. Rajesh; Reddy, Swetha; Guruprasad, Yadavalli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of anatomical landmarks of the face and geometric progression as predictors for the width of the maxillary incisor teeth. Materials and Methods: The central incisor width (CIW), lateral incisor width (LIW), inner-canthal distance (ICD) and inter-alar distance (IAD) from a total of 150 subjects were measured clinically. The width of the root of the nose (WRN) was measured on standard photographs of the subjects. Student t-test has been used to find the significance of parameters between male and female. Pearson correlation has been used to find any relation of the parameters. Results: The IAD and the WRN measurements suggest that the shape of the nose is wider and more triangular in males. The mean maxillary CIW and ICD was significantly higher in males than females. Conclusion: The proportion of IAD to WRN seems to be a reliable guide for deciding the proportion of the maxillary central and LIW. The ICD, when multiplied by a decreasing function value of the geometric progression term 0.618 and divided by 2, was a reliable predictor of the maxillary CIW. PMID:25097395

  8. Healing process of incisor teeth of diabetic rats replanted after storage in milk.

    PubMed

    Ricieri, Camila Benez; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Aranega, Alessandra Marcondes; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2009-06-01

    Several local factors that influence the healing process of replanted teeth have been investigated. However, it remains unclear how systemic alterations, such as diabetes mellitus, affect the prognosis of these cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healing process of incisors of non-controlled diabetic rats replanted after storage in bovine long shelf-life (UHT) whole milk. Thirty-two rats were randomly assigned to receive an endovenous injection of either citrate buffer solution (group I - control; n = 16) or streptozotocin dissolved in citrate buffer solution to induce diabetes (group II; n = 16). After confirmation of the diabetic status by analysis of the glycemic levels, the maxillary right incisor of each animal was extracted and immersed in milk for 60 min. The root canals of teeth were then instrumented, and were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based dressing and replanted into their sockets. All animals received systemic antibiotic and were killed by anesthetic overdose 10 and 60 days after replantation. The specimens containing the replanted teeth were removed, fixed, decalcified, and embedded in paraffin. Semi-serial 6-microm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic and histometric analyses. The results showed that the connective tissue adjacent to the root surface was less organized in the diabetic animals than in the control animals in both periods; the root dentin was less severely affected by root resorption in the diabetic rats; there were no significant differences between the control and diabetic groups regarding the occurrence of replacement resorption and inflammatory resorption. PMID:19583576

  9. Correction of palatally displaced maxillary lateral incisors without brackets

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Yoonjung; Kim, Minji

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 25-year-old Korean female patient with anterior crowding, including palatally displaced lateral incisors. Her facial profile was satisfactory, but 3.5 mm of maxillary anterior crowding was observed. To correct this crowding, we decided to minimize the use of the conventional fixed orthodontic appliances and employed a less bulky and more aesthetic appliance for applying light continuous force. We determined the final positions of the maxillary teeth via a working model for diagnostic set up and achieved space gaining and alignment with simple Ni-Ti spring and stainless steel round tubes. Tooth alignment was achieved efficiently and aesthetically without the conventional brackets. PMID:24015390

  10. The length and eruption rates of incisor teeth in rats after one or more of them had been unimpeded.

    PubMed

    Burn-Murdoch, R A

    1999-02-01

    The eruption rate and length of all four incisor teeth in rats were measured under ether anaesthesia by recording the position of marks on their labial surfaces at 2-day intervals, using calibrated graticules in microscope eyepieces. The rats were divided into four groups and either a lower, an upper, both a lower and an upper, or no incisors were unimpeded. This paper describes the changes when the unimpeded incisors returned to the occlusion. Neither the unimpeded nor the impeded incisors simply returned to control values immediately the period of unimpeded eruption ended, but showed transient changes in their lengths and eruption rates. The results confirm that eruption rates are determined by the sum of the lengths of the lower and upper incisors, rather than by their own lengths, with longer teeth erupting more slowly. Specifically, restoring the bevel to the incisors did not slow their eruption below normal impeded rates. The slowing of the eruption of the longer of two adjacent incisors was related to the length differences of the incisors in the same jaw, not to the sum of the differences in both jaws. Contact with the contralateral incisor in the opposite jaw slowed the eruption of an incisor more than contact with the ipsilateral incisor. PMID:10191577

  11. Notching and anterior beveling on fossil horse incisors: Indicators of domestication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Richard A.; Rogers, Laurine A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the lines of evidence cited for possible late Pleistocene human control of horses has been the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth recovered from upper and middle Paleolithic sites in Europe. Similar forms of wear have been found on the incisor teeth of wild horses from early and middle Pleistocene deposits in North America. Notching appears partly due to malocclusion and chipping. The causes of beveling are less certain but may involve the eating of bark. Therefore, the presence of notching and anterior beveling on horse incisor teeth may not be a reliable indicator of human control.

  12. Treatment of Two Canals in All Mandibular Incisor Teeth in the Same Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kokane, Vandana B.; Patil, Swapnil N.; Gunwal, Mohit K.; Kubde, Rajesh; Atre, Swaraj

    2014-01-01

    The main reason for unfavourable outcome in endodontic treatment of mandibular incisor is the inability to detect the presence of second canal. Pain even after extirpation of complete pulp tissue from root canal of vital teeth is the main indication of hidden canals. The present case report is also on pain because of another neglected canal in all mandibular incisors in the same patient. PMID:25478246

  13. Surgical Treatment of an Immature Short-Rooted Traumatized Incisor with an Extensive Apical Lesion Using CEM Cement.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Severe traumatic injuries to immature teeth often cause damage to periodontal ligament as well as dental pulp; pulp necrosis, root resorption and subsequent apical lesion are common consequences. This article reports the surgical management of an infected immature maxillary central incisor associated with a gigantic periradicular lesion and severe root resorption. The tooth had a history of trauma and the patient suffered from purulent sinus tract and tooth mobility. After unsuccessful multi-session disinfection with calcium hydroxide, root end surgery was planned. During flap surgery and lesion enucleation, the root end was cleaned and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After one year, the radiographic examination revealed that the lesion was almost completely replaced with newly formed bone. In addition, clinical examination showed favorable outcomes; the tooth was symptom-free and in function. Due to chemical, physical and biological properties of CEM cement, this biomaterial might be considered as the root-end filling material of choice. PMID:25834603

  14. Aesthetic Rehabilitation of a Complicated Crown-Root Fracture of the Maxillary Incisor: Combination of Orthodontic and Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Campos Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a complex rehabilitation, of fractured tooth, with implants in anterior region considering the orthodontics extrusion to clinical success. At 7 years old, the patient fractured the maxillary left central incisor and the dentist did a crown with the fragment. Twenty years later, the patient was referred to a dental clinic for orthodontic treatment, with the chief complaint related to an accentuated deep bite, and a professional started an orthodontic treatment. After sixteen months of orthodontic treatment, tooth 21 fractured. The treatment plan included an orthodontic extrusion of tooth 21 and implant placement. This case has been followed up and the clinical and radiographic examinations show excellence esthetic results and satisfaction of patient. The forced extrusion can be a viable treatment option in the management of crown root fracture of an anterior tooth to gain bone in a vertical direction. This case emphasizes that to achieve the esthetic result a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. PMID:24872900

  15. A centralized quantum switch network based on probabilistic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Min; Wu, Re-Bing; Li, Hui; Zhang, Zeng-ke

    2013-01-01

    We present a practical scheme for deterministically teleporting quantum information via probabilistic communication channels in a centralized quantum switch network. In the network, a central quantum switch agent is assigned for regulating probabilistic channels so as to construct a direct deterministic channel between the sender and the receiver. This scheme is further extended to a hierarchical network and a tree network involving multiple agents. The advantage of the scheme is that all required multi qubit gates from distributed terminal agents are uniformly performed by a central agent, with which the physical design of terminal nodes is greatly simplified and more reliable deterministic teleportation can be realized in a centralized quantum probabilistic network.

  16. Centralized Administration and Academic Credit Base in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lupton, D. Keith

    1979-01-01

    The off-campus term program (OCT) of the University of South Florida is described. The OCT represents a model of centralized, comprehensive experiential education. The methods and systems used are described as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the OCT centralized model. (Author/SF)

  17. The central china technical innovation research based on diffusion theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuetao Sun; Shixiang Huang; Xiaobao Peng; Zhiyuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPRs) sharing and communication are the key impetus factor of the central china innovation and practice. Through the analysis of the influence factor and the question of the technological innovation are in the central china, from the aspect of strategic instruction, the policy support and the technical diffusion system construction, we carry on the innovation analysis in

  18. Edinburgh Research Explorer A logic-based diagram of signalling pathways central to

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    purposes) BMC Systems Biology Open AccessResearch article A logic-based diagram of signalling pathwaysEdinburgh Research Explorer A logic-based diagram of signalling pathways central to macrophage & Freeman, T 2008, 'A logic-based diagram of signalling pathways central to macrophage activation' BMC

  19. Stability of spatial structure of urban agglomeration in China based on Central Place Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuanglin Fang; Jitao Song; Dunjiang Song

    2007-01-01

    This paper brings forward the concept of stability of the spatial structure of urban agglomeration (UA) based on Central Place\\u000a Theory by introducing centrality index and fractal theory. Before assessment, K=4 is selected as parameter to calculate centrality index and fractal dimension (K represents the quantitive relationship between city and the counties in Central Place Theory), and then found the

  20. Survival rate and fracture strength of maxillary incisors, restored with different kinds of full veneers.

    PubMed

    Stappert, C F J; Stathopoulou, N; Gerds, T; Strub, J R

    2005-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture strength of different kinds of ceramic full veneers, fabricated with a new experimental press ceramic (EPC VP2117/TC2, Ivoclar-Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Eighty, caries-free human maxillary central incisors were used as abutments and were randomly divided into one control group and four test-groups of 16 samples each. In group A, unprepared teeth served as control. In the test groups, four different types of full veneer preparations were performed. In test groups B/C, the preparation was maintained in enamel and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. In test groups D/E, the preparation was extended into dentin and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. All veneers were adhesively luted using Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent AG). Then, the samples were exposed to the artificial mouth for 1.2 million chewing cycles (49 N). After exposure in the artificial mouth, a survival rate of the abutment teeth of 81-100% was reported among the different groups, but was not significantly different between the groups. However, no failures of the ceramic materials could be recognized. The median fracture strength of group A was 713.3 N, of group B 647.1 N, of group C 594.8 N, of group D 483.8 N and of group E 502.6 N. Among the different groups no significant difference was found. All mean values obtained were within the limits of clinical acceptance, indicating further clinical investigations on full veneers made out of the EPC. PMID:15790381

  1. Notch signalling is required for the survival of epithelial stem cells in the continuously growing mouse incisor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Szabolcs Felszeghy; Marika Suomalainen; Irma Thesleff

    2010-01-01

    The Notch pathway regulates the renewal and fate decisions of stem cells in multiple tissues. Notch1, -2, as well as the Notch target gene Hes1 are expressed in the putative stem cells in the continuously growing mouse incisors, but so far there has not been any evidence for a function of the Notch pathway in the regulation of the incisor

  2. Simulating certain aspects of hypogravity: Effects on the mandibular incisors of suspended rats (PULEH model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Winter, F.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a hypogravity simulating model on the rate of mandibular incisor formation, dentinogenesis and, amelogenesis in laboratory rats was studied. The model is the partial unloading by elevating the hindquarters. In this system, rat hindquarters are elevated 30 to 40 deg from the cage floors to completely unload the hindlimbs, but the animals are free to move about using their forelimbs. This model replicates the fluid sift changes which occur during the weightlessness of spaceflight and produces an osteopenia in the weight bearing skeletons. The histogenesis and/or mineralization rates of the mandibular incisor during the first 19d of PULEH in young growing rats are recorded.

  3. Treating dental crowding with mandibular incisor extraction in an Angle Class I patient.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gislana Braga

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26154463

  4. Skull base tumours Part II. Central skull base tumours and intrinsic tumours of the bony skull base.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandra

    2008-06-01

    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base. PMID:18472241

  5. Incisor trauma and early treatment for Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorne D. Koroluk; J. F. Camilla Tulloch; Ceib Phillips

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated incisor trauma in children with overjets greater than or equal to 7 mm who were enrolled in a clinical trial of 2-phase early orthodontic treatment for Class II malocclusion. In phase 1, children were randomly assigned to treatment in the mixed dentition with either modified bionator or combination headgear or to a group in which treatment was

  6. Evaluation of buccal enamel of deciduous incisors stored in three different solutions with DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavia De Martin Teles; Josa C. Pettorossi Imaparatto; Fatima A. A. Zanin; Aldo Brugnera Jr.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different storage solutions on teeth from a tooth bank, using DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence at 3 time periods. The storage solutions used in the study were: refrigerated water, saline, and 10% formol. Eighteen visually intact deciduous incisors were divided into three groups of six samples each. The teeth were previously cleaned, dehydrated and measured using

  7. Incisor size and community structure in rodents: Two tests of the role of competition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginie Parra; Michel Loreau; Jean-Jacques Jaeger

    1999-01-01

    We used two different approaches to test for the effect of interspecific competition on community-wide patterns in the size of the upper incisor in six rodent communities. One tests for constancy of size ratios between adjacent species (Barton and David's test), and the other tests for minimum mean size overlap between species pairs (randomization test). The results of the two

  8. Isolation and culture of dental epithelial stem cells from the adult mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Miquella G; Hu, Jimmy; Seidel, Kerstin; Li, Chunying; Jheon, Andrew; Naveau, Adrien; Horst, Orapin; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest(1-4), and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give rise to ameloblasts that generate enamel, the outer covering of teeth, on the labial surface. This asymmetric enamel formation allows abrasion at the incisor tip, and progenitors and stem cells in the proximal incisor ensure that the dental tissues are constantly replenished. The ability to isolate and grow these progenitor or stem cells in vitro allows their expansion and opens doors to numerous experiments not achievable in vivo, such as high throughput testing of potential stem cell regulatory factors. Here, we describe and demonstrate a reliable and consistent method to culture cells from the labial CL of the mouse incisor. PMID:24834972

  9. Isolation and Culture of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Miquella G.; Hu, Jimmy; Seidel, Kerstin; Li, Chunying; Jheon, Andrew; Naveau, Adrien; Horst, Orapin; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest1-4, and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give rise to ameloblasts that generate enamel, the outer covering of teeth, on the labial surface. This asymmetric enamel formation allows abrasion at the incisor tip, and progenitors and stem cells in the proximal incisor ensure that the dental tissues are constantly replenished. The ability to isolate and grow these progenitor or stem cells in vitro allows their expansion and opens doors to numerous experiments not achievable in vivo, such as high throughput testing of potential stem cell regulatory factors. Here, we describe and demonstrate a reliable and consistent method to culture cells from the labial CL of the mouse incisor. PMID:24834972

  10. Experimental investigation of a low energy consumption air conditioning system based on conventional central heating installation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Bakos; E. Tsioliaridou; N. F. Tsagas

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of a low cost and low energy consumption air conditioning system based on the conventional central heating installations. It is aimed to convert, with minimal cost and work intervention in the interior of the buildings, the classic central heating systems into a new type system which can cool during summer and heat during winter

  11. RoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System

    E-print Network

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    RoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System Tamim Sookoor & Kamin. In this paper we present a CPS that enables a centralized Heating, Ventila- tion, and Air Conditioning (HVAC application due to residential HVAC systems ac- counting for over 15% of all U.S. energy usage, making it one

  12. How Second Language Learners Respond to Central and Peripheral Content-Based Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwick, Richard

    A study investigated the use of content-based tasks as central and peripheral in second language instruction. Specifically, it examined the relative effects of such tasks that were either central to the syllabus, as sources of knowledge or skills in their own right, or peripheral, as occasional source of language practice. The study was conducted…

  13. An agent-based model of centralized institutions, social network technology, and revolution.

    PubMed

    Makowsky, Michael D; Rubin, Jared

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the general mechanisms underlying large-scale social and institutional change. We employ an agent-based model to test the impact of authority centralization and social network technology on preference falsification and institutional change. We find that preference falsification is increasing with centralization and decreasing with social network range. This leads to greater cascades of preference revelation and thus more institutional change in highly centralized societies and this effect is exacerbated at greater social network ranges. An empirical analysis confirms the connections that we find between institutional centralization, social radius, preference falsification, and institutional change. PMID:24278280

  14. An Agent-Based Model of Centralized Institutions, Social Network Technology, and Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Makowsky, Michael D.; Rubin, Jared

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the general mechanisms underlying large-scale social and institutional change. We employ an agent-based model to test the impact of authority centralization and social network technology on preference falsification and institutional change. We find that preference falsification is increasing with centralization and decreasing with social network range. This leads to greater cascades of preference revelation and thus more institutional change in highly centralized societies and this effect is exacerbated at greater social network ranges. An empirical analysis confirms the connections that we find between institutional centralization, social radius, preference falsification, and institutional change. PMID:24278280

  15. Standardised studies on Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM): a need.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, M E C; Ghanim, A; Manton, D J; Weerheijm, K L

    2015-06-01

    In November 2014, a review of literature concerning prevalence data of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) and Hypomineralised Second Primary Molars (HSPM) was performed. A search of PubMed online databases was conducted for relevant articles published until November 2014. The reference lists of all retrieved articles were hand-searched. Studies were included after assessing the eligibility of the full-text article. Out of 1078 manuscripts, a total of 157 English written publications were selected based on title and abstract. Of these 157, 60 were included in the study and allocated as 52 MIH and 5 HSPM, and 3 for both MIH and HSPM. These studies utilised the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry judgment criteria, the modified index of developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) and self-devised criteria, and demonstrated a wide variation in the reported prevalence (MIH 2.9-44 %; HSPM 0-21.8 %). Most values mentioned were representative for specific areas. More studies were performed in cities compared with rural areas. A great variation was found in calibration methods, number of participants, number of examiners and research protocols between the studies. The majority of the prevalence studies also investigated possible aetiological factors. To compare MIH and HSPM prevalence and or aetiological data around the world, standardisation of such studies seems essential. Standardisation of the research protocol should include a clearly described sample of children (minimum number of 300 for prevalence and 1000 for aetiology studies) and use of the same calibration sets and methods whereas aetiological studies need to be prospective in nature. A standardised protocol for future MIH and HSPM prevalence and aetiology studies is recommended. PMID:25894247

  16. Survival rate and fracture strength of incisors restored with different post and core systems after exposure in the artificial mouth.

    PubMed

    Strub, J R; Pontius, O; Koutayas, S

    2001-02-01

    The survival rate and fracture resistance of 40 decapitated endodontically treated maxillary central incisors using four different post and core systems covered with all-ceramic copings was evaluated after exposure in the artificial mouth. Ten samples of the following post and core systems were investigated: high precious metal post (Permador) and core (Olympia) (A), zirconia post (Cerapost) with a pre-fabricated bonded ceramic core (Ceracap) (B), resin-ceramic post (experimental) with a pre-fabricated bonded ceramic core (Ceracap(R)) (C) and a zirconia post (Cerapost) with a custom made ceramic core (Cosmo Ingots) (D). The all-ceramic copings (Procera) were cemented using Panavia TC. The survival rates after 1 200 000 cycles in the artificial mouth are as follows: 90% (A), 80% (B), 60% (C) and 100% (D). The results of the means and standard deviations (s.d.) of the fracture resistance during static loading are: 1270 +/- 312.5 (A), 1494.5 +/- 333.5 (B), 1146.7 +/- 182.6 (C) and 463.3 +/- 46.2 (D). There are statistically significant differences between all groups with the exception of A and B, and A and C (Wilcoxon test). None of the zirconia posts with custom made ceramic cores covered with all-ceramic copings fractured during dynamic loading in the artificial mouth. The mean fracture strength during static loading was less favourable than that of groups A, B and C but above the clinical necessary level. PMID:11298259

  17. Surgical resection technique of a fused supernumerary lateral incisor: a clinical report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ulrike Stephanie; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Widmann, Gerlig; Puelacher, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This case report presents the surgical and restorative management of a fused supernumerary left lateral incisor. The diagnosis was confirmed using conventional radiographs and CT. The case report discusses the value of CT for evaluation of the root relationships and describes the varied morphology associated with supernumerary incisors, the surgical resection technique, partial pulpotomy, and restoration with composite resin after mechanical exposure of the remaining tooth's pulp. PMID:22782063

  18. Observations on the eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New Caledonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bianchi; J. C. Hurlin; S. Lebel; P. Chardonnet

    1997-01-01

    The eruption of the permanent incisor teeth of 14 farmed Javan rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) of known birth date and their live weights were observed about every 2 weeks from 12 to 30 months of age. The permanent incisor pattern was 11, 14–17 months; 12, 18–23 months; 13, 20–26 months; and 14, 22–27 months. There was no significant relationship

  19. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Roots; A Case Report with 6 Months Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Atefeh; Abbaszadegan, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary lateral incisors are widely known to be single rooted with one root canal. Although rare cases with root canal variations are being reported in many populations, the reports regarding Iranian population is extremely limited. In this report, we are presenting the endodontic treatment of a double rooted maxillary lateral incisor. These rare root-canal variations should be considered in pretreatment evaluations by clinicians who perform endodontic treatments. PMID:25469361

  20. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age. PMID:8730689

  1. Expression of MicroRNAs in the Stem Cell Niche of the Adult Mouse Incisor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew H. Jheon; Chun-Ying Li; Timothy Wen; Frederic Michon; Ophir D. Klein; Songtao Shi

    2011-01-01

    The mouse incisor is a valuable but under-utilized model organ for studying the behavior of adult stem cells. This remarkable tooth grows continuously throughout the animal's lifetime and houses two distinct epithelial stem cell niches called the labial and lingual cervical loop (laCL and liCL, respectively). These stem cells produce progeny that undergo a series of well-defined differentiation events en

  2. Coexpression of calretinin and parvalbumin in Ruffini-like endings in the rat incisor periodontal ligament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Ichikawa; David M Jacobowitz; Tomosada Sugimoto

    1997-01-01

    The coexpression of calretinin- (CR) and parvalbumin-immunoreactivities (irs) was examined in oro-facial tissues of the rat. Nerve fibers coexpressing these calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) were observed in the lingual periodontal ligament of incisors but not other tissues. In the part of periodontal ligament adjacent to the alveolar bone, such nerve fibers left nerve bundles and formed bush-like endings, i.e., they ramified

  3. Temporal Analysis of Ectopic Enamel Production in Incisors From Sprouty Mutant Mice

    E-print Network

    Klein, Ophir

    ,2 , RENATA PETERKOVA1 , HERVE LESOT3,4,5 , DAVID B. LYONS6 , MIROSLAV PETERKA1,2 , AND OPHIR D. KLEIN6,7,8Ã 1, 2009. r 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. How to cite this article: Boran T, Peterkova R, Lesot H, Lyons DB, Peterka M, Klein OD. 2009. Temporal analysis of ectopic enamel production in incisors from sprouty mutant

  4. All the Mandibular Incisors with Double Canals in a Single Patient: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Daokar, Sadashiv G; Kalekar (Yadao), Anita S; Ghunawat, Dhananjay B; Kakde, Deepak D

    2015-01-01

    Single rooted tooth are considered to be the easiest for root canal treatment. The literature has documented cases with single rooted tooth showing more than single canal. Understanding of root canal morphology thus is an important aspect to be considered for successful endodontic treatment. The case presented here shows a rare entity of having double canals in all the mandibular incisors in a single patient. PMID:25859107

  5. Reattachment of endodontically treated lateral incisor with supragingivally complicated crown fracture using fiber-reinforced post.

    PubMed

    Çal??kan, M Kemal; Ceyhanl?, K Tolga

    2011-08-01

    Re-restoring endodontically treated teeth with complicated crown or crown root fractures is a major challenge for dental practitioners, because they can present difficulties for successful treatment. This report describes the management of supragingivally complicated crown fracture of an endodontically treated maxillary lateral incisor. The involved tooth was restored with the reattachment procedure using light transmitting fiber post. After 11 months, the reattached tooth had a satisfying function, favorable physiological and esthetic outcomes and healthy surrounding periodontal structures. PMID:21615682

  6. On the cutting edge of organ renewal: identification, regulation and evolution of incisor stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien; Mushegyan, Vagan; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    The rodent incisor is one of a number of organs that grow continuously throughout the life of an animal. Continuous growth of the incisor arose as an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for abrasion at the distal end of the tooth. The sustained turnover of cells that deposit the mineralized dental tissues is made possible by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells residing at the proximal end of the incisor. A complex network of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulates the formation, maintenance, and differentiation of these stem cells during development and throughout adulthood. Research over the past 15 years has led to significant progress in our understanding of this network, which includes FGF, BMP, Notch, and Hh signaling, as well as cell adhesion molecules and microRNAs. This review surveys key historical experiments that laid the foundation of the field and discusses more recent findings that definitively identified the stem cell population, elucidated the regulatory network, and demonstrated possible genetic mechanisms for the evolution of continuously growing teeth. PMID:24307456

  7. Long-term preservation of Bone Morphogenetic Activity in stored demineralized murine incisors.

    PubMed

    W?odarski, Krzysztof H; Szcz?sny, Grzegorz; Kuzaka, Boles?aw; W?odarski, Pawe? K

    2013-01-01

    Demineralized bone or dentine implanted intramuscularly induce endochondral bone formation. This phenomenon, termed "bone induction" is triggered by non-collagenous signal molecules, named "Bone Morphogenetic Proteins" (BMPs), released from bone or dentine. Demineralization of bone/dentine prior their implantation facilitates the release of BMPs from the extracellular matrix allowing to reach a BMP threshold level needed to initiate the process of differentiation of mesenchymal cells towards an osteogenic/chondrogenic lineage. Unprocessed, mineralized tissues usually fail to induce cartilage/bone. Isolated BMPs are commercially available, and in clinical practice are an alternative for demineralized tissues, however, in many cases demineralized bone has advantages over soluble BMPs, as it combines both bone inducing principles and mechanical properties, a feature important for bridging bone fracture and filling bone defects. Demineralized bones are an inexpensive source of bone forming agents for bone-fracture healing or filling bone defects. In this report we demonstrated that storage of lyophilized demineralized murine incisors for 30 months does not deteriorate its osteoinductive potency and colonizing induced bone by bone marrow. Lyophylized incisors, stored for 0-30 months at refrigator were implanted intramuscularly and recovered, together with surrounding tissues at various time intervals ranging 10-450 days. Bone closely associated with implant was observed in about 87% of cases, regardless the storage duration. It is concluded that storage of demineralized and lyophilized incisor matrices for at least 30 months does not change their osteoinductive potency. PMID:23563912

  8. A case of maloccluded incisor teeth in a beaver: castor canadensis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-hyun; Lee, Jae Yeong; Han, Tae-Sung; Han, Kyu-bo; Kang, Seong Soo; Bae, Chun Sik; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2005-06-01

    A three-year-old female beaver (Castor canadensis) was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Chungbuk National University. It had been raised in the Cheong-ju zoo and had a history of malocclusion caused by improper feeding. General anesthesia was induced, and preoperative intraoral dental radiographs of the rostal maxillary and mandibular dentition were taken and lateral and ventrodorsal extraoral radiographs of the cheek teeth were also taken. The radiographs were negative for apical pathology and revealed a normal appearance of the cheek teeth. The lesion was likely to be related to the excessive length of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Odontoplasty was performed to reduce overgrowth of the crowns of the incisors. Sequential transverse sections were removed until the crown was reduced by approximately its original length. The pulp chamber was not approached during the operation, as confirmed by postoperative intraoral radiographic evaluation of the incisors. Recovery from anesthesia was uneventful and the beaver returned to normal masticatory activities immediately after the operation. PMID:15933441

  9. Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Rog; Turo J. Nurmikko; Tim Friede; Carolyn A. Young

    2005-01-01

    Background: Central pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and often refractory to treatment. Methods: We conducted a single-center, 5-week (1-week run-in, 4-week treatment), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in 66 patients with MS and central pain states (59 dysesthetic, seven painful spasms) of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM), containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) delivered via an oromu- cosal spray, as adjunctive

  10. Web-based training improves knowledge about central line bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Comer, Angela; Harris, Anthony D; Shardell, Michelle; Braun, Barbara; Belton, Beverly M; Wolfsthal, Susan D; Dembry, Louise-Marie; Jacob, Jesse T; Price, Connie; Sulis, Carol; Chu, Eugene S; Xiao, Yan

    2011-12-01

    A Web-based training course with embedded video clips for reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) was evaluated and shown to improve clinician knowledge and retention of knowledge over time. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate Web-based CLABSI training as a stand-alone intervention. PMID:22080663

  11. Web-Based Training Improves Knowledge about Central Line Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Angela; Harris, Anthony D.; Shardell, Michelle; Braun, Barbara; Belton, Beverly M.; Wolfsthal, Susan D.; Dembry, Louise-Marie; Jacob, Jesse T.; Price, Connie; Sulis, Carol; Chu, Eugene S.; Xiao, Yan

    2012-01-01

    A Web-based training course with embedded video clips for reducing central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) was evaluated and shown to improve clinician knowledge and retention of knowledge over time. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate Web-based CLABSI training as a stand-alone intervention. PMID:22080663

  12. Accentuated lines in the enamel of primary incisors from skeletal remains: A contribution to the explanation of early childhood mortality in a medieval population from Poland.

    PubMed

    ??dzi?ska, El?bieta; Lorkiewicz, Wies?aw; Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugi?ska, Beata

    2015-07-01

    Physiological disruptions resulting from an impoverished environment during the first years of life are of key importance for the health and biological status of individuals and populations. Studies of growth processes in archaeological populations point to the fact that the main causes of childhood mortality in the past are to be sought among extrinsic factors. Based on this assumption, one would expect random mortality of children, with the deceased individuals representing the entire subadult population. The purpose of this study is to explore whether differences in early childhood survival are reflected in differences in deciduous tooth enamel, which can provide an insight into the development of an individual during prenatal and perinatal ontogeny. Deciduous incisors were taken from 83 individuals aged 2.0-6.5 years from a medieval inhumation cemetery dated AD 1300-1600. Prenatal and postnatal enamel formation time, neonatal line width, and the number of accentuated lines were measured using an optical microscope. The significantly wider neonatal line and the higher frequency of accentuated lines in the enamel of the incisors of children who died at the age of 2-3 years suggest the occurrence of stronger or more frequent stress events in this group. These results indicate that in skeletal populations mortality was not exclusively determined by random external factors. Individuals predisposed by an unfavorable course of prenatal and perinatal growth were more likely to die in early childhood. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:402-410, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25711723

  13. On Centralized and Distributed Frequency Assignment in Cognitive Radio Based Frequency Hopping Cellular Networks

    E-print Network

    Wichmann, Felix

    On Centralized and Distributed Frequency Assignment in Cognitive Radio Based Frequency Hopping Centre, RWTH Aachen University, Germany, gross@umic.rwth-aachen.de Abstract--Frequency Assignment frequency hopping as one possible frequency assignment approach. In particular we focus our attention

  14. Cultivating Urban Naturalists: Teaching Experiential, Place-Based Learning through Nature Journaling in Central Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warkentin, Traci

    2011-01-01

    Preservice educators engaged in experiential, place-based learning through a semester-long assignment in which they observed a specific place in Central Park in Manhattan, New York, and kept a nature journal. The assignment was organized around two pivotal elements: direct, sensory experience and time in place. Both elements added vital dimensions…

  15. Effects of incisor-cutting on muricidal behavior induced by olfactory bulbectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Hsuchou, Hung; Ho, Ying-Jui; Shui, Hao-Ai; Tai, Mei-Yun; Chen, Kuang-Ho; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2002-08-01

    Muricidal behavior in rats is composed of two main components, attacking and killing performance. Since a large number of mice could be killed by rats during behavioral experiments, research has been limited in the past decade possibly because of ethical considerations. In preliminary studies, we found that the rat incisors play a key role in muricidal behavior in rats, so, in the present study, we cut off the incisors and assessed the following parameters of muricidal behavior: attack latency, first attack site, lethal attack site, attack frequency, total attack duration and mean attack duration. If after incisor-cutting (IC) rats still tried to demonstrate muricidal activity, but failed to kill the mouse, this would be an ideal model for studying the mechanisms of muricidal behavior. Since muricide can be induced in rats by olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), young adult male Wistar rats with OBX displaying muricidal behavior were tested for muricidal activity 4 h after IC, then every 24 h for 3 days. At 4 and 28 h after IC, only 9% and 36% of rats killed mice, but these values rose to 73% and 82% 52 and 76 h after IC, respectively. At 4, 28 and 52 h after IC, there was no significant difference in attack latency, first attack site, lethal attack site or mean attack duration between IC-treated rats (both killers and nonkillers) and sham-operated controls, while the attack frequency was obviously increased in IC nonkiller rats, and a significantly longer total attack duration was seen in both IC killer and nonkiller rats compared to controls. Since IC treatment increases attack frequency and prolongs the total attack duration without affecting other basic components of muricidal behavior in rats, these results suggest that the killer rats treated with IC may provide a suitable model for research on muricidal behavior. PMID:12127007

  16. Esthetic rehabilitation of severely decayed primary incisors using glass fiber reinforced composite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Metha, Deepak; Gulati, Akanksha; Basappa, N; Raju, O S

    2012-01-01

    Restoration of primary maxillary incisors severely damaged by caries or trauma is a clinical challenge in pediatric dental clinics. Early childhood caries is observed in approximately half the child population. In the past, the only treatment option would have been to extract the affected teeth and replace them with prosthetic substitutes. With the introduction of new adhesive systems and restorative materials, alternative approaches in treating these teeth have been proposed. The purpose of this paper was to describe the rehabilitation of primary anterior teeth in a 5-year-old patient using glass fiber reinforced composite resin as an intracanal post. PMID:22449505

  17. Retreatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with two separate root canals confirmed with cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  18. Retreatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor With Two Separate Root Canals Confirmed With Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  19. Adaptive diversity of incisor enamel microstructure in South American burrowing rodents (family Ctenomyidae, Caviomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Vieytes, Emma C; Morgan, Cecilia C; Verzi, Diego H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the morphofunctional and adaptive significance of variation in the upper incisor enamel microstructure of South American burrowing ctenomyids and other octodontoid taxa. We studied the specialized subterranean tooth-digger †Eucelophorus chapalmalensis (Pliocene – Middle Pleistocene), and compared it with other fossil and living ctenomyids with disparate digging adaptations, two fossorial octodontids and one arboreal echimyid. Morphofunctionally significant enamel traits were quite similar among the species studied despite their marked differences in habits, digging behaviour and substrates occupied, suggesting a possible phylogenetic constraint for the Octodontoidea. In this context of relative similarity, the inclination of Hunter–Schreger bands, relative thickness of external index (EI) and prismless enamel zone were highest in †Eucelophorus, in agreement with its outstanding craniomandibular tooth-digging specialization. Higher inclination of Hunter–Schreger bands reinforces enamel to withstand high tension forces, while high external index provides greater resistance to wear. Results suggest increased frequency of incisor use for digging in †Eucelophorus, which could be related to a more extreme tooth-digging strategy and/or occupancy of hard soils. Higher external index values as recurring patterns in distant clades of tooth-digging rodents support an adaptive significance of this enamel trait. PMID:17584181

  20. Prevalence of lesions in incisors of mule deer from Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Borrero, L.M.; Scanlon, P.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife Science

    1995-12-31

    Lesions in teeth may be influenced by exposure to fluorides, malnutrition and trauma. Incisors of 228 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) taken from the USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, CO during the 1993 hunting season were examined for lesions. A classification scheme (scale = 0--5) for lesions was derived from the method of Shupe et al. 1963. Lesions were present in at least one incisor of 84.6% of deer. Of the deer with lesions, 86% had at least one tooth with very slight effect (one to few white spots), 9.8% had a slight effect (generalized mottling), 2.6% had a moderate effect (generalized mottling and wear), 10.04% had a marked effect (mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel) , and 0.5 % ad severe effects (hypoplasia of the enamel and abnormal wear). Lesions that affect the enamel are produced during the period of formation of the tooth. The severity of lesions depends on the cause and the length of exposure to the causative agent. Generally mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel are associated with fluorosis. The relationship of lesions to bone and tooth fluoride concentrations was examined.

  1. Simple method of designing centralized PI controllers for multivariable systems based on SSGM.

    PubMed

    Dhanya Ram, V; Chidambaram, M

    2015-05-01

    A method is given to design multivariable PI/PID controllers for stable and unstable multivariable systems. The method needs only the steady state gain matrix (SSGM). The method is based on the static decoupler design followed by SISO PI/PID controllers design and combining the resulted decoupler and the diagonal PI(D) controllers as the centralized controllers. The result of the present method is shown to be equivalent to the empirical method proposed by Davison EJ. Multivariable tuning regulators: the feed-forward and robust control of general servo-mechanism problem. IEEE Trans Autom Control 1976;21:35-41. Three simulation examples are given. The performance of the controllers is compared with that of the reported centralized controller based on the multivariable transfer function matrix. PMID:25530257

  2. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation in Betul Belt, central India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biswajit Ghosh; M. N. Praveen

    2008-01-01

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,\\u000a central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed. Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by\\u000a the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits in other parts of the world.\\u000a Synvolcanic hydrothermal alteration is crudely zoned with an

  3. A centralized optimization of dairy supply chain based on model predictive control strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Bei Bei; Yang Chun Jie; Cao Jian

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation method based on model predictive control strategy to find the optimal decision variables to maximize profit in dairy supply chains with multi-product, multi-echelon distribution networks and multi-product batch plants. The key features of this paper are: 1) inducts a model predictive control strategy under centralized management approach which is suitable for dairy supply chains founded

  4. Prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization in the city of Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Ana M; Cortese, Silvina G; Martínez, Karina; Ortolani, Andrea M; Sebelli, Patricia M F; Ienco, Melisa; Paván, Verónica H; Mendel, Nancy; Bertolino, Mariana; Hecht, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) still remains unknown in Argentina. The objectives of this work were to: estimate prevalence of MIH in a group of children seeking dental care in the city of Buenos Aires, analyze distribution according to year of birth and compare prevalence and severity of MIH in children with different access to health care services. A prospective, observational, transversal, descriptive study was designed, to be conducted on children seeking attention at Department of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry at the School of Dentistry of Buenos Aires University and at 3 pediatric dentistry offices attended by members of the team, located in Buenos Aires city (Kappa 0.933 0.911-0.952), from April to August 2010. The study included all children born between 1993 and 2003, whose 4 first molars and 8 permanent incisors had erupted. After prophylaxis and drying, the teeth were clinically evaluated and specially designed charts were used to record sex, year of birth, type of access to dental care, presence of MIH, number of affected incisors and molars, and maximum degree of severity for each tooth. The data obtained were analyzed using percentages, Fisher's Exact Test and Linear regression. 1098 children, mean age 11.3 years (11.08-11.39) were evaluated. Prevalence of MIH in this study was 15.9% (13.8-18.2). A highly significant positive correlation was obtained between MIH and year of birth (p<0.0001). Group A (private sector: prepaid medical insurance) was made up of 586 children (age: 10.92 6.22-15.62) while group B (public sector: university hospital) was made up of 512 children (age: 11.59 5.31-16.90). In Group A, MIH prevalence was 24.40% (20.9-27.9) while in Group B it was 6.44% (4.31-8.56) (p<0.0001). Of the affected molars, 37% (32.2-42) in A and 13.7% (6.7-23.8) in B had grade 3 lesions, with loss of enamel (p<0.0001). In this study, MIH was a frequent pathology (15.9%) and a significant increase was found according to year of birth during the study period. Patients with better access to health care had greater prevalence and degree of severity of MIH. PMID:22010411

  5. Restoring the vertical dimension of mandibular incisors with bonded ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Wylie, S G; Tan, H K; Brooke, K

    2000-06-01

    Mandibular incisors are difficult to restore with conventional anterior crowns due to their small axial diameters. Crown preparation risks pulp exposure and results in a thin core of dentine. An experiment was designed to determine if increasing the thickness of ceramic to restore incisal edges affects the load at the point of restoration failure. Forty-eight mandibular incisors were randomly divided into four groups. The incisal edges of the teeth in three groups were reduced so that the coronal height was 7.5 mm (Group A), 6.5 mm (Group B), and 5.5 mm (Group C). Group D was designated as the experimental control. A fifth group (Group E), independent of the random sample, was introduced to the study for discussion purposes and was characterized by each of the incisors having an intact incisal edge of enamel. Groups A, B and C were prepared in a standard fashion for ceramic veneer restorations that were constructed to restore the vertical height of each tooth to 8.5 mm. Prior to cementation, the preparation surfaces were analysed and the relative surface areas of enamel and dentine were calculated. The ceramic restorations were cemented using a resin luting agent. The teeth were then thermocycled prior to loading at 135 degrees C until failure. The mean fracture load was 305 N (SD 134 N) for Group A, 403 N (SD 101 N) for Group B, 515 N (SD 296 N) for Group C, 587 N (SD 187 N) for Group D and 395 N (SD 129 N) for Group E. As determined by analysis of variance followed by a Sheffè multiple comparison test there was a significant difference (p < or = 0.01) between Group A and Group D. There were no significant correlations of load at failure with the percentage of exposed dentine, enamel surface area, total preparation surface area, and the incisal surface area. The patterns of failure of the fractured specimens were also analysed. There were significantly (p < or = 0.05) greater fractures of the ceramic restorations when they were bonded with the minimum incisal thickness of ceramic. PMID:10925503

  6. Integrated flight/propulsion control system design based on a centralized approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bullard, Randy E.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated flight/propulsion control system design is presented for the piloted longitudinal landing task with a modern, statically unstable, fighter aircraft. A centralized compensator based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery methodology is first obtained to satisfy the feedback loop performance and robustness specificiations. This high-order centralized compensator is then partitioned into airframe and engine sub-controllers based on modal controllability/observability for the compensator modes. The order of the sub-controllers is then reduced using internally-balanced realization techniques and the sub-controllers are simplified by neglecting the insignificant feedbacks. These sub-controllers have the advantage that they can be implemented as separate controllers on the airframe and the engine while still retaining the important performance and stability characteristics of the full-order centralized compensator. Command prefilters are then designed for the closed-loop system with the simplified sub-controllers to obtain the desired system response to airframe and engine command inputs, and the overall system performance evaluation results are presented.

  7. Comparison of Intrusion Effects on Maxillary Incisors Among Mini Implant Anchorage, J-Hook Headgear and Utility Arch

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sridhar Prem; Manjula, W.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intrusion of maxillary incisors is one of the most important and difficult tooth movements to achieve as a part of orthodontic therapy. A variety of techniques were used in the past to intrude the maxillary incisors before the emergence of mini implants in Orthodontics. Mini implants are temporary anchorage devices used to produce various tooth movements. The research was carried out to evaluate and compare the efficiency of producing intrusion of maxillary incisors using mini implants, utility arch and j- hook headgear. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 subjects divided into 3 Groups equally. Group 1- mini implant anchorage, Group 2 - j- hooks headgear and Group 3- utility arch were used for intrusion of the maxillary incisors. Conventional lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and at the end of intrusion. Five cephalometric parameters were used to measure the amount of intrusion attained in each Group. Intra Group comparisons were done using student t-test and inter Group comparisons were done using ANOVA The duration of intrusion was four months in all the three Groups. Results: In Group 1 the mean average intrusion attained was 2.1 mm, the mean average intrusion attained in Group 2 was 0.7 mm, and the mean average intrusion achieved in Group 3 was 1.4 mm with a side effect of 0.75 mm of molar extrusion. Conclusion: Although, both mini implants and utility arch can be used to attain significant amounts of incisor intrusion but using mini implants will produce true intrusion without any other side effects. PMID:25177631

  8. Sulcus-Based MR Analysis of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Located in the Central Region

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Pauline; Mellerio, Charles; Chassoux, Francine; Rivière, Denis; Cachia, Arnaud; Charron, Sylvain; Lion, Stéphanie; Mangin, Jean-François; Devaux, Bertrand; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are mainly located in the frontal region, with a particular tropism for the central sulcus. Up to 30% of lesions are undetected (magnetic resonance [MR]-negative FCD patients) or belatedly diagnosed by visual analysis of MR images. We propose an automated sulcus-based method to analyze abnormal sulcal patterns associated with central FCD, taking into account the normal interindividual sulcal variability. Methods We retrospectively studied 29 right-handed patients with FCD in the central region (including 12 MR negative histologically-confirmed cases) and 29 right-handed controls. The analysis of sulcal abnormalities from T1-weighted MR imaging (MRI) was performed using a graph-based representation of the cortical folds and an automated sulci recognition system, providing a new quantitative criterion to describe sulcal patterns, termed sulcus energy. Results Group analysis showed that the central sulcus in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the FCD exhibited an abnormal sulcal pattern compared with controls (p = 0.032). FCDs were associated with abnormal patterns of the central sulci compared with controls (p = 0.006), a result that remained significant when MR-negative and MR-positive patients were considered separately, while the effects of sex, age and MR-field were not significant. At the individual level, sulcus energy alone failed to detect the FCD lesion. We found, however, a significant association between maximum z-scores and the site of FCD (p = 0.0046) which remained significant in MR-negative (p = 0.024) but not in MR-positive patients (p = 0.058). The maximum z-score pointed to an FCD sulcus in four MR-negative and five MR-positive patients. Conclusions We identified abnormal sulcal patterns in patients with FCD of the central region compared with healthy controls. The abnormal sulcal patterns ipsilateral to the FCD and the link between sulcus energy and the FCD location strengthen the interest of sulcal abnormalities in FCD patients. PMID:25822985

  9. Palatogingival Groove: Recognizing and Managing the Hidden Tract in a Maxillary Incisor: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarang; Deepak, Passi; Vivek, Sharma; Ranjan Dutta, Shubha

    2015-06-01

    Palatogingival grooves are developmental malformations quite notorious for precipitating endodontic - periodontal lesions. Owing to their inconspicuous occurrence, funnel-shaped morphology and variable extent on tooth root, they promote adherence of plaque and bacteria to levels significant for the development of pathology. Several treatment approaches have been recognized in literature for the management of this anomaly. Here in this report, a 25-year-old patient reported with the complaint of pain and swelling in maxillary right lateral incisor. Clinical examination confirmed an endodontic - periodontal lesion in relation to palatogingival groove. Endodontic treatment was instituted, followed by odontoplasty of the groove and restoration with newer calcium silicate cement, Biodentine. Combined endodontic - periodontal approach was successful in resolving the pathology with complete healing seen both clinically and radiographically. Timely diagnosis, prevention and management are highly recommended to prevent tooth loss due to complications arising secondary to their presence. PMID:26124612

  10. The effects of spaceflight on the mineralization of rat incisor dentin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Rosenberg, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Specific effects of space flight on dentin formation on the lower incisors of male rats were determined. Data were Fourier analyzed to determine the spectra of chemical growth rhythms. It was found that Calcium and P were more concentrated in the newly forming dentin of the Flight rats than in comparable regions of control tissues. There was no significant difference in the mean S-concentration between the two groups, but the pattern of S-distribution in the recently formed dentin from the Flight rats was different from that in the control group. Sulfur fluctuations in flight animals periodically peak above the irregular background fluctuations, but there are no comparable sulfur peaks across the dentin in the control. It is indicated that spaceflight has measurable effects on dentinogenesis, and may also bear on the problem of the regulatory role of proteoglycans in mineralization and the maturation of mineral and matrix moieties in skeletal tissue.

  11. Evaluation of buccal enamel of deciduous incisors stored in three different solutions with DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martin Teles, Flavia; Pettorossi Imaparatto, Jose C.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different storage solutions on teeth from a tooth bank, using DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence at 3 time periods. The storage solutions used in the study were: refrigerated water, saline, and 10% formol. Eighteen visually intact deciduous incisors were divided into three groups of six samples each. The teeth were previously cleaned, dehydrated and measured using DIAGNOdent at the most prominent buccal region of each tooth. Three subsequent measurements were taken at 1, 7 and 15 days. All measurements were taken by the same examiner and averages were recorded for each time period. Results showed that the three solutions had similar responses to laser. ANOVA was applied to verify the correlation between measurements, time periods, and storage solutions. Statistically significant differences were found only between the time periods. In this in vitro study, all three storage solutions influenced the DIAGNOdent measurement results as time elapsed until the 24 h period.

  12. Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S.; Hegde, Sundeep K.; Adhikari, Fardin; Bhat, Vidya S.

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future. PMID:25191081

  13. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus type II: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686

  14. Calcium transport in dentinogenesis. An experimental study in the rat incisor odontoblast.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, T

    1992-01-01

    Since cellular calcium transport mechanisms during biological calcification are less known, a series of experiments were performed by in vivo as well as in vitro methodologies in the dentinogenically active rat incisor. By means of micro-electrode technique, the pH and pCa (calcium ion activity) in predentin in situ were found to be 7.0 and 2.9, respectively. It was concluded that there exists a Ca2+ion concentrating mechanism over the odontoblast layer in direction towards the mineralization front. The kinetics of this calcium flow was determined in vivo by radiotracer technique. The time for 45Ca2+ uptake into the dentin mineral phase was determined to 10-15 min. Transmembraneous Ca2+ ion pumps and channels in odontoblasts were further analyzed. The resting membrane potential of rat incisor odontoblasts was determined to -24 mV. Using ion-specific mini-electrode technique as well as fluorescence spectrophotometry, calcium channels, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na+/Ca2+ antiports, responsible for cellular Ca2+ uptake and extrusion, were identified in the odontoblast plasma membrane. Dissected odontoblasts were subjected to subcellular fractionation. An electrophoretic uniporter and a Na2+/Ca2+ exchanger, for Ca2+ release and uptake, respectively, were demonstrated in mitochondria, whereas a Ca(2+)-ATPase was present in the microsomal fraction. Mitochondria, microsomes and whole, digitonin-permeabilized odontoblasts, were able to maintain a steady state Ca2+ activity at pCa = 6.4-6.6 in vitro. In rats treated with colchicine, the incorporation of 45Ca2+ into dentin mineral was severely altered. Similarly, administration to rats of specific calcium channel blockers strongly inhibited 45Ca2+ incorporation. Together, the results indicate that a transcellular pathway is a major route for Ca2+ ion transport during dentinogenesis, and that this may be under a relatively strict cellular control. PMID:1329245

  15. Assessing the ecological base and peak flow of the alpine streams in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Yang, P. S.; Tian, P. L.

    2009-04-01

    The ecological base and peak flow are crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may severely damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme conditions. Aquatic insects are selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base and peak flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. Two streams located at the alpine area in central Taiwan are selected as the study area to evaluate the base and peak flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to Dec 2008) collected from one stream Creek C originating from Sitou Area in Central Taiwan shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 32.47% and 31.11%, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Good" and "Very Good" level while the river pollution index (RPI) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 95% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.0234 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate result and ecological peak flow in rainy and typhoon seasons.

  16. Centralized PI control for high dimensional multivariable systems based on equivalent transfer function.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Fei

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a new scheme to design full matrix controller for high dimensional multivariable processes based on equivalent transfer function (ETF). Differing from existing ETF method, the proposed ETF is derived directly by exploiting the relationship between the equivalent closed-loop transfer function and the inverse of open-loop transfer function. Based on the obtained ETF, the full matrix controller is designed utilizing the existing PI tuning rules. The new proposed ETF model can more accurately represent the original processes. Furthermore, the full matrix centralized controller design method proposed in this paper is applicable to high dimensional multivariable systems with satisfactory performance. Comparison with other multivariable controllers shows that the designed ETF based controller is superior with respect to design-complexity and obtained performance. PMID:24954810

  17. On the merit of a Central Limit Theorem-based approximation in statistical physics

    E-print Network

    Leggio, Bruno; Messina, Antonino

    2011-01-01

    The applicability conditions of a recently reported Central Limit Theorem-based approximation method in statistical physics are investigated and rigorously determined. The failure of this method at low and intermediate temperature is proved as well as its inadequacy to disclose quantum criticalities at fixed temperatures. Its high temperature predictions are in addition shown to coincide with those stemming from straightforward appropriate expansions up to (k_B T)^(-2). Our results are clearly illustrated by comparing the exact and approximate temperature dependence of the free energy of some exemplary physical systems.

  18. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  19. Statistics of Met-Ocean Conditions Between West and Central Gulf of Mexico Based on Field Measurements 

    E-print Network

    Su, Lin

    2012-07-16

    Statistics of met-ocean conditions including wind, current and wave at the location between west and central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are derived based on about three year of field measurements. Two-parameter Weibull distribution has been employed...

  20. Central skull base osteomyelitis: new insights and implications for diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Ridder, Gerd J; Breunig, Christine; Kaminsky, Jan; Pfeiffer, Jens

    2015-05-01

    Central skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is a life-threatening disease originating from ear and from sinonasal infections. The intention of this study was to evaluate contemporary trends in etiology, diagnosis, management, and outcome of SBO and to draw the clinician's attention on this probably underestimated disease. Over a 6-year period we performed this systematic study in an academic quaternary medical care and skull base center including 20 patients (mean age 63.7 years) with central SBO, which is one of the largest series from a single center. In contrast to previous studies we explicitly excluded infections limited to malignant external otitis only but did not restrict central SBO to conditions unrelated to aural pathology. Fifteen patients had otogenic and five sinugenic SBO; four patients had fungal or mixed fungal infections. Pre-existing illnesses altering bone vascularization were detected in 70 % of the patients and had a negative effect on the improvement of cranial nerve palsies that were found in 14 patients. In relation, patients with otogenic SBO more often had local and systemic predisposing factors. Contrary to previous studies 16 patients (80 %) underwent surgical therapy and none of our patients died. A meta-analysis of five recent studies was done and compared with our own data and two previous meta-analyses. The present study highlights several important aspects with major implications for diagnosis and treatment of SBO that have not been adequately addressed as yet. In contrast to the restrictive attitude towards surgery in literature we recommend early and radical operative treatment to reduce its mortality. PMID:25381580

  1. New approaches to solve old water problems: community based organizations in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurymgereyev, Kanysh

    2010-05-01

    The dry summer of 2009 has once again shown unsteadiness of economy of the Central-Asian countries, first of all, in agricultural sector and serious dependence of the region on water resources. For example, decreasing of water level in Toktogul reservoir forces the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the country where the largest rivers of the Central Asia originate, to the systematic switching-off of the electricity in three regions. Already in the spring of 2009, the experts predicted decreasing of gross production of agriculture in region, especially for the main cultures of cotton and rice. Coupled by natural cataclysms, the problems with water resources management have seriously aggravated conditions that are directly reflected on the livelihood of the rural population of Central Asia. This demands a search for new approaches and methods of solution of the main problems of water resources management. Despite the fact that the main issues of water distribution are solved at a level of the governments of the countries of Central Asia, a serious role in this process is associated directly to local water users. In recent years in some countries of the region, a process of creation of new community based Institutes of water resources management like Water Users Associations of (WUA) has started. The main idea for creation of these organizations is the necessity to involve the local water users like farmers to the process of water resources management and distribution. However, activity of the WUAs in the region has shown certain weaknesses both regarding the legal status of these organizations and institutional development. The main weakness of many WUAs is a lack of opportunities and mechanisms of involving of associations in decision-making processes. Members of WUAs have an opportunity to participate in distribution of water only within the borders of the associations while the main requirement of efficient water resources management is the principle of the integrated water management. The essence of this principle is that issues of water use and water distribution should be solved in coordination and in view of interests of all partners from other countries of the region. The next important issue is the necessity to strengthen the institutional capacity of WUAs. First of all, it is related to providing new approaches in training of members of associations in organizational management, fundraising, and modern technologies of natural resources management. It would be useful as well to strengthen cooperation between WUAs of neighboring countries in order to create information exchange and distribution of best practices between them. Hence, cooperation between the WUAs of the Central Asia countries could become an example for local governments for an integrated solution of problems of distribution and water resources management in the region.

  2. Central obesity in Yemeni children: A population based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Massetti, Luciano; Aklan, Hameed; Al-Karewany, Mahdi; Goshae, Husni Al; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To establish percentile curves and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity among Yemeni children in a population based cross-sectional study. METHODS: A representative sample of 3114 Yemeni children (1564 boys, 1550 girls) aged 6-19 years participating in the HYpertension and Diabetes in Yemen study was studied. Data collection was conducted at home by survey teams composed of two investigators of both genders. Study questionnaire included questions about demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were then calculated. Age and gender specific smoothed percentiles of WC, WHR, and WHtR were obtained using lambda-mu-sigma parameters (LMS method). The independent predictors of central obesity defined as (1) WC percentile ? 90th; (2) WHtR ? 0.5; or (3) WC percentile ? 90th and WHtR ? 0.5, were identified at multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, urban/rural location, years of school education, sedentary/active life-style. RESULTS: Percentile curves for WC, WHR and WHtR are presented. Average WC increased with age for both genders. Boys had a higher WC than girls until early adolescence and thereafter girls had higher values than boys. WHR decreased both in boys and girls until early adolescence. Thereafter while in boys it plateaued in girls it continued to decrease. Mean WHtR decreased until early adolescence with no gender related differences and thereafter increased more in girls than in boys towards adult age. Prevalence of central obesity largely varied according to the definition used which was 10.9% for WC ? 90th percentile, 18.3% for WHtR ? 0.5, and 8.6% when fulfilling both criteria. At adjusted logistic regression WC ? 90th percentiles and WHtR ? 0.5 were less prevalent in rural than in urban areas (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.41-0.67 and 0.66, 0.54-0.79 respectively), being more prevalent in children with sedentary lifestyle rather than an active one (1.52, 95%CI: 1.17-1.98 and 1.42, 95%CI: 1.14-1.75, respectively). CONCLUSION: Yemeni children central obesity indices percentile curves are presented. Central obesity prevalence varied according to the definition used and was more prevalent in urban sedentary subjects. PMID:24009819

  3. Base Excision Repair in Physiology and Pathology of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Bosshard, Matthias; Markkanen, Enni; van Loon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Relatively low levels of antioxidant enzymes and high oxygen metabolism result in formation of numerous oxidized DNA lesions in the tissues of the central nervous system. Accumulation of damage in the DNA, due to continuous genotoxic stress, has been linked to both aging and the development of various neurodegenerative disorders. Different DNA repair pathways have evolved to successfully act on damaged DNA and prevent genomic instability. The predominant and essential DNA repair pathway for the removal of small DNA base lesions is base excision repair (BER). In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on the involvement of BER proteins in the maintenance of genetic stability in different brain regions and how changes in the levels of these proteins contribute to aging and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23203191

  4. Innervation of periodontal ligament and dental pulp in the rat incisor: An immunohistochemical investigation of neurofilament protein and glia-specific S-100 protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osamu Sato; Takeyasu Maeda; Shigeo Kobayashi; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Tsuneo Fujita; Yasuo Takahashi

    1988-01-01

    Summary Nervous elements in the periodontal ligament and dental pulp of rat incisors were investigated by means of immunohistochemistry for neurofilament protein (NFP) and glia-specific S-100 protein. The periodontal ligament in the incisors was densely innervated by NFP-immunoreactive nerve fibers; the distribution of the nerve fibers and their terminations differed markedly from those in molars. NFP-positive, thick nerve bundles entered

  5. Secretion of shh by a neurovascular bundle niche supports mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis in the adult mouse incisor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Seidel, Kerstin; Shi, Songtao; Klein, Ophir; Sharpe, Paul; Chai, Yang

    2014-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are typically defined by their in vitro characteristics, and as a consequence the in vivo identity of MSCs and their niches are poorly understood. To address this issue, we used lineage tracing in a mouse incisor model and identified the neurovascular bundle (NVB) as an MSC niche. We found that NVB sensory nerves secrete Shh protein, which activates Gli1 expression in periarterial cells that contribute to all mesenchymal derivatives. These periarterial cells do not express classical MSC markers used to define MSCs in vitro. In contrast, NG2(+) pericytes represent an MSC subpopulation derived from Gli1+ cells; they express classical MSC markers and contribute little to homeostasis but are actively involved in injury repair. Likewise, incisor Gli1(+) cells, but not NG2(+) cells, exhibit typical MSC characteristics in vitro. Collectively, we demonstrate that MSCs originate from periarterial cells and are regulated by Shh secretion from an NVB. PMID:24506883

  6. Secretion of Shh by a neurovascular bundle niche supports mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis in the adult mouse incisor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Seidel, Kerstin; Shi, Songtao; Klein, Ophir; Sharpe, Paul; Chai, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are typically defined by their in vitro characteristics, and as a consequence the in vivo identity of MSCs and their niches are poorly understood. To address this issue, we used lineage tracing in a mouse incisor model and identified the neurovascular bundle (NVB) as an MSC niche. We found that NVB sensory nerves secrete Shh protein, which activates Gli1 expression in periarterial cells that contribute to all mesenchymal derivatives. These periarterial cells do not express classical MSC markers used to define MSCs in vitro. In contrast, NG2+ pericytes represent an MSC subpopulation derived from Gli1+ cells; they express classical MSC markers and contribute little to homeostasis but are actively involved in injury repair. Likewise, incisor Gli1+ cells but not NG2+ cells exhibit typical MSC characteristics in vitro. Collectively, we demonstrate that MSCs originate from periarterial cells and are regulated by Shh secretion from a NVB. PMID:24506883

  7. Central FPGA-based Destination and Load Control in the LHCb MHz Event Readout

    E-print Network

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment [1] is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz [2]. Over 300 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at 1 MHz over a commercial 70 Gigabyte/s switching network to a distributed event building and trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes [3]. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a powerful non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. A high-speed FPGA-based central master module controls the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load balancing and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also ...

  8. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  9. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  10. Visualization of a central bleed jet in an axisymmetric, compressible base flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon, C. J.; Dutton, J. C.

    2003-02-01

    The central bleed jet in an axisymmetric, compressible base flow with a Mach 2.46 free stream was visualized using an acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique. Three bleed flow rates, a low-bleed case (I=0.0038) and two others that bracket the optimal bleed case (I=0.0113 and I=0.0226), were examined. The injection parameter, I, is defined here as the bleed mass flow rate normalized by the product of the base area and freestream mass flux. This study shows that the bleed jet in the low-bleed case is almost instantly deflected outward toward the outer shear layer after it exits from the bleed orifice. When I=0.0113, the bleed fluid carries enough momentum that the bleed jet remains coherent and generally aligned along the symmetry axis for approximately one base radius before it is deflected outward by the primary recirculation region. For the highest bleed rate examined (I=0.0226), the bleed jet remains coherent and aligned along the symmetry axis for approximately 2.5 base radii downstream, where the impingement of freestream fluid causes the bleed jet to symmetrically eject mass downstream. Because the behavior of the bleed jet is much different for pre- and post-optimal bleed rates, some general conclusions can be made about the effect of bleed rate on base drag. For the two lower-bleed cases, there is a base pressure increase because the bleed fluid partially isolates the primary recirculation region from the outer flow, and provides part of the mass necessary for entrainment in the outer shear layer. The bleed jet in the high-bleed case is not as effective at increasing the base pressure, because the jet is shielded from the outer shear layer by the secondary recirculation region, which exists in the annulus between the bleed orifice and the base corner.

  11. Physics-based real time ground motion parameter maps: the Central Mexico example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Guzman, L.; Contreras Ruiz Esparza, M. G.; Quiroz Ramirez, A.; Carrillo Lucia, M. A.; Perez Yanez, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present the use of near real time ground motion simulations in the generation of ground motion parameter maps for Central Mexico. Simple algorithm approaches to predict ground motion parameters of civil protection and risk engineering interest are based on the use of observed instrumental values, reported macroseismic intensities and their correlations, and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). A remarkable example of the use of this approach is the worldwide Shakemap generation program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Nevertheless, simple approaches rely strongly on the availability of instrumental and macroseismic intensity reports, as well as the accuracy of the GMPEs and the site effect amplification calculation. In regions where information is scarce, the GMPEs, a reference value in a mean sense, provide most of the ground motion information together with site effects amplification using a simple parametric approaches (e.g. the use of Vs30), and have proven to be elusive. Here we propose an approach that includes physics-based ground motion predictions (PBGMP) corrected by instrumental information using a Bayesian Kriging approach (Kitanidis, 1983) and apply it to the central region of Mexico. The method assumes: 1) the availability of a large database of low and high frequency Green's functions developed for the region of interest, using fully three-dimensional and representative one-dimension models, 2) enough real time data to obtain the centroid moment tensor and a slip rate function, and 3) a computational infrastructure that can be used to compute the source parameters and generate broadband synthetics in near real time, which will be combined with recorded instrumental data. By using a recently developed velocity model of Central Mexico and an efficient finite element octree-based implementation we generate a database of source-receiver Green's functions, valid to 0.5 Hz, that covers 160 km x 300 km x 700 km of Mexico, including a large portion of the Pacific Mexican subduction zone. A subset of the velocity and strong ground motion data available in real time is processed to obtain the source parameters to generate broadband ground motions in a dense grid ( 10 km x 10 km cells). These are interpolated later with instrumental values using a Bayesian Kriging method. Peak ground velocity and acceleration, as well as SA (T=0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2s) maps, are generated for a small set of medium to large magnitude Mexican earthquakes (Mw=5 to 7.4). We evaluate each map by comparing against stations not considered in the computation.

  12. Branch-Based Centralized Data Collection for Smart Grids Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-01-01

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method. PMID:26007734

  13. Branch-based centralized data collection for smart grids using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-Il

    2015-01-01

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method. PMID:26007734

  14. [Central neurobiological mechanism of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome based on chronic stress: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-hong; Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Yue-yun; Chen, Jia-xu

    2012-01-01

    Some researchers focus on research of the nature of syndromes. The methods of combining traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and diseases and the correspondence between formulas and syndromes may be used in research of the nature of syndromes. According to combined theories of zang-organ state and seven emotions in traditional Chinese medicine with stress theory in modern medicine, the authors applied the methods of chronic immobilization stress to induce liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome in rats based on the thinking of relativity on formula and syndrome. The research showed that the central neurobiology mechanism of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome closely correlates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain-gut axis, myriad central neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones and their receptors, involving in many encephalic regions such as the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex, amygdale, etc. The authors will combine their previous work with multi-disciplinary research, such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics in future studies, to reveal the scientific connotations of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome. PMID:22237267

  15. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor with 4 Root Canals and a Dens Invaginatus Tract.

    PubMed

    Nosrat, Ali; Schneider, S Craig

    2015-07-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is associated with complex internal anatomy. This article represents a maxillary lateral incisor with 5 root canals including DI. The treatment was planned and performed using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. After clinical and radiographic evaluations, tooth #7 was diagnosed with DI and pulp necrosis with symptomatic apical periodontitis. Periapical radiographs of the tooth showed 2 roots and complex internal anatomy. CBCT evaluation revealed tooth #7 had 5 separate canals (4 root canals and 1 DI canal extending through the root to the periodontal ligament), communication between DI and the root canal system, and severe and multiple curvatures of the palatal canals. Root canal treatment was completed in 2 visits. Modified access openings were required to safely treat the dilacerated palatal canals. At the 6-month re-evaluation, the patient reported he had remained asymptomatic and his tooth had remained functional since the treatment was completed. Clinical examination showed tooth #7 had no sensitivity to percussion or palpation, probe depths within normal limits (?3 mm), and no mobility. Radiographic assessment of the tooth showed significant osseous healing of the preoperative lesion. Three-dimensional imaging is a valuable tool for endodontic management of teeth with complex internal anatomy. Three-dimensional imaging is recommended for evaluating and treatment planning cases with DI. PMID:25799535

  16. Zirconia crowns for rehabilitation of decayed primary incisors: an esthetic alternative.

    PubMed

    Ashima, G; Sarabjot, K Bhatia; Gauba, K; Mittal, H C

    2014-01-01

    Esthetic management of extensively decayed primary maxillary anterior teeth requiring full coronal coverage restoration is usually challenging to the pediatric dentists especially in very young children. Many esthetic options have been tried over the years each having its own advantages, disadvantages and associated technical, functional or esthetic limitations. Zirconia crowns have provided a treatment alternative to address the esthetic concerns and ease of placement of extra-coronal restorations on primary anterior teeth. The present article presents a case where grossly decayed maxillary primary incisors were restored esthetically and functionally with ready made zirconia crowns (ZIRKIZ, HASS Corp; Korea). After endodontic treatment the decayed teeth were restored with zirconia crowns. Over a 30 months period, the crowns have demonstrated good retention and esthetic results. Dealing with esthetic needs in children with extensive loss of tooth structure, using Zirconia crowns would be practical and successful. The treatment described is simple and effective and represents a promising alternative for rehabilitation of decayed primary teeth. PMID:25631720

  17. Er:YAG Laser and Fractured Incisor Restorations: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Fornaini, C.; Petruzzella, S.; Podda, R.; Merigo, E.; Nammour, S.; Vescovi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an Er:YAG laser on enamel and dentine in cases of dental restorations involving fractured teeth, utilizing the dental fragment. Materials and Methods. Seventy-two freshly extracted bovine incisors were fractured at the coronal level by using a hammer applied with a standardized method, and the fragment was reattached by using three different methods: Er:YAG laser, orthophosphoric acid, and laser plus acid. The different groups were evaluated by a test realized with the dynamometer to know the force required to successfully detach the reattached fragment and by a microinfiltration test by using a 0.5% methylene blue solution followed by the optic microscope observation. Results. The compression test showed only a slight difference between the three groups, without any statistical significance. The infiltration test used to evaluate the marginal seal between the fracture fragment and the tooth demonstrated that etching with Er:YAG laser alone or in combination with orthophosphoric acid gives better results than orthophosphoric acid alone, with a highly significant statistical result. Discussion. Reattaching a tooth fragment represents a clinically proven methodology, in terms of achieving resistance to detachment, and the aim of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of Er:YAG laser on this procedure. Conclusion. This “in vitro” study confirms that Er:YAG laser can be employed in dental traumatology to restore frontal teeth after coronal fracture. PMID:23091491

  18. Computer-assisted intraosseous anaesthesia for molar and incisor hypomineralisation teeth. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cabasse, C; Marie-Cousin, A; Huet, A; Sixou, J L

    2015-03-01

    Anesthetizing MIH (Molar and Incisor Hypomineralisation) teeth is one of the major challenges in paediatric dentistry. Computer-assisted IO injection (CAIO) of 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Alphacaine, Septodont) has been shown to be an efficient way to anesthetize teeth in children. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of this method with MIH teeth. This preliminary study was performed using the Quick Sleeper system (Dental Hi Tec, Cholet, France) that allows computer-controlled rotation of the needle to penetrate the bone and computer-controlled injection of the anaesthetic solution. Patients (39) of the department of Paediatric Dentistry were included allowing 46 sessions (including 32 mandibular first permanent molars) to be assessed. CAIO showed efficacy in 93.5% (43/46) of cases. Failures (3) were due to impossibility to reach the spongy bone (1) and to achieve anaesthesia (2). This prospective study confirms that CAIO anaesthesia is a promising method to anesthetize teeth with MIH that could therefore be routinely used by trained practitioners. PMID:26058304

  19. Measuring Long-Term Impact Based on Network Centrality: Unraveling Cinematic Citations

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Andreas; Horvát, Em?ke-Ágnes

    2014-01-01

    Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of ‘greatest’ films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

  20. Measuring long-term impact based on network centrality: unraveling cinematic citations.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Andreas; Horvát, Em?ke-Ágnes

    2014-01-01

    Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of 'greatest' films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

  1. Fractal systems of central places based on intermittency of space-filling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanguang Chen

    2011-01-01

    The central place models are fundamentally important in theoretical geography and city planning theory. The texture and structure of central place networks have been demonstrated to be self-similar in both theoretical and empirical studies. However, the underlying rationale of central place fractals in the real world has not yet been revealed so far. This paper is devoted to illustrating the

  2. Fractal Systems of Central Places Based on Intermittency of Space-filling

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yanguang

    2011-01-01

    The central place models are fundamentally important in theoretical geography and city planning theory. The texture and structure of central place networks have been demonstrated to be self-similar in both theoretical and empirical studies. However, the underlying rationale of central place fractals in the real world has not yet been revealed so far. This paper is devoted to illustrating the mechanisms by which the fractal patterns can be generated from central place systems. The structural dimension of the traditional central place models is d=2 indicating no intermittency in the spatial distribution of human settlements. This dimension value is inconsistent with empirical observations. Substituting the complete space filling with the incomplete space filling, we can obtain central place models with fractional dimension Dcentral place models are converted into fractal central place models. If we further integrate the chance factors into the i...

  3. Evidence-based consensus on the insertion of central venous access devices: definition of minimal requirements for training.

    PubMed

    Moureau, N; Lamperti, M; Kelly, L J; Dawson, R; Elbarbary, M; van Boxtel, A J H; Pittiruti, M

    2013-03-01

    There is a lack of standard minimal requirements for the training of insertion techniques and maintenance of central venous access devices (CVADs). An international evidence-based consensus task force was established through the World Congress of Vascular Access (WoCoVA) to provide definitions and recommendations for training and insertion of CVADs. Medical literature published from February 1971 to April 2012 regarding 'central vascular access', 'training', 'competency', 'simulation', and 'ultrasound' was reviewed on Pubmed, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases. The GRADE and the GRADE-RAND methods were utilized to develop recommendations. Out of 156 papers initially identified, 83 papers described training for central vascular access placement. Sixteen recommendations are proposed by this task force, each with an evidence level, degree of consensus, and recommendation grade. These recommendations suggest central venous access education include didactic or web-based teaching with insertion procedure, infection prevention, complications, care, and maintenance of devices, along with laboratory models and tools for simulation practice incorporating ultrasound. Clinical competence should be determined by observation during clinical practice using a global rating scale rather than by the number of procedures performed. Ensuring safe insertion and management of central venous devices requires standardized education, simulation practice, and supervised insertions. PMID:23361124

  4. Studying Geology of Central Texas through Web-Based Virtual Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C.; Khan, S. D.; Wellner, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Each year over 2500 students, mainly non-science majors, take introductory geology classes at the University of Houston. Optional field trips to Central Texas for these classes provide a unique learning opportunity for students to experience geologic concepts in a real world context. The field trips visit Enchanted Rock, Inks Lake, Bee Cave Road, Lion Mountain, and Slaughter Gap. Unfortunately, only around 10% of our students participate in these field trips. We are developing a web-based virtual field trip for Central Texas to provide an additional effective learning experience for students in these classes. The module for Enchanted Rock is complete and consists of linked geological maps, satellite imagery, digital elevation models, 3-D photography, digital video, and 3-D virtual reality visualizations. The ten virtual stops focus on different geologic process and are accompanied by questions and answers. To test the efficacy of the virtual field trip, we developed a quiz to measure student learning and a survey to evaluate the website. The quiz consists of 10 questions paralleling each stop and information on student attendance on the Central Texas field trip and/or the virtual field trip. From the survey, the average time spent on the website was 26 minutes, and overall the ratings of the virtual field trip were positive. Most noticeably students responded that the information on the website was relevant to their class and that the pictures, figures, and animations were essential to the website. Although high correlation coefficients between responses were expected for some questions (i.e., 0.89 for "The content or text of the website was clear" and "The information on the website was easy to read"), some correlations were less expected: 0.77 for "The number of test questions was appropriate" and "The information on the website was easy to read," and 0.70 for "The test questions reinforced the material presented on the website" and "The information on the website is relevant to my class." These virtual field trips provide an alternative for students who cannot attend the actual field trips. They also allow transfer students to experience these sites before attending upper level field trips, which often return to study these sites in more detail. These modules provide a valuable supplementary experience for all students, as they emphasize skills for which we are presently unable to provide sufficient practice in lecture, fieldtrips, or laboratory. Public access to the field trips is available at: http://geoinfo.geosc.uh.edu/VR/

  5. Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida: Phase IV: Central Florida Flow Regime Based Climatologies of Lightning Probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2009-01-01

    The threat of lightning is a daily concern during the warm season in Florida. Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. Previously, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) calculated the gridded lightning climatologies based on seven flow regimes over Florida for 1-, 3- and 6-hr intervals in 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-NM diameter range rings around the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) and eight other airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) county warning area (CWA). In this update to the work, the AMU recalculated the lightning climatologies for using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The AMU included all data regardless of flow regime as one of the stratifications, added monthly stratifications, added three years of data to the period of record and used modified flow regimes based work from the AMU's Objective Lightning Probability Forecast Tool, Phase II. The AMU made changes so the 5- and 10-NM radius range rings are consistent with the aviation forecast requirements at NWS MLB, while the 20- and 30-NM radius range rings at the SLF assist the Spaceflight Meteorology Group in making forecasts for weather Flight Rule violations during Shuttle landings. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface with the new data.

  6. Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2013-10-01

    Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 ?g m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 ?g m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 ?g m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 ?g m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 ?g m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 ?g m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  7. Assessing the ecological base flow in an experimental watershed of Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chiang; Yang, Ping-Shih; Tian, Pei-Ling

    2010-05-01

    The ecological base flow is crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme low conditions. Aquatic insect is selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. A stream located at the alpine area in central Taiwan is selected as the study area to evaluate the base flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to May 2009) collected from Creek C of Sitou watershed (area: 1.3 km^2) shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 26.3 and 17.2 %, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Excellent" and "Good" level while the EPT Index (Index of three orders: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 90%, 95% and 96% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.1582, 0.0476 and 0.0378 cms; the threshold value evaluated by curve of abundance vs. discharge is 0.0154 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate results.

  8. Prenatal factors associated with the neonatal line thickness in human deciduous incisors.

    PubMed

    Kurek, M; ??dzi?ska, E; Sitek, A; Borowska-Strugi?ska, B; Rosset, I; Lorkiewicz, W

    2015-06-01

    The neonatal line (NNL) is used to distinguish developmental events observed in enamel which occurred before and after birth. However, there are few studies reporting relationship between the characteristics of the NNL and factors affecting prenatal conditions. The aim of the study was to determine prenatal factors that may influence the NNL thickness in human deciduous teeth. The material consisted of longitudinal ground sections of 60 modern human deciduous incisors obtained from full-term healthy children with reported birth histories and prenatal factors. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-lingual plane using diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy at magnifications 320×. For each tooth, linear measurements of the NNL thickness were taken on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. The difference in the neonatal line thickness between tooth types and between males and females was statistically significant. A multiple regression analyses confirmed influence of two variables on the NNL thickness standardised on tooth type and the children's sex (z-score values). These variables are the taking of an antispasmodic medicine by the mother during pregnancy and the season of the child's birth. These two variables together explain nearly 17% of the variability of the NNL. Children of mothers taking a spasmolytic medicine during pregnancy were characterised by a thinner NNL compared with children whose mothers did not take such medication. Children born in summer and spring had a thinner NNL than children born in winter. These results indicate that the prenatal environment significantly contributes to the thickness of the NNL influencing the pace of reaching the post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. PMID:25618810

  9. Functional Anatomy of Incisal Biting in Aplodontia rufa and Sciuromorph Rodents – Part 2: Sciuromorphy Is Efficacious for Production of Force at the Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Druzinsky, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The protrogomorph condition of the rodent masticatory apparatus is thought to be present in only one living species, the mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa. The major anatomical difference between protrogomorphs and sciuromorphs is that the relative size of one part of the masseter muscle, the anterior lateral masseter, is much greater in sciuromorphs than in protrogomorphs. The mechanics of force production at the incisors were compared in A. rufa and six sciuromorph rodents. Is the sciuroid masticatory apparatus more effective for production of forces at the incisors during biting than the primitive, protrogomorph condition? To answer this question, three measures of mechanical ability were employed and three hypotheses were tested: (1) the mechanical advantage of the adductor musculature is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa; (2) the relative force produced at the incisors is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa, and (3) the relative amount of force produced that can be used to drive the incisors into an object, is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa. The results demonstrated that the protrogomorph, A. rufa, is not as efficient at generating bite forces at the incisors as the sciuromorphs. PMID:20160427

  10. Central bank interventions in industrialized countries: a characterization based on survey results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christelle Lecourt; Helene Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a survey on central banks' FOREX intervention practices in industrialized countries over the last decade. The answers of responding monetary authorities are examined with respect to available data and literature. Our findings indicate that interventions usually take place during normal working hours while central banks show some preference for dealing with major domestic banks.

  11. Debonding force and deformation of two multi-stranded lingual retainer wires bonded to incisor enamel: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, M E; Sherriff, M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine, in vitro, the effect of a vertical force on the debond force and deformation of two multi-stranded wires bonded to the lingual enamel of lower incisor teeth. Two different stainless steel wires were used, 0.016 × 0.022 inch (Bond-A-Braid® Reliance Orthodontic Products) and a three-stranded 0.0175 inch wire (Ortho Technology). An in vitro model was used to simulate a vertical force at the interdental wire. Twenty-six pairs of incisors were placed in two groups. A 15 mm length of wire was bonded to the lingual surfaces of each pair of incisors using a common bonding technique. A vertical force was applied to the midpoint of the interdental wire, using an Instron universal testing machine. The failure characteristics examined included the maximum force for debond, the degree of wire deformation, and the site of failure. Significance was predetermined at P < 0.05 and multiple comparisons indicated no significant differences (P = 0.147) in the initial mean bond strength between the 0.0175 inch (41.44 N) and 0.016 × 0.022 inch (37.70 N) wires. The main failure type for both the initial and second debond events was fracture of composite bond at the wire-composite interface, cohesive failure. Both wires exhibited similar mean degrees of deflection of 1.30 and 1.51 mm for the 0.0175 inch and 0.016 × 0.022 inch wires, respectively. Rebonding to enamel resulted in significantly lower (P = 0.001) mean bond strength for both wires, 0.0175 inch (13.86 N) and 0.016 × 0.022 inch (14.17 N) in comparison with the initial bond strength. Rebonding to previously bonded enamel may be unpredictable and may lead to higher failure rates of bonded lingual retainers. PMID:20547494

  12. CrisprGE: a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Karambir; Tandon, Himani; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR system is a powerful defense mechanism in bacteria and archaea to provide immunity against viruses. Recently, this process found a new application in intended targeting of the genomes. CRISPR-mediated genome editing is performed by two main components namely single guide RNA and Cas9 protein. Despite the enormous data generated in this area, there is a dearth of high throughput resource. Therefore, we have developed CrisprGE, a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing. Presently, this database holds a total of 4680 entries of 223 unique genes from 32 model and other organisms. It encompasses information about the organism, gene, target gene sequences, genetic modification, modifications length, genome editing efficiency, cell line, assay, etc. This depository is developed using the open source LAMP (Linux Apache MYSQL PHP) server. User-friendly browsing, searching facility is integrated for easy data retrieval. It also includes useful tools like BLAST CrisprGE, BLAST NTdb and CRISPR Mapper. Considering potential utilities of CRISPR in the vast area of biology and therapeutics, we foresee this platform as an assistance to accelerate research in the burgeoning field of genome engineering. Database URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/crisprge/. PMID:26120138

  13. CrisprGE: a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Karambir; Tandon, Himani; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR system is a powerful defense mechanism in bacteria and archaea to provide immunity against viruses. Recently, this process found a new application in intended targeting of the genomes. CRISPR-mediated genome editing is performed by two main components namely single guide RNA and Cas9 protein. Despite the enormous data generated in this area, there is a dearth of high throughput resource. Therefore, we have developed CrisprGE, a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing. Presently, this database holds a total of 4680 entries of 223 unique genes from 32 model and other organisms. It encompasses information about the organism, gene, target gene sequences, genetic modification, modifications length, genome editing efficiency, cell line, assay, etc. This depository is developed using the open source LAMP (Linux Apache MYSQL PHP) server. User-friendly browsing, searching facility is integrated for easy data retrieval. It also includes useful tools like BLAST CrisprGE, BLAST NTdb and CRISPR Mapper. Considering potential utilities of CRISPR in the vast area of biology and therapeutics, we foresee this platform as an assistance to accelerate research in the burgeoning field of genome engineering.Database URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/crisprge/. PMID:26120138

  14. The contribution of a central pattern generator in a reflex-based neuromuscular model

    PubMed Central

    Dzeladini, Florin; van den Kieboom, Jesse; Ijspeert, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of central pattern generators (CPGs) controlling locomotion in vertebrates is widely accepted, the presence of specialized CPGs in human locomotion is still a matter of debate. An interesting numerical model developed in the 90s’ demonstrated the important role CPGs could play in human locomotion, both in terms of stability against perturbations, and in terms of speed control. Recently, a reflex-based neuro-musculo-skeletal model has been proposed, showing a level of stability to perturbations similar to the previous model, without any CPG components. Although exhibiting striking similarities with human gaits, the lack of CPG makes the control of speed/step length in the model difficult. In this paper, we hypothesize that a CPG component will offer a meaningful way of controlling the locomotion speed. After introducing the CPG component in the reflex model, and taking advantage of the resulting properties, a simple model for gait modulation is presented. The results highlight the advantages of a CPG as feedforward component in terms of gait modulation. PMID:25018712

  15. New Reforms in the Management of the University: Transition from Centralized to Decentralized (University-Based Management) in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehralizadeh, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on new reforms in Iran's higher education management system--Transition from centralized to decentralized (University-Based management--UBM). This is an important subject since Iran's Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology (MSRT) has begun to introduce new reforms for the improvement and the enhancement of Iranian…

  16. Bilateral dens evaginatus (talon cusp) in permanent maxillary lateral incisors: a rare developmental dental anomaly with great clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Manuja, Naveen; Chaudhary, Seema; Nagpal, Rajni; Rallan, Mandeep

    2013-01-01

    Talon cusp is an accessory cusp-like structure which projects from the cingulum area or cementoenamel junction. It is important for dentists to be aware of the potential complications that may occur with talon cusp. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, especially to prevent pulpal complications in permanent teeth which may be in developing stage in paediatric patients. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of bilateral talon cusp in permanent maxillary lateral incisors. Associated dental anomalies and clinical problems are discussed along with successful management of the case with conservative therapy. PMID:23813995

  17. Co-Existence of Two Dens Invaginations with One Dens Evagination in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Satvati, Seyed Amir; Shooriabi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Rouhollah; Parirokh, Masoud; Sahebnasagh, Marzieh; Assadian, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    A case with two simultaneous dens invaginations (DIs) and one dens evagination (DE) in a permanent maxillary lateral incisor is reported for the first time in a 21-year-old girl. DE known as talon cusp of the anterior teeth is a rare entity and its co-existence with DI has been reported scarcely in the literature. Simultaneous occurrence of two DIs with one DE has not been reported elsewhere. Undoubtedly, familiarity with the internal anatomy of such a rare condition can help prevent pulpal disease while performing restorative procedures. PMID:25584062

  18. A tunable protein-based scaffold for the study of central nervous system regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straley, Karin

    Central nervous system (CNS) injuries pose a significant and potentially debilitating health problem in society today and, to date, no successful clinical repair strategies have been advanced. The development of effective treatments is severely hindered by the quick formation of a complex, inhibitory scar at the site of CNS injury. This scar both physically blocks and chemically suppresses nerve regeneration. It has been hypothesized that combinatorial approaches involving biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and pro-survival factors, which provide a more permissive growth environment, have the highest chance of stimulating regeneration. The work completed in this thesis focuses on the design and characterization of a biomimetic hydrogel scaffold constructed from chemically crosslinked recombinant proteins. This protein-based scaffold has been designed to offer a flexible platform for the systematic optimization of key scaffold design parameters, such as mechanical strength, degradation, cellular interaction, molecule delivery, and topography. Specifically, a collection of proteins containing sequences previously shown to enhance cell adhesion, to promote neurite extension, and to exhibit varying susceptibility to cleavage by neurite-secreted proteases were synthesized to serve as the polymer backbone for the scaffold. Experiments were conducted to analyze the capacity of scaffolds, constructed from single proteins or mixtures of proteins, to independently control cell behavior, scaffold degradation properties, and scaffold mechanical properties based upon differences in the primary protein sequence and crosslinking conditions. In addition, composite scaffolds constructed by layered spatial deposition of chemically crosslinked, protease-degradable proteins were applied to the formation of dynamic internal, three-dimensional scaffold patterns that can be directly coupled to molecule delivery. Overall, this work demonstrates the tunable and bio-functional nature of these hydrogels and sets the framework for future studies into the development of effective protein-engineered scaffolds for CNS regeneration.

  19. A river based stable isotope record of orographic precipitation: Taurus Mountains, south central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, Fabian; Mulch, Andreas; Mikes, Tamás.; Schildgen, Taylor

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructing continental precipitation and vegetation patterns has become one of the most rapidly growing fields in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Furthermore, stable isotopes in precipitation within continental plateau regions represent an increasingly important tool for reconstructing the various effects of uplift related climate change within the world's largest plateau regions. With peak elevations of more than 3,000 m the Taurus Mountains represent the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau and must have played a pivotal role in controlling the drainage and sedimentation patterns within the plateau interior. However, their surface uplift history remains largely elusive. We sampled a series of tributaries and rivers along the Ermenek valley that crosscuts the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus Mountains on the d18O and dD values of river and spring waters and to compare these values to the d18O and dD of recent precipitation gathered by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Further we try to study the trends of the recent d18O and dD isotopic composition of local rivers and precipitation in the area to create a set of isotopic data that is comparable to isotopic studies on paleosoils and can therefore be used in future paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate studies. We sampled 6 individual rivers during the fall season 2008 to capture mostly groundwater runoff in the south central Taurus Mountains. All sampled rivers belong to the same local drainage system which drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The total elevation difference within the sampling area exceeds 2,000 m and we were able to collect samples over almost 1,800 m of elevation. Our measurements show that both d18O and dD values follow the same basic trend. d18O and dD values decrease systematically with increasing elevation. The lapse rate of d18O is about -2.2 per mil/km, whereas the lapse rate of dD is about -20 per mil/km. Select samples have higher d18O and dD values than expected for their respective elevations due to strong evaporative effects at the sampling sites. In areas of very steep topography (waterfalls, valley gorges) the d18O and dD values of water samples are biased towards values lower than expected for their respective elevations. However, such irregularities can be accounted for by plotting the measured isotopic compositions against the hypsometric mean elevations instead of the actual sampling elevations. Comparison with data gathered by the GNIP network at four neighboring stations (Adana, Antalya, Güzeloluk, and Kocebeyli) shows that the longer-term (1 to 18 years) isotopic composition of precipitation agrees very well with the data collected in this study. Collectively, the data presented here may serve as a modern template against which late Neogene proxy-based records of paleoprecipitation along the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau may be calibrated.

  20. Classification of fast flows in central plasma sheet: Superposed epoch analysis based on THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, C.; Fu, S. Y.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical survey of 560 fast flows in midnight central plasma sheet is performed based on Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations during its first two tail phases. From superposed epoch analysis, no significant substorm activities are found to be associated with the occurrence of fast flows beyond X=-15 Re. Considering the associations with substorm activities, the fast flows inside of X=-15 Re can be classified into two obvious classes: short duration (< 2.0 min) and long duration (> 4.0 min). Substorm breakups are shown to be more closely correlated to short-duration fast flows. Furthermore, the onset of short-duration fast flows in the dipolarization region (X=-9 to -11 Re) is almost simultaneous with the onset of substorm breakups and dipolarizations. On the other hand, time delays of 2-4 min are both found in the near-Earth region (X=-7 to -9 Re) and in the near-tail region (X=-11 to -15 Re). Assuming that short-duration fast flows are generated by the force imbalance caused by cross-tail current disruption, these features are consistent with the predictions made by the cowling electrojet current loop and the cross-tail current disruption substorm models. In comparison, although more magnetic flux is transported toward Earth for long-duration fast flows, no clear substorm breakup is closely associated with them. The analysis of 2-D ion velocity distribution further shows some differences. For short-duration fast flows, multiple crescent-shaped ion populations are found. However, for long-duration fast flows, there exists only a single crescent-shaped ion population. The difference may be an important signature for distinguishing these two classes of fast flows.

  1. Halogens in water from the crystalline basement of the Gotthard rail base tunnel (central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelig, Ulrike; Bucher, Kurt

    2010-05-01

    Drilling of the new Gotthard rail base tunnel (central Alps) opened a large number of water-conducting fractures in granite and gneiss of the crystalline basement. The overburden reaches locally more than 2000 m and water and rock temperature is up to 45 °C. The tunnel crosses a series of steeply dipping fractured rock units that also crop out at the surface above the tunnel. Recharge water enters the fractured rocks in the high mountainous area, migrates gravity driven to the sampling locality in the tunnel. Along its flow path it reacts with rocks exposed on the fractures where it dissolves the principal granite minerals, resulting in high-pH Na 2CO 3 waters. The tunnel waters contain unusually high concentrations of fluoride ranging from 5 to 29 mg/L. Alteration of F-bearing biotite to F-free chlorite is one of the sources of fluorine. The highest F-concentrations result from the equilibration of low-Ca waters with fluorite. Fluoride concentration is strongly lithology-dependent and sharp discontinuities in both, concentration and saturation state with respect to fluorite occur at the contacts of the different gneiss and granite slabs. Chloride concentrations vary between 1 and 1300 mg/L. In contrast, the Cl/Br mass ratio exhibits small variations and centers around 110 suggesting a common source for the Cl and Br, which is independent of the lithology. In the northern part of the tunnel, Cl and Br are chiefly derived from saline pore fluids of one lithology which is then mixed with low-salinity water along flow paths. Cl/Br ratios of the waters in the southern part of the tunnel section are similar to those measured in experimental leachates from different tunnel rocks, suggesting that leaching of metamorphic fluids in the pore space is the main source of both Cl and Br.

  2. Fracture resistance of cementum-extended composite fillings in severely damaged deciduous incisors: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, Bahman; Ehsani, Sara; Taravati, Shirin; Ghadimi, Sara; Fatemi, Mostafa; Safa, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the fracture resistance of the cementum-extended and conventional composite fillings with or without intracanal composite posts in severely damaged deciduous incisors. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was performed on 60 extracted deciduous maxillary incisors that were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: Composite filling (CF); Group 2: Composite filling with composite posts (CF + CP); Group 3: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum (ceCF); Group 4: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum with composite posts (ceCF + CP). The fracture resistance was assessed by exerting a progressively increasing load with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a Universal Testing Machine. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by SPSS-18 using one-way analysis of variance at ? < 0.05. Results: The mean fracture resistance (MFR) values of the experimental groups were 410.57 ± 139.44 N, 564.44 ± 92.63 N, 507.5 ± 76.37 N and 601.08 ± 96.04 N. A significant difference was found between the MFR of Groups 1 and 2, Groups 1 and 4 and Groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A superior outcome was achieved by intracanal composite posts in both conventional and cementum-extended composite fillings. PMID:25512722

  3. An Immature Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Lateral Incisor with Talon's Cusp: A Clinical Dilemma to Confront

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Deepa; Giri, K. Y.; Keerthi, S. Sruthi

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a malformation of teeth probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. DI is classified as type I, II, and III by Oehlers depending on the severity of malformation. The maxillary lateral incisor is the most commonly affected tooth. Structural defects do exist in the depth of the invagination pits, and as a consequence, the early development of caries and the subsequent necrosis of the dental pulp, as well as abscess and cyst formation are clinical implications associated with DI. Occasionally, we can see more than one developmental anomaly occurring in a single tooth. In such cases it becomes important to identify the anomalies and initiate a proper treatment plan for good prognosis. In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. PMID:24660071

  4. Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

  5. Estimation of Evapotranspiration of Almond orchards using Remote Sensing based SEBAL model in Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Ustin, S.; Kefauver, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is one of the main components of the hydrologic cycle and its impact to hydrology, agriculture,forestry and environmental studies is very crucial. SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) is an image-processing model comprised of twenty-five computational sub-models that computes actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and other energy exchanges as a component of energy balance which is used to derive the surface radiation balance equation for the net surface radiation flux (Rn) on a pixel-by-pixel basis. For this study, SEBAL method is applied to Level 1B dataset of visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared radiation channels of MASTER instrument on-board NASA-DC 8 flight. This paper uses the SEBAL method to (1) investigate the spatial distribution property of land surface temperature (Ls), NDVI, and ETa over the San Joaquin valley. (2) Estimate actual evapotranspiration of almond class on pixel-by-pixel basis in the Central valley, California. (3) Comparison of actual Evapotranspiration obtained from SEBAL model with reference evapotranspiration (Eto) using Penman Monteiths method based on the procedures and available data from California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) stations. The results of the regression between extracted land surface temperature, NDVI and, evapotranspiration show negative (-) correlation. On the other hand Ls possessed a slightly stronger negative correlation with the ETa than with NDVI for Almond class. The correlation coefficient of actual ETa estimates from remote sensing with Reference ETo from Penmann Monteith are 0.8571. ETa estimated for almond crop from SEBAL were found to be almost same with the CIMIS_Penman Monteith method with bias of 0.77 mm and mean percentage difference is 0.10%. These results indicate that combination of MASTER data with surface meteorological data could provide an efficient tool for the estimation of regional actual ET used for water resources and irrigation scheduling and management. Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Hydrologic cycle, SEBAL, net surface radiation flux, MASTER, NDVI, Penman Monteith, CIMIS, Surface Temperature

  6. Paleoceanography of the Eocene Central Arctic Basin Based on Geochemical Measurements of Biogenic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.-; Ogawa, Y.-; Onodera, J.-

    2006-12-01

    The IODP Leg 302 Arctic Coring Expedition retrieved approximately 120 m long continuous Eocene section from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic for the first time. The Eocene section is lithologically classified into Unit 2 with the assigned age of ~49-44Ma below and Unit 1/6 with 44Ma above the unit boundary. Unit 2 consists of very dark gray mud bearing siliceous ooze and Unit 1/6 consists of very dark gray silty clay to clayey silt. Biogenic opal (293 samples), organic carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur (150 samples) were measured. The sample resolutions are approximately 16 kyrs for Unit 2 and 8 kyrs interval for Unit 1/6, respectively. In Unit 2 biogenic opal ranged from 40 to 70% whereas in Unit 1/6, it decreased down to 10-20%, except for a peak of 37% at approximately 203 mbsf. Organic carbon consistently showed high values such as 1.4-5.7% both in Units 2 and 1/6. C/N ratios ranged from 15 to 20. Sulfur values ranged 2.6-7.7% in Unit 2 and it significantly increased to 4.0-19.4% in Unit 1/6. Based on the presence of abundant framboidal pyrites and the observed extremely low C/S ratios of <1.2 clearly indicate that the basin was under euxinic marine condition with sluggish bottom water circulation. Siliceous plankton mainly contributed to the biological productivity from 250 to 220 mbsf in Unit 2 and from 216 to 207 mbsf in Unit 1/6, judging from positive correlations of %biogenic opal vs %organic carbon. In other parts of the section such a positive correlation was not seen, implying something else other than siliceous plankton mainly contributed the total productivity. From Unit 2 to Unit 1/6, three rather drastic environmental changes are suggested: decrease of siliceous plankton productivity, increase of sulfate availability, and intensification of the euxinic conditions. In Unit 1/6 where sulfur values significantly increased, an increase of marine water inflow from the North Atlantic suggested by a study on silicofragellates assemblages. The marine water inflow appears to explain the raised dissolved sulfate concentration, resulting more pyrite formation. The conclusions derived from other microfossil studies are also conformable with the results of this study; they are: the Eocene conditions were interpreted as brackish water, fresh water at the top, marine water lying subsurface, eutrophic, relatively shallow, sluggish bottom water circulation, and occasional pelagic water invasions at least in the upper layer.

  7. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow

    E-print Network

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Control Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-4-1 The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow Jinping LIU... Yuebang MAI Xuefeng LIU Associate professor Graduate student Instructor College of Electric Power, South China University of Technology Guangzhou. China Email: mpjpliu@scut.edu.cn Abstract: At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump...

  8. Prediction of central nervous system embryonal tumour outcome based on gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott L. Pomeroy; Pablo Tamayo; Michelle Gaasenbeek; Lisa M. Sturla; Michael Angelo; Margaret E. McLaughlin; John Y. H. Kim; Liliana C. Goumnerova; Peter M. Black; Ching Lau; Jeffrey C. Allen; David Zagzag; James M. Olson; Tom Curran; Cynthia Wetmore; Jaclyn A. Biegel; Tomaso Poggio; Shayan Mukherjee; Ryan Rifkin; Andrea Califano; Gustavo Stolovitzky; David N. Louis; Jill P. Mesirov; Eric S. Lander; Todd R. Golub

    2002-01-01

    Embryonal tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours about which little is known biologically, and whose diagnosis, on the basis of morphologic appearance alone, is controversial. Medulloblastomas, for example, are the most common malignant brain tumour of childhood, but their pathogenesis is unknown, their relationship to other embryonal CNS tumours is debated, and patients'

  9. A gene expression atlas of the central nervous system based on bacterial artificial chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiaoching Gong; Chen Zheng; Martin L. Doughty; Kasia Losos; Nicholas Didkovsky; Uta B. Schambra; Norma J. Nowak; Alexandra Joyner; Gabrielle Leblanc; Mary E. Hatten; Nathaniel Heintz

    2003-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a remarkable array of neural cells, each with a complex pattern of connections that together generate perceptions and higher brain functions. Here we describe a large-scale screen to create an atlas of CNS gene expression at the cellular level, and to provide a library of verified bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vectors and transgenic

  10. Isotopic constraints on the genesis of base-metal ores in southern and central Sardinia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Vollmer, R.; Turi, B.; Simmons, K.R.; Perna, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of southwestern and central Sardinia occur within a restricted region, but comprise a variety of mineralization ages and styles. New Pb-isotope data, together with published data provide a reasonably coherent picture of possible sources for the various types of deposits. -from Authors

  11. Studying Geology of Central Texas through Web-Based Virtual Field Trips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chan; S. D. Khan; J. S. Wellner

    2007-01-01

    Each year over 2500 students, mainly non-science majors, take introductory geology classes at the University of Houston. Optional field trips to Central Texas for these classes provide a unique learning opportunity for students to experience geologic concepts in a real world context. The field trips visit Enchanted Rock, Inks Lake, Bee Cave Road, Lion Mountain, and Slaughter Gap. Unfortunately, only

  12. An entransy dissipation-based optimization principle for building central chilled water systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qun Chen; Yun-Chao Xu

    The recently developed entransy theory is introduced in this paper to tackle the heat transfer processes in building central chilled water systems so as to improve their energy efficiency. We first divide the irreversible heat transfer processes into four categories: (1) air mixing processes; (2) heat transfer processes between chilled water and air; (3) chilled water mixing processes; and (4)

  13. Central venous catheter-related bacteremia in chronic hemodialysis patients: epidemiology and evidence-based management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratnaja Katneni; S Susan Hedayati

    2007-01-01

    Central venous catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease treated with chronic hemodialysis. Risk factors include Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization, longer duration of catheter use, previous bacteremia, older age, higher total intravenous iron dose, lower hemoglobin and serum albumin levels, diabetes mellitus and recent hospitalization. Symptoms that raise

  14. Feasibility study for establishing a centralized geothermal data base for New Mexico. Final report, June 1, 1979-October 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Klimowicz, G.; Martin, N.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to catalog the information available and to make recommendations toward improving its accessibility. Existing computerized and non-computerized data sources are identified at both the state and national level. The content and accessibility of each such data base are investigated, as well as its suitability for aiding geothermal development. A catalog of such information is provided for each of the following data sources: GEOTHERM, WATSORE, STORIT, RPPM, GRID, HISS, EID air quality, and EID water quality. The available computing facilities within the state are evaluated for their appropriateness as a central storage facility for the many data sources. Recommendations are made for the establishment of a centralized geothermal/environmental data base. Included are recommendations for the computing facilities to be used by such a data base. How to obtain access to a given data base is described. This includes whether the data base is accessible from within New Mexico, necessary agreements, and contact persons. A glossary of computer-related terms and a brief description of knowledge-based problem-solving are included. (MHR)

  15. Severely altered post-traumatic internal morphology of upper incisors associated with biologic width violation - the combined conservative approach.

    PubMed

    Stratul, ?tefan Ioan; Nica, Lumini?a; Roman, Alexandra; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; B?cil?, Adrian; Rusu, Darian; Oprea, Bogdan; ?urlin, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This is the report of a case of four upper incisors with multiple internal/external resorptions after a falling accident in the childhood and subsequent violation of the biologic width by incorrect individual coronal restorations. Endodontic orthograde retreatment was performed and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was placed as apical plug and to repair the large internal resorption. In order to re-establish the biologic width, a controlled surgical crown-lengthening procedure was performed. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the gingival tissue was used as a biomarker for the presence of inflammation in the hypertrophied gingiva. The one-year control revealed the cessation of the resorptive activities and the stability of the periodontium. The choice for a conservative combined treatment was essential in maintaining the affected teeth in an esthetically challenging area. PMID:25611292

  16. Observer-based estimation of the water-mass-flow through a central heating boiler

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten Spreitzer; D. Ruckbrodt; Harald Straky

    2002-01-01

    Conventional central heating systems in German buildings are hot-water heating systems. These systems consist of a boiler and radiators or heating coils in the floor. A heating characteristic maps the current outdoor temperature to the set-point of the boiler outlet-temperature. Conventional PI-controllers with fixed parameters adjust the boiler outlet-temperature to the set-point. Since the process of heating water in the

  17. A 750-year fire history based on lake sediment records in central Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah H. Millspaugh; Cathy Whitlock

    1995-01-01

    A 750-year fire history was reconstructed for the Central Plateau of Yellowstone National Park from the deep-water sediments of five lakes. The charcoal record from a large lake provided a chronology of regional fires. Data from four small lakes were used to study local and extralocal fires. The co-occurrence of abundant charcoal and high magnetic-susceptibility values at the same stratigraphic

  18. Conservation Action Based on Threatened Species Capture Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Richness in Breeding and Wintering Populations of Central Asian Birds

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Manuel; Ayé, Raffael; Kashkarov, Roman; Roth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetic diversity has been suggested to be relevant from a conservation point of view, its role is still limited in applied nature conservation. Recently, the practice of investing conservation resources based on threatened species was identified as a reason for the slow integration of phylogenetic diversity in nature conservation planning. One of the main arguments is based on the observation that threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree. However this argument seems to dismiss the fact that conservation action is a spatially explicit process, and even if threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree, the occurrence of threatened species could still indicate areas with above average phylogenetic diversity and consequently could protect phylogenetic diversity. Here we aim to study the selection of important bird areas in Central Asia, which were nominated largely based on the presence of threatened bird species. We show that although threatened species occurring in Central Asia do not capture phylogenetically more distinct species than expected by chance, the current spatially explicit conservation approach of selecting important bird areas covers above average taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of breeding and wintering birds. We conclude that the spatially explicit processes of conservation actions need to be considered in the current discussion of whether new prioritization methods are needed to complement conservation action based on threatened species. PMID:25337861

  19. Evidence-based Decision Making: Influences on Central-Office Administrators' Decision-Making Practices 

    E-print Network

    Haecker, Bonnie Minnia

    2013-12-05

    administrators across the state of Texas were surveyed to obtain information about their evidence-based decision-making practices and the factors that influenced them when making decisions about interventions for their districts. The purpose...

  20. Evidence-based Decision Making: Influences on Central-Office Administrators' Decision-Making Practices

    E-print Network

    Haecker, Bonnie Minnia

    2013-12-05

    administrators across the state of Texas were surveyed to obtain information about their evidence-based decision-making practices and the factors that influenced them when making decisions about interventions for their districts. The purpose...

  1. Kinematics of the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States, based on stepover models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Seismicity in the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) of the central United States is generally attributed to a stepover structure in which the Reelfoot thrust fault transfers slip between parallel strike-slip faults. However, some arms of the seismic zone do not fit this simple model. Comparison of the NMSZ with an analog sandbox model of a restraining stepover structure explains all of the arms of seismicity as only part of the extensive pattern of faults that characterizes stepover structures. Computer models show that the stepover structure may form because differences in the trends of lower crustal shearing and inherited upper crustal faults make a step between en echelon fault segments the easiest path for slip in the upper crust. The models predict that the modern seismicity occurs only on a subset of the faults in the New Madrid stepover structure, that only the southern part of the stepover structure ruptured in the A.D. 1811–1812 earthquakes, and that the stepover formed because the trends of older faults are not the same as the current direction of shearing.

  2. A logic-based diagram of signalling pathways central to macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Sobia; Robertson, Kevin A; Lacaze, Paul A; Page, David; Enright, Anton J; Ghazal, Peter; Freeman, Tom C

    2008-01-01

    Background The complex yet flexible cellular response to pathogens is orchestrated by the interaction of multiple signalling and metabolic pathways. The molecular regulation of this response has been studied in great detail but comprehensive and unambiguous diagrams describing these events are generally unavailable. Four key signalling cascades triggered early-on in the innate immune response are the toll-like receptor, interferon, NF-?B and apoptotic pathways, which co-operate to defend cells against a given pathogen. However, these pathways are commonly viewed as separate entities rather than an integrated network of molecular interactions. Results Here we describe the construction of a logically represented pathway diagram which attempts to integrate these four pathways central to innate immunity using a modified version of the Edinburgh Pathway Notation. The pathway map is available in a number of electronic formats and editing is supported by yEd graph editor software. Conclusion The map presents a powerful visual aid for interpreting the available pathway interaction knowledge and underscores the valuable contribution well constructed pathway diagrams make to communicating large amounts of molecular interaction data. Furthermore, we discuss issues with the limitations and scalability of pathways presented in this fashion, explore options for automated layout of large pathway networks and demonstrate how such maps can aid the interpretation of functional studies. PMID:18433497

  3. The central role of chloride in the metabolic acid-base changes in canine parvoviral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Richard K; Schoeman, Johan P; Leisewitz, Andrew L

    2014-04-01

    The acid-base disturbances in canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis are not well described. In addition, the mechanisms causing these perturbations have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to assess acid-base changes in puppies suffering from CPV enteritis, using a modified strong ion model (SIM). The hypothesis of the study was that severe acid-base disturbances would be present and that the SIM would provide insights into pathological mechanisms, which have not been fully appreciated by the Henderson-Hasselbalch model. The study analysed retrospective data, obtained from 42 puppies with confirmed CPV enteritis and 10 healthy control dogs. The CPV-enteritis group had been allocated a clinical score, to allow classification of the data according to clinical severity. The effects of changes in free water, chloride, l-lactate, albumin and phosphate were calculated, using a modification of the base excess algorithm. When the data were summated for each patient, and correlated to each individual component, the most important contributor to the metabolic acid-base changes, according to the SIM, was chloride (P<0.001). Severely-affected animals tended to demonstrate hypochloraemic alkalosis, whereas mildly-affected puppies had a hyperchloraemic acidosis (P=0.007). In conclusion, the acid-base disturbances in CPV enteritis are multifactorial and complex, with the SIM providing information in terms of the origin of these changes. PMID:24613416

  4. Influences of archwire size and ligation method on the force magnitude delivered by nickel-titanium alloy archwires in a simulation of mandibular right lateral incisor linguoversion.

    PubMed

    Tochigi, Keisuke; Oda, Souichiro; Arai, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the influence of archwire size and ligation method on the force magnitude delivered by nickel-titanium alloy archwires to 4 incisor brackets (42, 41, 31, and 32) in a simulation of mandibular right lateral incisor linguoversion. The force delivered by 0.014 and 0.016 inch nickel-titanium alloy archwires was measured using a newly developed multi-sensor measuring system and the mean force magnitudes were compared between different archwire sizes when using conventional ligation (CL) with elastic modules or self-ligating (SL) brackets by three-way ANOVA and post-hoc Bonferroni's tests. The mean force magnitudes for the brackets were significantly decreased in the order of 42, 41, 31, and 32 (p<0.01). The force magnitude was significantly larger in CL than SL at 42, 31, and 32 (p<0.05). In conclusion, the ligation method affected the force magnitude at 4 incisor brackets. Despite the ligation method, archwire size affected the force magnitude from 42 to 31. PMID:25948144

  5. Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2008-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are widespread in the population and the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries among school children in different parts of the world varies from about 3% to 45%. Most injuries involve the anterior teeth, which may lead to eating restrictions, changes in physical appearance, speech defects and psychological impacts that affect the child's quality of life. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence, aetiology and types of injuries to permanent incisors among schoolchildren aged 10-14 years from Maseru, Lesotho. Upper and lower permanent incisors were examined for dental injuries. The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisor teeth was 9.3% (13.3% boys and 6.3% girls). Significantly more boys than girls suffered injury. The most common type of injury was enamel fractures and most common cause was falls. Health promotion policies should aim to create an appropriate and safe environment for children. Soft playground surfaces, school-crossing patrols, marked zebra crossings and bicycle lanes would help create a safe environment. Speed limits for cars and the use of seat belts, air bags, special car seats for children and bicycle helmets should be enforced. Mouth guards should be used when playing sport, in particular contact sports. Education regarding the epidemiology of dental injuries and their prevention through health promotion may play a major role in reducing the prevalence of dental injury and avoiding the financial costs of treatment, especially in developing countries. PMID:18689347

  6. The regime of aerosol optical depth over Central Asia based on MODIS Aqua Deep Blue data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floutsi, Athina; KorrasCarraca, Marios; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is therefore important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD over the climatically sensitive region of Central Asia (36° N - 50° N, 46° E - 75° E), which has significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles. The primary source of anthropogenic particles is fossil fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Natural particles originate mostly from the two deserts in the region (namely Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-Kum), where persistent dust activity is observed. Another source is the Aral Sea region, which due to its phenomenal desertification also drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions. This transport is of particular interest because of health-hazardous materials contained in the Aral Sea sea-bed. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest MODIS collection (006), available in 1° x 1° resolution (about 100 km x 100 km) over the period 2002-2014.Our first results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with large aerosol load being associated with strong dust activity during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.5), and low during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.4). In spring and summer significant aerosol load is observed in the Garabogazköl basin, Northeast and South-southeast Caspian Sea (offshore North Iran and Azerbaijan), as well as southwest of the Aral Sea. In the later region, the high AOD values can be explained by export of dust from the exposed sea-bed under strong northerly and north-easterly winds, and was found to be slightly larger during summer. From this analysis we have excluded the Aral Sea, over which the AOD values were extreme (up to 2.1 and 1.3 during July and January, respectively). The AOD exhibits statistically-significant increasing trend, with an ~40% mean regional relative change. The changes over are more pronounced over and around the Aral Sea, and are stronger during the warm period of the year (April to September). Our results suggest that these trends are associated with increased dust transport from the exposed Aral Sea sea-bed during the study period, which will be examined with the trends of the frequency and strength of aerosol events over central Asia, as well as their association with the Aral Sea desertification.

  7. Magmatic occurrences in the Central Arava (southern Israel) based on Geology and Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, Ginat; Michael, Rybakov; Boris, Shirman; Michael, Lazar

    2014-05-01

    The Eshet Ridge is located in the Central Arava near Wadi Paran. Geological data were collected using ground magnetic surveys and petrophysical measurements (magnetic susceptibility and density). The goal was to reveal the structure and nature of a concealed magmatic body under the ridge. Integrated gravity and magnetic interpretation together with seismic reflection data (including 2¾ modeling) indicated the presence of a deep-seated basic magmatic intrusion. Occurrence of Fe-mineralized rocks along the ridge supports subsurface data. The magmatic body was intruded in the hard Turonian rocks of the Eshet Ridge. Basic magmatic exposures dating from the Early Miocene were evident along Wadi Ashosh (in the eastern Negev) and its margins 18 km. to the north of the ridge. A new outcrop of basic magmatic intrusion was found southwest of the Tzukim settlement. Magnetic measurements indicated a similarity between their magnetic pattern and the Ashosh basic magmatics, which were dated to 20.4 ± 0.7 Ma. Volcanoclastic tuff pebbles (magnetic susceptibility of around 2-7 * 10-3 SI) surrounded by conglomerate were discovered at two sites in Wadi Demma and Wadi Menuha (streams that drain near the Eshet Ridge and 2 km south of it, respectively). The conglomerates contained mostly limestone, chalk and chert fragments; not more than 5% of which were volcanic pebbles. Two pebbles were dated to 24.4 ± 0.7and 21.5 ± 0.5 Ma. The magmatic outcrops in Wadi Ashosh, the magmatic dyke near Tzukim and the volcanic purple and black pebbles near Wadi Menuha were all dated to the very Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. The magmatic body identified in this study under the Eshet Ridge was termed the Eshet Intrusion and is connected to, and even the source of, all these phenomena.

  8. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  9. Successful Implementation of a Unit-based Quality Nurse to Reduce Central Line-associated Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Kerri A.; Li, Shanshan; Custer, Melissa; Preas, Michael Anne; Rew, Cindy D.; Cafeo, Christina; Leekha, Surbhi; Caffo, Brian S.; Scalea, Thomas M.; Lissauer, Matthew E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Novel strategies to prevent CLABSI are needed. Methods We described a quasi-experimental study to examine the effect of the presence of a unit-based quality nurse (UQN), dedicated to perform patient safety and infection control activities with a focus on CLABSI reduction, on CLABSI rates in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Results From July 2008 to March 2012 there were 3257 SICU admissions; central line (CL) utilization ratio was 0.74 (18,193 CL days/24,576 patient days). The UQN program began in July 2010; the nurse was present for 30% (193/518) of the days of the intervention period of July 2010 to March 2012. The average CLABSI rate was 5.0 per 1000 CL days before the intervention and 1.5 after the intervention; and decreased by 5.1% (p = 0.005) for each additional 1% of days of the month that the UQN was present, even after adjusting for CLABSI rates in other adult ICUs, time, severity of illness, and On the CUSP participation (5.1%, p = 0.004). Approximately 11.4 CLABSIs were prevented. Conclusions The presence of a UQN dedicated to perform infection control activities may be an effective strategy for CLABSI reduction. PMID:24360354

  10. Competency Base for Curriculum Development in Preschool Education: Volume 1; Central Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutt, George , Jr.

    Presented in the first of 4 related documents on the Home-Oriented Preschool Education (HOPE) Program is an overview of the procedures for developing a competency based curriculum for normal preschool Appalachian children up to 6-years-old. Discussed are the investigation's procedural components: rationale; philosophical framework (including…

  11. CSMAC: A New Centralized Scheduling-based MAC Protocol for Wireless LAN

    E-print Network

    Panwar, Shivendra S.

    In recent years, WiFi networks based on 802.11 [1] have become very popular. Inexpensive access points make access to WiFi networks. Although WiFi networks have become so popular and have dominated the market

  12. Site-based Management: Is It Still Central to the School Reform Movement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This research summary says school-based management increases political activity in schools, but is time-consuming; many teachers evade SBM; less actively participating parents risk co-option by educators; and schools will not commit necessary resources. Academic achievement is not necessarily improved, and organizational implementation obstacles…

  13. Improving depth imaging of legacy seismic data using curvelet-based gather conditioning: A case study from Central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górszczyk, A.; Cyz, M.; Malinowski, M.

    2015-06-01

    In presented work we test the ray-based pre-stack depth migration (PreSDM) and tomographic velocity model building (VMB) workflow applied to vintage seismic data, acquired in the 70s and 80s, in the area affected by intense salt tectonics in Central Poland. We demonstrate that the key for successful VMB is the consistency of the input residual moveouts (RMO) picks, which we obtain by developing proper gather conditioning workflow. It is based on the 2D discrete curvelet transform (DCT). DCT-based conditioning algorithm is run in a two-step mode on the common offset sections and on the depth-slices, improving the performance of the autopicker and thus providing a more reliable input to a grid tomography. Additionally, in the case of the legacy data, such conditioning acts as a trace regularization. Taking into account limitations associated with low fold and low signal-to-noise ratio, obtained results are satisfactory, providing depth sections and velocity models for verifying structural interpretation of the study area. In the case when the grid-based tomography is applied to vintage data, we strongly recommend to devote some time for proper data conditioning aimed at signal coherency improvement before running the RMO autopicker.

  14. A conodont-based standard reference section in central Nevada for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, W.C.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Harris, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Ranges of conodonts in stratigraphic sections at five localities in the Monitor and Antelope ranges of central Nevada are used graphically to assemble a standard reference section for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series. The base of the series is officially 0.3 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in the stratotype in Whiterock Canyon (Monitor Range). The top is the level at which Baltoniodus gerdae makes a brief appearance in an exposure of the Copenhagen Formation on the flanks of Hill 8308 in the western Antelope Range. Graphic compilation of the sections considered in this report also indicates that a level correlative with the base of the Whiterockian Series in the stratotype section is 66 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in its de facto type section on Martin Ridge in the eastern part of the Monitor Range. Ranges, diversity, and the composition of the conodont faunas differ markedly in lithofacies adjacent to the basal boundary of the series; hence we are unable to identify a single conodont species, in a credible developmental sequence, to serve as biological marker of that boundary.

  15. Localization of Core Planar Cell Polarity Proteins, PRICKLEs, in Ameloblasts of Rat Incisors: Possible Regulation of Enamel Rod Decussation

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Sumio; Kawamoto, Tadafumi

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the possible involvement of planar cell polarity proteins in odontogenesis, one group of core proteins, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, PRICKLE3, and PRICKLE4, was examined in enamel epithelial cells and ameloblasts by immunofluorescence microscopy. PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 showed similar localization in the proliferation and secretory zones of the incisor. Immunoreactive dots and short rods in ameloblasts and stratum intermedium cells were evident in the proliferation to differentiation zone, but in the secretion zone, cytoplasmic dots decreased and the distal terminal web was positive for PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2. PRICKLE3 and PRICKLE4 showed cytoplasmic labeling in ameloblasts and other enamel epithelial cells. Double labeling of PRICKLE2 with VANGL1, which is another planar cell polarity protein, showed partial co-localization. To examine the transport route of PRICKLE proteins, PRICKLE1 localization was examined after injection of a microtubule-disrupting reagent, colchicine, and was compared with CX43, which is a membrane protein transported as vesicles via microtubules. The results confirmed the retention of immunoreactive dots for PRICKLE1 in the cytoplasm of secretory ameloblasts of colchicine-injected animals, but fewer dots were observed in control animals. These results suggest that PRICKLE1 and PRICKLE2 are transported as vesicles to the junctional area, and are involved in pattern formation of distal junctional complexes and terminal webs of ameloblasts, further implying a role in the formed enamel rod arrangement.

  16. Effect of intermediate fiber layer on the fracture load and failure mode of maxillary incisors restored with laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Turkaslan, Suha; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Bagis, Bora; Shinya, Akikazu; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the fracture load and failure mode of various veneer materials cemented with or without the addition of a fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) layer at the adhesive interface. Sixty intact incisors were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 was fabricated with the heat-press technique (IPS Empress 2); Group 2 with the copy milling technique (ZirkonZahn); and Group 3 with the direct or indirect composite technique (Z250)--and specimens were cemented either with or without FRC at the adhesive interface. The specimens were thermocycled and tested with a universal testing machine. No significant differences in fracture load (p>0.05) were found among the various veneer materials. The addition of FRC at the adhesive layer did not lead to significant differences in the fracture load (p>0.05) but resulted in differences in the failure mode. Laminate veneers made of composite, zirconia, and Empress 2 showed comparable mean fracture loads. However, the use of FRC at the interface changed their failure modes. PMID:18309613

  17. Knowledge-Based, Central Nervous System (CNS) Lead Selection and Lead Optimization for CNS Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Arup K; Herbertz, Torsten; Hudkins, Robert L; Dorsey, Bruce D; Mallamo, John P

    2012-01-18

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the major area that is affected by aging. Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), brain cancer, and stroke are the CNS diseases that will cost trillions of dollars for their treatment. Achievement of appropriate blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration is often considered a significant hurdle in the CNS drug discovery process. On the other hand, BBB penetration may be a liability for many of the non-CNS drug targets, and a clear understanding of the physicochemical and structural differences between CNS and non-CNS drugs may assist both research areas. Because of the numerous and challenging issues in CNS drug discovery and the low success rates, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to deprioritize their drug discovery efforts in the CNS arena. Prompted by these challenges and to aid in the design of high-quality, efficacious CNS compounds, we analyzed the physicochemical property and the chemical structural profiles of 317 CNS and 626 non-CNS oral drugs. The conclusions derived provide an ideal property profile for lead selection and the property modification strategy during the lead optimization process. A list of substructural units that may be useful for CNS drug design was also provided here. A classification tree was also developed to differentiate between CNS drugs and non-CNS oral drugs. The combined analysis provided the following guidelines for designing high-quality CNS drugs: (i) topological molecular polar surface area of <76 Å(2) (25-60 Å(2)), (ii) at least one (one or two, including one aliphatic amine) nitrogen, (iii) fewer than seven (two to four) linear chains outside of rings, (iv) fewer than three (zero or one) polar hydrogen atoms, (v) volume of 740-970 Å(3), (vi) solvent accessible surface area of 460-580 Å(2), and (vii) positive QikProp parameter CNS. The ranges within parentheses may be used during lead optimization. One violation to this proposed profile may be acceptable. The chemoinformatics approaches for graphically analyzing multiple properties efficiently are presented. PMID:22267984

  18. An InSAR-based survey of volcanic deformation in the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Simons, M.

    2004-02-01

    We extend an earlier interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) survey covering about 900 remote volcanos of the central Andes (14°-27°S) between the years 1992 and 2002. Our survey reveals broad (10s of km), roughly axisymmetric deformation at 4 volcanic centers: two stratovolcanoes are inflating (Uturuncu, Bolivia, and Hualca Hualca, Peru); another source of inflation on the border between Chile and Argentina is not obviously associated with a volcanic edifice (here called Lazufre); and a caldera (Cerro Blanco, also called Robledo) in northwest Argentina is subsiding. We explore the range of source depths and volumes allowed by our observations, using spherical, ellipsoidal and crack-like source geometries. We further examine the effects of local topography upon the deformation field and invert for a spherical point-source in both elastic half-space and layered-space crustal models. We use a global search algorithm, with gradient search methods used to further constrain best-fitting models. Inferred source depths are model-dependent, with differences in the assumed source geometry generating a larger range of accepted depths than variations in elastic structure. Source depths relative to sea level are: 8-18 km at Hualca Hualca; 12-25 km for Uturuncu; 5-13 km for Lazufre, and 5-10 km at Cerro Blanco. Deformation at all four volcanoes seems to be time-dependent, and only Uturuncu and Cerro Blanco were deforming during the entire time period of observation. Inflation at Hualca Hualca stopped in 1997, perhaps related to a large eruption of nearby Sabancaya volcano in May 1997, although there is no obvious relation between the rate of deformation and the eruptions of Sabancaya. We do not observe any deformation associated with eruptions of Lascar, Chile, at 16 other volcanoes that had recent small eruptions or fumarolic activity, or associated with a short-lived thermal anomaly at Chiliques volcano. We posit a hydrothermal system at Cerro Blanco to explain the rate of subsidence there. For the last decade, we calculate the ratio of the volume of magma intruded to extruded is between 1-10, and that the combined rate of intrusion and extrusion is within an order of magnitude of the inferred geologic rate.

  19. Central DXA utilization shifts from office-based to hospital-based settings among medicare beneficiaries in the wake of reimbursement changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Delzell, Elizabeth; Zhao, Hong; Laster, Andrew J; Saag, Kenneth G; Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A; Wright, Nicole C; Yun, Huifeng; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2012-04-01

    In the United States, Medicare gradually reduced payments for central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed at physician offices (or other nonhospital settings) from an average of $139 in 2006 to about $82 in 2007 and 2008 and $72 in 2009. Reimbursement for hospital outpatient DXA service was unchanged. We investigated the utilization of hip and spine (central) DXA in the Medicare population before and after the reduction. We identified individuals from the national 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries who were ?65 years of age and enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B but not in a Medicare Advantage plan from 2002 through 2009. For each calendar year, we calculated the proportion of beneficiaries who submitted claims for DXA, the proportions of DXAs performed in hospitals and in physician offices and the number of physician office-based practices that discontinued or started to provide DXA services. From 2002 to 2006, the proportion of beneficiaries who had at least one central DXA increased from 7.9% to 9.6% at an annual increase of 0.4% and from 2006 to 2009, the annual increase dropped to 0.1%. The number of DXAs performed in physician offices dropped from 1,643,720 (69% of 2,363,500 total DXAs) in 2006 to 1,534,240 (66% of 2,338,240) in 2009. This decline was offset by an increase in the number of DXAs performed in hospitals, which increased from 719,780 (31%) in 2006 to 804,000 (34%) in 2009. Among physician office-based practices, more practices initiated than discontinued DXA service each year from 2002 to 2006. However, the trend was reversed since 2007 such that in 2009, 1876 practices discontinued and only 1394 initiated DXA service. The reduction in DXA reimbursement was associated with a decrease in the number of DXAs performed in physician offices and fewer physician offices that provided DXA services. PMID:22190195

  20. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-print Network

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

  1. Histopathologic evaluation following chronic implantation of chromium and steel based metal alloys in the rabbit central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Rauch, H C; Ekstrom, M E; Montgomery, I N; Parada, F; Berke, J

    1986-01-01

    Histopathologic evaluation of three metal alloys for chronic implantation in the central nervous system (CNS) was undertaken in rabbits. Throughout the 8 month evaluation period the inflammatory response to the alloys was bland. Two of the alloys tested (chromium based MP35N, Trademark of the Standard Pressed Steel Company, and a stainless steel alloy, BG42 VacArc, Trademark of Latrobe Steel) appeared suitable as CNS implants. The third alloy (stainless steel 440C, Carpenter Steel Company) showed more corrosion than the other alloys, and may be less suitable for implantation. While E. cuniculi infection was found in four rabbits, the infection did not directly interfere with the assessment of the histologic changes directly due to the implants. Autoantibodies to a brain constituent were not observed. PMID:3097022

  2. A new species of Centropages (Copepoda: Calanoida: Centropagidae) from the central Red Sea based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M

    2015-01-01

    Centropages mohamedi sp. nov. (Copepoda: Calanoida) is described from specimens collected in zooplankton samples off Obhur Creek on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. The new species is most closely related to C. orsinii Giesbrecht, 1889, a species described from the Red Sea and widely distributed in the neritic waters of the Indo-West Pacific region. The new species is mainly distinguished by the female genital double somite, male antennules, male leg 4, and leg 5 of both sexes. DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit one (mtCOI) of the two species differ by 20.8%, supporting their morphology-based identification as distinct species.  PMID:25661620

  3. Effects of guanine bases at the central loop on stabilization of the quadruplex DNAs and their interactions with Meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridium-4-yl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sun Hee; Moon, Jihye; Lee, Myung Won; Kim, Seog K

    2015-10-01

    The thermal stability of the G-quadruplex formed from the thrombin-binding aptamer, 5'G2T2G2TGTG2T2G2, in which the guanine (G) base at the central loop was replaced with an adenine (A) or inosine (I) base, was examined to determine the role of the central G base in stabilizing the quadruplex. Replacement of the central G base by the I base resulted in a slight decrease in thermal stability. On the other hand, the stability of the G-quadruplex decreased to a significant extent when it was replaced with the A base. The optimized structure of the G-quadruplex, which was obtained by a molecular dynamic simulation, showed that the carbonyl group of the C5 position of the central G base could form hydrogen bonds with the G1 amine group at the C7 position on the upper G-quartet. This formation of a hydrogen bond contributes to the stability of the G-quadruplex. The spectral property of meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridium-4yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) associated with the G-quadruplex was characterized by a moderate red shift and hypochromism in the absorption spectrum, a positive CD signal, and two emission maxima in the fluorescence emission spectrum, suggesting that TMPyP binds at the exterior of the G-quadruplex. Spectral properties were slightly altered when the G base at the central loop was replaced with A or I, while the fluorescence decay times of TMPyP associated with the G-quadruplex were identical. Observed spectral properties removes the possibility of intercalation binding mode for TMPyP. TMPyP binds at the exterior of the quadruplex. Whether it stacks on the central loop or binds at the side of the quadruplex is unclear at this stage. PMID:26057195

  4. Using trait-based approaches to study phytoplankton seasonal succession in a subtropical reservoir in arid central western Argentina.

    PubMed

    Beamud, S G; León, J G; Kruk, C; Pedrozo, F; Diaz, M

    2015-05-01

    The application of trait-based approaches has become a widely applied tool to analyse community assembly processes and dynamics in phytoplankton communities. Its advantages include summarizing information of many species without losing essentials of the main driving processes. Here, we used trait-based approaches to study phytoplankton temporal succession in a subtropical reservoir. We applied a combined approach including morphological traits (i.e. volume, surface) and functional clustering of species (morphology-based functional groups (MBFG) and Reynolds' groups) and related the clustering of species with the environment. We found that this reservoir is characterized by a low richness and a bimodal distribution of phytoplankton biomass. Taxonomic and functional classifications were coincident, and the dominant species and groups biomasses were explained by the same group of variables. For instance, group X?, MBFG V and Carteria sp. biomasses were explained by: pH, Secchi disk depth, N-NH?; while group B, MBFG VI and Cyclotella ocellata biomasses were explained by stability of the water column, incident solar radiation, Secchi disk depth and N-NH4. From our results, we state that functional and taxonomic classifications are complementary rather than opposed approaches, and their specific uses depend exclusively on the aim of the study and the characteristics of the environment under evaluation. Our work is the first description of phytoplankton dynamics in a reservoir in the arid central western Argentina (Cuyo region). PMID:25893768

  5. Prevalence of tics in schoolchildren in central Spain: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Esther; Gabriel y Galán, José María Trejo; Villaverde, Vanesa Ausín; Velasco, Sara Sáez; Benito, Vanesa Delgado; Macarrón, Jesús Vicente; Guevara, José Cordero; Louis, Elan D; Benito-León, Julián

    2011-08-01

    Tic disorders constitute a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This study sought to determine the prevalence of tic disorders in a school-based sample. A randomized sample of 1158 schoolchildren, based on clusters (classrooms) in the province of Burgos (Spain), was identified on a stratified sampling frame combining types of educational center and setting (mainstream schools and special education), using a two-phase approach (screening and diagnosis ascertainment by a neurologist). Tics with/without impairment criterion were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. In mainstream schools, tics were observed in 125/741 students (16.86%; 95% confidence interval, 14.10-19.63), and were more frequent in boys (87/448, 19.42%; 95% confidence interval, 15.64-23.19) compared with girls (38/293, 12.96%; 95% confidence interval, 8.95-16.98; P = 0.03). In special education centers, tics disorders were observed in 11/54 of children (20.37%; 95% confidence interval, 8.70-32.03). Overall, tics with impairment criteria were less frequent than tics without impairment criteria (4.65% vs 11.85%, P < 0.0001). The most frequent diagnoses involved chronic motor tics (6.07%) and Tourette syndrome (5.26%). Tic disorders are common in childhood, and the use or nonuse of impairment criteria exerts a significant impact on tic prevalence estimates. PMID:21763950

  6. High-Resolution BAC-Based Map of the Central Portion of Mouse Chromosome 5

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Jonathan; Wiltshire, Tim; Brunk, Brian; Zhao, Shaying; Schug, Jonathan; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Bucan, Maja

    2001-01-01

    The current strategy for sequencing the mouse genome involves the combination of a whole-genome shotgun approach with clone-based sequencing. High-resolution physical maps will provide a foundation for assembling contiguous segments of sequence. We have established a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based map of a 5-Mb region on mouse Chromosome 5, encompassing three gene families: receptor tyrosine kinases (PdgfraKit-Kdr), nonreceptor protein-tyrosine type kinases (Tec–Txk), and type-A receptors for the neurotransmitter GABA (Gabra2, Gabrb1, Gabrg1, and Gabra4). The construction of a BAC contig was initiated by hybridization screening the C57BL/6J (RPCI-23) BAC library, using known genes and sequence tagged sites (STSs). Additional overlapping clones were identified by searching the database of available restriction fingerprints for the RPCI-23 and RPCI-24 libraries. This effort resulted in the selection of >600 BAC clones, 251 kb of BAC-end sequences, and the placement of 40 known and/or predicted genes within this 5-Mb region. We use this high-resolution map to illustrate the integration of the BAC fingerprint map with a radiation-hybrid map via assembled expressed sequence tags (ESTs). From annotation of three representative BAC clones we demonstrate that up to 98% of the draft sequence for each contig could be ordered and oriented using known genes, BAC ends, consensus sequences for transcript assemblies, and comparisons with orthologous human sequence. For functional studies, annotation of sequence fragments as they are assembled into 50–200-kb stretches will be remarkably valuable. PMID:11591652

  7. Energy-based Location and Wavefield Polarization Analysis of Tectonic Tremors in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Husker, A. L.; Legrand, D.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2013-05-01

    We have designed a location technique based on non-volcanic tremor (NVT) energy measurements and their spatial derivatives in the three ground motion components. By means of a source-scanning grid search and a large database of theoretical Green's functions (i.e. more than 45,000 functions from rake-variable horizontal point dislocations) accounting for both intrinsic attenuation and layered media, the algorithm looks for the hypocentral locations that minimize an error function between observed and synthetic spatial-energy distributions. However, since the energy has little information about the footprint of the source-radiation-pattern on the wavefield polarization we have introduced, into the location algorithm, a particle-motion polarization analysis. The analysis is based on the eigendecomposition of the covariance matrix determined from the three ground motion components, and provides the algorithm with much better control of both NVT location and source mechanism (i.e. dislocation rake angle). Preliminary locations of the NVT catalogue by Husker et al. (2010) for the Guerrero province confirmed the coastward spreading of the NVT activity during the 2006 Slow Slip Event, recently reported. Although the horizontal NVT-energy distribution changes along the one-dimensional MASE array from downdip to updip locations, our results show that this variation may be explained, for all NVT's, with approximately the same rake angle, which differs from the plate convergence direction by 15 to 20 degrees clockwise. Moreover, although a few NVT foci are located within the deep continental crust (i.e. between 30 and 40 km depth), most of the NVT activity is embedded within the subducted slab, below the 40 km depth Moho. Most of the intraslab activity lies between 200 and 240 km from the trench (region called the 'Sweet Spot' by Husker et al., 2012) with 40 to 50 km depth. By superimposing the NVT hypocentral cross-section locations over the state of pore pressure (Pp) computationally modeled within the slab due to the strain field induced by previous Slow Slip Events in the region (Cruz-Atienza et al., 2011), a surprisingly good spatial correlation appears between a low pore-pressure slab segment toward which fluids diffuse and the 'Sweet Spot', where most of the NVT bursts are systematically located.

  8. Wetland Maps of Central Canada based on L-band SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, J.; Clewley, D.; Moghaddam, M.; McDonald, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Northern wetlands have the potential to become major sources of greenhouse gases. Detailed and accurate maps of the locations, types, and extents of these wetlands are therefore essential to the development of accurate carbon budgets. However, due to their vast extent and inaccessibility, most northern wetlands remain unmapped. We have been constructing high-resolution (100 m) thematic maps of boreal wetlands, with current focus on Canadian wetlands. The maps are developed using spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which efficiently collects high-resolution imagery over extensive regions and, unlike optical sensors, is unimpaired by clouds or lack of sunlight. Spaceborne L-band (~1.3 GHz) SAR, in particular, records scene characteristics imperceptible to optical sensors such as vegetation structure and moisture content, soil moisture and roughness, and canopy-obscured surface waters. These attributes make it the best single tool for mapping boreal wetlands. Two L-band SAR-based wetland maps are being assembled: one using HH-polarized imagery from the JERS-1 satellite collected in the winter and summer of 1997-1998, and a second using dual-polarized (HH and HV) imagery from the PALSAR sensor of the ALOS satellite collected in the summer of 2008. Ancillary data layers such as image texture, topographic slope, and proximity to water are also generated, and a training/testing data layer is formed by merging polygons from the Canadian Wetland Inventory (CWI) with other land cover databases. A Random Forests decision tree classifier takes as input the SAR, ancillary, and training/testing data layers and uses them to produce thematic wetland maps. The accuracy of each map is quantified via producer and user error statistics. Finally, the SAR-based wetland maps are compared to form a 1998-2008 wetlands change map. Recent advances include a powerful new software suite developed to handle huge volumes of data and much-improved JERS-1 registration. Challenges, including non-GIS-ready CWI data and nonstructural CWI class definitions, are being addressed. This work was carried out in part within the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative at the University of Southern California and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under contract to NASA. JERS-1 mosaics were generated by JPL. PALSAR mosaics were provided by JAXA/EORC.

  9. Treatment of a molasses based distillery effluent in a constructed wetland in central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Singh, N; Ram, H K; Sharma, J K; Singh, V P; Nelson, R M; Dass, P

    2001-01-01

    A field-scale 4-celled, horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (CW) was installed to evaluate removal efficiencies of wastewater constituents in an industrial distillery effluent. Total and dissolved solids, NH4-N, TKN, P and COD were measured. This CW design provides four serial cells with synthetic liners and a river gravel base. The first two unplanted cells provide preliminary treatment. Specific gravel depths and ensuing biofilm growth provides anaerobic treatment in Cell 1 and anaerobic treatment in Cell 2. Cell 3 was planted with Typha latifolia with an inserted layer of brick rubble (for phosphorus removal). Locally grown reed, Phragmites karka was planted in Cell 4. COD was reduced from 8420 mg/l 3000 from Cell 1 to the outlet of Cell 4. Likewise other parameters: total and dissolved solids, ammonium and total nitrogen, and total P, indicated declining trends at the 4-celled CW effluent. This study reveals how high strength distillery wastewater strongly impacts morphology, aeration anatomy in the chiseled plant tissues, reed growth; and composition of the biofilm in the specialized substratum. The reliability of a CW for organic and nutrients reduction, in association with a poorly performing conventional system is discussed. There is an immense potential for appropriately designed constructed wetlands to improve high strength wastewaters in India. PMID:11804132

  10. A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J.; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E. J.; Bednarski, April E.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M.; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C.; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L.; Reed, Laura D.; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A.; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated “replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses”—a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates. PMID:25452493

  11. Impurity of stem cell graft by murine embryonic fibroblasts - implications for cell-based therapy of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Molcanyi, Marek; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Schäfer, Ute; Haj-Yasein, Nadia Nabil; Brockmann, Michael; Penner, Marina; Riess, Peter; Reinshagen, Clemens; Rieger, Bernhard; Hannes, Tobias; Hescheler, Jürgen; Bosche, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells have been demonstrated to possess a therapeutic potential in experimental models of various central nervous system disorders, including stroke. The types of implanted cells appear to play a crucial role. Previously, groups of the stem cell network NRW implemented a feeder-based cell line within the scope of their projects, examining the implantation of stem cells after ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Retrospective evaluation indicated the presence of spindle-shaped cells in several grafts implanted in injured animals, which indicated potential contamination by co-cultured feeder cells (murine embryonic fibroblasts - MEFs). Because feeder-based cell lines have been previously exposed to a justified criticism with regard to contamination by animal glycans, we aimed to evaluate the effects of stem cell/MEF co-transplantation. MEFs accounted for 5.3?±?2.8% of all cells in the primary FACS-evaluated co-culture. Depending on the culture conditions and subsequent purification procedure, the MEF-fraction ranged from 0.9 to 9.9% of the cell suspensions in vitro. MEF survival and related formation of extracellular substances in vivo were observed after implantation into the uninjured rat brain. Impurity of the stem cell graft by MEFs interferes with translational strategies, which represents a threat to the potential recipient and may affect the graft microenvironment. The implications of these findings are critically discussed. PMID:25249934

  12. Impurity of Stem Cell Graft by Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts – Implications for Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Molcanyi, Marek; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Schäfer, Ute; Haj-Yasein, Nadia Nabil; Brockmann, Michael; Penner, Marina; Riess, Peter; Reinshagen, Clemens; Rieger, Bernhard; Hannes, Tobias; Hescheler, Jürgen; Bosche, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells have been demonstrated to possess a therapeutic potential in experimental models of various central nervous system disorders, including stroke. The types of implanted cells appear to play a crucial role. Previously, groups of the stem cell network NRW implemented a feeder-based cell line within the scope of their projects, examining the implantation of stem cells after ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Retrospective evaluation indicated the presence of spindle-shaped cells in several grafts implanted in injured animals, which indicated potential contamination by co-cultured feeder cells (murine embryonic fibroblasts – MEFs). Because feeder-based cell lines have been previously exposed to a justified criticism with regard to contamination by animal glycans, we aimed to evaluate the effects of stem cell/MEF co-transplantation. MEFs accounted for 5.3?±?2.8% of all cells in the primary FACS-evaluated co-culture. Depending on the culture conditions and subsequent purification procedure, the MEF-fraction ranged from 0.9 to 9.9% of the cell suspensions in vitro. MEF survival and related formation of extracellular substances in vivo were observed after implantation into the uninjured rat brain. Impurity of the stem cell graft by MEFs interferes with translational strategies, which represents a threat to the potential recipient and may affect the graft microenvironment. The implications of these findings are critically discussed. PMID:25249934

  13. Use of self-etching adhesive system and compomer for splinting traumatized incisors.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Helpin, Mark L

    2002-01-01

    Traumatized teeth that are displaced from their normal alveolar positions need to be repositioned and stabilized so that healing can occur. Orthodontic ligature wire bonded into place with resin-based composite works well for splinting teeth. Using a self-etching adhesive bonding system and compomer material facilitates both the resin bonding and its removal. This clinical report describes a simplified resin/wire splinting procedure. PMID:11874061

  14. Migrating Ignimbrite Flares in the Central Andes, Implications for Crustal Evolution Based on Chemical, Isotopic, Geochronological, and GIS-Based Volumetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worner, G.; Brandmeier, M.; Freymuth, H.; Heistek, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Temporal and compositional patterns of Neogene ignimbrites in the Central Andes were analysed using GIS and geostatistical modelling based on 203 digitized ignimbrite sheets for which geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic data on pumices as well as Sr-O isotopes on minerals from selected samples were compiled and compared to compositional and isotopic data from andesite lavas. Composition, timing, volumes and sources of erupted ignimbrite deposits are thus constrained and magma volumes through space and time are calculated. The total erupted ignimbrite magma volume of 31,000 km3 (minimum value) in the past 30 Ma indicate an average magmatic addition of 20-30 km3*Ma/km, similar to the basaltic "base"-flux for arc magmatism. Ignimbrite flare-ups are, however, rather punctuated, short-lived events well separated in space and time. There is a clear N-S "younging" of ignimbrite pulses from N to S at 19-24 Ma, 13-14 Ma, 6-10 Ma and 3-6 Ma. Ignimbrite eruptions occurred in the wake of subduction of the Juan-Fernandez ridge on the Nazca Plate passing below the Central Andes from N to S. Low angle subduction caused compression and fluid release is followed by massive inflow and melting of asthenospheric mantle when the slab steepened again after the passing of the ridge. This in turn caused massive melting within the crust aided by advective heat transport. Differences in chemical and isotopic composition of the large-volume ignimbrites are related to changes in crustal thickness, and different "preconditioning" during the Andean orogeny at a given space in time. Isotope data and whole rock compositional data suggest a higher degree of crustal assimilation for the younger Altiplano ignimbrites in the S (c. 50%) compared to the older (22-19 Ma) ignimbrites in the N were the crustal component is significantly less (20%). REE compositions reflect changes in crustal thickness with a "transition" at c. 13-9 Ma that can be related to accelerated crustal shortening and lower crustal heating at that time. There is no "single" ignimbrite flare up, we suggest a more dynamic scenario, with "flares" moving from N to S across the Central Andes during the past 25 Ma. Our database yield volumes of mantle and crustal magmas produced through time and space and should aid to constrain numerical models of Andean geodynamic processes.

  15. Knowledge-based soil inference modeling for estimating soil productivity and grain yield in north-central Missouri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used ArcSIE (Soil Inference Engine) software to model soils resembling those mapped by NRCS soil survey, for eight 12-digit watersheds in the Central Claypan (MLRA113) in north-central Missouri. Our source data for modeling was the 10m USGS Digital Elevation Model. Environmental Covariates used i...

  16. Ankylosed maxillary incisor with severe root resorption treated with a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy, vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis, and mini-implant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Sen???k, Neslihan Ebru; Koçer, Gülperi; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

    2014-09-01

    Dentoalveolar ankylosis interferes with the vertical growth of the alveolar process, which can lead to an open bite, an unesthetic smile, and occlusal disharmony. This case report presents a new treatment protocol for an ankylosed tooth with severe root resorption using a combined surgical orthodontic management protocol involving a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy and vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis with intraoral elastics and mini-implant anchorage. After distraction and active orthodontic treatment, the patient's anterior open bite was corrected. A Class I dental relationship was achieved, overjet was decreased, and a normal incisor relationship was obtained. PMID:25172260

  17. TRMM Based Studies of MJO Convection over the Central Indian Ocean, Maritime Continent, and Western Pacific Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, S. A.; Xu, W.

    2014-12-01

    The structure and organization of precipitating cloud populations related to the initiation and evolution of several MJO events have been fully investigated using data collected from the 2011-2012 DYNAMO field campaign over the Central Indian Ocean (CIO). Since DYNMO monitored the MJO behavior for only a few months, it is important to know how the DYNAMO-recorded characteristics compare to the long-term climatology, such as viewed by TRMM satellite measurements. TRMM observations are also capable of providing the regional variability of the convection as the MJO envelope propagates eastward. The objective of this study is to quantify MJO convective characteristics using 15 years of TRMM satellite measurements over three specific regions affected by the MJO including the CIO, Maritime Continent (MC), and Western Pacific (WP). TRMM data are used to quantify not only the precipitating cloud population categorized by radar echo tops and feature size (as have been previously documented), but also their convective intensity, lightning activity, precipitation structures, bulk microphysical properties, and rainfall contributions. Specifically, the radar, ice scattering (microwave), and lightning observations from TRMM are analyzed for the convective spectrum as a function of MJO stage and geographical location. Furthermore, radar characteristics of MJO events based on TRMM PR are quantitatively compared to that of the shipborne radars deployed during TOGA COARE over the WP and DYNAMO over the CIO.

  18. A program for reducing teacher's resistance to changes in curriculum in centralized education systems. An experience on changes of mathematics text books in Iran based on distinction results.

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    for all levels. Mathematics has a permanent presence in every curriculum and because of its importance307 A program for reducing teacher's resistance to changes in curriculum in centralized education systems. An experience on changes of mathematics text books in Iran based on distinction results. Zohreh

  19. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Berman; Catherine Symonds; Rolfe Birch

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and

  20. Management of a laterally luxated upper incisor caused by the hit of a rifle stock.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Gurkan R; Gulses, Aydin; Ozkan, Aydin; Sencimen, Metin; Koc, Firat

    2011-04-01

    Lateral luxation is the displacement of the tooth in a direction other than axial, which is accompanied by comminution or fracture of the alveolar socket. Lateral luxation is one of the most prevalent dental injuries among the general population, resulting in up to 27% of all dental wounds. All physical activities have an associated risk of orofacial injuries due to falls, collisions, and contact with hard surfaces. Just like any other training activities, military training exercises present a significant risk of dental traumas, which comprise 2% to 8% of all military dental emergencies. The aim of this report was to present a case of a dental lateral luxation caused by the hit of a rifle stock during close combat training. The tooth was extruded from its bony lock, temporarily filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste, replaced into its original anatomic position, and secured with Ivy loop wirings. The permanent endodontic treatment was performed 4 weeks after repositioning. At the end of the 8-months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and any pathological alterations were absent. PMID:21539172

  1. Bounds for the covariance of functions of infinite variance stable random variables with applications to central limit theorems and wavelet-based estimation

    E-print Network

    Pipiras, Vladas; Abry, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    We establish bounds for the covariance of a large class of functions of infinite variance stable random variables, including unbounded functions such as the power function and the logarithm. These bounds involve measures of dependence between the stable variables, some of which are new. The bounds are also used to deduce the central limit theorem for unbounded functions of stable moving average time series. This result extends the earlier results of Tailen Hsing and the authors on central limit theorems for bounded functions of stable moving averages. It can be used to show asymptotic normality of wavelet-based estimators of the self-similarity parameter in fractional stable motions.

  2. ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages.

    PubMed

    Huh, Sun

    2013-01-01

    ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia. PMID:24266292

  3. Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Update on the Functional and Esthetic Parameters of Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Teeth Recontouring

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) is a condition that affects both dental esthetics and function in young patients, and represents an important challenge for clinicians. Although several treatment options are available, the mesial repositioning of the canines followed by teeth recontouring into lateral incisors; or space opening/maintenance followed by implant placement have recently emerged as two important treatment approaches. In this article, the current and latest literature has been reviewed in order to summarize the functional and esthetic outcomes obtained with these two forms of treatment of MLIA patients in recent years. Indications, clinical limitations and the most important parameters to achieve the best possible results with each treatment modality are also discussed. Within the limitations of this review, it is not possible to assert at this point in time that one treatment approach is more advantageous than the other. Long-term followup studies comparing the existing treatment options are still lacking in the literature, and they are necessary to shed some light on the issue. It is possible, however, to state that adequate multidisciplinary diagnosis and planning are imperative to define the treatment option that will provide the best individual results for patients with MLIA. PMID:25646137

  4. Modelling soil moisture spatial-temporal variability with 3-D physically-based hdrological model in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Brocca, Luca; Camici, Stefania; Capparelli, Giovanna; Rigon, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) evolution in space and in time influences many hydrological processes such as infiltration and run-off production, surface energy exchanges, floods and drought generation and propagation, triggering of shallow landslide. Modeling SWC is a complex task influenced by heterogeneity in precipitation, soil parameters, topography, and vegetation. In order to consider these different factors we used a three-dimensional process based hydrological model that solves the 3-D Richard equations, coupled with atmospheric energy exchanges, considering the radiative and turbulent fluxes. For the purposes of this study we modeled the surface SWC dynamics (of top 10-15 cm of soil) in a 60 km² watershed located in central Italy (Vallaccia catchment). In the basin were available: i) SWC measured continuously at hourly time step for 3-years (2002-2005), and ii) 35 daily SWC measures carried out within one year (from Nov-2006 to Nov-2007) in seven different fields consisting in a regular grid configuration of five by six nodes (grid-step of 10 m). Two were the objectives of the study. Firstly, the calibration of model parameters (hydraulic conductivity and van Genuchten parameters) in order to simulate long term SWC dynamics in time. The two long-term SWC time-series were split in two and used for model calibration and verification, respectively. Model performances reaches values of Kling-Gupta Efficiency of 0.85 in calibration and 0.78 in verification period, giving confidence of reliability for the estimation of the ungauged points. The second objective was the reproduction of SWC patterns in space in the seven different fields where measurements were collected. For each field, modeled and measured statistical moments (from the first to the fourth: mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis) were presented in the form of scatterplots and influence of the variability of the hydraulic conductivity in space on the overall SWC distribution was investigated by generation of different random-fields correlated in space.

  5. Structure-based functional characterization of Repressor of Toxin (Rot), a central regulator of Staphylococcus aureus virulence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Killikelly, April [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Jakoncic, Jean [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate; Benson, Meredith A. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Ohneck, Elizabeth A. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Sampson, Jared M. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Spurrier, Brett [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Torres, Victoer J. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Kong, Xian-Peng [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

    2014-12-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R91, at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y66, predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. This work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.

  6. Structure-based functional characterization of Repressor of Toxin (Rot), a central regulator of Staphylococcus aureus virulence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Killikelly, April; Jakoncic, Jean; Benson, Meredith A.; Ohneck, Elizabeth A.; Sampson, Jared M.; Spurrier, Brett; Torres, Victoer J.; Kong, Xian-Peng

    2014-12-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure ofmore »Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R91, at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y66, predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. This work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.« less

  7. Mutation analysis of BRIP1 in male breast cancer cases: a population-based study in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Valentina; Rizzolo, Piera; Falchetti, Mario; Zanna, Ines; Masala, Giovanna; Bianchi, Simonetta; Palli, Domenico; Ottini, Laura

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) in men is rare compared with BC in women, but its incidence is increasing along with attention toward this uncommon disease. Although with some differences, male and female BC share similar genetic predisposition factors, including BRCA1/2, CHEK2, and PALB2 mutations. As other BRCA1/2 functionally related DNA repair genes, such as CHEK2 and PALB2, BRIP1 is considered a moderate-penetrance BC susceptibility gene. At present, the role of BRIP1 on BC susceptibility in men is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess whether BRIP1 variants may contribute to male BC (MBC) risk, by screening 97 MBC cases, all negative for BRCA1/2, CHEK2, and PALB2 mutations, selected from a population-based series of 126 MBCs from Central Italy. A total of five BRIP1 germ-line sequence alterations, three coding, and two non-coding variants, were detected in our series. The two non-coding variants IVS4-28G > A and 3'UTR 4049C > T were classified as neutral by in silico analysis. Of the three coding variants, one was a silent variant (E879E) and two resulted in amino acid substitution (R264W and P919S) showing a putative pathogenic role by in silico analysis. However, further analysis of tumor-associated loss of heterozygosity and the frequency of variant alleles, tested in 203 male population controls, suggested a neutral effect for both of these variants. Overall, our results indicate that BRIP1 variants may not play a relevant role in MBC predisposition. PMID:21165771

  8. Structure-based functional characterization of Repressor of Toxin (Rot), a central regulator of Staphylococcus aureus virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Killikelly, April [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Jakoncic, Jean [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Directorate; Benson, Meredith A. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Ohneck, Elizabeth A. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Sampson, Jared M. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Spurrier, Brett [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Torres, Victoer J. [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Kong, Xian-Peng [New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

    2014-12-04

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R91, at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y66, predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. This work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.

  9. Airborne pollen-climate relationship based on discriminant analysis in Nam Co, Central Tibet and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, X.; Zhu, L.; Ma, Q.; Li, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the airborne pollen data collected using a Burkard pollen trap, discriminant analysis were conducted to evaluate the relationship between two different atmospheric circulation systems, the Asia summer monsoon (ASM) and the Westerlies, in Nam Co basin, central Tibet. The whole year's samples could be classified into two groups using cluster analysis: one group was from May to September, another group was from October to April of next year, corresponding to monsoon period and non-monsoon period, respectively. The classification represents two different atmospheric circulation systems, ASM in monsoon period and the Westerlies in non-monsoon period. Discriminant analysis was performed. First, the whole year samples were divided into two a priori groups, group A is monsoon period (May-Sep.) and group B is non-monsoon period (Oct.-Apr.). Then percentage data of major pollen taxa were used to establish the discriminant functions, and then the samples were classified into predicted groups. The results of discriminant analysis show that 78.6% of the samples were cross-validated grouped correctly. Thus, airborne pollen assemblages can distinguish two different climate systems: monsoon period and non-monsoon period. According to the discriminant score, the group centroids of group A and group B were negative and positive, respectively. Therefore, we created the discriminant score as a new monsoon index (PDI, Pollen Discriminant Index), small PDI values represented enhanced summer monsoon climate. Using above result, we calculated the PDI of Nam Co NCL core, the PDI values can be coincided with Dryness (moisture indicator) and A/Cy ratio (temperature indicator).

  10. Crustal-scale structural architecture in central Chile based on seismicity and surface geology: Implications for Andean mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FaríAs, Marcelo; Comte, Diana; Charrier, Reynaldo; Martinod, Joseph; David, Claire; Tassara, AndréS.; Tapia, Felipe; Fock, AndréS.

    2010-06-01

    We document a crustal-scale structural model for the central Chile Andes based on seismicity and surface geology, which consists in a major east verging ramp-detachment structure connecting the subduction zone with the cordillera. The ramp rises from the subducting slab at ˜60 km depth to 15-20 km below the western edge of the cordillera, extending eastward as a 10 km depth flat detachment. This structure plays a fundamental role in the Andean orogenesis because most of the shortening has been accommodated by structures rooted in it and allows the distribution of crustal thickening in a "simple shear deformation mode." Indeed, despite shortening distribution being very asymmetric (˜16 km versus ˜70 km in the western and eastern side, respectively), the western side is higher and thicker than what is expected. Yield strength envelopes show strong rheological control on this structure. Vp and Vp/Vs variations in the upper mantle and in the deepest limit of the seismogenic interplate contact mark the intersection of the ramp with the slab, which coincides with the blueschist-eclogite transition. Therefore, subduction processes would control the depth where the major east verging structure may merge with the slab. Such a ramp-flat structure is observed in other parts of the Chilean margin; hence, it seems to be a first-order feature in the Andean subduction zone. This structure delimitates upward the rocks, transmitting part of the plate convergence stress from the plate interface, and controls mountain-building tectonics, thus playing a key role in the Andean orogeny.

  11. Infection risk factors associated with seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii in a population-based study in the Central Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abu, E K; Boampong, J N; Ayi, I; Ghartey-Kwansah, G; Afoakwah, R; Nsiah, P; Blay, E

    2015-07-01

    About 20-90% of the world's population has had contact with Toxoplasma gondii parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in the Central Region, Ghana. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three selected communities. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA. A serological criterion for seropositivity was a positive test result for any of the two anti-Toxoplasma IgG or IgM antibodies or a combination of both. In all, 390 participants of mean age 47·0 years consisting of 118 (30·3%) males and 272 (69·7%) females were tested. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 85% (333/390) where fishermen, farmers and fishmongers, respectively, had the highest seropositivity. IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 329 (84%) and 25 (6%), respectively, while both IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 21 (5%) of the participants. Respectively, 1% (4/390) and 79% (308/390) of participants tested positive for IgM-only and IgG-only antibodies. There was a significant relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and contact with soil, presence of a cat in the surrounding area, age, sources of drinking water, level of formal education, and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that the seashore may serve as a good ground for sporulation and survival of Toxoplasma oocysts. PMID:25373611

  12. injections based on a 200,000-year record of Plinian eruptions along the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzner, D.; Kutterolf, S.; Toohey, M.; Timmreck, C.; Niemeier, U.; Freundt, A.; Krüger, K.

    2014-10-01

    We present for the first time a self-consistent methodology connecting volcanological field data to global climate model estimates for a regional time series of explosive volcanic events. Using the petrologic method, we estimated SO2 emissions from 36 detected Plinian volcanic eruptions occurring at the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) during the past 200,000 years. Together with simple parametrized relationships collected from past studies, we derive estimates of global maximum volcanic aerosol optical depth (AOD) and radiative forcing (RF) describing the effect of each eruption on radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In parallel, AOD and RF time series for selected CAVA eruptions are simulated with the global aerosol model MAECHAM5-HAM, which shows a relationship between stratospheric SO2 injection and maximum global mean AOD that is linear for smaller volcanic eruptions (<5 Mt SO2) and nonlinear for larger ones (?5 Mt SO2) and is qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the relationship used in the simple parametrized approximation. Potential climate impacts of the selected CAVA eruptions are estimated using an earth system model of intermediate complexity by RF time series derived by (1) directly from the global aerosol model and (2) from the simple parametrized approximation assuming a 12-month exponential decay of global AOD. We find that while the maximum AOD and RF values are consistent between the two methods, their temporal evolutions are significantly different. As a result, simulated global maximum temperature anomalies and the duration of the temperature response depend on which RF time series is used, varying between 2 and 3 K and 60 and 90 years for the largest eruption of the CAVA dataset. Comparing the recurrence time of eruptions, based on the CAVA dataset, with the duration of climate impacts, based on the model results, we conclude that cumulative impacts due to successive eruptions are unlikely. The methodology and results presented here can be used to calculate approximate volcanic forcings and potential climate impacts from sulfur emissions, sulfate aerosol or AOD data for any eruption that injects sulfur into the tropical stratosphere.

  13. Validation and future predictions based on a new Non-Point Source Assessment Toolbox, applied to the Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourakos, G.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater is a major irrigation water source in semi-arid regions. It is also vulnerable to Non-Point Source (NPS) contamination, particularly from nitrate (NO3-) as a result of agricultural practices. To support sound policy decisions we developed a physically based flow and transport model framework to understand and predict the fate of contaminants within regional aquifer systems. In large aquifers, the total source area of pollutants typically cover several thousand square kilometers, whilst individual sources typically do not exceed a few hundred square meters. The large contrast in these scenarios result in NPS modeling tasks that are computationally demanding, and the classical 3D models that solve the Advection-Dispersion Equation (ADE) are often not applicable due to computer memory limitations, numerical dispersion and numerical instabilities. Here, we developed and employed a number of numerical techniques to assemble a Non-Point Source Assessment Toolbox (NPSAT). The NPSAT is a quasi-3D model, combining a flow model and a streamline transport model. The flow model solves the groundwater flow equation using very fine discretization. For very large groundwater basins, a simplistic decomposition method is applied, splitting the aquifer into several overlapping sub-domains and solving to produce a high resolution velocity field. This velocity field is subsequently utilized within the transport model, where backward particle tracking links contamination sources with discharge surfaces using a large number of streamlines. For each streamline the 1D ADE is solved, assuming a unit pulse loading at the source side and a free exit boundary condition at the discharge surface side. From this, a Unit Response Function (URF) is obtained at the discharge surface side. Subsequently, actual Breakthrough Curves (BTCs) can be quickly computed from actual or hypothetical loading histories, by convoluting the URFs with real loading functions. The URFs are stored into a GIS platform and can be used for efficient scenario evaluations without the need to repeat groundwater model simulations. This method is applied to the southern third part of the Central Valley Aquifer, California, which is an intensively farmed semi-arid area, where the local communities rely heavily on groundwater. To obtain a detailed velocity field, the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) developed by the USGS was used as the coarse solution, split and refined into a large number of sub-domains. The CVHM resolution is 1 sq mi, with the stresses applied to the center of each cell. In our refined model the well stresses are spatially distributed to a large number of hypothetical wells, where the pumping rates, well depths and screen lengths are obtained from empirical probability distributions, derived from real data. The NPSAT generates a time-dependent water quality probability distribution, which express the time-dependent probability for a discharge surface (e.g., well) to exceed a threshold level of contamination across at a specific time. The model result is compared against real historic nitrate data, and used for future predictions with different scenario evaluations.

  14. Neuroarchitecture and neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: A GAL4-based dissection of protocerebral bridge neurons and circuits

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Tanya; Iyer, Nirmala A; Rubin, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Insects exhibit an elaborate repertoire of behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. The central complex plays a key role in combining various modalities of sensory information with an insect's internal state and past experience to select appropriate responses. Progress has been made in understanding the broad spectrum of outputs from the central complex neuropils and circuits involved in numerous behaviors. Many resident neurons have also been identified. However, the specific roles of these intricate structures and the functional connections between them remain largely obscure. Significant gains rely on obtaining a comprehensive catalog of the neurons and associated GAL4 lines that arborize within these brain regions, and on mapping neuronal pathways connecting these structures. To this end, small populations of neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster central complex were stochastically labeled using the multicolor flip-out technique and a catalog was created of the neurons, their morphologies, trajectories, relative arrangements, and corresponding GAL4 lines. This report focuses on one structure of the central complex, the protocerebral bridge, and identifies just 17 morphologically distinct cell types that arborize in this structure. This work also provides new insights into the anatomical structure of the four components of the central complex and its accessory neuropils. Most strikingly, we found that the protocerebral bridge contains 18 glomeruli, not 16, as previously believed. Revised wiring diagrams that take into account this updated architectural design are presented. This updated map of the Drosophila central complex will facilitate a deeper behavioral and physiological dissection of this sophisticated set of structures. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:997–1037, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25380328

  15. C2-3: Cancer Prognostic Resources: A Systematic Review and Central Repository of Web-based Cancer Prognostic Calculators

    PubMed Central

    Henton, Michelle; Rabin, Borsika; Gaglio, Bridget; Sanders, Tristan; Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Marcus, Alfred; Bull, Sheana; Dearing, James

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Cancer prognosis is one of the leading topics of interest for cancer patients, their caregivers and providers. Literature suggests that nomograms that use prognostic algorithms integrating several predictors improve prognostic accuracy. There has been increasing interest in the availability and use of web-based tools by both health care providers and patients for obtaining information about health promotion and disease management. Our study aimed to review the available online cancer prognostic tools, to provide input on the implications for their use in clinical settings, and to create a centralized repository for providers to access. Methods Using a systematic approach, we searched the Internet, Medline, and consulted with experts to identify existing online prognostic tools. To be eligible, tools had to have an English version, focus on cancer, have an interactive component, and provide at least one of the following output measures: cancer or non-cancer specific mortality/overall survival; disease free survival (DFS)/recurrence; clinical response to treatment; progression free survival (PFS)/spread; cancer therapy induced side effects. Each tool was reviewed for content and format. Results Twenty-two prognostic tools addressing 89 different cancers (min: 1, max: 84) were identified. We classified unique cancer sites under 13 main categories. Tools focused on prostate (n = 11), colorectal (n = 10), breast (n = 8), and melanoma (n = 6), though at least one tool was identified for most malignancies. The input variables for the tools included cancer characteristics (n = 22), with fewer having inputs for patient characteristics (n = 18) or comorbidities (n = 9). Effect of therapy on prognosis was included in 19 tools. The most common predicted outcome was cancer specific survival/mortality (n = 17) followed by disease free survival (DFS)/recurrence (n = 14). While all of the tools were available online, only four suggested usability by patients. Conclusions The process of identifying available tools was time consuming as there was no one location where all existing cancer prognostic tools were easily accessible and compared. Using a systematic review, we identified and compiled a comprehensive repository of 22 currently existing online prognostic tools. A website was created for these tools: www.cancercalculators.org. Cancer prognostic tools hold great promise in facilitating patient-centered communication and decision-making and helping patients prepare for life post treatment.

  16. Degradation of carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber based water born paints: Part 2 – Models to predict UV stability and water absorption through central composite design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Jubete; Christopher M. Liauw; Norman S. Allen

    2007-01-01

    Central composite experimental design methods have been used to examine the simultaneous effects of talc (Viaton Viatalc® 30), titanium dioxide (modified Rutile, Tioxide® TR92) and additional hindered phenolic stabiliser (Aquanox® L, a 50% w\\/w aqueous dispersion of Winstay® L) on the water uptake and UV stability of composite films based on a carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber (c-SBR) latex. The talc

  17. Isolated central nervous system metastases in patients with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer treated with first-line trastuzumab-based therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Burstein; G. Lieberman; D. J. Slamon; E. P. Winer; P. Klein

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence and predictors of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis among women with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer receiving trastuzumab-based therapy. Methods: The frequency and time course of isolated CNS progression were characterized among women with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, receiving chemotherapy with or without trastu- zumab as first-line treatment for metastatic

  18. Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA–DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure–function relationships

    PubMed Central

    Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding structure–function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450?km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235?m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130?m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions. PMID:21697960

  19. Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA-DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure-function relationships.

    PubMed

    Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding structure-function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450?km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235?m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130?m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions. PMID:21697960

  20. Evaluation of the conversion from central storage to decentralized storages in cellular manufacturing environments using activity-based costing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sule Itir Satoglu; M. Bulent Durmusoglu; Ibrahim Dogan

    2006-01-01

    Most of the production systems, which are arranged according to cellular manufacturing, have still been using central storage sites as a continuation of their past habits and they have been supplying materials and parts to the manufacturing cells from these sites. This both violates the independence of the cells from the entire production system in terms of facilities and prevents

  1. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction based on non-geniculate coralline red algal assemblages in Miocene limestone of central Crete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Kroeger; M. Reuter; T. C. Brachert

    2006-01-01

    Neogene coastal sediments of the Mediterranean provide an excellent laboratory for a quantitative study of palaeoenvironmental parameters and their response to climate change. In order to examine change in environmental parameters during deposition of Tortonian limestone of southern central Crete, we use integrated field and biofacies analysis together with a detailed study of foraminfera and non-geniculate red algae. Patterns in

  2. Mid to late holocene climate evolution of the lake telmen basin, north central mongolia, based on palynological data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J Fowell; Barbara C. S Hansen; John A Peck; P Khosbayar; Enebish Ganbold

    2003-01-01

    Palynological and sedimentological data from Lake Telmen, in north-central Mongolia, permit qualitative reconstruction of relative changes in moisture balance throughout the mid to late Holocene. The climate of the Atlantic period (7500–4500 yr ago) was relatively arid, indicating that Lake Telmen lay beyond the region of enhanced precipitation delivered by the expanded Asian monsoon. Maximum humidity is recorded between ?4500

  3. Evaporation of intercepted precipitation based on an energy balance in unlogged and logged forest areas of central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chay Asdak; Paul G Jarvis; Paul V Gardingen

    1998-01-01

    The effect of logging practices on rainfall interception loss has been investigated in a humid tropical rainforest of central Kalimantan. The traditional volume balance method was used to measure throughfall, stemflow and interception loss. The evaporation rate during and after rainfall has ceased in canopy-saturated conditions was calculated by an energy balance method, which relied on the modified Penman equation

  4. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nghia Ho Dang Trung; Tu Le Thi Phuong; Marcel Wolbers; Hoang Nguyen Van Minh; Vinh Nguyen Thanh; Minh Pham Van; Nga Tran Vu Thieu; Tan Le Van; Diep To Song; Phuong Le Thi; Thao Nguyen Thi Phuong; Cong Bui Van; Vu Tang; Tuan Hoang Ngoc Anh; Dong Nguyen; Tien Phan Trung; Lien Nguyen Thi Nam; Hao Tran Kiem; Tam Nguyen Thi Thanh; James Campbell; Maxine Caws; Jeremy Day; Menno D. de Jong; Chau Nguyen Van Vinh; H. Rogier Van Doorn; Hien Tran Tinh; Jeremy Farrar; Constance Schultsz

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundInfectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at

  5. Centralized databases available for describing primary brain tumor incidence, survival, and treatment: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results; and National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, F. G.; McCarthy, B. J.; Berger, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of three databases--the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database; and the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB)--containing information on primary brain tumors are discussed. The recently developed population-based CBTRUS database comprises incidence data on all primary brain tumors from 11 collaborating state registries; however, follow-up data are not available. SEER, the population-based gold standard for cancer data, collects incidence and follow-up data on malignant brain tumors only. While not population-based, the NCDB identifies newly diagnosed cases and conducts follow-up on all primary brain tumors from hospitals accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The NCDB is the largest of the three databases and also contains more complete information regarding treatment of these tumors than either the SEER or CBTRUS databases. Additional strengths and limitations of each of these are described, and their judicious use for supporting research, education, and health care planning is encouraged. PMID:11554389

  6. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption by using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid: a case report.

    PubMed

    Takita, Toshiya; Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2011-10-01

    This case report presents the endodontic treatment of a maxillary right lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption in a 50-year-old woman. Radiographically, internal resorption appears as a fairly uniform, radiolucent enlargement of the pulp canal and distortion of the original root canal outline. The use of cone beam computed tomography can help the clinician in making a confirmatory diagnosis and determining the treatment plan before undertaking the actual treatment. After cleaning the root canal space and the resorptive defect by mechanic instrumentation, irrigation, and interim calcium hydroxide dressing, the apical third canal was filled with a gutta-percha point by lateral condensation. The resorptive defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. Follow-up radiographs at 3 years showed adequate repair of the resorption, and the tooth remained asymptomatic. PMID:21909499

  7. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7?±?0.3)?×?1017?N?m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900?±?400?yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  8. Discovery of a series of efficient, centrally efficacious BACE1 inhibitors through structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Butler, Christopher R; Brodney, Michael A; Beck, Elizabeth M; Barreiro, Gabriela; Nolan, Charles E; Pan, Feng; Vajdos, Felix; Parris, Kevin; Varghese, Alison H; Helal, Christopher J; Lira, Ricardo; Doran, Shawn D; Riddell, David R; Buzon, Leanne M; Dutra, Jason K; Martinez-Alsina, Luis A; Ogilvie, Kevin; Murray, John C; Young, Joseph M; Atchison, Kevin; Robshaw, Ashley; Gonzales, Cathleen; Wang, Jinlong; Zhang, Yong; O'Neill, Brian T

    2015-03-26

    The identification of centrally efficacious ?-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has historically been thwarted by an inability to maintain alignment of potency, brain availability, and desired absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties. In this paper, we describe a series of truncated, fused thioamidines that are efficiently selective in garnering BACE1 activity without simultaneously inhibiting the closely related cathepsin D or negatively impacting brain penetration and ADME alignment, as exemplified by 36. Upon oral administration, these inhibitors exhibit robust brain availability and are efficacious in lowering central Amyloid ? (A?) levels in mouse and dog. In addition, chronic treatment in aged PS1/APP mice effects a decrease in the number and size of A?-derived plaques. Most importantly, evaluation of 36 in a 2-week exploratory toxicology study revealed no accumulation of autofluorescent material in retinal pigment epithelium or histology findings in the eye, issues observed with earlier BACE1 inhibitors. PMID:25695670

  9. A new kind of node centrality in directed weighted networks based on the demands of network clients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lili; Jiang, Xin; Zhang, Zhanli; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2011-08-01

    To reveal the correlation between the demands of network clients and the safety and robustness of real-world networks, we propose client demand centrality (CDC) in order to quantify the contributions of nodes in the transportation processes in directed weighted networks. CDC is defined by incorporating not only the topology and dynamics of the network but also the demands of network clients. The centrality measures node potential to ensure acceptable and successful transportation for clients and does quite well in distinguishing the roles of different nodes in the network. Simulation results show that node CDC has Gaussian distributions in directed networks with different link weight distributions, and the expected value of the Gaussian distribution increases from negative to positive with a decrease of the client demand. In particular, for directed scale-free networks with the scale-free link weight distribution, the network CDC is only correlated with the degree structure of the network when the client demand is large.

  10. Annual reproductive cycle based on histological changes in the ovary of the female mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis , in central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasunori Koya; Takako Itazu; Mutsumi Inoue

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the annual reproductive cycle of wild female mosquitofish,Gambusia affinis, in Mie Prefecture, central Japan, changes in ovarian histology were investigated. Female mosquitofish kept in aquaria under\\u000a constant temperature (25?C) and photoperiod (16L: 8D) conditions produced successive broods at intervals of 22.1?0.46 days\\u000a (n=7). Between days 0–3 following parturition, females began active vitellogenesis. Between days 3–5, fully grown oocytes

  11. Isostatic response of the Central Indian Ridge (Western Indian Ocean) based on transfer function analysis of gravity and bathymetry data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Radha Krishna

    1996-01-01

    The Central Indian Ridge (CIR) is a part of the major active mid-ocean ridge system trending north-south between 2°N and the triple junction at 25°S. Previous investigations suggest that the half-spreading rate varies from 1.6 to 2.5 cm\\/yr between the northern and southern ends of the ridge, and the diffuse plate boundary dividing the Indian and Australian plates intersects the

  12. Evolution of the palaeolake at Ruszkówek (central Poland) during the Eemian Interglacial based on isotope, cladoceran and diatom data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Miros?aw-Grabowska; Monika Niska; Elwira Sienkiewicz

    2009-01-01

    We present isotope, cladoceran and diatom results from investigations of Eemian sediments of the palaeolake at Ruszkówek,\\u000a central Poland. Our analyses of the 15-m-thick sediments indicate that sandy silts occur on the bottom, followed by calcareous\\u000a gyttja, interbedded with lake marl. The upper part of the sequence contains peat and peaty sands. Values of ?18O change from ?9.4‰ to ?3.3‰

  13. Circulation of HIV-1 CRF02_AG among MSM Population in Central Italy: A Molecular Epidemiology-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Massimo; Santoro, Maria M.; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Scognamiglio, Paola; Lai, Alessia; Latini, Alessandra; Fabeni, Lavinia; Gori, Caterina; Pinnetti, Carmela; Girardi, Enrico; Perno, Carlo F.; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The evolutionary and demographic history of the circular recombinant form CRF02_AG in a selected retrospective group of HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men (MSM) resident in Central Italy was investigated. Methods. A total of 55 HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG pol sequences were analyzed using Bayesian methods and a relaxed molecular clock to reconstruct their dated phylogeny and estimate population dynamics. Results. Dated phylogeny indicated that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG strains currently circulating in Central Italy originated in the early 90's. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a main HIV-1 CRF02_AG clade, introduced in the area of Rome before 2000 and subsequently differentiated in two different subclades with a different date of introduction (2000 versus 2005). All the sequences within clusters were interspersed, indicating that the MSM analyzed form a close and restricted network where the individuals, also moving within different clinical centers, attend the same places to meet and exchange sex. Conclusions. It was suggested that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG epidemic entered central Italy in the early 1990s, with a similar trend observed in western Europe. PMID:24369538

  14. A New PCR-Based Approach Indicates the Range of Clonorchis sinensis Now Extends to Central Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Rebecca J.; Macaranas, Julie; Mungthin, Mathirut; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Cribb, Thomas; Murrell, K. Darwin; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for ‘Opisthorchis-like’ eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals) were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis–endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future epidemiological surveys. PMID:19156191

  15. Effects of seasonal variability in across- and alongshore transport of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae on model-based pre-recruitment indices off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Carolina; Colas, Francois; Soto-Mendoza, Samuel; Castro, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae was coupled to a climatological hydrodynamic (Regional Oceanic Modeling System, ROMS) model for central-southern Chile to answer the question as to whether or not across- and alongshore transport off central-southern Chile enhances retention in the spawning areas during the winter and summer reproductive periods, using model-based pre-recruitment indices (simulated transport success to nursery areas). The hydrodynamic model validation showed that ROMS captures the mean Seas Surface Temperature and Eddie Kinetic Energy observed in satellite-based data over the entire region. The IBM was used to simulate the transport of eggs and larvae from spawning zones in central Chile (Constitución, Dichato, Gulf of Arauco and Lebu-Corral) to historical nursery areas (HRZ, region between 35°S and 37°S). Model results corroborated HRZ as the most successful pre-recruitment zone (particles originated in the Dichato and Gulf of Arauco spawning areas), as well as identifying Lebu-Corral as a zone of high retention with a high associated pre-recruitment index (particles originated in the Lebu-Corral spawning zone). The highest pre-recruitment values were mainly found in winter. The Constitución and Dichato spawning zones displayed a typical summer upwelling velocity pattern, while the Gulf of Arauco in summertime showed strong offshore and alongshore velocity components. The Lebu-Corral region in winter presented important near-surface cross-shore transport towards the coast (associated with downwelling events), this might be one of the major mechanisms leading to high retention levels and a high pre-recruitment index for Lebu-Corral spawning zone. The limitations of the modeling approach are discussed and put into perspective for future work.

  16. Unusual polymorphism in new bent-shaped liquid crystals based on biphenyl as a central molecular core

    PubMed Central

    Ková?ová, Anna; Sv?tlík, Svatopluk; Kozmík, Václav; Novotná, Vladimíra; Pociecha, Damian; Gorecka, Ewa; Podoliak, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bent-shaped mesogens possessing a biphenyl as a central core have been synthesized and the role of the terminal chain and the orientation of the ester as a linkage group have been investigated. For the studied molecular core we have established that both parameters play an important role for the mesomorphic properties. The polyfluoroalkyl terminal chain supports the formation of mesophases, and the introduction of a chiral lactate terminal chain destabilizes mesophases for the first type of mutual orientation of ester groups, attached to the central core. On the contrary, for the opposite orientation of esters, the terminal chain has no effect on the mesomorphic properties, and columnar phases have been found for all compounds. A unique phase sequence has been found for the mesogen with the fluorinated chain. A generalized tilted smectics, SmCG, have been observed in a temperature interval between two different lamellar SmCP phases and characterized by X-ray and dielectric measurements. The dielectric spectroscopy data are unique and presented for the first time in the SmCG phase providing new information about the molecular dynamics. PMID:24778734

  17. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Zubovich, A.

    2012-06-01

    Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  18. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

    2013-02-01

    Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  19. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F.; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture. PMID:26023789

  20. Glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve for Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata based on outcrops in the North American Midcontinent and North-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Based on lithologic and faunal analysis of uppermost Carboniferous through Lower Permian strata (Wabaunsee through lower Chase groups) exposed from southeastern Nebraska through north-central Oklahoma, a preliminary glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve is presented herein. In addition to the sea-level curve presented for the Midcontinent region, one for coeval outcropping strata (middle and upper Cisco Group) of the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is also presented based on similar criteria. This sea-level curve is derived from new field studies as well as a refinement of earlier curves presented by Harrison (1973), and Boardman and Malinky (1985). The conclusion on the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata cyclothems in the Midcontinent is mirrored by the results of that from North-Central Texas. Each of the primary biostratigraphically-based picks for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary coincide with either intermediate of major cycles in both study areas. Utilization of a glacial-eustatic maximum transgressive event for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary should result in a more correlatable level for intercontinental correlation.

  1. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePLUS

    Central line-associated bloodstream infection; CLABSI; Peripherally inserted central catheter - infection; PICC - infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection

  2. Evolutionary Relationships of the Triatoma matogrossensis Subcomplex, the Endemic Triatoma in Central-Western Brazil, Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Gardim, Sueli; Rocha, Cláudia S.; Almeida, Carlos E.; Takiya, Daniela M.; da Silva, Marco T. A.; Ambrósio, Daniela L.; Cicarelli, Regina M. B.; da Rosa, João A.

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among species of Triatoma matogrossensis subcomplex ( T. baratai, T. guazu, T. matogrossensis, T. sordida, T. vandae, and T. williami) was addressed by using fragments of cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16S rDNA (16S), and cytochrome b (Cytb) through Bayesian and parsimony analyses. We did not recover a monophyletic T. matogrossensis subcomplex, and their members were found clustered in three strongly supported clades, as follows: i) T. jurbergi + T. matogrossensis + T. vandae + T. garciabesi + T. sordida; ii) with T. guasayana as the sister group of clade (i); and iii) T. williami + T. guazu, however not closely related to the clade formed by the previously mentioned species. The other two endemic species from Central-Western Brazil, T. baratai and T. costalimai, were not recovered with strong clade support as related to other members of this subcomplex. Results call for a further revision in the classification of the subcomplexes within the genus Triatoma. PMID:24002487

  3. Remote sensing and hydrological measurement based irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, C.; Dech, S. W.; Hafeez, M.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Tischbein, B.

    In the Aral Sea Basin, where the Central Asian countries compete for limited water resources, reliable information on the actual water use for eight million ha of irrigated land are rare. In this study, spatially distributed land use data, seasonal actual evapotranspiration, and reference evapotranspiration derived from multitemporal MODIS data were combined with in situ water flow measurements for irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta. The functioning of the major irrigation and drainage which supplies an agricultural area of 270,000 ha in the Uzbek province Khorezm was analysed using water balancing and adequacy indicators of irrigation water use. An average relative evapotranspiration of 95% indicated fulfilled water demands and partly over-irrigation, whereas values below 75% disclosed inadequate water supply in distant parts of the irrigation system. On the other hand, immense water withdrawals of approximately 24,000 m3 ha-1 recorded at the system boundaries between April and September 2005 clearly exceeded the field water demands for cotton cultivation. Only 46% of the total irrigation amounts were consumed for crop production at field level. Throughout the vegetation period, approximately 58% of the total available water left the region as drainage water. Monthly observations of the depleted fraction and the drainage ratio highlighted drainage problems and rising groundwater levels at regional scale. In the most distant downstream subsystem, a high risk of groundwater and soil salinity during the main irrigation phase was found. A combination of high conveyance losses, hydraulic problems, direct linkages between irrigation and drainage, and low field application efficiencies were identified as major reasons for underperforming irrigation. The findings underlined the necessity of water saving and of reconsidering water distribution in Khorezm. The remote sensing approach was concluded as a reliable data basis for regular performance assessments for all irrigation systems in Central Asia.

  4. ATE Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ATE Central is a freely available online portal and collection of materials and services that highlight the work of the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) projects and centers. These National Science Foundation funded initiatives work with educators from two-year colleges to develop and implement ideas for improving the skills of technicians and the educators who teach them. ATE Central is designed to help educators, students, and the general public to learn about, and use materials from, the entire depth and breadth of the Advanced Technological Education program.ATE Central helps direct users to a full range of high-impact ATE resources available online, including curricula, learning objects, and podcasts. The portal aggregates information about the materials developed by ATE centers and projects, and organizes them using subject taxonomies, context appropriate keywords, and other digital cataloging techniques.

  5. Raman amplification-based WDM-PON architecture with centralized Raman pump-driven, spectrum-sliced erbium ASE and polarization-insensitive EAMs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Han; Han, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang Bae; Kim, Chul Han

    2006-10-01

    We propose a novel wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network (PON) architecture based on the distributed Raman amplification and pump recycling techniques, which features fully bidirectional transmission, relaxed signal power margin, and active light source-free, colorless subscriber units. The reuse of non-negligible residual Raman pump power as a pump for an erbium fiber-based upstream broadband ASE source allows for fully-centralized control of light sources at optical network units (ONUs), while distributed Raman amplification over a transmission link enables us to obtain lossless low power signal transmission. Furthermore, low-cost and colorless ONUs can be realized by use of the Raman pump-recycled erbium ASE and polarization-insensitive electroabsorption modulators. Error-free upstream transmission over a 50 km fiber link is successfully achieved at a data rate of 622 Mbit/s. PMID:19529284

  6. A detailed Holocene glacial-periglacial reconstruction based on multidisciplinary studies of a 60 m permafrost core from central Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne; Elberling, Bo; Gilbert, Graham L.; Thiel, Christine; Murray, Andrew; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Dypvik, Henning; Lomstein, Bente; Hovgaard, Jonas; Christensen, Anne T.; Mørkved, Pål T.; Reigstad, Laila J.; Fromreide, Siren; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2014-05-01

    During summer 2012, a 60 m sedimentary permafrost core was retrieved from the lower part of the Adventdalen Valley, central Svalbard, as part of the Longyearbyen CO2 project. The core was taken in 3 m long sections, with 20 % core loss, and reached the sedimentary bedrock (Lower Cretaceous). Thus our samples had the potential to represent the entire Quaternary and reflect changes in the sedimentary environments through time. The stratigraphy and sedimentology of the core was first investigated, to establish an overall geological model for the sampling site. The general stratigraphy encompasses a layer of basal till at the bottom of the core. This is overlain by marine sediments documenting a transition from glacial-proximal to open-marine conditions. Subsequently, a thick package of deltaic sediments records the progradation of the local river system. Finally, aeolian sediments, characterizing the modern environment, form the top few meters of the core. The ice content of the permafrost is generally low. Gravimetric water content generally ranges between 20% and 40%, but is considerably higher in some ice-rich layers. High resolution optically stimulated luminescence dating of the core sediment shows that deposition was very fast and took place primarily during the mid Holocene, with very rapid sedimentation of around 4 m/ka. With the onset of aeolian deposition (around 3-4 ka) the sedimentation rate decreased significantly to 1m/ka. The microbial diversity and activity of the core are being studied displaying decreasing activity with depth. Microbial community and functional gene numbers indicate variations with depth and geochemistry. Incubation studies have been performed primarily on the upper 30 m, and indicate a potential CO2 production from all depth intervals being studied. The potential for using foraminifer studies for both dating and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are evaluated with the intension of comparison with previous studies of marine sediment cores both from the fjords in the Svalbard area and from the Barents Sea and Fram Strait region. This multidisciplinary approach is allowing us to build the first detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Holocene glacial-periglacial interaction in the lowlands of central Svalbard; this includes a detailed reconstruction of the permafrost conditions.

  7. Engineering Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Engineering Central website provides a plethora of listings of employment resources for engineers. The website allows users to submit their resume to a resume bank, browse through entry-level jobs, as well as post jobs online. Several links that point to other engineering resources are also provided.

  8. Central Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  9. @central park

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Park Conservancy, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to restoring, improving, and managing Central Park's grounds and facilities, offers this "official" site, which contains a wealth of information about what is arguably the world's most famous city park. Each of the site's sections contains useful or interesting information; the Then & Now section, for instance, offers an overview of Central Park's history, a bibliography with 43 entries for those seeking further information, and a list of movies with scenes set in the park. Another highlight of the site is the Virtual Park, which consists of a set of clickable maps through which users can explore 72 points of interest, each described in the affectionate style of a travel guidebook. The site's other sections include such features as events schedules, press releases, information on when and where particular varieties of flowers bloom, and a section devoted entirely to activities for families and children. This site will be especially useful to those who are planning a visit to Central Park, but other users will likely find it informative and entertaining as well.

  10. Central line sepsis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kimberly K

    2003-01-01

    Since 1980, the placement of central venous access devices has become routine, and these catheters have been of great benefit in the treatment of patients with cancer. Unfortunately, central venous catheters have not been without complications. Central line sepsis has been reported to be one of the most frequently occurring complications, and although it is extremely costly to treat, more importantly, this condition is potentially life threatening to patients. Developing strategies that would prevent central line catheter infections has been a continual challenge for healthcare providers. Studies have been conducted on the use of catheters with antiseptic coatings, antimicrobial coatings, impregnated antimicrobial cuffs, prophylactic antibiotic therapy, antibiotic locks, use of antithrombolytics, different exit site dressings, and the use of various disinfectants for cleansing catheter exit sites. Healthcare providers, including oncology nurses, need to be knowledgeable concerning potential sources of infection and factors that may lead to central line sepsis (Chaiyakunapruk, Veenstra, Lipsky, & Saint, 2002; Darouiche et al., 1999; Little & Palmer, 1998; Veenstra, Saint, Saha, Lumley, & Sullivan, 1999). They need to advocate for the use of sterile technique during catheter insertion and aseptic technique when routine maintenance is provided and be aware of the standard treatments for and potential outcomes of central line catheter infections. In addition, oncology nurses should be encouraged to support and participate in controlled, randomized studies that may provide scientific-based practices that decrease the number of catheter-related infections in the future. PMID:12696220

  11. Sr-isotope stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of central Portugal (Lusitanian Basin) based on oyster shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Simon; Fürsich, Franz T.; Werner, Winfried

    2009-12-01

    Strontium isotope stratigraphy was performed on oyster shells from the Late Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin (central Portugal). This represents the first approach to obtain numerical ages for these strata. The new chronostratigraphic data provide a more precise age determination of several units. After a basin-wide hiatus sedimentation in the Late Jurassic is proven in the Cabo Mondego and Cabaços formations to resume as early as the Middle Oxfordian. The Alcobaça formation can be placed in the latest Late Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian, while data from the upper part of the Abadia Formation indicate an Early to Late Kimmeridgian age. The Farta Pao formation ranges from the latest Kimmeridgian to the latest Tithonian. The largely synchronous Sobral, Arranhó I, and Arranhó II members are overlain by the late Early to Late Tithonian Freixial Member. The brief, local carbonate incursion of the Arranhó I member marks the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian boundary. Oysters are shown once more to be suitable for strontium isotope studies. Their calcitic shells are often unaffected by diagenesis. In particular for marginal marine Jurassic and Cretaceous strata, where belemnites are usually absent, oysters may serve as a valuable tool for isotope stratigraphy.

  12. Moho structure of Central America based on three-dimensional lithospheric density modelling of satellite-derived gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, Oscar H.

    2014-10-01

    The Central American isthmus hosts a highly variable Moho structure due to the diverse origin and composition of the crustal basement and the influence of large-scale neotectonic processes. Gravity data from the combined geopotential model EGM2008 were interpreted via forward modelling to outline the three-dimensional lithospheric density structure along the Middle American Trench, as well as the segmentation of the oceanic Cocos and Nazca plates and the overriding Caribbean plate. In this work, results for the depth of the Moho obtained from the density model are presented. The Quaternary volcanic arc correlates with a maximum Moho depth of 44 km in western Guatemala. To the south-east of the continental shelf, the Caribbean plate shows Moho depths between 20 and 12 km whereas to the north, values as shallow as 8 km are observed at the Cayman trough. For the oceanic Cocos plate, depths between 16 and 21 km are obtained for the Moho along the Cocos ridge, contrasting with values between 15 and 12 km for the seamount segment and 8 and 11 km for the segments of the crust that are not affected by the Galapagos hot-spot track.

  13. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    PubMed

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. PMID:25279440

  14. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  15. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  16. Moho structure of Central America based on three-dimensional lithospheric density modelling of satellite-derived gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, Oscar H.

    2012-05-01

    The Central American isthmus hosts a highly variable Moho structure due to the diverse origin and composition of the crustal basement and the influence of large-scale neotectonic processes. Gravity data from the combined geopotential model EGM2008 were interpreted via forward modelling to outline the three-dimensional lithospheric density structure along the Middle American Trench, as well as the segmentation of the oceanic Cocos and Nazca plates and the overriding Caribbean plate. In this work, results for the depth of the Moho obtained from the density model are presented. The Quaternary volcanic arc correlates with a maximum Moho depth of 44 km in western Guatemala. To the south-east of the continental shelf, the Caribbean plate shows Moho depths between 20 and 12 km whereas to the north, values as shallow as 8 km are observed at the Cayman trough. For the oceanic Cocos plate, depths between 16 and 21 km are obtained for the Moho along the Cocos ridge, contrasting with values between 15 and 12 km for the seamount segment and 8 and 11 km for the segments of the crust that are not affected by the Galapagos hot-spot track.

  17. Notes From the Field: Learning Cultural Humility Through Critical Incidents and Central Challenges in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Ross

    2010-01-01

    Cultural humility is critical in the education of community development and planning graduate students because they often work with communities—geographic and\\/or identity based—where there is a power differential based on privileges of race, income, and education. Cultural humility requires commitment to ongoing self-reflection and self-critique, particularly identifying and examining one's own patterns of unintentional and intentional racism (Israel, Eng, Schulz,

  18. Application of a Fluorescence-based Aggregation Index to Understanding Summer Diatom Bloom Dynamics in the Central N. Pacific Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villareal, T. A.; Wilson, C.; Adornato, L.; Brzezinski, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The long-held view of the summertime central N. Pacific gyre as a homogeneous biological desert has been revised considerably in the past 10 years. Ocean color data suggests that extensive chlorophyll patches 2-5 times the background are frequently present, and that these features can be both large and persistent. Limited water samples from these regions suggest that these high chlorophyll events are concurrent with blooms of diatoms containing diazotrophic symbionts. The frequency with which diatoms dominate these events is difficult to determine since few of the ocean color events have been sampled directly. In addition, investigations at HOT indicate that diatom blooms may often have a subsurface maximum, hence would be less likely to be detected by satellites. Direct observations of two blooms indicated that there was no direct correlation between the abundance of large diatoms and the magnitude of chlorophyll derived from ocean color. Direct observations in-situ indicate that at least one of the bloom diatoms, Hemiaulus hauckii, readily forms macroscopic aggregates, often in association with small pennate diatoms. Profiles of chlorophyll fluorescence often show extensive spiking in these blooms suggesting that aggregation may provide the means for following portions of the diatom signal. We modified a previously published aggregation index to quantify aggregate abundance from fluorescence profiles. A distinctive signature of diatom blooms is apparent, although not universally present. The blooms co-occur with high water column absorption (beam-c) values as well. Neither normalized beam-c nor the aggregation index track well with smoothed chlorophyll fluorescence. If these relationships are supported by future observations, there may be a wealth of data relevant to these diatoms blooms in the historical literature and in archived CTD data.

  19. Evaluation of a Three-Stage Method for Improving Mandibular Retrognathia with Labially Inclined Incisors Using Genioplasty, Segmental Osteotomy, and Two-Jaw Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hiro-o; Koshikawa-Matsuno, Mino; Inoue, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    We have sometimes encountered difficulty in improving labially inclined teeth, particularly in patients with mandibular retrognathia, because the symphysis menti is often thin and insufficient space is available to permit sagittal rotation of the teeth without root exposure from the alveolar bone. We have previously described a three-stage method to overcome this problem, involving genioplasty for improving the retruded chin, and to construct the infrastructure for subsequent subapical segmental alveolar osteotomy, subapical segmental alveolar osteotomy itself, and, finally, two-jaw surgery. Bone augmentation with thin cortical bone at the gap created on the upper surface of the advanced genial segment was also addressed in the previous report. In the present study, to confirm the benefits of the three-stage method using objective data, cephalometric evaluation was performed in each step. In all cases, pogonion (Pog) was moved forward substantially. Net linear forward movement of Pog and net changes in SN-Pog were from 12?mm to 20?mm and from 4.8° to 7.0°, respectively. Angle of mandibular incisors and interincisal angle also improved to desirable levels. Although this method requires three separate surgeries, the approach safely improves the clinical situation and accentuates treatment efficacy. PMID:24963302

  20. Shallow-water and sub-storm-base deposition of Lewis Shale in Cretaceous Western interior seaway, south-central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.D. Jr.; Bishop, M.G.; Gardner, P.S.

    1987-07-01

    Shallow- and deep-water (below storm base) clastics of the Lewis Shale were deposited in south-central Wyoming during a part of the Late Cretaceous Core, log, and outcrop data indicate that the Lewis Shale consists of a thin, transgressive, marine shale overlain by a thicker, coarser, progradational interval. The sea in which the Lewis Shale was deposited opened eastward into the North American Western Interior seaway. Shale in the lowermost Lewis is black, carbonaceous, bioturbated, and commonly contains shell debris and was deposited in shallow water. The central basin floor changed from shallow to sub-storm-wave and sub-storm-current depths, seemingly in response to eustatic sea level rise and coeval tectonic subsidence. Southwest progradation from a northeastern delta suggests significant uplift in the Wind River upthrust area concurrent with Lewis sedimentation. Many hydrocarbon-producing sandstones in the Lewis Shale are thickly bedded and massive, and some show fluid-escape structures. This sandstones are typically characterized by grading, Bouma sequences, and sole markings. Turbidity currents are believed to be responsible for deposition of all these sandstones. Unburrowed shale and shale containing burrows made by a restricted infauna are interbedded with reservoir sandstones at Wamsutter field. The shale is interpreted to indicate anaerobic to dysaerobic conditions and water depths of 500-650 ft (150-200m) or more.

  1. Central Africa

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Begun in 1996, the International Crisis Group's (ICG) Central Africa Project analyzes political and ethnic conflict within and between the nations that straddle mid-Africa, including the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Burundi, Angola, Uganda, and Rwanda. As part of that effort ICG has released over twelve full text reports in the last year (a few in French only). The two most recent in-depth reports are: "Africa's Seven-Nation War," which examines how the armies of seven African nations have been drawn into the rebellion against DRC President Laurent Dsir Kabila; and "How Kabila Lost His Way," which traces the foundation of the Kabila regime and seeks to discover why it has engendered both internal and external opposition. Well-researched and fully footnoted, yet written with a non-specialist audience in mind, these reports are a good resource for both students and general readers with an interest in the current situation in Central Africa.

  2. A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J.; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E. J.; Bednarski, April E.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M.; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C.; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L.; Reed, Laura D.; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A.; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"--a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the…

  3. How Central and Connected Am I in My Family? Family-Based Social Capital of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmer, E. D.; Kempf-Constantin, N.; Robert-Tissot, C.; Lanzi, F.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2008-01-01

    Using social network methods, this article explores the ways in which individuals with intellectual disability (ID) perceive their family contexts and the social capital that they provide. Based on a subsample of 24 individuals with ID, a subsample of 24 individuals with ID and psychiatric disorders, and a control sample of 24 pre-graduate and…

  4. Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2014-01-01

    A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

  5. PE Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Virginia Polytechnic Institute Health and Physical Education Program developed this site, a clearinghouse of information about K-12 physical education and health. An extensive list of lesson plans and assessment ideas, arranged topically and by grade level, is the focal point of this site; the Classroom Teacher Lesson Ideas uses PE "across the curriculum" to help students learn concepts in other subjects. PE Central provides information for PE professionals on relevant journals, job announcements, and equipment purchases, among other topics.

  6. IPO Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    IPO (Initial Public Offerings) Central, provided by The Reference Press, contains a wealth of information on IPOs. It features a complete list of companies that "filed for an initial public offering of common stock on or after May 6, 1996, the first day that all US companies were required to file electronically," along with EDGAR Online SEC filings. This directory can be accessed alphabetically or by date, and the latest filings are available under a separate menu item. IPO Central also highlights one featured IPO per week, with a free link to a Hoover Online profile on that company. "The Insider" offers short analytical columns on IPOs, and the "Beginner's Guide" has links to basic IPO information to help the novice. The site also offers links to other IPO-related sites. IPO Central does not at this time offer a searchable interface to its directory, but the providers promise improved search features soon. Note that listings are removed from the directory after six months and that EDGAR Online is in no way related to SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) EDGAR.

  7. Estimation of groundwater age in the central part of the Baltic Artesian Basin based on new isotope data from Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babre, Alise; Kalvans, Andis; Popovs, Konrads; Retike, Inga; Delina, Aija

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogeological conditions of the Baltic Artesian basin (BAB) have changed rapidly during the Quaternary period. Therefore this work aims to give better overview of the complexity of the groundwater recharge and discharge dynamics beyond country borders, taking into account only shared geological framework, common climate conditions and geological development. To maintain better understanding of the processes that took part in the formation of groundwater that can be observed nowadays several methods were applied placing major emphasis on the new oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratio results. Earlier investigations in the northern part of the basin indicated glacial melt water intrusion in the Cambrian-Vendian. Several radiocarbon and stable isotope studies in groundwater have been done at the southern part of the basin as well reporting extensive groundwater recharge during the Late Pleistocene suggesting that recharge took place under different recharge mechanisms compared with the northern part. In 2010 to 2012 an extensive field campaign was undertaken, collecting more than 300 groundwater samples for deuterium and stable oxygen, 30 for stable carbon and 10 for radiocarbon analysis mostly from central part (Latvia) of the BAB covering all the major aquifer systems where previously collected data was sparse or absent. A specific motivation for the research was to identify relict glacial meltwater in the groundwater system. The broader aim was to estimate the baseline isotopic composition of groundwater in the region. Here a new data set is presented. Na-Ca-Cl brine found at the deepest - stagnation zone and is characterized by ?18O values above -5 o and ?D values approaching -40 o in respect to VSMOW. The slow exchange zone is characterized by ?18O values around -11.7 o and ?D values around -84.8 o . Mean ?18O and ?D value of the groundwater in the active water exchange zone is -11.0 o and 79.2 o respectively. Characteristically the groundwater in the active and slow exchange zone is more depleted comparing to the precipitation values observed in the eighties and the depletion is increasing with depth down to the level where strongly enriched brines are encountered. Absence of radiocarbon in the deepest aquifers show that groundwater recharged before last glaciation. The research is supported by the European Union through the ESF Mobilitas grant No MJD309 and the European Regional Development Fund project Nr.2013/0054/2DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007 and NRP project EVIDENnT project "Groundwater and climate scenarios" subproject "Groundwater Research".

  8. Statistical Discrimination of Induced and Tectonic Earthquake Sequences in Central and Eastern US Based on Waveform Detected Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Peng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    It is now well established that extraction of fossil fuels and/or waste water disposal do cause earthquakes in Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). However, the physics underneath of the nucleation of induced earthquakes still remain elusive. In particular, do induced and tectonic earthquake sequences in CEUS share the same statistics, for example the Omori's law [Utsu et al., 1995] and the Gutenberg-Richter's law? Some studies have show that most naturally occurring earthquake sequences are driven by cascading-type triggering. Hence, they would follow the typical Gutenberg-Richter relation and Omori's aftershock decay and could be well described by multi-dimensional point-process models such as Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) [Ogata, 1988; Zhuang et al., 2012]. However, induced earthquakes are likely driven by external forcing such as injected fluid pressure, and hence would not be well described by the ETAS model [Llenos and Michael, 2013]. Existing catalogs in CEUS (e.g. the ANSS catalog) have relatively high magnitude of completeness [e.g., Van Der Elst et al., 2013] and hence may not be ideal for a detailed ETAS modeling analysis. A waveform matched filter technique has been successfully applied to detect many missing earthquakes in CEUS with a sparse network in Illinois [Yang et al., 2009] and on single station in Texas, Oklahoma and Colorado [e.g., Van Der Elst et al., 2013]. In addition, the deployment of the USArray station in CEUS also helped to expand the station coverage. In this study, we systematically detect missing events during 14 moderate-size (M>=4) earthquake sequences since 2000 in CEUS and quantify their statistical parameters (e.g. b, a, K, and p values) and spatio-temporal evolutions. Then we compare the statistical parameters and the spatio-temporal evolution pattern between induced and naturally occurring earthquake sequences to see if one or more diagnostic parameters exist. Our comprehensive analysis of earthquake sequences in CEUS will hopefully shed new insight on whether intrinsic differences exist between induced and naturally occurring earthquakes.

  9. A New Centralized Sensor Fusion-Tracking Methodology Based on Particle Filtering for Power-Aware Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Zhai; Mark B. Yeary; Joseph P. Havlicek; Guoliang Fan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of target tracking in a collaborative acoustic sensor network. To cope with the inherent characteristics and constraints of wireless sensor networks, we present a novel target-tracking algorithm with power-aware concerns. The underlying tracking methodology is described as a multiple-sensor tracking\\/fusion technique based on particle filtering. As discussed in the most recent literature, particle

  10. Reliable fieldwork data as a base for modelling - demonstrated by flood loam sediments in central Rhenish Slate Mts. (Westerwald)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Christian; Grunert, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    This is the first study of two main rivers - Große Nister and Gelbach - in the Westerwald Mts. calculating their sediment budget within a defined historic period. The thickness and composition of the floodloams on the valley floors of these rivers depend on widespread periglacial and often loess-rich layers on the valley slopes in total of the river watersheds. Moreover, landuse practises of the rural population had an important influence on slope denudation during the historic period. Special studies about the floodloam sedimentation of Große Nister were carried out in the garden of the monastery of Marienstatt resulting in a preliminary balance. Based on artificially reworked horizons several pottery fragments of different type and few radiocarbon dates it was possible to define some 55% of the floodloam as younger than 1450 AD. A charcoal fragment from the base of the floodloam nearly of the study site was dated to 1034-1216 AD in indicating that the loam should have been anthropogenically deposited by expanding landuse during and after High Medieval. It covered an older channel system of the valley floor producing a levelled surface. Comporable field studies were carried out in the Gelbach valley in the southern, so called Lower Westerwald region. Finally, balancing of the floodloam quantities of the rivers Große Nister, Gelbach and Aar (without their tributaries) is described. The Aar belongs to the northern Taunus Mts., it is of similar size and well studied. The totals of floodloam are being compared with different watersheds and lengths of the main rivers.

  11. Controls on mineralisation in the Sierra Foothills gold province, central California, USA: A GIS-based reconnaissance prospectivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierlein, F.P.; Northover, H.J.; Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of spatial relationships between the location, abundance and size of orogenic-gold deposits in the highly endowed Sierra Foothills gold province in California, via the combination of field studies and a GIS-based analysis, illustrates the power of such an approach to the characterisation of important parameters of mineral systems, and the prediction of districts likely to host economic mineralisation. Regional- to deposit-scale reconnaissance mapping suggests that deposition of gold-bearing quartz veins occurred in second- and third-order, east-over-west thrusts during regional east - west compression and right-lateral transpression. At the district-scale, significant zones of mineralisation correspond with such transpressional reactivation zones and dilational jogs that developed during the Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous along the misaligned segments of first-order faults throughout the Sierra Nevada Foothills Metamorphic Belt. Field-based observations and interpretation of GIS data (including solid geology, structural elements, deposit locations, magnetics, gravity) also highlight the importance of structural permeability contrasts, rheological gradients, and variations in fault orientation for localising mineralisation. Although this approach confirms empirical findings and produces promising results at the province scale, enhanced geological, structural, geophysical and geochronological data density is required to generate regionally consistent, high-quality input layers that improve predictive targeting at the goldfield to deposit-scale.

  12. Localization and centrality in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Travis; Zhang, Xiao; Newman, M. E. J.

    2014-11-01

    Eigenvector centrality is a common measure of the importance of nodes in a network. Here we show that under common conditions the eigenvector centrality displays a localization transition that causes most of the weight of the centrality to concentrate on a small number of nodes in the network. In this regime the measure is no longer useful for distinguishing among the remaining nodes and its efficacy as a network metric is impaired. As a remedy, we propose an alternative centrality measure based on the nonbacktracking matrix, which gives results closely similar to the standard eigenvector centrality in dense networks where the latter is well behaved but avoids localization and gives useful results in regimes where the standard centrality fails.

  13. Neuropsychology Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Browndyke, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    Neuropsychology Central is devoted to the subject of - "Neuropsychology, a new branch of science with the specific and unique aim of investigating the role of individual brain systems in complex forms of mental activity." - A.R. Luria "The Working Brain" The page aims to describe the importance of neuropsychology as a science of brain and behavior, and to act as a resource for the professional and layperson alike. See links to current technology for brain imaging, and sections covering different aspects of this ever growing field such as cognitive, developmental, and geriatric Neuropsychology. In addition, a reader survey is included to facilitate the expansion of the site.

  14. Prenatal and Perinatal Morbidity in Children with Tic Disorders: A Mainstream School-based Population Study in Central Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Esther; Hortigüela, Montesclaros; Jorge-Roldan, Sandra; Ciciliani, Selva Esther; Lopez, Patricia; Velasco, Leticia; Sastre, Emilio; Ausin, Vanesa; Delgado, Vanesa; Saez, Sara; Gabriel-Galán, José Trejo; Macarrón, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Background While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. Methods This was a nested case–control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using ‘Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision’ criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors. Results Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics). After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–7.60, p?=?0.007), and cesarean section (OR?=?5.78, 95% CI 1.60–20.91, p?=?0.01). Discussion This nested case–control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results. PMID:25562036

  15. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7?mm-to-15?mm) and onset of ripening (15?mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. Conclusions The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up new lines to decipher the processes controlling grape berry development and ripening. PMID:24152288

  16. Predicting water-surface fluctuation of continental lakes: A RS and GIS based approach in Central Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendoza, M.E.; Bocco, G.; Bravo, M.; Lopez, Granados E.; Osterkamp, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the water-surface area occupied by the Cuitzeo Lake, Mexico, during the 1974-2001 period are analysed in this study. The research is based on remote sensing and geographic information techniques, as well as statistical analysis. High-resolution satellite image data were used to analyse the 1974-2000 period, and very low-resolution satellite image data were used for the 1997-2001 period. The long-term analysis (1974-2000) indicated that there were temporal changes in the surface area of the Cuitzeo Lake and that these changes were related to precipitation and temperatures that occurred in the previous year. Short-term monitoring (1997-2001) showed that the Cuitzeo Lake surface is lowering. Field observations demonstrated also that yearly desiccation is recurrent, particularly, in the western section of the lake. Results suggested that this behaviour was probably due to a drought period in the basin that began in the mid 1990s. Regression models constructed from long-term data showed that fluctuations of lake level can be estimated by monthly mean precipitation and temperatures of the previous year. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

  17. Sarcoma: concordance between initial diagnosis and centralized expert review in a population-based study within three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Ray-Coquard, I.; Montesco, M. C.; Coindre, J. M.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Lurkin, A.; Ranchère-Vince, D.; Vecchiato, A.; Decouvelaere, A. V.; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S.; Albert, S.; Cousin, P.; Cellier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Rossi, C. R.; Blay, J. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors. Accurate determination of histological diagnosis and prognostic factors is critical for the delineation of treatment strategies. The contribution of second opinion (SO) to improve diagnostic accuracy has been suggested for sarcoma but has never been established in population-based studies. Methods Histological data of patients diagnosed with sarcoma in Rhone-Alpes (France), Veneto (Italy) and Aquitaine (France) over a 2-year period were collected. Initial diagnoses were systematically compared with SO from regional and national experts. Results Of 2016 selected patients, 1463 (73%) matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Full concordance between primary diagnosis and SO (the first pathologist and the expert reached identical conclusions) was observed in 824 (56%) cases, partial concordance (identical diagnosis of connective tumor but different grade or histological subtype) in 518 (35%) cases and complete discordance (benign versus malignant, different histological type or invalidation of the diagnosis of sarcoma) in 121 (8%) cases. The major discrepancies were related to histological grade (n = 274, 43%), histological type (n = 144, 24%), subtype (n = 18, 3%) and grade plus subtype or grade plus histological type (n = 178, 29%). Conclusion More than 40% of first histological diagnoses were modified at second reading, possibly resulting in different treatment decisions. PMID:22331640

  18. Evaluation of moisture sources of the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    In May/June 2013, heavy precipitation hit Central Europe, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and on Elbe basins. In this study, we perform a detailed analysis of the synoptic development of the event based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations performed with the COSMO-CLM. Simulations are performed with reanalysis data boundary conditions in multiple set-ups and horizontal resolutions of 0.375° and 0.125°. In particular, the aim is to identify potential moisture sources, and how they contributed to the event quantitatively. A control simulation with undisturbed (reanalysis) boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to distinguish the role of moisture evaporated from marine and land areas. To keep the structure of the simulations close to reality as possible, spectral nudging is applied on the upper level atmospheric wind fields. For all simulations, the synoptic situations and cyclone tracks are evaluated against an independent reanalysis dataset, and simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. In general, the upper level atmospheric characteristics, which trigger the cyclones, are similar in the simulations compared to the reanalysis. Moreover, the time evolution of the precipitation event is well simulated. Nevertheless there are some differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of the precipitation. In both, the reanalysis and the control simulation, the cyclones relevant for this event were moving westward (retrograde movement), counterclockwise from the Mediterranean region over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The pre-existing moist soil over East and Central Europe and the circulation associated with the cyclones contributed to intense evapotranspiration, and thus the westward propagating cyclones brought a lot of moisture along their tracks towards Central Europe. The sensitivity studies performed with COSMO-CLM indicate that, while the main part of the moisture evaporated over land, other moisture sources like e.g. the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea were also important to the occurrence and intensity of this heavy precipitation event.

  19. Long-Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks for Controlling Forest Malaria: A Community-Based Trial in a Rural Area of Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Thang, Ngo Duc; Erhart, Annette; Speybroeck, Niko; Xa, Nguyen Xuan; Thanh, Nguyen Ngoc; Ky, Pham Van; Hung, Le Xuan; Thuan, Le Khanh; Coosemans, Marc; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, malaria remains a problem in some remote areas located along its international borders and in the central highlands, partly due to the bionomics of the local vector, mainly found in forested areas and less vulnerable to standard control measures. Long Lasting Insecticidal Hammocks (LLIH), a tailored and user-friendly tool for forest workers, may further contribute in reducing the malaria burden. Their effectiveness was tested in a large community-based intervention trial carried out in Ninh Thuan province in Central Vietnam. Methods and Findings Thirty villages (population 18,646) were assembled in 20 clusters (1,000 individuals per cluster) that were randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group (no LLIH) after stratification according to the pre-intervention P. falciparum antibody prevalence (<30%; ?30%). LLIH were distributed to the intervention group in December 2004. For the following 2 years, the incidence of clinical malaria and the prevalence of infection were determined by passive case detection at community level and by bi-annual malariometric surveys. A 2-fold larger effect on malaria incidence in the intervention as compared to the control group was observed. Similarly, malaria prevalence decreased more substantially in the intervention (1.6-fold greater reduction) than in the control group. Both for incidence and prevalence, a stronger and earlier effect of the intervention was observed in the high endemicity stratum. The number of malaria cases and infections averted by the intervention overall was estimated at 10.5 per 1,000 persons and 5.6/100 individuals, respectively, for the last half of 2006. In the high endemicity stratum, the impact was much higher, i.e. 29/1000 malaria cases and 15.7 infections/100 individuals averted. Conclusions LLIH reduced malaria incidence and prevalence in this remote and forested area of Central Vietnam. As the targets of the newly-launched Global Malaria Action Plan include the 75% reduction of the global malaria cases by 2015 and eventually the elimination/eradication of malaria in the long term, LLIH may represent an additional tool for reaching such objectives, particularly in high endemicity areas where standard control tools have a modest impact, such as in remote and forested areas of Southeast Asia and possibly South America. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00853281 PMID:19809502

  20. A New Model for the Seismogenic Behavior of Subducted Seamounts Based on Multi-Channel Seismic Reflection and GPS Data Collected in Central Ecuador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, J. Y.; Sanclemente, E.; Ribodetti, A.; Chlieh, M.; Jarrin, P.; Nocquet, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between subducted seamounts and earthquakes has remained controversial. Although seamounts are expected to subduct aseismically, they have also been considered to generate large earthquakes. Based on a remarkable case study in Central Ecuador, we show that a subducted seamount can lock the shallow megathrust along its trailing flank preparing for a possible shallow (<20 km), large magnitude (Mw ~7.0) tsunamogenic earthquake, while its leading flank keeps partially creeping along with frequent earthquake swarms and slow slip events (SSE). The erosive Ecuador convergent margin, which basement consists of high velocity (Vp=5 km/s) mafic rocks, is underthrust eastward at 4.7 cm/yr by the rugged Carnegie Ridge. As modeled by global positioning system (GPS) measurements acquired as close as 35 km from the trench axis at La Plata Island, the Central Ecuador margin figures a creeping subduction segment with the exception of a 50 km-diameter locked patch centered over the uplifted La Plata Island region. The 3D geometry of the plate-interface megathrust obtained from 2D-PreStack-Depth-Migration of a grid of multi-channel seismic reflection data collected near La Plata Island reveals a collection of closely spaced peaks that belong to a broad (55 X ~50 km) low-drag shape subducted seamount. The clear spatial correlation between the seamount and the highly coupled zone denotes the seamount as the main cause for both the locked patch and the island uplift. The absence of a seismically imaged subduction channel, the highly jagged seamount-trailing flank and the stiffness of the oceanic margin are found to be the principal long-term characteristics associated with shallow locking of the megathrust. Moreover, the combination of our structural interpretation and inter-seismic coupling map with 14-years of relocated seismicity, and the 2010 SSE and its associated microseismicity allow to propose a new model for the seismogenic behavior of subducting seamounts.

  1. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

  2. Distribution of lithostratigraphic units within the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A three-dimensional computer-based model, Version YMP.R2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Buesch, D.C. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nelson, J.E.; Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II; San Juan, C.A. [SAIC, Golden, CO (United States); Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States); Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C. [SAIC Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underlain by 14.0 to 11.6 Ma volcanic rocks tilted eastward 3{degree} to 20{degree} and cut by faults that were primarily active between 12.7 and 11.6 Ma. A three-dimensional computer-based model of the central block of the mountain consists of seven structural subblocks composed of six formations and the interstratified-bedded tuffaceous deposits. Rocks from the 12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon Tuff, which forms most of the exposed rocks on the mountain, to the 13.1 Ma Prow Pass Tuff are modeled with 13 surfaces. Modeled units represent single formations such as the Pah Canyon Tuff, grouped units such as the combination of the Yucca Mountain Tuff with the superjacent bedded tuff, and divisions of the Topopah Spring Tuff such as the crystal-poor vitrophyre interval. The model is based on data from 75 boreholes from which a structure contour map at the base of the Tiva Canyon Tuff and isochore maps for each unit are constructed to serve as primary input. Modeling consists of an iterative cycle that begins with the primary structure-contour map from which isochore values of the subjacent model unit are subtracted to produce the structure contour map on the base of the unit. This new structure contour map forms the input for another cycle of isochore subtraction to produce the next structure contour map. In this method of solids modeling, the model units are presented by surfaces (structure contour maps), and all surfaces are stored in the model. Surfaces can be converted to form volumes of model units with additional effort. This lithostratigraphic and structural model can be used for (1) storing data from, and planning future, site characterization activities, (2) preliminary geometry of units for design of Exploratory Studies Facility and potential repository, and (3) performance assessment evaluations.

  3. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  4. ELABORATION OF THE MATRIX GLYCOPROTEIN OF ENAMEL BY THE SECRETORY AMELOBLASTS OF THE RAT INCISOR AS REVEALED BY RADIOAUTOGRAPHY AFTER GALACTOSE-3H INJECTION

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Alfred; Leblond, C. P.

    1971-01-01

    The elaboration of enamel matrix glycoprotein was investigated in secretory ameloblasts of incisor teeth in 30–40-g rats. To this end, the distribution of glycoprotein was examined histochemically by the use of phosphotungstic acid at low pH, while the formation of glycoprotein was traced radioautographically in animals sacrificed 2.5–30 min after galactose-3H injection. Histochemically, the presence of glycoprotein is observed in ameloblasts as well as in the enamel matrix; in ameloblasts glycoprotein occurs within the Golgi apparatus in amounts increasing from the outer to the inner face of the stacks of saccules, and is concentrated in condensing vacuoles and secretory granules; in the enamel matrix, glycoprotein is observed within linear subunits. Radioautographs at 2.5 min after injection demonstrate the uptake of galactose-3H label by Golgi saccules, indicating that galactose-3H is incorporated into glycoprotein within this organelle. After 5–10 min, the label collects in the condensing vacuoles and secretory granules of the Golgi region. By 20–30 min, the label appears in the secretory granules of the apical (Tomes') processes, as well as in the enamel matrix (next to the distal end of the apical processes, and at the tips of matrix prongs). In conclusion, galactose contributes to the formation of glycoprotein within the Golgi apparatus. The innermost saccules then distribute the completed glycoprotein to condensing vacuoles, which later evolve into secretory granules. These granules rapidly migrate to the apical processes, where they discharge their glycoprotein content to the developing enamel. PMID:4329523

  5. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable, systemic and cost-effective tools for soil conservation, in order to improve the environmental resilience of the site.

  6. A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water represented somewhat diluted groundwater. Streamflow conductivity integrates the concentrations of the major ions, and the logistics of acquiring specific conductance at frequent time intervals are less complicated than data collection, sample processing, shipment, and analysis of water samples in a laboratory. The acquisition of continuous specific conductance data reduces uncertainty associated with less-frequently collected geochemical point data.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Central Appalachian Tree Species on Canopy Albedo via Measurement of Leaf Angles from Repeated Ground-based, Drone, and Hemispherical Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, B. E.; Erazo, D.; Heimerl, T.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements of forest albedo are directly used in climate models, and could be used in models of the C and N cycles if we more fully understood the mechanism causing a strong correlation of forest albedo with canopy N and C assimilation. One attractive mechanism posits that tree species have evolved convergent leaf and canopy traits. While the leaf traits of tree species are known to drive variability in canopy N and C assimilation, linking tree species to variability in albedo is challenging because of the difficulty in measuring important canopy traits like leaf angle. To refine techniques for measuring leaf angle, and test the hypothesis that high albedo in the central Appalachians could be linked to the abundance of species with canopy traits of more horizontal leaf angles, we conducted four tests with ground-based, drone, and hemispherical photographs. First, we used a leveled camera on a steep slope to repeatedly, and directly measure the leaf angle of over 400 leaves within the canopies of oak, maple, and beech trees. Across all 21 repetitions (3 times a day on 7 dates between May and July), we observed consistent species differences in mean leaf angle (MLA), with maple always being the most horizontal (MLA = 14-18°) and oak the most vertical (MLA = 19-28°). Second, we again found highly significant species differences in MLA when we used a hexacopter drone with a camera on a self-leveling gimbal to make over 1020 direct measurements of leaf angle from six tree species in three broadleaf deciduous forest plots. Third, to measure MLA of a whole multi-species canopy, we compared a species abundance-weighted plot average of the drone-measured MLA values with an indirect, ground-based hemispherical photograph method. The strong agreement of these direct and indirect plot-level methods finally led us to compare a broader set of 61 plot-level hemispherical photo MLA measurements with canopy albedo measured by AVIRIS in broadleaf deciduous forests. In this last test, we found strong support (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.0001) for the hypothesis that more horizontal MLA causes higher albedo. This final result, coupled with the observed strong species differences in MLA, lends support to the idea that the high albedo in the Central Appalachians may be linked to high abundances of tree species with canopy traits of horizontal MLA.

  8. Willingness to pay for publicly financed health care services in Central and Eastern Europe: evidence from six countries based on a contingent valuation method.

    PubMed

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Rechel, Bernd; Golinowska, Stanis?awa; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The increased interest in patient cost-sharing as a measure for sustainable health care financing calls for evidence to support the development of effective patient payment policies. In this paper, we present an application of a stated willingness-to-pay technique, i.e. contingent valuation method, to investigate the consumer's willingness and ability to pay for publicly financed health care services, specifically hospitalisations and consultations with specialists. Contingent valuation data were collected in nationally representative population-based surveys conducted in 2010 in six Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine) using an identical survey methodology. The results indicate that the majority of health care consumers in the six CEE countries are willing to pay an official fee for publicly financed health care services that are of good quality and quick access. The consumers' willingness to pay is limited by the lack of financial ability to pay for services, and to a lesser extent by objection to pay. Significant differences across the six countries are observed, though. The results illustrate that the contingent valuation method can provide decision-makers with a broad range of information to facilitate cost-sharing policies. Nevertheless, the intrinsic limitations of the method (i.e. its hypothetical nature) and the context of CEE countries call for caution when applying its results. PMID:25016327

  9. WDM-PON access network with lightwave source centralized full-duplex link based on SSB-OOFDM for wired and 60 GHz band wireless alternative accesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Wang, Zhao; Zheng, Guoli

    2014-04-01

    A novel lightwave centralized full-duplex WDM-PON access network based on single sideband optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (SSB-OOFDM) is proposed for providing wired and 60-GHz band wireless accesses alternately. At the OLT, the multi-channels with 10-Gb/s 4-QAM-RF-OFDM signals are SSB modulated on the optical local oscillators (OLOs). At the RN, one OOFDM signal along with two OLOs is abstracted and switched to the corresponding HONU, where the signal can be downconverted to the 10-GHz or 60-GHz band RF-OFDM signal by one OLO for wired or wireless access, while the other one is used to bear the uplink signal. Since the HONU is free from the light sources, the system complexity and cost are reduced. Full duplex transmission over 25 km fiber have been demonstrated that the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the down- and up-link signals are much below the FEC limit for both the wired and 60-GHz band wireless access services.

  10. Population-based survival analyses of central nervous system tumors from 1994 to 2008. An up-dated study in the temozolomide-era.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Raspall, Rafael; Puig-Vives, Montserrat; Guerra-Prio, Silvia; Perez-Bueno, Ferran; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael

    2014-06-01

    The present population-based study describes the survival of malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors diagnosed during 15 years. Also, we obtained individual data regarding the use of temozolomide to analyze the impact of this drug on the survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. From 1994 to 2008, a total of 679 incident cases of primary CNS tumors were reported by the Girona Cancer Registry after excluding 39 cases diagnosed by death certificate only. Number of cases and the corresponding proportion for each CNS histological subtype in the study population were: 25 oligodendroglial and oligoastrocytics (3.7%), 22 ependymal tumors (3.2%), 24 embryonal (3.5%), 372 astrocytic (54.8%), 1 choroid plexus (0.1%) and 235 without histological confirmation (34.6%). Observed survival after 5 years since diagnosis for the histological subtype were: 58.8%; 47.5%; 37.0%; 14.5% and 6.5%, respectively (p<0.001). Survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma according to temozolomide treatment (yes/no) was 60.8% vs. 13.6% and 5.9% vs. 2.5% after 1 and 5 years since diagnosis, respectively. Short-term survival was higher for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and treated with temozolomide than patients not treated with temozolomide. PMID:24794586

  11. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, J.B.; Goddard, D.A.; Bouma, A. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N/6E and 4N/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well was drilled, and a 500-ft conventional core and a complete suite of state-of-the-are wireline logs were recovered. Production tests were run on the Minter interval of interest. The 16-ft Minter interval (6742-6758 ft depth), bounded at its top and base by lignite seams, consists of an upper 4-ft oil sand (Bee Brake) and a lower 3-ft oil sand (Angelina). The oil sands are separated by approximately 5 ft of thinly laminated silty shale and 4 ft of very fine-grained silty sandstone. Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic descriptions of the Minter interval provide accurate facies determinations of this lower delta-plain sequence. Petrophysical evaluation, combining core plug and modern electric-log data show differences between reservoir quality of the Bee Brake and Angelina sands. This data will also be useful for correlating and interpolating old electric logs. Organic geochemistry of the oil, lignites, and shales provides insight as to the source of the Minter oils and the sourcing potential of the lignites.

  12. Relationships between precipitation and floods in the fluvial basins of Central Spain based on documentary sources from the end of the 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullón, T.

    2011-08-01

    This study presents the results of a historic reconstruction based upon documentary sources of precipitation and floods during the last fifty years of the 16th century in Central Spain. We used data from primary sources contemporary to the events rather than compilations or secondary references. These documents belong to the institutions that administered the study area during the time period of interest and consist of municipal or monastic minute books and administrative texts from properties belonging to the nobility and royal family. Direct data that explicitly describe meteorological or flood-related events are haphazardly distributed throughout personal correspondence and various reports, and the sizes of floods or precipitation events can also be deduced from indirect data. We analysed the qualitative data by transforming them into numerical indices of intensity/duration for precipitation and intensity/area for floods. We differentiated three sets of years that presented different hydrological patterns. The first period, from 1554 to 1575, exhibited regular precipitation patterns associated with low-intensity floods. The second, from 1576 to 1584, was characterised by low precipitation levels and few floods. The third, from 1585 to 1599, showed intense precipitation with large floods interspersed with long-lasting droughts. We interpret these results in the context of the environmental and land-use patterns of the time period studied, which coincided with a period of low temperatures.

  13. Burial and thermal history of the central Appalachian basin, based on three 2-D models of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Three regional-scale, cross sectional (2-D) burial and thermal history models are presented for the central Appalachian basin based on the detailed geologic cross sections of Ryder and others (2004), Crangle and others (2005), and Ryder, R.T., written communication. The models integrate the available thermal and geologic information to constrain the burial, uplift, and erosion history of the region. The models are restricted to the relatively undeformed part of the basin and extend from the Rome trough in West Virginia and Pennsylvania northwestward to the Findlay arch in Ohio. This study expands the scope of previous work by Rowan and others (2004) which presented a preliminary burial/thermal history model for a cross section (E-E') through West Virginia and Ohio. In the current study, the burial/thermal history model for E-E' is revised, and integrated with results of two additional cross sectional models (D-D' and C-C'). The burial/thermal history models provide calculated thermal maturity (Ro%) values for the entire stratigraphic sequence, including hydrocarbon source rocks, along each of the three cross sections. In contrast, the Ro and conodont CAI data available in the literature are sparse and limited to specific stratigraphic intervals. The burial/thermal history models also provide the regional temperature and pressure framework that is needed to model hydrocarbon migration.

  14. Development and delivery of ecologically-based IPM packages for wheat in Central Asia Shahlo Safarzoda1, Nurali Saidov2, Anvar Jalilov3, Mustapha El-Bouhssini4, Megan Kennelly5, Doug Landis1

    E-print Network

    Development and delivery of ecologically-based IPM packages for wheat in Central Asia Shahlo. While wheat has become the main staple food crop in Tajikistan, a deficit of research and knowledge. Screening wheat varieties for resistance to cereal leaf beetle (CLB) The first field trial was established

  15. Review of Central Asian Place-names – Lop nor and Tarim area – An Attempt at Classification and Explanation Based on Sven Hedin’s Diaries and Published Works, by Gunnar Jarring (1997).

    E-print Network

    Dwyer, Arienne M.

    2000-01-01

    Citation: Dwyer, Arienne M. 2000. Review of Central Asian Place-names – Lop nor and Tarim area – An Attempt at Classification and Explanation Based on Sven Hedin’s Diaries and Published Works, by Gunnar Jarring (1997). Turkic Languages 4.1: 286–288. ...

  16. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  17. Morphological and Dimensional Characteristics of Dental Arch among Tribal and Non-tribal Population of Central India: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Naveen S; Saxena, Vrinda; Vyas, Rajesh; Sharma, Rohit; Sharva, Vijayta; Dwivedi, Ashish; Jain, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in the dental arch among Bhil Aboriginals were investigated and compared with non-tribal individuals residing in a tribal zone of Central India. Plaster models (120) were made with the help of alginate impression of tribal adults as well as non-tribal adults residing in the same area. The supposition as aboriginals being primitive due to dietary practices maxillary arch size and mandibular arch size is distended in comparison to the non-tribal population as adaptation of soft refined diet has disrupted the growth of the jaws. Hence, an attempt was made to evaluate the arch widths of tribal population and to associate it with non-tribe population in the same area of Central India. Materials and Methods: Difference in morphology and dimension of the maxillary and mandibular arches was aimed at Bhil tribes as well as non-tribal residents of tribe rich zone of Central India. The study was steered amid 120 individuals both tribal and non-tribe equally around 60 each through a well-organized out-reach program intermittently. Study models were made of dental arches of all participants. All measurements of the arch dimension were patent on the study casts using an electronic digital sliding caliper. Pair t-test was applied by using SPSS software version-19.0. Results: In the maxillary arch, on appraisal the non-tribal and Bhil tribe’s subjects, it showed a statistically significant difference in inter-incisor width (2.95 mm), inter-canine width (2.60 mm), arch depth (3.25 mm). While inter premolar width (0.20 mm) and inter molar width (0.80 mm) anterior arch length (0.60 mm), and posterior arch length (0.10 mm) showed statistically not significant difference between non-tribal population and Bhil tribe subjects. In the mandibular arch, it showed a statistically significant difference in inter-canine width (1.00 mm). Although, inter-incisor width (0.72 mm), inter-molar width (0.80 mm), arch depth (0.90 mm), anterior arch length (0.30 mm), posterior arch length (0.35 mm), and curve of Spee (0.13 mm) showed statistically not significant difference between general population and Bhil tribe subjects. Conclusion: When associated non-tribal population to Bhil tribes subjects, for the morphological and dimensional characteristics of dental arches Bhil tribe subjects exhibited: A narrower and shorter maxilla; reduced mandible size; smaller incisor widths for the maxillary and mandibular arches. PMID:25628479

  18. Linking nitrogen dynamics to climate variability off central California: a 51 year record based on 15N/ 14N in CalCOFI zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Greg H.; Ohman, Mark D.; Pierrot-Bults, Annelies

    2003-08-01

    Long-term variability in zooplankton 15N/ 14N was investigated in two species of calanoid copepods ( Calanus pacificus and Eucalanus californicus) and two chaetognaths ( Sagitta bierii and Sagitta euneritica) sampled in the spring of selected years from 1951 to 2001 off the central California coast. No statistically significant trend in 15N/ 14N was detected for any of the four species, with isotopic ratios in 2001 resembling those in copepods and chaetognaths sampled five decades earlier. Zooplankton body lengths also showed no long-term trends. With respect to proposed regime shifts in this region, heterogeneity in 15N/ 14N was detected only for S. bierii when comparing the periods 1951-1975, 1978-1998, and 1999-2001. In this species the 15N/ 14N in the most recent, brief period (1999-2001) averaged slightly lower than in the previous period. Three of the four species ( C. pacificus, S. bierii, and S. euneritica) showed significant increases in 15N/ 14N during major El Niños. El Niño-related enrichment in 15N could arise as a consequence of increased nitrate demand:supply at the base of the food web or advection of 15N-enriched nitrate from more southerly waters. While a range of physical and climate indices were evaluated, anomalies of 15N/ 14N from the long-term mean were found to be significantly related only to: (i) the Southern Oscillation Index in the case of both chaetognath species, (ii) a regional surface water temperature record ( S. bierii only), (iii) an index of wind-driven coastal upwelling for the surface-dwelling C. pacificus, and (iv) variability in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation for the somewhat deeper-dwelling E. californicus. The relationships among each species' 15N/ 14N averaged over the total sampling period was: E. californicus?C. pacificus?S. euneritica < S. bierii, consistent with trophic 15N biomagnification and the predatory nature of Sagitta.

  19. Erosion rates and erosion patterns of Neogene to Quaternary stratovolcanoes in the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes: An SRTM DEM based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karátson, D.; Telbisz, T.; Wörner, G.

    2012-02-01

    Erosion patterns and rates of 33 stratovolcanoes in the arid to hyperarid Central Andean Volcanic Zone (14°S to 27°S) have been constrained by morphometric modelling. All selected volcanoes belong to the short-lived, symmetrical, circular andesitic stratocone type, with ages spanning 14 Ma to recent. Starting from the initial, youthful volcano morphology of this type, represented in our study by Parinacota volcano, and comparing reconstructed volumes of progressively eroded volcanoes, such a time span allows us to infer long-term erosion rates. Typical erosion rates of < 10 to 20 m/Ma have been obtained for the Altiplano-Puna Plateau. Lowest erosion rates typify the hyperarid Puna plateau (7-9 m/Ma), while somewhat higher values (13-22 m/Ma) are recorded for volcanoes in the more humid South Peru, suggesting climatic control on differences in erosion rates. By contrast, much higher short-term erosion rates of 112 to 66 m/Ma, decreasing with age, are found for young (Late Quaternary) volcanoes, which indicates that juvenile volcanoes erode more rapidly due to their unconsolidated cover and steeper slopes; surface denudation slows down to approximately one tenth of this after a few Ma. An inverse correlation is observed between the degree of denudation (defined as volume removed by erosion/original volume) and edifice height from base to top after erosion. This relationship is independent of climate and original edifice elevation. The degree of denudation vs. volcano age provides a rough morphometric tool to constrain the time elapsed since the extinction of volcanic activity. This method can, however, only be applied to the volcanoes of the Altiplano (i.e. under uniform, long-term arid climate) with an uncertainty of ~ 1 Ma. Finally, an erosional pathway is suggested for volcanoes of the Altiplano-Puna preserving a peculiar "edelweiss" valley pattern related to glaciations. This pattern may have overprinted previous drainages and resulted in a discontinuous height reduction of the degrading stratovolcanoes.

  20. Properties of the Central American cold surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.; Reding, Philip J.; Zhang, Yuxia

    1993-01-01

    The Central American cold surge (CACS) is a frontal incursion from the United States into Central America and resembles the East Asian cold surge. They occur more frequently than analyzed by NMC or by published results, based on our observations between 1979 and 1990. Climatology and structure are quantified, based on surface and upper air stations throughout Central America and satellite products from GOES visible and infrared sensors and SSM/I precipitable water and rain rate sensors.

  1. Central American development

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, L.M. [Reid & Priest, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-05-01

    While Asia`s power markets have garnered much of the attention in the global power market, Central America and the Caribbean also present private power developers with opportunities. Each Central American and Caribbean country has approached inependent power project development at its own pace. While some countries in the region have been more aggressive in encouraging independent power, others are still deciding whether and how to allow private deelopment to proceed. While there are clearly significant challenges associated with project development, there are advantages as well. A practical advantage is the fact that the region is geographically consolidated and proximate to the United States. Accordingly, a dveloper with limited resources can nevertheless operate in several markets at the same time. Moreover, because these markets are close, US-based developers have been able to avoid some of the more serious logistical problems that have been encountered in more remote markets, such as China and India. This can also be an advantage to smaller independent developers. Summaries of recent developments in Central America and the Caribbean are preented.

  2. Central core disease

    PubMed Central

    Jungbluth, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies. CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal weakness pronounced in the hip girdle; orthopaedic complications are common and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) is a frequent complication. CCD and MHS are allelic conditions both due to (predominantly dominant) mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene, encoding the principal skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release channel (RyR1). Altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis within muscle cells due to mutation-induced conformational changes of the RyR protein are considered the main pathogenetic mechanism(s). The diagnosis of CCD is based on the presence of suggestive clinical features and central cores on muscle biopsy; muscle MRI may show a characteristic pattern of selective muscle involvement and aid the diagnosis in cases with equivocal histopathological findings. Mutational analysis of the RYR1 gene may provide genetic confirmation of the diagnosis. Management is mainly supportive and has to anticipate susceptibility to potentially life-threatening reactions to general anaesthesia. Further evaluation of the underlying molecular mechanisms may provide the basis for future rational pharmacological treatment. In the majority of patients, weakness is static or only slowly progressive, with a favourable long-term outcome. PMID:17504518

  3. Central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Masterton, R B

    1993-01-01

    A biological view of the central auditory system seems to be replacing the older Galilean or physics-based view as the guide for research in the late 20th century. This emerging view is primarily Darwinian in origin and recognizes that the entire auditory system is an adaptation for extracting information from natural sounds and their sources, usually for the guidance of immediate behavioral action. The fact that natural sounds themselves are almost always transients, too brief in duration to have tonal quality, suggests that the ear is far more of a Fast Fourier Transformer (and less of a Fourier analyzer) than is usually explicitly stated. Since the brief sounds constituting most of the acoustical environment contain critical information for guiding behavioral activity, several further hypotheses regarding the cell-level and tissue-level contributions of the central auditory system also follow. For example, the new view suggests that the central auditory system's role is likely to include the extraction of the behaviorally most important features, aspects, or dimensions of the sources of sounds in addition to, or possibly instead of, the physical dimensions of the sounds themselves. Because this new view has already enjoyed some measure of success and has also suggested a number of new and unusual directions for future research, it may become the dominant theory for research in the 21st century. PMID:8321548

  4. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  5. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  6. Currents' spatial structure in the Western, Central and South-Eastern Baltic on the base of numerical model and ADCP data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenko, Mariya; Golenko, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    Numerical modeling of the currents' spatial structure in some regions of the Baltic Sea is performed on the base of POM (Princeton Ocean Model). The calculations were performed under the westerly (most frequent in the Baltic) and north-easterly wind forcings. In the regions adjacent to the Kaliningrad Region's, Polish and Lithuanian coasts these winds generate oppositely directed geostrophic, drift and others types of currents. On the whole these processes can be considered as downwelling and upwelling. Apart from the regions mentioned above the Slupsk Furrow region, which determines the mass and momentum exchange between the Western and Central Baltic, is also considered. During the analysis of currents not only the whole model velocity but also components directed along and across the barotropic geostrophic current velocity are considered. The along geostrophic component for one's turn is separated into the geostrophic current itself and an ageostrophic part. The across geostrophic component is totally ageostrophic. The velocity components directed along and across the geostrophic current approximately describe the velocity components directed along the coast (along isobathes) and from the coast towards the open sea. The suggested approach allowed to present the currents' spatial structures typical for different wind forcings as two maps with the components directed along and across the barotropic geostrophic current velocity. On these maps the areas of the intensive alongshore currents are clearly depicted (for ex. near the base of the Hel Spit, in the region of the Slupsk Sill). The combined analysis of the vectors of the whole and geostrophic velocities allows to reveal the areas where the geostrophic component is significantly strengthened or weakened by the ageostrophic component. Under the westerly wind such currents' features are clearly observed near the end of the Hel Spit and at the southern boarder of the Slupsk Sill, under the north-easterly wind - near the base of the Hel Spit, at the southern boarder of the Slupsk Furrow, near the Curonian Spit (where the relief is bent). On the maps presenting the spatial distributions of the across shore velocities the areas where the mass and momentum transport from the shore to the open sea in the surface layer and vice versa takes place are discriminated. There are also revealed the areas where sharp changes of different velocity components under the wind changes are expected as well as the areas where such changes are expected to be minimal. The model is validated using the field surveys of current velocities by ADCP in the area adjacent to the Kaliningrad region. The comparison of current velocities has shown a close correspondence. In rather wide area the directions and amplitudes of the model and ADCP surface velocities are close, that is additionally confirmed by the comparison of the local vorticity distributions. On the vertical transects of the ADCP current velocity directed across the shoreline the geostrophic jet is clearly pronounced. Its horizontal and vertical scales are in close correspondence with ones of the model jet. At that the more detail calculations which are allowed during the modeling have shown that the geostrophic currents amount to 40-60% (in average) of the whole velocity; two components of the ageostrophic velocity directed along and across the geostrophic velocity are highly variable (from 10 to 60% of the whole velocity). The ageostrophic component directed along the geostrophic current generally strengthens it (up to 20-40% in average and up to 60-70% near the end of the Hel Spit). But in some regions, for example, in the Slupsk Furrow the ageostrophic component slows down the geostrophic current (to 30-40%). In some narrow local areas immediately adjacent to the coast currents directed oppositely to the general quasi geostrophic jet were registered on both field and model data. Before the comparison with the field data these local jets revealed on the model data were considered as improbable. As a result, the comparative analysis of t

  7. North America Europe Central &

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    1 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa Population (100 millions) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 North America Western Europe Central & Eastern Europe Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & Central Asia Asia Pacific Africa

  8. A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this project were delivered at eleven different scientific meetings. Thus far, three publications have resulted from this project with another five in preparation. No subject inventions resulted from this research project.

  9. Lack of correlation between tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and leakage in roots filled with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, Ricardo; da SILVA NETO, Ulisses Xavier; CARNEIRO, Everdan; FARINIUK, Luiz Fernando; WESTPHALEN, Vânia Portela Ditzel; CUNHA, Rodrigo Sanches

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze possible correlations among tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and apical leakage in fillings performed with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin. Material and Methods Sixty similar, extracted human mandibular central incisors were irrigated, instrumented and filled following the same protocol. First, apical leakage was quantified by fluid filtration tests. Then, these same specimens were sectioned for analysis of tubular dentine cement penetration and the middle thirds were submitted to push-out tests to analyze the adhesiveness of the fillings. Results In brief, the means and standard deviations with a confidence interval of 95% were as follows: tubular dentine cement penetration (8.875±4.540), adhesiveness (4.441±2.683) and apical leakage (0.318±0.215). The data were confronted using the Pearson's test (P>0.05), and it was possible to prove that there was no correlation between (1) tubular dentine cement penetration and apical leakage (r2: 0.08276), (2) tubular dentine cement penetration and adhesiveness (r2: -0.2412) and (3) adhesiveness and apical leakage (r2: 0.1340). Conclusion After analysis of these data, it could be observed that there exists no correlation among the variables analyzed in this study. PMID:24626245

  10. REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  11. A new structural model for the northeast part of the CentralAppa-lachian foreland and fold-and-thrust belt is based on detailed field

    E-print Network

    -and-thrust system of Paleozoic age. Our inter- pretations differ from previous ones in which the entire region north in Paleozoic tectonic shortening northeastward from adjacent parts of the Central Appa- lachian foreland and illustrates the common occurrence of back- thrusting within the region. During early Paleozoic time northern

  12. A fluorescence based method, exploiting lipofuscin, for the real-time detection of central nervous system (CNS) tissues on bovine carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of Central Nervous System (CNS) tissues as part of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) risk material is one of the highest priority tasks to avoid contamination of the human food chain with BSE. No currently available method enables the real-time detection of possible CNS tissue conta...

  13. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  14. Microevolution in lower Central America: genetic characterization of the Chibcha-speaking groups of Costa Rica and Panama, and a consensus taxonomy based on genetic and linguistic affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, R; Smouse, P E; Mohrenweiser, H W; Gershowitz, H; Azofeifa, J; Arias, T D; Neel, J V

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence that Amerindians have continuously occupied the lower Central American Isthmus for as long as 10,000 years. There remains some doubt about the relationships of these original colonizers to the resident peoples of this zone at the time of European contact (approximately A.D. 1500). We present new genetic data for up to 48 genetic loci for 570 members of six Chibcha-speaking tribes of lower Central America--the Boruca, Bribri, Cabecar, and Guatuso of Costa Rica and the Kuna and Teribe of Panama--and delineate the genetic affinities among the various groups (these six tribes and the Guaymi and Bokota) of lower Central America. We convert standard genetic distance metrics into a form that is linear with the effective time since divergence, and we compare the genetic distances with linguistic distances for the same groups (r = .74, P less than .001). Geographic affinity accounts for some of the genetic divergence among groups (r = .49, P less than .084) and for some of the linguistic divergence (r = .53, P less than .037), but the correspondence between geographic position and taxonomic affinity is not high. We combine all of the genetic and linguistic data to construct a synthetic overview taxonomy of the lower Central American Chibcha. Both the genetic and linguistic data exhibit hierarchical organization of tribal groups, showing a general east-to-west pattern of grouping, with greater affinities between close neighbors. The presence of private genetic variants of some antiquity within the region and their absence outside the zone, coupled with the essential absence of the DI*A polymorphism of mongoloid origin that is widespread outside the zone, argue for a relatively isolated development of the Central American Chibcha. Our results do not support the old view of lower Central America as a frontier between more advanced cultures to the north and south. Any such explanation would require recent waves of migration from outside the region, migration that is not compatible with either the genetic or linguistic data or with the archaeological history of the region. PMID:2294755

  15. An analysis of organic matter sources for surface sediments in the central South Yellow Sea, China: evidence based on macroelements and n-alkanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengyin; Li, Shuanglin; Dong, Heping; Zhao, Qingfang; Lu, Xinchuan; Shi, Ji'an

    2014-11-15

    By analyzing the composition of n-alkane and macroelements in the surface sediments of the central South Yellow Sea of China, we evaluated the influencing factors on the distribution of organic matter. The analysis indicates that the distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) was low in the west and high in the east, and TOC was more related to Al2O3 content than medium diameter (MD). The composition of n-alkanes indicated the organic matter was mainly derived from terrestrial higher plants. Contributions from herbaceous plants and woody plants were comparable. The comprehensive analysis of the parameters of macroelements and n-alkanes showed the terrestrial organic matter in the central South Yellow Sea was mainly from the input of the modern Yellow River and old Yellow River. However, some samples exhibited evident input characteristics from petroleum sources, which changed the original n-alkanes of organic matter in sediments. PMID:25284443

  16. Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas, respectively. The highest median triazine concentration was found in the cropland/pastureland area. Chloroacetanilide concentra-tions ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, integrated, urban/built-up, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. Chlorophenoxy compound concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the urban/built-up, integrated, citrus, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. The maximum concentrations of triazines, chloroacetanilides, and chlorophenoxy compounds were 0.63, 1.0, and 14 micrograms per liter, respectively. Organophosphate was detected once at an integrated site at a concentration of 0.20 microgram per liter. Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has no aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. However, assuming that all triazine and metolachlor concentrations from ELISA and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses were the result of atrazine and metolachlor detections, no concentrations exceeded the Canadian aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. One organophosphate detection (0.2 microgram per liter) did exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life guideline for chlorpyrifos. The deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio (DAR) is an important indicator of atrazine transport in the environment. The DAR ranged from 0.25 to 0.33, indicating that postapplication runoff was the most likely source of atrazine to the environment at the time of sampling. Deisopropylatrazine is a metabolite of atrazine and structurally similar compounds, such as simazine and cyanazine. The deisopropylatrazine/deethylatrazine ratio (D2R) is an indicator of nonpoint sources of deisopropylatrazine to the environment. The ratio ranged from 1 to 3 in this study, indicating simazine was an important source of deisopropylatrazine to the environment at the time of sampling, as opposed to atrazine alone. Confirmation analyses by GC/MS for triazines detected by ELISA indicated t

  17. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Echols; D. A. Goddard; A. Bouma

    1993-01-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N\\/6E and 4N\\/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well

  18. Tectonic implications of fluvial incision and pediment deformation at the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau based on multiple cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Echtler, Helmut; Melnick, Daniel; Bookhagen, Bodo; ?iner, Attila; Niedermann, Samuel; Merchel, Silke; Martschini, Martin; Steier, Peter; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2013-09-01

    document Quaternary fluvial incision driven by fault-controlled surface deformation in the inverted intermontane Gök��rmak Basin in the Central Pontide mountains along the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau. In-situ-produced 10Be, 21Ne, and 36Cl concentrations from gravel-covered fluvial terraces and pediment surfaces along the trunk stream of the basin (the Gök��rmak River) yield model exposure ages ranging from 7 ± 1 ka to 346 ± 45 ka and average fluvial incision rates over the past ~350 ka of 0.28 ± 0.01 mm a-1. Similarities between river incision rates and coastal uplift rates at the Black Sea coast suggest that regional uplift is responsible for the river incision. Model exposure ages of deformed pediment surfaces along tributaries of the trunk stream range from 60 ± 5 ka to 110 ± 10 ka, demonstrating that the thrust faults responsible for pediment deformation were active after those times and were likely active earlier as well as explaining the topographic relief of the region. Together, our data demonstrate cumulative incision that is linked to active internal shortening and uplift of ~0.3 mm a-1 in the Central Pontide orogenic wedge, which may ultimately contribute to the lateral growth of the northern Anatolian Plateau.

  19. Central venous catheters - ports

    MedlinePLUS

    Central venous catheter - subcutaneous; Port-a-Cath; InfusaPort; PasPort; Subclavian port; Medi - port; Central venous line - port ... Catheters are used when you need medical treatment over a long period of time. For example, you ...

  20. Central Limit Theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David M. Lane

    This site from David Lane features a description of the central limit theorem used in statistics. Examples of frequency distributions are shown, and there is also a link to an interactive demonstration of the central limit theorem.

  1. Central Nervous System Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nabors, Louis Burt; Ammirati, Mario; Bierman, Philip J.; Brem, Henry; Butowski, Nicholas; Chamberlain, Marc C.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Fenstermaker, Robert A.; Friedman, Allan; Gilbert, Mark R.; Hesser, Deneen; Holdhoff, Matthias; Junck, Larry; Lawson, Ronald; Loeffler, Jay S.; Maor, Moshe H.; Moots, Paul L.; Morrison, Tara; Mrugala, Maciej M.; Newton, Herbert B.; Portnow, Jana; Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Recht, Lawrence; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Sills, Allen K.; Tran, David; Tran, Nam; Vrionis, Frank D.; Wen, Patrick Y.; McMillian, Nicole; Ho, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Primary and metastatic tumors of the central nervous system are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varied outcomes and management strategies. Recently, improved survival observed in 2 randomized clinical trials established combined chemotherapy and radiation as the new standard for treating patients with pure or mixed anaplastic oligodendroglioma harboring the 1p/19q codeletion. For metastatic disease, increasing evidence supports the efficacy of stereotactic radiosurgery in treating patients with multiple metastatic lesions but low overall tumor volume. These guidelines provide recommendations on the diagnosis and management of this group of diseases based on clinical evidence and panel consensus. This version includes expert advice on the management of low-grade infiltrative astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic gliomas, glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and brain metastases. The full online version, available at NCCN.org, contains recommendations on additional subtypes. PMID:24029126

  2. Central and peripheral demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Gulati, Natasha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to adequately assess all these possibilities. PMID:24741263

  3. Endodontic applications of a short pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser: photovaporization of extruded pulpal tissue following traumatic fractures of two maxillary central incisors--a clinical trial repor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Robert H., II

    1992-06-01

    Historically, many techniques have been attempted in the search for a satisfactory and consistent treatment of inflamed, painful, hyperemic pulpal tissue. Present techniques attempting to achieve profound local anesthesia in such tissue, have not been satisfactory. Local anesthesia techniques acceptable to the patient with painful hyperemic pulpal tissue, has eluded previous technology. The subsequent treatment of hyperemic tissue without sufficient anesthesia primarily involves undesirable invasive mechanical/surgical procedures. Described in this clinical trial is a technique using free running (FR) pulsed, Nd:YAG laser energy to ablate soft tooth pulpal tissue--a technique employed after conventional endodontic methods failed. A free running pulsed, FR Nd:YAG dental laser was successfully used at 20 pulses per second and 1.25 watts to photovaporize endodontic pulpal tissue (pulpectomy) to allow a conventional endodontic file to extirpate the remaining soft tissue remnants and access the root apex. Also described in this paper is the 'hot-tip' effect of contact fiber laser surgery. This clinical trial achieved the immediate, short term objective of endodontic soft tissue removal via photovaporization, without pain reported by the patient. The pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser used as described in this clinical report appears to be a very safe and very effective technique; offers a treatment alternative to traditional therapy that suggests high patient acceptance; and is significantly less stressful for the doctor and staff than traditional treatment options. Long-term, controlled scientific and clinical studies are necessary to establish the safety and efficacy of both the helium-neon energy for visualization and the low-watt pulsed FR Nd:YAG energy for photovaporization of soft endodontic pulpal tissue within the root canal. Research is especially needed to understand the effects of a low-watt, pulsed FR, Nd:YAG laser on the activity of osteoclasts and odontoclasts and identify risks for developing external and/or internal resorption after intracanal application of pulsed FR Nd:YAG laser energy.

  4. European Central Bank

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB) collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven European languages).

  5. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Aurora, R Nisha; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Ramar, Kannan; Bista, Sabin R; Casey, Kenneth R; Lamm, Carin I; Kristo, David A; Mallea, Jorge M; Rowley, James A; Zak, Rochelle S; Tracy, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (ICSD-2) distinguishes 5 subtypes of central sleep apnea syndromes (CSAS) in adults. Review of the literature suggests that there are two basic mechanisms that trigger central respiratory events: (1) post-hyperventilation central apnea, which may be triggered by a variety of clinical conditions, and (2) central apnea secondary to hypoventilation, which has been described with opioid use. The preponderance of evidence on the treatment of CSAS supports the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Much of the evidence comes from investigations on CSAS related to congestive heart failure (CHF), but other subtypes of CSAS appear to respond to CPAP as well. Limited evidence is available to support alternative therapies in CSAS subtypes. The recommendations for treatment of CSAS are summarized as follows: CPAP therapy targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is indicated for the initial treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)Nocturnal oxygen therapy is indicated for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)Adaptive Servo-Ventilation (ASV) targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is indicated for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)BPAP therapy in a spontaneous timed (ST) mode targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) may be considered for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF only if there is no response to adequate trials of CPAP, ASV, and oxygen therapies. (OPTION)The following therapies have limited supporting evidence but may be considered for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF after optimization of standard medical therapy, if PAP therapy is not tolerated, and if accompanied by close clinical follow-up: acetazolamide and theophylline. (OPTION)Positive airway pressure therapy may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION)Acetazolamide has limited supporting evidence but may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION)The use of zolpidem and triazolam may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS only if the patient does not have underlying risk factors for respiratory depression. (OPTION)The following possible treatment options for CSAS related to end-stage renal disease may be considered: CPAP, supplemental oxygen, bicarbonate buffer use during dialysis, and nocturnal dialysis. (OPTION) . PMID:22215916

  6. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  7. Central Michigan University

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Central Michigan University

    Central Michigan University serves Michigan and the larger community as a doctoral/research intensive public university focused on excellent teaching and student-focused learning. The University is committed to providing a broad range of undergraduate and graduate programs and services to prepare its students for varied roles as responsible citizens and leaders in a democratic and diverse society. Its programs encourage intellectual and moral growth, prepare students for meaningful careers and professions, instill the values of lifelong learning, and encourage civic responsibility, public service and understanding among social groups in a global society. The university emphasizes an undergraduate program that maintains a balance between general education and specialization. In addition to educational depth in at least one academic discipline or professional field, the university provides educational experiences in the arts, humanities, natural and social sciences, global cultures, and issues of race and diversity. The university offers selected high quality graduate programs in traditional disciplines and professional fields. Through its College of Extended Learning, the university provides access to higher education programs and lifelong learning opportunities both nationally and internationally through a variety of innovative instructional methods and schedules designed to meet the demands of adult populations. Central Michigan University encourages research, scholarship and creative activity and promotes the scholarly pursuit and dissemination of new knowledge, artistic production and applied research. Through its support of research, the university enhances the learning opportunities of both its undergraduate and graduate students and promotes economic, cultural and social development. The university?s sense of community is reflected through governance structures that allow broadbased participation, opportunities for close student-faculty interaction, and a rich array of residential and campus-based co-curricular activities. Through its partnerships and outreach efforts, the university promotes learning outsideof the traditional classroom and enhances the general welfare of society.

  8. Martian Central Pit Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

  9. HealthCentral

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    HealthCentral (formerly HealthScout), a news service provided by Rx Remedy, Inc., posts fifteen to twenty short, easy-to-understand articles each day on a variety of medical and health topics in the news. Articles are based on interviews with experts and reports from medical journals, and HealthScout cites sources and provides links to related resources for each. HealthScout also summarizes newswire stories and links to the original newspaper or journal article. A Directory section contains an archive of older articles. Registration is not required to use the site; however, visitors can sign up to receive personalized health or medical news reports by filling out a personal survey. Quick registration allows users to select from nearly 350 topics; "7-Minute Checkup" requires extensive personal information, but provides a choice of over 700 topics and a detailed health-risk assessment based on the user's responses. The site contains a privacy statement and recommends that users select "Switch to Secure Server" [which requires a browser that supports Secure Socket Layers (SSL)] before submitting information. Searches of news sources are performed every four hours, and users can opt to receive email notification when HealthScout posts new information on their topic.

  10. Surface Water Conditions in the Central Gulf of California During the Past 52 Kyrs Based on Diatoms and Silicoflagellates: Implications for Monsoonal Moisture Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Bukry, D.; Cheshire, H.

    2012-12-01

    Between late fall and early spring persistent northwest winds in the Gulf of California (GoC) cause upwelling of subsurface waters rich in nutrients, resulting in high surface water productivity and the deposition of biogenic silica-rich sediments. Slackening of these winds during the spring leads to progressive northward advection of warmer, more oligotrophic waters. Surges of monsoonal moisture up the axis of the Gulf into the southwestern US begin in July when SSTs in the northern GoC exceed 26°C. Our studies of biogenic SST proxies (diatoms, silicoflagellates, calcium carbonate) reveal that surface waters of the central GoC were too cool between ~10.5 and 7.5 ka (early Holocene) to support northward surges of monsoonal moisture. During this interval, warmer SSTs off the Pacific coast of Baja California appear to have facilitated a more zonal flow of tropical moisture into a geographically broader region of the southwestern US (Barron et al., 2012). High-resolution studies of diatoms and silicoflagellates of the past 52 kyr on well dated cores (MD02-2517/2515) from the central GoC reveal profound changes in GoC surface waters that should have affected the pathways of monsoonal moisture. During Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS2), the persistent presence of Distephanus speculum (silicoflagellate) is evidence that the California Current penetrated into the GoC, likely reflecting a southward-shifted Subtropical High pressure cell. Diatoms also suggest an increased presence of cool, low salinity surface waters in the central GoC between ~27 and 18 ka that would not have been conducive to northward surges of monsoonal moisture. The dominance of the diatom Azpeitia nodulifera between 52 and 27 ka is evidence that tropical oligotrophic waters were present year round during MIS3. Silicoflagellates, however, indicate that oligotrophic conditions alternated with lower salinity, subtropical surface waters during MIS3, much as they did during the Holocene. Abrupt increases of Dictyocha aff. aculeata, a silicoflagellate characteristic of deep thermocline conditions in the North Pacific, coincide in time with warm Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events, implying a higher influx of deep Pacific waters into the central GoC. We propose that reduced seasonality and generally warmer surface water conditions during MIS3 should have been conducive to surges of monsoonal moisture into the southwestern US, with the possibility that these surges may have been enhanced during warm D-O events. Although some terrestrial proxy studies call for for reduced winter precipitation in the southwestern US during the warm D-O events of MIS 3, other records suggest the possibility of increased monsoonal precipitation in the southwestern US. Barron, J.A., Metcalfe, S. E., and Addison, J.A. (2012), Response of the North American Monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature, Paleoceanography, 27, PA3206, doi:10.1029/2011PA002235, 2012.

  11. Evidence for a chemical-thermal structure at base of mantle from sharp lateral P-wave variations beneath Central America.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xinlei; Song, Xiaodong; Zheng, Sihua; Helmberger, Don V

    2007-01-01

    Compressional waves that sample the lowermost mantle west of Central America show a rapid change in travel times of up to 4 s over a sampling distance of 300 km and a change in waveforms. The differential travel times of the PKP waves (which traverse Earth's core) correlate remarkably well with predictions for S-wave tomography. Our modeling suggests a sharp transition in the lowermost mantle from a broad slow region to a broad fast region with a narrow zone of slowest anomaly next to the boundary beneath the Cocos Plate and the Caribbean Plate. The structure may be the result of ponding of ancient subducted Farallon slabs situated near the edge of a thermal and chemical upwelling. PMID:17182740

  12. A Computer Based File of X-Ray and Electron Beam Central Axis Depth Dose Data for Use in Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, James A.; Harms, William B.; Fivozinsky, Sherman

    1980-01-01

    The central axis absorbed dose data for x-ray and electron beams generated by linear accelerators in the energy range 4 thru 25 MV are being compiled. The compilation includes specific x-ray beam parameters (surface doses, output factors, percent depth doses, tissue-phantom ratios, and wedge factors) as well as electron beam parameters (percent depth doses and output factors). The compilation includes published data sets of these parameters and those obtained directly from over 100 institutions participating in the study. The data are grouped by accelerator model and input into computer files that provide a standard format suitable for intercomparisons. The software used to construct the computer files and to manipulate the data is discussed. Selected examples of the average values of parameters obtained to date with the standard deviations, the coefficients of variation, and the maximum and minimum values will be presented for several different linear accelerator models.

  13. Dealing with Climate Change and Variability in the Growing Season: a U2U Decision Support Tool for Central United States Corn Producers Based on Corn Growing Degree Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, J. R.; Todey, D.; Massey, R.; Widhalm, M.; Biehl, L. L.; Andresen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate extremes are a major challenge for corn producers in the central United States. Among those extremes are wet springs that lead to planting delays, late spring and early fall frosts that can damage crops, and extreme summer temperatures either too warm or too cool. A newly-operational corn growing degree-day (CGDD) tool helps producers manage and adapt to these extremes. For example, a challenge in recent years has been exceptionally wet springs that have led to significant planting delays. Producers have been forced to re-assess their planting strategies on short notice, such as switching to a faster-growing but lower-yielding hybrids. With this pattern of wetter springs projected to continue or worsen in the central United States, the problem will remain and likely get worse. Another example is helping producers identify the risk of early or late frost/freezes. The CGDD tool puts current conditions into a 30-year historical perspective and offers trend projections (based on climatology or forecasts) through the end of the calendar year. Corn, or sometimes called modified, growing degree-days use a temperature base of 10 C (50 F) and a ceiling of 30 C (86 F) and is strongly correlated with the development of the corn crop. This tool was developed as part of USDA-supported U2U Useful to Usable Project for transforming climate variability and change information for cereal crop producers.

  14. Molecular centrality for synthetic design of convergent reactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Tanaka; Takashi Kawai; Mihoko Fujii; Tsutomu Matsumoto; Tetsuhiko Takabatake; Hideho Okamoto; Kimito Funatsu

    2008-01-01

    With convergent synthesis in mind, we defined a new parameter to quantify the degree of centrality of each atom and bond in a molecule, so-called molecular centrality, which was defined based on squared node distances. The centrality becomes higher as the location of atoms gets closer to the center of a molecule. From the results of validation with 40 organic

  15. Is bank supervision central to central banking?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several central banks have lost their bank supervisory responsibilities, in part because it has not been shown that supervisory authority improves the conduct of monetary policy. This paper finds that confidential bank supervisory information could help the Board staff more accurately forecast important macroeconomic variables and is used by FOMC members to guide monetary policy. These findings suggest that

  16. Vaccination against human papillomavirus among 865 female students from the health professions in central Greece: a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannis, Dimitrios; Rachiotis, George; Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Daponte, Alexandros; Grivea, Ioanna N; Syrogiannopoulos, George A; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Background There are still sparse data on vaccination coverage against human papillomavirus (HPV) among students in the health professions. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV vaccination coverage in female students from the health professions in Greece. Methods A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to second-year and third-year female students pursuing degrees in medicine, nursing, and paramedical health disciplines in central Greece. Results Overall vaccination coverage was 44.3%. The major reason for lack of vaccination was fear about safety of the vaccine. Participants who had received information about safety of the vaccine from the mass media and paramedical students had lower vaccination coverage in comparison with students who had received information about vaccine safety from alternative sources. Conclusion Further quantitative and qualitative research is needed to design educational activities targeting female students in the health professions in order to create a positive domino effect and improve HPV vaccination coverage levels in Greece. PMID:24324338

  17. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Ramakrishnan, TS; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Mehta, Suresh; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry. PMID:25535438

  18. Central Nebraska river basins Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huntzinger, Thomas L.; Ellis, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The Central Nebraska Basins (NAWQA) study unit includes the Platte River and two major tributaries, the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers. Platte River flows are variable of diversions, but the Loup and Elkhorn Rivers originate in an area of dune sand covered by grassland that generates consistent base flows. Ground water has no regional confining units and the system is a water table aquifer throughout. Macroinvertebrate and fish taxa were related to stream flow. One of the four wetland complexes includes habitat for threatened and endangered bird species. A water quality assessments will be based on the differences in environmental setting in each of four subunits within the study unit.

  19. Central Southern Thai Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewkhao, Uthai; Kiatboonyarit, Tawan

    The dictionary for Central to Southern varieties of Thai is designed as a reference for use by Peace Corps volunteers assigned to southern Thailand. An introductory section gives an overview of the dictionary's content and design and some notes on tone patterns and spelling variation in the Central and Southern varieties. Most of the words…

  20. Central American update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers,

  1. Presence of nitrous oxide hotspots in the coastal upwelling area off central Chile: an analysis of temporal variability based on ten years of a biogeochemical time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, L.; Besoain, V.; García-Loyola, S.

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual variabilities of biogeochemical variables, including nitrous oxide (N2O), an important climate active gas, were analyzed during monthly observations between 2002 and 2012 at an ocean Time-Series station in the coastal upwelling area off central Chile (36° 30.8? 73° 15?). Oxygen, N2O, nutrients and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) showed clear seasonal variability associated with upwelling favorable winds (spring–summer) and also inter-annual variability, which in the case of N2O was clearly observed during the occurrence of N2O hotspots with saturation levels of up to 4849%. These hotspots consistently took place during the upwelling-favorable periods in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, below the mixed layer (15–50 m depth) in waters with hypoxia and some N{{O}2}- accumulation. The N2O hotspots displayed excesses of N2O (?N2O) three times higher than the average monthly anomalies (2002–2012). Estimated relationships of ?N2O versus apparent oxygen utilization (AOU), and ?N2O versus N{{O}3}-, suggest that aerobic ammonium oxidation (AAO) and partial denitrification are the processes responsible for high N2O accumulation in subsurface water. Chl-a levels were reasonably correlated with the presence of the N2O hotspots, suggesting that microbial activities fuelled by high availability of organic matters lead to high N2O production. As a result, this causes a substantial N2O efflux into the atmosphere of up to 260 ?mol m?2 d?1. The N2O hotspots are transient events or hot moments, which may occur more frequently than they are observed. If so, this upwelling area is producing and emitting greater than expected amounts of N2O and is therefore an important N2O source that should be considered in the global atmospheric N2O balance.

  2. Impact of Inquiry Based Distance Learning and Availability of Classroom Materials on Physical Science Content Knowledge of Teachers and Students in Central Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Timothy John

    2012-01-01

    Physical science is important for developing scientific literacy yet a majority of teachers responsible for physical science courses do not have an academic degree in physical science. Programs aimed at increasing teacher content knowledge can be time consuming. This dissertation examines the impact of an inquiry based, professional development…

  3. Abstract Traditional crop landraces play dynamic roles in the expression of native biological and cultural diversity via their central position in the genetic resource base,

    E-print Network

    Rice, Kevin

    -based agroecosystems: indigenous research and conservation of mavo (Oryza sativa L.) upland rice landraces of eastern Landraces Æ Manggarai Æ Oryza sativa Æ Rainfed Æ Upland rice Introduction The predominance of the edible domesticated grass, rice (Oryza sativa L.), in Southeast Asian material and spiritual culture has led to rice

  4. Central Exclusive Production at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, Wlodek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| more »1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.« less

  5. Central Exclusive Production at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adamczyk, Leszek [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science , AGH - University of Science and Technology, Krakow, (Poland); Guryn, Wlodek [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Turnau, Jacek [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow, (Poland)

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  6. Flat versus normal subduction zones: a comparison based on 3-D regional traveltime tomography and petrological modelling of central Chile and western Argentina (29°-35°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marot, M.; Monfret, T.; Gerbault, M.; Nolet, G.; Ranalli, G.; Pardo, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our study compares the seismic properties between the flat and normal subduction regions in central Chile, to better understand the links between the slab geometry, surface deformation and the deeper structures. In comparison with previous studies, we show the most complete 3-D regional seismic tomography images for this region, in which we use (1) a larger seismic data set compiled from several short-term seismic catalogues, (2) a denser seismic array allowing a better resolution of the subduction zone from the trench to the backarc and into the upper ˜30 km of the slab and (3) a starting 1-D background velocity model specifically calculated for this region and refined over the years. We assess and discuss our tomography results using regional seismic attenuation models and estimating rock types on the basis of pressure and temperature conditions computed from thermomechanical models. Our results show significant seismic differences between the flat and normal subduction zones. As expected, the faster seismic velocities and increased seismicity within the flat slab and overriding lithosphere are generally consistent with a cooler thermal state. Our results are also consistent with dehydration of the mantle above the subducted Juan Fernandez Ridge at the eastern tip of the flat slab segment, indicating that the latter retains some fluids during subduction. However, fluids in the upper portion of the flat slab segment are not seismically detected, since we report instead fast slab seismic velocities which contradict the argument of its buoyancy being the cause of horizontal subduction. The forearc region, above the flat slab, exhibits high Vs and very low Vp/Vs ratios, uncorrelated with typical rock compositions, increased density or reduced temperature; this feature is possibly linked with the aftershock effects of the Mw7.1 1997 Punitaqui earthquake, the flat slab geometry and/or seismic anisotropy. At the surface, the seismic variations correlate with the geological terranes. The Andean crust is strongly reduced in seismic velocities along the La Ramada-Aconcagua deformation belt, suggesting structural damage. Slow seismic velocities along the Andean Moho match non-eclogitized hydrated rocks, consistent with a previous delamination event or a felsic composition, which in turn supports the extent of the Chilenia terrane at these depths. We confirm previous studies that suggest that the Cuyania terrane in the backarc region is mafic and contains an eclogitized lower crust below 50-km depth. We also hypothesize major Andean basement detachment faults (or shear zones) to extend towards the plate interface and canalize slab-derived fluids into the continental crust.

  7. Factors associated with concordant estrogen receptor expression at diagnosis and centralized re-assay in a Danish population-based breast cancer study

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Hellberg, Ylva; Lauridsen, Kristina L.; Ahern, Thomas P.; Garne, Jens Peter; Rosenberg, Carol; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor (ER) expression predicts tamoxifen response, which halves the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We examined clinical factors associated with concordance between ER expression at diagnosis and centralized re-assay, and the association of concordance with breast cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods We used immunohistochemistry to assess ER expression on archived fixed, paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma tissue excised from women aged 35–69 years, diagnosed 1985–2001 in Jutland, Denmark. We calculated the percentage agreement, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of ER status at diagnosis and re-assay. We used logistic regression to investigate factors associated with concordance, and its association with recurrence (odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)). Results ER was re-assayed in 91% of patients (n=1530). Concordance was better in ER+ than ER? tumors (PPV=94% versus NPV=75%). Factors associated with concordance included menopausal status, tumor size, surgical procedure, diagnostic period, lymph node status and time to recurrence. ER+ women at diagnosis who re-assayed ER+ were less likely to have recurrent disease (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28, 0.86) than those who re-assayed ER?. In originally ER? women, concordance was not associated with recurrence (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.66, 1.42). Conclusions Several clinical factors were associated with ER assay concordance. Some women were ineffectively treated with tamoxifen, or required but did not receive tamoxifen. We observed almost exactly the protective effect of endocrine therapy among tamoxifen-treated ER+ women whose tumors expressed the ER on re-assay, compared with those ER? on re-assay. Diagnostic pathology results for ER+ tumors appear a valid and useful resource for research studies. However, those for ER? tumors have lower validity. Study-specific considerations regarding the aims, diagnostic period, and consequences of including ER? patients with truly ER+ disease ought to be examined when using diagnostic pathology results for ER? tumors in research studies. PMID:22129357

  8. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

  9. Feeding strategies for small-scale dairy systems based on perennial ( Lolium perenne ) or annual ( Lolium multiflorum ) ryegrass in the central highlands of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Heredia-Nava; A. Espinoza-Ortega; C. E. González-Esquivel; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

    2007-01-01

    Small-scale dairying is an option for campesinos in Mexico. The costs of feeding are high and strategies based on quality forages are a priority. The performance, agronomic\\u000a variables and feeding costs were evaluated for dairy cows continuously grazing perennial ryegrass–white clover for 9 h\\/day\\u000a (PRG) or fed cut herbage from annual ryegrass for 8 weeks followed by 9 h\\/day for 6 weeks

  10. Remote sensing of aerosol optical depth over central Europe from MSG-SEVIRI data and accuracy assessment with ground-based AERONET measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Popp; A. Hauser; N. Foppa; S. Wunderle

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the remote sensing of aerosol optical depth (?a) from the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) is demonstrated. The proposed method is based on the analysis of a time series of SEVIRI's 0.6 ?m channel images. Top-of-atmosphere reflectance is precorrected for the effect of atmospheric gases and a background aerosol amount.

  11. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The Valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier Acceleration Spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with Negligible Site Amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with Significant Site Amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (< 3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23 Hz. With these groups of stations, average levels of amplification were contrasted for the first time with those caused by the subduction zone earthaquakes. With respect to the FAS shapes, most of them showed similarities at similar epicentral distances. Finally, some variations of site effects were found when compared to those obtained in previous studies on different seismicity regions. These variations were attributed to the location of the source. These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on the Central Mexico due to large earthquakes within the MVB seismogenic zone.

  12. On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico (the Mexican volcanic belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent. However, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, that has been studied in detail. Studies have mainly focused on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred off coast of Michoacán. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects in the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data when obtaining attenuation parameters in future works, as well as some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with negligible site amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with significant site amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (<3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23 Hz. With these groups of stations, average levels of amplification were contrasted for the first time with those caused by the subduction zone earthquakes. With respect to the FAS shapes, most of them showed similarities at similar epicentral distances. Finally, some variations of site effects were found when compared to those obtained in previous studies on different seismicity regions. These variations were attributed to the location of the source. These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on central Mexico due to large earthquakes within the MVB seismogenic zone.

  13. Characterization of surface-water quality based on real-time monitoring and regression analysis, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, south-central Kansas, December 1998 through June 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the considerable wildlife benefits offered by the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in south-central Kansas, there is a desire to ensure suitable water quality. To assess the quality of water flowing from Rattlesnake Creek into the refuge, the U.S. Geological Survey collected periodic water samples from December 1998 through June 2001 and analyzed the samples for physical properties, dissolved solids, total suspended solids, suspended sediment, major ions, nutrients, metals, pesticides, and indicator bacteria. Concentrations of 10 of the 125 chemicals analyzed did not meet water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life and drinking water in a least one sample. These were pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, phosphorus, total coliform bacteria, E. coli bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria. No metal or pesticide concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria. Twenty-two of the 43 metals analyzed were not detected, and 36 of the 46 pesticides analyzed were not detected. Because dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, fecal coliform bacteria, and other chemicals that are a concern for the health and habitat of fish and wildlife at the refuge cannot be measured continuously, regression equations were developed from a comparison of the analytical results of periodic samples and in-stream monitor measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. A continuous record of estimated chemical concentrations was developed from continuously recorded in-stream measurements. Annual variation in water quality was evaluated by comparing 1999 and 2000 sample data- the 2 years for which complete data sets were available. Median concentrations of alkalinity, fluoride, nitrate, and fecal coliform bacteria were smaller or did not change from 1999 to 2000. Dissolved solids, total suspended solids, sodium, chloride, sulfate, total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus had increases in median concentrations from 1999 to 2000. Increases in the median concentrations of the major ions were expected due to decreased rainfall in 2000 and very low streamflow late in the year. Increases for solids and nutrients may have been due to the unusually high streamflow in the early spring of 2000. This was the time of year when fields were tilled, exposing solids and nutrients that were transported with runoff to Rattlesnake Creek. Load estimates indicate the chemical mass transported into the refuge and can be used in the development of total maximum daily loads (as specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) for water-quality contaminants in Rattlesnake Creek. Load estimates also were used to evaluate seasonal variation in water quality. Seasonal variation was most pronounced in the estimates of nutrient loads, and most of the nutrient load transported to the refuge occurred during just a few periods of surface runoff in the spring and summer. This information may be used by resource managers to determine when water-diversion strategies would be most beneficial. Load estimates also were used to calculate yields, which are useful for site comparisons. The continuous and real-time nature of the record of estimated concentrations, loads, and yields may be important for resource managers, recreationalists, or others for evaluating water-diversion strategies, making water-use decisions, or assessing the environmental effects of chemicals in time to prevent adverse effects on fish or other aquatic life at the refuge.

  14. Central nervous system

    MedlinePLUS

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for the entire nervous system, and control all the workings of your body.

  15. Central serous choroidopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... up without treatment in 1 or 2 months. Laser treatment or photodynamic therapy to seal the leak may ... small number of people will have complications from laser treatment that impair their central vision. That is why ...

  16. Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is underlain by an extensive complex of rocks, ranging from Late Cambrian through Late Triassic in age, that are typically about 10 to perhaps 1,000 times less permeable than those composing the aquifer system. The Cretaceous rocks of the aquifer system are separated from the pre-Cretaceous rocks by an unconformity that spans about 60 million years of erosion during the Jurassic Period. The upper surface of the pre-Cretaceous rock complex forms the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. The configuration of the base reflects the original topography of the eroded pre-Cretaceous land surface plus the effects of subsequent deformation. The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

  17. Probability: Central limit theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-06-21

    After heuristically deriving Stirling's approximation in the first video segment, we outline a simple example of the central limit theorem for the case of the binomial distribution. In the final segment, we explain how the central limit theorem is used to suggest that physical experiments are characterized by normally-distributed (Gaussian) fluctuations while fluctuations in biological experiments are said to fill out log-normal distributions.

  18. Central core disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinz Jungbluth

    2007-01-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder characterised by central cores on muscle biopsy and clinical\\u000a features of a congenital myopathy. Prevalence is unknown but the condition is probably more common than other congenital myopathies.\\u000a CCD typically presents in infancy with hypotonia and motor developmental delay and is characterized by predominantly proximal\\u000a weakness pronounced in the hip girdle;

  19. Enzyme-assisted extraction and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of patulin in apple juice and method optimization using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Tavakoli, Rouya; Kamankesh, Marzieh; Rashedi, Hamid; Attaran, Abdolmohammad; Delavar, Mostafa

    2013-12-01

    A simple and highly sensitive analytical methodology for isolation and determination of patulin in apple-juice samples, based on enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) was developed and optimized. Enzymes play essential roles in eliminating interference and increasing the extraction efficiency of patulin. Apple-juice samples were treated with pectinase and amylase. A mixture of 80 ?L ionic liquid and 600 ?L methanol (disperser solvent) was used for the IL-DLLME process. The sedimented phase was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Experimental parameters controlling the performance of DLLME, were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed high levels of linearity (R(2)>0.99) for patulin in the range of 1-200 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the seven analyses was 7.5%. The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.15 ng g(-1) and 0.5 ng g(-1), respectively. The merit figures, compared with other methods, showed that new proposed method is an accurate, precise and reliable sample-pretreatment method that substantially reduces sample matrix interference and gives very good enrichment factors and detection limits for investigation trace amount of patulin in apple-juice samples. PMID:24267070

  20. Isolated central vestibular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-04-01

    Isolated vestibular syndrome may occur all along the vestibular pathways from the peripheral labyrinth to the brain. By virtue of recent developments in clinical neurotology and neuroimaging, however, diagnosis of isolated central vestibulopathy is increasing. Here, we review five distinct syndromes of isolated central vestibular syndrome from lesions restricted to the vestibular nuclei, the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, the flocculus, the tonsil, and the nodulus, and introduce a new vestibular syndrome from isolated involvement of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Decreased responses to head impulses do not exclude a central lesion as a cause of isolated vestibular syndrome. Brain imaging, including diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), may be falsely negative during the acute phase in patients with isolated vestibular syndrome because of a stroke. Central signs should be sought carefully in patients with isolated vertigo, even when the patients show the features of peripheral vestibulopathy and negative MRIs. Recognition of these isolated central vestibular syndromes would aid in defining the lesions responsible for various vestibular manifestations in central vestibulopathy. PMID:25735822

  1. Central electron temperature estimations of TJ-II neutral beam injection heated plasmas based on the soft x ray multi-foil technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baiao, D.; Varandas, C. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Medina, F.; Ochando, M.; McCarthy, K.; Tabares, F.; Pastor, I. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    The core electron temperature (T{sub e0}) of neutral beam heated plasmas is determined in TJ-II stellarator by using soft x ray detectors with beryllium filters of different thickness, based on the method known as the foil absorption technique. T{sub e0} estimations are done with the impurity code IONEQ, making use of complementary information from the TJ-II soft x ray tomography and the VUV survey diagnostics. When considering the actual electron density and temperature profile shapes, an acceptable agreement is found with Thomson scattering measurements for 8 different magnetic configurations. The impact of the use of both neutral beam injectors on the T{sub e0} measurements is addressed. Also, the behaviour of T{sub e0} during spontaneous profile transitions is presented.

  2. Base of the upper layer of the phase-three Elkhorn-Loup groundwater-flow model, north-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    The Elkhorn and Loup Rivers in Nebraska provide water for irrigation, recreation, hydropower produc­tion, aquatic life, and municipal water systems for the Omaha and Lincoln metropolitan areas. Groundwater is another important resource in the region and is extracted primarily for agricultural irrigation. Water managers of the area are interested in balancing and sustaining the long-term uses of these essential surface-water and groundwater resources. Thus, a cooperative study was established in 2006 to compile reliable data describing hydrogeologic properties and water-budget components and to improve the understanding of stream-aquifer interactions in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. A groundwater-flow model was constructed as part of the first two phases of that study as a tool for under­standing the effect of groundwater pumpage on stream base flow and the effects of management strategies on hydrologically connected groundwater and surface-water supplies. The third phase of the study was implemented to gain additional geologic knowledge and update the ELM with enhanced water-budget information and refined discretization of the model grid and stress periods. As part of that effort, the ELM is being reconstructed to include two vertical model layers, whereas phase-one and phase-two simulations represented the aquifer system using one vertical model layer. This report presents a map of and methods for developing the elevation of the base of the upper model layer for the phase-three ELM. Digital geospatial data of elevation contours and geologic log sites used to esti­mate elevation contours are available as part of this report.

  3. Centralized drug review processes: are they fair?

    PubMed

    Mitton, Craig R; McMahon, Meghan; Morgan, Steve; Gibson, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Numerous countries have implemented centralized drug review processes to assist in making drug coverage decisions. In addition to examining the final recommendations of these bodies, it is also important to ensure fairness in decision making. Accountability for reasonableness is an ethics-based framework for examining the fairness of priority setting processes. The objective of this study was to assess the fairness of four internationally established centralized drug review processes using accountability for reasonableness. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with stakeholders in Canada, New Zealand, Australia and the UK (n=16). Participants were asked to evaluate their country's centralized drug review process against the four conditions of accountability for reasonableness. Each centralized drug review process satisfied at least one of the four ethical conditions, but none satisfied all four conditions. All participants viewed transparency as critical to both the legitimacy and fairness of centralized drug review processes. Additional strides need to be made in each of the four countries under study to improve the fairness of their centralized drug review processes. Ideally, a fair priority setting process should foster constructive stakeholder engagement and enhance the legitimacy of decisions made in assessing pharmaceutical products for funding. As policy makers are under increasing scrutiny in allocating limited resources, fair process should be seen as a critical component of such activity. This study represents the first attempt to conduct an international comparison of the fairness of centralized drug review agencies in the eyes of participating stakeholders. PMID:16427728

  4. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  5. POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC

    E-print Network

    POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC Abstract. A semigroup is said to be power centralized if for every pair of elements x and y there exists a power of x commuting with y. The structure of power centralized groups and semigroups is investigated. In particular, we characterize 0-simple power centralized

  6. Centralized Mouse Repositories

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Leah Rae; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T.

    2013-01-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world. PMID:22945696

  7. The Central Limit Theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anderson-Cook, C.

    The applets in this section of Statistical Java allow you to see how the Central Limit Theorem works. The main page gives the characteristics of five non-normal distributions (Bernoulli, Poisson, Exponential, U-shaped, and Uniform). Users then select one of the distributions and change the sample size to see how the distribution of the sample mean approaches normality. Users can also change the number of samples. To select between the different applets you can click on Statistical Theory, the Central Limit Theorem and then the Main Page. At the bottom of this page you can make your applet selection.

  8. Central American update

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1987-07-01

    The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers, and technicians. The energy resources project began in March 1985. The progress being made in El Salvador (production well logging and geophysical operations), Panama (site selection for the first temperature-gradient well), and Honduras (well drilling of temperature-gradient wells) is summarized.

  9. Channeling the Central Dogma

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    How do neurons and networks achieve their characteristic electrical activity, regulate this activity homeostatically, and yet show population variability in expression? O'Leary et al. address some of these thorny questions in this theoretical analysis that starts with the Central Dogma. PMID:24853932

  10. Education in Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, George R.; Waggoner, Barbara Ashton

    The first chapter of this book describes the physical and cultural environment of Central America and includes analytical comments showing the complexity of the problems confronting the region. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama are then treated in separate chapters including: 1) political, economic, social and…

  11. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  12. Central Authority and Order

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Erikson; Joseph M. Parent

    2007-01-01

    Strong central authorities are able to effectively manage costly defection, but are unable to adequately address lesser conflicts because of limits to their ability to monitor and enforce. We argue, counterintuitively, that these limitations build coop- eration and trust among subordinates:the limitations contribute to the production of order. First, limits to authority leave space for locally informed decentralized enforce- ment.

  13. Central pain control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Calvino; Rose Marie Grilo

    2006-01-01

    We describe the anatomic and physiological components involved in pain physiology, with the goal of providing readers with the background information needed to understand central pain control mechanisms. These include spinal segmental controls, supraspinal excitatory and inhibitory controls, and diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs). Pain is a subjective sensation produced by an emotionally unpleasant experience considered to originate in adaptive

  14. A quarterly and Central

    E-print Network

    A quarterly report on employment and office markets in Northern and Central New Jersey May 2008- plications for the state's office markets. This year has every indication of being a very difficult and New Jersey's plan to purchase a $60 million lease on the Northeast Auto Marine Terminal in Jersey City

  15. [Central African Republique].

    PubMed

    The capital of Central African Republic is Bangui. As of 1995, Central African Republic had a population of 3.3 million governed by a presidential regime. 1994 gross national product and per capita income were, respectively, $1.2 billion and $370. Per capita income declined by 2.8% per year over the period 1985-94. In 1994, Central African Republic owed $890.6 million, then being serviced at $79.6 million. For the same year, Central African Republic exported $185.5 million in goods and services and imported $280.4 million. As of 1995, the population was growing in size by 2.4% annually. In 1992-93, life expectancy at birth was 49.4 years, the infant mortality rate was 102 per 1000 births, 45% had access to health services, and 24% had access to drinkable water. Other data are presented on the country's topography, climate and vegetation, demographics, principal cities, population distribution, religions, political structure, economics and finances, foreign commerce, and transportation and communications. PMID:12347082

  16. Central American resource studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Van Eeckhout; A. W. Laughlin

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This

  17. Central Idaho Debris Flow

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire burned more than 114,000 acres in south-central Idaho. Shortly after the fire was contained, heavy rainfall triggered numerous debris flows, including this one in Badger Gulch. USGS hydrologists Dave Evetts (left) and Jake Jacobson examine the debris flo...

  18. Exploring the Graph of Graphs: Network Evolution and Centrality Distances

    E-print Network

    Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Schmid, Stefan; Tredan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    The topological structure of complex networks has fascinated researchers for several decades, and today we have a fairly good understanding of the types and reoccurring characteristics of many different complex networks. However, surprisingly little is known today about models to compare complex graphs, and quantitatively measure their similarity and dynamics. In the past a variety of node centralities, i.e., functions which assign values to nodes to represent their importance in the graph. Based on such centralities we propose a natural similarity measure for complex networks: the centrality distance $d_C$, the difference between two graphs with respect to a given node centrality $C$. Centrality distances can take the specific roles of the different nodes in the network into account, and have many interesting applications. As a case study, we investigate the evolution of networks with respect to centrality distances and their approximations based on closeness, betweenness, pagerank, clustering and degree cen...

  19. Ecological response surfaces nested in a process-based vegetation-water blance model to investigate species-level sensitivity to projected climatic chanage in the North American Central Grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Neilson, R.P. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Empirical ecological response surfaces were nested in MAPSS, a process-based vegetation-water balance model, to increase the taxonomic resolution of simulations of vegetation change under altered climates in the Central Grasslands. Response surfaces developed for dominant grass species predict the probability of dominance as a function of both climatic variables and variables derived by MAPSS. The former include indices of warmth and moisture more directly related to the response of plants than annual or monthly measures of temperature or precipitation commonly used in ecological response surface modeling. The MAPSS-derived predictor variables include evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and lifeform LAI. Under current climatic conditions, the response surfaces provide estimates of grass species dominance with a high degree of success. Much of the variation in the simulated probability of dominance is related to the species` individualistic response to regional gradients of temperature and moisture. The equilibrium response under different doubled-CO2 climatic scenarios suggests the potential for significant change in the distribution of species dominance consistent with biome-level change simulated by MAPSS.

  20. Seismic Properties of the Central Indian Shield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Limei Zhou; Wang-Ping Chen; Serdar Ozalaybey

    2000-01-01

    We use broadband seismic data at Hyderabad to investigate average crustal properties of the central Indian shield. Crustal receiver-functions (P to SV conversions) based on data of excellent quality and azimuthal coverage show essen- tially no signal on the transverse component, indicating laterally homogeneous struc- tures near this station. A joint analysis of receiver-functions and the dispersion of fundamental mode

  1. Central place theory and sport tourism impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Although sport tourism initiatives can boost a destination’s export base, not all communities have an equal likelihood of successfully hosting such an event. The purpose of this study is to use central place theory as a basis for understanding location features that influence the economic outcomes associated with hosting a sport event. The economic impacts generated by a tournament co-hosted

  2. Central Limit Theorem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lowry, Richard

    This website, created by Richard Lowry of Vassar College, illustrates the central limit theorem by allowing the user to increase the number of samples in increments of 100, 1,000, or 10,000. The sample size can be changed and these changes will then be reflected in the distribution. Overall, this is a great interactive resource for students wanting to engage more in their study of statistics.

  3. Central giant cell lesion.

    PubMed

    Valentine, James C; Nelson, Brenda L

    2011-12-01

    A classic case of central giant cell lesion (CGCL) is presented with emphasis on clinical, radiologic, and histologic features. The differential is discussed including peripheral giant cell granuloma, brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism, and giant cell tumor of bone. The molecular pathway of osteoclastogenesis is selectively reviewed and applied to suggest possible etiologies of the giant cell lesions. CGCL syndromes and treatment are also discussed. PMID:21898170

  4. Effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength of denture teeth to denture base resins

    PubMed Central

    Bahrani, Farideh; Khaledi, Amir Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Debonding of denture teeth from denture bases is the most common failure in removable dentures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on shear bond strength of denture teeth to heat-polymerized and autopolymerized denture base resins. Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, 60 maxillary central incisor acrylic teeth were divided into two groups. Group M was polymerized with heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Meliodent) by compression molding technique and group F was processed by autopolymerized acrylic resin (Futura Gen) by injection molding technique. Within each group, specimens were divided into three subgroups according to the teeth surface treatments (n = 10): (1) ground surface as the control group (M1 and F1), (2) ground surface combined with monomer application (M2 and F2), and (3) airborne particle abrasion by 50 ?m Al2O3 (M3 and F3). The shear bond strengths of the specimens were tested by universal testing machine with crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) tests (P < 0.05). Results: The mean shear bond strengths of the studied groups were 96.40 ± 14.01, 124.70 ± 15.64, and 118 ± 16.38 N for M1, M2, and M3 and 87.90 ± 13.48, 117 ± 13.88, and 109.70 ± 13.78 N for F1, F2, and F3, respectively. The surface treatment of the denture teeth significantly affected their shear bond strengths to the both the denture base resins (P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences between the groups treated by monomer or airborne particle abrasion (P = 0.29). The highest percentage of failure mode was mixed in Meliodent and adhesive in Futura Gen. Conclusion: Monomer application and airborne particle abrasion of the ridge lap area of the denture teeth improved their shear bond strengths to the denture base resins regardless of the type of polymerization. PMID:24688570

  5. Central Florida Memory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Central Florida Memory project was started in 2002 by The University of Central Florida Library, The Orange County Regional History Center, and The Orange County Library System. The intent of the project is "to provide an online platform and focal point for gathering, preserving, and disseminating the documents, artifacts, and stories of the history of Central Florida." Over the past few years, the project has been awarded with additional funding grants from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. Currently, the project site contains over 80,000 images, along with maps, plans, and other documents. Visitors to the homepage will find three primary sections of note: "Collection", "Share", and "Learn". In the "Collection" area, visitors can make their way through postcards, maps, and the "most recent" additions to the site. For people looking for a more organized experience, there's the "Learn" area. Here they can find thematic collections like "Dreams and Schemes", "Roads, Rivers and Rails", and "Critters, Crackers and Cottages". For those looking for a sample search, words like "Deland", "Stetson University", "Orlando", and "pineapple" will return a host of compelling items.

  6. Influence of Central Bank on the Economic Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Grozdeva

    2001-01-01

    The study makes analysis of the influence of the Central bank on the economic development in connection with the bank system. With that end in view active money, interest rate, exchange rate, inflation and unemployment have been considered in the conditions of central banking and Currency Board. Economic essence of E-money have been also discussed. On the base of analysis

  7. Installing an Integrated Information System in a Centralized Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Andrew D.

    1992-01-01

    Many schools are looking at ways to centralize the distribution and retrieval of video, voice, and data transmissions in an integrate information system (IIS). A centralized system offers greater control of hardware and software. Describes media network planning to retrofit an Illinois' high school with a fiber optic-based IIS. (MLF)

  8. Upgrade and Operation of the D?? Central Track Trigger (CTT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Pangilinan

    2007-01-01

    The DOslash experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider (Batavia, IL, USA) has undergone significant upgrades in anticipation of high luminosity running conditions. As part of the upgrade, the capabilities of the Central Track Trigger (CTT) to make trigger decisions based on hit patterns in the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) have been much improved. We report on the implementation, commissioning and

  9. Centralized Buffer Router with Elastic Links and Bubble Flow Control

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hsien-Hsin "Sean"

    Centralized Buffer Router with Elastic Links and Bubble Flow Control Syed Minhaj Hassan Georgia: sudha@ece.gatech.edu Abstract--While router buffers have been used as performance multipliers elastic bubble router - a router micro-architecture based on the use of centralized buffers (CB

  10. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  11. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    this report as follows: Kaduwela, A. P. 2004. Central California Ozone Study. California Energy Commission/Agricultural/Water End-Use Energy Efficiency · Renewable Energy Technologies The Central California Ozone Study is the final report for the Central California Ozone Study, Interagency Agreement 700-98-027, between

  12. Optimal dispersion and central places

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Curtin; Richard L. Church

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents research into optimal dispersion models as applied to central places. The literature regarding location optimization and central places is reviewed and the motivation for employing dispersion models is identified. Models that employ the objective of maximal dispersion in the context of central places are formulated and solved in the context of both single- and multiple-good systems. Two

  13. Clinical evaluation of implant survival based on size and site of placement: A retrospective study of immediate implants at single rooted teeth sites

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Sundar; Al-Hindi, Maryam; Al-Eid, Raniah Abdullah; Nooh, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This retrospective clinical study sought to evaluate the survival of immediate implants placed at maxillary and mandibular single-rooted tooth extraction sites and to determine the relationship among implant size, placement site, and implant survival. Methods Between January 2010 and June 2011, 85 patients (33 males, 52 females; mean age: 45 years) underwent immediate implant placement after extraction of single-rooted teeth. All implants were restored between 12 and 14 weeks after implant placement. The implant survival and its relationship with implant size and implantation site were evaluated by odds ratios (ORs). Results Implants were placed at the following sites: upper central incisor (UCI, n = 35), upper lateral incisor (ULI, n = 27), upper second premolar (U2ndP, n = 36), lower incisor (LI, n = 53), and lower premolar (LP, n = 22). Implants of the following sizes were used: 5 × 10 mm (n = 24), 5 × 8 mm (n = 21), 4.3 × 10 mm (n = 77), 4.3 × 8 mm (n = 36), 3.5 × 10 mm (n = 12), and 3.5 × 8 mm (n = 3). After a mean follow-up time of 47 months, the overall implant survival rate was 96%. Survival rate was highest at the LI site (98.1%) and lowest at the ULI site (92.6%). All of the 5-mm implants survived (100%), as did most of the 4.3 × 10 mm implants (96.1%). Implants of 4.3 × 8 mm and 3.5 × 10 mm were the least successful (91.7%). Mandibular implants had a better survival rate (97.3%) than maxillary implants (94.9%). There was no significant OR of increased survival for any particular implant size or site. Conclusions Immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets can give predictable clinical outcomes, regardless of the implant size and site of placement.

  14. Low-frequency drug-resistant HIV-1 and risk of virological failure to first-line NNRTI-based ART: a multicohort European case–control study using centralized ultrasensitive 454 pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Di Giallonardo, Francesca; Schuurman, Rob; Däumer, Martin; Aitken, Sue; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Geretti, Anna Maria; Booth, Clare L.; Kaiser, Rolf; Michalik, Claudia; Jansen, Klaus; Masquelier, Bernard; Bellecave, Pantxika; Kouyos, Roger D.; Castro, Erika; Furrer, Hansjakob; Schultze, Anna; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Paredes, Roger; Metzner, Karin J.; Paredes, Roger; Metzner, Karin J.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Schuurman, Rob; Brun-Vezinet, Francoise; Günthard, Huldrych; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Kaiser, Rolf; Geretti, Anna Maria; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Masquelier, Bernard; Dabis, F.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; André, K.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Bernard, N.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F. A.; De Witte, S.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Duffau, P.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Gemain, M. C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J. P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Pistone, T.; Receveur, M. C.; Schmeltz, J. Roger; Tchamgoué, S.; Vandenhende, M. A.; Vareil, M.O.; Viallard, J. F.; Moreau, J. F.; Pellegrin, I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M. E.; Masquelier, B.; Reigadas, S.; Trimoulet, P.; Bouchet, S.; Breilh, D.; Molimard, M.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé., G.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; D'Ivernois, C.; Hanapier, C.; Leleux, O.; Lenaud, E.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Sicard, X.; Geffard, S.; Le Marec, F.; Conte, V.; Frosch, A.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Bonnet, F.; Breilh, D.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Bouchet, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Lacoste, D.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Ramos Mejia, J. M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J. P.; Girard, P. M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Bickel, M.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Pollack, S.; HassounRambam, G.; Elinav, H.; HaouziHadassah, M.; EspositoI, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Vullo, V.; Moroni, M.; Andreoni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Monforte, A. D'Arminio; Antinori, A.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, M.; Ammassari, A.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Girardi, E.; Gianotti, N.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Cicconi, P.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Carletti, F.; Carrara, S.; Castrogiovanni, A.; Di Caro, A.; Petrone, F.; Prota, G.; Quartu, S.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Mazzoccato, S.; Angarano, G.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Viale, P.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Lo Caputo, S.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, C.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Chiodera, A.; Castelli, A. P.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Rizzardini, G.; Puoti, M.; D'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Castagna, A.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Tincati, C.; Marchetti, G.; Mussini, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Gori, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is still debated if pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (MVs) affect the virological outcomes of first-line NNRTI-containing ART. Methods This Europe-wide case–control study included ART-naive subjects infected with drug-susceptible HIV-1 as revealed by population sequencing, who achieved virological suppression on first-line ART including one NNRTI. Cases experienced virological failure and controls were subjects from the same cohort whose viraemia remained suppressed at a matched time since initiation of ART. Blinded, centralized 454 pyrosequencing with parallel bioinformatic analysis in two laboratories was used to identify MVs in the 1%–25% frequency range. ORs of virological failure according to MV detection were estimated by logistic regression. Results Two hundred and sixty samples (76 cases and 184 controls), mostly subtype B (73.5%), were used for the analysis. Identical MVs were detected in the two laboratories. 31.6% of cases and 16.8% of controls harboured pre-existing MVs. Detection of at least one MV versus no MVs was associated with an increased risk of virological failure (OR?=?2.75, 95% CI?=?1.35–5.60, P?=?0.005); similar associations were observed for at least one MV versus no NRTI MVs (OR?=?2.27, 95% CI?=?0.76–6.77, P?=?0.140) and at least one MV versus no NNRTI MVs (OR?=?2.41, 95% CI?=?1.12–5.18, P?=?0.024). A dose–effect relationship between virological failure and mutational load was found. Conclusions Pre-existing MVs more than double the risk of virological failure to first-line NNRTI-based ART. PMID:25336166

  15. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  16. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Fires in Central Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of fires are set every year during the dry season in Central Africa. This true color image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dozens of smoke plumes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on June 29, 2000. Residents burn away scrub and brush annually in the woody savanna to clear land for farming and grazing. For more information, visit the SeaWiFS Home Page, Global Fire Monitoring Fact Sheet, and 4km2 Fire Data Image Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Africa Research Central

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Historically, researchers in Europe and the US have had difficulty finding updated information on primary source African collections. African Research Central, hosted by California State University at San Bernardino, seeks to bridge this information gap by offering centralized and frequently updated information on primary source collections, as well as publicizing the needs of the repositories and suggesting a plan of action for concerned researchers. The site is divided into three sections: The Repositories, For Researchers, and For Repository Professionals. The first section serves as a gateway to the archives, libraries, and museums with important collections of African primary sources. The emphasis is on Africa, but European and North American institutions are also listed. Information for institutions includes contact information, access conditions, publications, references, and a preservation wish list. The second section includes a Researcher's Questionnaire and information on how academics can contribute to the preservation of African sources. The Repository Professionals section invites archivists to update information on repositories or add new ones and publicize their preservation needs and desires. Both of the latter sections also offer related links. Future plans for the site include a searchable database, an expanded repository list, and a section for educators.

  1. Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.

    PubMed

    Whiting, David A; Olsen, Elise A

    2008-01-01

    A progressive scarring alopecia of the central scalp is commonly seen in young to middle-aged females of African descent. It usually starts at the vertex or mid top of the scalp and gradually spreads centrifugally, hence, the unifying term of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia. The clinical pattern is suggestive of female pattern alopecia, but a lack of follicular pores indicative of scarring is present. It can progress for years before slowly burning out. The etiology is unknown but genetic factors may be important. It is often associated with a history of traumatic hairstyling involving heat, traction, and chemicals. However, most patients of African descent without this disorder have similar styling habits. Nonetheless, avoidance of physical and chemical trauma to the scalp hair, the use of suitable shampoos and conditioners, and the encouragement of natural hairstyles may be helpful. Any infection should be treated. Topical or intralesional corticosteroids and systemic antibiotics may be useful and topical minoxidil should be tried with the hope of preventing further scarring and encouraging regrowth of recovering follicles. Current research into the etiology of this disorder will help to foster much-needed clinical trials of therapeutic agents. PMID:18715297

  2. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by the Company and ITER. The Fabrication Specifications may reflect some national requirements and regulations that are not fully provided here. This document presents the ITER CSI specifications.

  3. Central solar energy receiver

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    An improved tower-mounted central solar energy receiver for heating air drawn through the receiver by an induced draft fan. A number of vertically oriented, energy absorbing, fin-shaped slats are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical arrays on top of the tower coaxially surrounding a pipe having air holes through which the fan draws air which is heated by the slats which receive the solar radiation from a heliostat field. A number of vertically oriented and wedge-shaped columns are radially arranged in a number of concentric cylindrical clusters surrounding the slat arrays. The columns have two mirror-reflecting sides to reflect radiation into the slat arrays and one energy absorbing side to reduce reradiation and reflection from the slat arrays.

  4. Sucker rod centralizer

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, O.; Newski, A.

    1989-10-03

    This patent describes a device for centralizing at least one sucker rod within a production pipe downhole in a well and for reducing frictional forces between the pipe and at least one sucker rod. It comprises an elongate, substantially cylindrical body member having a longitudinal axis, a plurality of slots within the member and a rotatable member mounted within each slot, each of the plurality of slots has its major dimension along a first axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the body member and is oriented with respect to the other seats so as to form a helicoidal array for maximizing the total surface contact area between the rotatable members and the pipe and for decreasing the forces acting on each rotatable member.

  5. Fires in Central and Southern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Across central and southern Africa, numerous fires (red dots) are burning throughout Democratic Republic of Congo (west of Lake Tanganyika), and Tanzania (east). Heavy smoke hangs over the northern half of the image, at least some of which is from the the eruption of Nyamuragira volcano on July 26, 2002. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on July 28, 2002. Credits: Image by Jesse Allen, based on data from the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Optimal dispersion and central places

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Curtin; Richard L. Church

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents research into optimal dispersion models as applied to central places. The literature regarding location\\u000a optimization and central places is reviewed and the motivation for employing dispersion models is identified. Models that\\u000a employ the objective of maximal dispersion in the context of central places are formulated and solved in the context of both\\u000a single- and multiple-good systems. Two

  7. Existence of symmetric central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldi, James

    2015-06-01

    Central configurations have been of great interest over many years, with the earliest examples due to Euler and Lagrange. There are numerous results in the literature demonstrating the existence of central configurations with specific symmetry properties, using slightly different techniques in each. The aim here is to describe a uniform approach by adapting to the symmetric case the well-known variational argument showing the existence of central configurations. The principal conclusion is that there is a central configuration for every possible symmetry type, and for any symmetric choice of masses. Finally the same argument is applied to the class of balanced configurations introduced by Albouy and Chenciner.

  8. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eyesight seizures encephalopathy (swelling and damage to the brain) sensation abnormalities Diagnosis The diagnosis of vasculitis, including CNS vasculitis, is based on a person’s medical history, symptoms, a complete ...

  9. Central Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Touchard, Arturo; Somers, Virend K.; Olson, Lyle J.; Caples, Sean M.

    2009-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (HF), an exceedingly common and costly disease, is frequently seen in association with central sleep apnea (CSA), which often manifests as a periodic breathing rhythm referred to as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. CSA has historically been considered to be a marker of heart disease, since improvement in cardiac status is often associated with the attenuation of CSA. However, this mirroring of HF and CSA may suggest bidirectional importance to their relationship. In fact, observational data suggest that CSA, associated with repetitive oxyhemoglobin desaturations and surges in sympathetic neural activity, may be of pathophysiologic significance in HF outcomes. In light of the disappointing results from the first large trial assessing therapy with continuous positive airway pressure in patients with CSA and HF, further large-scale interventional trials will be needed to assess the role, if any, of CSA treatment on the outcomes of patients with HF. This review will discuss epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations of CSA in the setting of HF. PMID:18574295

  10. Optimal Contracts for Central Bankers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl E Walsh

    1995-01-01

    This paper adopts a principal-agent framework to determine how a central banker's incentives should be structured to induce the socially optimal policy. In contrast to previous findings using ad hoc targeting rules, the inflation bias of discretionary policy is eliminated and an optimal response to shocks is achieved by the optimal incentive contract, even in the presence of private central-bank

  11. Regional Education Profile: Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    Profiles of the educational systems in the seven Central American countries are presented, along with an introductory essay by Rene Greenwald, "Higher Education in Central America: Trends and Developments: 1985-86." Country profiles are provided for Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. For each country, an…

  12. Central places in a square

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios S. Dendrinos

    1995-01-01

    Revisiting Hotelling and Central Place Theory in a bounded square surface seems to still be quite insightful and productive. In this short note, it is shown that agglomeration at the center occurs under market conditions involving duopolistic competition, as expected. In an optimum framework, a hierarchy of centers emerges in a number of ways qualitatively different from the classical Central

  13. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  14. Arctic haze over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzenberg, Jost; Tuch, Thomas; Wehner, Birgit; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Wex, Heike; Ansmann, Albert; Mattis, Ina; Müller, Detlef; Wendisch, Manfred; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas

    2003-07-01

    An extraordinary aerosol situation over Leipzig, Germany in April 2002 was investigated with a comprehensive set of ground-based volumetric and columnar aerosol data, combined with aerosol profiles from lidar, meteorological data from radiosondes and air mass trajectory calculations. Air masses were identified to stem from the Arctic, partly influenced by the greater Moscow region. An evaluation of ground-based measurements of aerosol size distributions during these periods showed that the number concentrations below about 70 nm in diameter were below respective long-term average data, while number, surface and volume concentrations of the particles larger than about 70 nm in diameter were higher than the long-term averages. The lidar aerosol profiles showed that the imported aerosol particles were present up to about 3 km altitude. The particle optical depth was up to 0.45 at 550 nm wavelength. With a one-dimensional spectral radiative transfer model top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of the aerosol layer was estimated for a period with detailed vertical information. Solar aerosol radiative forcing values between -23 and -38 W m-2 were calculated, which are comparable to values that have been reported in heavily polluted continental plumes outside the respective source regions. The present report adds weight to previous findings of aerosol import to Europe, pointing to the need for attributing the three-dimensional aerosol burden to natural and anthropogenic sources as well as to aerosol imports from adjacent or distant source regions. In the present case, the transport situation is further complicated by forward trajectories, indicating that some of the observed Arctic haze may have originated in Central Europe. This aerosol was transported to the European Arctic before being re-imported in the modified and augmented form to its initial source region.

  15. Un enregistrement sédimentaire éocambrien dans un bassin intracontinental en distension: le cycle « conglomérats de base — unité calcaire — grès de Tikirtde Bou-Azzer El Graara (Anti-Atlas central, Maroc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chbani, Boumedien; Beauchamp, Jacques; Algouti, Abdellah; Zouhair, Abdelaziz

    1999-09-01

    At Bou-Azzer El Graara area in the central Anti-Atlas and in the Lower Cambrian, the 'Calcaires inférieurs' formation (basal conglomerates and limestones unit), together with volcanism and the Tikirt sandstones, constitute the first sedimentary cycle; evidence of the dislocation and the crustal extension on the Paleo-Gondwana. The palaeogeographic evolution of this area takes place in global geodynamic evolution, ending with the formation of Theic ocean.

  16. [Peripheral haemosiderosis of the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Bombois, S; Lucas, C; Deplanque, D; Rogelet, P; Leys, D

    2003-07-01

    We report 2 cases of patients with hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. The diagnosis was made in 1999 in a stroke unit. The patients had both deafness, but their clinical presentation was different, due to heterogeneous features of this pathology. Hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is due to chronic subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging is extremely sensitive to the presence of hemosiderin and is the investigation of choice enabling diagnosis and sometimes bleeding source (50 p. cent). The interest of our observations concerned the source of bleeding. In the first patient, diagnostic work-up was negative. For the second one, the deposition of hemosiderin was explained by 3 possible sources. If a bleeding source can be identified, surgery is the optimal treatment. Copper chelation, like Trientine can be used, but there is no evidence-based for using this treatment. PMID:12910074

  17. Central Dynamics of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyola, Eva; Baumgardt, H.

    2007-12-01

    Globular clusters have historically been classified into two groups due to their dynamical state. They are considered to be either pre-core-collapse or post-core-collapse systems. Clusters are considered as post-core-collapse when they show concentrated surface brightness profiles, with a steep central cusp; while pre-core collapse clusters are less concentrated and have flat central cores. Recent observational results show that some clusters have central surface brightness profiles with intermediate central slopes, showing shallow cusps. These observations could be explained by the presence of a single or a binary intermediate mass black hole in the center of the clusters. In this work, we create realistic synthetic images from the output of N-body models. The images attempt to mock the resolution and point spread function of the high resolution cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The models are created with and without central black holes, where the no black hole models are allowed to reach core-collapse. We measure surface brightness profiles both from integrated light and from star counts. From the profiles, we obtain parameters such as central surface brightness slope, core radius, and half light radius. We also test how well a King model describes each profile. We find that the black hole models produce shallow cusps if the black hole is larger than a certain mass; while models without central black holes produce more concentrated profiles. This approach, allows to make a thorough comparison between observations and models.

  18. Upgrade and operation of the DØ central track trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Marc; Anderson, John; Angstadt, Robert; Babukhadia, Levan; Bhattacharjee, Mrinmoy; Blazey, Gerald; Boeriu, Oana; Borcherding, Fred; Connolly, Brian; Cooke, Michael; Corcoran, Marjorie; Desai, Satish; Evans, David; Gershtein, Yuri; Grannis, Paul; Grünendahl, Stefan; Han, Liang; Hazen, Eric; Heintz, Ulrich; Hensel, Carsten; Hildreth, Mike; Hoeth, Hendrik; Hu, Yuan; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jain, Vivek; Johnson, Marvin; Khalatian, Samvel; Khalatyan, Norik; Lincoln, Don; Linn, Stephan; Liu, Yanwen; Lizarazo, Juan; Mackin, Dennis; Maravin, Yurii; Martin, Manuel; K Mommsen, Remigius; Mutaf, Yildirim; Narain, Meenakshi; Nöding, Carsten; Olsen, Jamieson; Padley, Paul; Pangilinan, Monica; Partridge, Richard; Ramirez-Gomez, Ricardo; Rapisarda, Stefano; Stevenson, Kyle; Tomoto, Makoto; Vachon, Brigitte; Wijnen, Thei; Wilcer, Neal; Wilson, Graham; Wu, Shouxiang; Wyatt, Terry; Xu, Qichun; Yip, Kin

    2007-10-01

    The DØ experiment at the Fermilab pp¯ Tevatron collider (Batavia, IL, USA) has undergone significant upgrades in anticipation of high luminosity running conditions. As part of the upgrade, the capabilities of the Central Track Trigger (CTT) to make trigger decisions based on hit patterns in the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) have been much improved. We report on the implementation, commissioning and operation of the upgraded CTT system.

  19. Upgrade and Operation of the DZero Central Track Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Pangilinan, M.P.; /Boston U.; Buehler, M.D.; /Virginia U.

    2007-04-01

    The D{O} experiment at the Fermilab p{bar p} Tevatron collider (Batavia, IL, USA) has undergone significant upgrades in anticipation of high luminosity running conditions. As part of the upgrade, the capabilities of the Central Track Trigger (CTT) to make trigger decisions based on hit patterns in the Central Fiber Tracker (CFT) have been much improved. We report on the implementation, commissioning and operation of the upgraded CTT system.

  20. Third order nonoscillatory central scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu-Dong Liu; Eitan Tadmor

    1998-01-01

    Summary.   A third-order accurate Godunov-type scheme for the approximate solution of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is presented.\\u000a Its two main ingredients include: 1. A non-oscillatory piecewise-quadratic reconstruction of pointvalues from their given\\u000a cell averages; and 2. A central differencing based on staggered evolution of the reconstructed cell averages. This results in a third-order central scheme, an extension along the

  1. NOAA Central Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A one-stop resource for information on most, if not all, environmental/marine science disciplines. Site features WINDandSEA: The Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences Internet Locator, where you can access NOAA and external links to all types of web-based information. Site also includes e-journals, numerous maps and modeled data, as well as video from early expeditions. Links to the NOAA websites, photo and chart collections, and history pages.

  2. Central-Office Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to upgrade a school district's central-office facilities without incurring taxpayer enmity. Includes case studies from Harford County, Maryland; Orange and Broward Counties, Florida; South Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mt. Baker, Washington; Chicago, Illinois; and Rochester, New Hampshire. (PKP)

  3. Make tomorrow better. Student Central

    E-print Network

    Make tomorrow better. Student Central Office Hours: Monday to Friday, 9.00am-4.45pm Location and fellow students at all times". Almost every day you will be interacting with other people. Interactions

  4. Super Kitchen Centralizes Food Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To centralize food service within the entire Pittsburgh school district, a 90,000-square-foot food service preparation building contains cranes and monorails to move 500-pound capacity vats throughout the kitchen. (Author/MLF)

  5. Freestall Facilities in Central Texas 

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Sandra R.; Gamroth, Mike

    1999-06-04

    Dairy producers in Central Texas will find this information useful in evaluating freestall dairy facilities. Other topics to be considered in evaluating a change in facilities include moisture deficits for the area, labor and investment needs...

  6. Tinnitus in central vestibular disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Patil; S. D. Gosavi

    1989-01-01

    A total of100 patients on whom cranio-corpo-graphy and pure tone audiometry was performed is included in the study. The incidence and nature\\u000a of tinnitus in various central and peripheral dysequilibrium states is analysed. The presence of vestibulo-auditory connection\\u000a at the central level is confirm ed. It is seen that tinnitus does not bear a topodiagnostic relationship to the site of

  7. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  8. Congenital nystagmus and central hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Reynaert, Nele; Braat, Elke; de Zegher, Francis

    2015-01-01

    We observed a male newborn with bilateral nystagmus and central hypothyroidism without hypoprolactinemia due to a deletion of chromosome band Xq26.1q26.2, containing FRMD7 and IGSF1. These two loss-of function mutations are known to cause, respectively, congenital nystagmus and the ensemble of central hypothyroidism, hypoprolactinemia and testicular enlargement. These latter two features may not yet be present in early life. PMID:25780367

  9. Rehabilitation innovations in Central America.

    PubMed

    Couch, R H

    1993-01-01

    In an extensive qualitative research project sponsored by the Partners of the Americas (32 professional and lay people from Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Belize, the United States and the Dominican Republic) employment opportunities were examined for disabled youth in Central America. Despite economic and attitudinal barriers field researchers found innovations in financing, special education and rehabilitation programming, job development and job placement alternatives for those who live with disability in Central America. PMID:8486439

  10. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central directory. 303.301 Section 303.301 Education...Services General § 303.301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1)...

  11. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

  12. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

  13. 34 CFR 303.117 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central directory. 303.117 Section 303.117 Education...Statewide System § 303.117 Central directory. Each system must include a central directory that is accessible to the general...

  14. 34 CFR 303.301 - Central directory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Central directory. 303.301 Section 303.301 Education...Services General § 303.301 Central directory. (a) Each system must include a central directory of information about— (1)...

  15. Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila central

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Dorsoventral patterning in the Drosophila central nervous system: the intermediate neuroblasts along the dorsoventral axis. In Drosophila the central nervous system develops from three longitudinal within the central nervous system is evolutionarily conserved. [Key Words: vnd; NK2; tinman

  16. Program Building Committee's Central Planning Group. 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Burl B.; Marshall, Mary G.

    1982-01-01

    and Mary G. Marshall, Extension Program Specialist Program -Building Committee's CENTRAL PLANNING GROUP This leaflet describes the role of the central planning group in the program development process_ The central planning group is the highest...

  17. Caribbean and Central America wind energy assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America, based on available data and using innovative assessment techniques developed for this region, has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential. This paper provides an overview of the Caribbean an Central America wind resource assessment and the data and techniques used in producing the assessment. Wind resource maps were developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America. These maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide not only estimates of the wind energy resource potential for well-exposed sites in these areas at also information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. A diagram was developed for easily relating the wind power classes and Weibull k values to values of mean wind power density and mean wind speed.

  18. COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION COMPARATIVE COSTS OF CALIFORNIA CENTRAL STATION ELECTRICITY GENERATION Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies, California Energy Commission, CEC-200-2009-017-SD #12

  19. Detectability levels for central induction transient soundings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, David V.

    1989-01-01

    Using sounding curves based upon geologic models for a survey site, the latest measurement time for central induction transient soundings can be estimated for a given transmitter moment. Detectability limits are plotted on the apparent resistivity-time plots. Sounding points at earlier times than the limit are detectable, while those at later times are not. This procedure can be used during survey design to determine if features of the sounding necessary to the resolution of the geologic problem are detectable. Field measurements have shown that the method adequately predicts the latest measurement time.

  20. The deglaciation of Central Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    'Central Scandinavia' extends from the Norwegian coast across the Helgeland Nappe Complex to the Caledonide thrust front in Sweden (Faulkner, 2005, who studied the effects of Weichselian deglaciation on the speleogenesis of ~1000 local Caledonide marble caves). Deglaciation was driven by two summer heat fluxes: warming by the sea as it encroached up fjords and caused the icesheet margin to retreat eastwards (accompanied by deglacial seismicity) and direct solar warming that caused the icesheet to ablate from its upper surface (Grønlie, 1975; Mörner, 1979; Andersen and Karlsen, 1986; Sørensen et al., 1987; Mangerud, 1991; Bergstrøm, 1995). The melting height followed an empirical parabolic time relationship (H=0.75t2: Grønlie, 1975), based on many geomorphological observations. Faulkner (2005) reconstructed the Grønlie formula using information about the Younger Dryas (YD) isostatic uplift that increased inland as: H=1700+5(YD isobase-220)-0.75x10-4x(13500-t)2 m, where t=14Ca BP. Deglaciation was modelled by drawing deglacial maps at c. 300a intervals that show the advance of the sea, the recession of the icesheet margin, the synchronous thinning of the icesheet, and the evolution of ice-dammed lakes (IDLs), after the ice began to melt vigorously in the Bølling interstadial below the present 1700m altitude (at the 220m YD isobase at Børgefjell) that was already ice-free. After c. 11ka BP, the melting height lowered at roughly 0.5ma-1 at all isobases. The formula agrees with many marine dates to within 300a in the central and northern part of the area, but downwasting by calving was much faster along the coast, as the sea submerged large areas of the isostatically-depressed strandflat. Across the Swedish border, there is evidence that large IDLs and glaciers remained longer than predicted. Most of the area was systematically flooded by glacial meltwater for periods of 800-120014Ca during deglaciation as local IDLs lowered and coalesced (commonly at jökulhlaups), and Faulkner (2005) described six types of deglacial IDL, with hydrological flows initially into englacial conduits and Subglacial Reservoirs, and later into Subglacial Waterways that ran to the sea. The ice margin lost its sharp, morainal, definition as it retreated under the increasing influence of topography, and the IDLs reduced in size as the icesheet shrank into separate valley glaciers, which, in Norway, eventually became tidewater glaciers at the deglaciation marine limit. References: Andersen, BG and Karlsen, M. 1986. Glacial chronology - recession of the ice margin. 1:5000000. Nasjonalatlas for Norge. Kartblad 2.3.4. Statens kartverk. Bergstrøm, B. 1995. Elsfjord Kvartaergeologisk kart 1927 III-M 1:50,000, med beskrivelse. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse. Faulkner, T. 2005. Cave inception and development in Caledonide metacarbonate rocks. PhD Thesis. University of Huddersfield, UK. 330pp. Grønlie, A. 1975. Geologien I Vefsnbygdene. Vefsn Bygdebok 1975 417-483. Mangerud, J. 1991. The Last Ice Age in Scandinavia. Striae. 34 15-30. Mörner, N-A. 1979. The Fennoscandian Uplift and Late Cenozoic Geodynamics: Geological Evidence. Geojournal 3 (3) 287-318. Sørensen, R, Bakkelid, S and Torp, B. Land Uplift. 1987. 1:5000000. Nasjonalatlas for Norge. Statens kartverk.

  1. Network centrality of metro systems.

    PubMed

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world's ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21(st) century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no "winner takes all") unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  2. Network Centrality of Metro Systems

    PubMed Central

    Derrible, Sybil

    2012-01-01

    Whilst being hailed as the remedy to the world’s ills, cities will need to adapt in the 21st century. In particular, the role of public transport is likely to increase significantly, and new methods and technics to better plan transit systems are in dire need. This paper examines one fundamental aspect of transit: network centrality. By applying the notion of betweenness centrality to 28 worldwide metro systems, the main goal of this paper is to study the emergence of global trends in the evolution of centrality with network size and examine several individual systems in more detail. Betweenness was notably found to consistently become more evenly distributed with size (i.e. no “winner takes all”) unlike other complex network properties. Two distinct regimes were also observed that are representative of their structure. Moreover, the share of betweenness was found to decrease in a power law with size (with exponent 1 for the average node), but the share of most central nodes decreases much slower than least central nodes (0.87 vs. 2.48). Finally the betweenness of individual stations in several systems were examined, which can be useful to locate stations where passengers can be redistributed to relieve pressure from overcrowded stations. Overall, this study offers significant insights that can help planners in their task to design the systems of tomorrow, and similar undertakings can easily be imagined to other urban infrastructure systems (e.g., electricity grid, water/wastewater system, etc.) to develop more sustainable cities. PMID:22792373

  3. Geothermal activities in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

    1985-09-11

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Genetic identification of the central nucleus and other components of the central extended amygdala in chicken during development

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Alba; Abellán, Antonio; Desfilis, Ester; Medina, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the central extended amygdala shows a highly complex organization, and is essential for animal survival due to its implication in fear responses. However, many aspects of its evolution are still unknown, and this structure is especially poorly understood in birds. The aim of this study was to define the central extended amygdala in chicken, by means of a battery of region-specific transcription factors (Pax6, Islet1, Nkx2.1) and phenotypic markers that characterize these different subdivisions in mammals. Our results allowed the identification of at least six distinct subdivisions in the lateral part of the avian central extended amygdala: (1) capsular central subdivision; (2) a group of intercalated-like cell patches; (3) oval central nucleus; (4) peri-intrapeduncular (peri-INP) island field; (5) perioval zone; and (6) a rostral part of the subpallial extended amygdala. In addition, we identified three subdivisions of the laterodorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTLd) belonging to the medial region of the chicken central extended amygdala complex. Based on their genetic profile, cellular composition and apparent embryonic origin of the cells, we discuss the similarity of these different subdivisions of chicken with different parts of the mouse central amygdala and surrounding cell masses, including the intercalated amygdalar masses and the sublenticular part of the central extended amygdala. Most of the subdivisions include various subpopulations of cells that apparently originate in the dorsal striatal, ventral striatal, pallidal, and preoptic embryonic domains, reaching their final location by either radial or tangential migrations. Similarly to mammals, the central amygdala and BSTLd of chicken project to the hypothalamus, and include different neurons expressing proenkephalin, corticotropin-releasing factor, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase, which may be involved in the control of different aspects of fear/anxiety-related behavior. PMID:25309337

  5. A multidisciplinary analysis to constrain exhumation and recent erosion history of the Tethyan Himalaya, based on apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and cosmogenic nuclides dates from Central Nepal (Takkhola graben and the Mustang granite)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz, Ruben; Sahragard Sohi, Mohammad; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    The exhumation of the Himalayan arc has been studied intensively throughout the last decades. For the Tethyan Himalaya, however, the youngest exhumation history is still unclear, mostly because of the lack of a significant apatite content in most Tethyan sediments (Crouzet et al. 2007). For this study we are using apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclides for investigating exhumation and denudation of the Tethyan Himalaya back through time. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology is sensitive to temperatures of ~40 to 85°C and thus to movements within the upper ~1.5 to 3 km of the earth's crust. During a recent field campaign, we sampled the Mustang granite, that intrudes the Tethyan marine sediments and the Takkhola-Graben. The graben can be seen as an inusual southern part of the normal faulting system affecting the whole Tibetan Plateau (Colchen, 1999). The timing of the activation of these faulting is still highly debated. The syntectonics filling of the Takkhola-Mustag graben consists of Mio-Pliocene fluvio-lacustrine deposits (Garzione et al. 2003). These were described as containing significant amounts of apatite, derived from the past erosion of the Mustang granitic body (Adhikari and Wagreich, 2011). Being only up to 1km thick, a post depositional thermal resetting of the apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He system is unlikely, so that the (U-Th-Sm)/He dates of the sediments are expected to have retained their information regarding source area exhumation. We took several sand samples from the Kali Gandaki River draining the present-day exposure of the Mustang granite. Furthermore, we sampled different stratigraphic levels of the Mio-Pliocene sedimentary rocks, i.e., from the Tetang and Takkahola formation deposited between 11 and 7 Ma. This sampling approach will not only provide information about the youngest denudation history of the Mustang granite /Tethyan Himalaya, but will also reveal insights into its past denudation and changes of denudation rates through time for the region north to the South Tibetan Detachment. It is our expectation to link the results to the tectonic behavior of the South Tibetan Detachment or to the newly recognized Western Nepal Fault System. Corroborating our results with other ages and diverse methods will provide a robust constraint on the exhumation and erosion history of the Tethyan Himalaya, as well as insights on the U-Th/He dating technique. References Adhikari, B.R. and Wagreich, M., 2011. Provenance evolution of collapse graben fill in the Himalaya-The Miocene to Quaternary Thakkhola-Mustang graben (Nepal). Sedimentary Geology, 233(1), pp.1-14. Blythe, A.E., Burbank, D.W., Carter, A., Schmidt, K., Putkonen, J., 2007. Plio-Quaternary exhumation history of the central Nepalese Himalaya: 1. Apatite and zircon fission track and apatite [U-Th]/He analyses. Tectonics, 26(3). Crouzet, C. et al., 2007. Temperature and age constraints on the metamorphism of the Tethyan Himalaya in Central Nepal: A multidisciplinary approach. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 30(1), pp.113-130. Garzione, C.N, DeCelles, P.G., Hokinson, D.G., Ojha, T.P., Upreti, B.N., 2003. East-west extension and Miocene environmental change in the southern Tibetan plateau: Thakkhola graben, central Nepal. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115(1), pp.3-20. Colchen, M., 1999. The Takkhola-Mustang graben in Nepal and the latee Cenozoic extension in the Higher Himalayas. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 17, pp. 683-702.

  6. Central Africa: Global climate change and development. Overview. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The preliminary study focuses on the six countries of central Africa which contain the largest remaining contiguous block of closed forests in sub-Saharan Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Zaire. The carbon in the vegetation and soils in these moist tropical forests and surrounding seasonal woodlands constitute the greatest potential source of future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from sub-Saharan Africa. This study also considers the importance of savanna burning, although in less depth since the small savanna area in central Africa precludes this activity from being a large regional source of emissions. Analysis of biogeophysical and socioeconomic issues relevant to global climate change, and research containing both space-based and ground-based components, were undertaken.

  7. Structure of Sierra Madera, Texas, as a guide to central peaks of lunar craters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.; Wilshire, H. G.; Offield, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    The central peaks of Copernicus or a similar lunar crater have been considered as a target for manned exploration, partly on the supposition that the peaks expose rock uplifted from beneath the crater floor. This supposition is based on an analogy with central uplifts of terrestrial cryptoexplosion structures. Sierra Madera in west Texas is one of these structures. The structure of its central uplift is described as a proposed analog of the central peaks of large lunar impact craters. Setting and stratigraphy of the Sierra Madera are discussed together with structural framework, the central uplift, fold patterns, and fault patterns. It is concluded that the central uplifts of Sierra Madera and similar cryptoexplosion structures appear to be analogous to central peaks of large lunar impact craters.

  8. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  9. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    Agency 1001 I Street Sacramento, California 95812 Contract No. 700-98-027 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Marla Mueller, Contract Manager Kelly Birkinshaw LANDING UNIT #1) Draft Source Test Report for the 2000 CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY May 28, 2002

  10. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    Agency 1001 I Street Sacramento, California 95812 Contract No. 700-98-027 Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program Marla Mueller, Contract Manager Kelly Birkinshaw (PITTSBURG UNIT UNIT #6) Draft Source Test Report for the 2000 CENTRAL CALIFORNIA OZONE STUDY May 28, 2002

  11. Readability of Central Florida Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Phyllis M.

    A study analyzed the readability of seven central Florida newspapers (one of which is a college newspaper) and "USA Today.""Rightwriter," a grammar checker and readability computer program, was used to evaluate front page articles for each of the eight newspapers. The readability formulas invoked in the readability program included the…

  12. Central New York's New Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for an Urban Future, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Conducted in late 2008 in partnership with the Greater Syracuse Chamber of Commerce and the Mohawk Valley Chamber of Commerce, this is the largest survey ever taken of Central New York businesses regarding the English language skills of the area workforce. The online survey was emailed to several hundred local businesses; 126 responses were…

  13. Geothermal initiatives in Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Hanold; V. W. Loose; A. W. Laughlin; P. E. Wade

    1986-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development is supporting a new project in energy and resources exploitation for Central America. One of the largest components of the project involves exploration and reservoir development investigations directed at enhancing the production of electricity from the region's geothermal resources. An assessment of the geothermal resources of Honduras is in progress, and interesting geothermal regions

  14. Geothermal activities in Central America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Whetten; R. J. Hanold

    1985-01-01

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a

  15. Central California Action Associates, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sortor, Maia, Comp.

    The overall goal of the Central California Action Associates Inc. (CCAA) program is to provide basic education and pre-vocational training so that migrant and seasonal adult farm workers will be able to upgrade their economic and social lives. Without increased educational attainment, the San Joaquin Valley farm workers face a grim future because…

  16. Central mechanisms of pathological pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohini Kuner

    2010-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major challenge to clinical practice and basic science. The peripheral and central neural networks that mediate nociception show extensive plasticity in pathological disease states. Disease-induced plasticity can occur at both structural and functional levels and is manifest as changes in individual molecules, synapses, cellular function and network activity. Recent work has yielded a better understanding of

  17. High-gravity central stars

    E-print Network

    Thomas Rauch

    2006-07-11

    NLTE spectral analyses of high-gravity central stars by means of state-of-the-art model atmosphere techniques provide information about the precursor AGB stars. The hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars allow investigations on the intershell matter which is apparently exhibited at the stellar surface. We summarize recent results from imaging, spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry.

  18. The DO Central Track Trigger

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Graham Wallace; Desai, S.; Cooke, Michael; Connolly, B.; Borcherding, F.; Blazey, G.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Babukhadia, L.; Angstadt, R.; Anderson, John; Olsen, J.

    2004-06-01

    Tracker and Preshower Detectors to generate Level 1 trigger decisions. It also generates lists of seed tracks and preshower clusters that are sent to the Level 1 Moon Trigger, L2 Silicon Track Trigger, and Central and Forward Preshower Level 2...

  19. Prospects for Reduced Impact Logging in Central African logging concessions Driss Ezzine de Blas *, Manuel Ruiz Perez 1

    E-print Network

    , 28049 Madrid, Spain 1. Introduction West and Central Africa represents the second largest area, this paper reviews logging concession systems in Central Africa from the first records ­ based on early descriptions by French led research in West and Central Africa (CTFT, 1976) ­ to the most recent studies

  20. A Novel Centralized Network for Sensing Spectrum in Cognitive Radio

    E-print Network

    Wang, Cheng-Xiang

    by the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA), was developed to implement the spectrum policy basedA Novel Centralized Network for Sensing Spectrum in Cognitive Radio Hongjian Sun, D.I. Laurenson, J and Physical Sciences Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK Email: cheng-xiang.wang@hw.ac.uk Abstract--Spectrum