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Sample records for central incisors based

  1. Age estimation using maxillary central incisors: A radiographic study

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahuja, Parul; Sinha, Abhishek; Singh, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the field of forensic dentistry, secondary changes in teeth with advancing age have been used as reliable predictors of age in various studies. Aim: The purpose of the present study was to present a method for assessing the chronological age based on the relationship between age and morphological parameters of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Fifty subjects between 20-70 years of age were included in the study. Intraoral periapical radiographs were taken in relation to maxillary central incisors using paralleling technique. The following measurements were recorded: lengths of tooth, pulp, root and width of root and pulp at three different points. Regression formulas were used to calculate the dental age. Results: The mean estimated age showed no statistically significant difference from the actual mean age (P > 0.05). Also, maximum difference was seen for root length variable (-1.035 ± 1.86 years). PMID:23741151

  2. Elastic Band Causing Exfoliation of the Upper Permanent Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before. PMID:25874135

  3. Elastic band causing exfoliation of the upper permanent central incisors.

    PubMed

    Alves, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira; Kitakawa, Dárcio; Becker, Joao Batista Macedo; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study reports a case in which elastic band use culminated in the loss of the incisors. Case Report. An 11-year-old white girl was seen complaining of pain, with purulent discharge and severe tooth mobility. The bone destruction detected radiographically in the region, despite its single location and absence in posterior quadrants of the maxilla and/or mandible, was similar to that observed in Langerhans cell disease. To our surprise, an elastic band involving the midportion of the roots of the two upper central incisors was found during biopsy. The debris was removed and a metal wire was placed in permanent maxillary right and left incisors. The patient was followed up, but no improvement in tooth mobility was observed. Bone loss increased, and internal resorption and root exposure occurred, which culminated in the extraction of permanent maxillary right and left incisors. Conclusion. The present case highlights the fact that professionals sometimes are confronted by anamnestic reports never seen before. PMID:25874135

  4. Variation in Size and Form between Left and Right Maxillary Central Incisor Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Vadavadagi, Suneel V; Hombesh, M N; Choudhury, Gopal Krishna; Deshpande, Sumith; Anusha, C V; Murthy, D Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare the variation in size of left and right maxillary central incisors for male patients (using digital calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy). To compare the variation in size of left and right maxillary central incisors for female patients (using digital calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy). To find out the difference between the maxillary central incisors of men and women. Its clinical applicability if difference exists. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 dental students of PMNM Dental College and Hospital were selected. Of 70 dental students, 40 male and 30 female were selected. Impressions were made for all subjects, using irreversible hydrocolloid (Algitex, manufacturer DPI, Batch-T-8804) using perforated stock metal trays. The mesiodistal crown width and cervical width were measured for each incisor and recorded separately for left and right teeth. The length was measured for each incisor and recorded separately for left and right maxillary central incisor using digitec height caliper. Results: The mean value of maximum crown length of maxillary left central incisor of male was greater in length compared with maxillary right central incisor. Mean value of maximum crown length for male patient right and left side was greater compared with maximum crown length of female patient. Conclusion: When compared the dimensions of teeth between two sex, male group shows larger values to female group. PMID:25859104

  5. Alveolar bone thickness around maxillary central incisors of different inclination assessed with cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Sun, Hong-jing; Lv, Pin; Cao, Yu-ming; Yu, Mo; Yue, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness in adults with maxillary central incisors of different inclination by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods Ninety maxillary central incisors from 45 patients were divided into three groups based on the maxillary central incisors to palatal plane angle; lingual-inclined, normal, and labial-inclined. Reformatted CBCT images were used to measure the labial and lingual alveolar bone thickness (ABT) at intervals corresponding to every 1/10 of the root length. The sum of labial ABT and lingual ABT at the level of the root apex was used to calculate the total ABT (TABT). The number of teeth exhibiting alveolar fenestration and dehiscence in each group was also tallied. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test were applied for statistical analysis. Results The labial ABT and TABT values at the root apex in the lingual-inclined group were significantly lower than in the other groups (p < 0.05). Lingual and labial ABT values were very low at the cervical level in the lingual-inclined and normal groups. There was a higher prevalence of alveolar fenestration in the lingual-inclined group. Conclusions Lingual-inclined maxillary central incisors have less bone support at the level of the root apex and a greater frequency of alveolar bone defects than normal maxillary central incisors. The bone plate at the marginal level is also very thin. PMID:26445719

  6. Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mahesh; Mogra, Subraya; Chalasani, Srikrishna; D'mello, Kuldeep; Dhakar, Nidhi

    2014-10-01

    A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion. PMID:25395777

  7. Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Amirian Chaijan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores. Materials and Methods Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and composite core (group 2), composite post and core (group 3), and controls (group 4). Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4). Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Results Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4) > cast post and core (group 1) > fiber post and composite core (group 2) > composite post and core (group 3). All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58%) in group 1 were non-restorable. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors. PMID:26295027

  8. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of maxillary central incisors exposure in patients undergoing maxillary advancement

    PubMed Central

    Trento, Guilherme dos Santos; Bernabé, Felipe Bueno Rosettti; da Costa, Delson João; Rebellato, Nelson Luis Barbosa; Klüppel, Leandro Eduardo; Scariot, Rafaela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Patients with dentofacial deformities may undergo orthodontic or orthodontic-surgical treatment. Both modalities can affect esthetics. Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical and radiographic changes in exposure of maxillary central incisors occurring after orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement. Methods: A total of 17 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement between September, 2010 and July, 2011 were selected. Exposure of maxillary central incisors was evaluated clinically and by lateral cephalograms. Measurements were taken one week before and three months after surgery. Data were paired in terms of sex, age, nasolabial angle, height and thickness of the upper lip, the amount of maxillary advancement, clinical exposure and inclination of maxillary central incisor by statistical tests (CI 95%). Results: After maxillary advancement, incisor clinical exposure had increased even with relaxed lips and under forced smile. Moreover, there was a mean increase of 23.33% revealed by lateral cephalograms. There was an inverse correlation between upper lip thickness and incisors postsurgical exposure revealed by radiographic images (p = 0.002). Conclusions: Significant changes in the exposure of maxillary central incisors occur after maxillary advancement, under the influence of some factors, especially lip thickness. PMID:26691970

  9. Rehabilitation of the dominance of maxillary central incisors with refractory porcelain veneers requiring minimal tooth preparation.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Saab, Rafaella; Mushashe, Amanda Mahammad; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2015-01-01

    Central dominance is an important element of an esthetic smile. Color, form, and size have been suggested as tools for assessing the dominance of maxillary teeth. A spectrophotometer can be used to determine the value, hue, and chroma. Correct sizing of restorations according to the central incisor dominance principle improves not only esthetics but also aspects of occlusion, such as anterior guidance. Refractory porcelain systems can effectively restore the color, shape, emergence profile, and incisal translucency. This report illustrates the esthetic and occlusal rehabilitation of the dominance of maxillary central incisors using fabricated minimal thickness refractory porcelain veneers. PMID:26345102

  10. Solitary median maxillary central incisor: A case report of a rare dental anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Yezdani, Arif; Tajir, Faizal; Saravanan, B.; Rajasekar, L.

    2015-01-01

    The solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) syndrome is a rare dental anomaly and has an incidence of 1:50,000 live births. In SMMCI, there is only one central incisor present, and it develops exactly at the midline. SMMCI occurrence has been described with growth hormone deficiency or other structural anomalies in the midline of the body. In this case, the 8-year-old female patient reported a single median maxillary central incisor with missing maxillary and mandibular frena, with apparently no other abnormalities. Early diagnosis and recognition of SMMCI are important for all practicing Orthodontists, as it may be a sign of other severe congenital or developmental abnormalities. PMID:26015739

  11. Peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with a dilacerated maxillary central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Srinivas Sulugodu; Baliga, Vidya; Prasad, Umesh Chandra

    2011-10-01

    The authors report a case of a 16-year-old male with peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POF) in the anterior maxilla associated with dilaceration of a tooth in its vicinity. A solitary, exophytic and sessile growth was present between the maxillary right central and lateral incisors and extended from the labial mucosa to the palatal gingiva. A periapical radiograph of the maxillary right central incisor revealed a shortened and dilacerated root. The growth was excised and sent for histopathologic examination. A diagnosis of POF (World Health Organization type) was rendered. The clinical and microscopic features are discussed. PMID:23738522

  12. A stereomicroscopy study of root apices of human maxillary central incisors and mandibular second premolars in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Yavari, Hamid R; Reyhani, Mohammad F; Ebrahimi, Mohammad E; Rajabi, Eeinollah

    2009-09-01

    Mandibular second premolars and maxillary central incisors usually have one root, one canal, and one apical foramen. However, some studies have revealed anatomic variations in these teeth. The aim of the present study was to investigate such variations in canal configuration, foramina, lateral and accessory canals and apical deltas in the root apex of human maxillary central incisors and mandibular second premolars, using a clearing technique and stereomicroscopy. One hundred maxillary central incisors and 137 mandibular second premolars were collected, and India ink was injected into their canals. The teeth were then demineralized with 0.5 N nitric acid, cleared with methyl salicylate, and studied at x 5 and x 16 magnification. The incidence of one canal and one apical foramen was 100% for maxillary central incisors and 94.16% for mandibular second premolars. The main apical foramen was located in the center of the root apex in 21.89% and 17% of mandibular second premolars and maxillary central incisors, respectively. Lateral and accessory canals were found in 84.50% and 77.15% of maxillary central incisors and mandibular second premolars, respectively. Several foramina were found in 11% of maxillary central incisors and 24.08% of mandibular second premolars. Apical deltas were seen in 4.38% and 2% of mandibular second premolars and maxillary central incisors, respectively. The rate of anatomic variations in the apical part of the tooth, especially in posterior teeth, is thus considered to be high. PMID:19776508

  13. A Global Numerical analysis of the "central incisor/local maxillary bone" system using a meshless method.

    PubMed

    Moreira, S F; Belinha, J; Dinis, L M J S; Jorge, R M Natal

    2014-09-01

    In this work the maxillary central incisor is numerically analysed with an advance discretization technique--Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Method (NNRPIM). The NNRPIM permits to organically determine the nodal connectivity, which is essential to construct the interpolation functions. The NNRPIM procedure, based uniquely in the computational nodal mesh discretizing the problem domain, allows to obtain autonomously the required integration mesh, permitting to numerically integrate the differential equations ruling the studied physical phenomenon. A numerical analysis of a tooth structure using a meshless method is presented for the first time. A two-dimensional model of the maxillary central incisor, based on the clinical literature, is established and two distinct analyses are performed. First, a complete elasto-static analysis of the incisor/maxillary structure using the NNRPIM is evaluated and then a non-linear iterative bone tissue remodelling analysis of the maxillary bone, surrounding the central incisive, is performed. The obtained NNRPIM solutions are compared with other numerical methods solutions available in the literature and with clinical cases. The results show that the NNRPIM is a suitable numerical method to analyse numerically dental biomechanics problems. PMID:25831859

  14. Solitary median maxillary central incisor, Duane retraction syndrome, growth hormone deficiency and duplicated thumb phalanx: a case report.

    PubMed

    Parentin, Fulvio; Perissutti, Paolo

    2003-04-01

    A 4-year-old Italian child with the association of a solitary median maxillary central incisor, growth hormone deficiency, Duane retraction syndrome and a duplicated thumb phalanx is described. PMID:12868480

  15. Pulpal tissue in bilateral talon cusps of primary central incisors: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Güngör, H C; Altay, N; Kaymaz, F F

    2000-02-01

    Talon cusp is a tooth anomaly that affects both the primary and the permanent dentitions. However, the occurrence of this anomalous cusp is rather infrequent in the primary dentition. Only 7 cases of bilateral talon cusps affecting the primary teeth have been reported in the dental literature. This is a case report of bilateral talon cusps on primary maxillary central incisors whose histologic evaluation revealed the existence of pulpal tissue in the anomalous cusps. PMID:10673662

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic variation in six patients with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poelmans, Simon; Kawamoto, Tatsuro; Cristofoli, Francesca; Politis, Constantinus; Vermeesch, Joris; Bailleul-Forestier, Isabelle; Hens, Greet; Devriendt, Koenraad; Verdonck, Anna; Carels, Carine

    2015-10-01

    Solitary Median Maxillary Central Incisor occurs in 1 of 50,000 live births. It is the mildest manifestation of the holoprosencephaly spectrum and is genetically heterogeneous. Here we report six patients with solitary median maxillary central incisor, and a range of other phenotypic anomalies with different degrees of severity, varying from mild signs of holoprosencephaly to associated intellectual disability, and with different genetic background. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, pathogenic copy number variants were found in three of the six patients. Two patients had a deletion at the 18p11 chromosomal region that includes TGIF1 while the other patient had a deletion at 7q36, including the SHH gene. In one patient, a mutation in SIX3 was detected with exome sequencing, while in the two remaining patients all known holoprosencephaly genes were excluded using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and sequencing, and remain unsolved. One of the two latter patients had isolated solitary median maxillary central incisor without other visible dentofacial anomalies, while the other had clinical features not part of the known holoprosencephaly spectrum. PMID:26080100

  17. Management of a Central Incisor with Horizontal Root Fracture for Esthetic and Functional Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karin; Schneider, Eva; Dommisch, Henrik; Jepsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Severely traumatized incisors in young adults are a very common problem, and one that is difficult to treat because healing of these teeth is not always predictable and implant placement has to be delayed until adulthood. This case report of a horizontal root fracture in an avulsed central incisor illustrates the ability to maintain crucial tooth structure. A lateral socket augmentation procedure after extraction of a root fragment combined with an endodontic and regenerative periodontal treatment approach could preserve natural esthetics and function, which are directly related to quality of life. The preservation of alveolar bone volume following partial root removal will eventually facilitate later placement of a dental implant with an improved esthetic and functional prosthodontic result in a patient with a high-risk esthetic profile. PMID:26697554

  18. Esthetic and functional rehabilitation of a severely compromised central incisor: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Karin; Jaeger, Andreas; Jepsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This case report of a patient with a central incisor with rapid destruction of periodontal tissues associated with pathologic tooth migration illustrates the esthetic and functional reconstruction of a severely compromised tooth. An interdisciplinary approach, including resolution of the infection and regenerative periodontal surgery followed by orthodontic tooth movement, transformed a hopeless tooth with high mobility, attachment loss approaching the apex, and a Miller Class IV recession into a clinically healthy tooth. Treatment planning for periodontally involved anterior teeth with pathologic migration should consider a multidisciplinary approach for preservation of the natural dentition. PMID:25909531

  19. Maturogenesis of Two Maxillary Central Incisors: A Case Report with 10 Years of Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanzadeh, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of two immature maxillary central incisors in a 7-year-old female patient. She suffered complicated crown fracture because of trauma, and the root formation was incomplete. White mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was selected as the pulp-capping material after cervical pulpotomy to preserve the pulp tissue vitality and achieve maturogenesis. Follow-up evaluations showed successful treatment in terms of preservation of pulp vitality and demonstrated marked continuous physiological root development. During 10 years of follow-up, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic, and radiographic evaluations showed apparent root regeneration with apical root-end closure without pulp or periapical pathosis. PMID:26622286

  20. Re-attachment of Subgingivally Oblique Fractured Central Incisor Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Ok, Evren; Erdek, Yesim

    2008-01-01

    This case report presents a 32 year old male with an oblique fractured maxillary right central incisor. The procedure used to repair the fracture included flap surgery with an intrasulcular incision and endodontic treatment. The root canal was filled with a root canal sealer and gutta-percha. After root canal obturation, fragments were luted with composite resin using a glass fibers post. After 12 months, clinical and radiographic examinations showed a stable reattachment of the fragments, good aesthetics and periodontal health. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:138–141) PMID:19212525

  1. Management of a Two-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography: Importance of Three-dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Gupta, Saurabh; Saxena, Payal; Khetarpal, Shaleen; Solanki, Mishthu

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a two-rooted maxillary central incisor, stressing the importance of three-dimensional imaging in treatment planning and conservative approach of management. Endodontic treatment of this central incisor was carried out with a successful outcome. PMID:26697155

  2. An endo-aesthetic management of crown dilaceration in a permanent mandibular central incisor.

    PubMed

    Wankhade, Abhijit D; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Naphade, Milind V

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may result in a wide range of developmental disturbances to succedaneous permanent teeth. The prevalence of morphological disturbances, secondary to dental injuries in the primary dentition, ranges from 12% to 69%. One of the morphological disturbances are crown dilacerations which are defined as the displacement of a portion of the developing crown at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the tooth. The prevalence of crown dilaceration constitutes 3% of the total injuries in developing teeth and is usually because of intrusion or avulsion of their primary predecessors. The present article narrates a case of crown dilaceration of a permanent mandibular right central incisor with open apex and large periradicular pathosis and its endo-aesthetic management with 2 years of follow-up. PMID:23417377

  3. An endo-aesthetic management of crown dilaceration in a permanent mandibular central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Wankhade, Abhijit D; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Naphade, Milind V

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to primary dentition may result in a wide range of developmental disturbances to succedaneous permanent teeth. The prevalence of morphological disturbances, secondary to dental injuries in the primary dentition, ranges from 12% to 69%. One of the morphological disturbances are crown dilacerations which are defined as the displacement of a portion of the developing crown at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the tooth. The prevalence of crown dilaceration constitutes 3% of the total injuries in developing teeth and is usually because of intrusion or avulsion of their primary predecessors. The present article narrates a case of crown dilaceration of a permanent mandibular right central incisor with open apex and large periradicular pathosis and its endo-aesthetic management with 2?years of follow-up. PMID:23417377

  4. Replacement of maxillary permanent central incisors lost due to trauma in the mixed-dentition.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

    2014-08-01

    Traumatic injuries to anterior teeth in children range from minor chipping to total tooth loss and occur more often in boys than in girls. The treatment of permanent tooth loss in younger patients is complicated by the difficulty of doing restorative procedures which may be influenced by pulpal size, clinical crown height, and a dental profile which is constantly changing. This case report presented a situation involving a 9-year-old boy who had experienced traumatic loss of the maxillary central incisors. Innovative materials coupled with sound principles of removable partial denture design were utilized to fabricate a cast metal removable denture prosthesis to satisfy the esthetic, functional and psychological dental needs of the patient and his parents. PMID:25265859

  5. [Differences between laypersons and orthodontists in recognizing the light reflection zone on the maxillary central incisors crowns].

    PubMed

    Shmuli, T; Wasserstein, A; Turgeman, R; Brezniak, N

    2014-07-01

    The light reflection zone (LRZ) is a new parameter that may serve as a tool for the diagnosis of smile esthetics. It is a bright white dot or area that appears on the surface of the maxillary central incisors and/or the gingiva of the front teeth, visible in intra-oral and smile extra-oral photographs. Recently it was found that the general population defines a nicer smile when the LRZ is located in the gingival area of the upper central incisors' surface rather than the incisal third. The aim of this study was to find out in two populations that are not aware of this new parameter, laypersons and orthodontists, whether there is a difference in the identification of the LRZ and the importance of the LRZ in determining the quality of the smile. Twelve pairs of facial photographs, including 10 of ordinary smiling persons and 2 of smiling models, were presented to 108 laypersons and 30 orthodontists. The only difference between each pair was the location of the LRZ that was moved, compared to the original photograph, gingivally or incisally respectively, using Photoshop (Adobe). Each participant was asked to mark whether he/she noticed a difference between the 2 pictures, and if so, to score the nicer smile. Data analysis was carried out using Chi square test and Fisher's exact test (SPSS v17). The results showed that both populations had difficulty in recognizing the differences between the pictures that were based solely on the LRZ parameter. However, when differences were recognized, most of the participants in both populations pointed on the smile where the LRZ was located gingivally as the nicer one. The orthodontic population recognized the difference between the two pictures, in which only the LRZ was changed, to a lesser extent compared to the laypersons populations. This result was with statistical significance (p = 0.007). PMID:25219098

  6. Surgical management of multiple supernumerary teeth and an impacted maxillary permanent central incisor.

    PubMed

    Rallan, Mandeep; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh; Goswami, Mousumi; Rawat, Kamini

    2013-01-01

    Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. The most common site is the maxillary incisor region; but the prevalence of more than three teeth supernumerary tooth is less than 1%. A case of 13 year male patient is reported with a multiple impacted supernumerary tooth in maxillary anterior region hindering the eruption of right permanent central incisor. The supernumerary tooth was treated via surgical approach followed by an interim prosthesis for permanent central incisor which later on erupted in due course of time. Background Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. The presence of supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region often poses unique diagnostic and managerial concerns for the practitioner. Rarely is the surplus number compensated by an absence or deficiency of other teeth. Therefore, the dysfunctional nature of supernumerary teeth and their ability to create a variety of pathological disturbances in the normal eruption and position of adjacent teeth warrants their early detection and prudent management. Approximately 76-86% of cases represent single-tooth hyperdontia, with two supernumerary teeth noted in 12-23% and three or more extra teeth noted in less than 1% of cases. Multiple supernumerary teeth are also associated with many syndromes like cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner’s syndrome etc. However, it is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. In such cases, the maxillary anterior region is the common site of occurrence. The exact aetiology is not clearly understood. The supernumerary teeth result from any disturbance in the initiation and proliferation stages of odontogenesis. There are several theories regarding the development of a supernumerary tooth-phylogenetic reversion (atavism) theory, dichotomy of tooth germ theory and hyperactivity of the dental lamina. The latter being the most accepted theory, states that the remnants of dental lamina or palatal offshoots of active dental lamina are induced to develop into an extra tooth bud, which results in the formation of a supernumerary tooth. Genetics is also considered to contribute to the development of supernumerary teeth, as these have been diagnosed in twins, siblings and sequential generations of a family. Classification of supernumerary teeth may be on the basis of position or form. Positional variations include mesiodens, paramolars, distomolars and parapremolars. Variations in form consist of conical types, tuberculate types, supplemental teeth and odontomes. Supernumerary teeth may, therefore, vary from a simple odontome, through a conical or tuberculate tooth to a supplemental tooth which closely resembles a normal tooth. Also, the site and number of supernumeraries can vary greatly. This report presents a case of a non-syndromic male patient with multiple supernumerary teeth and a permanent impacted tooth in the maxillary anterior region. PMID:23704467

  7. Stress distributions in maxillary central incisors restored with various types of post materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Madfa, A A; Kadir, M R Abdul; Kashani, J; Saidin, S; Sulaiman, E; Marhazlinda, J; Rahbari, R; Abdullah, B J J; Abdullah, H; Abu Kasim, N H

    2014-07-01

    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (p<0.05), especially along the centre of the post. Of the materials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface. PMID:24834856

  8. Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics™ for retreatment of a patient with diminished root length and absence of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Montesinos F, Armando; Linares T, Silvana; Pérez-Gasque B, Marisol

    2015-01-01

    An 18-year-old female patient visited a university orthodontics department with a chief complaint of an unesthetic appearance of her teeth, including a protruded upper central incisor and unsatisfactory results from previous orthodontic treatment. Pretreatment records showed a Class II skeletal and dental relation with proclined upper and lower incisors, replacement of an absent upper left central incisor with the left upper cuspid, presence of the upper left deciduous cuspid, mild crowding, and 4 mm of overbite and overjet. The panoramic radiograph showed shortened roots of multiple teeth. Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics™ (AOO™) was recommended as an approach to reduce the treatment time and the risk of further root shortening. Despite being more expensive and requiring a surgical procedure, this treatment option was very attractive to the patient. The overall treatment time was 14 months. Facial balance was improved, and good occlusal relationships were achieved from the functional and esthetic perspectives. In conclusion, surgically facilitated orthodontics (specifically, AOO™) is an efficient and safe therapeutic tool for treating or retreating orthodontic patients with diminished root length. PMID:26644760

  9. Treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and compromised ferrule: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bryan T; Caicedo, Ricardo; Lin, Wei-Shao; Morton, Dean

    2014-05-01

    This clinical report presents the treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and a compromised ferrule. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy combined with periodontal surgery was provided for debridement. Direct light-polymerizing resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a zirconia crown were used to repair the defect. Symptomatic endodontic complication was diagnosed with localized cone beam computed tomography at 6-month follow-up, and periapical microsurgery was rendered. The patient was followed-up for 30 months after treatment and had no further complications. PMID:24423455

  10. Treatment of maxillary central incisor with external root resorption using mineral trioxide aggregate: 18 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Padma; Disha, Saraswathi

    2013-01-01

    External cervical resorption is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. This case report demonstrates an external cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor of a 24-year-old male patient. After surgical intervention and root canal treatment, the resorption was subsequently sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate. The 18 months follow-up demonstrates no pathological changes on clinical and radiographic examination. This case report presents a treatment strategy that might improve the healing outcomes for patients with external cervical resorption. PMID:23843419

  11. Incisors’ proportions in smile esthetics

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F; Batwa, Waeil

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether alteration of the maxillary central and lateral incisors’ length and width, respectively, would affect perceived smile esthetics and to validate the most esthetic length and width, respectively, for the central and lateral incisors. Materials and Methods: Photographic manipulation was undertaken to produce two sets of photographs, each set of four photographs showing the altered width of the lateral incisor and length of the central length. The eight produced photographs were assessed by laypeople, dentists and orthodontists. Results: Alteration in the incisors’ proportion affected the relative smile attractiveness for laypeople (n=124), dentists (n=115) and orthodontists (n=68); dentists and orthodontists did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 0.5 mm (P<0.01), which suggests that the lateral to central incisor width ratio ranges from 54% to 62%. However, laypeople did not accept lateral width reduction of more than 1 mm (P<0.01), widening the range to be from 48% to 62%. All groups had zero tolerance for changes in central crown length (P<0.01). Conclusion: All participants recognized that the central incisors’ length changes. For lateral incisors, laypeople were more tolerant than dentists and orthodontists. This suggests that changing incisors’ proportions affects the relative smile attractiveness. PMID:24987650

  12. A Fused Maxillary Central Incisor and Its Multidisciplinary Treatment: An 18-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Cahuana, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Fused teeth may cause aesthetic, spacing, periodontal, eruption, and caries problems. The present case report describes a 7-year-old boy patient with a chief complaint of unerupted maxillary incisor. Radiographic examination indicated a fused tooth which had two fused roots but two independent root canals. A complex management of a fused tooth is really difficult to standardize. In this case an orthodontic, endodontic, and surgical treatment (intentional replantation) allowed the tooth to be retained until 18 years following intervention. Maintenance of the root and alveolar bone in young adults at least until full skeletal maturation should be the main treatment objective. PMID:24738034

  13. Adhesive reattachment rehabilitating a nonvital central incisor with a complicated crown-root fracture: 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Marcilio Jorge Fernandes; Cohen-Carneiro, Flavia; Tino, Giselle Desideri; Franco Marques, Andre Augusto; Pontes, Danielson Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Dental trauma requires immediate treatment. However, some conventional treatments (such as an implant and/or partial fixed denture) will not always be immediately possible, due to the patient's age (mainly in pediatric cases) or lack of immediate financial resources. In such situations, the technique of adhesive reattachment plays an important role as a treatment option in the interim. This case report describes the use of adhesive fragment reattachment in the rehabilitation of a maxillary central incisor with a complicated crown-root fracture. A 1-year follow-up affirmed that the adhesive reattachment efficiently resolved the crown-root fracture, allowing for the retention of the tooth structure. This more conservative multidisciplinary approach restored function, esthetics, and self-esteem to the patient, while preserving all bone and gingival architecture for future implant treatment. PMID:26147175

  14. Preservative management of traumatized maxillary central incisor using fiber reinforced composite and mineral trioxide aggregate: Report of a case

    PubMed Central

    Surapaneni, Sai Kalyan; Chandki, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The myriads of technological advancements in dentistry in last two decades have led to a dramatic shift from conventional invasive procedures to more conservative biomimetic therapies. In this series, management of traumatic dental injuries has taken a big leap in that now it is possible to conserve many of these teeth which were otherwise doomed to extraction. Depending on the extent of injury, esthetic and functional requirements, traumatic dental injuries can be managed by a variety of clinical procedures including composite resin restorations, reattachment of fractured fragment, endodontic therapy with or without post and core or lastly extraction. Reattaching natural tooth structure offers an advantage over the others in that it is instant, provides superior esthetics, preserves the natural tooth structure and is best accepted by the patient. This paper describes the comprehensive management of traumatized maxillary central incisor involving pulp exposure while maintaining pulp vitality and natural appearance of a tooth. PMID:26604608

  15. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. Results: 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. Conclusion: With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule. PMID:26464537

  16. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post. PMID:26543733

  17. Agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis in central incisors performed by a standardized photographic method and clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carolina Castro; Chalub, Loliza; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess agreement in the diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed by a standardized digital photographic method and a clinical examination (gold standard). 49 children (aged 7-9 years) were clinically evaluated by a trained examiner for the assessment of dental fluorosis. Central incisors were evaluated for the presence or absence of dental fluorosis and were photographed with a digital camera. Photographs were presented to three pediatric dentists, who examined the images. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa and validity values. Agreement in the diagnosis performed by the photographic method and clinical examination was good (0.67) and accuracy was 83.7%. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was reported to be higher in the clinical examination (49%) compared with the photographic method (36.7%). The photographic method presented higher specificity (96%) than sensitivity (70.8%), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 94.4% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 77.4%. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis performed using the photographic method presented high specificity and PPV, which indicates that the method is reproducible and reliable for recording dental fluorosis. PMID:19488486

  18. Neonatal line width in deciduous incisors from Neolithic, mediaeval and modern skeletal samples from north-central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Marta; ??dzi?ska, El?bieta; Sitek, Aneta; Borowska-Strugi?ska, Beata; Rosset, Iwona; Lorkiewicz, Wies?aw

    2016-01-01

    The neonatal line is usually the first accentuated incremental line visible on the enamel. The prenatal environment significantly contributes to the width of the neonatal line, influencing the pace of reaching post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. Studies of the enamel of the earliest developing deciduous teeth can provide an insight into the prenatal development and the perinatal conditions of children of past human populations, thus being an additional source contributing to consideration of the influence of prenatal and perinatal factors modifying growth processes. The aim of this study was to examine whether the neonatal line, reflecting the conditions of the prenatal and perinatal environment, differed between the Neolithic, the mediaeval and the modern populations from the Kujawy region in north-central Poland. The material consisted of longitudinally ground sections of 57 human deciduous incisors obtained from children aged 1.0-7.5 years representing three archaeological series from Brze?? Kujawski site. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-linqual plane using a diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed with the microscope Delta Optical Evolution 300 at 10× and 40× magnifications. For each tooth, linear measurements of the neonatal line width were performed on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. No significant difference was found in the mean neonatal line width depending on the tooth type and archaeological site, although the thickest neonatal line characterised children from the Neolithic series. In all analysed series, the neonatal line width was diversified depending on the child's age at death. The value of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the child's age at death and the neonatal line width was statistically significant. A clear increase in the width of the neonatal line was thus observed along with a decrease in the child's age at death. PMID:25800876

  19. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Srilatha, KT; Nandlal, B; Dhull, Kanika Singh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the load-bearing capacity of fractured incisal edge of maxillary permanent central incisors restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite. Materials and methods: Thirty-six extracted sound maxillary central incisors randomly divided in three groups were used for the present study. Group I (control) contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II and III were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third) part of the crown horizontally and subjected to enamel preparations and restored with a nanocomposite and a glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite respectively. All restored teeth were stored in distilled water at room temperature for 24 hours. Fracture resistance was evaluated as peak load at failure (Newton) for samples tested in a cantilever-bending test using Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were microscopically examined. Results: Highest mean peak failure load (Newton) among experimental groups was observed in glass fiber-reinforced nano composite group (863.50 ± 76.12 N) followed by nanocomposite group (633.67 ± 40.14 N). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the restoration technique significantly affected the load-bearing capacity (p < 0.001). Scheffe’s post-hoc comparison test (subset for ? = 0.05) revealed that there was significant difference in the mean peak failure load values of nanocomposite and glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite groups when considered together (p < 0.001). Experimental groups showed similar types of failure modes with majority occurring ascohesive and mixed type. Fifty-eight percent of the teeth in glass fiber-reinforced nanocomposite group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. Conclusion: By using fiber-reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in the repair of fractured incisors, the load-bearing capacity of the restored incisal edge could be substantially increased. How to cite this article: Kumar PSP, Srilatha KT, Nandlal B, Dhull KS. Evaluation of the Load-bearing Capacity of Fractured Incisal Edge of Maxillary Permanent Central Incisors restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):22-29. PMID:26124577

  20. Use of Cone-beam Computed Tomography during Retreatment of a 2-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor: Case Report of a Complex Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Levin, Avi; Shemesh, Avi; Katzenell, Vered; Gottlieb, Ayelet; Ben Itzhak, Joe; Solomonov, Michael

    2015-12-01

    A double-rooted maxillary incisor is an extremely rare anatomic variation. Only a few case reports describe this abnormal anatomy. In recent decades, cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging has become more common for endodontic purposes. This case report describes the retreatment of double-rooted maxillary central incisors using CBCT imaging. In 2012, a 20-year-old man was referred to our department because of asymptomatic periapical lesions in teeth #8, #9, and #10. During the evaluation of a periapical radiograph, a rare anatomic variation, in the form of an additional root of tooth #9, was detected, and it was impossible to decide about the source of the lesion between teeth #9 and #10. During retreatment, after gutta-percha removal, CBCT imaging was performed; this allowed proper treatment of the additional root and a final diagnosis of normal periapical tissue of tooth #10 with no treatment needed. The 18-month follow-up revealed a healing lesion in tooth #9 and normal periapical tissue in tooth #10. During the treatment of teeth with an anatomic variation, CBCT imaging can serve as an auxiliary tool for 3-dimensional evaluation that influences treatment steps and techniques. CBCT scanning can be very useful in assessing the actual location of a periapical lesion, which influences diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:26478437

  1. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  2. Relationship of central incisor implant placement to the ridge configuration anterior to the nasopalatine canal in dentate and partially edentulous individuals: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the ridge contour anterior to the nasopalatine canal, and the difference between the incidences of the nasopalatine canal perforation in dentate and partially edentulous patients by cone-beam computed tomography. Methods. Cone-beam computed tomography scan images from 72 patients were selected from database and divided into dentate and partially edentulous groups. The configuration of the ridge anterior to the canal including palatal concavity depth, palatal concavity height, palatal concavity angle, bone height coronal to the incisive foramen, and bone width anterior to the canal was measured. A virtual implant placement procedure was used, and the incidences of perforation were evaluated after implant placement in the cingulum position with the long axis along with the designed crown. Results. Comparing with variable values from dentate patients, the palatal concavity depth and angle were greater by 0.9 mm and 4°, and bone height was shorter by 1.1 mm in partially edentulous patients, respectively. Bone width in edentulous patients was narrower than in dentate patients by 1.2 mm at incisive foramen level and 0.9 mm at 8 mm subcrestal level, respectively. After 72 virtual cylindrical implants (4.1 × 12 mm) were placed, a total of 12 sites (16.7%) showed a perforation and three-fourths occurred in partially edentulous patients. After replacing with 72 tapered implants (4.3 × 13 mm), only 6 implants (8.3%) broke into the canal in the partially edentulous patient group. Conclusions. The nasopalatine canal may get close to the implant site and the bone width anterior to the canal decreases after the central incisor extraction. The incidence of nasopalatine canal perforation may occur more commonly during delayed implant placement in central incisor missing patients. PMID:26557434

  3. Multidisciplinary restoration of fused maxillary incisors: a case report.

    PubMed

    Trebilcock, C E; Mealey, B L; Dickson, S S

    1995-05-01

    This case report describes the endodontic, periodontal, and restorative treatment of a maxillary incisor with unusual external and internal anatomy. The right central and lateral incisors had fused, resulting in an oversized unaesthetic central incisor. A small diastema was present between the fused central incisor and the canine. Since overpreparation of the tooth during restoration was anticipated, endodontic therapy was accomplished. Periodontal flap surgery provided an opportunity to reduce the root diameter and narrow the emergence profile of the tooth and to eliminate a plaque-retentive palatogingival groove. A cast post and core rigidly obturated the canal space and provided a preparation on which to fabricate a metal-ceramic restoration simulating the replacement of the right lateral incisor. The final restoration provided significant aesthetic improvement. The learning objective of this article is to familiarize the reader with multidisciplinary restorations. PMID:7670090

  4. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  5. Measuring rodent incisors from scats can increase accuracy of predator diet studies. An illustration based on island cats and rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnaud, Elsa; Vidal, Eric; Zarzoso-Lacoste, Diane; Torre, Franck

    2008-09-01

    Non-invasive diet studies, which are a simple but important tool to understand trophic interactions inside ecosystems, need to be as detailed as possible. Determining the precise biomass of ingested prey is a key to obtaining not only a better understanding of the amount of food really ingested but also the predator-prey interactions. It is particularly relevant in the case of rodents, because they are often a predominant prey in carnivores' diet and can differ widely in biomass. This study demonstrates how an original and simple method for measuring rat incisors found in cat scats produces measurements which can be correlated with rat weight. This correlation, used in a field application, made it possible to: (i) calculate a more accurate biomass of rats in cat diets and thus obtain a better estimation of the proportion of rats compared to other prey in cat diets; (ii) show that cats preferentially ate smaller rats, indicating that the use of the mean weight of rodents sampled by trap-lines may induce a significant bias in the biomass calculation. Likewise, a correlation between rat lens weight and incisor measurements was found. Using this correlation, it should be possible to estimate the age of the rats eaten by cats and obtain a better understanding of the impact of predators on prey population dynamics. PMID:18722988

  6. The association between traumatic dental injuries and atypical external root resorption in maxillary primary incisors.

    PubMed

    Holan, Gideon; Yodko, Elizabeth; Sheinvald-Shusterman, Kineret

    2015-02-01

    Atypical root resorption (ARR), which is observed on radiographs of primary incisors, has been reported in the dental literature to result from digit sucking; thus ignoring any association between ARR and traumatic dental injuries (TDI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the contributions of sucking habits and TDI to external ARR in primary incisors. A history of dental trauma was assessed based on clinical and radiographic findings. Periapical radiographs of the premaxilla were evaluated for the presence of ARR. The presence or history of sucking habits was based on parents' report. Data were collected from files of 727 patients with a mean age of 52 months. Sixty-four children (8.8%) presented ARR in one or both central incisors. All 64 had experienced some type of TDI. Five hundred and forty-nine (76%) of the children had sucking habits; of them, 501 were pacifier-suckers and 48 digit suckers. Digit sucking was found in only 4 (6%) of the 64 children presenting ARR. These findings support the association of traumatic dental injury, and not of digit sucking, with ARR in primary incisors. PMID:25283588

  7. Case report: endodontic and surgical treatment of an upper central incisor with external root resorption and radicular cyst following a traumatic tooth avulsion.

    PubMed

    Lux, Hans-Christian; Goetz, Falko; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-11-01

    In the age group between 6 and 12 years, trauma to the upper incisors happens frequently. In the case of avulsion, a replantation is the state-of-the-art treatment; however, it may lead to several complications, particularly if suitable posttraumatic management is not carried out. External cervical resorptions as well as apical granuloma and cysts due to microbial contamination of the root canal are common complications. In the presented trauma case, a conservative approach was chosen to treat a large cystic lesion combined with cervical and apical resorptions. After initial placement of Ledermix and calcium hydroxide into the root canal, a marsupialization with the temporary insertion of an obturator was performed. The gradual reduction led to a fast recovery of the bony defect and a root canal filling was placed. The 2-year follow-up showed an improved condition. All adjacent teeth remained vital during the course of the treatment. PMID:20692191

  8. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ? 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  9. Orthodontic retraction of autotransplanted premolar to replace ankylosed maxillary incisor with replacement resorption.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Shin, Sujung; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Chung, Chooryung J

    2014-04-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of an adult with lip protrusion and a previously traumatized maxillary central incisor that had experienced replacement root resorption. An extracted premolar was transplanted into the incisor space and retracted orthodontically. Autotransplantation was successful with complete root formation and, combined with orthodontic treatment, provided a satisfying esthetic outcome. PMID:24703290

  10. Dual embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors: clinical implications in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Rosar, Julia Petruccelli; Sathler, Renata; Ozawa, Terumi Okada

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are craniofacial anomalies highly prevalent in the overall population. In oral clefts involving the alveolar ridge, variations of number, shape, size and position are observed in maxillary lateral incisors. The objective of this manuscript is to elucidate the embryonic origin of maxillary lateral incisors in order to understand the etiology of these variations. Contextualization: The hypothesis that orofacial clefts would split maxillary lateral incisor buds has been previously reported. However, recent studies showed that maxillary lateral incisors have dual embryonic origin, being partially formed by both the medial nasal process and the maxillary process. In other words, the mesial half of the lateral incisor seems to come from the medial nasal process while the distal half of the lateral incisor originates from the maxillary process. In cleft patients, these processes do not fuse, which results in different numerical and positional patterns for lateral incisors relating to the alveolar cleft. In addition to these considerations, this study proposes a nomenclature for maxillary lateral incisors in patients with cleft lip and palate, based on embryology and lateral incisors position in relation to the alveolar cleft. Conclusion: Embryological knowledge on the dual origin of maxillary lateral incisors and the use of a proper nomenclature for their numerical and positional variations renders appropriate communication among professionals and treatment planning easier, in addition to standardizing research analysis. PMID:26560830

  11. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Parisa; Gerami, Alayar; Najafi, Amirhosein; Torkan, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth. PMID:26636119

  12. Is There a Relationship between the Axis Orbital Plane and the Inclination of the Maxillary Central Incisors: An in vivo Study 

    E-print Network

    Merrell, P Jay

    2015-05-11

    mouth reconstructions [4]. The inclination of the anterior teeth affect the lip support for the facial profile, influence the personality of the dentition and the smile line, and determine the pronunciation of the fricative and sibilant sounds [5, 6... are based on radiographic anatomical landmarks and are different 3 from clinical landmarks. Restorative dentists use the face-bow to transfer the spatial relationship of the maxillary dentition to anatomic reference points. The cephalometric...

  13. A comparative study of incisor procumbency and mandibular morphology in vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian S; Nicolay, Christopher W; Williams, Susan H

    2010-07-01

    The three species of vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae), Desmodus rotundus, Diaemus youngi, and Diphylla ecaudata, are the only mammals that obtain all nutrition from vertebrate blood (sanguinivory). Because of the unique challenges of this dietary niche, vampire bats possess a suite of behavioral, physiological, and morphological specializations. Morphological specializations include a dentition characterized by small, bladelike, non-occlusive cheek teeth, large canines, and extremely large, procumbent, sickle-shaped upper central incisors. The tips of these incisors rest in cuplike pits in the mandible behind the lower incisors (mandibular pits). Here, we use microCT scanning and high-resolution radiography to describe the morphology of the mandible and anterior dentition in vampire bats, focusing on the relationship between symphyseal fusion, mandibular pit size, incisor size, and procumbency. In Desmodus and Diaemus, highly procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively small mandibular pits, an unfused mandibular symphysis with substantial bony interdigitations linking the dentaries, and a diastema between the lower central incisors that helps to facilitate the lapping of blood from a wound. In Diphylla, less procumbent upper incisors are associated with relatively large mandibular pits, a completely fused mandibular symphysis, and a continuous lower toothrow lacking a central diastema. We hypothesize that symphyseal morphology and the presence or absence of the diastema are associated with the angle of upper incisor procumbency and mandibular pit development, and that spatial constraints influence the morphology of the symphysis. Finally, this morphological variation suggests that Diphylla utilizes a different feeding strategy as compared to Desmodus and Diaemus, possibly resulting from the functional demands of specialization on avian, rather than mammalian, blood. PMID:20544874

  14. Dental fast track: prenatal enamel growth, incisor eruption, and weaning in human infants.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Correlation between the timing of permanent first molar eruption and weaning age in extant primates has provided a way to infer a life history event in fossil species, but recent debate has questioned whether the same link is present in human infants. Deciduous incisors erupt at an age when breast milk can be supplemented with additional foods (mixed feeding), and weaning is typically complete before permanent first molars erupt. Here, I use histological methods to calculate the prenatal rate by which enamel increases in thickness and height on human deciduous incisors, canines, and molars (n = 125). Growth trajectories for each tooth type are related to the trimesters and assessed against the eruption sequence and final crown height. Analyses show that central incisors initiate early in the second trimester with significantly faster secretion rates relative to canines and second molars, which initiate closer to birth. Even though initial extension rates were correlated with crown height and scaled with positive allometry within each tooth class, the relatively short incisors still increased in height at a significantly faster rate than the taller canines and molars. The incisor prenatal "fast track" produces a greater proportion of the crown before birth than all other tooth types. This growth mechanism likely facilitates early incisor eruption at a time when the mixed feeding of infants can be initiated as part of the weaning process. Findings provide a basis from which to explore new links between developmental trends along the tooth row and mixed feeding age in other primates. PMID:25388809

  15. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christianson, D.A.; Gogan, P.J.P.; Podruzny, K.M.; Olexa, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biologists commonly use tooth eruption and wear patterns or cementum annuli techniques to estimate age of ungulates. However, in some situations the accuracy or sampling procedures of either approach are undesirable. We investigated the progression of several quantitative measures of wear with age, using permanent first incisors from Yellowstone bison (Bison bison), and tested for differences between sexes and herds. We further investigated the relationship of wear and age to explore an age-estimation method. Labial-lingual width (LLW) correlated best with assigned age (r2=0.66, males; r2=0.76 females). Labial-lingual width differed between sexes, with females showing ?0.2 mm more wear than males. Additionally, differences in rate of wear existed between bison of the northern and central Yellowstone herds (1.2 and 0.9 mm/year, respectively). We developed a regression formula to test the power of LLW as an estimator of Yellowstone bison age. Our method provided estimated ages within 1 year of the assigned age 73% and 82% of the time for female and male bison, respectively.

  16. Management of horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Katta, Anil Kumar; Peddu, Revathi; Vannala, Venkataramana; Dasari, Vaishnavi

    2015-01-01

    Impaction of maxillary lateral incisor with odontome and retained deciduous tooth is not often seen in regular dental practice. Impaction of anterior teeth cause generalized spacing which affects the esthetics of the face. Here we report a case of an 18-year-old patient with horizontally impacted dilacerated lateral incisor, which was bought into occlusion with the help of orthodontic tooth movement within a span of 18 months. PMID:26538954

  17. Complete bilateral gemination of maxillary incisors with separate root canals.

    PubMed

    Mahendra, Lodd; Govindarajan, Sujatha; Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohammed; Kumar, Nalin; Madasamy, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. PMID:25254121

  18. Age estimation from pulp/tooth area ratio in maxillary incisors among Egyptians using dental radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Zaher, Jaklin Fekri; Fawzy, Irene Atef; Habib, Sahar Refaat; Ali, Magdy Mohamed

    2011-02-01

    Age estimation from dental radiographs is a non-destructive, simple method to obtain information. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of age estimation from Egyptians' incisors radiographs. 144 periapical radiographs of maxillary (central & lateral) incisors (both sexes) aged 12-60 were used. Digital camera was used to image the radiographs. Images were computed and pulp/tooth area ratios were determined by AutoCAD Program. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis which showed statistically significant correlation (r = 0.23 &P = 0.006 for maxillary central incisors and r = -0.2 &P = 0.05 for maxillary lateral incisors) between age and pulp tooth area ratio. Linear regression equations were determined separately for both central and lateral incisors along with the corresponding Standard Error of Estimate, which ranged from 1.2 to 5.08 years. Consequently, it was concluded that pulp/tooth area ratios of incisors are reliable for estimation of age among Egyptians in forensic work. PMID:21315299

  19. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Krishnapriya, V; Sriram, CH; Reddy, Maheshwar KR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Surgical derotation is a method of placing a rotated tooth in normal alignment in a dental arch; surgically, immediately and permanently. It is a potentially convenient and cost-effective treatment modality as compared to conventional orthodontic procedure for rotated maxillary incisor with open apex. Here is a presentation of a severely rotated maxillary left permanent central incisor in a nine and half years old girl, with a radiographic evidence of immature root apex which was surgically derotated, orthodontically retroclined and intruded to its normal position. Postsurgical clinical and radiographic evaluation was done for a period of one and half years to confirm the vitality and continued physiological root formation of the affected tooth. How to cite this article: Dutta B, Krishnapriya V, Sriram CH, Reddy MKR. Surgical Derotation Technique: A Novel Approach in the Management of Rotated Immature Permanent Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):220-223. PMID:26604541

  20. Quantum-walk-based search and centrality

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Scott D.; Wang, Jingbo B.

    2010-10-15

    We study the discrete-time quantum-walk-based search for a marked vertex on a graph. By considering various structures in which not all vertices are equivalent, we investigate the relationship between the successful search probability and the position of the marked vertex, in particular, its centrality. We find that the maximum value of the search probability does not necessarily increase as the marked vertex becomes more central, and we investigate an interesting relationship between the frequency of the successful search probability and the centrality of the marked vertex.

  1. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  2. Bases for central storage units. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Mould, A.E.; Stephen, F.R.

    1985-12-01

    Domestic central-storage units for space heating are heavy and installation advice (ECRC/R1857) assumes the loads to be uniformly spread over their base. Where this is not done and feet or parallel runners are provided, then an additional load-spreading device is necessary. The report describes how such load spreading can be achieved.

  3. How much incisor decompensation is achieved prior to orthognathic surgery?

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Calum; Laverick, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify incisor decompensation in preparation for orthognathic surgery. Study design: Pre-treatment and pre-surgery lateral cephalograms for 86 patients who had combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment were digitised using OPAL 2.1 [http://www.opalimage.co.uk]. To assess intra-observer reproducibility, 25 images were re-digitised one month later. Random and systematic error were assessed using the Dahlberg formula and a two-sample t-test, respectively. Differences in the proportions of cases where the maxillary (1100 +/- 60) or mandibular (900 +/- 60) incisors were fully decomensated were assessed using a Chi-square test (p<0.05). Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify if there were any differences in the amount of net decompensation for maxillary and mandibular incisors between the Class II combined and Class III groups (p<0.05). Results: Random and systematic error were less than 0.5 degrees and p<0.05, respectively. A greater proportion of cases had decompensated mandibular incisors (80%) than maxillary incisors (62%) and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.029). The amount of maxillary incisor decompensation in the Class II and Class III groups did not statistically differ (p=0.45) whereas the mandibular incisors in the Class III group underwent statistically significantly greater decompensation (p=0.02). Conclusions: Mandibular incisors were decompensated for a greater proportion of cases than maxillary incisors in preparation for orthognathic surgery. There was no difference in the amount of maxillary incisor decompensation between Class II and Class III cases. There was a greater net decompensation for mandibular incisors in Class III cases when compared to Class II cases. Key words:Decompensation, orthognathic, pre-surgical orthodontics, surgical-orthodontic. PMID:25136421

  4. In vivo administration of dental epithelial stem cells at the apical end of the mouse incisor

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Giovanna; Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia; Natsiou, Despoina; Putignano, Angelo; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based tissue regeneration is an attractive approach that complements traditional surgical techniques for replacement of injured and lost tissues. The continuously growing rodent incisor provides an excellent model system for investigating cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth renewal and regeneration. An active population of dental epithelial progenitor/stem cells located at the posterior part of the incisor, commonly called cervical loop area, ensures the continuous supply of cells that are responsible for the secretion of enamel matrix. To explore the potential of these epithelial cells in therapeutic approaches dealing with enamel defects, we have developed a new method for their in vivo administration in the posterior part of the incisor. Here, we provide the step-by-step protocol for the isolation of dental epithelial stem cells and their delivery at targeted areas of the jaw. This simple and yet powerful protocol, consisting in drilling a hole in the mandibular bone, in close proximity to the cervical loop area of the incisor, followed up by injection of stem cells, is feasible, reliable, and effective. This in vivo approach opens new horizons and possibilities for cellular therapies involving pathological and injured dental tissues. PMID:25914649

  5. Interim restorative approach for the management of congenitally missing permanent mandibular incisors: presentation of three cases.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Prashanth; Hallur, Jayadev M; Gowda, Rachana Narse

    2011-01-01

    Congenital missing of mandibular permanent incisors with retained primary incisors may jeopardize the esthetic appearance and psychological development of children, especially during the years of transition into adolescence. The retained primary teeth are necessary for the maintenance and normal development of alveolar bone, which in turn is essential for future definitive rehabilitation. In such situations, an interim restoration may be provided before any definitive treatment is given to comfort the young patient during this transition period. Interim restorations may include resin-modified additions to the existing teeth as well as more sophisticated restorations such as resin-retained bridge and removable partial dentures. However, this restoration differs for different clinical situations based on various factors such as age and patient compliance, and also consideration has to be given for the growth changes of the child. The aim of this present paper is to discuss the esthetic management of three cases with bilateral agenesis of permanent mandibular incisors and retained primary incisors with composite interim restoration. PMID:22567446

  6. An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

  7. The adaptive significance of enamel loss in the mandibular incisors of cercopithecine primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): a finite element modelling study.

    PubMed

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  8. The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

    2014-01-01

    In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

  9. Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest. PMID:24228237

  10. Cone beam-computed topographic evaluation of a central incisor with an open apex and a failed root canal treatment using one-step apexification with Biodentine™: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Patil, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    A symptomatic endodontically treated immature tooth with periapical pathology presents multiple challenges to the clinician. Owing to incomplete root formation, gutta percha removal has to be done carefully without further damaging the periapical tissue or pushing the obturating material beyond the apex. Nonsurgical approach toward treating such a tooth would necessitate the creation of an apical barrier followed by conventional root canal treatment. Current literature suggests one-step apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), with an apical matrix as the treatment of choice. A new calcium silicate-based cement also called as dentine substitute by the manufacturers with good handling properties has been introduced recently by the trade name Biodentine™ (Septodont, St. Maurdes Fossés, France). This case report presents management of a secondary endodontic case with an open apex treated with the concept of ‘lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR)’ using triantibiotic paste and Biodentine™ for apical barrier formation. A 12-month follow up with cone beam-computed topography (CBCT) exhibited progressive involution of periapical radiolucency with indications of good healing of the periapical tissues and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:24944456

  11. [Repair and revision 8. Relapse of lower incisors: retreatment?].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2002-02-01

    Research into the long-term stability of orthodontic treatment at the University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands) until 10 years after retention has shown that nearly 50% of the total relapse takes place the first two years after retention. After that period certain stability is reached except for the lower front teeth. Ten years after the retention phase their position is even worse than at the start of treatment. The changes in lower front teeth alignment are the result of relapse, but also of normal physiological changes during ageing of the dentition. Therefore it is questionable whether late mandibular incisor irregularity should be (re)treated. Relapse of mandibular incisor alignment shortly after debonding can be restored by tightly tying the rotated incisor(s) to the C-C bar with a steel ligature, by using a spring-retainer or by rebonding of brackets to the lower front teeth. After correction of the incisor position the C-C bar should be bonded to all lower front teeth. (Re)treatment of mandibular incisor irregularity at an older age asks for more complicated treatment mechanics. PMID:11933564

  12. Management of invasive cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Senthil; Kumar, N. S. Mohan; Karunakaran, J. V.; Nagendran, S.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is often not diagnosed properly, leading to improper treatment or unnecessary loss of the tooth structure. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are the keys to a successful outcome of therapy. Invasive cervical resorption is often seen in the cervical area of the tooth, but because it is initiated apical to the epithelial attachment, it can present anywhere in the root. In the early stages, it may be symmetrical, but larger lesions have the tendency to be asymmetrical. It can expand apically or coronally. PMID:26538950

  13. Management of invasive cervical resorption in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Senthil; Kumar, N S Mohan; Karunakaran, J V; Nagendran, S

    2015-08-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is often not diagnosed properly, leading to improper treatment or unnecessary loss of the tooth structure. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are the keys to a successful outcome of therapy. Invasive cervical resorption is often seen in the cervical area of the tooth, but because it is initiated apical to the epithelial attachment, it can present anywhere in the root. In the early stages, it may be symmetrical, but larger lesions have the tendency to be asymmetrical. It can expand apically or coronally. PMID:26538950

  14. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post.

    PubMed

    Manju, M; Shanthraj, Srinivas L; Savitha, K C; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  15. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Savitha, K. C.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  16. [Orthodontic possibilities for young patients with missing maxillary incisors].

    PubMed

    van der Linden, F P

    1995-10-01

    In the orthodontic treatment of young patients with missing maxillary incisors one should make an effort to avoid prosthetic solutions. This not only applies to situations with agenesis of maxillary lateral permanent incisors, but also to those cases in which maxillary incisors cannot be maintained after trauma. Standard solutions are presented for various sagittal jaw relationships and types and number of teeth missing. Specific rules have to be observed for the closure of spaces due to missing teeth in order to reduce the occurrence of papillae retraction and to place the substituting teeth in such a position that their crowns can be built up to look like the originals. This requires mesiodistal angulations that deviate from the standard ones, a proper distribution of crown width and in most cases a permanent retention with a palatally bonded thin multistranded wire. PMID:11837092

  17. Characteristics of incisor-premolar hypodontia in families.

    PubMed

    Arte, S; Nieminen, P; Apajalahti, S; Haavikko, K; Thesleff, I; Pirinen, S

    2001-05-01

    Nonsyndromic tooth agenesis is a genetically and phenotypically heterogenous condition. It is generally assumed that different phenotypic forms are caused by different mutated genes. We analyzed inheritance and phenotype of hypodontia and dental anomalies in 214 family members in three generations of 11 probands collected for genetic linkage study on incisor-premolar hypodontia (IPH). Our analysis confirms the autosomal-dominant transmission with reduced penetrance of IPH. The prevalence of hypodontia and/or peg-shaped teeth was over 40% in first- and second-degree relatives and 18% in first cousins of the probands. Four of nine noted obligate carriers of hypodontia gene had dental anomalies, including small upper lateral incisors, ectopic canines, taurodontism, and rotated premolars. These anomalies were also observed at higher than normal frequency in relatives affected with hypodontia. We conclude that incisor-premolar hypodontia is a genetic condition with autosomal-dominant transmission and that it is associated with several other dental abnormalities. PMID:11437217

  18. Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign

    PubMed Central

    Zawawi, Khalid H.

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

  19. Transposition of Mandibular Lateral Incisor–Canine (Mn.I2.C) Associated with Hypodontia: A Review and Rare Clinical Case

    PubMed Central

    Athimuthu, Anantharaj; Prasanna, Praveen; Jagadeesh, Ramya B

    2014-01-01

    Transposition is a unique and extreme form of ectopic eruption in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the position which is normally occupied by other permanent teeth. Tooth transpositions are rare and they can be complete or incomplete. The aetiology of transposition is still obscure. Various populations have been studied, to determine the prevalence of tooth transpositions. 20% of the transpositions which occur on the maxillary arch involve the canine and the lateral incisor. Although they are rare, transpositions may involve the maxillary lateral and central incisors. Among all transpositions, Mandibular Lateral Incisor-Canine (Mn.I2.C) is the rarest, with a prevalence rate of 0.03%. Although various reports have been published on tooth transpositions, very few have noted the agenesis of teeth, particularly Mn.I2.C and its management. We are reporting a rare clinical case with associated hypodontia. PMID:24959525

  20. Localized periodontal defect associated with unusual furcation involvement on a mandibular incisor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, TaeHyun; Intini, Giuseppe; Kim, David M; Levin, Liran

    2013-10-01

    A localized periodontal defect associated with an unusual furcation on a mandibular central incisor and its treatment sequences are presented. A 54-year-old woman presented with a persistent localized periodontal defect, which was not responsive to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. An exploratory surgery revealed complete through and through furcation involvement on the right mandibular central incisor, resulting in a three-walled infrabony defect. Following thorough mechanical debridement and root planing, the infrabony aspect of the defect was grafted with freeze-dried bone allograft combined with the recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB. The flaps were positioned to enable patient's home care and professional dental cleaning. Follow-up examination revealed uneventful healing and resolution of the infrabony periodontal defect. Clinicians should be aware of this unusual condition and consider it as a potential etiology when dealing with a persistent localized periodontal defect in the mandibular anterior sextant, which may not respond to the conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Eliminating the active disease as well as enabling careful maintenance and oral hygiene may prevent further deterioration and result in a stable long-term outcome preserving the compromised tooth. PMID:23878844

  1. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Kotumachagi Sangappa; Uma, HL; Nagarathna, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eruption disturbances related to the position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. The occurrence of ectopic eruption is most commonly associated with maxillary incisors. The normal eruption, position and morphology of these teeth are crucial to craniofacial development, facial esthetics as well as phonetics. It is essential that the clinicians have thorough knowledge of the eruption disturbances in order to make an appropriate, as well as timely intervention, as dictated by the complexity of the problem. How to cite this article: Suresh KS, Uma HL, Nagarathna J, Kumar P. Management of Ectopically Erupting Maxillary Incisors: A Case Series. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):227-233. PMID:26604543

  2. Management of palato radicular groove in a maxillary lateral incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kishan, K. V.; Hegde, Vani; Ponnappa, K. C.; Girish, T. N.; Ponappa, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study is to report the rare localization of a radicular groove on the palatal aspect of the maxillary lateral incisor and to discuss the pathology and management of the concomitant endo-periodontal defect. Unilateral palato-radicular groove was located on the Maxillary right lateral incisor of an 18-year-old female patient. The groove was associated with deep local periodontal pocket resulting in pulp necrosis and the formation of a large periapical lesion. A collaborative management was carried out using a combination of endodontic therapy, surgical enucleation, odontoplasty, and periodontal regenerative procedure resulting the successful healing of the periapical lesion. PMID:24678222

  3. Continuous and Short Fiber Reinforced Composite in Root Post-Core System of Severely Damaged Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo V.J

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the static load-bearing capacity of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with post-core complex made of experimental fiber composite resin (FC) and complete crown made of particulate filler composite (PFC). Further aim was to evaluate the effect of FC resin on the failure mode of the restoration. Material and Methods: The experimental composite resin (FC) was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers (3 mm in length) and 22.5 wt% of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) resin with 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers. Thirty extracted sound upper central incisors were used. Twenty teeth were prepared by cutting the clinical crown 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction horizontally. Restorations were made by two techniques (n=10). Group A (control group) contained samples of sound incisor teeth. Group B had teeth restored using glass fiber post (everStick, Stick- Teck) and PFC (Filtek Z250, 3M-ESPE) to build up core and complete crown. In Group C, the teeth were restored with FC as post-core and complete crown of PFC. The root canals were prepared and posts were cemented with a dual cure resin cement. The restorations were polymerized with a hand-light curing unit. All restored teeth were stored in water at room temperature for 24 h before they were statically loaded with speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (p=0.05). Failure modes were visually examined. Results: ANOVA revealed that restored incisors (Group B and C) had a statistically significantly lower load-bearing capacity (p<0.05) than the control group. Restorations made from FC post-core and PFC coverage (Group C) gave force value of 363 N (112 SD), which was higher than the value of Group B (211 N, 50 SD). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the teeth restored with experimental fiber composite post-core demonstrated higher load bearing capacity than those with fiber post and PFC core. PMID:19444342

  4. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens

    PubMed Central

    Sidiq, Mohsin; Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Rajesh; Bhargava, Neha; Ganta, Shravani

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this case study was to report a potentially convenient approach instead of a conventional orthodontic procedure for correcting severe rotation of anterior tooth of an 11-year-old Indian boy, with a mixed dentition class I malocclusion. The child reported seeking treatment for severely rotated upper right central incisor with mesiodens and a single tooth crossbite. The supernumerary tooth was first extracted and bondable buttons were placed on the rotated tooth, an appliance composed of a removable plate with Adam’s clasp with distal extension and a loop for engagement of elastics was delivered. Circumferential supracrestal fibrotomy was performed on the corrected derotated tooth. Then, Hawley’s appliance with a z-spring and posterior bite plane was fabricated and placed for correction of crossbite. Thus, this removable appliance can be a simplified and a cost-effective treatment alternative for derotation of anterior tooth, especially during the mixed dentition period. How to cite this article: Sidiq M, Yousuf A, Bhat M, Sharma R, Bhargava N, Ganta S. Correction of a Severely Rotated Maxillary Incisor by Elastics in Mixed Dentition Complicated by a Mesiodens. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):234-238. PMID:26604544

  5. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor associated with an unerupted mandibular lateral incisor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a rare, benign odontogenic tumor that predominantly appears in the second decade of life in female patients. Most AOTs occur in the anterior part of the maxilla and are usually associated with impacted anterior teeth. There are three types of AOT, follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral, which are classified based on the location of the lesion and its association with the impacted tooth. We report a rare case of AOT associated with an impacted right mandibular lateral incisor in an 11-year-old female patient.

  6. Multiauthority attribute based encryption with honestbutcurious central authority

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Multi­authority attribute based encryption with honest­but­curious central authority Vladimir Bo,dsocek,rsteinwa,vvillan}@fau.edu Abstract. An attribute based encryption scheme capable of handling multiple authorities was recently proposed by Chase. The scheme is built upon a single­authority attribute based encryption scheme presented

  7. A rare occurrence of geminated-taloned maxillary lateral incisor.

    PubMed

    Neeraja, R; Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-05-01

    The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  8. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Kayal, Vizhi G

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The talon cusp is a developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of an accessory cusp like structure projecting from the cingulum area of the anterior teeth. Gemination is an anomaly caused by a single tooth germ that attempted to divide during its development. These developmental anomalies may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries and tooth crowding. Co-occurrence of two anomalies in a teeth is rare. This paper presents an unusual case of talon cusp on geminated permanent lateral incisor. How to cite this article: Neeraja R, Kayal VG. A Rare Occurrence of Geminated-Taloned Maxillary Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(2):136-138. PMID:25206153

  9. Management of bulbous exophytic malformations of permanent mandibular incisors.

    PubMed

    Kotsanos, Nikolaos; Velonis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the diagnosis and management of a rare case of bulbous exophytic malformation of three permanent mandibular incisors. An 8-year-old Caucasian girl presented with concerns on the appearance of these teeth. Medical history was noncontributory, and there was no recall of relevant past trauma. Upon clinical examination, 3 permanent mandibular incisors exhibited hard bulbous protuberances in the crown's middle and cervical areas. Radiographic examination assisted by dental computed tomography revealed that these were continuous with the tooth structure, contained no pulpal tissue, and the teeth displayed normal root development. They were excised and the teeth were restored with a thin composite facing. They remained asymptomatic with acceptable esthetics for 4 years. Scanning electron microscopy and histology of the biopsied hard tissue revealed a nonhomogeneous structure resembling anomalously intertwined enamel with predentin and dentin. The etiology of this disturbance of dental development remains unknown. PMID:23265170

  10. Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)

    PubMed Central

    ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

    2001-01-01

    Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

  11. Case report: A medieval case of molar-incisor-hypomineralisation.

    PubMed

    Curzon, M E J; Ogden, A R; Williams-Ward, M; Cleaton-Jones, P E

    2015-12-18

    Introduction Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH) has been identified in recent years as a condition affecting the first permanent molars and, in some cases, the permanent incisors. Many factors have been suggested as to its aetiology. Examples of MIH have also been reported in skeletal remains in the past. These historical examples have, however, been for unknown individuals.Case report A skull that has become available for dental examination that is uncertainly attributed to be that of Lady Eleanor Talbot (c.1436-1468) who ended her life as a Carmelite nun in Norwich (England). The dental findings of the examination showed enamel defects of molar teeth 36 and 46, as well as small areas on other molars, and striations of the enamel of permanent anterior teeth consistent with MIH. There is exposure of the roots of some maxillary teeth with resultant root caries. The presence of areas of enamel decalcification commensurate with 'Turner teeth' on 43 and 44 indicates that there were likely to have been periapical abscesses secondary to dental caries of the primary teeth. In addition, there is occlusal wear of all of teeth with extensive calculus and periodontal exposure of the roots of the mandibular incisors. Failed development or very early ante-mortem loss of premolars 15 and 25 is evident, as well as evidence in the same region of a large abscess cavity with extensive maxillary bone destruction. Healing cribra orbitalia, porosity, which is considered to be an indicator of nutritional stress, is visible on the superior aspect of the left orbit.Conclusion A case of MIH is reported in a skull dating from the mid-15th century. PMID:26679138

  12. Lateral thinking: the management of missing upper lateral incisors.

    PubMed

    Millar, B J; Taylor, N G

    1995-08-01

    Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and a consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and to the teeth, including the presenting malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion, are considered. This review considers the possible options: no treatment; orthodontic space closure with canine modification; space maintenance and replacement of the missing tooth with denture, bridge (adhesive and conventional), or implant. PMID:7546951

  13. Agenesis of lateral incisors: A fresh look at our practice.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christine

    2015-12-01

    In cases involving compensation treatment for edentulousness related to agenesis of the lateral incisors, the transition phase between the orthodontic and the prosthetic stages is tricky. Using clinical illustrations, we will demonstrate that it is time we took a fresh look at our practices. The aim will be to shorten this phase either by postponing the orthodontic stage into adulthood or by placing the prosthesis as quickly as possible on completion of the orthodontic stage, a process which is now feasible, thanks to advances in the designing of bonded bridges and notably of cantilever bonded bridges. PMID:26527037

  14. Survival rate and fracture strength of incisors restored with different post and core systems and endodontically treated incisors without coronoradicular reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Pontius, Oliver; Nathanson, D; Giordano, R; Schilder, H; Hutter, Jeffrey W

    2002-10-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture resistance of maxillary central incisors restored with different post and core systems. The post and core systems investigated were a prefabricated high precious metal post with cast core (group A), zirconia post with a prefabricated bonded ceramic core (group B), and a resin-ceramic interpenetrating phase composite post (experimental) with a prefabricated bonded ceramic core (group C). The all-ceramic copings were cemented using Panavia 21 TC. In the group without coronoradicular reinforcement, the access cavity was closed with a light-cured composite in combination with a dentine-bonding agent (group D). Each specimen was intermittently loaded and thermocycled before final stress tests in a Zwick machine. The survival rates after 1,200,000 cycles in the artificial mouth were 90% (group A), 80% (group B), 60% (group C), and 100% (group D). Statistically significant differences were found between all groups with the exception of A and B, when failure during cyclic loading was included (Kruskal-Wallis multiple comparisons test). Samples restored with a cast post and core demonstrated more vertical root fractures. It was concluded that the preservation of both internal and external tooth structure is of utmost importance when restoring endodontically treated teeth. PMID:12398170

  15. Mandibular Incisor Extraction Treatment of a Class I Malocclusion with Bolton Discrepancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Mehmet; Özer, Mete

    2007-01-01

    Many approaches for crowded mandibular anterior teeth are currently employed: distal movement of posterior teeth, lateral movement of canines, labial movement of incisors, interproximal enamel reduction, removal of premolars, removal of one or two incisors, and various combinations of the above. Selecting the best treatment is often difficult, and all guidelines do not apply to every case. Treatment by extraction of one single mandibular incisor is not popular in the orthodontic profession despite the apparent advantages of the extraction in the region of crowding. A case report is presented one mandibular incisor extraction treatment of a 16 year-old female with a Class I malocclusion that shows a significant mandibular arch length deficiency and mandibular tooth-size excess. In this case, the degree of mandibular anterior dental crowding, existing mandibular tooth-size excess, and the dental midline discrepancy were indicated the extraction of one mandibular incisor. PMID:19212499

  16. A cross-sectional clinical study on shape of nose inner-canthal distance and geometric progression as predictors for width of the maxillary incisor teeth

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Naveen; Singh, T. Rajesh; Reddy, Swetha; Guruprasad, Yadavalli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of anatomical landmarks of the face and geometric progression as predictors for the width of the maxillary incisor teeth. Materials and Methods: The central incisor width (CIW), lateral incisor width (LIW), inner-canthal distance (ICD) and inter-alar distance (IAD) from a total of 150 subjects were measured clinically. The width of the root of the nose (WRN) was measured on standard photographs of the subjects. Student t-test has been used to find the significance of parameters between male and female. Pearson correlation has been used to find any relation of the parameters. Results: The IAD and the WRN measurements suggest that the shape of the nose is wider and more triangular in males. The mean maxillary CIW and ICD was significantly higher in males than females. Conclusion: The proportion of IAD to WRN seems to be a reliable guide for deciding the proportion of the maxillary central and LIW. The ICD, when multiplied by a decreasing function value of the geometric progression term 0.618 and divided by 2, was a reliable predictor of the maxillary CIW. PMID:25097395

  17. Esthetic considerations when replacing missing maxillary incisors with implants: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Petropoulou, Aikaterini; Pappa, Eftychia; Pelekanos, Stavros

    2013-03-01

    Restoring missing maxillary incisors with implants is both challenging and demanding for the clinician. Decisions concerning the number, position, and diameter of implants are crucial to achieve an optimal esthetic result, especially in patients with increased vertical and horizontal overlap. This clinical report presents a treatment where 2 narrow implants, placed in the maxillary lateral incisor positions of the maxilla, support the restoration of the 4 missing incisors. Despite meticulous surgical and restorative treatment procedures, the use of gingiva-colored veneering material was required to achieve a satisfactory esthetic outcome. PMID:23522361

  18. Management of traumatic intrusive luxation of incisors in a patient with Down’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Airen Sarkar, Priyanka; Shigli, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Special needs individuals are children or adults who are prevented by a physical or mental condition from full participation in the normal range of activities of their age groups. They usually exhibit high treatment needs because of an increased prevalence and severity of trauma. This paper presents a case report and review of treatment strategy of repositioning, splinting of permanent incisors in a 13-year-old boy with Down’s syndrome sustaining trauma led to intrusive luxation of maxillary incisors. The intruded incisors were immediately repositioned and splinted with composite within hours. PMID:22669989

  19. Extraction of an incisor embedded within the nasal cavity in two guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Ono, Kaori; Omiya, Tomoko; Oguchi, Yukio; Setogawa, Moemi; Machida, Yuuki

    2016-01-01

    Oral examination of two guinea pigs revealed that the unilateral incisor was absent. On radiographic examination, the incisor was identified within the nasal cavity in both patients. Under anesthesia in both patients, the skin was incised from the nostril to 1.5 cm proximal, and the premaxilla and part of the maxilla were exposed. The bone was removed using a surgical drill, and the incisor was exposed in the nasal cavity. The root was grasped with forceps and carefully extracted as it was degraded and very fragile. Diagnosis was easy using oral and radiographic examination. In guinea pig patients where an incisor is absent on oral examination, this condition should be considered. PMID:26118492

  20. Excess NF-?B induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-?B signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-?B signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKK?, an essential component of the NF-?B pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikk?). K5-Ikk? mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikk? mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikk? mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-?B activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. PMID:25376721

  1. A web-based central diagnostic data repository.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas H; Adelhard, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    A central repository for diagnostic information about individual patients was created as a service to diagnostic laboratories participating in the Compentence Network for Acute and Chronic Leukemias in order to support health care delivery to patients suffering from leukemia. During the diagnostic phase several specialised laboratories perform different assays on samples from the same patient. The use of these assays in the diagnostic process and during the treatment phase may be improved in terms of both rapid delivery and cost if any one laboratory is aware of preliminary or final results from the assay carried out in other laboratories. In order to support a more efficient communication of these results, a central diagnostic data repository (CDDR) was created and web-based user interface was developed. Currently, the CDDR maintains documents in the form of portable document format (PDF) files. Several other formats are accepted and converted automatically upon entry. Patient identification is accomplished by pseudonym rather than proper name and the data is held on the CDDR for a limited time interval to accommodate the stringent privacy regulations in Germany. The principle operation of a CDDR may also be applied to the diagnostic or therapeutic process of other diseases. PMID:15460696

  2. Surgical Treatment of an Immature Short-Rooted Traumatized Incisor with an Extensive Apical Lesion Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Severe traumatic injuries to immature teeth often cause damage to periodontal ligament as well as dental pulp; pulp necrosis, root resorption and subsequent apical lesion are common consequences. This article reports the surgical management of an infected immature maxillary central incisor associated with a gigantic periradicular lesion and severe root resorption. The tooth had a history of trauma and the patient suffered from purulent sinus tract and tooth mobility. After unsuccessful multi-session disinfection with calcium hydroxide, root end surgery was planned. During flap surgery and lesion enucleation, the root end was cleaned and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. After one year, the radiographic examination revealed that the lesion was almost completely replaced with newly formed bone. In addition, clinical examination showed favorable outcomes; the tooth was symptom-free and in function. Due to chemical, physical and biological properties of CEM cement, this biomaterial might be considered as the root-end filling material of choice. PMID:25834603

  3. Aesthetic Rehabilitation of a Complicated Crown-Root Fracture of the Maxillary Incisor: Combination of Orthodontic and Implant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Campos Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a complex rehabilitation, of fractured tooth, with implants in anterior region considering the orthodontics extrusion to clinical success. At 7 years old, the patient fractured the maxillary left central incisor and the dentist did a crown with the fragment. Twenty years later, the patient was referred to a dental clinic for orthodontic treatment, with the chief complaint related to an accentuated deep bite, and a professional started an orthodontic treatment. After sixteen months of orthodontic treatment, tooth 21 fractured. The treatment plan included an orthodontic extrusion of tooth 21 and implant placement. This case has been followed up and the clinical and radiographic examinations show excellence esthetic results and satisfaction of patient. The forced extrusion can be a viable treatment option in the management of crown root fracture of an anterior tooth to gain bone in a vertical direction. This case emphasizes that to achieve the esthetic result a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. PMID:24872900

  4. The Effect of Changes in Lower Incisor Inclination on Gingival Recession

    PubMed Central

    Kamak, Gulen; Kamak, Hasan; Keklik, Hakan; Gurel, Hakan Gurcan

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Orthodontic treatment may promote development of recessions. The mechanism by which orthodontic treatment influences occurrence of recessions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a change of mandibular incisor inclination promotes development of labial gingival recessions. Materials and Methods. The study sample comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms obtained from 109 subjects before orthodontic treatment (Tb) and after orthodontic treatment (Ta). Depending on the change of lower incisor inclination during treatment, the subjects were divided into three groups: Retroclination (R), Stable Position (S), and Proclination (P). The presence of gingival recessions of mandibular incisors and clinical crown heights were assessed on plaster models. Results and Conclusions. From Tb to Ta, Inc_Incl showed a statistically significant change in the R, P, and S groups (p < 0.05). Increase of clinical crown heights of the lower incisors (42, 4, and 31) was not statistically significant in any group. The only statistically significant intergroup difference was the greater increase of the clinical crown height of tooth number 32 in the P group in comparison with the R group (p = 0.049). The change of lower incisor inclination during treatment did not lead to development of labial gingival recessions in the study sample. PMID:25961071

  5. Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor fenestration resulting from a broken retainer.

    PubMed

    Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Milton M B; da Luz Vieira, Gustavo; Assaf, Jamal Hassan; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the orthodontic relapse with mandibular incisor fenestration in a 36-year-old man who had undergone orthodontic treatment 21 years previously. The patient reported that his mandibular 3 × 3 bonded retainer had been partially debonded and broken 4 years earlier. The mandibular left lateral incisor remained bonded to the retainer and received the entire load of the incisors; consequently, there was extreme labial movement of the root, resulting in dental avulsion. As part of the treatment, the root was repositioned lingually using a titanium-molybdenum segmented archwire for 8 months, followed by endodontic treatment, an apicoectomy, and 4 months of alignment and leveling of both arches. The treatment outcomes were excellent, and the tooth remained stable, with good integrity of the mesial, distal, and lingual alveolar bones and periodontal ligament. The 1-year follow-up showed good stability of the results. PMID:26232842

  6. Reactive Robot Navigation Based on a Combination of Central and Peripheral Vision

    E-print Network

    Trahanias, Panos

    Reactive Robot Navigation Based on a Combination of Central and Peripheral Vision Abstract In this paper, we present a new method for vision-based, reactive robot navigation that enables a robot to move in the middle of the free space by exploiting both central and peripheral vision. The system employs a forward

  7. Simulating certain aspects of hypogravity: Effects on the mandibular incisors of suspended rats (PULEH model)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. J.; Winter, F.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a hypogravity simulating model on the rate of mandibular incisor formation, dentinogenesis and, amelogenesis in laboratory rats was studied. The model is the partial unloading by elevating the hindquarters. In this system, rat hindquarters are elevated 30 to 40 deg from the cage floors to completely unload the hindlimbs, but the animals are free to move about using their forelimbs. This model replicates the fluid sift changes which occur during the weightlessness of spaceflight and produces an osteopenia in the weight bearing skeletons. The histogenesis and/or mineralization rates of the mandibular incisor during the first 19d of PULEH in young growing rats are recorded.

  8. Treating dental crowding with mandibular incisor extraction in an Angle Class I patient

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Gislana Braga

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular dental crowding often encourages patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The orthodontist should decide between protrusion of incisors or decrease in dental volume so as to achieve proper alignment and leveling. The present study reports the treatment of an Angle Class I malocclusion adolescent female brachyfacial patient with severe mandibular dental crowding, increased curve of Spee and deep overbite. The patient was treated with extraction of a mandibular incisor. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26154463

  9. Static Thrust of an Annular Nozzle with a Concave Central Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W., Jr.; Mercer, Charles E.

    1960-01-01

    A static test of an annular nozzle with a concave central base, producing a jet in which tangents to the jet streamlines at the exit converged toward a region on the axis of symmetry downstream of the exit, has indicated good thrust performance. A value of nozzle-flow coefficient only slightly less than unity indicates the internal loss to be small. Pressures on the concave central base are relatively large and positive, and a predictable portion of the total thrust of the jet is exerted on the central base.

  10. Evaluation of Central North American Prairie Management Based on Species Diversity, Life Form,

    E-print Network

    Evaluation of Central North American Prairie Management Based on Species Diversity, Life Form increasingly been recognized as central to the restoration of North American mixed-grass and tallgrass prairies goals for prairies in the Iowa Loess Hills (U.S.A.). The grazing treatment promoted the greatest overall

  11. Image-based Visual Servoing for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots with Central Catadioptric Camera

    E-print Network

    Siena, Università di

    Image-based Visual Servoing for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots with Central Catadioptric Camera Gian for nonholonomic mobile robot equipped with a central cata- dioptric camera. This kind of vision sensor combines by an on-board omnidirec- tional camera. In IBVS the control law is directly designed in the image domain

  12. An Agent-Based Model of Centralized Institutions, Social Network Technology, and Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Makowsky, Michael D.; Rubin, Jared

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on the general mechanisms underlying large-scale social and institutional change. We employ an agent-based model to test the impact of authority centralization and social network technology on preference falsification and institutional change. We find that preference falsification is increasing with centralization and decreasing with social network range. This leads to greater cascades of preference revelation and thus more institutional change in highly centralized societies and this effect is exacerbated at greater social network ranges. An empirical analysis confirms the connections that we find between institutional centralization, social radius, preference falsification, and institutional change. PMID:24278280

  13. [The combination of a fused tooth and a supernumerary central incisor: a possible treatment plan].

    PubMed

    Leemans, P; Vinckier, F; Carels, C

    2005-08-01

    An 8-year old boy was referred to the orthodontic department because of a fused tooth. The clinical and radiological examination showed that - besides the double tooth at the region of the 21 - there was a normal tooth 22 in eruption as well. Moreover a still impacted supernumerary tooth was present in the right upper front region. The treatment included the extraction of the fused tooth and an autotransplantation of the supernumerary tooth to the extraction site of the fused tooth. During the follow-up period the pulp showed a progressive obliteration starting at the crown level with a conservation of the vitality. Apexification of the root of the transplanted tooth proceeded successfully. Furthermore a review of the literature is given in this article on the aetiology and treatment of fused teeth and on the application of autotransplantation. PMID:16128216

  14. Glass-fiber reinforced composite in management of avulsed central incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, M Yalçin; Kargül, Betül

    2004-01-01

    Reimplantation failure of avulsed anterior tooth in an adolescent patient requires removal of the failed tooth and consideration of restorative options. These options may include a removable partial denture, conventional 3-unit fixed partial denture, implant, or a resin-bonded appliance with a metal substructure (Maryland bridge). The glass-fiber reinforced composite material (everSTICK, StickTech Ltd, Turku, Finland) offers a restorative solution that is conservative and esthetic when compared to other restorations. Advantages include reduction of cost compared to conventional bridges, saving of time, elimination of second visit, ease of application, absence of metal allergy, ease of cleaning, and naturalness of feel. Its limitations include occlusal factors, and the presence of unsuitable abutment teeth. Another traditional contraindication is the presence of diastemas, which may limit the potential esthetic gains. This case of an 11-year-old girl, addresses the indications, preparation guidelines, and restorative procedures for an everSTICK bridge. PMID:15272660

  15. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks Naoki Masuda1,2

    E-print Network

    Masuda, Naoki

    , the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random receives many links from important nodes that do not have too many outgoing links. In the present study, we

  16. Centralizing Data Management with Considerations of Uncertainty and Information-Based Flexibility

    E-print Network

    Velu, Chander K.

    This paper applies the theory of real options to analyze how the value of information-based flexibility should affect the decision to centralize or decentralize data management under low and high uncertainty. This study ...

  17. Central neurocytoma: Management recommendations based on a 35-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Leenstra, James L.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Frechette, Christina M.; Giannini, Caterina; Stafford, Scott L.; Pollock, Bruce E.; Schild, Steven E.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Buckner, Jan C.; Brown, Paul D.

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of patients with histologically confirmed central neurocytomas. Methods and Materials: The data from 45 patients with central neurocytomas diagnosed between 1971 and 2003 were retrospectively evaluated. Various combinations of surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy had been used for treatment. Results: The median follow-up was 10.0 years. The 10-year overall survival and local control rate was 83% and 60%, respectively. Patients whose tumor had a mitotic index of <3 (per 10 high-power fields) experienced a 10-year survival and local control rate of 89% and 74%, respectively, compared with 57% (p = 0.040) and 46% (p = 0.14) for patients with a tumor mitotic index of {>=}3. The 10-year survival and local control rate was 90% and 74% for patients with typical tumors compared with 63% (p = 0.055) and 46% (p = 0.41) for those with atypical tumors. A comparison of gross total resection with subtotal resection showed no significant difference in survival or local control. Postoperative RT improved local control at 10 years (75% with RT vs. 51% without RT, p = 0.045); however, this did not translate into a survival benefit. No 1p19q deletions were found in the 19 tumors tested. Conclusion: Although the overall prognosis is quite favorable, one-third of patients experienced tumor recurrence or progression at 10 years, regardless of the extent of the initial resection. Postoperative RT significantly improved local control but not survival, most likely because of the effectiveness of salvage RT. For incompletely resected atypical tumors and/or those with a high mitotic index, consideration should be given to adjuvant RT because of the more aggressive nature.

  18. Bacterial penetration of the root canal of intact incisor teeth after a simulated traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1996-12-01

    One of the aims in treating traumatised teeth is to maintain the vitality of the pulp or allow conditions favourable for pulp revascularisation. However, infection of the pulp and root canal system may prevent this. A number of pathways have been proposed that allow bacteria to invade the root canal system, however most of these pathways cannot account for pulp infection in teeth that did not sustain injury to the periodontal attachment. Enamel/dentine cracks have been proposed as a portal for bacterial invasion of seemingly intact teeth and the aim of this study was to determine if bacteria could invade the root canal system after a simulated traumatic episode. Twenty intact and sound upper central incisors were chosen and prepared. One tooth was selected as a sterility control and the external crown surface of the remaining 19 teeth was subjected to infection with Streptococcus gordonii in a bacterial microleakage model. Over 7 days samples of growth media from the root canal system were taken and tested for bacteria. Sixteen of the teeth did not demonstrate bacterial invasion over the time frame. These teeth were then prepared for testing in a pendulum impact device and were subjected to a blow which did not fracture the crowns or dislodge the tooth from its simulated alveolus. The teeth were then prepared and tested in the bacterial microleakage model. After impact seven of the teeth demonstrated bacterial invasion of the root canal system (P = 0.002). These teeth were then reprepared for testing in the bacterial microleakage model. The crowns of five teeth, selected at random, were coated with two layers of light cured unfilled resin, the remaining two were used as positive controls. All the teeth coated with resin did not demonstrate bacterial invasion (P = 0.00), while the positive controls demonstrated invasion. The results suggested that enamel/dentine infractions were pathways for bacterial invasion of the root canal system of traumatised teeth. The application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown prevented infection. PMID:9206377

  19. Multi-authority attribute based encryption with honest-but-curious central authority

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Multi-authority attribute based encryption with honest-but-curious central authority Vladimir. An attribute based encryption scheme capable of handling multiple authorities was recently proposed by Chase. The scheme is built upon a single-authority attribute based encryption scheme presented ear- lier by Sahai

  20. A diagnostic dilemma of central skull base osteomyelitis mimicking neoplasia in a diabetic patient

    PubMed Central

    Ganhewa, Aparna Dasunmalee; Kuthubutheen, Jafri

    2013-01-01

    We present a case which illustrates the diagnostic difficulty in distinguishing between osteomyelitis of the central skull base and base of skull tumours. A woman in her early forties presented with seizures and multiple cranial nerve palsies. She also had a background of chronic otalgia and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The clinical diagnosis of skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) was made, but both MRI and bone scans were unable to distinguish this from a skull base malignancy on imaging criteria. Eventually biopsies were required to exclude the diagnosis of malignancy and the patient was treated for central SBO. PMID:23355560

  1. Biofilm-based central line-associated bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Ammar; Jamal, Mohamed A; Raad, Issam

    2015-01-01

    Different types of central venous catheters (CVCs) have been used in clinical practice to improve the quality of life of chronically and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, indwelling devices are usually associated with microbial biofilms and eventually lead to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs).An estimated 250,000-400,000 CLABSIs occur every year in the United States, at a rate of 1.5 per 1,000 CVC days and a mortality rate of 12-25 %. The annual cost of caring for patients with CLABSIs ranges from 296 million to 2.3 billion dollars.Biofilm formation occurs on biotic and abiotic surfaces in the clinical setting. Extensive studies have been conducted to understand biofilm formation, including different biofilm developmental stages, biofilm matrix compositions, quorum-sensing regulated biofilm formation, biofilm dispersal (and its clinical implications), and multi-species biofilms that are relevant to polymicrobial infections.When microbes form a matured biofilm within human hosts through medical devices such as CVCs, the infection becomes resistant to antibiotic treatment and can develop into a chronic condition. For that reason, many techniques have been used to prevent the formation of biofilm by targeting different stages of biofilm maturation. Other methods have been used to diagnose and treat established cases of CLABSI.Catheter removal is the conventional management of catheter associated bacteremia; however, the procedure itself carries a relatively high risk of mechanical complications. Salvaging the catheter can help to minimize these complications.In this article, we provide an overview of microbial biofilm formation; describe the involvement of various genetic determinants, adhesion proteins, organelles, mechanism(s) of biofilm formation, polymicrobial infections, and biofilm-associated infections on indwelling intravascular catheters; and describe the diagnosis, management, and prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections. PMID:25366227

  2. Microvascular architecture of the enamel organ in the rat-incisor maturation zone. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Tominaga, H; Higashi, S

    1984-01-01

    In order to clarify the microvascular architecture and ultrastructural features of the capillary vessels related to transendothelial transport of metabolites, scanning electron microscopy of tissues digested by HCl-collagenase and of vascular corrosion casts as well as thin-section, tracer, and freeze-fracture replications were employed to study the maturation zone of rat-incisor enamel organ. The enamel-organ maturation zone was shown to have a well-developed, dense capillary plexus. The capillary vessels were distributed along furrows formed by the enamel-organ papillary ridges. In central regions they formed a regular, blindlike network; in the peripheral regions, however, they formed an irregular, circular network. Everywhere except in the nuclear and perinuclear regions, the very thin capillary-vessel endothelial walls were pierced with numerous fenestrations. Such fenestrations were evident in endothelial walls facing the ameloblast-layer site. In tracer experiments, intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase passed through the fenestrations in the endothelial walls to diffuse throughout the enamel-organ extracellular spaces. It did not, however, pass through intercellular spaces or transendothelial channels. The dense, regular distribution of highly fenestrated capillaries in the enamel organ is thought to make possible the rapid transcapillary exchange of various metabolites between the vascular system and the ameloblast and papillary layers that is necessary for enamel maturation. PMID:6720239

  3. Transoral robotic surgery of the central skull base: preclinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Nogueras, F J J; Katati, M J; Arraez Sanchez, M A; Molina Martinez, M; Sanchez Carrion, M

    2014-06-01

    In this study we explored possible applications of the da Vinci system in approaching the skull base at optic chiasm level on two cryopreserved cadavers, using an entirely transoral robotic technique (TORS). We used a standard 12 mm endoscopy and 8 mm terminals. Bone drilling was performed manually. The da Vinci system is equipped with very good illumination and 3D viewing, thus providing excellent vision and great maneuverability even in the less accessible areas of the skull. Our experience demonstrates that an entirely transoral skull base robotic approach to this complex anatomical region has many advantages as compared to traditional techniques. PMID:24077869

  4. Essentiality of Early Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Children and Review of its Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhay Kumar; Saha, Sonali; Singh, Jaspal

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a common developmental condition resulting in enamel defects in first permanent molars and permanent incisors. It presents at eruption of these teeth. One to four molars, and often also the incisors, could be affected. Since first recognized, the condition has been puzzling and interpreted as a distinct phenomenon unlike other enamel disturbances. Early diagnosis is essential since, rapid breakdown of tooth structure may occur, giving rise to acute symptoms and complicated treatment. The purpose of this article is to review MIH and illustrate its diagnosis and clinical management in young children. How to cite this article: Garg N, Jain AK, Saha S, Singh J. Essentiality of Early Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Children and Review of its Clinical Presentation, Etiology and Management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):190-196. PMID:25206166

  5. School-Based Management in Hong Kong: Centralizing or Decentralizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, I-Wah

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the debate on a reform of school-based management in Hong Kong, which was to set up the Incorporated Management Committee (IMC) to manage the subsidized school. The nature of the debate during legislation and the characteristics of the reform were examined. The advantages, disadvantages and the implications of the reform were…

  6. Unilateral Fusion of Maxillary Lateral Incisor: Diagnosis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Iury Oliveira; Estrela, Carlos; Souza, Vinícius Rezende; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; de Souza, João Batista

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this paper is to report a dental fusion case focusing on clinical and radiographic features for the diagnosis. Method. To report a case of right maxillary lateral incisor fusion and a supernumerary tooth, the anatomy of the root canal and dental united portion were assessed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results. The clinical examination showed dental juxtaposition with the absence of interdental papilla and esthetic impairment in the right maxillary lateral incisor region. The periapical radiography did not provide enough information for the differential diagnosis due to the inherent limitations of this technique. CBCT confirmed the presence of tooth fusion. Conclusion. CBCT examination supports the diagnosis and provides both the identification of changes in tooth development and the visualization of their extent and limits. PMID:25587463

  7. A Simplified Method for the Restoration of Severely Decayed Primary Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Maryam; Parisay, Iman; Khorakian, Fatemeh; Nik, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Caries and dental trauma are common reasons for primary anterior teeth restorations in children. This non-control clinical trial was designed to evaluate crown restorations reinforced with a sectioned file post for the restoration of severely damaged primary maxillary incisors. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight primary maxillary incisors of 12 children (3–5 years old) with early childhood caries (ECC) received composite restorations with a custom made post. The restorations were evaluated using the modified United State Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria. The results were statistically analyzed by descriptive –analytical tests. Results: In this trial, the quality of marginal adaptation decreased after three and 12 months intervals. Recurrent carious lesions were observed during intervals. In terms of restoration retention, only one patient lost both the post and the restoration at the 12-month follow up. Conclusion: The sectioned file post technique showed good retention and aesthetics for restoring severely damaged primary maxillary anterior teeth.

  8. Sinusoidal vessels in the periodontal ligament of hamster incisors: their distribution, structure and possible function.

    PubMed

    Kannari, K; Maeda, T; Takano, Y

    1993-03-01

    Vascular architecture in the periodontal ligament of hamster incisors was investigated by use of vascular casts under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition to ordinary nutrient blood vessels, anastomosing vessels of large caliber developed, surrounding the incisor. From their characteristic configuration, these vessels were regarded as "sinusoids". The plexus of sinusoidal vessels was connected with capillaries in the papillary layer of the enamel organ at the labial periodontal ligament, and with veins penetrating into the alveolar bone on the lingual side. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation showed that the sinusoidal wall was composed of only a thin layer of endothelial cells, lacking a smooth muscular element, and surrounded by densely arranged collagen fibers. Although the frequent association of Ruffini-type nerve endings with sinusoidal vessels was noted, neither direct contact nor specialized structures between these was recognizable. A possible function of the periodontal sinusoids is discussed on the basis of their distribution and ultrastructural evidence. PMID:8499129

  9. Restoring the single lower incisor implant with esthetics, antirotation, and retrievability.

    PubMed

    Marlin, G M; Baraban, D

    1994-05-01

    The long-term success of restoring the lower incisor implant is partially dependent on retrievability of all components down to the implant. Because this implant is usually placed vertically or buccally in the bone, the ability to achieve esthetics without seeing the screw access hole becomes critical. The emergence profile of the crown overlying the implant fixture ultimately dictates the esthetics. The single crown can also become loose during function and, therefore, antirotation of the abutment is imperative. The Octa-Hex Implant Restoration System presents an alternative method of achieving gingival seal with a titanium-alloy connector to the implant, emergence profile with a custom-fabricated casting on this connector, antirotation from intimate contact with implant indexing, and retrievability by a fixation screw and cementation. With the lower incisor, this system offers retrievability without the screw access hole affecting esthetics. PMID:8055527

  10. Molar incisor hypomineralization: considerations about treatment in a controlled longitudinal case.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Daniela Cristina; Favretto, Carla Oliveira; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    2015-01-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is a defect in the tooth enamel of systemic origin and may affect one or all four first permanent molars frequently associated with the permanent incisors. This case reports a 7-year-old child with severe MIH in the permanent molars associated with tooth decay and intense pain. In the first stage of treatment, therapy was performed with fluoride varnish and restoration with glass ionomer cement (GIC). After 6 years of clinical and radiographic follow-up, the restorations presented wear and fractures on the margins, indicating their replacement with composite resin. Severe cases of MIH in the early permanent molars can be treated with varnish and GIC to restore the patient's comfort and strengthen the hypomineralized dental structures. The clinical and radiographic monitoring frequently indicated when the restoration with composite resin should be performed. PMID:25872636

  11. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age. PMID:8730689

  12. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced. PMID:26550202

  13. Treatment outcome and efficacy of an aligner technique – regarding incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of orthodontic treatment using the Invisalign® system. Particularly, we analyzed the influence of auxiliaries (Attachment/Power Ridge) as well as the staging (movement per aligner) on treatment efficacy. Methods We reviewed the tooth movements of 30 consecutive patients who required orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®. In all patients, one of the following tooth movements was performed: (1) Incisor Torque >10°, (2) Premolar derotation >10° (3) Molar distalization >1.5 mm. The groups (1)-(3) were subdivided: in the first subgroup (a) the movements were supported with the use of an attachment, while in the subgroup (b) no auxiliaries were used (except incisor torque, in which Power Ridges were used). All tooth movements were performed in a split-mouth design. To analyze the clinical efficacy, pre-treatment and final plaster cast models were laser-scanned and the achieved tooth movement was determined by way of a surface/surface matching algorithm. The results were compared with the amount of tooth movement predicted by ClinCheck®. Results The overall mean efficacy was 59% (SD?=?0.2). The mean accuracy for upper incisor torque was 42% (SD?=?0.2). Premolar derotation showed the lowest accuracy with approximately 40% (SD?=?0.3). Distalization of an upper molar was the most effective movement, with efficacy approximately 87% (SD?=?0.2). Conclusion Incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization can be performed using Invisalign® aligners. The staging (movement/aligner) and the total amount of planned movement have an significant impact on treatment efficacy. PMID:24923279

  14. Interproximal wear versus incisors extraction to solve anterior lower crowding: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Natália Valli; Silveira, Giordani Santos; Pereira, Daniele Masterson Tavares; Mattos, Claudia Trindade; Mucha, José Nelson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine by means of a systematic review the best treatment, whether interproximal wear or incisor extraction, to correct anterior lower crowding in Class I patients in permanent dentition. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science to retrieve studies published between January 1950 and October 2013. In selecting the sample, the following inclusion criteria were applied: studies involving interproximal wear and/or extraction of mandibular incisors, as well as Class I cases with anterior lower crowding in permanent dentition. RESULTS: Out of a total of 943 articles found after excluding duplicates, 925 were excluded after abstract analysis. After full articles were read, 13 were excluded by the eligibility criteria and one due to methodological quality; therefore, only fours articles remained: two retrospective and two randomized prospective studies. Data were collected, analyzed and organized in tables. CONCLUSION: Both interproximal wear and mandibular incisor extraction are effective in treating Class I malocclusion in permanent dentition with moderate anterior lower crowding and pleasant facial profile. There is scant evidence to determine the best treatment option for each case. Clinical decision should be made on an individual basis by taking into account dental characteristics, crowding, dental and oral health, patient's expectations and the use of set-up models. PMID:25741827

  15. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein required for eruption of incisors in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kii, Isao; Amizuka, Norio; Minqi, Li; Kitajima, Satoshi; Saga, Yumiko; Kudo, Akira . E-mail: akudo@bio.titech.ac.jp

    2006-04-14

    A characteristic tooth of rodents, the incisor continuously grows throughout life by the constant formation of dentin and enamel. Continuous eruption of the incisor is accompanied with formation of shear zone, in which the periodontal ligament is remodeled. Although the shear zone plays a role in the remodeling, its molecular biological aspect is barely understood. Here, we show that periostin is essential for formation of the shear zone. Periostin {sup -/-} mice showed an eruption disturbance of incisors. Histological observation revealed that deletion of periostin led to disappearance of the shear zone. Electron microscopy revealed that the disappearance of the shear zone resulted from a failure in digestion of collagen fibers in the periostin {sup -/-} mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis using anti-periostin antibodies demonstrated the restricted localization of periostin protein in the shear zone. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein, and immunoelectron microscopy showed a close association of periostin with collagen fibrils in vivo. These results suggest that periostin functions in the remodeling of collagen matrix in the shear zone.

  16. On the cutting edge of organ renewal: identification, regulation and evolution of incisor stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien; Mushegyan, Vagan; Klein, Ophir D.

    2014-01-01

    The rodent incisor is one of a number of organs that grow continuously throughout the life of an animal. Continuous growth of the incisor arose as an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for abrasion at the distal end of the tooth. The sustained turnover of cells that deposit the mineralized dental tissues is made possible by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells residing at the proximal end of the incisor. A complex network of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulates the formation, maintenance, and differentiation of these stem cells during development and throughout adulthood. Research over the past 15 years has led to significant progress in our understanding of this network, which includes FGF, BMP, Notch, and Hh signaling, as well as cell adhesion molecules and microRNAs. This review surveys key historical experiments that laid the foundation of the field and discusses more recent findings that definitively identified the stem cell population, elucidated the regulatory network, and demonstrated possible genetic mechanisms for the evolution of continuously growing teeth. PMID:24307456

  17. Mandibular incisor extractions in orthodontics: pitfalls and triumphs: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Chatura; Hegde, Manjunath

    2014-01-01

    Mandibular incisor extraction therapy has been used as a treatment option since the early 1900s to relieve tooth size-arch length discrepancies in the anterior segment of the mandible. The advantages of this therapy include potential reduction in treatment time, possibility of achieving better long-term stability in the mandibular anterior segment since inter canine width is not increased and maintenance of the soft-tissue profile because retraction of the mandibular incisors is less compared with mandibular premolar extractions These advantages are counterbalanced, however, by some potential disadvantages. The most significant of these is the possibility of the space reopening in the long term, an occlusal result less than ideal because of a significant tooth-mass reduction in the anterior mandibular region, development of an open gingival embrasure and the need for permanent or long term retention. We present three cases with three different indications for mandibular incisor extraction where the patient was benefited despite this atypical extraction pattern. PMID:25109054

  18. Evidence-based Decision Making: Influences on Central-Office Administrators' Decision-Making Practices 

    E-print Network

    Haecker, Bonnie Minnia

    2013-12-05

    of this quantitative non-experimental study was to identify the evidence-based decision-making practices of central office administrators (n = 268) and the factors that influence them. Based on the findings in the literature, a survey was developed to collect data...

  19. Role of Centrality in Network-Based Prioritization of Disease Genes

    E-print Network

    Koyuturk, Mehmet

    Role of Centrality in Network-Based Prioritization of Disease Genes Sinan Erten1 and Mehmet Koyut interaction data have been used effectively to prioritize candidate genes that are linked to a disease, based on the notion that the products of genes associated with similar diseases are likely to interact with each other

  20. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  1. CentiServer: A Comprehensive Resource, Web-Based Application and R Package for Centrality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jalili, Mahdi; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Asgari, Yazdan; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Yaghmaie, Marjan; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Alimoghaddam, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines are trying to solve one of the most noteworthy queries and broadly used concepts in biology, essentiality. Centrality is a primary index and a promising method for identifying essential nodes, particularly in biological networks. The newly created CentiServer is a comprehensive online resource that provides over 110 definitions of different centrality indices, their computational methods, and algorithms in the form of an encyclopedia. In addition, CentiServer allows users to calculate 55 centralities with the help of an interactive web-based application tool and provides a numerical result as a comma separated value (csv) file format or a mapped graphical format as a graph modeling language (GML) file. The standalone version of this application has been developed in the form of an R package. The web-based application (CentiServer) and R package (centiserve) are freely available at http://www.centiserver.org/ PMID:26571275

  2. CentiServer: A Comprehensive Resource, Web-Based Application and R Package for Centrality Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Mahdi; Salehzadeh-Yazdi, Ali; Asgari, Yazdan; Arab, Seyed Shahriar; Yaghmaie, Marjan; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Alimoghaddam, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Various disciplines are trying to solve one of the most noteworthy queries and broadly used concepts in biology, essentiality. Centrality is a primary index and a promising method for identifying essential nodes, particularly in biological networks. The newly created CentiServer is a comprehensive online resource that provides over 110 definitions of different centrality indices, their computational methods, and algorithms in the form of an encyclopedia. In addition, CentiServer allows users to calculate 55 centralities with the help of an interactive web-based application tool and provides a numerical result as a comma separated value (csv) file format or a mapped graphical format as a graph modeling language (GML) file. The standalone version of this application has been developed in the form of an R package. The web-based application (CentiServer) and R package (centiserve) are freely available at http://www.centiserver.org/. PMID:26571275

  3. RoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System

    E-print Network

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    application due to residential HVAC systems ac- counting for over 15% of all U.S. energy usage, making it oneRoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System Tamim Sookoor & Kamin Conditioning (HVAC) system of a house because it is the largest energy consumer in a home [9] and it controls

  4. Using Noun Phrase Centrality to Identify Topics for Extraction based Summaries Zhuli Xie, Peter C. Nelson

    E-print Network

    Using Noun Phrase Centrality to Identify Topics for Extraction based Summaries Zhuli Xie, Peter C. Nelson Department of Computer Science University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago IL 60607, U.S.A. {zxie and processed statis- tically. Using these conventional features, our prototype system generated fairly good

  5. Fuel-Optimal Centralized Coordination of Truck Platooning Based on Shortest Paths

    E-print Network

    Dimarogonas, Dimos

    Fuel-Optimal Centralized Coordination of Truck Platooning Based on Shortest Paths Sebastian van de fuel consumption of trucks. Vehicles that drive at close inter- vehicle distance assisted by automatic the formation and the breakup of platoons in a fuel-optimal way. We formulate an optimization problem which

  6. A New Multidimensional Relativistic Hydrodynamics code based on Semidiscrete Central and WENO schemes

    E-print Network

    Tanvir Rahman; R. B. Moore

    2005-12-09

    We have proposed a new High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) scheme for Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics (SRHD) based on the semidiscrete central Godunov-type schemes and a modified Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory (WENO) data reconstruction algorithm. This is the first application of the semidiscrete central schemes with high order WENO data reconstruction to the SRHD equations. This method does not use a Riemann solver for flux computations and a number of one and two dimensional benchmark tests show that the algorithm is robust and comparable in accuracy to other SRHD codes.

  7. A New Multidimensional Relativistic Hydrodynamics code based on Semidiscrete Central and WENO schemes

    E-print Network

    Rahman, T; Rahman, Tanvir

    2005-01-01

    We have proposed a new High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) scheme for Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics (SRHD) based on the semidiscrete central Godunov-type schemes and a modified Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory (WENO) data reconstruction algorithm. This is the first application of the semidiscrete central schemes with high order WENO data reconstruction to the SRHD equations. This method does not use a Riemann solver for flux computations and a number of one and two dimensional benchmark tests show that the algorithm is robust and comparable in accuracy to other SRHD codes.

  8. Clinical outcomes of cases with missing lateral incisors treated with the 'T'-Mesialslider.

    PubMed

    Kanavakis, Georgios; Ludwig, Björn; Rosa, Marco; Zachrisson, Bjorn; Hourfar, Jan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this article is to review the fabrication and activation procedures of the 'T'-Mesialslider and to present the clinical outcomes in cases where canine substitution is the treatment of choice for missing maxillary lateral incisors. The 'T'-Mesialslider allows for effective mesial translation of the canines and the posterior dentition, without significant loss of anterior anchorage and with good vertical control. Possible adverse effects of the appliance and clinical recommendations for their management are also discussed. In canine substitution cases with high anchorage demands, the 'T'-Mesialslider provides an effective treatment option. PMID:25138364

  9. A Traffic Reduction Method for Centralized RSSI-Based Location Estimation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemek, Radim; Hara, Shinsuke; Yanagihara, Kentaro; Kitayama, Ken-Ichi

    In a centralized localization scenario, the limited throughput of the central node constrains the possible number of target node locations that can be estimated simultaneously. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method which effectively decreases the traffic load associated with target node localization, and therefore increases the possible number of target node locations that can estimated simultaneously in a localization system based on received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed method utilizes a threshold which limits the amount of forwarded RSSI data to the central node. As the threshold is crucial to the method, we further propose a method to theoretically determine its value. We experimentally verified the proposed method in various environments and the experimental results revealed that the method can reduce the load by 32-64% without significantly affecting the estimation accuracy.

  10. Eigencentrality based on dissimilarity measures reveals central nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Socorro, A. J.; Herrera-Almarza, G. C.; González-Díaz, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important problems in complex network’s theory is the location of the entities that are essential or have a main role within the network. For this purpose, the use of dissimilarity measures (specific to theory of classification and data mining) to enrich the centrality measures in complex networks is proposed. The centrality method used is the eigencentrality which is based on the heuristic that the centrality of a node depends on how central are the nodes in the immediate neighbourhood (like rich get richer phenomenon). This can be described by an eigenvalues problem, however the information of the neighbourhood and the connections between neighbours is not taken in account, neglecting their relevance when is one evaluates the centrality/importance/influence of a node. The contribution calculated by the dissimilarity measure is parameter independent, making the proposed method is also parameter independent. Finally, we perform a comparative study of our method versus other methods reported in the literature, obtaining more accurate and less expensive computational results in most cases. PMID:26603652

  11. Eigencentrality based on dissimilarity measures reveals central nodes in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Socorro, A J; Herrera-Almarza, G C; González-Díaz, L A

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important problems in complex network's theory is the location of the entities that are essential or have a main role within the network. For this purpose, the use of dissimilarity measures (specific to theory of classification and data mining) to enrich the centrality measures in complex networks is proposed. The centrality method used is the eigencentrality which is based on the heuristic that the centrality of a node depends on how central are the nodes in the immediate neighbourhood (like rich get richer phenomenon). This can be described by an eigenvalues problem, however the information of the neighbourhood and the connections between neighbours is not taken in account, neglecting their relevance when is one evaluates the centrality/importance/influence of a node. The contribution calculated by the dissimilarity measure is parameter independent, making the proposed method is also parameter independent. Finally, we perform a comparative study of our method versus other methods reported in the literature, obtaining more accurate and less expensive computational results in most cases. PMID:26603652

  12. CenLP: A centrality-based label propagation algorithm for community detection in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Heli; Liu, Jiao; Huang, Jianbin; Wang, Guangtao; Yang, Zhou; Song, Qinbao; Jia, Xiaolin

    2015-10-01

    Community detection is an important work for discovering the structure and features of complex networks. Many existing methods are sensitive to critical user-dependent parameters or time-consuming in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel label propagation algorithm, called CenLP (Centrality-based Label Propagation). The algorithm introduces a new function to measure the centrality of nodes quantitatively without any user interaction by calculating the local density and the similarity with higher density neighbors for each node. Based on the centrality of nodes, we present a new label propagation algorithm with specific update order and node preference to uncover communities in large-scale networks automatically without imposing any prior restriction. Experiments on both real-world and synthetic networks manifest our algorithm retains the simplicity, effectiveness, and scalability of the original label propagation algorithm and becomes more robust and accurate. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm over the baseline methods. Moreover, our detailed experimental evaluation on real-world networks indicates that our algorithm can effectively measure the centrality of nodes in social networks.

  13. Theoretical Study of the Effect of Enamel Parameters on Laser-Induced Surface Acoustic Waves in Human Incisor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ling; Sun, Kaihua; Shen, Zhonghua; Ni, Xiaowu; Lu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    The laser ultrasound technique has great potential for clinical diagnosis of teeth because of its many advantages. To study laser surface acoustic wave (LSAW) propagation in human teeth, two theoretical methods, the finite element method (FEM) and Laguerre polynomial extension method (LPEM), are presented. The full field temperature values and SAW displacements in an incisor can be obtained by the FEM. The SAW phase velocity in a healthy incisor and dental caries is obtained by the LPEM. The methods and results of this work can provide a theoretical basis for nondestructive evaluation of human teeth with LSAWs.

  14. Retreatment of a Maxillary Lateral Incisor With Two Separate Root Canals Confirmed With Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Seda; Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Sinanoglu, Alper; Ozel, Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a maxillary lateral incisor exhibiting two separate root canals confirmed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). A 65-year-old female patient with an esthetic complaint regarding her maxillary left lateral incisor was referred to our clinic. During a radiographical examination, an endodontically treated root canal and an extra root canal with an apical lesion were observed. The retreatment was performed. CBCT findings confirmed the root canal mophology of the maxillary left lateral with two distinct canals. We conclude that the CBCT imaging is an adjunctive tool for better assessment of complex root canal systems. PMID:26015823

  15. Prevalence of lesions in incisors of mule deer from Colorado Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Borrero, L.M.; Scanlon, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Lesions in teeth may be influenced by exposure to fluorides, malnutrition and trauma. Incisors of 228 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) taken from the USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, CO during the 1993 hunting season were examined for lesions. A classification scheme (scale = 0--5) for lesions was derived from the method of Shupe et al. 1963. Lesions were present in at least one incisor of 84.6% of deer. Of the deer with lesions, 86% had at least one tooth with very slight effect (one to few white spots), 9.8% had a slight effect (generalized mottling), 2.6% had a moderate effect (generalized mottling and wear), 10.04% had a marked effect (mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel) , and 0.5 % ad severe effects (hypoplasia of the enamel and abnormal wear). Lesions that affect the enamel are produced during the period of formation of the tooth. The severity of lesions depends on the cause and the length of exposure to the causative agent. Generally mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel are associated with fluorosis. The relationship of lesions to bone and tooth fluoride concentrations was examined.

  16. The influence of fluoride administration on the structure of proteoglycans in the developing rat incisor.

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, J W; Embery, G

    1980-01-01

    1. 35S-labelled chondroitin 4-sulphate proteoglycan was isolated from the mineralized elements of the developing incisor teeth of Harvard rats receiving intraperitoneal administration of Na235SO4. 2. The chondroitin 4-sulphate proteoglycan underwent a decrease in molecular size in fluorotic teeth as judged by gel filtration on Sepharose 2B. 3. When examined by anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose-52, the proteoglycan from fluorotic teeth resolved into four peaks in comparison with the material from non-fluorotic teeth, which exhibited only a single major peak. 4. Both the single peak from non-fluoridated teeth and the four peaks from the fluorotic teeth were further resolved on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. 5. Isolated chondroitin 4-sulphate chains obtained from fluorotic teeth also were of smaller molecular size as judged by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150. 6. Some possible influences of fluoride on the metabolism of these connective-tissue components in the developing rat incisor are discussed. PMID:6781478

  17. Simple method of designing centralized PI controllers for multivariable systems based on SSGM.

    PubMed

    Dhanya Ram, V; Chidambaram, M

    2015-05-01

    A method is given to design multivariable PI/PID controllers for stable and unstable multivariable systems. The method needs only the steady state gain matrix (SSGM). The method is based on the static decoupler design followed by SISO PI/PID controllers design and combining the resulted decoupler and the diagonal PI(D) controllers as the centralized controllers. The result of the present method is shown to be equivalent to the empirical method proposed by Davison EJ. Multivariable tuning regulators: the feed-forward and robust control of general servo-mechanism problem. IEEE Trans Autom Control 1976;21:35-41. Three simulation examples are given. The performance of the controllers is compared with that of the reported centralized controller based on the multivariable transfer function matrix. PMID:25530257

  18. The Shannon-entropy-based uncertainty relation for D-dimensional central potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, ?ukasz; Sánchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesús S.

    2012-06-01

    The uncertainty relation based on the Shannon entropies of the probability densities in position and momentum spaces is improved for quantum systems in arbitrary D-dimensional spherically symmetric potentials. To find this, we have used the Lp - Lq norm inequality of De Carli and the logarithmic uncertainty relation for the Hankel transform of Omri. Applications to some relevant three-dimensional central potentials are shown.

  19. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Rat Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Badhan, Raj K. Singh; Chenel, Marylore; Penny, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) drug disposition is dictated by a drug’s physicochemical properties and its ability to permeate physiological barriers. The blood–brain barrier (BBB), blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and centrally located drug transporter proteins influence drug disposition within the central nervous system. Attainment of adequate brain-to-plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma partitioning is important in determining the efficacy of centrally acting therapeutics. We have developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of the rat CNS which incorporates brain interstitial fluid (ISF), choroidal epithelial and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments and accurately predicts CNS pharmacokinetics. The model yielded reasonable predictions of unbound brain-to-plasma partition ratio (Kpuu,brain) and CSF:plasma ratio (CSF:Plasmau) using a series of in vitro permeability and unbound fraction parameters. When using in vitro permeability data obtained from L-mdr1a cells to estimate rat in vivo permeability, the model successfully predicted, to within 4-fold, Kpuu,brain and CSF:Plasmau for 81.5% of compounds simulated. The model presented allows for simultaneous simulation and analysis of both brain biophase and CSF to accurately predict CNS pharmacokinetics from preclinical drug parameters routinely available during discovery and development pathways. PMID:24647103

  20. A New Multidimensional Hydrodynamics code based on Semidiscrete Central and WENO schemes

    E-print Network

    Tanvir Rahman; R. B. Moore

    2005-11-25

    We present a new multidimensional classical hydrodynamics code based on Semidiscrete Central Godunov-type schemes and high order Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory (WENO) data reconstruction. This approach is a lot simpler and easier to implement than other Riemann solver based methods. The algorithm incorporates elements of the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) in the reconstruction schemes to ensure robustness and applications of high order reconstruction schemes. A number of one and two dimensional benchmark tests have been carried out to verify the code. The tests show that this new algorithm and code is comparable in accuracy, efficiency and robustness to others.

  1. A New Multidimensional Hydrodynamics code based on Semidiscrete Central and WENO schemes

    E-print Network

    Rahman, T; Rahman, Tanvir

    2005-01-01

    We present a new multidimensional classical hydrodynamics code based on Semidiscrete Central Godunov-type schemes and high order Weighted Essentially Non-oscillatory (WENO) data reconstruction. This approach is a lot simpler and easier to implement than other Riemann solver based methods. The algorithm incorporates elements of the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) in the reconstruction schemes to ensure robustness and applications of high order reconstruction schemes. A number of one and two dimensional benchmark tests have been carried out to verify the code. The tests show that this new algorithm and code is comparable in accuracy, efficiency and robustness to others.

  2. The effects of day length, hibernation, and ambient temperature on incisor dentin in the Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti).

    PubMed

    Batavia, Mariska; Nguyen, George; Zucker, Irving

    2013-05-01

    Dentin is deposited on a circadian basis, and daily layers manifest as bands on the medial surfaces of rodent incisors. Hibernation alters dentin deposition, and a distinct hibernation mark has been described on incisor surfaces of several rodent species; the factors that influence the morphology of this mark are poorly understood. We tested the effects of day length, torpor expression, and ambient temperature on incisor surface morphology in Turkish hamsters housed in one of four conditions: long days (LDs) at 22 °C, short days (SDs) at 22 °C, SDs at 5 °C, and SDs at 13 °C. Body temperature was monitored continuously with implanted radio transmitters, and teeth examined postmortem. Teeth of SD hamsters had narrower, less distinct circadian increments than those of LD hamsters, but the width of ultradian increments was similar in both photoperiods. Hibernation at both 5 and 13 °C was associated in most specimens with very narrow, sharply defined dentin increments and increased tooth heterogeneity. Hamsters in SDs at 5 °C that did not hibernate lacked characteristic hibernation increments. At 5 °C, but not 13 °C, the number and cumulative width of hibernation increments were related to number and cumulative duration of periodic arousals. Our results suggest that incremental deposition of dentin in rodent incisors may be a useful trait for characterizing hibernation behavior in both evolutionary and historical contexts. PMID:23233167

  3. Microvascular system of the rat incisor enamel organ. A scanning electron microscopic study of vascular corrosion casts.

    PubMed

    El-Agroudi, M A; Selliseth, N J; Selvig, K A

    1998-12-01

    The rat incisor is a commonly used model in studies of tooth eruption, amelogenesis and effects of mechanical loading on the dental and periodontal tissues. The purpose of this study was to assess the three-dimensional architecture of the microvascular bed of the rat incisor enamel organ, to describe the direction of blood flow, and to provide a histometric assessment of the vascular categories that can be statistically analyzed. Vascular corrosion casts were prepared and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The microvasculature of the labial periodontal space was arranged in three distinct layers. The inner layer in direct relation to the enamel organ consisted of a capillary network which was drained by short venules at the cemento-enamel junction. The intermediate layer consisted of arterioles oriented parallel to the long axis of the incisor mainly mid-labially, branching off smaller arterioles to the capillary network. The outer layer was formed by flattened sinusoid vessels of larger caliber. Blood supply was from the anterior superior alveolar artery branches through the arterioles into the capillary network. Drainage was postero-laterally along the cemento-enamel junction via short venules which emptied into the sinusoid vessels, finally to flow through Volkmann's canals into the alveolar bone via small venules. The findings demonstrate that the microvasculature of the rat incisor enamel organ has an exceptionally high level of physiologically-adapted structural organization. PMID:9879913

  4. Abstract Rodents have a toothless diastema region be-tween the incisor and molar teeth which may contain ru-

    E-print Network

    Jernvall, Jukka

    Abstract Rodents have a toothless diastema region be- tween the incisor and molar teeth which may) and sibling vole (Microtus rossi- aemeridionalis) are muroid rodents which, according to immunological data and the first molar is a toothless gap, a diastema. The diastema has existed in rodents since at least

  5. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    PubMed

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described. PMID:26246633

  6. Restoring the vertical dimension of mandibular incisors with bonded ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Wylie, S G; Tan, H K; Brooke, K

    2000-06-01

    Mandibular incisors are difficult to restore with conventional anterior crowns due to their small axial diameters. Crown preparation risks pulp exposure and results in a thin core of dentine. An experiment was designed to determine if increasing the thickness of ceramic to restore incisal edges affects the load at the point of restoration failure. Forty-eight mandibular incisors were randomly divided into four groups. The incisal edges of the teeth in three groups were reduced so that the coronal height was 7.5 mm (Group A), 6.5 mm (Group B), and 5.5 mm (Group C). Group D was designated as the experimental control. A fifth group (Group E), independent of the random sample, was introduced to the study for discussion purposes and was characterized by each of the incisors having an intact incisal edge of enamel. Groups A, B and C were prepared in a standard fashion for ceramic veneer restorations that were constructed to restore the vertical height of each tooth to 8.5 mm. Prior to cementation, the preparation surfaces were analysed and the relative surface areas of enamel and dentine were calculated. The ceramic restorations were cemented using a resin luting agent. The teeth were then thermocycled prior to loading at 135 degrees C until failure. The mean fracture load was 305 N (SD 134 N) for Group A, 403 N (SD 101 N) for Group B, 515 N (SD 296 N) for Group C, 587 N (SD 187 N) for Group D and 395 N (SD 129 N) for Group E. As determined by analysis of variance followed by a Sheffè multiple comparison test there was a significant difference (p < or = 0.01) between Group A and Group D. There were no significant correlations of load at failure with the percentage of exposed dentine, enamel surface area, total preparation surface area, and the incisal surface area. The patterns of failure of the fractured specimens were also analysed. There were significantly (p < or = 0.05) greater fractures of the ceramic restorations when they were bonded with the minimum incisal thickness of ceramic. PMID:10925503

  7. Sulcus-Based MR Analysis of Focal Cortical Dysplasia Located in the Central Region

    PubMed Central

    Roca, Pauline; Mellerio, Charles; Chassoux, Francine; Rivière, Denis; Cachia, Arnaud; Charron, Sylvain; Lion, Stéphanie; Mangin, Jean-François; Devaux, Bertrand; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are mainly located in the frontal region, with a particular tropism for the central sulcus. Up to 30% of lesions are undetected (magnetic resonance [MR]-negative FCD patients) or belatedly diagnosed by visual analysis of MR images. We propose an automated sulcus-based method to analyze abnormal sulcal patterns associated with central FCD, taking into account the normal interindividual sulcal variability. Methods We retrospectively studied 29 right-handed patients with FCD in the central region (including 12 MR negative histologically-confirmed cases) and 29 right-handed controls. The analysis of sulcal abnormalities from T1-weighted MR imaging (MRI) was performed using a graph-based representation of the cortical folds and an automated sulci recognition system, providing a new quantitative criterion to describe sulcal patterns, termed sulcus energy. Results Group analysis showed that the central sulcus in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the FCD exhibited an abnormal sulcal pattern compared with controls (p = 0.032). FCDs were associated with abnormal patterns of the central sulci compared with controls (p = 0.006), a result that remained significant when MR-negative and MR-positive patients were considered separately, while the effects of sex, age and MR-field were not significant. At the individual level, sulcus energy alone failed to detect the FCD lesion. We found, however, a significant association between maximum z-scores and the site of FCD (p = 0.0046) which remained significant in MR-negative (p = 0.024) but not in MR-positive patients (p = 0.058). The maximum z-score pointed to an FCD sulcus in four MR-negative and five MR-positive patients. Conclusions We identified abnormal sulcal patterns in patients with FCD of the central region compared with healthy controls. The abnormal sulcal patterns ipsilateral to the FCD and the link between sulcus energy and the FCD location strengthen the interest of sulcal abnormalities in FCD patients. PMID:25822985

  8. Assessing the ecological base and peak flow of the alpine streams in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C.; Yang, P. S.; Tian, P. L.

    2009-04-01

    The ecological base and peak flow are crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may severely damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme conditions. Aquatic insects are selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base and peak flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. Two streams located at the alpine area in central Taiwan are selected as the study area to evaluate the base and peak flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to Dec 2008) collected from one stream Creek C originating from Sitou Area in Central Taiwan shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 32.47% and 31.11%, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Good" and "Very Good" level while the river pollution index (RPI) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 95% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.0234 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate result and ecological peak flow in rainy and typhoon seasons.

  9. Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor in an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patient

    PubMed Central

    Thiesen, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with agenesis of maxillary left lateral incisor and Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The patient also presented with maxillary midline deviation and inclination of the occlusal plane in the anterior region. Treatment objectives were: correction of sagittal relationship between the maxilla and the mandible; correction of midline deviation, so as to cause maxillary and mandibular midlines to coincide; correction of overbite and leveling of the occlusal plane, so as to create ideal conditions for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:26560829

  10. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus type II: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Kiaani, Sima; Mahdavian, Parinaz

    2015-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly of teeth with complex root canal system morphology. The present case describes a peg shape maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus (Oehlers type II), necrotic pulp, and an associated large periradicular lesion. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed with the aim of removing the blind sac with diamond bur under the use of operating surgical microscope. The root canal system was obturated with thermoplastic technique. Final restoration was done using composite. The 20-months clinical and radiological follow up revealed an asymptomatic tooth with healing of the periapical pathology; however, for complete healed periradicular lesion more follow up is needed. This case illustrated that a dens invaginatus malformed teeth with a large periradicular lesion can be managed successfully with nonsurgical root canal therapy (NSRCT). PMID:25878686

  11. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor.

    PubMed

    Martins, Jorge N R; Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-07-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  12. Very Large Inflammatory Odontogenic Cyst with Origin on a Single Long Time Traumatized Lower Incisor

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Filipe; Andre, Saudade; Moreira, Andre; Carames, Joao

    2015-01-01

    One of the consequences of traumatic injuries is the chance of aseptic pulp necrosis to occur which in time may became infected and give origin to periapical pathosis. Although the apical granulomas and cysts are a common condition, there appearance as an extremely large radiolucent image is a rare finding. Differential diagnosis with other radiographic-like pathologies, such as keratocystic odontogenic tumour or unicystic ameloblastoma, is mandatory. The purpose of this paper is to report a very large radicular cyst caused by a single mandibular incisor traumatized long back, in a 60-year-old male. Medical and clinical histories were obtained, radiographic and cone beam CT examinations performed and an initial incisional biopsy was done. The final decision was to perform a surgical enucleation of a lesion, 51.4 mm in length. The enucleated tissue biopsy analysis was able to render the diagnosis as an inflammatory odontogenic cyst. A 2 year follow-up showed complete bone recovery. PMID:26393219

  13. Palatogingival Groove: Recognizing and Managing the Hidden Tract in a Maxillary Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sarang; Deepak, Passi; Vivek, Sharma; Ranjan Dutta, Shubha

    2015-01-01

    Palatogingival grooves are developmental malformations quite notorious for precipitating endodontic - periodontal lesions. Owing to their inconspicuous occurrence, funnel-shaped morphology and variable extent on tooth root, they promote adherence of plaque and bacteria to levels significant for the development of pathology. Several treatment approaches have been recognized in literature for the management of this anomaly. Here in this report, a 25-year-old patient reported with the complaint of pain and swelling in maxillary right lateral incisor. Clinical examination confirmed an endodontic - periodontal lesion in relation to palatogingival groove. Endodontic treatment was instituted, followed by odontoplasty of the groove and restoration with newer calcium silicate cement, Biodentine. Combined endodontic - periodontal approach was successful in resolving the pathology with complete healing seen both clinically and radiographically. Timely diagnosis, prevention and management are highly recommended to prevent tooth loss due to complications arising secondary to their presence. PMID:26124612

  14. Centralized PI control for high dimensional multivariable systems based on equivalent transfer function.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Fei

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a new scheme to design full matrix controller for high dimensional multivariable processes based on equivalent transfer function (ETF). Differing from existing ETF method, the proposed ETF is derived directly by exploiting the relationship between the equivalent closed-loop transfer function and the inverse of open-loop transfer function. Based on the obtained ETF, the full matrix controller is designed utilizing the existing PI tuning rules. The new proposed ETF model can more accurately represent the original processes. Furthermore, the full matrix centralized controller design method proposed in this paper is applicable to high dimensional multivariable systems with satisfactory performance. Comparison with other multivariable controllers shows that the designed ETF based controller is superior with respect to design-complexity and obtained performance. PMID:24954810

  15. [Central wavelength shift analysis between laboratory and field spectral calibrations of grating based imaging spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Zhi; Yan, Lei; Yang, Bin; Gou, Zhi-Yang

    2013-08-01

    Spectral calibration must be carried out in order to determine its central wavelength and half-wave band width of each pixel before the usage of imaging spectrometer. But it was found out that these parameters vary as environment changes. The present paper studies the effect based on test field data. The authors analyzed the optical structure and compared the working environmental parameters. Then a theoretical model is established and the influences of vibration, distortion and temperature parameters are evaluated. The theoretical model and the caculation results are in good consistency, which testifies the theoretical model. This research will shed some light on the high accuracy spectral calibration of the grating based imaging spectrometer and its manufacture. PMID:24159894

  16. Mobile Devices for Community-Based REDD+ Monitoring: A Case Study for Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M.; Ribbe, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery. PMID:23344371

  17. Mobile devices for community-based REDD+ monitoring: a case study for Central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Herold, Martin; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Bartholomeus, Harm; Souza, Carlos M; Ribbe, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands properties with respect to reference data, adopting the current REDD+ requirements for implementing monitoring at national levels is a challenging task. Recently, the advancement in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and mobile devices has enabled local communities to monitor their forest in a basic resource setting such as no or slow internet connection link, limited power supply, etc. Despite the potential, the use of mobile device system for community based monitoring (CBM) is still exceptional and faces implementation challenges. This paper presents an integrated data collection system based on mobile devices that streamlines the community-based forest monitoring data collection, transmission and visualization process. This paper also assesses the accuracy and reliability of CBM data and proposes a way to fit them into national REDD+ Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) scheme. The system performance is evaluated at Tra Bui commune, Quang Nam province, Central Vietnam, where forest carbon and change activities were tracked. The results show that the local community is able to provide data with accuracy comparable to expert measurements (index of agreement greater than 0.88), but against lower costs. Furthermore, the results confirm that communities are more effective to monitor small scale forest degradation due to subsistence fuel wood collection and selective logging, than high resolution remote sensing SPOT imagery. PMID:23344371

  18. CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks †

    PubMed Central

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of “bad” nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics—maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility—and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates “bad”, “misbehaving” or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated “bad” behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to “good” nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  19. CENTERA: a centralized trust-based efficient routing protocol with authentication for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

  20. Branch-Based Centralized Data Collection for Smart Grids Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-01-01

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method. PMID:26007734

  1. Branch-based centralized data collection for smart grids using wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-01-01

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method. PMID:26007734

  2. [Central neurobiological mechanism of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome based on chronic stress: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-hong; Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Yue-yun; Chen, Jia-xu

    2012-01-01

    Some researchers focus on research of the nature of syndromes. The methods of combining traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and diseases and the correspondence between formulas and syndromes may be used in research of the nature of syndromes. According to combined theories of zang-organ state and seven emotions in traditional Chinese medicine with stress theory in modern medicine, the authors applied the methods of chronic immobilization stress to induce liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome in rats based on the thinking of relativity on formula and syndrome. The research showed that the central neurobiology mechanism of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome closely correlates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain-gut axis, myriad central neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones and their receptors, involving in many encephalic regions such as the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex, amygdale, etc. The authors will combine their previous work with multi-disciplinary research, such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics in future studies, to reveal the scientific connotations of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome. PMID:22237267

  3. Estimation of Vulnerability of Coastal Regions Using the Central Pressure of Typhoon Based on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, R.

    2014-12-01

    Typhoons strike the Kyushu Island in the west of Japan a few times a year. Damage of the maritime structures by storm surges and wind waves induced by typhoon frequently occurs in the western prefectures, for example, Kumamoto Prefecture. The coastline in this prefecture is complex. It faces open and closed seas. The coastline is divided into 4 coastal regions in this paper. Each coast has different topographical characteristics. Using data on the damage of maritime structures caused by typhoons during past 25 years from 1980 to 2004 and the path and central pressure of typhoons during past 110 years from 1902 to 2011, damage of 4 regions along the coast line of Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan for 13 groups of typhoon with different paths is estimated. All typhoons had passed through an area delineated by a latitude of 30° N and 35° N and at a longitude of 127° E and 132° E. The improved Central Pressure (iCP) Method can be used to estimate the damage of maritime structures that will occur along the coast before typhoon strikes. The improved Central Pressure Method is developed based on the 25 years from 1980 to 2004. The estimation of the damage is done using the central pressure of typhoon at a latitude of 30° N. To develop the central pressure method considering the influence of global warming, the data of the central pressure of typhoons based on the 100 years more term is needed. The trend of the depression of central pressure due to the global warming is discussed using the central pressure based on the 110 years term typhoon data. Furthermore, the risk of each coastal regions in a future is estimated using the increasing or decreasing value of central pressure which is determined on this period data.

  4. Conservative Treatment of an Invaginated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with a C-shaped Canal Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Forghani, Maryam; Moghim Farooji, Elaheh; Abuchenari, Javad; Bidar, Maryam; Eslami, Neda

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the non-surgical treatment of an invaginated maxillary lateral incisor with two fused roots. The mesial root had a C-shaped canal, while the distal one had a type III dens invagination. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to help with the diagnosis and treatment decision making. Clinical and radiographic follow-up revealed satisfactory periapical repair and absence of symptoms after 15 months. PMID:26576164

  5. Replacement of missing lateral incisors with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses: a clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Bissasu, Sami M; Al-houri, Nabil A

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message This report describes the use of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses in replacing congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. This kind of prosthesis has an advantage over a lingual-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis in its capability of changing the color and shape of the abutment teeth. The prostheses provided an acceptable esthetics and comfort for the patient. PMID:25356269

  6. One-visit RCT of Maxillary Incisors with Extensive Inflammatory Root Resorption and Periradicular Lesions: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Saeed; Ahmadyar, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) is a pathological phenomenon of microbial origin. This study reports a case of external apical inflammatory root resorption of maxillary incisors associated with periradicular lesions in a 22 year old female, which was successfully treated by one-visit root canal therapy (RCT). Radiographic investigation revealed periapical radiolucencies in the upper incisors associated with varying degrees of external inflammatory root resorption of teeth 12, 21 and 22. One-visit RCT of all involved teeth was carried out. Access cavities were permanently restored after 1 week. Clinical and radiographic examinations at 1 day, 1 week and 14 month follow-up demonstrated complete resolution of patient's signs/symptoms. The incisors were fully functional, and complete bone healing of the apical radiolucencies had taken place. The treatment outcomes demonstrated that IERR associated with periradicular lesions can respond successfully to one-visit RCT when conducted with adequate disinfection and a satisfactory coronal seal. Hence, one-visit RCT may be a good alternative to multiple-visit RCT involving intra-canal medicaments. PMID:23130060

  7. [Study on the control of dynamic artificial limb ankle based on central pattern generator].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Xu, Caiyu; Li, Mingyue; Su, Longtao

    2014-12-01

    In order to obtain the normal gait for the prosthesis-carrier with the change of external environment and gait, we designed a model of dynamic ankle prosthesis and control system and introduced the strategy of central pattern generator (CPG) about the moving trail of dynamic ankle prosthesis. The dynamic parts, which are incorporated in the model of dynamic ankle prosthesis, provide power in order to have anthropic function and character. The tool of Matlab/simulink was used to simulate the strategy. The simulation results showed that the strategy of CPG learn- ing control in this study was effective and could track the reference trail rapidly and fit the moving trail of a person's normal limb. It can make the prosthetic timely regulation and action, enhance the prosthetic intelligence. It has im- portant practical value for intelligent prosthesis development based on this analysis of technology. PMID:25868262

  8. Measuring Long-Term Impact Based on Network Centrality: Unraveling Cinematic Citations

    PubMed Central

    Spitz, Andreas; Horvát, Em?ke-Ágnes

    2014-01-01

    Traditional measures of success for film, such as box-office revenue and critical acclaim, lack the ability to quantify long-lasting impact and depend on factors that are largely external to the craft itself. With the growing number of films that are being created and large-scale data becoming available through crowd-sourced online platforms, an endogenous measure of success that is not reliant on manual appraisal is of increasing importance. In this article we propose such a ranking method based on a combination of centrality indices. We apply the method to a network that contains several types of citations between more than 40,000 international feature films. From this network we derive a list of milestone films, which can be considered to constitute the foundations of cinema. In a comparison to various existing lists of ‘greatest’ films, such as personal favourite lists, voting lists, lists of individual experts, and lists deduced from expert polls, the selection of milestone films is more diverse in terms of genres, actors, and main creators. Our results shed light on the potential of a systematic quantitative investigation based on cinematic influences in identifying the most inspiring creations in world cinema. In a broader perspective, we introduce a novel research question to large-scale citation analysis, one of the most intriguing topics that have been at the forefront of scientific enquiries for the past fifty years and have led to the development of various network analytic methods. In doing so, we transfer widely studied approaches from citation analysis to the the newly emerging field of quantification efforts in the arts. The specific contribution of this paper consists in modelling the multidimensional cinematic references as a growing multiplex network and in developing a methodology for the identification of central films in this network. PMID:25295877

  9. Genes Expressed in Dental Enamel Development Are Associated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Jeremias, Fabiano; Koruyucu, Mine; Küchler, Erika C.; Bayram, Merve; Tuna, Elif B.; Deeley, Kathleen; Pierri, Ricardo A.; Souza, Juliana F.; Fragelli, Camila M.B.; Paschoal, Marco A.B.; Gencay, Koray; Seymen, Figen; Caminaga, Raquel M.S.; dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Vieira, Alexandre R.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic disturbances during dental development influence variation of number and shape of the dentition. In this study, we tested if genetic variation in enamel formation genes is associated with molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), also taking into consideration caries experience. DNA samples from 163 cases with MIH and 82 unaffected controls from Turkey, and 71 cases with MIH and 89 unaffected controls from Brazil were studied. Eleven markers in five genes [ameloblastin (AMBN), amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), tuftelin (TUFT1), and tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11)] were genotyped by the TaqMan method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies between cases with MIH and controls. In the Brazilian data, distinct caries experience within the MIH group was also tested for association with genetic variation in enamel formation genes. The ENAM rs3796704 marker was associated with MIH in both populations (Brazil: p=0.03; OR=0.28; 95% C.I.=0.06–1.0; Turkey: p=1.22e–012; OR=17.36; 95% C.I.=5.98–56.78). Associations between TFIP11 (p=0.02), ENAM (p=0.00001), and AMELX (p=0.01) could be seen with caries independent of having MIH or genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans detected by real time PCR in the Brazilian sample. Several genes involved in enamel formation appear to contribute to MIH. PMID:23790503

  10. Relapse of incisor crowding: a visit to the Prince of Salina.

    PubMed

    López-Areal, Luis; Gandía, Jose-Luis

    2013-03-01

    The management of the retention period after comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of great importance, as a primary goal of clinician. Considerable controversy still surrounds the problem of stability after the retention period. Many studies analyze factors associated to the presence of crowding or incisor irregularity and find predictive features on its relapse. Most studies have reported little o no correlation between the treatment changes in the biological parameters - clinical, biometric (irregularity index, intermolar width, intercanine width, arch length, overjet, overbite), or cephalometric variables- that ocurred and the posttretament and postretention changes that may predict their future development. This article provides a bibliographical overview on the relapse of dental alignment in treated cases. In a brief historical introduction, the first studies on the long-term stability of orthodontic results are analysed. The article then goes on to assess studies that focus attention on anteroinferior alignment before finally studying relapse of upper crowding. It concludes by making some final comments in the light of the bibliography provided and the differents schools regarding retention needs and methods. PMID:23229267

  11. Relapse of incisor crowding: A visit to the prince of salina

    PubMed Central

    Gandía, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    The management of the retention period after comprehensive orthodontic treatment is of great importance, as a primary goal of clinician. Considerable controversy still surrounds the problem of stability after the retention period. Many studies analyze factors associated to the presence of crowding or incisor irregularity and find predictive features on its relapse. Most studies have reported little o no correlation between the treatment changes in the biological parameters - clinical, biometric (irregularity index, intermolar width, intercanine width, arch length, overjet, overbite), or cephalometric variables- that ocurred and the posttretament and postretention changes that may predict their future development. This article provides a bibliographical overview on the relapse of dental alignment in treated cases. In a brief historical introduction, the first studies on the long-term stability of orthodontic results are analysed. The article then goes on to assess studies that focus attention on anteroinferior alignment before finally studying relapse of upper crowding. It concludes by making some final comments in the light of the bibliography provided and the differents schools regarding retention needs and methods. Key words:Retention, stability, irregularity, dental alignment. PMID:23229267

  12. Double talon cusps on supernumerary tooth fused to maxillary central incisor: Review of literature and report of case

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human tooth development is a continuous process begin at the sixth weeks in utero and extends to about sixth months after birth for the primary dentition and from sixteenth week in utero to late adolescence for permanent dentition. There is no other organ of the human body which takes so long to attain its ultimate morphology as dentition. Several physiologic growth processes participate in the progressive development of the teeth including: initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, apposition, calcification, and eruption. Aberrations in different stages of tooth development can result in unique manifestations both in primary and permanent dentitions. The fact that premaxilla is the predilection site for the occurrence of supernumerary teeth, talon cusp, dens invaginatus, and geminated teeth may suggest that the embryological development of premaxilla differ from other sites of the jaws. The dental abnormalities presented in this review are of great concern to dentist and parents because they create clinical, pathological and esthetic problems. Dental practitioner should be aware of the clinical sign, associated problems and treatment options for a given case. Key words:Double talon cusps, fusion, supernumerary, case report. PMID:25593664

  13. Autotransplantation combined with orthodontic treatment: a case involving the maxillary central incisors with root resorption after traumatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Hugo M.; Botelho, Filomena; Carrilho, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic dental injury can result in avulsion of anterior teeth. In young patients, it is a challenge to the dental professional because after replantation, late complications such as ankylosis require tooth extraction. Although prosthetic and orthodontic treatment, and implant placement have been described as the options for intervention, autogenous tooth transplantation could be an effective procedure in growing patients if there is a suitable donor tooth available. This case presents the treatment of a patient who suffered a traumatic injury at 9 years old with avulsion of tooth 21, which had been replanted, and intrusion of tooth 11. Both teeth ankylosed; thus they were removed and autotransplantation of premolars was carried out. After transplantation, the tooth underwent root canal treatment because of pulpal necrosis. Orthodontic treatment began 3 months after transplantation and during 7 years' follow-up the aesthetics and function were maintained without signs of resorption. PMID:26295028

  14. Autotransplantation combined with orthodontic treatment: a case involving the maxillary central incisors with root resorption after traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Manuel Marques; Ferreira, Hugo M; Botelho, Filomena; Carrilho, Eunice

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic dental injury can result in avulsion of anterior teeth. In young patients, it is a challenge to the dental professional because after replantation, late complications such as ankylosis require tooth extraction. Although prosthetic and orthodontic treatment, and implant placement have been described as the options for intervention, autogenous tooth transplantation could be an effective procedure in growing patients if there is a suitable donor tooth available. This case presents the treatment of a patient who suffered a traumatic injury at 9 years old with avulsion of tooth 21, which had been replanted, and intrusion of tooth 11. Both teeth ankylosed; thus they were removed and autotransplantation of premolars was carried out. After transplantation, the tooth underwent root canal treatment because of pulpal necrosis. Orthodontic treatment began 3 months after transplantation and during 7 years' follow-up the aesthetics and function were maintained without signs of resorption. PMID:26295028

  15. Studying Geology of Central Texas through Web-Based Virtual Field Trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C.; Khan, S. D.; Wellner, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Each year over 2500 students, mainly non-science majors, take introductory geology classes at the University of Houston. Optional field trips to Central Texas for these classes provide a unique learning opportunity for students to experience geologic concepts in a real world context. The field trips visit Enchanted Rock, Inks Lake, Bee Cave Road, Lion Mountain, and Slaughter Gap. Unfortunately, only around 10% of our students participate in these field trips. We are developing a web-based virtual field trip for Central Texas to provide an additional effective learning experience for students in these classes. The module for Enchanted Rock is complete and consists of linked geological maps, satellite imagery, digital elevation models, 3-D photography, digital video, and 3-D virtual reality visualizations. The ten virtual stops focus on different geologic process and are accompanied by questions and answers. To test the efficacy of the virtual field trip, we developed a quiz to measure student learning and a survey to evaluate the website. The quiz consists of 10 questions paralleling each stop and information on student attendance on the Central Texas field trip and/or the virtual field trip. From the survey, the average time spent on the website was 26 minutes, and overall the ratings of the virtual field trip were positive. Most noticeably students responded that the information on the website was relevant to their class and that the pictures, figures, and animations were essential to the website. Although high correlation coefficients between responses were expected for some questions (i.e., 0.89 for "The content or text of the website was clear" and "The information on the website was easy to read"), some correlations were less expected: 0.77 for "The number of test questions was appropriate" and "The information on the website was easy to read," and 0.70 for "The test questions reinforced the material presented on the website" and "The information on the website is relevant to my class." These virtual field trips provide an alternative for students who cannot attend the actual field trips. They also allow transfer students to experience these sites before attending upper level field trips, which often return to study these sites in more detail. These modules provide a valuable supplementary experience for all students, as they emphasize skills for which we are presently unable to provide sufficient practice in lecture, fieldtrips, or laboratory. Public access to the field trips is available at: http://geoinfo.geosc.uh.edu/VR/

  16. Assessing the ecological base flow in an experimental watershed of Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Chiang; Yang, Ping-Shih; Tian, Pei-Ling

    2010-05-01

    The ecological base flow is crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme low conditions. Aquatic insect is selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. A stream located at the alpine area in central Taiwan is selected as the study area to evaluate the base flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to May 2009) collected from Creek C of Sitou watershed (area: 1.3 km^2) shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 26.3 and 17.2 %, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Excellent" and "Good" level while the EPT Index (Index of three orders: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 90%, 95% and 96% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.1582, 0.0476 and 0.0378 cms; the threshold value evaluated by curve of abundance vs. discharge is 0.0154 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate results.

  17. Precipitation frequency analysis based on regional climate simulations in Central Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Hanrahan, Janel L.

    2014-03-01

    A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3 km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate change projections of GCMs (general circulation models) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

  18. Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

    2012-01-01

    Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15 +/- 8 Mm(exp -1); PM(sub 10) concentration: 33 +/- 17 miro-g/ cubic m and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 +/- 3.6miro-g/ cubic m; EC: 2.0 2.3 miro-g/ cubic m and secondary species (SO4(2-): 6.4 +/- 3.7 miro-g/ cubic m, NH4(+): 2.2 +/- 1.3 miro-g/ cubic m). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 +/- 0.33 micro-g/ cubic m). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 +/- 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 +/- 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

  19. Prenatal factors associated with the neonatal line thickness in human deciduous incisors.

    PubMed

    Kurek, M; ??dzi?ska, E; Sitek, A; Borowska-Strugi?ska, B; Rosset, I; Lorkiewicz, W

    2015-06-01

    The neonatal line (NNL) is used to distinguish developmental events observed in enamel which occurred before and after birth. However, there are few studies reporting relationship between the characteristics of the NNL and factors affecting prenatal conditions. The aim of the study was to determine prenatal factors that may influence the NNL thickness in human deciduous teeth. The material consisted of longitudinal ground sections of 60 modern human deciduous incisors obtained from full-term healthy children with reported birth histories and prenatal factors. All teeth were sectioned in the labio-lingual plane using diamond blade (Buechler IsoMet 1000). Final specimens were observed using scanning electron microscopy at magnifications 320×. For each tooth, linear measurements of the NNL thickness were taken on its labial surface at the three levels from the cemento-enamel junction. The difference in the neonatal line thickness between tooth types and between males and females was statistically significant. A multiple regression analyses confirmed influence of two variables on the NNL thickness standardised on tooth type and the children's sex (z-score values). These variables are the taking of an antispasmodic medicine by the mother during pregnancy and the season of the child's birth. These two variables together explain nearly 17% of the variability of the NNL. Children of mothers taking a spasmolytic medicine during pregnancy were characterised by a thinner NNL compared with children whose mothers did not take such medication. Children born in summer and spring had a thinner NNL than children born in winter. These results indicate that the prenatal environment significantly contributes to the thickness of the NNL influencing the pace of reaching the post-delivery homeostasis by the newborn's organism. PMID:25618810

  20. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model area is the High Plains aquifer; the principal aquifer in the remaining part of the Elkhorn-Loup model area is an unnamed alluvial aquifer. The upper surface of the geologic units that directly underlie the aquifer is called the 'base of aquifer' in this report. The geologic unit that forms the base of aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup model area varies by location. The Tertiary-age Brule Formation generally is the base of aquifer in the west; the Cretaceous-age Pierre Shale generally is the base of aquifer in the east. The purpose of this report is to update the altitude and configuration of the base of the principal aquifer in the Elkhorn-Loup model area and a 2-mile buffer area around the Elkhorn-Loup model area, using base-of-aquifer data from test holes, registered water wells, and oil and gas wells within the Elkhorn-Loup model area and a 20-mile buffer area around the Elkhorn-Loup model area that have become available since the publication of earlier maps of the base of aquifer for this area. The base-of-aquifer map is important for the Elkhorn-Loup ground-water flow model because it defines the model's lower boundary. The accuracy of the Elkhorn-Loup ground-water flow model and the accuracy of the model's predictions about the effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow are directly related to the accuracy of the model's lower boundary.

  1. CrisprGE: a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Karambir; Tandon, Himani; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR system is a powerful defense mechanism in bacteria and archaea to provide immunity against viruses. Recently, this process found a new application in intended targeting of the genomes. CRISPR-mediated genome editing is performed by two main components namely single guide RNA and Cas9 protein. Despite the enormous data generated in this area, there is a dearth of high throughput resource. Therefore, we have developed CrisprGE, a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing. Presently, this database holds a total of 4680 entries of 223 unique genes from 32 model and other organisms. It encompasses information about the organism, gene, target gene sequences, genetic modification, modifications length, genome editing efficiency, cell line, assay, etc. This depository is developed using the open source LAMP (Linux Apache MYSQL PHP) server. User-friendly browsing, searching facility is integrated for easy data retrieval. It also includes useful tools like BLAST CrisprGE, BLAST NTdb and CRISPR Mapper. Considering potential utilities of CRISPR in the vast area of biology and therapeutics, we foresee this platform as an assistance to accelerate research in the burgeoning field of genome engineering. PMID:26120138

  2. Coal-based stratigraphy for upper Fort Union Group (Paleocene), west-central North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.; Hemish, L.; Daly, D.J.; Schmit, C.

    1986-08-01

    On the basis of an evaluation of lithologic and geophysical logs from 2500 shallow drill holes and information from a limited number of natural outcrops and mine highwalls, a detailed stratigraphic framework was constructed for the Paleocene strata of the Sentinel Butte and upper Bullion Creek formations (upper Fort Union Group) in the Knife River area in west-central North Dakota. The study sequence was found to be characterized by at least seven major coals continuous over the 8000 km/sup 2/ (3089 mi/sup 2/) of the study area instead of a large number of locally persistent coals, as interpreted by previous investigations of surface sections. A series of geologic cross sections demonstrates the correlation of the lignite beds in the upper Bullion Creek and Sentinel Butte formations and together provide a three-dimensional picture of coal distribution in the study area. Each major lignite bed has been named and assigned both type and reference test holes. The recognition of coals continuous over the study area provides a means of correlating this complex terrestrial section. The resulting framework in turn provides a basis for (1) the development of a chronostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, (2) a more accurate evaluation of the magnitude and distribution of coal resources, and (3) an appraisal of depositional setting and history. The recognition of widespread coals in the upper Fort Union strata in other portions of the basin suggests the potential for establishing a basinwide stratigraphic framework based on these coals.

  3. CrisprGE: a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Karambir; Tandon, Himani; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR system is a powerful defense mechanism in bacteria and archaea to provide immunity against viruses. Recently, this process found a new application in intended targeting of the genomes. CRISPR-mediated genome editing is performed by two main components namely single guide RNA and Cas9 protein. Despite the enormous data generated in this area, there is a dearth of high throughput resource. Therefore, we have developed CrisprGE, a central hub of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing. Presently, this database holds a total of 4680 entries of 223 unique genes from 32 model and other organisms. It encompasses information about the organism, gene, target gene sequences, genetic modification, modifications length, genome editing efficiency, cell line, assay, etc. This depository is developed using the open source LAMP (Linux Apache MYSQL PHP) server. User-friendly browsing, searching facility is integrated for easy data retrieval. It also includes useful tools like BLAST CrisprGE, BLAST NTdb and CRISPR Mapper. Considering potential utilities of CRISPR in the vast area of biology and therapeutics, we foresee this platform as an assistance to accelerate research in the burgeoning field of genome engineering. Database URL: http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/crisprge/. PMID:26120138

  4. A tunable protein-based scaffold for the study of central nervous system regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straley, Karin

    Central nervous system (CNS) injuries pose a significant and potentially debilitating health problem in society today and, to date, no successful clinical repair strategies have been advanced. The development of effective treatments is severely hindered by the quick formation of a complex, inhibitory scar at the site of CNS injury. This scar both physically blocks and chemically suppresses nerve regeneration. It has been hypothesized that combinatorial approaches involving biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and pro-survival factors, which provide a more permissive growth environment, have the highest chance of stimulating regeneration. The work completed in this thesis focuses on the design and characterization of a biomimetic hydrogel scaffold constructed from chemically crosslinked recombinant proteins. This protein-based scaffold has been designed to offer a flexible platform for the systematic optimization of key scaffold design parameters, such as mechanical strength, degradation, cellular interaction, molecule delivery, and topography. Specifically, a collection of proteins containing sequences previously shown to enhance cell adhesion, to promote neurite extension, and to exhibit varying susceptibility to cleavage by neurite-secreted proteases were synthesized to serve as the polymer backbone for the scaffold. Experiments were conducted to analyze the capacity of scaffolds, constructed from single proteins or mixtures of proteins, to independently control cell behavior, scaffold degradation properties, and scaffold mechanical properties based upon differences in the primary protein sequence and crosslinking conditions. In addition, composite scaffolds constructed by layered spatial deposition of chemically crosslinked, protease-degradable proteins were applied to the formation of dynamic internal, three-dimensional scaffold patterns that can be directly coupled to molecule delivery. Overall, this work demonstrates the tunable and bio-functional nature of these hydrogels and sets the framework for future studies into the development of effective protein-engineered scaffolds for CNS regeneration.

  5. A Model Based Attribution of Streamflow Trends in Headwater Catchments of the Tarim River, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duethmann, D.; Bolch, T.; Pieczonka, T.; Farinotti, D.; Tong, J.; Guntner, A.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, increasing streamflow has been observed in glacierized headwater catchments of the Tarim River, Central Asia. We investigated to what extent these streamflow increases can be attributed to increasing precipitation, or increasing air temperature and resulting glacier mass loss, using a data-driven approach based on multiple linear regression, and a simulation-driven approach with a hydrological model. The hydrological model was calibrated in a multi-objective way using criteria for discharge and glacier mass balances. This is crucial in such catchments with high uncertainties in precipitation, as a deficient streamflow simulation due to inadequate precipitation input may be compensated by erroneous simulation of glacier melt, if both variables are not jointly considered for model calibration. Temporal variations in glacier changes were calibrated against an observed glacier mass balance time series, whilst geodetic glacier mass balance estimates were used for constraining the absolute mass balance loss. The model considers the effects of changes in glacier area and in the elevation of the glacier surface over the course of the 48-years study period. Simulations with detrended time series indicate that changes in the less glacierized Kokshaal catchment are caused by increases in precipitation and glacier melt to a comparable extent. In contrast, for the more highly glacierized Sary-Djaz catchment, increasing glacier melt plays a dominant role. Results from the data-based approach were generally comparable, but pointed to a higher influence of temperature also in the Kokshaal catchment. Overall, the hydrological modeling approach was considered as advantageous because it allows to (1) directly investigate cause-effect relations, (2) analyze the impact of changes in variables that are not measured (e.g., changes in the fraction of glacier melt), and (3) integrate different kinds of data (like glacier mass balances or snow cover data). In this way, (in-)consistencies between different hypotheses for the causes of changes, the model results and the various data can be revealed.

  6. Forage-based systems for beef and dairy cattle production: Challenges and opportunities in the South Central region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage-based systems for beef and dairy cattle production: Challenges and opportunities in the South Central region. W. A. Phillips, G. W. Horn and B. K. Northup USDA-ARS El Reno, OK and Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Stillwater. The states of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, Arkans...

  7. Basement structure based on gravity anomaly in the northern Noto peninsula, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizubayashi, T.; Sawada, A.; Hamada, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Honda, R.

    2012-12-01

    Upper crustal block structures are usually defined by using surface information, such as geological and morphological data. The northern Noto Peninsula, central Japan, is divided into four geological block structures from tectonic geomorphologic perspectives (Ota and Hirakawa, 1979). This division is based on the surface crustal movement. To image the geological blocks three-dimensionally, it is necessary to construct a subsurface structure model. Gravity survey can clarify the detailed subsurface structure with dense gravity measurement. From the detailed Bouguer anomalies in the northwestern Noto Peninsula, Honda et al. (2008) suggested that the rupture size of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake was constrained by the geological block structures. Hiramatsu et al. (2008) also suggested the active faults on the seafloor, such as the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake plays a major role for the formation of the geological block structures. In this study, we analyze subsurface density structure based on the Bouguer anomaly and estimate the distribution of basement depth in the northern Noto Peninsula. We focus the relationship among the basement depth, the block structures and the active faults on the seafloor and discuss the block movement in the northern Noto Peninsula. We compiled the data measured and published previously (Gravity Database of Southwest Japan, 2001; Geological survey of Japan, 2004; Geographical survey institute of Japan, 2006; The Gravity Research Group in Southwest Japan, 2001; Komazawa and Okuma, 2010; Hokuriku electric power Co. Ltd., undisclosed) and calculated Bouguer anomaly in the northern Noto Peninsula. Based on this Bouguer anomaly, we analyzed subsurface density structures along 13 northeastern-southwestern profiles and 35 northwestern-southeastern profiles with the interval of 2 km using the two dimensional Talwani's method (Talwani et al., 1959). In the analysis, we assumed a density structure with four layers: basement (density is 2670kg/m3), Neocene volcanic rock (density is 2400kg/m3, or 2550kg/m3), Neocene sedimentary rock (density is 2200kg/m3), and Quaternary sedimentary rock (density is 1800kg/m3, or 1500kg/m3) (Honda et al., 2008). To compare our basement model to the geological block structures, we focus on a transition zone of the basement depth. We recognize that two of three geological block boundaries correspond to the transition zones. These boundaries also correspond to the boundary of active fault segments on the seafloor. Therefore, based on the relationship between the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake and the geological block, we suggest that the movement of those geological blocks is possibly controlled by the corresponding active fault segments. However, we find that the other block boundary doesn't correspond to the transition zone.

  8. A river based stable isotope record of orographic precipitation: Taurus Mountains, south central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schemmel, Fabian; Mulch, Andreas; Mikes, Tamás.; Schildgen, Taylor

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructing continental precipitation and vegetation patterns has become one of the most rapidly growing fields in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Furthermore, stable isotopes in precipitation within continental plateau regions represent an increasingly important tool for reconstructing the various effects of uplift related climate change within the world's largest plateau regions. With peak elevations of more than 3,000 m the Taurus Mountains represent the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau and must have played a pivotal role in controlling the drainage and sedimentation patterns within the plateau interior. However, their surface uplift history remains largely elusive. We sampled a series of tributaries and rivers along the Ermenek valley that crosscuts the Taurus Mountains in Southern Turkey. The aim of this study is to quantify the modern effect of orographic rainout of the Taurus Mountains on the d18O and dD values of river and spring waters and to compare these values to the d18O and dD of recent precipitation gathered by the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Further we try to study the trends of the recent d18O and dD isotopic composition of local rivers and precipitation in the area to create a set of isotopic data that is comparable to isotopic studies on paleosoils and can therefore be used in future paleoaltimetry and paleoclimate studies. We sampled 6 individual rivers during the fall season 2008 to capture mostly groundwater runoff in the south central Taurus Mountains. All sampled rivers belong to the same local drainage system which drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The total elevation difference within the sampling area exceeds 2,000 m and we were able to collect samples over almost 1,800 m of elevation. Our measurements show that both d18O and dD values follow the same basic trend. d18O and dD values decrease systematically with increasing elevation. The lapse rate of d18O is about -2.2 per mil/km, whereas the lapse rate of dD is about -20 per mil/km. Select samples have higher d18O and dD values than expected for their respective elevations due to strong evaporative effects at the sampling sites. In areas of very steep topography (waterfalls, valley gorges) the d18O and dD values of water samples are biased towards values lower than expected for their respective elevations. However, such irregularities can be accounted for by plotting the measured isotopic compositions against the hypsometric mean elevations instead of the actual sampling elevations. Comparison with data gathered by the GNIP network at four neighboring stations (Adana, Antalya, Güzeloluk, and Kocebeyli) shows that the longer-term (1 to 18 years) isotopic composition of precipitation agrees very well with the data collected in this study. Collectively, the data presented here may serve as a modern template against which late Neogene proxy-based records of paleoprecipitation along the southern margin of the central Anatolian plateau may be calibrated.

  9. Classification of fast flows in central plasma sheet: Superposed epoch analysis based on THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Wang, C.; Fu, S. Y.

    2014-09-01

    A statistical survey of 560 fast flows in midnight central plasma sheet is performed based on Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) observations during its first two tail phases. From superposed epoch analysis, no significant substorm activities are found to be associated with the occurrence of fast flows beyond X=-15 Re. Considering the associations with substorm activities, the fast flows inside of X=-15 Re can be classified into two obvious classes: short duration (< 2.0 min) and long duration (> 4.0 min). Substorm breakups are shown to be more closely correlated to short-duration fast flows. Furthermore, the onset of short-duration fast flows in the dipolarization region (X=-9 to -11 Re) is almost simultaneous with the onset of substorm breakups and dipolarizations. On the other hand, time delays of 2-4 min are both found in the near-Earth region (X=-7 to -9 Re) and in the near-tail region (X=-11 to -15 Re). Assuming that short-duration fast flows are generated by the force imbalance caused by cross-tail current disruption, these features are consistent with the predictions made by the cowling electrojet current loop and the cross-tail current disruption substorm models. In comparison, although more magnetic flux is transported toward Earth for long-duration fast flows, no clear substorm breakup is closely associated with them. The analysis of 2-D ion velocity distribution further shows some differences. For short-duration fast flows, multiple crescent-shaped ion populations are found. However, for long-duration fast flows, there exists only a single crescent-shaped ion population. The difference may be an important signature for distinguishing these two classes of fast flows.

  10. Disease burden of enterovirus 71 in rural central China: A community-based survey.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zheng-Kai; Jin, Hui; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xue-Jun; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Xue-Feng; Zhu, Feng-Cai

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) centered in the Asian-Pacific region have been characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections were responsible for the majority of the infections leading to severe cases of HFMD and death. This is a community-based survey aimed to estimate the disease burden of EV71 in rural central China, especially for HFMD. From 2011 to 2013, demographic and socio-economic data were gathered from 343 ill children and their parents using a structured questionnaire. We quantified the health burden of disease resulting from EV71 infection in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Among 343 cases, 303 had confirmed HFMD, 6 presented with herpangina, 25 presented with respiratory symptoms, and 9 presented with non-specific symptoms. The number of severe cases was 47 (including 1 death) and all of these presented with HFMD. The total cost per patient for severe HFMD, mild HFMD, herpangina, respiratory disease, and non-specific disease was $2149.47, $513.22, $53.28, $31.95, and $39.25, respectively. The overall cost of EV71-related diseases as a proportion of local farmers' per capita net income ranged from 0.18% for those with non-specific disease to 187.12% for those with severe HFMD. The loss of DALYs for the 5 forms of disease were 3.47, 1.76, 1.07, 1.44, 1.22 person-years per 1000 persons, respectively. This study provides data on cost of treatment and health burden for diseases caused by EV71, which can be used in the evaluation of EV71 vaccine cost-effectiveness. PMID:26158689

  11. Remote Sensing Based Biophysical Characterization of Tropical Deciduous Forest in Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Goroshi, S.; Sharma, N. K.; Bairagi, G. D.; Sharma, R.; Jalil, P.; Jain, A.; Sonakia, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper reports the measurements of biophysical parameters using field and satellite data over a tropical deciduous forest Kanha National Park (KNP), central India. Field measurement (GBH, LAI, litter, soil moisture) was carried out over ten quadrates of 0.1ha in KNP for characterization of biophysical parameters with specified measurement protocol and sampling. Satellite based remote sensing analysis (LAI, Phenology, and NPP) was carried out using multi date observations of IRS-LISS-III, IMS-1MX, SPOT-VEGETATION and EOS-MODIS instruments. Rank correlation analysis using field data collected in the selected quadrates at KNP showed Sal (Shorea robusta) is dominant forest species followed by Lendia, Jamun (Syzygium cumini), Saja, Harra and Dhawda etc. Field measurement of Sal showed GBH range from 20 cm to 170 cm. Different forest classes such as Sal; Sal mixed with Jamun, Bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus) etc, including grasslands/scrubland were classified with overall accuracy of 85.56 percent using March, May and October multi spectral data. Sal has distinct growth characteristics (low vegetation growth/ leaf fall in March instead of May) as compared to other vegetation species. As per the Leaf Area Index (LAI) measurement using hemispherical photographs, Sal showed the highest LAI (6.95 m2/m2) during September and lowest LAI (2.63 m2/m2) during March. Overall good agreement (r= 0.79) was found between the LAI generated from LISS-III and MODIS data product. It was observed from SPOT-VEGETATION analysis that NPP varied from 8.4 tC/ha/year (dry deciduous forest) to 14.25 tC/ha/year (Moist deciduous forest) in KNP.

  12. Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

  13. Temperature changes on the root surfaces of mandibular incisors after an 810-nm high-intensity intracanal diode laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Fonseca Alvarez, Andrea; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Daliberto Frugoli, Alexandre; Fernando, Casemiro; Correa Aranha, Ana Cecilia; Davidowicz, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Temperature changes caused by laser irradiation can promote damage to the surrounding dental tissues. In this study, we evaluated the temperature changes of recently extracted human mandibular incisors during intracanal irradiation with an 810-nm diode laser at different settings. Fifty mandibular incisors were enlarged up to an apical size of ISO No. 40 file. After the final rinse with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 0.2% lauryl sodium sulfate biologic detergent, and sterile water, samples were irradiated with circular movements from apex to crown through five different settings of output power (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 W) in continuous mode. The temperature changes were measured on both sides of the apical and middle root thirds using two thermopar devices. A temperature increase of 7 °C was considered acceptable as a safe threshold when applying the diode laser. Results: The results showed that only 3.5-W output power increased the outer surface temperature above the critical value. Conclusion: The recommended output power can be stipulated as equal to or less than 3 W to avoid overheating during diode laser irradiation on thin dentin walls.

  14. Fracture resistance of cementum-extended composite fillings in severely damaged deciduous incisors: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, Bahman; Ehsani, Sara; Taravati, Shirin; Ghadimi, Sara; Fatemi, Mostafa; Safa, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the fracture resistance of the cementum-extended and conventional composite fillings with or without intracanal composite posts in severely damaged deciduous incisors. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was performed on 60 extracted deciduous maxillary incisors that were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: Composite filling (CF); Group 2: Composite filling with composite posts (CF + CP); Group 3: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum (ceCF); Group 4: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum with composite posts (ceCF + CP). The fracture resistance was assessed by exerting a progressively increasing load with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a Universal Testing Machine. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by SPSS-18 using one-way analysis of variance at ? < 0.05. Results: The mean fracture resistance (MFR) values of the experimental groups were 410.57 ± 139.44 N, 564.44 ± 92.63 N, 507.5 ± 76.37 N and 601.08 ± 96.04 N. A significant difference was found between the MFR of Groups 1 and 2, Groups 1 and 4 and Groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A superior outcome was achieved by intracanal composite posts in both conventional and cementum-extended composite fillings. PMID:25512722

  15. An Immature Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Lateral Incisor with Talon's Cusp: A Clinical Dilemma to Confront

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Deepa; Giri, K. Y.; Keerthi, S. Sruthi

    2014-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a malformation of teeth probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. DI is classified as type I, II, and III by Oehlers depending on the severity of malformation. The maxillary lateral incisor is the most commonly affected tooth. Structural defects do exist in the depth of the invagination pits, and as a consequence, the early development of caries and the subsequent necrosis of the dental pulp, as well as abscess and cyst formation are clinical implications associated with DI. Occasionally, we can see more than one developmental anomaly occurring in a single tooth. In such cases it becomes important to identify the anomalies and initiate a proper treatment plan for good prognosis. In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. PMID:24660071

  16. A device for continuous monitoring of true central fixation based on foveal birefringence.

    PubMed

    Gramatikov, Boris; Irsch, Kristina; Müllenbroich, Marie; Frindt, Nicole; Qu, Yinhong; Gutmark, Ron; Wu, Yi-Kai; Guyton, David

    2013-09-01

    A device for continuous monitoring of central fixation utilizes birefringence, the property of the Henle fibers surrounding the human fovea, to change the polarization state of light. A circular scan of retinal birefringence, where the scanning circle encompasses the fovea, allows identification of true central fixation-an assessment much needed in various applications in ophthalmology, psychology, and psychiatry. The device allows continuous monitoring for central fixation over an extended period of time in the presence of fixation targets and distracting stimuli, which may be helpful in detecting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and other disorders characterized by changes in the subject's ability to maintain fixation. A proof-of-concept has been obtained in a small study of ADHD patients and normal control subjects. PMID:23645511

  17. Direct evidence of central European forest refugia during the last glacial period based on mollusc fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju?i?ková, Lucie; Horá?ková, Jitka; Ložek, Vojen

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence from molecular studies for the existence of central European last glacial refugia for temperate species, there is still a great lack of direct fossil records to confirm this theory. Here we bring such evidence in the form of fossil shells from twenty strictly forest land snail species, which were recorded in radiocarbon-dated late glacial or older mollusc assemblages of nine non-interrupted mollusc successions situated in the Western Carpathians, and one in the Bohemian Massif. We proposed that molluscs survived the last glacial period in central Europe in isolated small patches of broadleaf forest, which we unequivocally demonstrate for two sites of last glacial maximum age.

  18. Estimation of Evapotranspiration of Almond orchards using Remote Sensing based SEBAL model in Central Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Ustin, S.; Kefauver, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is one of the main components of the hydrologic cycle and its impact to hydrology, agriculture,forestry and environmental studies is very crucial. SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) is an image-processing model comprised of twenty-five computational sub-models that computes actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and other energy exchanges as a component of energy balance which is used to derive the surface radiation balance equation for the net surface radiation flux (Rn) on a pixel-by-pixel basis. For this study, SEBAL method is applied to Level 1B dataset of visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared radiation channels of MASTER instrument on-board NASA-DC 8 flight. This paper uses the SEBAL method to (1) investigate the spatial distribution property of land surface temperature (Ls), NDVI, and ETa over the San Joaquin valley. (2) Estimate actual evapotranspiration of almond class on pixel-by-pixel basis in the Central valley, California. (3) Comparison of actual Evapotranspiration obtained from SEBAL model with reference evapotranspiration (Eto) using Penman Monteiths method based on the procedures and available data from California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) stations. The results of the regression between extracted land surface temperature, NDVI and, evapotranspiration show negative (-) correlation. On the other hand Ls possessed a slightly stronger negative correlation with the ETa than with NDVI for Almond class. The correlation coefficient of actual ETa estimates from remote sensing with Reference ETo from Penmann Monteith are 0.8571. ETa estimated for almond crop from SEBAL were found to be almost same with the CIMIS_Penman Monteith method with bias of 0.77 mm and mean percentage difference is 0.10%. These results indicate that combination of MASTER data with surface meteorological data could provide an efficient tool for the estimation of regional actual ET used for water resources and irrigation scheduling and management. Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Hydrologic cycle, SEBAL, net surface radiation flux, MASTER, NDVI, Penman Monteith, CIMIS, Surface Temperature

  19. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural parks are present. All the area shows a strong correlation between the geological setting and the relief energy associated to topography assessment. Three main outcrop complexes are present: a fluvial lacustrine, where the lowest slope values and plain area are widespread; a terrigenous one, with a medium slope value; and a calcareous complex corresponding to the mountain areas and the highest amplitude of relief. This partition matches different geomorphological processes and landforms, ensuring a widespread distribution of geodiversity. The final map is a digital data that localizes areas with, respectively, null or minimum, medium, and high geodiversity values. The highest class overlaps to geosites areas, to high values of amplitude of relief and where the geomorphological processes are more effective and various. This confirms the method accuracy. The results obtained represent an important advancement in geodiversity research and a significant instrument for economic development and conservation management.

  20. Maxillary fixed prosthesis design based on the preoperative physical examination.

    PubMed

    Block, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate the use of physical examination findings that can be used to determine the design characteristics of a full arch restoration in the maxilla. These anatomic findings include 1) the resting and 2) smile line exposures of the central incisor; 3) the vertical position of the edentulous ridge when smiling; 4) the anteroposterior relation of the teeth to the edentulous ridge; 5) the presence of bone posterior to the premolar region; 6) the anterior height of the alveolar bone in relation to the floor of the nose; and 7) the planned inclination of the maxillary teeth. Based on these physical findings, the final prosthetic plan can be established before surgery. Determination of the final restorative plan determines the surgical procedures to be performed. PMID:25659360

  1. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-print Network

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Control Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-4-1 The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow Jinping LIU Yuebang MAI Xuefeng... LIU Associate professor Graduate student Instructor College of Electric Power, South China University of Technology Guangzhou. China Email: mpjpliu@scut.edu.cn Abstract: At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency...

  2. Sexual Precocity - Genetic Bases of Central Precocious Puberty and Autonomous Gonadal Activation.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Delanie Bulcão; Silveira, Letícia Ferreira Gontijo; Bessa, Danielle Souza; Brito, Vinicius Nahime; Latronico, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Precocious puberty has been classically defined as the onset of sexual secondary characteristics in girls younger than 8 years and in boys younger than 9 years. The discovery of potential factors which trigger human puberty is one of the central mysteries of reproductive biology. Several approaches, including mutational analysis of candidate genes, large-scale genome-wide association studies, and (more recently) whole-exome sequencing, have been performed in attempt to identify novel genetic factors that modulate the human hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in premature sexual development. In the last two decades, it has been well established that autonomous gonadal activation can be caused by somatic (GNAS) or germline (LHCGR)-activating mutations of genes that encode essential elements for signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors, resulting in peripheral precocious puberty in McCune-Albright syndrome and testotoxicosis, respectively. More recently, dominant activating and inactivating mutations of excitatory (KISS1/KISS1R) and inhibitory (MKRN3) modulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, respectively, were associated with central precocious puberty phenotype. Indeed, loss-of-function mutations of MKRN3, a maternal imprinted gene located at chromosome 15q, currently represent a frequent cause of central precocious puberty diagnosed in families from distinct geographic origins. Here, we review the known genetic defects in central and peripheral precocious puberty. PMID:26680572

  3. Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, V.

    When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

  4. Feasibility study for establishing a centralized geothermal data base for New Mexico. Final report, June 1, 1979-October 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Klimowicz, G.; Martin, N.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to catalog the information available and to make recommendations toward improving its accessibility. Existing computerized and non-computerized data sources are identified at both the state and national level. The content and accessibility of each such data base are investigated, as well as its suitability for aiding geothermal development. A catalog of such information is provided for each of the following data sources: GEOTHERM, WATSORE, STORIT, RPPM, GRID, HISS, EID air quality, and EID water quality. The available computing facilities within the state are evaluated for their appropriateness as a central storage facility for the many data sources. Recommendations are made for the establishment of a centralized geothermal/environmental data base. Included are recommendations for the computing facilities to be used by such a data base. How to obtain access to a given data base is described. This includes whether the data base is accessible from within New Mexico, necessary agreements, and contact persons. A glossary of computer-related terms and a brief description of knowledge-based problem-solving are included. (MHR)

  5. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  6. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  7. Response of the incisor tooth to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a dioxin-resistant and a dioxin-sensitive rat strain.

    PubMed

    Kiukkonen, Anu; Viluksela, Matti; Sahlberg, Carin; Alaluusua, Satu; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Tuomisto, Jouko; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa

    2002-10-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that afflict developing teeth. To find out if the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the continuously erupting rat incisor is associated with the sensitivity to TCDD acute lethality and to see the histological basis for any macroscopic findings, we exposed 25 resistant Han/Wistar (Kuopio; H/W) and 20 sensitive Long-Evans (Turku/AB; L-E) female rats to total doses of 0.17, 1.7, 17, and 170 (only H/W rats) micro g/kg TCDD. Each dose group comprised five animals. The treatment was started when the rats were 10 weeks old and continued for 20 weeks. The exposure time covered two life cycles of the incisor. Stereomicroscopic examination of the dissected mandibles showed color defects and pulpal perforation of the lower incisors at 17 and 170 micro g/kg TCDD. Tissue sections revealed odontoblastic and pulpal cell death and the consequent arrest of dentin formation at the incisal tooth end at the same doses. H/W rat incisors were affected closer to the germinative tooth end at 170 than at 17 micro g/kg TCDD, resulting in a larger perforation. In accordance with the enamel discoloration, the postsecretory enamel organ underwent, albeit inconsistently, precocious squamous metaplasia with pronounced proliferation. Thus, both the mesenchymal and, to a lesser extent, epithelial elements of the forming tooth were affected dose-dependently at relatively high doses of TCDD. Similar responses in both strains implied that the impaired formation of the incisor tooth, at least of its mesenchymal elements, is not associated with the differential resistance of H/W and L-E rats to TCDD acute lethality. PMID:12377997

  8. Depressed eruption rate of the rat maxillary incisor in a drug-induced uncompensated hemolytic state model

    SciTech Connect

    Giglio, M.J.; Sanz, A.M.; Bozzini, C.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Female rats weighing about 180 g were separated into two groups. One group (A) received phenylhydrazine (PHZ) every other day during three weeks (for induction of an uncompensated hemolytic state), while the control group (C) received saline. The evidence for the establishment of the uncompensated hemolytic state was obtained by hematocrit value, reticulocyte count, and red-cell-volume-59Fe uptake. Body-weight gain (which is a measure of overall body growth rate), body-length gain (which is a measure of longitudinal skeletal growth rate), food intake, and maxillary incisor eruption rate (ER) were significantly depressed in rats of group A during the PHZ-injection period, in relation to rats of group C. These results indicate that anemia and/or associated factors depress ER, along with body growth and skeletal growth.

  9. Severely altered post-traumatic internal morphology of upper incisors associated with biologic width violation - the combined conservative approach.

    PubMed

    Stratul, ?tefan Ioan; Nica, Lumini?a; Roman, Alexandra; Didilescu, Andreea Cristiana; B?cil?, Adrian; Rusu, Darian; Oprea, Bogdan; ?urlin, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This is the report of a case of four upper incisors with multiple internal/external resorptions after a falling accident in the childhood and subsequent violation of the biologic width by incorrect individual coronal restorations. Endodontic orthograde retreatment was performed and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was placed as apical plug and to repair the large internal resorption. In order to re-establish the biologic width, a controlled surgical crown-lengthening procedure was performed. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the gingival tissue was used as a biomarker for the presence of inflammation in the hypertrophied gingiva. The one-year control revealed the cessation of the resorptive activities and the stability of the periodontium. The choice for a conservative combined treatment was essential in maintaining the affected teeth in an esthetically challenging area. PMID:25611292

  10. The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Stefen, C.; Mors, T.

    2008-09-15

    New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

  11. Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; dos Santos, Fábio Gomes; Moura, Eline Freitas de Farias; da Costa, Fernanda Clotilde Mariz; Auad, Sheyla Marcia; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2014-01-01

    Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa?=?0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion. PMID:24695943

  12. Conservation Action Based on Threatened Species Capture Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Richness in Breeding and Wintering Populations of Central Asian Birds

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Manuel; Ayé, Raffael; Kashkarov, Roman; Roth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetic diversity has been suggested to be relevant from a conservation point of view, its role is still limited in applied nature conservation. Recently, the practice of investing conservation resources based on threatened species was identified as a reason for the slow integration of phylogenetic diversity in nature conservation planning. One of the main arguments is based on the observation that threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree. However this argument seems to dismiss the fact that conservation action is a spatially explicit process, and even if threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree, the occurrence of threatened species could still indicate areas with above average phylogenetic diversity and consequently could protect phylogenetic diversity. Here we aim to study the selection of important bird areas in Central Asia, which were nominated largely based on the presence of threatened bird species. We show that although threatened species occurring in Central Asia do not capture phylogenetically more distinct species than expected by chance, the current spatially explicit conservation approach of selecting important bird areas covers above average taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of breeding and wintering birds. We conclude that the spatially explicit processes of conservation actions need to be considered in the current discussion of whether new prioritization methods are needed to complement conservation action based on threatened species. PMID:25337861

  13. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    PubMed

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service). PMID:21095713

  14. How long has the central-northern Greenland Ice Sheet been melting at the base?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhina, Irina; Petrunin, Alexey G.; Johnson, Jesse V.; Vaughan, Alan P. M.

    2014-05-01

    Ice-penetrating radar studies (Fahnestock et al., 2001) and the deep ice core project NGRIP (Anderson et al., 2004) have identified extensive areas of rapid basal melt under the central-northern Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). Our new reconstruction of the lithosphere structure in Greenland reveal that strong anomalies in geothermal heat flux are responsible for much of the estimated ice loss through basal melt. We use our coupled lithosphere-GIS model to study the history of basal ice conditions since the Pliocene period and find that the anomalous heat flow has been maintaining basal ice melt throughout the history of Greenland glaciation. Persistence of basal melt water over the course of ~3.5 million years and periodic development of paleo ice streams originating at the anomaly have likely caused considerable erosion of the subglacial bedrock. The erosion is revealed by ice-penetrating radar measurements, and now exerts a geometric control on ice sheet streaming in the eroded region, and possibly the overall geometry of the GIS. Anderson, K. K., et al. (2004), High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period, Nature, 431(7005), 147-151 Fahnestock, M., W. Abdalati, I. Joughin, J. Brozena, and P. Gogineni (2001), High geothermal heat flow, basal melt, and the origin of rapid ice flow in central Greenland, Science, 294, 2338-2342

  15. A new map of the vegetation of central European Russia based on high-resolution satellite data.

    PubMed

    Ershov, D V; Gavrilyuk, E A; Karpukhina, D A; Kovganko, K A

    2015-09-01

    The scientific basis of and approaches to regional thematic mapping of vegetation based on high-resolution satellite data have been elaborated. A vegetation map of central European Russia has been compiled. The map includes 12 thematic classes, six of which pertain to forest ecosystems. The map has been compared to the data of the GFC project (University of Maryland, United States) and the official data of the Rosstat Federal Service of State Statistics (Russia). The new vegetation map is currently used in the information system of the remote monitoring of forest fires in Russia. PMID:26530069

  16. Unnatural base pair systems toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet in the central dogma.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Ichiro; Kimoto, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    Toward the expansion of the genetic alphabet of DNA, several artificial third base pairs (unnatural base pairs) have been created. Synthetic DNAs containing the unnatural base pairs can be amplified faithfully by PCR, along with the natural A-T and G-C pairs, and transcribed into RNA. The unnatural base pair systems now have high potential to open the door to next generation biotechnology. The creation of unnatural base pairs is a consequence of repeating "proof of concept" experiments. In the process, initially designed base pairs were modified to address their weak points. Some of them were artificially evolved to ones with higher efficiency and selectivity in polymerase reactions, while others were eliminated from the analysis. Here, we describe the process of unnatural base pair development, as well as the tests of their applications. PMID:22850726

  17. Peripherally inserted central catheter: compliance with evidence-based indications for insertion in an inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, Danuta G; Beaman, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, retrospective chart review was conducted at a medium-sized community hospital to verify appropriateness of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in 49 inpatient patients. Study results support the Infusion Nurses Society recommendation to use PICCs to facilitate either short- or long-term intravenous therapy of vesicants, irritants, and any medications with a pH less than 5 or greater than 9 and osmolarity greater than 600 mOsm/L. All PICC insertion criteria recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were met except one--the intended duration of intravenous therapy of more than 6 days. Identical PICC selection criteria are needed to standardize clinical practice. PMID:23823005

  18. Study of attenuation structure for central Anatolia region, Turkey based on Keskin seismic array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semin, K. U.; Ozel, N. M.

    2011-12-01

    Central Anatolia is bounded in the north by the well-known north Anatolian fault system (NAFS) and on the south-southwest is bounded by the east Anatolian fault system (EAFS). The central area does not have major faults and acts as a single block moving westward. This region is not considered as seismically active as the NAFS or EAFS but the recent moderate-size Bala earthquakes (Ml=5.7, Ml= 5.5) on 20 and 27 December 2007 near the Tuz golu fault may be an indication of future seismic activity. In order to get a better picture of the crustal structure of this region we applied Coda Normalization method for the measurement of Qs-1 as a function of frequency for the frequencies 1.5, 3, 6, 8 Hz. 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala earthquakes (Ml magnitude 5.6 an 5.5) and their aftershocks recorded by the Keskin seismic array (International Monitoring System code BRTR) is analyzed in this study. Keskin seismic array has a small aperture circular design with 6 vertical short period and 1 broadband borehole seismometers. In addition, Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method was applied to the data for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation inm the region at the same frequencies. MLTWA method allowed a separation between the intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. Preliminary results show a relatively low attenuation compared to western and eastern anatolia regions. This might be explained by the less seismicity in the region. A study of the regional and site attenuation of seismic waves of earthquakes in this area will contribute in predicting earthquake generated ground-motion and becomes vital in making decisions for earthquake regulations, building codes and to monitoring nuclear explosions.

  19. How central and connected am I in my family? Family-based social capital of individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Widmer, E D; Kempf-Constantin, N; Robert-Tissot, C; Lanzi, F; Carminati, G Galli

    2008-01-01

    Using social network methods, this article explores the ways in which individuals with intellectual disability (ID) perceive their family contexts and the social capital that they provide. Based on a subsample of 24 individuals with ID, a subsample of 24 individuals with ID and psychiatric disorders, and a control sample of 24 pre-graduate and postgraduate students matched to the clinical respondents for age and sex, we found that family networks of clinical individuals are distinct both in terms of composition and in terms of social capital made available to them by their family ties. Individuals with ID perceive themselves as less central in their own family; their family networks are perceived as less dense, less centralized, and more disconnected. Individuals with intellectual disabilities and psychiatric disorders have less family-based social capital than individuals with intellectual disabilities only. The composition of their family is also distinct as spouses or partners and children are missing. We discuss the importance of those findings for research on family relationships of individuals with ID. PMID:17383854

  20. Joint chemical defense for the rear battle: main operating bases in NATO's central region. Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, M.D.

    1988-04-01

    In 1984, the Chiefs of Staff of the US Army and the US Air Force signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) outlining a concept for the joint air defense of overseas air bases. With little previous experience in joint rear-area operations, problems were bound to occur, especially in the area of chemical warfare defense (CWD). The Army bases its CWD doctrine on the concept of maneuver while the Air Force bases its doctrine on being tied to air bases with little or no capability to avoid chemical attacks. Each Service developed its doctrine to support its operational concept. This study compared and contrasted the CWD doctrine of the Army and the Air Force. If found a great deal of commonality exists; however, there are also several problems which could lead to death, injury, and degradation of sortie generation capability.

  1. Soil erosion history in central Tanzania based on OSL dating of colluvial and alluvial hillslope deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, M. G.; Olley, J. M.; Payton, R. W.

    2000-12-01

    The Irangi Hills in Kondoa District, central Tanzania, are severely degraded by sheet, rill and gully erosion. Using recently developed optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, and a detailed study of the hillslope stratigraphy and soils, we have determined the sequence of events that gave rise to this highly degraded landscape. Two major colluvial deposits have been identified on the slopes. The oldest colluvium gave OSL deposition dates of 14,700±1600, 14,200±1500 and 11,400±1300 years ago. These dates coincide with the climatic change from dry to wet conditions, which took place during the Late Pleistocene. It is possible that the erosion and deposition of the old colluvium occurred as a response to this change. This phase of erosion and deposition was followed by a long phase of stability and pedogenetic alteration of the old colluvium. A phase of accelerated soil erosion began not later than 900 years ago, as indicated by a dated alluvial fan, the presence of which indicates that some deeper gullies already existed on upper pediment slopes at that time. The second, more recent colluvial deposit gave OSL dates of 460±40, 590±70 and 660±50 years. A major period of gully formation and incision, with subsequent fan development, occurred sometime between 600 and 300 years ago. The recent phase of erosion (<1000 years), which is still continuing, is probably a result of the introduction and/or intensification of agriculture, livestock husbandry and iron smelting practices in the Irangi Hills.

  2. The Generation of Antiphase Oscillations and Synchrony by a Rebound-Based Vertebrate Central Pattern Generator

    PubMed Central

    Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left–right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony. PMID:24760866

  3. Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela Rodriguez, F.

    2011-12-01

    The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

  4. The generation of antiphase oscillations and synchrony by a rebound-based vertebrate central pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chang; Merrison-Hort, Robert; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Borisyuk, Roman

    2014-04-23

    Many neural circuits are capable of generating multiple stereotyped outputs after different sensory inputs or neuromodulation. We have previously identified the central pattern generator (CPG) for Xenopus tadpole swimming that involves antiphase oscillations of activity between the left and right sides. Here we analyze the cellular basis for spontaneous left-right motor synchrony characterized by simultaneous bursting on both sides at twice the swimming frequency. Spontaneous synchrony bouts are rare in most tadpoles, and they instantly emerge from and switch back to swimming, most frequently within the first second after skin stimulation. Analyses show that only neurons that are active during swimming fire action potentials in synchrony, suggesting both output patterns derive from the same neural circuit. The firing of excitatory descending interneurons (dINs) leads that of other types of neurons in synchrony as it does in swimming. During synchrony, the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition is 7.9 ± 1 ms, shorter than that in swimming (41 ± 2.3 ms). The occasional, extra midcycle firing of dINs during swimming may initiate synchrony, and mismatches of timing in the left and right activity can switch synchrony back to swimming. Computer modeling supports these findings by showing that the same neural network, in which reciprocal inhibition mediates rebound firing, can generate both swimming and synchrony without circuit reconfiguration. Modeling also shows that lengthening the time window between phasic excitation and inhibition by increasing dIN synaptic/conduction delay can improve the stability of synchrony. PMID:24760866

  5. The influence of central neuropathic pain in paraplegic patients on performance of a motor imagery based Brain Computer Interface?

    PubMed Central

    Vuckovic, A.; Hasan, M.A.; Osuagwu, B.; Fraser, M.; Allan, D.B.; Conway, B.A.; Nasseroleslami, B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to test how the presence of central neuropathic pain (CNP) influences the performance of a motor imagery based Brain Computer Interface (BCI). Methods In this electroencephalography (EEG) based study, we tested BCI classification accuracy and analysed event related desynchronisation (ERD) in 3 groups of volunteers during imagined movements of their arms and legs. The groups comprised of nine able-bodied people, ten paraplegic patients with CNP (lower abdomen and legs) and nine paraplegic patients without CNP. We tested two types of classifiers: a 3 channel bipolar montage and classifiers based on common spatial patterns (CSPs), with varying number of channels and CSPs. Results Paraplegic patients with CNP achieved higher classification accuracy and had stronger ERD than paraplegic patients with no pain for all classifier configurations. Highest 2-class classification accuracy was achieved for CSP classifier covering wider cortical area: 82 ± 7% for patients with CNP, 82 ± 4% for able-bodied and 78 ± 5% for patients with no pain. Conclusion Presence of CNP improves BCI classification accuracy due to stronger and more distinct ERD. Significance Results of the study show that CNP is an important confounding factor influencing the performance of motor imagery based BCI based on ERD. PMID:25698307

  6. Treatment of Dens Invagination in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Azar; Rahmani, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Dens invagination is a developmental anomaly requiring specific treatment approaches. Oehler's Type III dens in dente, extends into the root and perforates at the apical area or lateral surface of the root. In this case endodontic treatment of the invaginated tooth was carried out through the central lumen of the invagination with calcium hydroxide without manipulation of the main pulp canal, thereby leaving the tooth vital. The 18-month follow-up examinations were indicative of treatment success; the periapical lesion resolved completely and the tooth remained vital. Conclusion: Information about the three dimensional anatomy of the teeth especially those with an abnormality is necessary for a successful treatment. PMID:26213545

  7. The regime of aerosol optical depth over Central Asia based on MODIS Aqua Deep Blue data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floutsi, Athina; KorrasCarraca, Marios; Matsoukas, Christos; Biskos, George

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, can affect the regional and global climate through their direct, indirect, and semi-direct effects on the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system. To quantify these effects it is therefore important to determine the aerosol load, and an effective way to do that is by measuring the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In this study we investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the AOD over the climatically sensitive region of Central Asia (36° N - 50° N, 46° E - 75° E), which has significant sources of both natural and anthropogenic particles. The primary source of anthropogenic particles is fossil fuel combustion occurring mainly at oil refineries in the Caspian Sea basin. Natural particles originate mostly from the two deserts in the region (namely Kara-Kum and Kyzyl-Kum), where persistent dust activity is observed. Another source is the Aral Sea region, which due to its phenomenal desertification also drives an intense salt and dust transport from the exposed sea-bed to the surrounding regions. This transport is of particular interest because of health-hazardous materials contained in the Aral Sea sea-bed. For our analysis we use Level-3 daily MODIS - Aqua Dark Target - Deep Blue combined product, from the latest MODIS collection (006), available in 1° x 1° resolution (about 100 km x 100 km) over the period 2002-2014.Our first results indicate a significant spatial variability of the aerosol load over the study region. The data also show a clear seasonal cycle, with large aerosol load being associated with strong dust activity during spring and summer (AOD up to 0.5), and low during autumn and winter (AOD up to 0.4). In spring and summer significant aerosol load is observed in the Garabogazköl basin, Northeast and South-southeast Caspian Sea (offshore North Iran and Azerbaijan), as well as southwest of the Aral Sea. In the later region, the high AOD values can be explained by export of dust from the exposed sea-bed under strong northerly and north-easterly winds, and was found to be slightly larger during summer. From this analysis we have excluded the Aral Sea, over which the AOD values were extreme (up to 2.1 and 1.3 during July and January, respectively). The AOD exhibits statistically-significant increasing trend, with an ~40% mean regional relative change. The changes over are more pronounced over and around the Aral Sea, and are stronger during the warm period of the year (April to September). Our results suggest that these trends are associated with increased dust transport from the exposed Aral Sea sea-bed during the study period, which will be examined with the trends of the frequency and strength of aerosol events over central Asia, as well as their association with the Aral Sea desertification.

  8. Landslide observation and volume estimation in central Georgia based on L-band InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, E.; Walter, T. R.; Shirzaei, M.; Zschau, J.

    2014-03-01

    The republic of Georgia is a mountainous and tectonically active area that is vulnerable to landslides. Because landslides are one of the most devastating natural hazards, their detection and monitoring is of great importance. In this study we report on a previously unknown landslide in central Georgia near the town of Sachkhere. We used a set of Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data to generate displacement maps using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). We detected a sliding zone of dimensions 2 km north-south by 0.6 km east-west that threatens four villages. We estimated surface displacement of up to ∼30 cm/yr over the sliding body in the satellite line-of-sight (LOS) direction, with the largest displacement occurring after a local tectonic earthquake. We mapped the morphology of the landslide mass by aerial photography and field surveying. We found a complex set of interacting processes, including surface fracturing, shear and normal faults at both the headwall and the sides of the landslide, local landslide velocity changes, earthquake-induced velocity peaks, and loss in toe support due to mining activity. Important implications that are applicable elsewhere can be drawn from this study of coupled processes. We used inverse dislocation modelling to find a possible dislocation plane resembling the landslide basal décollement, and we used that plane to calculate the volume of the landslide. The results suggest a décollement at ∼120 m depth, dipping at ∼10° sub-parallel to the surface, which is indicative of a translational-type landslide.

  9. Magmatic occurrences in the Central Arava (southern Israel) based on Geology and Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, Ginat; Michael, Rybakov; Boris, Shirman; Michael, Lazar

    2014-05-01

    The Eshet Ridge is located in the Central Arava near Wadi Paran. Geological data were collected using ground magnetic surveys and petrophysical measurements (magnetic susceptibility and density). The goal was to reveal the structure and nature of a concealed magmatic body under the ridge. Integrated gravity and magnetic interpretation together with seismic reflection data (including 2¾ modeling) indicated the presence of a deep-seated basic magmatic intrusion. Occurrence of Fe-mineralized rocks along the ridge supports subsurface data. The magmatic body was intruded in the hard Turonian rocks of the Eshet Ridge. Basic magmatic exposures dating from the Early Miocene were evident along Wadi Ashosh (in the eastern Negev) and its margins 18 km. to the north of the ridge. A new outcrop of basic magmatic intrusion was found southwest of the Tzukim settlement. Magnetic measurements indicated a similarity between their magnetic pattern and the Ashosh basic magmatics, which were dated to 20.4 ± 0.7 Ma. Volcanoclastic tuff pebbles (magnetic susceptibility of around 2-7 * 10-3 SI) surrounded by conglomerate were discovered at two sites in Wadi Demma and Wadi Menuha (streams that drain near the Eshet Ridge and 2 km south of it, respectively). The conglomerates contained mostly limestone, chalk and chert fragments; not more than 5% of which were volcanic pebbles. Two pebbles were dated to 24.4 ± 0.7and 21.5 ± 0.5 Ma. The magmatic outcrops in Wadi Ashosh, the magmatic dyke near Tzukim and the volcanic purple and black pebbles near Wadi Menuha were all dated to the very Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. The magmatic body identified in this study under the Eshet Ridge was termed the Eshet Intrusion and is connected to, and even the source of, all these phenomena.

  10. A Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central Appalachian Streams (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the Field-<span class=Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity ...

  11. Assessment of Herbicide Transport in Central Missouri Watersheds Using a Process-Based Index Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of areas at risk for pesticide loss is a necessary requirement for targeting best management practices (BMPs) to the most vulnerable areas within watersheds. To work toward that goal, a process-based index model was developed to assess relative landscape vulnerability to hydrologic lo...

  12. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  13. Spatial point analysis based on dengue surveys at household level in central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira-Junior, João B; Maciel, Ivan J; Barcellos, Christovam; Souza, Wayner V; Carvalho, Marilia S; Nascimento, Nazareth E; Oliveira, Renato M; Morais-Neto, Otaliba; Martelli, Celina MT

    2008-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) affects nonimunne human populations in tropical and subtropical regions. In the Americas, dengue has drastically increased in the last two decades and Brazil is considered one of the most affected countries. The high frequency of asymptomatic infection makes difficult to estimate prevalence of infection using registered cases and to locate high risk intra-urban area at population level. The goal of this spatial point analysis was to identify potential high-risk intra-urban areas of dengue, using data collected at household level from surveys. Methods Two household surveys took place in the city of Goiania (~1.1 million population), Central Brazil in the year 2001 and 2002. First survey screened 1,586 asymptomatic individuals older than 5 years of age. Second survey 2,906 asymptomatic volunteers, same age-groups, were selected by multistage sampling (census tracts; blocks; households) using available digital maps. Sera from participants were tested by dengue virus-specific IgM/IgG by EIA. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was used to detect the spatial varying risk over the region. Initially without any fixed covariates, to depict the overall risk map, followed by a model including the main covariates and the year, where the resulting maps show the risk associated with living place, controlled for the individual risk factors. This method has the advantage to generate smoothed risk factors maps, adjusted by socio-demographic covariates. Results The prevalence of antibody against dengue infection was 37.3% (95%CI [35.5–39.1]) in the year 2002; 7.8% increase in one-year interval. The spatial variation in risk of dengue infection significantly changed when comparing 2001 with 2002, (ORadjusted = 1.35; p < 0.001), while controlling for potential confounders using GAM model. Also increasing age and low education levels were associated with dengue infection. Conclusion This study showed spatial heterogeneity in the risk areas of dengue when using a spatial multivariate approach in a short time interval. Data from household surveys pointed out that low prevalence areas in 2001 surveys shifted to high-risk area in consecutive year. This mapping of dengue risks should give insights for control interventions in urban areas. PMID:18937868

  14. Proxy-based reconstructions of earthquakes and tsunamis over the past millennia, Quidico, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, I.; Ely, L. L.; Horton, B.; Dura, T.; Cisternas, M.

    2013-12-01

    We utilized geomorphic, sedimentological, and stratigraphic methods to describe the relative magnitude of historic tsunamis and better understand the paleoseismic history at Quidico, Chile (38.1° S, 73.2° W). The study site lies within the transition zone between two major subduction-zone earthquake events during the observational period: the great 1960 Mw 9.5 earthquake to the south and the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake to the north. Despite Chile's growing need to continue to refine earthquake and tsunami hazards, there are few studies aimed at quantifying the geologic impact of earthquake-rupture overlap through time in this region. A combination of pits, cores, and riverbank exposures provide stratigraphic evidence of 5, laterally-continuous sand layers within the Quidico River floodplain. The sand units display landward thinning and disappear completely from the stratigraphy approximately 1 km inland from the coast, characteristic of tsunami deposits. All of the sand units have similar grain-size distribution, ranging from 70-120 ?m, which contrasts with the broader, bimodal distribution of grain size (10-450 ?m) from an eolian dune at the site and the coarser grain size (155-430 ?m) of the local beach sand. Intervening sediment layers consists of organic-rich silts and peat. AMS radiocarbon dates of Scirpus seeds found in peat directly below each sand layer indicate deposition of the sand layers has occurred within the past 800 years. The surficial sand layer (? 2 cm thick) is identified as the deposit from the 2010 tsunami. 137Cs measurements taken above, within, and below the second sand unit (4-7 cm) confirmed 14C results that this layer was deposited by the 1960 tsunami. Preliminary microfossil analysis indicates a slightly more marine diatom assemblage in the 1960 sand layer than in the organic-rich silt units above and below it, indicating a marine incursion. Lithology of the sand layers will further constrain their provenance. Comparison of the chronology of these deposits with the 500-year record of historical earthquakes in this region of Chile will be used to identify which tsunami events are preserved in the stratigraphy at Quidico. This information will help characterize the relative magnitude, preservation pattern, and history of past tsunamis within this transition zone. Correlating this record with additional geologic studies and historic accounts of earthquakes and tsunamis throughout the region will collectively advance our understanding of potential seismic hazards in south-central Chile.

  15. Improving depth imaging of legacy seismic data using curvelet-based gather conditioning: A case study from Central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górszczyk, A.; Cyz, M.; Malinowski, M.

    2015-06-01

    In presented work we test the ray-based pre-stack depth migration (PreSDM) and tomographic velocity model building (VMB) workflow applied to vintage seismic data, acquired in the 70s and 80s, in the area affected by intense salt tectonics in Central Poland. We demonstrate that the key for successful VMB is the consistency of the input residual moveouts (RMO) picks, which we obtain by developing proper gather conditioning workflow. It is based on the 2D discrete curvelet transform (DCT). DCT-based conditioning algorithm is run in a two-step mode on the common offset sections and on the depth-slices, improving the performance of the autopicker and thus providing a more reliable input to a grid tomography. Additionally, in the case of the legacy data, such conditioning acts as a trace regularization. Taking into account limitations associated with low fold and low signal-to-noise ratio, obtained results are satisfactory, providing depth sections and velocity models for verifying structural interpretation of the study area. In the case when the grid-based tomography is applied to vintage data, we strongly recommend to devote some time for proper data conditioning aimed at signal coherency improvement before running the RMO autopicker.

  16. A conodont-based standard reference section in central Nevada for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, W.C.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Harris, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Ranges of conodonts in stratigraphic sections at five localities in the Monitor and Antelope ranges of central Nevada are used graphically to assemble a standard reference section for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series. The base of the series is officially 0.3 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in the stratotype in Whiterock Canyon (Monitor Range). The top is the level at which Baltoniodus gerdae makes a brief appearance in an exposure of the Copenhagen Formation on the flanks of Hill 8308 in the western Antelope Range. Graphic compilation of the sections considered in this report also indicates that a level correlative with the base of the Whiterockian Series in the stratotype section is 66 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in its de facto type section on Martin Ridge in the eastern part of the Monitor Range. Ranges, diversity, and the composition of the conodont faunas differ markedly in lithofacies adjacent to the basal boundary of the series; hence we are unable to identify a single conodont species, in a credible developmental sequence, to serve as biological marker of that boundary.

  17. Distribution of non-collagenous dentin matrix proteins and proteoglycans, and their relation to calcium accumulation in bisphosphonate-affected rat incisors.

    PubMed

    Ohma, N; Takagi, Y; Takano, Y

    2000-06-01

    It has been reported that multiple injections of 1-hydroxyethylidene- 1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) to rats prevent mineralization of incisor dentin, thereby revealing high concentrations of calcium in the non-mineralized matrix of circumpulpal dentin. To identify the molecules responsible for calcium accumulation in circumpulpal dentin matrix, rats were injected daily with HEBP (8 mg P/kg) for 7 d, and the incisors processed for various histochemical and immunohistochemical staining of non-collagenous matrices of dentin. Cuprolinic blue reactions for proteoglycans (PGs) were equally distributed in non-mineralized matrix of mantle and circumpulpal dentin layers. Dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and osteopontin (OPN) immunoreactions were found in non-mineralized circumpulpal dentin matrix, but not in mantle dentin. In normal incisors, however, predentin matrix showing significant DSP immunoreactivity was negative for Ca-GBHA reactions. HEBP-affected, non-mineralized OPN immunopositive bone matrix was also non-reactive for calcium. From these observations, neither PGs, OPN nor DSP appear to be responsible for calcium accumulation in HEBP-affected circumpulpal dentin. Stains-all reactive component, possibly dentin phosphoprotein (DPP), only showed the same distribution as that of Ca-GBHA in both HEBP-affected and normal dentin matrix, implicating a possible contribution of DPP to calcium accumulation in circumpulpal dentin and, hence, to appositional mineralization of dentin. PMID:10872993

  18. Causes and prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisors of school children aged 10-14 years in Maseru, Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2008-04-01

    Traumatic dental injuries are widespread in the population and the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries among school children in different parts of the world varies from about 3% to 45%. Most injuries involve the anterior teeth, which may lead to eating restrictions, changes in physical appearance, speech defects and psychological impacts that affect the child's quality of life. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence, aetiology and types of injuries to permanent incisors among schoolchildren aged 10-14 years from Maseru, Lesotho. Upper and lower permanent incisors were examined for dental injuries. The prevalence of traumatic injuries to the permanent incisor teeth was 9.3% (13.3% boys and 6.3% girls). Significantly more boys than girls suffered injury. The most common type of injury was enamel fractures and most common cause was falls. Health promotion policies should aim to create an appropriate and safe environment for children. Soft playground surfaces, school-crossing patrols, marked zebra crossings and bicycle lanes would help create a safe environment. Speed limits for cars and the use of seat belts, air bags, special car seats for children and bicycle helmets should be enforced. Mouth guards should be used when playing sport, in particular contact sports. Education regarding the epidemiology of dental injuries and their prevention through health promotion may play a major role in reducing the prevalence of dental injury and avoiding the financial costs of treatment, especially in developing countries. PMID:18689347

  19. CENTRAL AVENUE CENTRAL AVENUE

    E-print Network

    SCIENCE MUSEUM FULLER LODGE ASHLEY POND HISTORICAL MUSEUMMESA PUBLIC LIBRARY SENIOR CENTER KNECHTSTREET 9.­Sun., 12 pm­2:30 pm/4:30­8 pm 20 Daniel's Cafe 800 Trinity Drive 662-3131 Sandwiches, soups, salads, ice cream. Mon.­Fri., 7 am­8 pm Sat., 8 am­8 pm; Sun., noon­8 pm 21 Smith's Supermarket 535 Central Avenue

  20. A new species of Centropages (Copepoda: Calanoida: Centropagidae) from the central Red Sea based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M

    2015-01-01

    Centropages mohamedi sp. nov. (Copepoda: Calanoida) is described from specimens collected in zooplankton samples off Obhur Creek on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. The new species is most closely related to C. orsinii Giesbrecht, 1889, a species described from the Red Sea and widely distributed in the neritic waters of the Indo-West Pacific region. The new species is mainly distinguished by the female genital double somite, male antennules, male leg 4, and leg 5 of both sexes. DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit one (mtCOI) of the two species differ by 20.8%, supporting their morphology-based identification as distinct species.  PMID:25661620

  1. Are Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models Reporting the Right C(max)? Central Venous Versus Peripheral Sampling Site.

    PubMed

    Musther, Helen; Gill, Katherine L; Chetty, Manoranjenni; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Rowland, Malcolm; Jamei, Masoud

    2015-09-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can over-predict maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) following intravenous administration. A proposed explanation is that invariably PBPK models report the concentration in the central venous compartment, rather than the site where the samples are drawn. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate potential corrective models based on anatomy and physiology governing the blood supply at the site of sampling and incorporate them into a PBPK platform. Four models were developed and scrutinised for their corrective potential. All assumed the peripheral sampling site concentration could be described by contributions from surrounding tissues and utilised tissue-specific concentration-time profiles reported from the full-PBPK model within the Simcyp Simulator. Predicted concentrations for the peripheral site were compared to the observed C(max). The models results were compared to clinical data for 15 studies over seven compounds (alprazolam, imipramine, metoprolol, midazolam, omeprazole, rosiglitazone and theophylline). The final model utilised tissue concentrations from adipose, skin, muscle and a contribution from artery. Predicted C(max) values considering the central venous compartment can over-predict the observed values up to 10-fold whereas the new sampling site predictions were within 2-fold of observed values. The model was particularly relevant for studies where traditional PBPK models over-predict early time point concentrations. A successful corrective model for C(max) prediction has been developed, subject to further validation. These models can be enrolled as built-up modules into PBPK platforms and potentially account for factors that may affect the initial mixing of the blood at the site of sampling. PMID:26100012

  2. A high-order vertex-based central ENO finite-volume scheme for three-dimensional compressible flows

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Charest, Marc R.J.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-03-11

    High-order discretization methods offer the potential to reduce the computational cost associated with modeling compressible flows. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate high-order discretizations of conservation laws that do not produce spurious oscillations near discontinuities, especially on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes. A novel, high-order, central essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) finite-volume method that does not have these difficulties is proposed for tetrahedral meshes. The proposed unstructured method is vertex-based, which differs from existing cell-based CENO formulations, and uses a hybrid reconstruction procedure that switches between two different solution representations. It applies a high-order k-exact reconstruction in smooth regions and a limited linearmore »reconstruction when discontinuities are encountered. Both reconstructions use a single, central stencil for all variables, making the application of CENO to arbitrary unstructured meshes relatively straightforward. The new approach was applied to the conservation equations governing compressible flows and assessed in terms of accuracy and computational cost. For all problems considered, which included various function reconstructions and idealized flows, CENO demonstrated excellent reliability and robustness. Up to fifth-order accuracy was achieved in smooth regions and essentially non-oscillatory solutions were obtained near discontinuities. The high-order schemes were also more computationally efficient for high-accuracy solutions, i.e., they took less wall time than the lower-order schemes to achieve a desired level of error. In one particular case, it took a factor of 24 less wall-time to obtain a given level of error with the fourth-order CENO scheme than to obtain the same error with the second-order scheme.« less

  3. A high-order vertex-based central ENO finite-volume scheme for three-dimensional compressible flows

    SciTech Connect

    Charest, Marc R.J.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob; Wohlbier, John G.

    2015-03-11

    High-order discretization methods offer the potential to reduce the computational cost associated with modeling compressible flows. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate high-order discretizations of conservation laws that do not produce spurious oscillations near discontinuities, especially on multi-dimensional unstructured meshes. A novel, high-order, central essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) finite-volume method that does not have these difficulties is proposed for tetrahedral meshes. The proposed unstructured method is vertex-based, which differs from existing cell-based CENO formulations, and uses a hybrid reconstruction procedure that switches between two different solution representations. It applies a high-order k-exact reconstruction in smooth regions and a limited linear reconstruction when discontinuities are encountered. Both reconstructions use a single, central stencil for all variables, making the application of CENO to arbitrary unstructured meshes relatively straightforward. The new approach was applied to the conservation equations governing compressible flows and assessed in terms of accuracy and computational cost. For all problems considered, which included various function reconstructions and idealized flows, CENO demonstrated excellent reliability and robustness. Up to fifth-order accuracy was achieved in smooth regions and essentially non-oscillatory solutions were obtained near discontinuities. The high-order schemes were also more computationally efficient for high-accuracy solutions, i.e., they took less wall time than the lower-order schemes to achieve a desired level of error. In one particular case, it took a factor of 24 less wall-time to obtain a given level of error with the fourth-order CENO scheme than to obtain the same error with the second-order scheme.

  4. Object based change detection of Central Asian Tugai vegetation with very high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, Philipp; Förster, Michael; Kurban, Alishir; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Ecological restoration of degraded riparian Tugai forests in north-western China is a key driver to combat desertification in this region. Recent restoration efforts attempt to recover the forest along with its most dominant tree species, Populus euphratica. The present research observed the response of natural vegetation using an object based change detection method on QuickBird (2005) and WorldView2 (2011) data. We applied the region growing approach to derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values in order to identify single P. euphratica trees, delineate tree crown areas and quantify crown diameter changes. Results were compared to 59 reference trees. The findings confirmed a positive tree crown growth and suggest a crown diameter increase of 1.14 m, on average. On a single tree basis, tree crown diameters of larger crowns were generally underestimated. Small crowns were slightly underestimated in QuickBird and overestimated in Worldview2 images. The results of the automated tree crown delineation show a moderate relation to field reference data with R20052: 0.36 and R20112: 0.48. The object based image analysis (OBIA) method proved to be applicable in sparse riparian Tugai forests and showed great suitability to evaluate ecological restoration efforts in an endangered ecosystem.

  5. Wetlands Maps of Central Canada based on L-band SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, J.; Moghaddam, M.; Clewley, D.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Chapman, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many boreal wetlands appear to be evolving into significant sources of greenhouse gases. The ability to accurately quantify the locations, types, and extents of northern wetlands is important to understanding their role in the global carbon cycle and responses to changes in climate. However, due to the extent of boreal wetlands and their inaccessibility, there have been few maps produced of this important ecosystem. To address this need, we have been constructing high-resolution (100 m) thematic maps of North American boreal wetlands. The maps are developed using space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is capable of efficiently providing high-resolution imagery of vast and often inaccessible regions. Unlike optical imagery, space-based SAR imagery is unaffected by cloud cover. Additionally, L-band SAR is able to sense vegetation structure and moisture content, as well as ground and surface water characteristics (even under vegetation canopies), thereby providing information unobtainable from optical sensors. Space-based L-band SAR thus constitutes an excellent tool for mapping boreal wetlands. One wetlands map is based on HH-polarized L-band SAR imagery from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1), collected for both summer and winter in the late 1990s. A second map is based on dual-polarized (HH and HV) imagery from the Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) sensor, collected in the summer of 2007. Prior to classification, a sequence of preprocessing steps are executed, including filtering, mosaicking, resampling, reprojection, co-registration, and the formation of supplementary data layers such as image texture, topographic slope, and proximity to water. This preprocessing is implemented by a semi-automated software suite specifically designed to handle the large volumes of data involved in the project. Training/testing data needed in the classification process are formed by merging national wetland inventory and land cover databases. Finally, a 'Random Forests' decision tree classifier takes in the processed SAR and other data layers, along with the training/testing data, and uses them to produce a thematic wetlands map. The accuracy of the resulting classification product is quantified by calculating producer and user error statistics for all validation pixels within the mapped region. Thematic change maps are generated from the SAR-derived maps, thereby allowing decadal changes in wetland extent and type to be identified. These change maps provide information on wetland dynamics and responses to anthropogenic and climatic influences over a large spatial area. This work was done in part within the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative, with portions carried out at the University of Southern California and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility.

  6. A Role for Fragment-Based Drug Design in Developing Novel Lead Compounds for Central Nervous System Targets

    PubMed Central

    Wasko, Michael J.; Pellegrene, Kendy A.; Madura, Jeffry D.; Surratt, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are invested in the research and development of a single drug. Lead compound development is an area ripe for new design strategies. Therapeutic lead candidates have been traditionally found using high-throughput in vitro pharmacological screening, a costly method for assaying thousands of compounds. This approach has recently been augmented by virtual screening (VS), which employs computer models of the target protein to narrow the search for possible leads. A variant of VS is fragment-based drug design (FBDD), an emerging in silico lead discovery method that introduces low-molecular weight fragments, rather than intact compounds, into the binding pocket of the receptor model. These fragments serve as starting points for “growing” the lead candidate. Current efforts in virtual FBDD within central nervous system (CNS) targets are reviewed, as is a recent rule-based optimization strategy in which new molecules are generated within a 3D receptor-binding pocket using the fragment as a scaffold. This process not only places special emphasis on creating synthesizable molecules but also exposes computational questions worth addressing. Fragment-based methods provide a viable, relatively low-cost alternative for therapeutic lead discovery and optimization that can be applied to CNS targets to augment current design strategies. PMID:26441817

  7. Using trait-based approaches to study phytoplankton seasonal succession in a subtropical reservoir in arid central western Argentina.

    PubMed

    Beamud, S G; León, J G; Kruk, C; Pedrozo, F; Diaz, M

    2015-05-01

    The application of trait-based approaches has become a widely applied tool to analyse community assembly processes and dynamics in phytoplankton communities. Its advantages include summarizing information of many species without losing essentials of the main driving processes. Here, we used trait-based approaches to study phytoplankton temporal succession in a subtropical reservoir. We applied a combined approach including morphological traits (i.e. volume, surface) and functional clustering of species (morphology-based functional groups (MBFG) and Reynolds' groups) and related the clustering of species with the environment. We found that this reservoir is characterized by a low richness and a bimodal distribution of phytoplankton biomass. Taxonomic and functional classifications were coincident, and the dominant species and groups biomasses were explained by the same group of variables. For instance, group X?, MBFG V and Carteria sp. biomasses were explained by: pH, Secchi disk depth, N-NH?; while group B, MBFG VI and Cyclotella ocellata biomasses were explained by stability of the water column, incident solar radiation, Secchi disk depth and N-NH4. From our results, we state that functional and taxonomic classifications are complementary rather than opposed approaches, and their specific uses depend exclusively on the aim of the study and the characteristics of the environment under evaluation. Our work is the first description of phytoplankton dynamics in a reservoir in the arid central western Argentina (Cuyo region). PMID:25893768

  8. Comparative gene expression supports the origin of the incisor and molar process from a single endite in the mandible of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biting edge of the primitive arthropod mandible consists of a biting incisor process and a crushing molar process. These structures are thought to be derived from a structure known as an endite but the precise details of this are not understood. Various hypotheses concerning the number of endites present in the arthropod mandible have been proposed. In the developing embryo, the mandible has an inner and outer lobe that are likely to develop into the incisor and molar processes of the larval mandible; these two lobes are commonly held to be derived from separate endites and to be serially homologous to the galea and lacinia endites of the maxillary appendage respectively (Machida). Results We undertook a study of the development of the embryonic mandible of the beetle Tribolium castaneum using the expression of developmental genes as markers of the developing endites in the mandible and maxilla. The Tribolium ortholog of paired (Tc-prd) has expression domains in the developing maxillary and labial endites as well as the inner and outer lobes of the mandible. Following the expression of Tc-prd in the developing mandible through to late stage embryos shows that the molar and incisor process develop from the inner and outer lobes respectively. In addition to Tc-prd, we compared the expression of genes in the endites of the maxilla to the mandible to draw conclusions about the number of endites in the mandible. Homologs of dachshund are typically expressed in the endites of mandibulate gnathal appendages. Comparison of the expression of Tc-prd, Tribolium dachshund (Tc-dac) and Tribolium wingless (Tc-wg) between the endites of the maxilla and the mandible suggest that, while there are two endites in the maxilla only a single endite is present in the mandible. Conclusions Comparative gene expression suggests that the Tribolium mandible has a single endite from which both mandible lobes are derived. Our results do not support Machida’s hypothesis homologising the incisor and molar processes of the mandible to the galea and lacinia endites of the maxilla. We propose, instead, that both incisor and molar processes are derived from a single endite serially homologous to the lacinia of the maxilla. PMID:23280103

  9. Wetland Maps of Central Canada based on L-band SAR Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, J.; Clewley, D.; Moghaddam, M.; McDonald, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Northern wetlands have the potential to become major sources of greenhouse gases. Detailed and accurate maps of the locations, types, and extents of these wetlands are therefore essential to the development of accurate carbon budgets. However, due to their vast extent and inaccessibility, most northern wetlands remain unmapped. We have been constructing high-resolution (100 m) thematic maps of boreal wetlands, with current focus on Canadian wetlands. The maps are developed using spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which efficiently collects high-resolution imagery over extensive regions and, unlike optical sensors, is unimpaired by clouds or lack of sunlight. Spaceborne L-band (~1.3 GHz) SAR, in particular, records scene characteristics imperceptible to optical sensors such as vegetation structure and moisture content, soil moisture and roughness, and canopy-obscured surface waters. These attributes make it the best single tool for mapping boreal wetlands. Two L-band SAR-based wetland maps are being assembled: one using HH-polarized imagery from the JERS-1 satellite collected in the winter and summer of 1997-1998, and a second using dual-polarized (HH and HV) imagery from the PALSAR sensor of the ALOS satellite collected in the summer of 2008. Ancillary data layers such as image texture, topographic slope, and proximity to water are also generated, and a training/testing data layer is formed by merging polygons from the Canadian Wetland Inventory (CWI) with other land cover databases. A Random Forests decision tree classifier takes as input the SAR, ancillary, and training/testing data layers and uses them to produce thematic wetland maps. The accuracy of each map is quantified via producer and user error statistics. Finally, the SAR-based wetland maps are compared to form a 1998-2008 wetlands change map. Recent advances include a powerful new software suite developed to handle huge volumes of data and much-improved JERS-1 registration. Challenges, including non-GIS-ready CWI data and nonstructural CWI class definitions, are being addressed. This work was carried out in part within the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative at the University of Southern California and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under contract to NASA. JERS-1 mosaics were generated by JPL. PALSAR mosaics were provided by JAXA/EORC.

  10. Energy-based Location and Wavefield Polarization Analysis of Tectonic Tremors in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Husker, A. L.; Legrand, D.; Kostoglodov, V.

    2013-05-01

    We have designed a location technique based on non-volcanic tremor (NVT) energy measurements and their spatial derivatives in the three ground motion components. By means of a source-scanning grid search and a large database of theoretical Green's functions (i.e. more than 45,000 functions from rake-variable horizontal point dislocations) accounting for both intrinsic attenuation and layered media, the algorithm looks for the hypocentral locations that minimize an error function between observed and synthetic spatial-energy distributions. However, since the energy has little information about the footprint of the source-radiation-pattern on the wavefield polarization we have introduced, into the location algorithm, a particle-motion polarization analysis. The analysis is based on the eigendecomposition of the covariance matrix determined from the three ground motion components, and provides the algorithm with much better control of both NVT location and source mechanism (i.e. dislocation rake angle). Preliminary locations of the NVT catalogue by Husker et al. (2010) for the Guerrero province confirmed the coastward spreading of the NVT activity during the 2006 Slow Slip Event, recently reported. Although the horizontal NVT-energy distribution changes along the one-dimensional MASE array from downdip to updip locations, our results show that this variation may be explained, for all NVT's, with approximately the same rake angle, which differs from the plate convergence direction by 15 to 20 degrees clockwise. Moreover, although a few NVT foci are located within the deep continental crust (i.e. between 30 and 40 km depth), most of the NVT activity is embedded within the subducted slab, below the 40 km depth Moho. Most of the intraslab activity lies between 200 and 240 km from the trench (region called the 'Sweet Spot' by Husker et al., 2012) with 40 to 50 km depth. By superimposing the NVT hypocentral cross-section locations over the state of pore pressure (Pp) computationally modeled within the slab due to the strain field induced by previous Slow Slip Events in the region (Cruz-Atienza et al., 2011), a surprisingly good spatial correlation appears between a low pore-pressure slab segment toward which fluids diffuse and the 'Sweet Spot', where most of the NVT bursts are systematically located.

  11. Treatment of a molasses based distillery effluent in a constructed wetland in central India.

    PubMed

    Billore, S K; Singh, N; Ram, H K; Sharma, J K; Singh, V P; Nelson, R M; Dass, P

    2001-01-01

    A field-scale 4-celled, horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (CW) was installed to evaluate removal efficiencies of wastewater constituents in an industrial distillery effluent. Total and dissolved solids, NH4-N, TKN, P and COD were measured. This CW design provides four serial cells with synthetic liners and a river gravel base. The first two unplanted cells provide preliminary treatment. Specific gravel depths and ensuing biofilm growth provides anaerobic treatment in Cell 1 and anaerobic treatment in Cell 2. Cell 3 was planted with Typha latifolia with an inserted layer of brick rubble (for phosphorus removal). Locally grown reed, Phragmites karka was planted in Cell 4. COD was reduced from 8420 mg/l 3000 from Cell 1 to the outlet of Cell 4. Likewise other parameters: total and dissolved solids, ammonium and total nitrogen, and total P, indicated declining trends at the 4-celled CW effluent. This study reveals how high strength distillery wastewater strongly impacts morphology, aeration anatomy in the chiseled plant tissues, reed growth; and composition of the biofilm in the specialized substratum. The reliability of a CW for organic and nutrients reduction, in association with a poorly performing conventional system is discussed. There is an immense potential for appropriately designed constructed wetlands to improve high strength wastewaters in India. PMID:11804132

  12. Structural interpretation and physical property estimates based on COAST 2012 seismic reflection profiles offshore central Washington, Cascadia subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. I.; Tobin, H. J.; Everson, E. D.; Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W. S.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Cascadia subduction zone has a history of large magnitude earthquakes, but a near-total lack of plate interface seismicity, making the updip limit of the seismogenic zone difficult to locate. In addition, the central Cascadia accretionary prism is characterized by an extremely low wedge taper angle, landward vergent initial thrusting, and a flat midslope terrace between the inner and outer wedges, unlike most other accretionary prisms (e.g. the Nankai Trough, Japan). The Cascadia Open Access Seismic Transect (COAST) lines were shot by R/V Marcus Langseth in July of 2012 off central Washington to image this subduction zone. Two trench-parallel and nine trench-perpendicular lines were collected. In this study, we present detailed seismic interpretation of both time- and depth-migrated stacked profiles, focused on elucidating the deposition and deformation of both pre- and syn-tectonic sediment in the trench and slope. Distribution and timing of sediments and their deformation is used to unravel the evolution of the wedge through time. Initially, interpretation of the time-sections is carried out to support the building of tomographic velocity models to aid in the pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) of selected lines. In turn, we use PSDM velocity models to estimate porosity and pore pressure conditions at the base of the wedge and across the basal plate interface décollement where possible, using established velocity-porosity transforms. Interpretation in this way incorporates both accurate structural relationships and robust porosity models to document wedge development and present-day stress state, in particular regions of potential overpressure. Results shed light on the origin and evolution of the mid-slope terrace and the low taper angle for the forearc wedge. This work may shed light ultimately on the position of the potential updip limit of the seismogenic zone beneath the wedge.

  13. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Song, Yin-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Qi; He, Jun-Wen; Qiao, Kun; Sun, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), radius of corneal curvature (K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white (WTW) distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens (IOL)-Master]. RESULTS Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0±8.7y were analyzed at last. The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius (MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77±0.87, 22.76±1.06, 22.89±1.41, 22.92±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10±0.32, 2.98±0.34, 2.86±0.36, 2.77±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58±0.25, 7.54±0.26, 7.55±0.26, 7.49±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79±0.38, 11.75±0.40, 11.72±0.41, 11.67±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD, MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight. CONCLUSION Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care. PMID:26309884

  14. A 2000 year varve-based climate record from the central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, BW; Abbott, MB; Finney, BP; Kutchko, B

    2009-01-01

    Varved minerogenic sediments from glacial-fed Blue Lake, northern Alaska, are used to investigate late Holocene climate variability. Varve-thickness measurements track summer temperature recorded at Atigun Pass, located 41 km east at a similar elevation (r (2) = 0.31, P = 0.08). Results indicate that climate in the Brooks Range from 10 to 730 AD (varve year) was warm with precipitation inferred to be higher than during the twentieth century. The varvetemperature relationship for this period was likely compromised and not used in our temperature reconstruction because the glacier was greatly reduced, or absent, exposing sub-glacial sediments to erosion from enhanced precipitation. Varve-inferred summer temperatures and precipitation decreased after 730 AD, averaging 0.4A degrees C above the last millennial average (LMA = 4.2A degrees C) from 730 to 850 AD, and 0.1A degrees C above the LMA from 850 to 980 AD. Cooling culminated between 980 and 1030 AD with temperatures 0.7A degrees C below the LMA. Varve-inferred summer temperatures increased between 1030 and 1620 AD to the LMA, though the period between 1260 and 1350 AD was 0.2A degrees C below the LMA. Although there is no equivalent to the European Medieval Warm Period in the Blue Lake record, two warm intervals occurred from 1350 to 1450 AD and 1500 to 1620 AD (0.4 and 0.3A degrees C above the LMA, respectively). During the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1620 to 1880 AD), inferred summer temperature averaged 0.2A degrees C below the LMA. After 1880 AD, inferred summer temperature increased to 0.8A degrees C above the LMA, glaciers retreated, but aridity persisted based on a number of regional paleoclimate records. Despite warming and glacial retreat, varve thicknesses have not achieved pre-730 AD levels. This reflects limited sediment availability and transport due to a less extensive retreat compared to the first millennium, and continued relative aridity. Overall, the Blue Lake record is similar to varve records from the eastern Canadian Arctic that document a cool LIA and twentieth century warming. However, the occurrence and timing of events, such as the LIA and Medieval Warm Period, varies considerably among records, suggesting heterogeneous climatic patterns across the North American Arctic.

  15. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System infections in adults in Kathmandu, Nepal: A prospective hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Abhishek; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Rishav; van Tan, Le; Thi Thuy Chinh, Bkrong Nguyen; Krishna K. C., Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Shakya, Mila; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Basnyat, Buddha

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a prospective hospital based study from February 2009-April 2011 to identify the possible pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital (Patan Hospital) in Kathmandu, Nepal. The pathogens of CNS infections were confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using molecular diagnostics, culture (bacteria) and serology. 87 patients were recruited for the study and the etiological diagnosis was established in 38% (n = 33). The bacterial pathogens identified were Neisseria meningitidis (n = 6); Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 5) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) in 13/87(14%). Enteroviruses were found in 12/87 (13%); Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) in 2/87(2%). IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was detected in the CSF of 11/73 (15%) tested samples. This is the first prospective molecular and serology based CSF analysis in adults with CNS infections in Kathmandu, Nepal. JEV and enteroviruses were the most commonly detected pathogens in this setting. PMID:23924886

  16. A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J.; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E. J.; Bednarski, April E.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M.; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C.; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L.; Reed, Laura D.; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A.; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated “replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses”—a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates. PMID:25452493

  17. Impurity of Stem Cell Graft by Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts – Implications for Cell-Based Therapy of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Molcanyi, Marek; Mehrjardi, Narges Zare; Schäfer, Ute; Haj-Yasein, Nadia Nabil; Brockmann, Michael; Penner, Marina; Riess, Peter; Reinshagen, Clemens; Rieger, Bernhard; Hannes, Tobias; Hescheler, Jürgen; Bosche, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells have been demonstrated to possess a therapeutic potential in experimental models of various central nervous system disorders, including stroke. The types of implanted cells appear to play a crucial role. Previously, groups of the stem cell network NRW implemented a feeder-based cell line within the scope of their projects, examining the implantation of stem cells after ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Retrospective evaluation indicated the presence of spindle-shaped cells in several grafts implanted in injured animals, which indicated potential contamination by co-cultured feeder cells (murine embryonic fibroblasts – MEFs). Because feeder-based cell lines have been previously exposed to a justified criticism with regard to contamination by animal glycans, we aimed to evaluate the effects of stem cell/MEF co-transplantation. MEFs accounted for 5.3?±?2.8% of all cells in the primary FACS-evaluated co-culture. Depending on the culture conditions and subsequent purification procedure, the MEF-fraction ranged from 0.9 to 9.9% of the cell suspensions in vitro. MEF survival and related formation of extracellular substances in vivo were observed after implantation into the uninjured rat brain. Impurity of the stem cell graft by MEFs interferes with translational strategies, which represents a threat to the potential recipient and may affect the graft microenvironment. The implications of these findings are critically discussed. PMID:25249934

  18. A central support system can facilitate implementation and sustainability of a Classroom-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics.

    PubMed

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E J; Bednarski, April E; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J; DiAngelo, Justin R; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P; Kopp, Olga R; Kuleck, Gary A; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L; Reed, Laura D; Regisford, E Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A; Rosenwald, Anne G; Rubin, Michael R; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T; Spana, Eric P; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"-a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates. PMID:25452493

  19. A Simple Runoff Model Based on Topographic Wetness Indices and Soil Moisture for Central New York Agricultural Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, K.; Georgakakos, C.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution continues to be a leading cause of surface water degradation, especially in agricultural areas. In humid regions where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates, such as the Northeastern US, topographic wetness indices (TWI) are good approximations of relative soil moisture patterns. Mapping areas of the landscape likely to generate saturation-excess runoff and carry NPS pollution to surface waters could allow for more efficient, targeted best management practices in agricultural fields. Given the relationship between saturation excess runoff and soil water storage, we used volumetric water content (VWC) measured in five agricultural fields in central New York over two years (2012-2014) to develop runoff probability maps based on a soil topographic index (STI). The relationship between VWC and STI was strongest during the fall season after leaf fall at all sites except one. We calculated the probability of runoff occurring based on soil moisture and precipitation distributions during the sampling period. The threshold for runoff occurs when the depth of soil water and rainfall reach saturation of the soil, and appears to be at the average porosity of the soil at all sites. Counter to our initial hypothesis of a higher probability of saturation excess runoff during the spring when conditions are wetter, some sites showed higher frequencies of runoff during the fall season.

  20. Migrating Ignimbrite Flares in the Central Andes, Implications for Crustal Evolution Based on Chemical, Isotopic, Geochronological, and GIS-Based Volumetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worner, G.; Brandmeier, M.; Freymuth, H.; Heistek, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Temporal and compositional patterns of Neogene ignimbrites in the Central Andes were analysed using GIS and geostatistical modelling based on 203 digitized ignimbrite sheets for which geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Pb-isotopic data on pumices as well as Sr-O isotopes on minerals from selected samples were compiled and compared to compositional and isotopic data from andesite lavas. Composition, timing, volumes and sources of erupted ignimbrite deposits are thus constrained and magma volumes through space and time are calculated. The total erupted ignimbrite magma volume of 31,000 km3 (minimum value) in the past 30 Ma indicate an average magmatic addition of 20-30 km3*Ma/km, similar to the basaltic "base"-flux for arc magmatism. Ignimbrite flare-ups are, however, rather punctuated, short-lived events well separated in space and time. There is a clear N-S "younging" of ignimbrite pulses from N to S at 19-24 Ma, 13-14 Ma, 6-10 Ma and 3-6 Ma. Ignimbrite eruptions occurred in the wake of subduction of the Juan-Fernandez ridge on the Nazca Plate passing below the Central Andes from N to S. Low angle subduction caused compression and fluid release is followed by massive inflow and melting of asthenospheric mantle when the slab steepened again after the passing of the ridge. This in turn caused massive melting within the crust aided by advective heat transport. Differences in chemical and isotopic composition of the large-volume ignimbrites are related to changes in crustal thickness, and different "preconditioning" during the Andean orogeny at a given space in time. Isotope data and whole rock compositional data suggest a higher degree of crustal assimilation for the younger Altiplano ignimbrites in the S (c. 50%) compared to the older (22-19 Ma) ignimbrites in the N were the crustal component is significantly less (20%). REE compositions reflect changes in crustal thickness with a "transition" at c. 13-9 Ma that can be related to accelerated crustal shortening and lower crustal heating at that time. There is no "single" ignimbrite flare up, we suggest a more dynamic scenario, with "flares" moving from N to S across the Central Andes during the past 25 Ma. Our database yield volumes of mantle and crustal magmas produced through time and space and should aid to constrain numerical models of Andean geodynamic processes.

  1. Base surge deposits, eruption history, and depositional processes of a wet phreatomagmatic volcano in Central Anatolia (Cora Maar)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gençalio?lu-Ku?cu, Gonca; Atilla, Cüneyt; Cas, Ray A. F.; Ku?cu, ?lkay

    2007-01-01

    Cora Maar is a Quaternary volcano located to the 20 km northwest of Mount Erciyes, the largest of the 19 polygenetic volcanic complexes of the Cappadocian Volcanic Province in central Anatolia. Cora Maar is a typical example of a maar-diatreme volcano with a nearly circular crater with a mean diameter of c.1.2 km, and a well-bedded base surge-dominated maar rim tephra sequence up to 40 m in thickness. Having a diameter/depth ratio ( D/ d) of 12, Cora is a relatively "mature" maar compared to recent maar craters in the world. Cora crater is excavated within the andesitic lava flows of Quaternary age. The tephra sequence is not indurated, and consists of juvenile clasts up to 70 cm, non-juvenile clasts up to 130 cm, accretionary lapilli up to 1.2 cm in diameter, and ash to lapilli-sized tephra. Base surge layers display well-developed antidune structures indicating the direction of the transport. Both progressive and regressive dune structures are present within the tephra sequence. Wavelength values increase with increasing wave height, and with large wavelength and height values. Cora tephra display similarities to Taal and Laacher See base surge deposits. Impact sags and small channel structures are also common. Lateral and vertical facies changes are observed for the dune bedded and planar bedsets. According to granulometric analyses, Cora Maar tephra samples display a bimodal distribution with a wide range of Md ? values, characteristic for the surge deposits. Very poorly sorted, bimodal ash deposits generally vary from coarse tail to fine tail grading depending on the grain size distribution while very poorly sorted lapilli and block-rich deposits display a positive skewness due to fine tail grading.

  2. A parameter-free community detection method based on centrality and dispersion of nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yafang; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    K-means is a simple and efficient clustering algorithm to detect communities in networks. However, it may suffer from a bad choice of initial seeds (also called centers) that seriously affect the clustering accuracy and the convergence rate. Additionally, in K-means, the number of communities should be specified in advance. Till now, it is still an open problem on how to select initial seeds and how to determine the number of communities. In this study, a new parameter-free community detection method (named K-rank-D) was proposed. First, based on the fact that good initial seeds usually have high importance and are dispersedly located in a network, we proposed a modified PageRank centrality to evaluate the importance of a node, and drew a decision graph to depict the importance and the dispersion of nodes. Then, the initial seeds and the number of communities were selected from the decision graph actively and intuitively as the 'start' parameter of K-means. Experimental results on synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over competing methods for community detection.

  3. GIS-based probability assessment of natural hazards in forested landscapes of Central and South-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lorz, C; Fürst, C; Galic, Z; Matijasic, D; Podrazky, V; Potocic, N; Simoncic, P; Strauch, M; Vacik, H; Makeschin, F

    2010-12-01

    We assessed the probability of three major natural hazards--windthrow, drought, and forest fire--for Central and South-Eastern European forests which are major threats for the provision of forest goods and ecosystem services. In addition, we analyzed spatial distribution and implications for a future oriented management of forested landscapes. For estimating the probability of windthrow, we used rooting depth and average wind speed. Probabilities of drought and fire were calculated from climatic and total water balance during growing season. As an approximation to climate change scenarios, we used a simplified approach with a general increase of pET by 20%. Monitoring data from the pan-European forests crown condition program and observed burnt areas and hot spots from the European Forest Fire Information System were used to test the plausibility of probability maps. Regions with high probabilities of natural hazard are identified and management strategies to minimize probability of natural hazards are discussed. We suggest future research should focus on (i) estimating probabilities using process based models (including sensitivity analysis), (ii) defining probability in terms of economic loss, (iii) including biotic hazards, (iv) using more detailed data sets on natural hazards, forest inventories and climate change scenarios, and (v) developing a framework of adaptive risk management. PMID:20535611

  4. Anterolateral corridor approach to the infratemporal fossa and central skull base in maxillectomy: rationale and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Jeremy D; Crowther, John; Taylor, William M; Wong, Ling Siew; Paterson, Tom; Devine, John; Wales, Craig; MacIver, Colin

    2015-11-01

    We describe the technical aspects and report our clinical experience of a surgical approach to the infratemporal fossa that aims to reduce local recurrence after operations for cancer of the posterior maxilla. We tested the technique by operating on 3 cadavers and then used the approach in 16 patients who had posterolateral maxillectomy for disease that arose on the maxillary alveolus or junction of the hard and soft palate (maxillary group), and in 19 who had resection of the masticatory compartment and central skull base for advanced sinonasal cancer (sinonasal group). Early proximal ligation of the maxillary artery was achieved in all but one of the 35 patients. Access to the infratemporal fossa enabled division of the pterygoid muscles and pterygoid processes under direct vision in all cases. No patient in the maxillary group had local recurrence at median follow up of 36 months. Four patients (21%) in the sinonasal group had local recurrence at median follow up of 27 months. Secondary haemorrhage from the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery resulted in the only perioperative death. The anterolateral corridor approach enables controlled resection of tumours that extend into the masticatory compartment. PMID:26212419

  5. Feasibility study of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.

    PubMed

    Benali, Sonia; Benamara, Salem; Bigan, Muriel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three Algerian raw materials, namely date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (OAP) in lemon juice (LJ) was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. The cooking temperature (X1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time (X 2), taken for heating the initial fruit mixture in the oil bath (from ambient temperature without fixing however, the final temperature), were found to be the most influent factors, compared to °Brix of date syrup (X3) and temperature (X4) of the cooling stage following the cooking process. Results have also shown that the second-degree polynomial models correctly fit experimental data (R(2), adjusted R(2) (R(2) adj) and cross-validation (Q(2))???1). Considering textural properties of commercial jellies as a reference, it was found that the cooking temperature of 155 °C for 10 min gave a jelly with suitable textural properties. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra revealed that the structure of such jelly was partially close to that of pectin molecules. Finally, the color analysis in the CIELab system of the fruit mixture over the cooking process showed that both lightness (L(*)) and a*/b* ratio were not affected by the experienced temperature range (80-155 °C). PMID:26243917

  6. Enhancing flavonoid production by systematically tuning the central metabolic pathways based on a CRISPR interference system in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junjun; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Zhou, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    The limited supply of intracellular malonyl-CoA in Escherichia coli impedes the biological synthesis of polyketides, flavonoids and biofuels. Here, a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference system was constructed for fine-tuning central metabolic pathways to efficiently channel carbon flux toward malonyl-CoA. Using synthetic sgRNA to silence candidate genes, genes that could increase the intracellular malonyl-CoA level by over 223% were used as target genes. The efficiencies of repression of these genes were tuned to achieve appropriate levels so that the intracellular malonyl-CoA level was enhanced without significantly altering final biomass accumulation (the final OD600 decreased by less than 10%). Based on the results, multiple gene repressing was successful in approaching the limit of the amount of malonyl-CoA needed to produce the plant-specific secondary metabolite (2S)-naringenin. By coupling the genetic modifications to cell growth, the combined effects of these genetic perturbations increased the final (2S)-naringenin titer to 421.6?mg/L, which was 7.4-fold higher than the control strain. The strategy described here could be used to characterize genes that are essential for cell growth and to develop E. coli as a well-organized cell factory for producing other important products that require malonyl-CoA as a precursor. PMID:26323217

  7. TRMM Based Studies of MJO Convection over the Central Indian Ocean, Maritime Continent, and Western Pacific Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, S. A.; Xu, W.

    2014-12-01

    The structure and organization of precipitating cloud populations related to the initiation and evolution of several MJO events have been fully investigated using data collected from the 2011-2012 DYNAMO field campaign over the Central Indian Ocean (CIO). Since DYNMO monitored the MJO behavior for only a few months, it is important to know how the DYNAMO-recorded characteristics compare to the long-term climatology, such as viewed by TRMM satellite measurements. TRMM observations are also capable of providing the regional variability of the convection as the MJO envelope propagates eastward. The objective of this study is to quantify MJO convective characteristics using 15 years of TRMM satellite measurements over three specific regions affected by the MJO including the CIO, Maritime Continent (MC), and Western Pacific (WP). TRMM data are used to quantify not only the precipitating cloud population categorized by radar echo tops and feature size (as have been previously documented), but also their convective intensity, lightning activity, precipitation structures, bulk microphysical properties, and rainfall contributions. Specifically, the radar, ice scattering (microwave), and lightning observations from TRMM are analyzed for the convective spectrum as a function of MJO stage and geographical location. Furthermore, radar characteristics of MJO events based on TRMM PR are quantitatively compared to that of the shipborne radars deployed during TOGA COARE over the WP and DYNAMO over the CIO.

  8. Project EARTH-15-RW1: Active faulting and earthquakes in Central Asia from high-resolution space-based and field observations

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-15-RW1: Active faulting and earthquakes in Central Asia from high-resolution space through to detailed analyses of individual earthquakes both ancient and modern. The active faulting-based and field observations Supervisor: Richard Walker The aim of this studentship is to investigate the active

  9. Ankylosed maxillary incisor with severe root resorption treated with a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy, vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis, and mini-implant anchorage.

    PubMed

    Sen???k, Neslihan Ebru; Koçer, Gülperi; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

    2014-09-01

    Dentoalveolar ankylosis interferes with the vertical growth of the alveolar process, which can lead to an open bite, an unesthetic smile, and occlusal disharmony. This case report presents a new treatment protocol for an ankylosed tooth with severe root resorption using a combined surgical orthodontic management protocol involving a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy and vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis with intraoral elastics and mini-implant anchorage. After distraction and active orthodontic treatment, the patient's anterior open bite was corrected. A Class I dental relationship was achieved, overjet was decreased, and a normal incisor relationship was obtained. PMID:25172260

  10. The Lilongwe Central Hospital Patient Management Information System: A Success in Computer-Based Order Entry Where One Might Least Expect It

    PubMed Central

    GP, Douglas; RA, Deula; SE, Connor

    2003-01-01

    Computer-based order entry is a powerful tool for enhancing patient care. A pilot project in the pediatric department of the Lilongwe Central Hospital (LCH) in Malawi, Africa has demonstrated that computer-based order entry (COE): 1) can be successfully deployed and adopted in resource-poor settings, 2) can be built, deployed and sustained at relatively low cost and with local resources, and 3) has a greater potential to improve patient care in developing than in developed countries. PMID:14728338

  11. Mapping hydrological environments in central Amazonia: ground validation and surface model based on SRTM DEM data corrected for deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulatlet, G. M.; Rennó, C. D.; Costa, F. R. C.; Emilio, T.; Schietti, J.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important freely available digital elevation models (DEMs) for Amazonia is the one obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). However, since SRTM tends to represent the vegetation surface instead of the ground surface, the broad use of SRTM DEM as a framework for terrain description in Amazonia is hampered by the presence of deforested areas. We present here two data sets: (1) a deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM for the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, in central Amazonia, which passed through a careful identification of different environments and has deforestation features corrected by a new method of increasing pixel values of the DEM (Rennó, 2009); and (2) a set of 18 hydrological-topographic descriptors based on the corrected SRTM DEM. Deforestation features are related with the opening of an 800 km road in the central part of the interfluve and occupancy of its vicinity. We used topographic profiles from the pristine forest to the deforested feature to evaluate the recovery of the original canopy coverage by minimizing canopy height variation (corrections ranged from 1 to 38 m). The hydrological-topographic description was obtained by the Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm, which normalizes the terrain elevation (above sea level) by the elevation of the nearest hydrologically connected drainage. The validation of the HAND data set was done by in situ hydrological description of 110 km of walking trails also available in this data set. The new SRTM DEM expands the applicability of SRTM data for landscape modelling; the data sets of hydrological features based on topographic modelling are undoubtedly appropriate for ecological modelling and an important contribution to environmental mapping of Amazonia. The deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.318.3/ppbio; the polygons selected for deforestation correction are available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.317.3/ppbio; the set of hydrological-topographic descriptors is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.544.2/ppbio; the environmental description of access trails is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.541.2/ppbio; and the limits of deforestation corrections and drainage validation are available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/liliandias.38.1/ppbio.

  12. Structure-Based Functional Characterization of Repressor of Toxin (Rot), a Central Regulator of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Killikelly, April; Benson, Meredith A.; Ohneck, Elizabeth A.; Sampson, Jared M.; Jakoncic, Jean; Spurrier, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R91, at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y66, predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. This work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus. PMID:25331435

  13. Infection risk factors associated with seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii in a population-based study in the Central Region, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abu, E K; Boampong, J N; Ayi, I; Ghartey-Kwansah, G; Afoakwah, R; Nsiah, P; Blay, E

    2015-07-01

    About 20-90% of the world's population has had contact with Toxoplasma gondii parasites. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in the Central Region, Ghana. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three selected communities. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA. A serological criterion for seropositivity was a positive test result for any of the two anti-Toxoplasma IgG or IgM antibodies or a combination of both. In all, 390 participants of mean age 47.0 years consisting of 118 (30.%) males and 272 (69.7%) females were tested. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 85% (333/390) where fishermen, farmers and fishmongers, respectively, had the highest seropositivity. IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 329 (84%) and 25 (6%), respectively, while both IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 21 (5%) of the participants. Respectively, 1% (4/390) and 79% (308/390) of participants tested positive for IgM-only and IgG-only antibodies. There was a significant relationship between Toxoplasma seropositivity and contact with soil, presence of a cat in the surrounding area, age, sources of drinking water, level of formal education, and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that the seashore may serve as a good ground for sporulation and survival of Toxoplasma oocysts. PMID:25373611

  14. Modelling soil moisture spatial-temporal variability with 3-D physically-based hdrological model in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Brocca, Luca; Camici, Stefania; Capparelli, Giovanna; Rigon, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Soil water content (SWC) evolution in space and in time influences many hydrological processes such as infiltration and run-off production, surface energy exchanges, floods and drought generation and propagation, triggering of shallow landslide. Modeling SWC is a complex task influenced by heterogeneity in precipitation, soil parameters, topography, and vegetation. In order to consider these different factors we used a three-dimensional process based hydrological model that solves the 3-D Richard equations, coupled with atmospheric energy exchanges, considering the radiative and turbulent fluxes. For the purposes of this study we modeled the surface SWC dynamics (of top 10-15 cm of soil) in a 60 km² watershed located in central Italy (Vallaccia catchment). In the basin were available: i) SWC measured continuously at hourly time step for 3-years (2002-2005), and ii) 35 daily SWC measures carried out within one year (from Nov-2006 to Nov-2007) in seven different fields consisting in a regular grid configuration of five by six nodes (grid-step of 10 m). Two were the objectives of the study. Firstly, the calibration of model parameters (hydraulic conductivity and van Genuchten parameters) in order to simulate long term SWC dynamics in time. The two long-term SWC time-series were split in two and used for model calibration and verification, respectively. Model performances reaches values of Kling-Gupta Efficiency of 0.85 in calibration and 0.78 in verification period, giving confidence of reliability for the estimation of the ungauged points. The second objective was the reproduction of SWC patterns in space in the seven different fields where measurements were collected. For each field, modeled and measured statistical moments (from the first to the fourth: mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis) were presented in the form of scatterplots and influence of the variability of the hydraulic conductivity in space on the overall SWC distribution was investigated by generation of different random-fields correlated in space.

  15. Airborne pollen-climate relationship based on discriminant analysis in Nam Co, Central Tibet and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, X.; Zhu, L.; Ma, Q.; Li, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the airborne pollen data collected using a Burkard pollen trap, discriminant analysis were conducted to evaluate the relationship between two different atmospheric circulation systems, the Asia summer monsoon (ASM) and the Westerlies, in Nam Co basin, central Tibet. The whole year's samples could be classified into two groups using cluster analysis: one group was from May to September, another group was from October to April of next year, corresponding to monsoon period and non-monsoon period, respectively. The classification represents two different atmospheric circulation systems, ASM in monsoon period and the Westerlies in non-monsoon period. Discriminant analysis was performed. First, the whole year samples were divided into two a priori groups, group A is monsoon period (May-Sep.) and group B is non-monsoon period (Oct.-Apr.). Then percentage data of major pollen taxa were used to establish the discriminant functions, and then the samples were classified into predicted groups. The results of discriminant analysis show that 78.6% of the samples were cross-validated grouped correctly. Thus, airborne pollen assemblages can distinguish two different climate systems: monsoon period and non-monsoon period. According to the discriminant score, the group centroids of group A and group B were negative and positive, respectively. Therefore, we created the discriminant score as a new monsoon index (PDI, Pollen Discriminant Index), small PDI values represented enhanced summer monsoon climate. Using above result, we calculated the PDI of Nam Co NCL core, the PDI values can be coincided with Dryness (moisture indicator) and A/Cy ratio (temperature indicator).

  16. Detection of planets in extremely weak central perturbation microlensing events via next-generation ground-based surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Lee, Chung-Uk; Koo, Jae-Rim E-mail: leecu@kasi.re.kr

    2014-04-20

    Even though the recently discovered high-magnification event MOA-2010-BLG-311 had complete coverage over its peak, confident planet detection did not happen due to extremely weak central perturbations (EWCPs, fractional deviations of ? 2%). For confident detection of planets in EWCP events, it is necessary to have both high cadence monitoring and high photometric accuracy better than those of current follow-up observation systems. The next-generation ground-based observation project, Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), satisfies these conditions. We estimate the probability of occurrence of EWCP events with fractional deviations of ?2% in high-magnification events and the efficiency of detecting planets in the EWCP events using the KMTNet. From this study, we find that the EWCP events occur with a frequency of >50% in the case of ? 100 M {sub E} planets with separations of 0.2 AU ? d ? 20 AU. We find that for main-sequence and sub-giant source stars, ? 1 M {sub E} planets in EWCP events with deviations ?2% can be detected with frequency >50% in a certain range that changes with the planet mass. However, it is difficult to detect planets in EWCP events of bright stars like giant stars because it is easy for KMTNet to be saturated around the peak of the events because of its constant exposure time. EWCP events are caused by close, intermediate, and wide planetary systems with low-mass planets and close and wide planetary systems with massive planets. Therefore, we expect that a much greater variety of planetary systems than those already detected, which are mostly intermediate planetary systems, regardless of the planet mass, will be significantly detected in the near future.

  17. Structure-based functional characterization of repressor of toxin (Rot), a central regulator of staphylococcus aureus virulence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Killikelly, April; Jakoncic, Jean; Benson, Meredith A.; Ohneck, Elizabeth A.; Sampson, Jared M.; Spurrier, Brett; Torres, Victoer J.; Kong, Xian -Peng

    2014-10-20

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure ofmore »Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R91, at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y66, predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. As a result, this work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.« less

  18. Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies George Danezis

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies George Danezis University College London g cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete

  19. Mapping hydrological environments in central Amazonia: ground validation and surface model based on SRTM DEM data corrected for deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulatlet, G. M.; Rennó, C. D.; Costa, F. R. C.; Emilio, T.; Schietti, J.

    2014-07-01

    One of the most important freely available digital elevation models (DEMs) for Amazonia is the one obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). However, since SRTM tends to represent the vegetation surface instead of the ground surface, the broad use of SRTM DEM as a framework for terrain description in Amazonia is hampered by the presence of deforested areas. We present here two datasets: (1) a deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM for the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, in central Amazonia, which passed through a careful identification of different environments and has deforestation features corrected by a new method of increasing pixel values of the DEM; and (2) a set of eighteen hydrological-topographic descriptors based on the corrected SRTM DEM. The hydrological-topographic description was generated by the Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm, which normalizes the terrain elevation (a.s.l.) by the elevation of the nearest hydrologically connected drainage. The validation of the HAND dataset was done by in situ hydrological description of 110 km of walking trails also available in this dataset. The new SRTM DEM expands the applicability of SRTM data for landscape modelling; and the datasets of hydrological features based on topographic modelling is undoubtedly appropriate for ecological modelling and an important contribution for environmental mapping of Amazonia. The deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.318.3/ppbio; the polygons selected for deforestation correction are available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.317.3/ppbio; the set of hydrological-topographic descriptors is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.544.2/ppbio; and the environmental description of access trails is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.541.2/ppbio.

  20. Distributed Assessment of Network Centrality

    E-print Network

    Wehmuth, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We propose a method for the Distributed Assessment of Network CEntrality (DANCE) in complex networks. DANCE attributes to each node a volume-based centrality computed using only localized information, thus not requiring knowledge of the full network topology. We show DANCE is simple, yet efficient, in assessing node centrality in a distributed way. Our proposal also provides a way for locating the most central nodes, again using only the localized information at each node. We also show that the node rankings based on DANCE's centrality and the traditional closeness centrality correlate very well. This is quite useful given the vast potential applicability of closeness centrality, which is however limited by its high computational costs. We experimentally evaluate DANCE against a state-of-the-art proposal to distributively assess network centrality. Results attest that DANCE achieves similar effectiveness in assessing network centrality, but with a significant reduction in the associated costs for practical ap...

  1. Neuroarchitecture and neuroanatomy of the Drosophila central complex: A GAL4-based dissection of protocerebral bridge neurons and circuits

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Tanya; Iyer, Nirmala A; Rubin, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Insects exhibit an elaborate repertoire of behaviors in response to environmental stimuli. The central complex plays a key role in combining various modalities of sensory information with an insect's internal state and past experience to select appropriate responses. Progress has been made in understanding the broad spectrum of outputs from the central complex neuropils and circuits involved in numerous behaviors. Many resident neurons have also been identified. However, the specific roles of these intricate structures and the functional connections between them remain largely obscure. Significant gains rely on obtaining a comprehensive catalog of the neurons and associated GAL4 lines that arborize within these brain regions, and on mapping neuronal pathways connecting these structures. To this end, small populations of neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster central complex were stochastically labeled using the multicolor flip-out technique and a catalog was created of the neurons, their morphologies, trajectories, relative arrangements, and corresponding GAL4 lines. This report focuses on one structure of the central complex, the protocerebral bridge, and identifies just 17 morphologically distinct cell types that arborize in this structure. This work also provides new insights into the anatomical structure of the four components of the central complex and its accessory neuropils. Most strikingly, we found that the protocerebral bridge contains 18 glomeruli, not 16, as previously believed. Revised wiring diagrams that take into account this updated architectural design are presented. This updated map of the Drosophila central complex will facilitate a deeper behavioral and physiological dissection of this sophisticated set of structures. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:997–1037, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25380328

  2. Focal Image Plane Detection Based on Central Coordinate Point Spectral Value in Off-Axis Digital Particle Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Peizhen; Deng, Lijun; Lu, Wenhui

    2015-12-01

    A method to detect the focal image plane from a single off-axis digital particle hologram is proposed. This method utilizes the central coordinate point spectral value of the reconstructed particle image as focusing criterion to detect the focal image plane. It is found that the central coordinate point spectral values come into maximum when the reconstruction distance is equal to the actual distance that was used in experiment of hologram acquisition. Numerical simulations are given to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is a potential and better option for studying three dimensional particles by using digital holography.

  3. ecological geological maps: GIS-based evaluation of the Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) in Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. As a consequence, determining status and trends in the pattern of human-dominated landscapes can be useful for understanding the overall conditions of geo-ecological resources. Ecological geological maps are recent tools providing useful informations about a-biotic and biotic features worldwide. These maps represents a new generation of geological maps and depict the lithospheric components conditions on surface, where ecological dynamics (functions and properties) and human activities develop. Thus, these maps are too a fundamental political tool to plan the human activities management in relationship to the territorial/environmental patterns of a date region. Different types of ecological geological maps can be develop regarding the: conditions (situations), zoning, prognosis and recommendations. The ecological geological conditions maps reflects the complex of parameters or individual characteristics of lithosphere, which characterized the opportunity of the influence of lithosphere components on the biota (man, fauna, flora, and ecosystem). The ecological geological zoning maps are foundamental basis for prognosis estimation and nature defenses measures. Estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given on these maps. The ecological geological prognosis maps reflect the spatial-temporary prognoses of ecological geological conditions changing during the natural dynamic of natural surrounding and the main-during the economic mastering of territory and natural technical systems. Finally, the ecological geological recommendation maps are based on the ecological geological and social-economical informations, aiming the regulation of territory by the regulation of economic activities and the defense of bio- and socio-sphere extents. Each of these maps may also be computed or in analytic or in synthetic way. The first, characterized or estimated, prognosticated one or several indexes of geological ecological conditions. In the second type of maps, the whole complex is reflected, which defined the modern or prognosticable ecological geological situation. Regarding the ecological geological zoning maps, the contemporary state of ecological geological conditions may be evaluated by a range of parameters into classes of conditions and, on the basis of these informations, the estimation from the position of comfort and safety of human life and function of ecosystem is given. Otherwise, the concept of geoecological land evaluation has become established in the study of landscape/environmental plannings in recent years. It requires different thematic data-sets, deriving from the natural-, social- and amenity-environmental resources analysis, that may be translate in environmental (vulnerability/quality) indexes. There have been some attempts to develop integrated indices related to various aspects of the environment within the framework of sustainable development (e.g.: United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, World Economic Forum, Advisory Board on Indicators of Sustainable Development of the International Institute for Sustainable Development, Living Planet Index established by the World Wide Fund for Nature, etc.). So, the ecological geological maps represent the basic tool for the geoecological land evaluation policies and may be computed in terms of index-maps. On these basis, a GIS application for assessing the ecological geological zoning is presented for Sicily (Central Mediterranean). The Geo-Ecological Quality Index (GEQUI) map was computed by considering a lot of variables. Ten variables (lithology, climate, landslide distribution, erosion rate, soil type, land cover, habitat, groundwater pollution, roads density and buildings density) generated from available data, were used in the model, in which weighting values to each informative layer were assigned. An overlay analysis was carried out, allowing to classify the region into five classes

  4. A Peripheral Dentinogenic Ghost Cell Tumor With Immunohistochemical Investigations and a Literature Review-Based Clinicopathological Comparison Between Peripheral and Central Variants.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, Primali Rukmal; Mendis, Balapuwaduge Ranjit Rigorbert Nihal; Lombardi, Tommaso

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to present a peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT) and to describe clinicopathological differences between peripheral and central variants of the tumor using a selected literature review. The case report is based on a swelling present on the alveolar ridge of a 74-year-old edentulous denture wearer. The lesion was diagnosed as a peripheral DGCT after excluding the presence of a central lesion. Immunohistochemical investigations revealed similar cytokeratin expression pattern, with CK14 and MNF116 positivity in both the tumor and the surrounding surface epithelium. However, in contrast, CK19 expression was restricted to less than 5% of the tumor cells. A clinicopathological comparison was compiled using 30 cases of peripheral DGCTs (including the present lesion) and 16 cases of central DGCTs published over a period of 40 years. Accordingly, peripheral lesions were more often found in elderly denture wearers, in relation to mandibular gingiva and alveolar mucosa. None of the lesions had recurred after excision. In contrast, majority of the central lesions were common in younger individuals and showed a striking male predilection. It occurred equally on both jaws, while approximately 50% of the lesions gave rise to recurrences. In conclusion, similar cytokeratin expression in both the tumor and surface epithelium can be used to support oral surface epithelial origin, while CK14 positivity confirms the odontogenic derivation of the peripheral DGCT described in the report. In contrast to central DGCT, the peripheral DGCT is a distinct lesion with characteristic clinicopathological profile and nonaggressive behavior. PMID:26162397

  5. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

    PubMed

    Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7?±?0.3)?×?10¹??N?m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900?±?400?yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  6. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shimin

    2013-01-01

    Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7?±?0.3)?×?1017?N?m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900?±?400?yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

  7. Circulation of HIV-1 CRF02_AG among MSM Population in Central Italy: A Molecular Epidemiology-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Massimo; Santoro, Maria M.; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Cella, Eleonora; Scognamiglio, Paola; Lai, Alessia; Latini, Alessandra; Fabeni, Lavinia; Gori, Caterina; Pinnetti, Carmela; Girardi, Enrico; Perno, Carlo F.; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The evolutionary and demographic history of the circular recombinant form CRF02_AG in a selected retrospective group of HIV-1 infected men who have sex with men (MSM) resident in Central Italy was investigated. Methods. A total of 55 HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG pol sequences were analyzed using Bayesian methods and a relaxed molecular clock to reconstruct their dated phylogeny and estimate population dynamics. Results. Dated phylogeny indicated that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG strains currently circulating in Central Italy originated in the early 90's. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a main HIV-1 CRF02_AG clade, introduced in the area of Rome before 2000 and subsequently differentiated in two different subclades with a different date of introduction (2000 versus 2005). All the sequences within clusters were interspersed, indicating that the MSM analyzed form a close and restricted network where the individuals, also moving within different clinical centers, attend the same places to meet and exchange sex. Conclusions. It was suggested that the HIV-1 CRF02_AG epidemic entered central Italy in the early 1990s, with a similar trend observed in western Europe. PMID:24369538

  8. TrajGraph: A Graph-Based Visual Analytics Approach to Studying Urban Network Centralities Using Taxi Trajectory Data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoke; Zhao, Ye; Ma, Chao; Yang, Jing; Ye, Xinyue; Zhang, Chong

    2016-01-01

    We propose TrajGraph, a new visual analytics method, for studying urban mobility patterns by integrating graph modeling and visual analysis with taxi trajectory data. A special graph is created to store and manifest real traffic information recorded by taxi trajectories over city streets. It conveys urban transportation dynamics which can be discovered by applying graph analysis algorithms. To support interactive, multiscale visual analytics, a graph partitioning algorithm is applied to create region-level graphs which have smaller size than the original street-level graph. Graph centralities, including Pagerank and betweenness, are computed to characterize the time-varying importance of different urban regions. The centralities are visualized by three coordinated views including a node-link graph view, a map view and a temporal information view. Users can interactively examine the importance of streets to discover and assess city traffic patterns. We have implemented a fully working prototype of this approach and evaluated it using massive taxi trajectories of Shenzhen, China. TrajGraph's capability in revealing the importance of city streets was evaluated by comparing the calculated centralities with the subjective evaluations from a group of drivers in Shenzhen. Feedback from a domain expert was collected. The effectiveness of the visual interface was evaluated through a formal user study. We also present several examples and a case study to demonstrate the usefulness of TrajGraph in urban transportation analysis. PMID:26529696

  9. Effectiveness of a TEOAE-based screening program. Can a patient-tracking system effectively be organized using modern information technology and central data management?

    PubMed

    Delb, W; Merkel, D; Pilorget, K; Schmitt, J; Plinkert, P K

    2004-04-01

    It has been shown that detecting and treating children with hearing loss at an early age will improve their speech and language development. The implementation of universal hearing screening programs is therefore one of the major goals in pediatric audiology. One problem of present screening programs is high lost to follow-up rates. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of a patient tracking system based on central data management and data transmission via the internet. The screening program was organized as a TEOAE (transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions)-based three-stage procedure and covered a complete German federal state (Saarland). The measurements of the first stage took place in well-baby nurseries (WBNs) as well as neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Measurements of the second stage were performed by pediatricians and ENT physicians on an outpatient basis. The third stage comprised diagnostic ABR (auditory brainstem response) measurements performed by pediatric audiologists. Using a central data management system we were able to identify and follow every child not screened or with negative results. The overall coverage in the first stage was 93% of all newborns. A screening result of the second stage could be obtained for 90% of the children. Four out of 3,830 children screened turned out to have a relevant hearing loss and were fitted with hearing aids. A TEOAE-based newborn hearing screening system can be organized effectively. Central data management as well as interdisciplinary organization of the follow-up are important prerequisites for the success of a hearing screening program. A follow-up system as proposed in this paper can also be implemented in AABR (automated auditory brainstem response)-based programs. PMID:15103471

  10. A model of the Capital Cost of a natural gas-fired fuel cell based Central Utilities Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This model defines the methods used to estimate the cost associated with acquisition and installation of capital equipment of the fuel cell systems defined by the central utility plant model. The capital cost model estimates the cost of acquiring and installing the fuel cell unit, and all auxiliary equipment such as a boiler, air conditioning, hot water storage, and pumps. The model provides a means to adjust initial cost estimates to consider learning associated with the projected level of production and installation of fuel cell systems. The capital cost estimate is an input to the cost of ownership analysis where it is combined with operating cost and revenue model estimates.

  11. In silico Neuropeptidome of Female Macrobrachium rosenbergii Based on Transcriptome and Peptide Mining of Eyestalk, Central Nervous System and Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianfang; Zhao, Min; Elizur, Abigail; Sretarugsa, Prapee; Cummins, Scott F.; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii is the most economically important of the cultured freshwater crustacean species, yet there is currently a deficiency in genomic and transcriptomic information for research requirements. In this study, we present an in silico analysis of neuropeptide genes within the female M. rosenbergii eyestalk, central nervous system, and ovary. We could confidently predict 37 preproneuropeptide transcripts, including those that encode bursicons, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormones, eclosion hormone, pigment-dispersing hormones, diuretic hormones, neuropeptide F, neuroparsins, SIFamide, and sulfakinin. These transcripts are most prominent within the eyestalk and central nervous system. Transcript tissue distribution as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of selected neuropeptide genes of interest mainly in the nervous tissues while others were additionally present in the non-nervous tissues. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of eyestalk peptides confirmed the presence of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone precursor. This data set provides a strong foundation for further studies into the functional roles of neuropeptides in M. rosenbergii, and will be especially helpful for developing methods to improve crustacean aquaculture. PMID:26023789

  12. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

    2013-02-01

    Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  13. Regulation of outer kinetochore Ndc80 complex-based microtubule attachments by the central kinetochore Mis12/MIND complex

    PubMed Central

    Kudalkar, Emily M.; Scarborough, Emily A.; Umbreit, Neil T.; Zelter, Alex; Gestaut, Daniel R.; Riffle, Michael; Johnson, Richard S.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Asbury, Charles L.; Davis, Trisha N.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple protein subcomplexes of the kinetochore cooperate as a cohesive molecular unit that forms load-bearing microtubule attachments that drive mitotic chromosome movements. There is intriguing evidence suggesting that central kinetochore components influence kinetochore–microtubule attachment, but the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we find that the conserved Mis12/MIND (Mtw1, Nsl1, Nnf1, Dsn1) and Ndc80 (Ndc80, Nuf2, Spc24, Spc25) complexes are connected by an extensive network of contacts, each essential for viability in cells, and collectively able to withstand substantial tensile load. Using a single-molecule approach, we demonstrate that an individual MIND complex enhances the microtubule-binding affinity of a single Ndc80 complex by fourfold. MIND itself does not bind microtubules. Instead, MIND binds Ndc80 complex far from the microtubule-binding domain and confers increased microtubule interaction of the complex. In addition, MIND activation is redundant with the effects of a mutation in Ndc80 that might alter its ability to adopt a folded conformation. Together, our results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism for regulating microtubule binding of an outer kinetochore component by a central kinetochore complex. PMID:26430240

  14. Effects of seasonal variability in across- and alongshore transport of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae on model-based pre-recruitment indices off central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Carolina; Colas, Francois; Soto-Mendoza, Samuel; Castro, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae was coupled to a climatological hydrodynamic (Regional Oceanic Modeling System, ROMS) model for central-southern Chile to answer the question as to whether or not across- and alongshore transport off central-southern Chile enhances retention in the spawning areas during the winter and summer reproductive periods, using model-based pre-recruitment indices (simulated transport success to nursery areas). The hydrodynamic model validation showed that ROMS captures the mean Seas Surface Temperature and Eddie Kinetic Energy observed in satellite-based data over the entire region. The IBM was used to simulate the transport of eggs and larvae from spawning zones in central Chile (Constitución, Dichato, Gulf of Arauco and Lebu-Corral) to historical nursery areas (HRZ, region between 35°S and 37°S). Model results corroborated HRZ as the most successful pre-recruitment zone (particles originated in the Dichato and Gulf of Arauco spawning areas), as well as identifying Lebu-Corral as a zone of high retention with a high associated pre-recruitment index (particles originated in the Lebu-Corral spawning zone). The highest pre-recruitment values were mainly found in winter. The Constitución and Dichato spawning zones displayed a typical summer upwelling velocity pattern, while the Gulf of Arauco in summertime showed strong offshore and alongshore velocity components. The Lebu-Corral region in winter presented important near-surface cross-shore transport towards the coast (associated with downwelling events), this might be one of the major mechanisms leading to high retention levels and a high pre-recruitment index for Lebu-Corral spawning zone. The limitations of the modeling approach are discussed and put into perspective for future work.

  15. Glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve for Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata based on outcrops in the North American Midcontinent and North-Central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, D.R. . School of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Based on lithologic and faunal analysis of uppermost Carboniferous through Lower Permian strata (Wabaunsee through lower Chase groups) exposed from southeastern Nebraska through north-central Oklahoma, a preliminary glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve is presented herein. In addition to the sea-level curve presented for the Midcontinent region, one for coeval outcropping strata (middle and upper Cisco Group) of the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is also presented based on similar criteria. This sea-level curve is derived from new field studies as well as a refinement of earlier curves presented by Harrison (1973), and Boardman and Malinky (1985). The conclusion on the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata cyclothems in the Midcontinent is mirrored by the results of that from North-Central Texas. Each of the primary biostratigraphically-based picks for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary coincide with either intermediate of major cycles in both study areas. Utilization of a glacial-eustatic maximum transgressive event for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary should result in a more correlatable level for intercontinental correlation.

  16. Model-Based Radiation Dose Correction for Yttrium-90 Microsphere Treatment of Liver Tumors With Central Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ching-Sheng; Lin, Ko-Han; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Tseng, Hsiou-Shan; Wang, Ling-Wei; Huang, Pin-I; Chao, Liung-Sheau; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Yen, Sang-Hue; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Wang, Syh-Jen; Oliver Wong, Ching-yee

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to model and calculate the absorbed fraction {phi} of energy emitted from yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) microsphere treatment of necrotic liver tumors. Methods and Materials: The tumor necrosis model was proposed for the calculation of {phi} over the spherical shell region. Two approaches, the semianalytic method and the probabilistic method, were adopted. In the former method, the range--energy relationship and the sampling of electron paths were applied to calculate the energy deposition within the target region, using the straight-ahead and continuous-slowing-down approximation (CSDA) method. In the latter method, the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code was used to verify results from the first method. Results: The fraction of energy, {phi}, absorbed from {sup 90}Y by 1-cm thickness of tumor shell from microsphere distribution by CSDA with complete beta spectrum was 0.832 {+-} 0.001 and 0.833 {+-} 0.001 for smaller (r{sub T} = 5 cm) and larger (r{sub T} = 10 cm) tumors (where r is the radii of the tumor [T] and necrosis [N]). The fraction absorbed depended mainly on the thickness of the tumor necrosis configuration, rather than on tumor necrosis size. The maximal absorbed fraction {phi} that occurred in tumors without central necrosis for each size of tumor was different: 0.950 {+-} 0.000, and 0.975 {+-} 0.000 for smaller (r{sub T} = 5 cm) and larger (r{sub T} = 10 cm) tumors, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The tumor necrosis model was developed for dose calculation of {sup 90}Y microsphere treatment of hepatic tumors with central necrosis. With this model, important information is provided regarding the absorbed fraction applicable to clinical {sup 90}Y microsphere treatment.

  17. Comparision of ultrasound-based methods of jugular vein and inferior vena cava for estimating central venous pressure

    PubMed Central

    Avcil, Mucahit; Kapci, Mucahit; Dagli, Bekir; Omurlu, Imran Kurt; Ozluer, Emre; Karaman, Kivanc; Yilmaz, Ali; Zencir, Cemil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim in this study was to compare the ultrasound estimation of the jugular vein diameter (IJVmax, IJVmin) and area (IJVarea), the height of the right internal jugular vein (CVPusg), the vena cava diameter (IVCmax, IVCmin), and the vena cava index (IVCindex) with direct estimation of central venous pressure (CVPinv). Methods: Ultrasonography was performed on 37 nonventilated and 36 ventilated patients while monitoring central venous pressure. The IJV and IVC were measured during the respiratory cycle and the IJVarea and IVCindex were calculated. Tapering portion of the right IJV defined and height from this point to the sternal angle was used to estimate CVPusg. Results: A CVP of 10 mmHg was chosen as a clinically significant cutoff for high CVP, and 6 mmHg was chosen for low CVP estimation. The CVPusg, IJVmax and IJVmin correlated moderately with CVPinv (R² = 0.66, 0.53, and 0.54, respectively) whereas the IVCmax, IVCmin and IVCindex showed poor correlation (R² = 0.29, 0.32 and 0.27, respectively). The CVPusg cutoff value of 7 predicted CVPinv > 10 mmHg with sensitivity of 90%, specific-ity of 67.3% and predicted CVPinv < 6 mmHg with sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 68%. IJVmax, IJVmin, IJVarea and IVCmax showed high sensitivity (90.32%, 83.87%, 90.32%, and 93.10%, respectively) for low CVP levels. The IVCindex has high sensitivity (95.2%) and poor specificity (42.9%) for high CVP levels. Conclusion: IVCindex and CVPusg has better diagnostic performance for estimating high CVP. IJVmax, IJV area, and IVCmax showed high sensitivity and NPV for low CVP levels. PMID:26379848

  18. Interannual drought index variations in Central Europe related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation—application and evaluation of statistical downscaling approaches based on circulation type classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Philipp, Andreas; Jacobeit, Jucundus

    2015-08-01

    This contribution investigates the relationship between the large-scale atmospheric circulation and interannual variations of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in Central Europe. To this end, circulation types (CT) have been derived from a variety of circulation type classifications (CTC) applied to daily sea level pressure (SLP) data and mean circulation indices of vorticity ( V), zonality ( Z) and meridionality ( M) have been calculated. Occurrence frequencies of CTs and circulation indices have been utilized as predictors within multiple regression models (MRM) for the estimation of gridded 3-month SPI values over Central Europe, for the period 1950 to 2010. CTC-based MRMs used in the analyses comprise variants concerning the basic method for CT classification, the number of CTs, the size and location of the spatial domain used for CTCs and the exclusive use of CT frequencies or the combined use of CT frequencies and mean circulation indices as predictors. Adequate MRM predictor combinations have been identified by applying stepwise multiple regression analyses within a resampling framework. The performance (robustness) of the resulting MRMs has been quantified based on a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure applying several skill scores. Furthermore, the relative importance of individual predictors has been estimated for each MRM. From these analyses, it can be stated that model skill is improved by (i) the consideration of vorticity characteristics within CTCs, (ii) a relatively small size of the spatial domain to which CTCs are applied and (iii) the inclusion of mean circulation indices. However, model skill exhibits distinct variations between seasons and regions. Whereas promising skill can be stated for the western and northwestern parts of the Central European domain, only unsatisfactory skill is reached in the more continental regions and particularly during summer. Thus, it can be concluded that the presented approaches feature the potential for the downscaling of Central European drought index variations from the large-scale circulation, at least for some regions. Further improvements of CTC-based approaches may be expected from the optimization of CTCs for explaining the SPI, e.g. via the inclusion of additional variables in the classification procedure.

  19. An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell: a model of a central utility plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This central utilities plant model details the major elements of a central utilities plant for several classes of users. The model enables the analyst to select optional, cost effective, plant features that are appropriate to a fuel cell application. These features permit the future plant owner to exploit all of the energy produced by the fuel cell, thereby reducing the total cost of ownership. The model further affords the analyst an opportunity to identify avoided costs of the fuel cell-based power plant. This definition establishes the performance and capacity information, appropriate to the class of user, to support the capital cost model and the feasibility analysis. It is detailed only to the depth required to identify the major elements of a fuel cell-based system. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

  20. The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Chowdhuri, Susmita; Ramar, Kannan; Bista, Sabin R.; Casey, Kenneth R.; Lamm, Carin I.; Kristo, David A.; Mallea, Jorge M.; Rowley, James A.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Tracy, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (ICSD-2) distinguishes 5 subtypes of central sleep apnea syndromes (CSAS) in adults. Review of the literature suggests that there are two basic mechanisms that trigger central respiratory events: (1) post-hyperventilation central apnea, which may be triggered by a variety of clinical conditions, and (2) central apnea secondary to hypoventilation, which has been described with opioid use. The preponderance of evidence on the treatment of CSAS supports the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Much of the evidence comes from investigations on CSAS related to congestive heart failure (CHF), but other subtypes of CSAS appear to respond to CPAP as well. Limited evidence is available to support alternative therapies in CSAS subtypes. The recommendations for treatment of CSAS are summarized as follows: CPAP therapy targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is indicated for the initial treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)Nocturnal oxygen therapy is indicated for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)Adaptive Servo-Ventilation (ASV) targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is indicated for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF. (STANDARD)BPAP therapy in a spontaneous timed (ST) mode targeted to normalize the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) may be considered for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF only if there is no response to adequate trials of CPAP, ASV, and oxygen therapies. (OPTION)The following therapies have limited supporting evidence but may be considered for the treatment of CSAS related to CHF after optimization of standard medical therapy, if PAP therapy is not tolerated, and if accompanied by close clinical follow-up: acetazolamide and theophylline. (OPTION)Positive airway pressure therapy may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION)Acetazolamide has limited supporting evidence but may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION)The use of zolpidem and triazolam may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS only if the patient does not have underlying risk factors for respiratory depression. (OPTION)The following possible treatment options for CSAS related to end-stage renal disease may be considered: CPAP, supplemental oxygen, bicarbonate buffer use during dialysis, and nocturnal dialysis. (OPTION) Citation: Aurora RN; Chowdhuri S; Ramar K; Bista SR; Casey KR; Lamm CI; Kristo DA; Mallea JM; Rowley JA; Zak RS; Tracy SL. The treatment of central sleep apnea syndromes in adults: practice parameters with an evidence-based literature review and meta-analyses. SLEEP 2012;35(1):17-40. PMID:22215916

  1. Numerical and experimental study on silicon microresonators based on phononic crystal slabs with reduced central-hole radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Hsiao, Fu-Li; Tsai, J. M.; Palaniapan, Moorthi; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Lee, Chengkuo

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we report the numerical and experimental study on micromechanical resonators which are made by introducing defects on an otherwise perfect two-dimensional (2D) silicon phononic crystal (PnC) slab. The 2D PnC slab is made by etching a square array of cylindrical air holes in a free-standing silicon plate with a thickness of 10 µm, while the defects are created by reducing the radii of three rows of air holes at the centre of the 2D PnC slab. Three resonators with different values of reduced radii, i.e., 2 µm, 4 µm and 6 µm, are included in this study. The finite-element-modelling method is used to calculate the band structure of the perfect 2D PnC slab and to analyse the different mode shapes of the structure. The design, numerical modelling, fabrication process, as well as characterization results and discussions of the three PnC resonators are also included. Due to its CMOS-compatibility, aluminium nitride is chosen to be the piezoelectric material of the inter-digital transducers, which are used to generate and detect acoustic waves. Testing is done to characterize the resonant frequency (f), quality factor (Q), as well as insertion loss of each of the three microfabricated PnC resonators and the results are discussed by analysing the simulated transmission spectra, the defected band structures, and the steady-state displacement profiles of the structures at their respective resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the designed PnC resonators with reduced central-hole radii have higher resonant frequency and higher quality factors as compared to their normal Fabry-Perot counterpart, thanks to the higher-frequency modes supported within the cavity and slow sound effect in the lateral direction introduced by the central holes with reduced radii, respectively. As a result, the achieved (f-Q) product can be as high as 2.96 × 1011, which is among the highest for silicon resonators operating in air.

  2. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit

    PubMed Central

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co–factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. PMID:25279440

  3. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    PubMed

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. PMID:25279440

  4. Uranium and thorium enrichment in rocks from the base of DSDP Hole 465A, Hess Rise, central North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Koski, R.A.; Morgenson, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium and thorium are concentrated in Cretaceous limestone, chert, ash, basalt, and other rock types at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 465 located on the southern Hess Rise in the central North Pacific. U concentrations, up to 194 ppm on a carbonate-free basis, are among the highest recorded for any deep-sea deposits. U was initially derived from seawater and concentrated by absorption on terrigenous (humic) organic matter in limestone in a shallow marine environment. U and Th were probably concentrated further by low-temperature hydrothermal fluids emanating from the basaltic basement. Mainly montmorillonite, an alteration product of basalt and ash, and organic matter in sedimentary rocks acted as hosts for U and Th. The unique combination of sediments rich in humic organic matter, abundant smectite in altered ash and basalt, and warm hydrothermal solutions provided the necessary conditions for migration and concentration of U and Th. To better understand the conditions limiting the migrating and concentration of U and Th, other rocks deposited during the ocean-wide Cretaceous anoxic events should be analyzed for these elements. ?? 1982.

  5. GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

    2014-11-01

    We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

  6. Centrality and Flow Vergence gradient based Path analysis of scientific literature: A case study of Biotechnology for Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathabai, Hiran H.; Prabhakaran, Thara; Changat, Manoj

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology, ever since its inception has had a huge impact on the society and its various applications have been intricately woven into the human web of life. Its evolution amidst all the other research realms vital to mankind is remarkable. In this paper, we intend to identify the radical innovations in Biotechnology for Engineering using network analyses. Centrality analysis and Path analysis are used for identifying important works. Existence of Flow Vergence effect in the scientific literature is revealed. Flow Vergence gradient, an arc metric derived from FV model, is utilised for Path analysis which detects pivotal papers of paradigm shift more accurately. A major paradigm shift has been identified in the business models of Biotechnology for Engineering - 'Capability to Connectivity' model. Evidence towards the adoption of business practices in BT firms by nanotechnology start-ups is also identified. The notion of critical divergence is introduced and the exhibition of interdisciplinary interaction in emerging fields due to critical divergence is discussed. Implications of above analyses which target: (i) Science and technology policy makers, (ii) industrialists and investors, (iii) researchers in academia as well as industry, are also discussed.

  7. Moho structure of Central America based on three-dimensional lithospheric density modelling of satellite-derived gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lücke, Oscar H.

    2014-10-01

    The Central American isthmus hosts a highly variable Moho structure due to the diverse origin and composition of the crustal basement and the influence of large-scale neotectonic processes. Gravity data from the combined geopotential model EGM2008 were interpreted via forward modelling to outline the three-dimensional lithospheric density structure along the Middle American Trench, as well as the segmentation of the oceanic Cocos and Nazca plates and the overriding Caribbean plate. In this work, results for the depth of the Moho obtained from the density model are presented. The Quaternary volcanic arc correlates with a maximum Moho depth of 44 km in western Guatemala. To the south-east of the continental shelf, the Caribbean plate shows Moho depths between 20 and 12 km whereas to the north, values as shallow as 8 km are observed at the Cayman trough. For the oceanic Cocos plate, depths between 16 and 21 km are obtained for the Moho along the Cocos ridge, contrasting with values between 15 and 12 km for the seamount segment and 8 and 11 km for the segments of the crust that are not affected by the Galapagos hot-spot track.

  8. The role of inherited structures in the evolution of the Meknassy Basin, Central Tunisia, based on geological-geophysical transects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji, Taoufik; Zouaghi, Taher; Boukadi, Noureddine

    2014-08-01

    This paper uses seismic data, well data, and surface geologic data to present a detailed description of the Meknassy Basin in the Atlas fold and thrust belt of central Tunisia. These data reveal that the Meknassy Basin is bounded by major faults, along which Triassic evaporites have been intruded. The anticlines and synclines of the basin are delimited by two N-S main faults (the North-South Axis and the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault) and are subdivided by associated N120° and N45° trending fault-related anticlines. The Meknassy Basin is characterized by brittle structures associated with a deep asymmetric geometry that is organized into depressions and uplifts. Halokinesis of Triassic evaporites began during the Jurassic and continued during the Cretaceous period. During extensional deformation, salt movement controlled the sediment accumulation and the location of pre-compressional structures. During compressional deformation, the remobilization of evaporites accentuated the folded uplifts. A zone of decollement is located within the Triassic evaporites. The coeval strike-slip motion along the bounding master faults suggests that the Meknassy Basin was initiated as a pull-apart basin with intrusion of Triassic evaporites. The lozenge structure of the basin was caused by synchronous movements of the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault and the North-South Axis (sinistral wrench faults) with movement of NW-SE first-order dextral strike-slip faults. Sediment distribution and structural features indicate that a major tectonic inversion has occurred at least since Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The transpressional movements are marked by reverse faults and folds associated with unconformities and with remobilization of Triassic evaporites. The formation of different structural features and the evolution of the Meknassy Basin and its neighboring uplifts have been controlled by conjugate dextral and sinistral strike-slip movements and thrust displacement.

  9. [Presence of Clostridium perfringens in meat-based preparations in public food services in central San Jose, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A; Gamboa, M M; Rodríguez, E; Arias, M L

    1999-09-01

    In Costa Rica there are a large number of public food services distributed along the country, where a considerable number of people eat daily. Clostridium perfringens is a bacteria associated with foodborne illness related, especially, to meat products kept for long time at temperatures under 70 degrees C. The aim of this study was to evaluate the public food services that use water baths for keeping food hot in order to establish the presence of C. perfringens in cooked bovine meat dishes and to evaluate the enterotoxigenic capacity of the strains isolated. 81 samples of cooked bovine meat plates coming from 27 public food services, located in the Central County of San José were analyzed. The methodology described by Labbe & Harmon for the isolation of C. perfringens was used in 10 g of sample. Also, the enterotoxigenic capacity of the strains was evaluated using the passive-reverse-latex-agglutination assay from Oxoid. From the 27 public food services analyzed, eight (30%) were positive in the three samplings done, nine (33%) were positive in one or two occasions, and ten (37%) were negative all times. This implies that in 17 (63%) of the establishments studied, the bacteria was isolated at least once. From the 81 preparations studied, 37 (46%) were positive for the bacteria. The temperatures at which food was kept varied from 56 to 82 degrees C, with an average of 68.7 degrees C. From the 37 strains identified as C. perfringens, 12 (32%) were positive for enterotoxin. In conclusion, the presence of C. perfringens in bovine meat dishes, maintained in water baths, represents an important risk for public health, and the temperature at which the preparation is kept is critical for the multiplication of the bacteria. PMID:10667269

  10. Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, T. M.; Smith, S.A.; Eynaud, F.; O'Regan, M.; King, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 in record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ???1.2-0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ???500 ka. Foraminiferal preservation in sediments from the Arctic is influenced by primary (sea ice, organic input, and other environmental conditions) and secondary factors (syndepositional, long-term pore water dissolution). Taking these into account, the ACEX 4C record shows distinct maxima in agglutinated foraminiferal abundance corresponding to several interglacials and deglacials between marine isotope stages (MIS) 13-37, and although less precise dating is available for older sediments, these trends appear to continue through the Matuyama. The MPT is characterized by nearly barren intervals during major glacials (MIS 12, 16, and 22-24) and faunal turnover (MIS 12-24). Abundant calcareous planktonic (mainly Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sin.) and benthic foraminifers occur mainly in interglacial intervals during the Brunhes and very rarely in the Matuyama. A distinct faunal transition from calcareous to agglutinated foraminifers 200-300 ka in ACEX 4C is comparable to that found in Arctic sediments from the Lomonosov, Alpha, and Northwind ridges and the Morris Jesup Rise. Down-core disappearance of calcareous taxa is probably related to either reduced sea ice cover prior to the last few 100-ka cycles, pore water dissolution, or both. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. How Central and Connected Am I in My Family? Family-Based Social Capital of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmer, E. D.; Kempf-Constantin, N.; Robert-Tissot, C.; Lanzi, F.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2008-01-01

    Using social network methods, this article explores the ways in which individuals with intellectual disability (ID) perceive their family contexts and the social capital that they provide. Based on a subsample of 24 individuals with ID, a subsample of 24 individuals with ID and psychiatric disorders, and a control sample of 24 pre-graduate and…

  12. Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

    2014-01-01

    A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

  13. A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J.; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E. J.; Bednarski, April E.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M.; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C.; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L.; Reed, Laura D.; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A.; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

    2014-01-01

    In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"--a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the…

  14. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  15. The Castle Mountain fault, south-central Alaska: New lidar-based observations on the sense of slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Reger, D.; Frohman, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Castle Mountain fault extends along the southern Talkeetna Mountains rangefront and across the Susitna Lowland in south-central Alaska. The fault is an active structural element of the Aleutian forearc and has formed a 4-km-wide anticline associated with at least 0.5 km of north-side-up displacement. Right-lateral bedrock offsets along the eastern part of the fault are poorly constrained to ~14 km. In the Susitna Lowland, the fault is expressed at the surface by a distinct south-facing scarp. Previous paleoseismic studies have described the fault as both a strike-slip fault and a reverse fault, attributed the scarp to the occurrence of one to four paleoearthquakes, and estimated a Holocene right-lateral slip rate of ~3mm/yr. Motivated by inspection of new lidar data along the fault indicating that Holocene landforms are not laterally offset, we performed surficial-geologic mapping and field surveys with an emphasis on better characterizing the sense of slip. Field work was conducted along approximately 12 km of the scarp between Houston and Susitna River. Surficial-geologic mapping indicates that the fault displaces late Elmendorf (14-15 ka) glacial and Holocene deposits including glacial drift, sandy fan deltas, outwash plains, grounding-line moraines, basal-crevasse-fill complexes, stream terraces, oxbow lakes, and swamps. Where the scarp cuts these deposits it varies in height from ~ 0.5-4 m and is un-beveled. The surface trace also consists of left-stepping en echelon scarps and grabens. The grabens occur up to 400 m north of the scarp and indicate a wide zone of deformation. Numerous abandoned channels and stabilized sand dunes oriented orthogonal to the scarp are vertically offset and have negligible strike-slip displacement. The observations are consistent with reverse faulting above a north dipping fault associated with bending moment extensional grabens in the hanging wall. The en echelon pattern of scarps suggests a minor oblique component of slip. We suggest that the lateral slip rate presently used in probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (3 mm/yr) may be incorrect and that the fault may be better characterized as a reverse fault.

  16. Characterization of bottom hydrodynamic conditions on the central western Portuguese continental shelf based on benthic foraminifera and sedimentary parameters.

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Quintino, Victor; Tentúgal, Rita Marques; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Miranda, Paulo; Mattos Laut, Lazaro Luiz; Martins, Roberto; Rodrigues, Ana Maria

    2015-08-01

    Dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the central western Portuguese continental shelf have been studied to identify the prevalent oceanographic processes in the study area. Sediment samples collected at 46 stations along transepts perpendicular to the coastal line, between the latitudes of 38-40 °N and 17-190 m water depth, in April/May 2008, were analysed for selected physicochemical parameters (temperature, redox potential), grain size, organic matter content, and benthic foraminifera. Statistical analysis identified two main groups of stations, the Inshore/Offshore groups, which are not only defined by their geographical positions, but easily distinguishable by different hydrodynamic conditions. The Offshore Group is mainly represented by deeper stations characterized by a higher percentage of fines and TOM, negative values of redox potential and by the higher foraminiferal density and species diversity than the Inshore one. Foraminiferal assemblages of the Offshore Group are dominated/represented by species (such as Cassidulina laevigata/Cassidulina carinata, Bolivina spathulata, Bolivina ordinaria, Globocassidulina minuta, Bulimina elongata/Bulimina gibba and Bulimina marginata) common in areas with significant concentrations of organic matter. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the Inshore Group are instead characterized by epifaunal species such as Lobatula lobatula, Cibicides ungerianus, Planorbulina mediterranensis, Gavelinopsis praegeri and Quinqueloculina seminula. Both the sedimentary and foraminiferal results suggest that this group of stations is subjected to stronger bottom hydrodynamic conditions, caused by waves and swell activity and coastal currents, than the Offshore Group. Bray-Curtis similarity comparison between the stations of both groups reveals that the Offshore Group has a higher internal similarity than the Inshore Group. These differences seem to stem from topographic forcing, from the presence of rocky outcrops, from canyons and capes, from the distribution of rivers and from the magnitude of their discharges, which determine specific hydrodynamic features and differences in the sedimentary deposits and biological productivity. The influence of the Tagus river (supply of fresh water, detritus and organic matter from continental sources), the presence of canyons and capes, which leave the most important imprint on the study area, are marked by changes in the foraminiferal assemblages both in the Inshore and Offshore groups. PMID:26102267

  17. Statistical Discrimination of Induced and Tectonic Earthquake Sequences in Central and Eastern US Based on Waveform Detected Catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, X.; Peng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    It is now well established that extraction of fossil fuels and/or waste water disposal do cause earthquakes in Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). However, the physics underneath of the nucleation of induced earthquakes still remain elusive. In particular, do induced and tectonic earthquake sequences in CEUS share the same statistics, for example the Omori's law [Utsu et al., 1995] and the Gutenberg-Richter's law? Some studies have show that most naturally occurring earthquake sequences are driven by cascading-type triggering. Hence, they would follow the typical Gutenberg-Richter relation and Omori's aftershock decay and could be well described by multi-dimensional point-process models such as Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) [Ogata, 1988; Zhuang et al., 2012]. However, induced earthquakes are likely driven by external forcing such as injected fluid pressure, and hence would not be well described by the ETAS model [Llenos and Michael, 2013]. Existing catalogs in CEUS (e.g. the ANSS catalog) have relatively high magnitude of completeness [e.g., Van Der Elst et al., 2013] and hence may not be ideal for a detailed ETAS modeling analysis. A waveform matched filter technique has been successfully applied to detect many missing earthquakes in CEUS with a sparse network in Illinois [Yang et al., 2009] and on single station in Texas, Oklahoma and Colorado [e.g., Van Der Elst et al., 2013]. In addition, the deployment of the USArray station in CEUS also helped to expand the station coverage. In this study, we systematically detect missing events during 14 moderate-size (M>=4) earthquake sequences since 2000 in CEUS and quantify their statistical parameters (e.g. b, a, K, and p values) and spatio-temporal evolutions. Then we compare the statistical parameters and the spatio-temporal evolution pattern between induced and naturally occurring earthquake sequences to see if one or more diagnostic parameters exist. Our comprehensive analysis of earthquake sequences in CEUS will hopefully shed new insight on whether intrinsic differences exist between induced and naturally occurring earthquakes.

  18. Estimation of groundwater age in the central part of the Baltic Artesian Basin based on new isotope data from Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babre, Alise; Kalvans, Andis; Popovs, Konrads; Retike, Inga; Delina, Aija

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogeological conditions of the Baltic Artesian basin (BAB) have changed rapidly during the Quaternary period. Therefore this work aims to give better overview of the complexity of the groundwater recharge and discharge dynamics beyond country borders, taking into account only shared geological framework, common climate conditions and geological development. To maintain better understanding of the processes that took part in the formation of groundwater that can be observed nowadays several methods were applied placing major emphasis on the new oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratio results. Earlier investigations in the northern part of the basin indicated glacial melt water intrusion in the Cambrian-Vendian. Several radiocarbon and stable isotope studies in groundwater have been done at the southern part of the basin as well reporting extensive groundwater recharge during the Late Pleistocene suggesting that recharge took place under different recharge mechanisms compared with the northern part. In 2010 to 2012 an extensive field campaign was undertaken, collecting more than 300 groundwater samples for deuterium and stable oxygen, 30 for stable carbon and 10 for radiocarbon analysis mostly from central part (Latvia) of the BAB covering all the major aquifer systems where previously collected data was sparse or absent. A specific motivation for the research was to identify relict glacial meltwater in the groundwater system. The broader aim was to estimate the baseline isotopic composition of groundwater in the region. Here a new data set is presented. Na-Ca-Cl brine found at the deepest - stagnation zone and is characterized by ?18O values above -5 o and ?D values approaching -40 o in respect to VSMOW. The slow exchange zone is characterized by ?18O values around -11.7 o and ?D values around -84.8 o . Mean ?18O and ?D value of the groundwater in the active water exchange zone is -11.0 o and 79.2 o respectively. Characteristically the groundwater in the active and slow exchange zone is more depleted comparing to the precipitation values observed in the eighties and the depletion is increasing with depth down to the level where strongly enriched brines are encountered. Absence of radiocarbon in the deepest aquifers show that groundwater recharged before last glaciation. The research is supported by the European Union through the ESF Mobilitas grant No MJD309 and the European Regional Development Fund project Nr.2013/0054/2DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007 and NRP project EVIDENnT project "Groundwater and climate scenarios" subproject "Groundwater Research".

  19. Extension of the Najd Shear System from Saudi Arabia to the central eastern desert of Egypt based on integrated field and LANDSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Duncan, Ian J.; Stern, Robert J.; El Kaliouby, Baher

    1988-12-01

    The Najd Shear System in Saudi Arabia extends over 1200 km in a NW-SE direction and has a width of approximately 300 km. A digital color mosaic, compiled from seven Landsat thematic mapper scenes, was used to delineate characteristic structural features of the Najd System in the Midyan region of Saudi Arabia and to search for similar features in the Egyptian Eastern Desert. The digital mosaic was generated using ratios of Landsat thematic mapper bands (bands 5/4 × 3/4, 5/1, 5/7) that are sensitive to the rock content of Fe-bearing aluminosilicates, spectrally opaque phases, and hydroxyl-bearing or carbonate minerals, respectively. The mosaic covers approximately 130,000 km² of late Proterozoic exposures of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and has the Eastern Desert and the Midyan region placed in their approximate pre-Red Sea locations. The Ajjaj Shear Zone (AJZ) marks the termination of the Najd System against the eastern margin of the Red Sea in the Midyan region. The AJZ aligns with the central Eastern Desert, based on analysis of pre-Red Sea locations. Analyses of Landsat data and field observations show that the Ajjaj Shear Zone and the central Eastern Desert exhibit the following features in common: (1) outcrops that are generally elongate in a NW-SE direction as a result of folding, with fine-scale lithologic heterogeneity at the outcrop scale related to deformation associated with faulting; (2) NW trending left-lateral faults and ductile shear zones; (3) subhorizontal, NW trending mineral lineations, and variably dipping NW trending foliations, with local changes in attitude around large competent (e.g., granitic) bodies; and (4) lithologic contacts that are generally tectonic in nature and related to faulting. These features are less common to the north and south of both the Ajjaj Shear Zone and the central Eastern Desert. Results are consistent with the Najd Shear System extending into the Eastern Desert and dominating the structural patterns within the central part of the Eastern Desert.

  20. Pulp and Periodontal Regeneration of an Avulsed Permanent Mature Incisor Using Platelet-rich Plasma after Delayed Replantation: A 12-month Clinical Case Study.

    PubMed

    Priya M, Harini; Tambakad, Pavan B; Naidu, Jaya

    2016-01-01

    Numerous publications have reported revascularization of necrotic immature permanent teeth, but the regenerative potential of pulp in mature teeth has rarely been considered. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) meets many requirements of a scaffold for regenerative endodontics. To the best of our knowledge, no clinical study has evaluated PRP for endodontic regeneration in a mature avulsed tooth. The present case evaluated PRP for pulpal regeneration in an avulsed mature incisor (>8 hours extraoral dry time) of an 11-year-old boy after delayed replantation. The canal was disinfected after extraoral access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. The root apex was enlarged, and the tooth was placed in doxycycline solution for 20 minutes. After tooth replantation and splinting, PRP was injected up to the level of the cementoenamel junction and sealed with glass ionomer cement. The 6-month follow-up revealed evidence of internal and external root resorption with periapical radiolucency and an apparent periodontal ligament space. Access was reopened; slurry of 2 antibiotics (minocycline and metronidazole) was inserted into the canal and sealed. Nine- and 12-month radiographs revealed resolution of periapical radiolucency with no further progression of internal resorption. The tooth showed a positive response to thermal and electric pulp tests. The findings observed in this case warrant further research under controlled conditions to evaluate endodontic and periodontal regeneration in a tooth that would otherwise be expected to have an unfavorable prognosis. PMID:26409809

  1. [Comparison of the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization among children with different health care coverage in the cities of Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay)].

    PubMed

    López Jordi, María del Carmen; Cortese, Silvina G; Álvarez, Licet; Salveraglio, Inés; Ortolani, Andrea M; Biondi, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among children with different health care coverage in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. An observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed, considering children born from 1993-2003 who were seen in the Chairs of Comprehensive Children's Dentistry (Universidad de Buenos Aires) and of Pediatric Dentistry (Universidad de la República) and at five private dental offices between April and December 2010. Two groups were defined: A (Buenos Aires; n=1,090) and B (Montevideo; n=626). The clinical diagnosis was carried out with calibrated examiners (Kappa: 0.94) using the Mathu-Muju and Wright criteria. The prevalence of MIH was found to be 16.1% in A and 12.3% in B (p=0.03), with statistically significant differences between the public and private care sectors in both groups (A p=0.0008; B p=0.0004) and a positive correlation between MIH and year of birth (A p=0.001; B p=0.005). The results show that MIH is an emerging pathology and that MIH prevalence is related to year of birth and access to health care. PMID:25237803

  2. A Dynamic Analysis of Industrial Cluster Evolution based on Lotka-Volterra Model: Studies of Southern and Central Taiwan Science Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chia-Han; Shyu, Joseph Z.; Li, Yimin

    2009-08-01

    This research aims to propose a dynamic analysis for industrial cluster evolution based on the Lotka-Volterra model. Particularly, an empirical competition case between Southern and Central Taiwan Science Park (STSP and CTSP) will be adopted in this study to demonstrate the validity of the dynamic approach. The results reveal that the competitive relationship between STSP and CSTP may be a predator-prey interaction type. The existence of STSP and its investment growth will be a positive assistance for developing the latter CTSP area. Contrarily, the growth of CTSP will probably compete with the resource of STSP and inhibit the sustained growth of STSP. In addition, there do not exist an equilibrium point in the competition relationship of these two clusters recently, which the STSP and CTSP area could coexist with a sustained growth in this current short-term stage.

  3. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these Article 76 mapping missions comprises, by far, the most comprehensive contribution to the last Version 3.0 of IBCAO.

  4. A quantitative high-resolution summer temperature reconstruction back to AD 850 based on sedimentary pigments from Laguna Aculeo, Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Gunten, L.; Grosjean, M.; Rein, B.; Urrutia, R.; Appleby, P.

    2009-12-01

    A quantitative high-resolution (3-5 years) austral summer DJF (December to February) temperature reconstruction for the central region of Chile back to AD 850 is presented here. We used non-destructive multi-channel in situ reflection spectrometry data from a short sediment core from Laguna Aculeo, Central Chile (33°50'S/70°54'W, 355m a.s.l.). The age model is based on 137Cs and 14C dates, and a series of seismites related to major historical earthquakes. Calibration-in-time (period AD 1901-2000, cross-validated with split periods) revealed robust correlations between local DJF temperatures (CRU TS 2.1) and total sedimentary chlorin (a proxy for biological productivity measured using the relative absorption band depth (RABD) centred in 660-670 nm RABD660;670: r=0.79, P<0.01; five-years triangular filtered) and the degree of pigment diagenesis (R660nm/670nm: r=0.82, P<0.01; five-years triangular filtered). The DJF temperature reconstructions back to AD 850 were then calculated using scaling and linear regression techniques; Root Mean Squared Error values are small (between 0.24 and 0.34°C) suggesting that most of the reconstructed decadal-scale climate variability is significant. Our data provide quantitative evidence for the presence of a Medieval Climate Anomaly (in this case, warm summers between AD 1150 and 1350; ?T = +0.27 to +0.37°C with respect to (wrt) twentieth century) and a cool period synchronous to the ‘Little Ice Age’ starting with a sharp drop between AD 1350 and AD 1400 (-0.3°C/10 yr, decadal trend) followed by constantly cool (?T = -0.70 to -0.90°C wrt twentieth century) summers until AD 1750. This lake sediment-based summer temperature record for central Chile is particularly valuable as most other known natural climate archives in this area (mostly tree rings) are sensitive to winter precipitation. Instrumental DJF temperatures and the reconstruction back to AD 850 (3-year resolution)

  5. Controls on mineralisation in the Sierra Foothills gold province, central California, USA: A GIS-based reconnaissance prospectivity analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierlein, F.P.; Northover, H.J.; Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of spatial relationships between the location, abundance and size of orogenic-gold deposits in the highly endowed Sierra Foothills gold province in California, via the combination of field studies and a GIS-based analysis, illustrates the power of such an approach to the characterisation of important parameters of mineral systems, and the prediction of districts likely to host economic mineralisation. Regional- to deposit-scale reconnaissance mapping suggests that deposition of gold-bearing quartz veins occurred in second- and third-order, east-over-west thrusts during regional east - west compression and right-lateral transpression. At the district-scale, significant zones of mineralisation correspond with such transpressional reactivation zones and dilational jogs that developed during the Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous along the misaligned segments of first-order faults throughout the Sierra Nevada Foothills Metamorphic Belt. Field-based observations and interpretation of GIS data (including solid geology, structural elements, deposit locations, magnetics, gravity) also highlight the importance of structural permeability contrasts, rheological gradients, and variations in fault orientation for localising mineralisation. Although this approach confirms empirical findings and produces promising results at the province scale, enhanced geological, structural, geophysical and geochronological data density is required to generate regionally consistent, high-quality input layers that improve predictive targeting at the goldfield to deposit-scale.

  6. iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7?mm-to-15?mm) and onset of ripening (15?mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. Conclusions The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up new lines to decipher the processes controlling grape berry development and ripening. PMID:24152288

  7. Assessment of projected climate change signals over central Africa based on a multitude of global and regional climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haensler, A.; Saeed, F.; Jacob, D.

    2013-05-01

    It is well accepted within the scientific community that only a large ensemble of different projections will allow achieving robust climate change information for a specific region. In the framework of the project "Climate changes scenarios for the Congo basin" (funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) a regional climate change assessment is conducted by the Climate Service Center (CSC) over the greater Congo basin region. The analysis is based on a state-of-the-art multi-model multi-scenario ensemble of global and regional climate change projections. In this ensemble the results of several GCM projections from the CMIP3 and the CMIP5 projects are combined with some of the recently downscaled regional CORDEX-Africa projections. Altogether data from 77 different climate change projections are analysed; separated into 31 projections for a "high" and 46 for a "low" emission scenario. In the study several parameters and indices related to temperature and precipitation are considered for the assessment of projected climate change. The large size of the analyzed ensemble is expected to be useful for not only quantifying the magnitude of projected changes, but also to analyze their robustness as well. Moreover, potential differences between projected changes from GCMs and RCMs can also be analysed.

  8. Assessment of projected climate change signals over central Africa based on a multitude of global and regional climate projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsler, Andreas; Saeed, Fahad; Jacob, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    It is well accepted within the scientific community that only a large ensemble of different projections will allow achieving robust climate change information for a specific region. In the framework of the project "Climate changes scenarios for the Congo basin" (funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) a regional climate change assessment is conducted by the Climate Service Center (CSC) over the greater Congo basin region. The analysis is based on a state-of-the-art multi-model multi-scenario ensemble of global and regional climate change projections. In this ensemble the results of several GCM projections from the CMIP3 and the CMIP5 projects are combined with some of the recently downscaled regional CORDEX-Africa projections. Altogether data from 77 different climate change projections are analysed; separated into 31 projections for a "high" and 46 for a "low" emission scenario. In the study several parameters and indices related to temperature and precipitation are considered for the assessment of projected climate change. The large size of the analyzed ensemble is expected to be useful for not only quantifying the magnitude of projected changes, but also to analyze their robustness as well. Moreover, potential differences between projected changes from GCMs and RCMs can also be analysed.

  9. Sarcoma: concordance between initial diagnosis and centralized expert review in a population-based study within three European regions

    PubMed Central

    Ray-Coquard, I.; Montesco, M. C.; Coindre, J. M.; Dei Tos, A. P.; Lurkin, A.; Ranchère-Vince, D.; Vecchiato, A.; Decouvelaere, A. V.; Mathoulin-Pélissier, S.; Albert, S.; Cousin, P.; Cellier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Rossi, C. R.; Blay, J. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sarcomas represent a heterogeneous group of tumors. Accurate determination of histological diagnosis and prognostic factors is critical for the delineation of treatment strategies. The contribution of second opinion (SO) to improve diagnostic accuracy has been suggested for sarcoma but has never been established in population-based studies. Methods Histological data of patients diagnosed with sarcoma in Rhone-Alpes (France), Veneto (Italy) and Aquitaine (France) over a 2-year period were collected. Initial diagnoses were systematically compared with SO from regional and national experts. Results Of 2016 selected patients, 1463 (73%) matched the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Full concordance between primary diagnosis and SO (the first pathologist and the expert reached identical conclusions) was observed in 824 (56%) cases, partial concordance (identical diagnosis of connective tumor but different grade or histological subtype) in 518 (35%) cases and complete discordance (benign versus malignant, different histological type or invalidation of the diagnosis of sarcoma) in 121 (8%) cases. The major discrepancies were related to histological grade (n = 274, 43%), histological type (n = 144, 24%), subtype (n = 18, 3%) and grade plus subtype or grade plus histological type (n = 178, 29%). Conclusion More than 40% of first histological diagnoses were modified at second reading, possibly resulting in different treatment decisions. PMID:22331640

  10. Groundwater management based on monitoring of land subsidence and groundwater levels in the Kanto Groundwater Basin, Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuno, K.; Kagawa, A.; Kazaoka, O.; Kusuda, T.; Nirei, H.

    2015-11-01

    Over 40 million people live on and exploit the groundwater resources of the Kanto Plain. The Plain encompasses metropolitan Tokyo and much of Chiba Prefecture. Useable groundwater extends to the base of the Kanto Plain, some 2500 to 3000 m below sea level. Much of the Kanto Plain surface is at sea level. By the early 1970s, with increasing urbanization and industrial expansion, local overdraft of groundwater resources caused major ground subsidence and damage to commercial and residential structures as well as to local and regional infrastructure. Parts of the lowlands around Tokyo subsided to 4.0 m below sea level; particularly affected were the suburbs of Funabashi and Gyotoku in western Chiba. In the southern Kanto Plain, regulations, mainly by local government and later by regional agencies, led to installation of about 500 monitoring wells and almost 5000 bench marks by the 1990's. Many of them are still working with new monitoring system. Long-term monitoring is important. The monitoring systems are costly, but the resulting data provide continuous measurement of the "health" of the Kanto Groundwater Basin, and thus permit sustainable use of the groundwater resource.

  11. Trends in the characteristics of allergenic pollen circulation in central Europe based on the example of Szeged, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Deák, Áron József

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study is to analyse trends of the pollination season with its start and end dates, as well as trends of the annual total pollen count and annual peak pollen concentration for the Szeged agglomeration in Southern Hungary. The data set covers an 11-year period (1999-2009) and includes one of the largest spectra, with 19 taxa, as well as seven meteorological variables (minimum-, maximum- and mean temperature, total radiation, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed). For highly skewed data, such as the annual total number of pollen counts or annual peak pollen concentrations, the Mann-Kendall test has a substantially greater predictive power than the t-test. After performing Mann-Kendall tests, the annual cycles of daily slopes of pollen concentration trends and annual cycles of daily slopes of climate variable trends are calculated. This kind of trend analysis is a novel approach as it provides information on annual cycles of trends. In order to represent the strength of their relationships an association measure (AM) and a multiple association measure (MAM) are introduced. Based on climate sensitivity, the individual taxa are sorted into three categories. The results obtained for the pollen quantity and phenological characteristics are compared with two novel climate change related categories, namely risk and expansion potential due to the climate change for each taxon. The total annual pollen count and annual peak pollen concentrations indicate a small number of changes when using ordinary linear trends, while the total annual pollen count calculated via daily linear trends show significant trends (70% of them positive) for almost all taxa. However, except for Poaceae and Urtica, there is no significant change in the duration of the pollination season. The association measure performs well compared to the climate change related forces. Furthermore, remarkable changes in pollen season characteristics are also in accordance with the risk and expansion potential due to climate change.

  12. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objective There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report engaging in transactional sex. Respondents who were heterosexual, bisexual, or transgender were also more likely to both report multiple partnerships (OR: 1.44 [1.07–1.96], 1.99 [1.67–2.38], 1.79 [1.37–2.33], respectively) and more likely to report engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.52 [1.15–2.01], 1.38 [1.17–1.63], 1.47 [1.16–1.87], respectively), as compared to those identifying as homosexual. Conclusion Violence experienced by MSM and TW is widespread in Central America. The experience of violence is shown in this study to be independently associated with risk behaviors for HIV infections. Further research and studies are needed to identify the effects violence has on HIV risk behavior among this under-researched population to improve targeted HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25361722

  13. Evaluation of moisture sources of the Central European summer flood of May/June 2013 based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Fanni D.; Ludwig, Patrick; Reyers, Mark; Ulbrich, Sven; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    In May/June 2013, heavy precipitation hit Central Europe, triggering damaging floods both on the Danube and on Elbe basins. In this study, we perform a detailed analysis of the synoptic development of the event based on an ensemble of regional climate model simulations performed with the COSMO-CLM. Simulations are performed with reanalysis data boundary conditions in multiple set-ups and horizontal resolutions of 0.375° and 0.125°. In particular, the aim is to identify potential moisture sources, and how they contributed to the event quantitatively. A control simulation with undisturbed (reanalysis) boundary conditions and sensitivity experiments with modified evaporation characteristics are performed to distinguish the role of moisture evaporated from marine and land areas. To keep the structure of the simulations close to reality as possible, spectral nudging is applied on the upper level atmospheric wind fields. For all simulations, the synoptic situations and cyclone tracks are evaluated against an independent reanalysis dataset, and simulated precipitation amounts are validated against E-OBS precipitation data. In general, the upper level atmospheric characteristics, which trigger the cyclones, are similar in the simulations compared to the reanalysis. Moreover, the time evolution of the precipitation event is well simulated. Nevertheless there are some differences in the spatial and temporal distribution of the precipitation. In both, the reanalysis and the control simulation, the cyclones relevant for this event were moving westward (retrograde movement), counterclockwise from the Mediterranean region over Eastern Europe towards the northern slopes of the Alps. The pre-existing moist soil over East and Central Europe and the circulation associated with the cyclones contributed to intense evapotranspiration, and thus the westward propagating cyclones brought a lot of moisture along their tracks towards Central Europe. The sensitivity studies performed with COSMO-CLM indicate that, while the main part of the moisture evaporated over land, other moisture sources like e.g. the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea were also important to the occurrence and intensity of this heavy precipitation event.

  14. The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmens, Karin F.

    2014-02-01

    Current multi-proxy studies on a long sediment sequence preserved at Sokli (N Finland), i.e. in the central area of Fennoscandian glaciations, are drastically changing classic ideas of glaciations, vegetation and climate in northern Europe during the Late Pleistocene. The sediments in the Sokli basin have escaped major glacial erosion due to non-typical bedrock conditions. In this review, the Sokli record is compared in great detail with other long proxy records from central, temperate and northern, boreal Europe. These comprise the classic records of La Grande Pile (E France) and Oerel (N Germany) and more recently obtained records from Horoszki Du?e (E Poland) and Lake Yamozero (NW Russia). The focus of the review is on pollen, lithology and macrofossil- and insect-based temperature inferences. The long records are further compared with recent proxy data from nearby terrestrial sites as well as with the rapidly accumulating high-resolution proxy data from the ocean realm. The comparison allows a re-examination of the environmental history and climate evolution of the Last Interglacial-Glacial (LI-G) cycle (MIS 5-2). It shows that environmental and climate conditions during MIS 5 (ca 130-70 ka BP) were distinctly different from those during MIS 4-2 (ca 70-15 ka BP). MIS 5 is characterized by three long forested intervals (broadly corresponding to MIS 5e, 5c, 5a), both in temperate and northern boreal Europe. These mild periods were interrupted by two short, relatively cold and dry intervals (MIS 5d and 5b) with mountain-centered glaciation in Fennoscandia. Millennial scale climate events were superimposed upon these longer lasting climate fluctuations. The time interval encompassing MIS 4-2 shows open vegetation. It is characterized by two glacial maxima (MIS 4 and 2) with sub-continental scale glaciation over northern Europe and dry conditions in strongly continental eastern European settings. High amplitude climate oscillations of millennial duration characterized the climate variability of MIS 3. Mild climate conditions in early MIS 3 caused large-scale deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, and ice-free conditions with Betula-dominated vegetation (including tree birch) persisted over large parts of Fennoscandia, possibly interrupted by glaciation, during major part of MIS 3 till ca 35 ka BP. Overall, MIS 5 was mostly mild with warmest or peak interglacial conditions at the very start during MIS 5e. MIS 4-2 was mostly cold with most extreme or peak glacial conditions in the closing phase during MIS 2. This points to a subdivision of the last climate cycle into an early, overall mild interglacial half and a late, overall cold glacial half, each with duration of ca 50 ka. This review also shows that the climate variability in central and northern Europe during the LI-G cycle was mostly in degrees of continentality with major shifts in winter temperature and precipitation values; summer temperatures, on the other hand, remained largely unchanged. It points to the waxing and waning of sea-ice over the North Atlantic Ocean as a possible characteristic feature of the Late Pleistocene. The present compilation, based on long terrestrial sequences, high-resolution multi-proxy data from the oceans, and quantified paleo-climate data, strongly favors a definition of entire Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 as the Last Interglacial similar as in the original marine stratigraphy and the stratigraphy at La Grande Pile in France. The proxy-based climate data places the start of the Last Glacial at the base of MIS 4 and the northwest European Pleniglacial. It shows that the division between the Eemian (MIS 5e) and the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-a) is not useful, as not relevant from a climate point of view.

  15. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable, systemic and cost-effective tools for soil conservation, in order to improve the environmental resilience of the site.

  16. The mapping of ionospheric TEC for central Russian and European regions on the base of GPS and GLONASS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Ephishov, Ivan; Krankowski, Andrzej; Radievsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The total electron content (TEC) is a key parameter not only for space radio communication but also for addressing the fundamental problems of the ionosphere physics and near Earth space. Currently, the main sources of information on the TEC in the global scale are GNSS signals measurements. The spatial-temporal behavior of the ionosphere can be most effectively analyzed using TEC maps. To date, global IGS global ionospheric maps with a resolution of 2.5 degree in latitude and 5 in longitude and a time resolution of 2 h are most widely used. To study the detailed structure of the ionospheric gradients and rapid process as well as for precise positioning task it is necessary to use more precise regional TEC maps. The Regional TEC maps are currently constructed by different research groups for different regions: USA, Europe, Japan etc. The West Department of IZMIRAN research group is a one in Russia who works on the task of regional ionosphere mapping since 2000. It was developed the methodology for obtaining information on the spatial TEC distribution, TEC maps of the ionosphere on the basis of the algorithm for multi-station processing of GNSS observations. Using a set of algorithms and programs, regional TEC maps with a spatial resolution of 1° and a time resolution up to 15 min can be produced. Here is developed the approach to establish the regular online internet service for regional ionosphere mapping of the Western Russia and Eastern Europe. Nowadays the development of GLONASS navigation system is completely finished and it consists of a constellation of more than 24 satellites. It is good perspective for investigations of the ionosphere structure and dynamics on the base of the simultaneous observations of GPS and GLONASS systems. The GLONASS satellites have the inclination about 64 degrees as against GPS satellites with 56. So the GLONASS provides opportunity to study the high latitude ionosphere. The different scale electron density irregularities, presented in high latitude ionosphere, can complicate phase ambiguity resolution. As known the strong gradients are observed in polar ionosphere near equator and polar walls of the main ionospheric trough. At high latitudes GLONASS satellites are observed on higher elevations that decrease the influence of horizontal ionospheric gradients and as consequence enable represent with more true Total Electron Content over individual high latitude station. In the report we discuss the features determining TEC from GLONASS observations and demonstrate its advantages for the high latitude ionosphere's studies. A comparison with TEC measurements from GPS/GLONASS for quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions is also presented. This work is supported by RFBR grant 14-07-00512.

  17. Distribution of lithostratigraphic units within the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A three-dimensional computer-based model, Version YMP.R2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Buesch, D.C.; Nelson, J.E.; Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II; San Juan, C.A.; Spengler, R.W.; Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underlain by 14.0 to 11.6 Ma volcanic rocks tilted eastward 3{degree} to 20{degree} and cut by faults that were primarily active between 12.7 and 11.6 Ma. A three-dimensional computer-based model of the central block of the mountain consists of seven structural subblocks composed of six formations and the interstratified-bedded tuffaceous deposits. Rocks from the 12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon Tuff, which forms most of the exposed rocks on the mountain, to the 13.1 Ma Prow Pass Tuff are modeled with 13 surfaces. Modeled units represent single formations such as the Pah Canyon Tuff, grouped units such as the combination of the Yucca Mountain Tuff with the superjacent bedded tuff, and divisions of the Topopah Spring Tuff such as the crystal-poor vitrophyre interval. The model is based on data from 75 boreholes from which a structure contour map at the base of the Tiva Canyon Tuff and isochore maps for each unit are constructed to serve as primary input. Modeling consists of an iterative cycle that begins with the primary structure-contour map from which isochore values of the subjacent model unit are subtracted to produce the structure contour map on the base of the unit. This new structure contour map forms the input for another cycle of isochore subtraction to produce the next structure contour map. In this method of solids modeling, the model units are presented by surfaces (structure contour maps), and all surfaces are stored in the model. Surfaces can be converted to form volumes of model units with additional effort. This lithostratigraphic and structural model can be used for (1) storing data from, and planning future, site characterization activities, (2) preliminary geometry of units for design of Exploratory Studies Facility and potential repository, and (3) performance assessment evaluations.

  18. Centralized digital control of accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Melen, R.E.

    1983-09-01

    In contrasting the title of this paper with a second paper to be presented at this conference entitled Distributed Digital Control of Accelerators, a potential reader might be led to believe that this paper will focus on systems whose computing intelligence is centered in one or more computers in a centralized location. Instead, this paper will describe the architectural evolution of SLAC's computer based accelerator control systems with respect to the distribution of their intelligence. However, the use of the word centralized in the title is appropriate because these systems are based on the use of centralized large and computationally powerful processors that are typically supported by networks of smaller distributed processors.

  19. Fluctuations in surface pH of maturing rat incisor enamel are a result of cycles of H(+)-secretion by ameloblasts and variations in enamel buffer characteristics.

    PubMed

    Damkier, Helle H; Josephsen, Kaj; Takano, Yoshiro; Zahn, Dirk; Fejerskov, Ole; Frische, Sebastian

    2014-03-01

    It is disputed if ameloblasts in the maturation zone of the enamel organ mainly buffer protons released by hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal growth or if they periodically secrete protons to create alternating acidic and alkaline conditions. The latter hypothesis predicts alternating pH regimes in maturing enamel, which would be affected by pharmacological interference with ameloblast H(+)-secretion. This study tests these predictions. Colorimetric pH-indicators and ratiometric fluorometry were used to measure surface pH in maturation zone enamel of rat incisors. Alternating acidic (down to pH6.24±0.06) and alkaline zones (up to pH7.34±0.08) were found along the tooth coinciding with ameloblast morphological cycles. Underlying the cyclic pattern, a gradual decrease in pH towards the incisal edge was seen. Vinblastine or FR167356 (H(+)-ATPase-inhibitor) disturbed ameloblast acid-secretion, especially in the early parts of acidic zones. Enamel surface pH reflects the titration state of surface PO4(3-)-ions. At the pH-values observed, PO4(3-) would be protonated (pKa>12) and HA dissolved. However, by molecular dynamics simulations we estimate the pKa of HPO4(2-) at an ideal HA surface to be 4.3. The acidic pH measured at the enamel surface may thus only dissolve non-perfect domains of HA crystals in which PO4(3-) is less electrostatically shielded. During repeated alkaline/acidic cycles, near-perfect HA-domains may therefore gradually replace less perfect HA-domains resulting in near-perfect HA-crystals. In conclusion, cyclic changes in ameloblast H(+)-secretion and the degree of enamel maturation determine enamel surface pH. This is in accordance with a hypothesis implicating H(+)-ATPase mediated acid-secretion by ameloblasts. PMID:24373736

  20. Radioautography of rat incisor dentin as a continuous record of the incorporation of a single dose of /sup 3/H-labeled proline and tyrosine

    SciTech Connect

    Josephsen, K.; Warshawsky, H.

    1982-05-01

    After injection of labeled precursors such as /sup 3/H-proline or /sup 3/H-tyrosine into rats, the incisor dentin contains a continuous and stable record of precursor incorporation into labeled proteins. This record was visualized and quantitated with radioautography in order to evaluate the quantitative changes in enamel where newly secreted proteins randomize with older proteins and both are eventually lost. Up to 4 hours after injection, the pulse-dose was incorporated as a highly labeled band of predentin. The band was entirely within calcified dentin at 2 days and was further removed from new predentin by 4 and 8 days. Dentin which formed proximal to the heavily labeled band contained an amount of radioactivity reflecting the level of labeled precursor available at that time. A standardizing factor for experimental error was obtained by quantitating the reaction in the heavily labeled band, and a post-pulse incorporation factor was determined from the amount of radioactivity added per day as weakly labeled dentin. The variation within the heavily labeled band was assumed to reflect experimental error. The number of grains in the bands were averaged from 4 hours to 8 days to give the standardizing factor. This was multiplied by the ratio of enamel to dentin counts in the same section to obtain a corrected enamel count. With proline it amounted to 5% increase per day from 1 to 4 days and 2.5% per day from 4 to 8 days after injection. In addition, with /sup 3/H-proline the incorporation into predentin increased from 30 minutes to 4 hours. With tyrosine, the counts increased from 30 minutes to 1 hour, but decreased by nearly one third from 1 to 4 hours. This was interpreted as a loss of short-lived matrix proteins including procollagen peptides produced during conversion from procollagen to tropocollagen in the predentin.

  1. A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water represented somewhat diluted groundwater. Streamflow conductivity integrates the concentrations of the major ions, and the logistics of acquiring specific conductance at frequent time intervals are less complicated than data collection, sample processing, shipment, and analysis of water samples in a laboratory. The acquisition of continuous specific conductance data reduces uncertainty associated with less-frequently collected geochemical point data.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Central Appalachian Tree Species on Canopy Albedo via Measurement of Leaf Angles from Repeated Ground-based, Drone, and Hemispherical Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, B. E.; Erazo, D.; Heimerl, T.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements of forest albedo are directly used in climate models, and could be used in models of the C and N cycles if we more fully understood the mechanism causing a strong correlation of forest albedo with canopy N and C assimilation. One attractive mechanism posits that tree species have evolved convergent leaf and canopy traits. While the leaf traits of tree species are known to drive variability in canopy N and C assimilation, linking tree species to variability in albedo is challenging because of the difficulty in measuring important canopy traits like leaf angle. To refine techniques for measuring leaf angle, and test the hypothesis that high albedo in the central Appalachians could be linked to the abundance of species with canopy traits of more horizontal leaf angles, we conducted four tests with ground-based, drone, and hemispherical photographs. First, we used a leveled camera on a steep slope to repeatedly, and directly measure the leaf angle of over 400 leaves within the canopies of oak, maple, and beech trees. Across all 21 repetitions (3 times a day on 7 dates between May and July), we observed consistent species differences in mean leaf angle (MLA), with maple always being the most horizontal (MLA = 14-18°) and oak the most vertical (MLA = 19-28°). Second, we again found highly significant species differences in MLA when we used a hexacopter drone with a camera on a self-leveling gimbal to make over 1020 direct measurements of leaf angle from six tree species in three broadleaf deciduous forest plots. Third, to measure MLA of a whole multi-species canopy, we compared a species abundance-weighted plot average of the drone-measured MLA values with an indirect, ground-based hemispherical photograph method. The strong agreement of these direct and indirect plot-level methods finally led us to compare a broader set of 61 plot-level hemispherical photo MLA measurements with canopy albedo measured by AVIRIS in broadleaf deciduous forests. In this last test, we found strong support (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.0001) for the hypothesis that more horizontal MLA causes higher albedo. This final result, coupled with the observed strong species differences in MLA, lends support to the idea that the high albedo in the Central Appalachians may be linked to high abundances of tree species with canopy traits of horizontal MLA.

  3. Project EARTH-15-RW1: Active faulting and earthquakes in Central Asia from high-resolution space-based and field observations

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-15-RW1: Active faulting and earthquakes in Central Asia from high-resolution space tectonics of Central Asia, ranging from the cumulative effects of repeated earthquakes on the landscape through to detailed analyses of individual earthquakes both ancient and modern. The active faulting

  4. Relationships between precipitation and floods in the fluvial basins of Central Spain based on documentary sources from the end of the 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullón, T.

    2011-08-01

    This study presents the results of a historic reconstruction based upon documentary sources of precipitation and floods during the last fifty years of the 16th century in Central Spain. We used data from primary sources contemporary to the events rather than compilations or secondary references. These documents belong to the institutions that administered the study area during the time period of interest and consist of municipal or monastic minute books and administrative texts from properties belonging to the nobility and royal family. Direct data that explicitly describe meteorological or flood-related events are haphazardly distributed throughout personal correspondence and various reports, and the sizes of floods or precipitation events can also be deduced from indirect data. We analysed the qualitative data by transforming them into numerical indices of intensity/duration for precipitation and intensity/area for floods. We differentiated three sets of years that presented different hydrological patterns. The first period, from 1554 to 1575, exhibited regular precipitation patterns associated with low-intensity floods. The second, from 1576 to 1584, was characterised by low precipitation levels and few floods. The third, from 1585 to 1599, showed intense precipitation with large floods interspersed with long-lasting droughts. We interpret these results in the context of the environmental and land-use patterns of the time period studied, which coincided with a period of low temperatures.

  5. [Suitability assessment of construction land in the central and southern parts of Hebei Province, China based on potential-limitation model].

    PubMed

    Yin, Hai-wei; Kong, Fan-hua; Luo, Zhen-dong; Yan, Wei-jiao; Sun, Chang-feng; Xu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The suitability assessment of regional construction land is one of the important prerequisites for the spatial arrangement in regional planning, and also, the important foundation for the reasonable utilization of regional land resources. With the support of GIS, and by using the regional comprehensive strength and spatial accessibility analysis and the eco-environmental sensitivity analysis, this paper quantitatively analyzed the development potential and its ecological limitation of the central and southern parts of Hebei Province. Besides, based on the cost-benefit analysis, the potential-limitation model was accordingly developed, and the three land suitability scenarios under different developmental concepts were captured through the interaction matrix. The results indicated that both the comprehensive strength and the development potential of the study area showed a primacy distribution pattern, and presented an obvious pole-axis spatial pattern. The areas with higher eco-environmental sensitivity were mainly distributed in the west regions, while those with lower eco-environmental sensitivity were in the east regions. Regional economic development concept had important effects on the regional ecological security pattern and urban growth. The newly developed principles and methods for the land suitability assessment in this paper could not only scientifically realize the spatial grid of regional development potential and capture the future land development trend and spatial distribution, but also provide scientific basis and effective ways for urban and regional planning to realize region 'smart growth' and 'smart conservation'. PMID:24380348

  6. Burial and thermal history of the central Appalachian basin, based on three 2-D models of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Three regional-scale, cross sectional (2-D) burial and thermal history models are presented for the central Appalachian basin based on the detailed geologic cross sections of Ryder and others (2004), Crangle and others (2005), and Ryder, R.T., written communication. The models integrate the available thermal and geologic information to constrain the burial, uplift, and erosion history of the region. The models are restricted to the relatively undeformed part of the basin and extend from the Rome trough in West Virginia and Pennsylvania northwestward to the Findlay arch in Ohio. This study expands the scope of previous work by Rowan and others (2004) which presented a preliminary burial/thermal history model for a cross section (E-E') through West Virginia and Ohio. In the current study, the burial/thermal history model for E-E' is revised, and integrated with results of two additional cross sectional models (D-D' and C-C'). The burial/thermal history models provide calculated thermal maturity (Ro%) values for the entire stratigraphic sequence, including hydrocarbon source rocks, along each of the three cross sections. In contrast, the Ro and conodont CAI data available in the literature are sparse and limited to specific stratigraphic intervals. The burial/thermal history models also provide the regional temperature and pressure framework that is needed to model hydrocarbon migration.

  7. WDM-PON access network with lightwave source centralized full-duplex link based on SSB-OOFDM for wired and 60 GHz band wireless alternative accesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianxin; Wang, Zhao; Zheng, Guoli

    2014-04-01

    A novel lightwave centralized full-duplex WDM-PON access network based on single sideband optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (SSB-OOFDM) is proposed for providing wired and 60-GHz band wireless accesses alternately. At the OLT, the multi-channels with 10-Gb/s 4-QAM-RF-OFDM signals are SSB modulated on the optical local oscillators (OLOs). At the RN, one OOFDM signal along with two OLOs is abstracted and switched to the corresponding HONU, where the signal can be downconverted to the 10-GHz or 60-GHz band RF-OFDM signal by one OLO for wired or wireless access, while the other one is used to bear the uplink signal. Since the HONU is free from the light sources, the system complexity and cost are reduced. Full duplex transmission over 25 km fiber have been demonstrated that the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the down- and up-link signals are much below the FEC limit for both the wired and 60-GHz band wireless access services.

  8. Reservoir characteristics of two minter oil sands based on continuous core, E-logs, and geochemical data: Bee Brake field, East-Central Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, J.B.; Goddard, D.A.; Bouma, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The Bee Brake field area, located in township 4N/6E and 4N/7E in Concordia Parish, has been one of the more prolific oil-producing areas in east-central Louisiana. Production decline in various fields, however, has sparked interest in the economic feasibility of locating and producing the remaining bypassed oil in the lower Wilcox. For this purpose, the Angelina BBF No. 1 well was drilled, and a 500-ft conventional core and a complete suite of state-of-the-are wireline logs were recovered. Production tests were run on the Minter interval of interest. The 16-ft Minter interval (6742-6758 ft depth), bounded at its top and base by lignite seams, consists of an upper 4-ft oil sand (Bee Brake) and a lower 3-ft oil sand (Angelina). The oil sands are separated by approximately 5 ft of thinly laminated silty shale and 4 ft of very fine-grained silty sandstone. Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic descriptions of the Minter interval provide accurate facies determinations of this lower delta-plain sequence. Petrophysical evaluation, combining core plug and modern electric-log data show differences between reservoir quality of the Bee Brake and Angelina sands. This data will also be useful for correlating and interpolating old electric logs. Organic geochemistry of the oil, lignites, and shales provides insight as to the source of the Minter oils and the sourcing potential of the lignites.

  9. The Spatial Pattern of Seismicity in Western Montana and Central Idaho: An Explanation Based on Seismic Tomography of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, D.; Sprenke, K. F.

    2013-12-01

    In the recent years, resolution of seismic velocity perturbations in the upper mantle beneath the Idaho-Montana region has been significantly improved with the results from EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array. Tomographic models indicate a strong S-wave low velocity anomaly beneath the Snake River Plain (SRP) volcanic province possibly resulting from mantle flow at the tip and around an edge of a fragmented Farallon slab at depth below the SRP. The elongated low-velocity zone coincides with the axis of the Yellowstone seismic parabola. Further north we have delineated a similar pattern of parabolic seismicity surrounding an elongate low-velocity zone cutting across central Idaho and western Montana subparallel to the SRP. This low-velocity strip may represent a tip-and-edge flow from another advancing remnant of the Farallon slab--this one lying below the Idaho batholith and culminating in a vertex near Bozeman. Based on a hypothesis that lateral thermal contrast is related to the seismicity, our result may lead to refinements in current seismic hazard maps of the region.

  10. GIS-based multicriteria overlay analysis in soil-suitability evaluation for cotton (Gossypium spp.): A case study in the black soil region of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walke, N.; Obi Reddy, G. P.; Maji, A. K.; Thayalan, S.

    2012-04-01

    In this study an attempt was made to characterize the soils of the Ringanbodi watershed, Nagpur district, Maharashtra, Central India, for soil-suitability evaluation for cotton using geographic information system (GIS)-based multicriteria overlay analysis techniques. The study shows that 8 soil series and 16 soil series associations in the study area and soils were classified into three orders, i.e., Entisol, Inceptisol, and Vertisol. The analysis reveals that the soil associations E-F, F-G, G-H, and H-G are "moderately suitable" (S2), D-E are "marginally to moderately suitable," and C-D are marginally (S3) suitable. However, soils B-C are "not suitable" to "marginally suitable" (N2-S3) and A-B are "unsuitable" (N2) for cultivation of cotton. The area analysis shows that for a cotton crop an area about 966.7 ha (49.1%) of TGA is moderately suitable and classified as S2. An area about 469.9 ha (23.8%) of TGA is marginal to moderately suitable (S3-S2). The marginally suitable soils for cotton are classified as S3 and cover an area about 35.2 ha (1.8%) of TGA. However, a 172.3 ha (8.7%) area is not suitable (N2) to marginally suitable (S3) and a 326.9 (16.6%) area is not suitable (N2) for cotton because of uncorrectable factors like soil depth, slope, etc. The study demonstrated that GIS-based multicriteria overlay analysis of soil thematic parameters will be of immense help in soil-suitability evaluation for cotton.

  11. Landslide susceptibility analysis in central Vietnam based on an incomplete landslide inventory: Comparison of a new method to calculate weighting factors by means of bivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt, Markus; Fink, Manfred; Tünschel, Hannes

    2015-04-01

    Vietnam is regarded as a country strongly impacted by climate change. Population and economic growth result in additional pressures on the ecosystems in the region. In particular, changes in landuse and precipitation extremes lead to a higher landslide susceptibility in the study area (approx. 12,400 km2), located in central Vietnam and impacted by a tropical monsoon climate. Hence, this natural hazard is a serious problem in the study area. A probability assessment of landslides is therefore undertaken through the use of bivariate statistics. However, the landslide inventory based only on field campaigns does not cover the whole area. To avoid a systematic bias due to the limited mapping area, the investigated regions are depicted as the viewshed in the calculations. On this basis, the distribution of the landslides is evaluated in relation to the maps of 13 parameters, showing the strongest correlation to distance to roads and precipitation increase. An additional weighting of the input parameters leads to better results, since some parameters contribute more to landslides than others. The method developed in this work is based on the validation of different parameter sets used within the statistical index method. It is called "omit error" because always omitting another parameter leads to the weightings, which describe how strong every single parameter improves or reduces the objective function. Furthermore, this approach is used to find a better input parameter set by excluding some parameters. After this optimization, nine input parameters are left, and they are weighted by the omit error method, providing the best susceptibility map with a success rate of 92.9% and a prediction rate of 92.3%. This is an improvement of 4.4% and 4.2%, respectively, compared to the basic statistical index method with the 13 input parameters.

  12. Development and delivery of ecologically-based IPM packages for wheat in Central Asia Shahlo Safarzoda1, Nurali Saidov2, Anvar Jalilov3, Mustapha El-Bouhssini4, Megan Kennelly5, Doug Landis1

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Development and delivery of ecologically-based IPM packages for wheat in Central Asia Shahlo. While wheat has become the main staple food crop in Tajikistan, a deficit of research and knowledge. Screening wheat varieties for resistance to cereal leaf beetle (CLB) The first field trial was established

  13. Review of Central Asian Place-names – Lop nor and Tarim area – An Attempt at Classification and Explanation Based on Sven Hedin’s Diaries and Published Works, by Gunnar Jarring (1997).

    E-print Network

    Dwyer, Arienne M.

    2000-01-01

    =UTF-8 Citation: Dwyer, Arienne M. 2000. Review of Central Asian Place-names – Lop nor and Tarim area – An Attempt at Classification and Explanation Based on Sven Hedin’s Diaries and Published Works, by Gunnar Jarring (1997). Turkic Languages...

  14. Additional Evidence for Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus Sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java)

    PubMed Central

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  15. Additional evidence for morpho-dimensional tooth crown variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java).

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  16. Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jonathan S; Symonds, Catherine; Birch, Rolfe

    2004-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and baseline pain score of four or more on an 11-point ordinate scale participated in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three period crossover study. All patients had intractable symptoms regardless of current analgesic therapy. Patients entered a baseline period of 2 weeks, followed by three, 2-week treatment periods during each of which they received one of three oromucosal spray preparations. These were placebo and two whole plant extracts of Cannabis sativa L.: GW-1000-02 (Sativex), containing Delta(9)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) in an approximate 1:1 ratio and GW-2000-02, containing primarily THC. The primary outcome measure was the mean pain severity score during the last 7 days of treatment. Secondary outcome measures included pain related quality of life assessments. The primary outcome measure failed to fall by the two points defined in our hypothesis. However, both this measure and measures of sleep showed statistically significant improvements. The study medications were generally well tolerated with the majority of adverse events, including intoxication type reactions, being mild to moderate in severity and resolving spontaneously. Studies of longer duration in neuropathic pain are required to confirm a clinically relevant, improvement in the treatment of this condition. PMID:15561385

  17. Late Holocene evolution of playa lakes in the central Ebro depression based on geophysical surveys and morpho-stratigraphic analysis of lacustrine terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Desir, G.; González-Sampériz, P.; Gutiérrez, M.; Linares, R.; Zarroca, M.; Moreno, A.; Guerrero, J.; Roqué, C.; Arnold, L. J.; Demuro, M.

    2013-08-01

    The origin and morpho-stratigraphic evolution of the largest playa-lake system (La Playa-El Pueyo) in the Bujaraloz-Sástago endorheic area, located in the semiarid central sector of the Ebro Depression, are analysed. The enclosed depressions are developed on gypsiferous Tertiary bedrock and show a prevalent WNW-ESE orientation parallel to the direction of the prevalent strong local wind (Cierzo). Yardangs have been carved in bedrock and unconsolidated terrace deposits in the leeward sector of the largest lake basins. A sequence of three lacustrine terrace levels has been identified by detailed geomorphological mapping. The treads of the upper, middle and lower terrace levels are situated at + 9 m, + 6 m and + 0.5 m above the playa-lake floors, respectively. Seismic refraction and electrical resistivity profiles acquired in La Playa reveal a thin basin fill (~ 2 m) with a planar base. These data allow ruling out the genetic hypothesis for the depressions involving the collapse of large bedrock cavities and support a mixed genesis of combined widespread dissolution and subsidence by groundwater discharge and eolian deflation during dry periods. The 5 m thick deposit of the middle terrace was investigated in hand-dug and backhoe trenches. Six AMS radiocarbon ages from this terrace indicate an aggradation phase between 3.9 ka and ca. 2 ka. These numerical ages yield a maximum average aggradation rate of 2.6 mm/yr and a minimum excavation rate by wind deflation of 3 mm/yr subsequent to the accumulation of the middle terrace. The latter figure compares well with those calculated in several arid regions of the world using yardangs carved in palaeolake deposits. The aggradation phase between 4 and 2 ka is coherent with other Iberian and Mediterranean records showing relatively more humid conditions after 4 ka, including the Iron Ages and the Iberian-Roman Period.

  18. Discrimination of fluvial, eolian and neotectonic features in a low hilly landscape: A DEM-based morphotectonic analysis in the Central Pannonian Basin, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszkiczay-Rüdiger, Zsófia; Fodor, László; Horváth, Erzsébet; Telbisz, Tamás

    2009-03-01

    The Gödöll? Hills, a low-relief terrain within the Central Pannonian Basin in Hungary, is characterised by moderate tectonic deformation rates. Although typical tectonic landforms are not clearly recognisable in the study area, this paper succeeded in discriminating between tectonically controlled landforms and features shaped by fluvial erosion or deflation with no tectonic control. DEM-based morphometric parameters including elevation, slope and surface roughness, enabled the delineation of two NW-SE trending spearhead-shaped ridges separated by a wide rectilinear valley of the same strike. Although directional statistics suggested possible tectonic control of NW-SE striking landforms, precise morphometry completed with an analysis of subsurface structures rejected their tectonic preformation. Deflation plays a significant role in shaping the area, and the presence of two large-scale yardangs separated by a wind channel is proposed. In temperate-continental areas of Europe, no deflational landforms of such scale have been described so far, suggesting that Pleistocene wind power in periglacial areas was more significant than it was previously thought. Characteristic drainage patterns and longitudinal valley profiles enabled the recognition of areas probably affected by neotectonic deformation. A good agreement was observed between locations of Quaternary warping predicted by the morphometric study and subsurface structures revealed by the tectonic analysis. Zones of surface uplift and subsidence corresponded to anticlinal and synclinal hinges of fault-related folds. In low-relief and slowly-deforming areas, where exogenous forces may override tectonic deformation, only the integrated application of morphometric and subsurface-structural indications could assure correct interpretation of the origin of various landforms, while a morphometric study alone could have led to misinterpretation of some morphometric indices apparently suggesting tectonic preformation. On the other hand, the described morphological expression of subsurface structures could verify Quaternary age of the deformation.

  19. Satellite-based prediction of rainfall interception by tropical forest stands of a human-dominated landscape in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieschulze, Jens; Erasmi, Stefan; Dietz, Johannes; Hölscher, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    SummaryRainforest conversion to other land use types drastically alters the hydrological cycle in which changes in rainfall interception contribute significantly to the observed differences. However, little is known about the effects of more gradual changes in forest structure and at regional scales. We studied land use types ranging from natural forest over selectively-logged forest to cacao agroforest in a lower montane region in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, and tested the suitability of high-resolution optical satellite imagery for modeling observed interception patterns. Investigated characteristics indicating canopy structure were mean and standard deviation of reflectance values, local maxima, and self-similarity measures based on the grey level co-occurrence matrix and geostatistical variogram analysis. Previously studied and published rainfall interception data comprised twelve plots and median values per land use type ranged from 30% in natural forest to 18% in cacao agroforests. A linear regression model with local maxima, mean contrast and normalized digital vegetation index (NDVI) as regressors was able to explain more than 84% ( Radj2) of the variation encountered in the data. Other investigated characteristics did not prove significant in the regression analysis. The model yielded stable results with respect to cross-validation and also produced realistic values and spatial patterns when applied at the landscape level (783.6 ha). High values of interception were rare and localized in natural forest stands distant to villages, whereas low interception characterized the intensively used sites close to settlements. We conclude that forest use intensity significantly reduced rainfall interception and satellite image analysis can successfully be applied for its regional prediction, and most forest in the study region has already been subject to human-induced structural changes.

  20. Structure-based functional characterization of repressor of toxin (Rot), a central regulator of staphylococcus aureus virulence

    SciTech Connect

    Killikelly, April; Jakoncic, Jean; Benson, Meredith A.; Ohneck, Elizabeth A.; Sampson, Jared M.; Spurrier, Brett; Torres, Victoer J.; Kong, Xian -Peng

    2014-10-20

    Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large number of diverse infections worldwide. In order to support its pathogenic lifestyle, S. aureus has to regulate the expression of virulence factors in a coordinated fashion. One of the central regulators of the S. aureus virulence regulatory networks is the transcription factor repressor of toxin (Rot). Rot plays a key role in regulating S. aureus virulence through activation or repression of promoters that control expression of a large number of critical virulence factors. However, the mechanism by which Rot mediates gene regulation has remained elusive. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Rot and used this information to probe the contribution made by specific residues to Rot function. Rot was found to form a dimer, with each monomer harboring a winged helix-turn-helix (WHTH) DNA-binding motif. Despite an overall acidic pI, the asymmetric electrostatic charge profile suggests that Rot can orient the WHTH domain to bind DNA. Structure-based site-directed mutagenesis studies demonstrated that R91, at the tip of the wing, plays an important role in DNA binding, likely through interaction with the minor groove. We also found that Y66, predicted to bind within the major groove, contributes to Rot interaction with target promoters. Evaluation of Rot binding to different activated and repressed promoters revealed that certain mutations on Rot exhibit promoter-specific effects, suggesting for the first time that Rot differentially interacts with target promoters. As a result, this work provides insight into a precise mechanism by which Rot controls virulence factor regulation in S. aureus.

  1. Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus bovine mastitis strains from regions of Central-Eastern Poland based on their biochemical and genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Puacz, E; Ilczyszyn, W M; Kosecka, M; Buda, A; Dudziak, W; Polakowska, K; Panz, T; Bia?ecka, A; Kasprowicz, A; Lisowski, A; Krukowski, H; Cuteri, V; Mi?dzobrodzki, J

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from mastitic milk of cows with infected mammary glands. The animals were living in 12 different farms near Lublin, in Central-Eastern Poland. A biochemical identification method based on enzymatic assay was performed, followed by haemolytic and proteolytic tests. PCR-RFLP targeted on the gap gene allowed the genetic identification of strains at the species level and verified phenotypic identification results. A molecular typing method using triplex PCR was performed to recognize the genetic similarity of the analyzed strains. DNA microarray hybridization (StaphyType, Alere Technologies) was used for detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence associated markers. The results obtained indicate high genetic similarity in strains isolated from the same sites. High genetic similarities were also detected between strains isolated from cows from different farms of the same region. A slightly lower similarity was noted however, in strains from various regions indicating that the strains are herd specific and that the cow's infections caused by S. aureus were of a clonal character. In 21 representative isolates selected for DNA-microarray testing, only fosfomycin (fosB) and penicillin resistance markers (blaZ, blaI, blaR) were detected. The presence of genes coding for haemolysins (lukF, lukS, hlgA, hla, hld, hlb), proteases (aur, sspA, sspB, sspP), enterotoxins (entA, entD, entG, entI, entJ, entM, entN, entO, entR, entU, egc-cluster), adhesins (icaA, icaC, icaD, bbp, clfA, clfB, fib, fnbA, map, vwb) or immune evasion proteins (scn, chp, sak) was common and, with exceptions, matched triplex PCR-defined clusters. PMID:26172183

  2. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  3. Central hypothyroidism in children.

    PubMed

    García, Marta; Fernández, Ana; Moreno, José C

    2014-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is an underdiagnosed disorder poorly described in childhood and adolescence. Congenital defects in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis, secretion or bioactivity may lead to a state of 'regulatory' hypothyroidism expressed through aberrantly low or normal TSH levels and low thyroxine (T4), a hormonal pattern undetectable by TSH-based neonatal screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) implemented in most countries worldwide. CCH is more prevalent than previously thought, reaching 1 in 16,000 neonates in countries consistently identifying CCH through T4-based CH screening strategies. Neonatal detection and early treatment of CCH would prevent the risk of developing mental retardation secondary to late diagnosis of infantile hypothyroidism. CCH is frequently associated with other pituitary defects causing life-threatening situations (like e.g. adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency) which could benefit from the early detection of CCH, avoiding considerable morbidity and mortality. CCH is not easy to identify clinically, and therefore few children are investigated for the disorder. The current knowledge on the genetic bases of CCH is also scarce. At the hypothalamic level no gene defects causing CCH have yet been identified in humans, but pituitary (thyrotrope)-selective genes encoding the TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor (TRHR), the TSH ?-subunit (TSHB) and, recently, the immunoglobulin superfamily factor 1 (IGSF1) are genes involved in isolated central hypothyroidism. Moreover, central hypothyroidism is a complex condition where many regulatory signals are implicated and converge to finely modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. This review focuses on novel pathogenic mechanisms and their implications to understand human CCH and improve the identification and the therapeutic handling of this elusive disease in the pediatric age. PMID:25231446

  4. Properties of the Central American cold surge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, James P.; Reding, Philip J.; Zhang, Yuxia

    1993-01-01

    The Central American cold surge (CACS) is a frontal incursion from the United States into Central America and resembles the East Asian cold surge. They occur more frequently than analyzed by NMC or by published results, based on our observations between 1979 and 1990. Climatology and structure are quantified, based on surface and upper air stations throughout Central America and satellite products from GOES visible and infrared sensors and SSM/I precipitable water and rain rate sensors.

  5. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  6. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  7. Evolution of the inland vertical structure of a coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer in the Central Mediterranean using surface and ground -based remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempreviva, Am; Lo Feudo, T.; Calidonna, C.; Wagner, R.; Courtney, Ms; de Leo, L.; Federico, S.; Avolio, E.

    2010-09-01

    The understanding of the coastal atmospheric processes requires the availability of complete datasets spanning from the surface to the top of the Atmos-pheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and high resolution modelling to resolve the coastal discontinuity. To study the development of the vertical structure of the coastal flow under different meteorological situations, we carried out an intensive experimental campaign at a site located 600 m inland from the shoreline in the Central Mediterranean area during July 2009 integrating optical and acoustic ground-based remote sensing information and surface standard measurements. In this area, the sea breeze always develops but sometime is overdriven by the synoptic flow that blows from the same direction. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) and SODAR (SOnic Detection And Ranging) allow deriving the vertical profiles of wind speed and direction and of some turbulence characteristics. Furthermore, the vertical profile of the backscatter intensity of the ceilometer (LIDAR) detects the height of the boundary layer with respect to the aerosol concentration. We observed that when synoptic conditions are favourable to sea breezes development, the air masses with marine aerosols are advected over land in the early morning interacting with the nighttime boundary layer. After the onset of the sea breeze an internal boundary layer develops from the coastal dis-continuity, the height of the boundary layerdetected by the ceilometer decreases, likely due to the advection of the marine aerosols above the IBL creating a discontinuity in the aerosol concentration and size distri-bution. Later in the morning, when the breeze is well developed, convection takes over and mixes marine and continental aerosols creating a homogeneous content of aerosols filling the convective layer. During stationary synoptic flow with wind speed typically lar-ger than 4 ms-1, marine aerosols are mixed with continental aerosols and the height of the boundary layer detected by the ceilometer does not varies. During nigh-time a stable layer develops, both SODAR and Doppler LIDAR reveal the development of a low level jet.

  8. Approximation and spatial regionalization of rainfall erosivity based on sparse data in a mountainous catchment of the Yangtze River in Central China.

    PubMed

    Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Bosch, Anna; Behrens, Thorsten; Hartmann, Heike; Shi, Xuezheng; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    In densely populated countries like China, clean water is one of the most challenging issues of prospective politics and environmental planning. Water pollution and eutrophication by excessive input of nitrogen and phosphorous from nonpoint sources is mostly linked to soil erosion from agricultural land. In order to prevent such water pollution by diffuse matter fluxes, knowledge about the extent of soil loss and the spatial distribution of hot spots of soil erosion is essential. In remote areas such as the mountainous regions of the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, rainfall data are scarce. Since rainfall erosivity is one of the key factors in soil erosion modeling, e.g., expressed as R factor in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, a methodology is needed to spatially determine rainfall erosivity. Our study aims at the approximation and spatial regionalization of rainfall erosivity from sparse data in the large (3,200 km(2)) and strongly mountainous catchment of the Xiangxi River, a first order tributary to the Yangtze River close to the Three Gorges Dam. As data on rainfall were only obtainable in daily records for one climate station in the central part of the catchment and five stations in its surrounding area, we approximated rainfall erosivity as R factors using regression analysis combined with elevation bands derived from a digital elevation model. The mean annual R factor (R a) amounts for approximately 5,222 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1). With increasing altitudes, R a rises up to maximum 7,547 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1) at an altitude of 3,078 m a.s.l. At the outlet of the Xiangxi catchment erosivity is at minimum with approximate R a=1,986 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1). The comparison of our results with R factors from high-resolution measurements at comparable study sites close to the Xiangxi catchment shows good consistance and allows us to calculate grid-based R a as input for a spatially high-resolution and area-specific assessment of soil erosion risk. PMID:23340898

  9. Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Associated Factors among Pre-School Children in Butajira Town, South-Central Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shumbej, Teha; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Tefera, Tamirat; Zemene, Endalew

    2015-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) remain a major public health problem, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Though infections are prevalent among all age groups, the world health organization (WHO) considers Pre-school age children (PSAC), school-aged children, and pregnant women as segments of population at high risk of STH morbidities. Objective This study aimed at determining the prevalence and infection intensity of STH and associated factors among PSAC in Butajira Town, south-central Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June, 2014 in Butajira Town. The PSAC were selected by systematic sampling technique and invited to participate in the present study. McMaster technique was employed for parasitological analysis of stool samples. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were performed where appropriate to identify any association between STH infection and independent factors. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify independent predictors of STH among the PSAC. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 377 (with 96% compliance rate) PSAC were able to provide complete data (socio-demographic information and stool sample). The study showed that 23.3% (88/377) PSAC were infected with one or more species of STH. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent STH (14.9%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (6.4%). The overall infection intensity, expressed as geometric mean for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworms were 229, 178, and 154 eggs per gram of stool, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression model estimated that being in the age group of 36–47 months (AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.2–5.3, P = 0.016), untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8–5.5, P < 0.001), and not washing hands before a meal (AOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7–5.4, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of STH infections among the children. Conclusion The present study showed that STH was a public health problem among PSAC in the study area necessitating annual deworming to control morbidities associated with STH. Besides, the existing health education program should also be strengthened to prevent re-infection. PMID:26305361

  10. A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.

    2003-01-01

    This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this project were delivered at eleven different scientific meetings. Thus far, three publications have resulted from this project with another five in preparation. No subject inventions resulted from this research project.

  11. A fluorescence based method, exploiting lipofuscin, for the real-time detection of central nervous system (CNS) tissues on bovine carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The removal of Central Nervous System (CNS) tissues as part of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) risk material is one of the highest priority tasks to avoid contamination of the human food chain with BSE. No currently available method enables the real-time detection of possible CNS tissue conta...

  12. REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  13. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  14. Lack of correlation between tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and leakage in roots filled with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, Ricardo; da SILVA NETO, Ulisses Xavier; CARNEIRO, Everdan; FARINIUK, Luiz Fernando; WESTPHALEN, Vânia Portela Ditzel; CUNHA, Rodrigo Sanches

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze possible correlations among tubular dentine cement penetration, adhesiveness and apical leakage in fillings performed with gutta percha and an endodontic cement based on epoxy amine resin. Material and Methods Sixty similar, extracted human mandibular central incisors were irrigated, instrumented and filled following the same protocol. First, apical leakage was quantified by fluid filtration tests. Then, these same specimens were sectioned for analysis of tubular dentine cement penetration and the middle thirds were submitted to push-out tests to analyze the adhesiveness of the fillings. Results In brief, the means and standard deviations with a confidence interval of 95% were as follows: tubular dentine cement penetration (8.875±4.540), adhesiveness (4.441±2.683) and apical leakage (0.318±0.215). The data were confronted using the Pearson's test (P>0.05), and it was possible to prove that there was no correlation between (1) tubular dentine cement penetration and apical leakage (r2: 0.08276), (2) tubular dentine cement penetration and adhesiveness (r2: -0.2412) and (3) adhesiveness and apical leakage (r2: 0.1340). Conclusion After analysis of these data, it could be observed that there exists no correlation among the variables analyzed in this study. PMID:24626245

  15. Robustness of centrality measures against network manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Qikai; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2015-11-01

    Node centrality is an important quantity to consider in studying complex networks as it is related to many applications ranging from the prediction of network structure to the control of dynamics on networks. In the literature, much effort has been devoted to design new centrality measurements. However, the reliability of these centrality measurements has not been fully assessed, particularly with respect to the fact that many real networks are facing different kinds of manipulations such as addition, removal or rewiring of links. In this paper, we focus on the robustness of classic centrality measures against network manipulation. Our analysis is based on both artificial and real networks. We find that the centrality measurements are generally more robust in heterogeneous networks. Biased link manipulation could more seriously distort the centrality measures than random link manipulation. Moreover, the top part of the centrality ranking is more resistant to manipulation.

  16. Microevolution in lower Central America: genetic characterization of the Chibcha-speaking groups of Costa Rica and Panama, and a consensus taxonomy based on genetic and linguistic affinity.

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, R; Smouse, P E; Mohrenweiser, H W; Gershowitz, H; Azofeifa, J; Arias, T D; Neel, J V

    1990-01-01

    There is evidence that Amerindians have continuously occupied the lower Central American Isthmus for as long as 10,000 years. There remains some doubt about the relationships of these original colonizers to the resident peoples of this zone at the time of European contact (approximately A.D. 1500). We present new genetic data for up to 48 genetic loci for 570 members of six Chibcha-speaking tribes of lower Central America--the Boruca, Bribri, Cabecar, and Guatuso of Costa Rica and the Kuna and Teribe of Panama--and delineate the genetic affinities among the various groups (these six tribes and the Guaymi and Bokota) of lower Central America. We convert standard genetic distance metrics into a form that is linear with the effective time since divergence, and we compare the genetic distances with linguistic distances for the same groups (r = .74, P less than .001). Geographic affinity accounts for some of the genetic divergence among groups (r = .49, P less than .084) and for some of the linguistic divergence (r = .53, P less than .037), but the correspondence between geographic position and taxonomic affinity is not high. We combine all of the genetic and linguistic data to construct a synthetic overview taxonomy of the lower Central American Chibcha. Both the genetic and linguistic data exhibit hierarchical organization of tribal groups, showing a general east-to-west pattern of grouping, with greater affinities between close neighbors. The presence of private genetic variants of some antiquity within the region and their absence outside the zone, coupled with the essential absence of the DI*A polymorphism of mongoloid origin that is widespread outside the zone, argue for a relatively isolated development of the Central American Chibcha. Our results do not support the old view of lower Central America as a frontier between more advanced cultures to the north and south. Any such explanation would require recent waves of migration from outside the region, migration that is not compatible with either the genetic or linguistic data or with the archaeological history of the region. PMID:2294755

  17. Subspace Optimization in Centralized Noncoherent

    E-print Network

    Lemmon, Michael

    , taking advantage of aspect-dependent radar cross section (RCS) to significantly improve the abilitySubspace Optimization in Centralized Noncoherent MIMO Radar THOMAS G. PRATT, Senior Member, IEEE (MIMO) radar based on various measures such as capacity, diversity, and probability of detection

  18. Modern seasonal variability of central Arctic Ocean sea-ice cover: Reconstruction based on biomarker ("IP25" and "PIP25") data from sediment trap samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahl, K.; Stein, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the Polarstern 1995 Expedition, a long-term mooring system with two cone-shaped multi-sampling traps was deployed at the dominantly ice-covered western slope of the southern Lomonosov Ridge (81°04.5'N, 138°54.0'E, 1712 m water depth). One trap was installed at 150 m below the sea surface, the other at 150 m above the bottom at 1550 m depth; material was collected in 20 time intervals between September 1995 and August 1996. For background data see Fahl and Nöthig (2007). Here, we present new biomarker data recording the seasonal variability of sea-ice cover. This type of data representing modern seasonal variability of the sea-ice biomarker proxies, was not available so far from the central Arctic Ocean but may help significantly the interpretation of these proxies to be used in sedimentary records for reconstruction of paleo-sea-ice distributions. In this study, we have focused on the novel sea ice proxy "IP25", a direct proxy for sea ice coverage (Belt et al., 2007). Furthermore, we used the phytoplankton-IP25 index ("PIP25" Index), a further development of the IP25 index, based on the coupling of the environmental information carried by IP25 (sea ice) and brassicasterol (open-water phytoplankton productivity) (Müller et al., 2011). The interval November 1995 to June 1996 is characterized by the absence of the sea-ice proxy IP25 (except very minor values for January and April), suggesting a predominantly permanent sea-ice cover at the trap location. During July/August 1996, maximum fluxes of the diatom-specific fatty acids and brassicasterol as well as maximum contents of biogenic opal (Fahl and Nöthig, 2007) indicate increased primary productivity. The marine organic matter (here POC, brassicasterol, and fatty acids) and the IP25 values decrease systematically from 150 to 1550m depth, indicating the typical biogeochemical degradation with increasing water depth. Due to the coincidence of maximum abundances of sea-ice proxies and open-ocean primary productivity proxies during the July/August time interval we propose a ice-edge situation characterized by increased phytoplankton productivity and sea-ice algae input. This interpretation is also supported by the phytoplankton-IP25 index (PIP25 Index), reaching quite high values of 0.5-0.8. It seems to be that in general PIP25 values do not change significantly between the shallow and deep trap, i.e., with increasing water depth, an important observation when thinking about the interpretation of PIP25 sedimentary records. The distinctly reduced September/October values of brassicasterol and fatty acids suggest a decrease in primary productivity, probably related to the start of new-ice formation in late September. This situation is reflected in high IP25 values and high PIP25 ratios. Whereas for October no IP25 was determined in the shallow trap, medium-high IP25 values were determined in the deep trap with maximum PIP25 ratio of about 0.7. This may indicate lateral IP25 input, but also means that in this case the PIP25 ratios should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas, respectively. The highest median triazine concentration was found in the cropland/pastureland area. Chloroacetanilide concentra-tions ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, integrated, urban/built-up, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. Chlorophenoxy compound concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the urban/built-up, integrated, citrus, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. The maximum concentrations of triazines, chloroacetanilides, and chlorophenoxy compounds were 0.63, 1.0, and 14 micrograms per liter, respectively. Organophosphate was detected once at an integrated site at a concentration of 0.20 microgram per liter. Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has no aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. However, assuming that all triazine and metolachlor concentrations from ELISA and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses were the result of atrazine and metolachlor detections, no concentrations exceeded the Canadian aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. One organophosphate detection (0.2 microgram per liter) did exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life guideline for chlorpyrifos. The deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio (DAR) is an important indicator of atrazine transport in the environment. The DAR ranged from 0.25 to 0.33, indicating that postapplication runoff was the most likely source of atrazine to the environment at the time of sampling. Deisopropylatrazine is a metabolite of atrazine and structurally similar compounds, such as simazine and cyanazine. The deisopropylatrazine/deethylatrazine ratio (D2R) is an indicator of nonpoint sources of deisopropylatrazine to the environment. The ratio ranged from 1 to 3 in this study, indicating simazine was an important source of deisopropylatrazine to the environment at the time of sampling, as opposed to atrazine alone. Confirmation analyses by GC/MS for triazines detected by ELISA indicated t

  20. The Immediate Aesthetic and Functional Restoration of Maxillary Incisors Compromised by Periodontitis Using Short Implants with Single Crown Restorations: A Minimally Invasive Approach and Five-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Marincola, Mauro; Lombardo, Giorgio; Pighi, Jacopo; Corrocher, Giovanni; Mascellaro, Anna; Lehrberg, Jeffrey; Nocini, Pier Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The functional and aesthetic restoration of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis presents numerous challenges for the clinician. Horizontal bone loss and soft tissue destruction resulting from periodontitis can impede implant placement and the regeneration of an aesthetically pleasing gingival smile line, often requiring bone augmentation and mucogingival surgery, respectively. Conservative approaches to the treatment of aggressive periodontitis (i.e., treatments that use minimally invasive tools and techniques) have been purported to yield positive outcomes. Here, we report on the treatment and five-year follow-up of patient suffering from aggressive periodontitis using a minimally invasive surgical technique and implant system. By using the methods described herein, we were able to achieve the immediate aesthetic and functional restoration of the maxillary incisors in a case that would otherwise require bone augmentation and extensive mucogingival surgery. This technique represents a conservative and efficacious alternative to the aesthetic and functional replacement of teeth compromised due to aggressive periodontitis. PMID:26649207

  1. Central and peripheral demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Gulati, Natasha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Several conditions cause damage to the inherently normal myelin of central nervous system, perepheral nervous system or both central and perepheral nervous system and hence termed as central demyelinating diseases, perepheral demyelinating diseases and combined central and perepheral demyelinating diseases respectively. Here we analysed and foccused on the etiology, prevalance, incidence and age of these demyelinating disorders. Clinical attention and various diagnostic tests are needed to adequately assess all these possibilities. PMID:24741263

  2. DELIVERABLE Central North Sea

    E-print Network

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    A D D CNS VALUE AFFORDABLE DELIVERABLE DIVERSE Central North Sea ­ CO2 Storage Hub Enabling CCS deployment in the UK and Europe #12;2 Central North Sea ­ CO2 Storage Hub : Enabling CCS deployment in the UK and Europe #12;3 Central North Sea ­ CO2 Storage Hub Enabling CCS deployment in the UK and Europe Experience

  3. Endodontic applications of a short pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser: photovaporization of extruded pulpal tissue following traumatic fractures of two maxillary central incisors--a clinical trial repor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Robert H., II

    1992-06-01

    Historically, many techniques have been attempted in the search for a satisfactory and consistent treatment of inflamed, painful, hyperemic pulpal tissue. Present techniques attempting to achieve profound local anesthesia in such tissue, have not been satisfactory. Local anesthesia techniques acceptable to the patient with painful hyperemic pulpal tissue, has eluded previous technology. The subsequent treatment of hyperemic tissue without sufficient anesthesia primarily involves undesirable invasive mechanical/surgical procedures. Described in this clinical trial is a technique using free running (FR) pulsed, Nd:YAG laser energy to ablate soft tooth pulpal tissue--a technique employed after conventional endodontic methods failed. A free running pulsed, FR Nd:YAG dental laser was successfully used at 20 pulses per second and 1.25 watts to photovaporize endodontic pulpal tissue (pulpectomy) to allow a conventional endodontic file to extirpate the remaining soft tissue remnants and access the root apex. Also described in this paper is the 'hot-tip' effect of contact fiber laser surgery. This clinical trial achieved the immediate, short term objective of endodontic soft tissue removal via photovaporization, without pain reported by the patient. The pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser used as described in this clinical report appears to be a very safe and very effective technique; offers a treatment alternative to traditional therapy that suggests high patient acceptance; and is significantly less stressful for the doctor and staff than traditional treatment options. Long-term, controlled scientific and clinical studies are necessary to establish the safety and efficacy of both the helium-neon energy for visualization and the low-watt pulsed FR Nd:YAG energy for photovaporization of soft endodontic pulpal tissue within the root canal. Research is especially needed to understand the effects of a low-watt, pulsed FR, Nd:YAG laser on the activity of osteoclasts and odontoclasts and identify risks for developing external and/or internal resorption after intracanal application of pulsed FR Nd:YAG laser energy.

  4. Modeling the cometary structure of the planetary nebula HFG1 based on the evolution of its binary central star V664 Cas

    E-print Network

    Chiotellis, A; Nanouris, N; Meaburn, J; Dimitriadis, G

    2015-01-01

    HFG1 is the first well observed planetary nebula (PN) which reveals a cometary-like structure. Its main morphological features consist of a bow shaped shell, which surrounds the central star, accompanied by a long collimated tail. In this study we perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations modeling the formation of HFG1 from the interaction of the local ambient medium with the mass outflows of its Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) progenitor star. We attribute the cometary appearance of HFG1 to the systemic motion of the PN with respect to the local ambient medium. Due to its vital importance, we re-estimate the distance of HFG1 by modeling the spectral energy distribution of its central star, V664 Cas, and we find a distance of $ 490 \\pm 50$ pc. Our simulations show that none of our models with time invariant stellar wind and ambient medium properties are able to reproduce simultaneously the extended bow shock and the collimated tail observed in HFG1. Given this, we increase the complexity of our modeling ...

  5. Influence of Surface Modifications of Acrylic Resin Teeth on Shear Bond Strength with Denture Base Resin-An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Madhusudan; Krishnan, Chitra Shankar; Azhagarasan, N.S.; Sampathkumar, Jayakrishnakumar; Ramasubramanian, Hariharan

    2015-01-01

    Background Debonding of artificial teeth from the denture base is an important issue for edentulous patients rehabilitated with conventional or implant supported complete dentures. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate shear bond strength between denture base resin and acrylic resin denture teeth subjected to three different surface modifications on the ridge lap area as compared to unmodified denture teeth. Materials and Methods Forty acrylic resin central incisor denture teeth were selected and randomly divided into four test groups. The teeth in each group were subjected to one of the three different surface modifications, namely, chemical treatment, sandblasting and placement of retentive grooves on the ridge lap area respectively, prior to packing of the denture base resin. The group with unmodified teeth served as control. Forty acrylic resin test blocks thus obtained were tested for shear bond strength between acrylic resin teeth and denture base resin in Universal Testing Machine. Data obtained was statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and Student- Newman- Keul’s test (p< 0.05). Results Analysis of shear bond strength revealed that retentive grooves on the ridge lap area showed highest bond strength values followed by sandblasting and both were statistically significant compared to the control and chemically treated groups. Unmodified surface of the resin teeth showed the least bond strength. Conclusion Within the limitations of this invitro study the placement of retentive grooves or sandblasting of the ridge lap area showed highly significant improvement in shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. Chemical treatment did not result in any significant improvement in the shear bond strength compared to the unmodified surface. PMID:26501005

  6. The Effect of Age and NT-proBNP on the Association of Central Obesity with 6-Years Cardiovascular Mortality of Middle-Aged and Elderly Diabetic People: The Population-Based Casale Monferrato Study

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Barutta, Federica; Landi, Andrea; Cavallo Perin, Paolo; Gruden, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Background Among people with type 2 diabetes the relationship between central obesity and cardiovascular mortality has not been definitely assessed. Moreover, NT-proBNP is negatively associated with central obesity, but no study has examined their combined effect on survival. We have examined these issues in a well-characterized population-based cohort. Methods and Findings Survival data of 2272 diabetic people recruited in 2000 who had no other chronic disease have been updated to 31 December 2006. NT-proBNP was measured in a subgroup of 1690 patients. Cox proportional hazards modeling was employed to estimate the independent associations between cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and waist circumference. Mean age was 67.9 years, 49.3% were men. Both age and NT-proBNP were negatively correlated with waist circumference (r?=??0.11, p<0.001 and r?=??0.07, p?=?0.002). Out of 2272 subjects, 520 deaths (221 for CV mortality) occurred during a median follow-up of 5.4 years. Central obesity was not associated with CV mortality (hazard ratio, HR, adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, 1.14, 95% CI 0.86–1.52). NTproBNP was a negative confounder and age a strong modifier of this relationship (p for interaction<0.001): age<70 years, fully adjusted model HR?=?3.52 (1.17–10.57) and age ?70 years, HR?=?0.80 (0.46–1.40). Respective HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.86 (1.03–3.32) and 0.73 (0.51–1.04). Conclusions In diabetic people aged 70 years and lower, central obesity was independently associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, independently of the negative effect of NT-proBNP. In contrast, no effect on 6-years survival was evident in diabetic people who have yet survived up to 70 years. PMID:24788805

  7. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  8. Plio-Pleistocene exhumation of the Main Central Trust footwall based on new apatite fission track data (NW-Himalaya/India).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiede, R. C.; Bookhagen, B.; Sobel, E.; Strecker, M. R.; Grasemann, B.; Janda, C.

    2002-12-01

    The cause of Plio-Pleistocene apatite fission track (AFT) cooling ages in the footwall of the Miocene Main Central Trust (MCT) remains controversial. The Sutlej River (N32°/E78°) in the northwestern Indian Himalaya is part of one of the three largest drainages traversing the Himalaya. It has incised a deep gorge exposing the crystalline core of the orogen in a natural cross-section, which contains two extruded metamorphic crustal wedges: The High Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (HHCS) and the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (LHCS). The HHCS was tectonically extruded between Early and Middle Miocene time by combined thrusting along the Main Central Thrust (MCT) with coeval extension along the Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS). The LHCS forms the footwall of the MCT and has been cooling very rapidly since the Late Miocene, as a consequence of the still ongoing extrusion. This process is controlled by thrusting along the Munsiari Thrust in the footwall and extension in the MCT hanging wall. Active tectonics is further indicated by seismicity, knickpoints in the river profile and hydrothermal circulation, probably linked to elevated near-surface geothermal gradients in the LHCS. New AFT cooling ages obtained from sub-vertical transects starting in the LHCS and crossing the Miocene MCT and STDS (perpendicular to the Sutlej-Valley) indicate fast Plio-Pleistocene cooling and exhumation of the LHCS and the lower parts of the HHCS. Along the Sutlej River, the LHCS and the lower part of the HHCS are characterized by very young ages between 1.5 +/- 0.4 and <1 +/- 0.4 (2? ) Ma at elevations of 1500-2000m asl. The AFT ages increase systematically with increasing age-elevation; the trend does not vary when crossing the MCT and STDS mylonitic zones, respectively. At elevations between 4400 to 4600 m asl the ages are between 2.8 +/- 0.6 and 3.7 +/- 1.2 (2? ). A mean Pliocene to Pleistocene exhumation rate in the central part of LHCS is estimated to be 1.3 +/- 0.7 mm/a and to be 1.0 +/- 0.4 mm/a of the lower part of the HHCS. Due to the inferred high exhumation rates topographic effects can be neglected. The AFT cooling ages across the MCT and the STDS indicate neither Quaternary thrusting along the MCT nor normal faulting along the STDS in the region of the Sutlej River.

  9. Central Energy Systems - Applications to Economic Development 

    E-print Network

    Myers, M. S.; Diserens, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    system; and (3) a cost comparsion of individual energy systems versus a central energy system plant. Computer Model PREP (Predesign Energy Program), a recent winder of the DOE sponsored Energy Innovation Award, is an IBM Personal Computer based...

  10. Probabilities of future VEI ? 2 eruptions at the Central American Volcanic Arc: a statistical perspective based on the past centuries' eruption record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Wehrmann, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    A probabilistic eruption forecast is provided for seven historically active volcanoes along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), as a pivotal empirical contribution to multi-disciplinary volcanic hazards assessment. The eruption probabilities are determined with a Kaplan-Meier estimator of survival functions, and parametric time series models are applied to describe the historical eruption records. Aside from the volcanoes that are currently in a state of eruptive activity (Santa María, Fuego, and Arenal), the highest probabilities for eruptions of VEI ? 2 occur at Concepción and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, which are likely to erupt to 70-85 % within the next 10 years. Poás and Irazú in Costa Rica show a medium to high eruption probability, followed by San Miguel (El Salvador), Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica), and Izalco (El Salvador; 24 % within the next 10 years).

  11. Surface Water Conditions in the Central Gulf of California During the Past 52 Kyrs Based on Diatoms and Silicoflagellates: Implications for Monsoonal Moisture Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Bukry, D.; Cheshire, H.

    2012-12-01

    Between late fall and early spring persistent northwest winds in the Gulf of California (GoC) cause upwelling of subsurface waters rich in nutrients, resulting in high surface water productivity and the deposition of biogenic silica-rich sediments. Slackening of these winds during the spring leads to progressive northward advection of warmer, more oligotrophic waters. Surges of monsoonal moisture up the axis of the Gulf into the southwestern US begin in July when SSTs in the northern GoC exceed 26°C. Our studies of biogenic SST proxies (diatoms, silicoflagellates, calcium carbonate) reveal that surface waters of the central GoC were too cool between ~10.5 and 7.5 ka (early Holocene) to support northward surges of monsoonal moisture. During this interval, warmer SSTs off the Pacific coast of Baja California appear to have facilitated a more zonal flow of tropical moisture into a geographically broader region of the southwestern US (Barron et al., 2012). High-resolution studies of diatoms and silicoflagellates of the past 52 kyr on well dated cores (MD02-2517/2515) from the central GoC reveal profound changes in GoC surface waters that should have affected the pathways of monsoonal moisture. During Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS2), the persistent presence of Distephanus speculum (silicoflagellate) is evidence that the California Current penetrated into the GoC, likely reflecting a southward-shifted Subtropical High pressure cell. Diatoms also suggest an increased presence of cool, low salinity surface waters in the central GoC between ~27 and 18 ka that would not have been conducive to northward surges of monsoonal moisture. The dominance of the diatom Azpeitia nodulifera between 52 and 27 ka is evidence that tropical oligotrophic waters were present year round during MIS3. Silicoflagellates, however, indicate that oligotrophic conditions alternated with lower salinity, subtropical surface waters during MIS3, much as they did during the Holocene. Abrupt increases of Dictyocha aff. aculeata, a silicoflagellate characteristic of deep thermocline conditions in the North Pacific, coincide in time with warm Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events, implying a higher influx of deep Pacific waters into the central GoC. We propose that reduced seasonality and generally warmer surface water conditions during MIS3 should have been conducive to surges of monsoonal moisture into the southwestern US, with the possibility that these surges may have been enhanced during warm D-O events. Although some terrestrial proxy studies call for for reduced winter precipitation in the southwestern US during the warm D-O events of MIS 3, other records suggest the possibility of increased monsoonal precipitation in the southwestern US. Barron, J.A., Metcalfe, S. E., and Addison, J.A. (2012), Response of the North American Monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature, Paleoceanography, 27, PA3206, doi:10.1029/2011PA002235, 2012.

  12. Abuse liability of centrally acting non-opioid analgesics and muscle relaxants--a brief update based on a comparison of pharmacovigilance data and evidence from the literature.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Eller, Jonas; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    There is a lack of data regarding the abuse liability of centrally acting non-opioid analgesics (NOA) and muscle relaxants (MR). A comparison of data retrieved from a German pharmacovigilance database (BfArM; accessed May 2013) and data from the literature concerning the abuse liability of NOA and MR approved in Germany was performed. The BfArM-database demonstrated cases of abuse only for clonidine and paracetamol, whereas the literature suggests evidence for an abuse potential of baclofen, clonidine, ketamine, metamizole, methocarbamol, orphenadrine, paracetamol, propyphenazone, and tizanidine. The low number of detected cases in the BfArM-database could be a result of under-reporting. PMID:24552880

  13. Thickness of the oligo-neogene sedimentary cover in the Central Depression, northern Chile (Pampa del Tamarugal, 20°45'-21°30'S), based on seismic reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M.; Simicic, Y.; Contreras Reyes, E.; Charrier, R.

    2013-12-01

    The estimation of the Pampa de Tamarugal oligo-neogene sedimentary cover thickness from seismic interpretation is crucial for scientific and applied subjects, such as placing aquifers traps and Mesozoic-Paleogene basement top location for mining exploration drilling. The Chilean National Petroleum Company (ENAP) has explored hydrocarbon resources in the area, raising several reflection seismic lines and drilling some wells. Previous studies used the paper seismic data by determining the cover geometry and defining the basement-cover boundary. We have obtained directly SGY digital files, which allow a better definition and modeling of stratigraphy and cover thickness. This thickness was estimated by the travel time in the seismic reflection lines and the value of the p-wave propagation velocity (0.91 to 1.97 km/s for cover). The last value was obtained by density measurements of field samples, which resulted from 1,895 to 2,065 g/cm3. In the central-south part of the Pampa del Tamarugal, immediately south of Cerro Challacollo, the west-east-oriented 99_7 seismic line shows a 'basement high' whose top is at 100 m from the surface. The basement was uplift by a north-trend west-verging reverse fault and separates two sub-basins of 9.5 km and 13.8 km wide, and maximum cover thicknesses of 600 and 850 m, west and east respectively. To the north of Cerro Challacollo, the subparallel 99_6 line shows a similar geometry, and increasing the depth of the basement high top up to 350 m in the central part of the section. For seismic lines south of Cerro Challacollo, the basement high disappears and the cover thickness increases. To improve the accuracy of the cover thickness estimations, we will test directly measurements of p-wave propagation velocity in field samples of basement and cover (instead of approximations from the density measurements).

  14. Martian Central Pit Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

  15. Collection development at the NOAA Central Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quillen, Steve R.

    1994-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Central Library collection, approximately one million volumes, incorporates the holdings of its predecessor agencies. Within the library, the collections are filed separately, based on their source and/or classification schemes. The NOAA Central Library provides a variety of services to users, ranging from quick reference and interlibrary loan to in-depth research and online data bases.

  16. Dealing with Climate Change and Variability in the Growing Season: a U2U Decision Support Tool for Central United States Corn Producers Based on Corn Growing Degree Days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, J. R.; Todey, D.; Massey, R.; Widhalm, M.; Biehl, L. L.; Andresen, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate extremes are a major challenge for corn producers in the central United States. Among those extremes are wet springs that lead to planting delays, late spring and early fall frosts that can damage crops, and extreme summer temperatures either too warm or too cool. A newly-operational corn growing degree-day (CGDD) tool helps producers manage and adapt to these extremes. For example, a challenge in recent years has been exceptionally wet springs that have led to significant planting delays. Producers have been forced to re-assess their planting strategies on short notice, such as switching to a faster-growing but lower-yielding hybrids. With this pattern of wetter springs projected to continue or worsen in the central United States, the problem will remain and likely get worse. Another example is helping producers identify the risk of early or late frost/freezes. The CGDD tool puts current conditions into a 30-year historical perspective and offers trend projections (based on climatology or forecasts) through the end of the calendar year. Corn, or sometimes called modified, growing degree-days use a temperature base of 10 C (50 F) and a ceiling of 30 C (86 F) and is strongly correlated with the development of the corn crop. This tool was developed as part of USDA-supported U2U Useful to Usable Project for transforming climate variability and change information for cereal crop producers.

  17. An overview of the June 2011 Fennec surface-based observations in the central Sahara: New insights into dust uplift and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsham, J. H.; Allen, C.; Bart, M.; Brooks, B. J.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Engelstaedter, S.; Gascoyne, M.; Hobby, M.; McQuaid, J. B.; O'Leary, A.; Lima, A.; Martins, V.; Ouchene, B.; Ouladichir, A.; Parker, D. J.; Saci, A.; Salah-Ferroudj, M.; Todd, M. C.; Washington, R.

    2012-04-01

    The scarcity of data from the central Sahara has for many years impeded the understanding of dust uplift and transport. The Fennec project aims to provide a definitive dataset for the central Sahara and in June 2011 two supersites in the Sahara were instrumented as part of the Fennec Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The first, at Bordj Bardji Mokhtar (BBM, Algeria), is close to the centre of the summertime Saharan Heat Low and the climatological location of maximum summertime dust aerosol optical depths (AODs). At BBM, for the Fennec IOP, the Algerian l'Office National de la Météorologie deployed three-hourly radiosondes, a lidar, a sodar, a cimel sun photomter, broad-band radiometers, an instrumented 15-m flux tower (with sonic anemometers for calculating sensible fluxes by eddy correlation) a nephelometer and a dust sampler. The second Fennec supersite was in Zouerat in Mauritania. Here, we provide an overview of the data from the primary site at BBM, with an emphasis on the new insights the data give into dust uplift and transport processes. The data provide unique observations of the diurnal cycle of the approximately 5-km deep Saharan boundary layer and demonstrate the occasional persistence of a near-neutral residual layer over the Saharan convective boundary layer over many days. These boundary-layer structures provide a strong control on dust transport, with the dust affecting the mixing in the boundary-layer by modulating the sensible heating from the land surface. During the IOP, the influence of the West African Monsoon at BBM increased, with overnight arrivals of cool moist air and associated cold pool outflows from deep convection. Overall, the cold pool outflows dominated the local dust uplift and provided the largest AODs. The next largest contribution is from the daily mixing of momentum from the nocturnal low-level jet to the surface. The data therefore support the hypothesis that cold pools are likely to make a substantial contribution to the annual cycle of dust uplift in the Sahara. Cold-pool winds are known to be very poorly captured in global models and this is expected to significantly limit the accuracy of the dust uplift in such models.

  18. Lithostratigraphic and sequence stratigraphic architecture of the Winduck Interval, central Darling Basin, Australia, based on integration of wireline logs, cores and cuttings data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, M. KH.; Jones, B. G.; Mahmud, W. M.

    2015-09-01

    An integration of lithostratigraphy and general sedimentary facies character for non-marine rocks can be a powerful tool in understanding the sequence stratigraphic architecture of the subsurface latest Silurian to Early Devonian Winduck Interval in the Blantyre and western Neckarboo sub-basins, central Darling Basin. This study integrates wireline logs (gamma ray and resistivity), cores and cuttings data to determine the sequence stratigraphic subdivision of the study area. The lithostratigraphy of the Winduck Interval could be subdivided into three units (A, B and C, in ascending order) in the four available wells (Mount Emu 1, Kewell East 1, Booligal Creek 1 and Booligal Creek 2). Closer study of the sequence stratigraphy in the approximately 850-m-thick Winduck Interval revealed ten parasequences (A-J) in progradational to retrogradational parasequence sets and three main Winduck sequences, WKS1, WKS2 and WKS3. Use of the suggested sequence stratigraphic model of the Winduck Interval has the potential to refine existing lithostratigraphic schemes and, given the higher resolution and more detailed correlation, may significantly improve subsurface stratigraphic reconstructions and aid in prediction of hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs.

  19. Geometry of the inverted Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin based on 2-D gravity and field data. An approach to the structure of the western Central Andes of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, F.; Maksymowicz, A.; Ochoa, H.; Díaz, D.

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach that provides new ideas about the structural geometry of the NNE-striking, Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin located along the eastern Coastal Cordillera in the western Central Andes of northern Chile (27-28° S). The results obtained from the integration of two transverse (E-W) gravity profiles with previous geological information, show that the architecture of this basin is defined by a large NNE-SSE-trending and east-vergent anticline ("Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium"), which is related to the positive reactivation of a former Cretaceous normal fault (Elisa de Bordos Master Fault). Moreover, intercalations of high and low gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients reveal a set of buried, west-tilted half-grabens associated with a synthetic normal fault pattern. These results, together with the uplift and folding style of the Cretaceous syn-rift recognized within the basin, suggest that their complete structural geometry could be explained by an inverted fault system linked to the shortening of pre-existing Cretaceous normal fault systems. Ages of the synorogenic deposits exposed unconformably over the frontal limb of the Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium confirm a Late Cretaceous age for the Andean deformation and tectonic inversion of the basin.

  20. Prevalence of skeletal and eye malformations in frogs from north-central United States: estimations based on collections from randomly selected sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, P.K.; Johnson, C.M.; Schotthoefer, A.M.; Murphy, J.E.; Lieske, C.; Cole, R.A.; Johnson, L.B.; Beasley, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal malformation rates for several frog species were determined in a set of randomly selected wetlands in the north-central USA over three consecutive years. In 1998, 62 sites yielded 389 metamorphic frogs, nine (2.3%) of which had skeletal or eye malformations. A subset of the original sites was surveyed in the following 2 yr. In 1999, 1,085 metamorphic frogs were collected from 36 sites and 17 (1.6%) had skeletal or eye malformations, while in 2000, examination of 1,131 metamorphs yielded 16 (1.4%) with skeletal or eye malformations. Hindlimb malformations predominated in all three years, but other abnormalities, involving forelimb, eye, and pelvis were also found. Northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) constituted the majority of collected metamorphs as well as most of the malformed specimens. However, malformations were also noted in mink frogs (R. septentrionalis), wood frogs (R. sylvatica), and gray tree frogs (Hyla spp.). The malformed specimens were found in clustered sites in all three years but the cluster locations were not the same in any year. The malformation rates reported here are higher than the 0.3% rate determined for metamorphic frogs collected from similar sites in Minnesota in the 1960s, and thus, appear to represent an elevation of an earlier baseline malformation rate.

  1. Towards a debris-flow warning system based on hydrological measurements of the triggering conditions. A study of El Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José

    2014-05-01

    Debris flows represent a risk to the society due to their high destructive power. Rainfall is the main debris-flow triggering factor. Rainfall thresholds are generally used for warning of debris flow occurrence in susceptible catchments. However, the efficiency of such thresholds for real time hazard assessment is often conditioned by many factors, such as: the location and number of the rain gauges used (both to define the thresholds, and for setting off warnings); the temporal and spatial evolution of rainfall's convective cells or the effect of snow cover melting. These factors affect the length of the warning time, which is of crucial importance for issuing alert messages or alarms to the people and infrastructures at risk. The Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees, Spain) is being monitored since 2009 by six stations recording information on initiation (4 stations) and flow detection and cinematic behaviour (2 stations). Until December 2013, 7 debris flows, 17 debris floods and 4 rockfalls have been recorded. The objectives of this work were: a) the definition of rainfall thresholds at two different rain gauges; b) the analysis of the infiltration patterns in order to define their potential use for warning systems and c) preliminary testing of rainfall thresholds' efficiency in terms of warning time, in this catchment. This last goal consisted in the comparison of the time elapsed between the rainfall threshold was exceeded and the event occurrence was detected by the stations at the channel area. The results suggest that the intensity-duration rainfall thresholds sometimes provide warning times which would be too short for an adequate reaction in the Rebaixader catchment (less than 10 minutes). The combination of such rainfall thresholds with infiltration measurements is useful to increase the warning time. This occurs especially in the events triggered in spring, when the snowmelt plays an important role in the event's triggering conditions. However, the effects of infiltration associated to the summer convective rainfalls are almost imperceptible; therefore their importance in warning systems decreases.

  2. Central registry in psychiatry: A structured review

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jyoti; Ramakrishnan, TS; Das, R. C.; Srivastava, K.; Mehta, Suresh; Shashikumar, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central registry in psychiatry is being practiced in few countries and has been found useful in research and clinical management. Role of central registry has also expanded over the years. Materials and Methods: All accessible internet database Medline, Scopus, Embase were accessed from 1990 till date. Available data were systematically reviewed in structured manner and analyzed. Results: Central registry was found useful in epidemiological analysis, association studies, outcome studies, comorbidity studies, forensic issue, effective of medication, qualitative analysis etc., Conclusion: Central registry proves to be effective tool in quantitative and qualitative understanding of psychiatry practice. Findings of studies from central registry can be useful in modifying best practice and evidence based treatment in psychiatry. PMID:25535438

  3. Measuring centrality by a generalization of degree

    E-print Network

    Csató, László

    2015-01-01

    Network analysis has emerged as a key technique in communication studies, economics, geography, history and sociology, among others. A fundamental issue is how to identify key nodes in a network, for which purpose a number of centrality measures have been developed. This paper proposes a new parametric family of centrality measures called generalized degree. It is based on the idea that a relationship to a more interconnected node contributes to centrality in a greater extent than a connection to a less central one. Generalized degree improves on degree by redistributing its sum over the network with the consideration of the global structure. Application of the measure is supported by a set of basic properties. A sufficient condition is given for generalized degree to be rank monotonic, excluding counter-intuitive changes in the centrality ranking after certain modifications of the network. The measure has a graph interpretation and can be calculated iteratively. Generalized degree is recommended to apply bes...

  4. University of Central Florida Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action Programs

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    : Descriptions, Prevention DISCRIMINATION BASED ON GENETIC INFORMATION The University of Central Florida promotes action to investigate complaints of discrimination based on genetic information when received from external sources. Genetic information discrimination involves treating people unfavorably based on results

  5. Molecular Characterization of a New Variant of Rotavirus P[8]G9 Predominant in a Sentinel-Based Survey in Central Italy?

    PubMed Central

    Ansaldi, Filippo; Pastorino, Barbara; Valle, Laura; Durando, Paolo; Sticchi, Laura; Tucci, Pierluigi; Biasci, Paolo; Lai, Piero; Gasparini, Roberto; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    Rotavirus P[8]G9 was recognized as the most widespread genotype during a sentinel-based survey in Italy; phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 and VP4 genes showed that Italian isolates constituted a closely related genetic cluster distinct from the other G9 strains recently isolated in other European countries, America, and Asia. PMID:17166955

  6. A program for reducing teacher's resistance to changes in curriculum in centralized education systems. An experience on changes of mathematics text books in Iran based on distinction results.

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    systems. An experience on changes of mathematics text books in Iran based on distinction results. Zohreh. This research first explains how math books of middle grade were changed as a result of investigations on TIMSS result in year 1995. These investigation show Iranian Books are weakness in problem solving methods

  7. Alternative School Education: Using Web-Based Curriculum Programs to Assist At-Risk Students with High School Credit Recovery in Select East Central Indiana Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, William Shane

    2011-01-01

    "We know that education can be an arduous process. Countries use different approaches based on societal acceptances, but effective education always requires enormous efforts. Whether success is achieved, depends on the development of a rigorous and progressive curriculum, while at the same time providing all students the opportunity to…

  8. Impact of Inquiry Based Distance Learning and Availability of Classroom Materials on Physical Science Content Knowledge of Teachers and Students in Central Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Timothy John

    2012-01-01

    Physical science is important for developing scientific literacy yet a majority of teachers responsible for physical science courses do not have an academic degree in physical science. Programs aimed at increasing teacher content knowledge can be time consuming. This dissertation examines the impact of an inquiry based, professional development…

  9. Centralized HIV Program Oversight.

    PubMed

    Pacha, Laura A; Hakre, Shilpa; Myles, Otha; Sanders-Buell, Eric E; Scoville, Stephanie L; Kijak, Gustavo H; Price, Michael W; Mody, Rupal M; Liu, Ying; Miller, Shana L; Pham, Phuc T; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Peel, Sheila A; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Cersovsky, Steven B; Scott, Paul T

    2015-11-01

    Centralized HIV program oversight and repeal of the Department of Defense policy "Don't Ask Don't Tell" permitted characterization of HIV transmission among soldiers assigned to a large US Army base continental United States from 2012 to 2013. An investigation of a greater than expected number of new HIV infections among soldiers was initiated to characterize transmission and identify opportunities to disrupt transmission and deliver services.All soldiers who were assigned to the base at the time of their first positive HIV test and who had their first positive HIV test in 2012 or in the first 6 months of 2013 and who had a clinical genotype available for analysis were eligible for inclusion in the investigation.All patients (n?=?19) were men; most were black (52%) and less than 30 years old (64%). Fifteen of the 19 patients participated in in-depth interviews. Eighty percent were men who have sex with men who reported multiple sex partners having met through social and electronic networks. All were subtype B infections. Significant knowledge gaps and barriers to accessing testing and care in the military healthcare system were identified. Most (58%) belonged to transmission networks involving other soldiers.This investigation represents an important step forward in on-going efforts to develop a comprehensive understanding of transmission networks in the Army that can inform delivery of best practices combination prevention services. The Army is developing plans to directly engage individuals in key affected populations most at risk for HIV infection to identify and address unmet needs and expand delivery and uptake of prevention services. Further investigation is underway and will determine whether these findings are generalizable to the Army. PMID:26579822

  10. Petrological modeling of the flat and steep subduction zone in Central Chile, based on seismological, thermo-mechanical and mineralogical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marianne, M.; Monfret, T.; Pardo, M. H.; Gerbault, M.; Ranalli, G.; Nolet, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Chilean subduction zone (27-35°S) is host to a multitude of unexplained phenomena, all likely linked to one another. The region displays a well developed, highly seismically active flat subduction, which correlates very well with the Juan Fernandez aseismic Ridge (JFR) track, subducting with the Nazca plate beneath South America. The nature of deformation back to normal subduction (30°) to the north and south of the flat slab is still debated. The continental crust above it is one of the thickest in the world (>70 km), and arc volcanism has ceased after having progressively migrated eastward at the inception of slab flattening. We notice the presence of a Double Benioff Zone (DBZ) with unexpectedly large interplane distance (30 km) than a conventional distance linked with the oceanic's plate age (~35 Ma). We also interpret a sequence of intermediate-depth earthquakes to occur along a reactivated pre-existing fault plane, probably indicating a link with outer rise faults. In order to better understand the interaction between the subducting and overriding lithospheres, the role of the JFR on the flat slab and the microseismicity, we have aimed at modeling the petrological composition of the area, along the flat slab (31.5°S) and the normally subducting slab (33.5°S). We have been looking for domains of plate hydration (and to which plausible amounts), and for the location of buoyant material in the slab, which is thought to be the main cause for its flattening. To do so, we combined seismic data with instantaneous thermo-mechanical models and mineralogical rock property databases. Here, we present seismic tomography images of first wave arrivals for the region from temporary seismic campaigns. Our seismic velocities associated to the ~100 km depth flat slab are best modeled with eclogitized oceanic crust, with a density > 3400 kg/m3. Non-eclogitized MORB material leads to much too low Vp and Vs values to explain our data in the flat slab. The continental mantle is characterized by spinel and garnet peridotites and is probably unusually cold, and the slab mantle is comprised dominantly of garnet peridotite. The lower continental crust appears to be eclogitized, in accordance with independent seismic studies for the area. What we find also is a moderately hydrated slab (2-12 wt% H2O) and continental mantle corner wedge (1-8 wt% H2O) down to a maximum of 70 km depth. Other domains are characterized by rocks with less than 0.1%wt H20.

  11. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation was the best model for each flood duration. The regional-skew values ranged from -0.74 for a flood duration of 1-day and a mean basin elevation less than 2,500 feet to values near 0 for a flood duration of 7-days and a mean basin elevation greater than 4,500 feet. This relation between skew and elevation reflects the interaction of snow and rain, which increases with increased elevation. The regional skews are more accurate, and the mean squared errors are less than in the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data's National skew map of Bulletin 17B.

  12. Geodynamic evolution of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas (Central Argentina) based on geochemical, Sm-Nd, Pb-Pb and SHRIMP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobe, Malte; de Luchi, Mónica López; Steenken, André; Wemmer, Klaus; Naumann, Rudolf; Frei, Robert; Siegesmund, Siegfried

    2011-04-01

    Whole-rock geochemical analyses using major and trace elements in combination with the Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb isotope systems, together with SHRIMP age dating on metasedimentary rocks from the Sierras de Chepes, the Sierras de Córdoba, the Sierra Norte and the San Luis Formation in the Sierra de San Luis, have been carried out to unravel the provenance and the geodynamic history of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas, Central Argentina. The geochemical and the Sm-Nd data point to a slightly stronger mafic and less-fractionated material in the provenance area of the Sierras de Córdoba when compared to the other units. The TDM model ages from the Sierras de Chepes (~1.82 Ga) and the Sierra Norte (~1.79 Ga) are significantly older than the data from the Sierras de Córdoba (1.67 Ga). The Pb data are homogeneous for the different units. Only the 208Pb/204Pb ratios of some samples from the Sierras de Córdoba are higher. A late Pampean detrital zircon peak around 520 Ma from the Sierras de Chepes is in accordance with the new data from the San Luis Formation. This is similar to the literature data from the Famatina Belt located to the northwest of the Sierras de Chepes and also fits the detrital zircon peaks in the Mesón group. These maximum depositional ages were also reported from some locations in the Puncoviscana Formation but are absent in the Sierras de Córdoba. An improved model for the development of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas in the area between the Sierras de Córdoba and the Puncoviscana Formation is provided. This gives new insights into the late Pampean development of the Sierra de San Luis and the complex development of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas. This new model explains the younger detrital ages in the Puncoviscana Formation compared with the older ages of the Sierras de Córdoba. Another model of the Sierra de San Luis explains the younger depositional ages of the Pringles Metamorphic Complex and the San Luis Formation when compared to the Nogolí Metamorphic Complex and the Conlara Metamorphic Complex. Additionally, the rather fast change of the high-grade metamorphic conditions in the Pringles Metamorphic Complex and the low-grade metamorphic conditions in the San Luis Formation is explained by extension, the ascent of (ultra) mafic material and later folding and erosion.

  13. Interpretations on the Geologic Setting of Yogyakarta Earthquakes 2006 (Central Java, Indonesia) Based on Integration of Aftershock Monitoring and Existing Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setijadji, L. D.; Watanabe, K.; Fukuoka, K.; Ehara, S.; Setiadji, Y.; Rahardjo, W.; Susilo, A.; Barianto, D. H.; Harijoko, A.; Sudarno, I.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Hendrayana, H.; Akmalludin, A.; Nishijima, J.; Itaya, T.

    2007-05-01

    The unprecedented 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake (central Java, Indonesia) that took victims of 5,700 lives was generally accepted to have a depth of about 10 km and moment magnitude of 6.4. However, the definition of location of active fault is still under debate as the epicenter of mainshock was reported quite differently by several institutions. Many researchers believe that the Opak fault which is located at the eastern boundary of Yogyakarta low-land area (or Yogyakarta Basin) and the high-land region of Southern Mountains was the source of year 2006 earthquakes. However, our result of aftershocks observation suggests that the ruptured zone was not located along the Opak fault but from an unknown fault located about 10 km to the east from it and within the Southern Mountains domain. Unfortunately, surface geologic manifestations are scarce as this area is now largely covered by limestone. Therefore the suspected active fault system must be studied through interpretations of the subsurface geology and evaluation of the Cenozoic geo-history of the region utilizing existing geologic, geophysical and remote sensing data. This work suggests that the Yogyakarta Basin is a volcano-tectonic depression formed gradually since the early Tertiary period (Oligo-Miocene or older). Geological and geophysical evidence suggest that structural trends changed from the Oligocene NE-SW towards the Oligo-Miocene NNE-SSW and the Plio-Pleistocene NW-SE and E-W directions. The ruptured "X" fault during the Yogyakarta earthquakes 2006 is likely to be a NNE-SSW trending fault which is parallel to the Opak fault and both were firstly active in the Oligo-Miocene as sinistral strike-slip faults. However, while the Opak fault had changed into a normal faulting after the Pliocene, the evidence from Kali Ngalang and Kali Widoro suggests that the "X" fault system was still reactivated as a strike-slip one during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny. As this new interpretation of active fault causes spatial discrepancy between locations of earthquakes epicenters and highly damaged regions, other geo-engineering factors must be considerably important in determining the final scale of seismic hazards. The most vulnerable areas for seismic hazards are those located nearest to the ruptured fault and are underlain by thick Quaternary unconsolidated deposits. In case of regions along the fault line, seismic hazards seem to reach more distance region, such as the case of Gantiwarno region, as the seismic waves can travel more easily along the fault line.

  14. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, W?odek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| < 1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.

  15. Central exclusive production at RHIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adamczyk, Leszek; Guryn, W?odek; Turnau, Jacek

    2014-11-10

    The present status and future plans of the physics program of Central Exclusive Production (CEP) at RHIC are described. The measurements are based on the detection of the forward protons from the Double Pomeron Exchange (DPE) process in the Roman Pot system and of the recoil system of charged particles from the DPE process measured in the STAR experiment’s Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The data described here were taken using polarized proton-proton collisions at ps = 200 GeV. The preliminary spectra of two pion and four pion invariant mass reconstructed by STAR TPC in central region of pseudo-rapidity |#17;| more »1, are presented. Near future plans to take data with the current system at center-of-mass energy ps = 200 GeV and plans to upgrade the forward proton tagging sys- tem are presented. Also a possible addition of the Roman Pots to the sPHENIX detector is discussed.« less

  16. Characterization of surface-water quality based on real-time monitoring and regression analysis, Quivira National Wildlife Refuge, south-central Kansas, December 1998 through June 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the considerable wildlife benefits offered by the Quivira National Wildlife Refuge in south-central Kansas, there is a desire to ensure suitable water quality. To assess the quality of water flowing from Rattlesnake Creek into the refuge, the U.S. Geological Survey collected periodic water samples from December 1998 through June 2001 and analyzed the samples for physical properties, dissolved solids, total suspended solids, suspended sediment, major ions, nutrients, metals, pesticides, and indicator bacteria. Concentrations of 10 of the 125 chemicals analyzed did not meet water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life and drinking water in a least one sample. These were pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, phosphorus, total coliform bacteria, E. coli bacteria, and fecal coliform bacteria. No metal or pesticide concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria. Twenty-two of the 43 metals analyzed were not detected, and 36 of the 46 pesticides analyzed were not detected. Because dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, fecal coliform bacteria, and other chemicals that are a concern for the health and habitat of fish and wildlife at the refuge cannot be measured continuously, regression equations were developed from a comparison of the analytical results of periodic samples and in-stream monitor measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen. A continuous record of estimated chemical concentrations was developed from continuously recorded in-stream measurements. Annual variation in water quality was evaluated by comparing 1999 and 2000 sample data- the 2 years for which complete data sets were available. Median concentrations of alkalinity, fluoride, nitrate, and fecal coliform bacteria were smaller or did not change from 1999 to 2000. Dissolved solids, total suspended solids, sodium, chloride, sulfate, total organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus had increases in median concentrations from 1999 to 2000. Increases in the median concentrations of the major ions were expected due to decreased rainfall in 2000 and very low streamflow late in the year. Increases for solids and nutrients may have been due to the unusually high streamflow in the early spring of 2000. This was the time of year when fields were tilled, exposing solids and nutrients that were transported with runoff to Rattlesnake Creek. Load estimates indicate the chemical mass transported into the refuge and can be used in the development of total maximum daily loads (as specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) for water-quality contaminants in Rattlesnake Creek. Load estimates also were used to evaluate seasonal variation in water quality. Seasonal variation was most pronounced in the estimates of nutrient loads, and most of the nutrient load transported to the refuge occurred during just a few periods of surface runoff in the spring and summer. This information may be used by resource managers to determine when water-diversion strategies would be most beneficial. Load estimates also were used to calculate yields, which are useful for site comparisons. The continuous and real-time nature of the record of estimated concentrations, loads, and yields may be important for resource managers, recreationalists, or others for evaluating water-diversion strategies, making water-use decisions, or assessing the environmental effects of chemicals in time to prevent adverse effects on fish or other aquatic life at the refuge.

  17. Configuration of the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and hydrogeology of the underlying pre-Cretaceous rocks, west-central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Rene A.; Ardis, Ann F.

    1992-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is underlain by an extensive complex of rocks, ranging from Late Cambrian through Late Triassic in age, that are typically about 10 to perhaps 1,000 times less permeable than those composing the aquifer system. The Cretaceous rocks of the aquifer system are separated from the pre-Cretaceous rocks by an unconformity that spans about 60 million years of erosion during the Jurassic Period. The upper surface of the pre-Cretaceous rock complex forms the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system. The configuration of the base reflects the original topography of the eroded pre-Cretaceous land surface plus the effects of subsequent deformation. The most permeable pre-Cretaceous rocks are in the eastern half of the study area where they compose the Hickory aquifer (in Upper Cambrian rocks), Ellenburger-San Saba aquifer (Upper Cambrian- Lower Ordovician), and Marble Falls aquifer (Lower Pennsylvanian). These aquifers are hydraulically connected to the northeastern fringe of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, as their up-turned margins crop out around the flanks of the breached Llano uplift. The Rustler aquifer in rocks of Late Permian age underlies parts of the Trans-Pecos region, where it yields small amounts of greatly mineralized water for industrial and agricultural purposes. The Dockum aquifer in rocks of Late Triassic age directly underlies the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in western parts of the study area, and locally increases the saturated thickness of the ground-water-flow system by an average of about 200 feet. Despite these notable exceptions, the collective effect of the pre-Cretaceous rocks is that 01 a barrier to ground-water flow, which limits the exchange of water across the base of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system.

  18. On the behavior of site effects in Central Mexico (the Mexican Volcanic Belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2013-11-01

    The Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The risk and hazard seismic of this seismogenic zone has not been studied at detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regimen of Central Mexico is not too frequent, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The Valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, which has been studied in detail; mainly focusing on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred in Michoacan. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects on the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data to obtain attenuation parameters in future works, and some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier Acceleration Spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with Negligible Site Amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with Significant Site Amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (< 3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23 Hz. With these groups of stations, average levels of amplification were contrasted for the first time with those caused by the subduction zone earthaquakes. With respect to the FAS shapes, most of them showed similarities at similar epicentral distances. Finally, some variations of site effects were found when compared to those obtained in previous studies on different seismicity regions. These variations were attributed to the location of the source. These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on the Central Mexico due to large earthquakes within the MVB seismogenic zone.

  19. On the behavior of site effects in central Mexico (the Mexican volcanic belt - MVB), based on records of shallow earthquakes that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Lermo, J.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Valdés, C.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.; Arroyo, M.

    2014-06-01

    The Mexican volcanic belt (MVB) is a seismogenic zone that transects the central part of Mexico with an east-west orientation. The seismic risk and hazard of this seismogenic zone has not been studied in detail due to the scarcity of instrumental data as well as because seismicity in the continental regime of central Mexico is not too frequent. However, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw > 6.0) that have taken place in this zone. The valley of Mexico City (VM) is the sole zone, within the MVB, that has been studied in detail. Studies have mainly focused on the ground amplification during large events such as the 1985 subduction earthquake that occurred off coast of Michoacán. The purpose of this article is to analyze the behavior of site effects in the MVB zone based on records of shallow earthquakes (data not reported before) that occurred in the zone between 1998 and 2011. We present a general overview of site effects in the MVB, a classification of the stations in order to reduce the uncertainty in the data when obtaining attenuation parameters in future works, as well as some comparisons between the information presented here and that presented in previous studies. A regional evaluation of site effects and Fourier acceleration spectrum (FAS) shape was estimated based on 80 records of 22 shallow earthquakes within the MVB zone. Data of 25 stations were analyzed. Site effects were estimated by using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) methodology. The results show that seismic waves are less amplified in the northeast sites of the MVB with respect to the rest of the zone and that it is possible to classify two groups of stations: (1) stations with negligible site amplification (NSA) and (2) stations with significant site amplification (SSA). Most of the sites in the first group showed small (<3) amplifications while the second group showed amplifications ranging from 4 to 6.5 at frequencies of about 0.35, 0.75, 15 and 23 Hz. With these groups of stations, average levels of amplification were contrasted for the first time with those caused by the subduction zone earthquakes. With respect to the FAS shapes, most of them showed similarities at similar epicentral distances. Finally, some variations of site effects were found when compared to those obtained in previous studies on different seismicity regions. These variations were attributed to the location of the source. These aspects help to advance the understanding about the amplification behavior and of the expected seismic risk on central Mexico due to large earthquakes within the MVB seismogenic zone.

  20. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, James V., III; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study has used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-based method for evaluating the mineral resource potential across the large region of the CYPA. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic unit codes or HUCs) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output indicates an estimated potential (high, medium, low) for a given mineral deposit group and indicates the certainty (high, medium, low) of that estimate for any given subwatershed (HUC). Accompanying tables describe the data layers used in each analysis, the values assigned for specific analysis parameters, and the relative weighting of each data layer that contributes to the estimated potential and certainty determinations. Core datasets used include the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB2), the Alaska Division of Geologic and Geophysical Surveys Web-based geochemical database, data from an anticipated USGS geologic map of Alaska, and the USGS Alaska Resource Data File. Map plates accompanying this report illustrate the mineral prospectivity for the six deposit groups across the CYPA and estimates of mineral resource potential. There are numerous areas, some of them large, rated with high potential for one or more of the selected deposit groups within the CYPA.

  1. Optimization of Milk-Based Medium for Efficient Cultivation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 Using Face-Centered Central Composite-Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Khalil, Khalilah; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Bin Ariff, Arbakariya; Shaari, Yamin; Abdul Manap, Yazid; Dahalan, Farrah Aini

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4) biomass and ?-galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 23 full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6%?wt/vol) and yeast extract (1.89%?wt/vol) were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and ?-galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol) and 2.31% (wt/vol), respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract. PMID:24527457

  2. Optimization of milk-based medium for efficient cultivation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 using face-centered central composite-response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Abdul Khalil, Khalilah; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Bin Ariff, Arbakariya; Shaari, Yamin; Abdul Manap, Yazid; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Dahalan, Farrah Aini

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to optimize skim milk and yeast extract concentration as a cultivation medium for optimal Bifidobacteria pseudocatenulatum G4 (G4) biomass and ? -galactosidase production as well as lactose and free amino nitrogen (FAN) balance after cultivation period. Optimization process in this study involved four steps: screening for significant factors using 2(3) full factorial design, steepest ascent, optimization using FCCD-RSM, and verification. From screening steps, skim milk and yeast extract showed significant influence on the biomass production and, based on the steepest ascent step, middle points of skim milk (6% wt/vol) and yeast extract (1.89% wt/vol) were obtained. A polynomial regression model in FCCD-RSM revealed that both factors were found significant and the strongest influence was given by skim milk concentration. Optimum concentrations of skim milk and yeast extract for maximum biomass G4 and ? -galactosidase production meanwhile low in lactose and FAN balance after cultivation period were 5.89% (wt/vol) and 2.31% (wt/vol), respectively. The validation experiments showed that the predicted and experimental values are not significantly different, indicating that the FCCD-RSM model developed is sufficient to describe the cultivation process of G4 using skim-milk-based medium with the addition of yeast extract. PMID:24527457

  3. Central ballast tanker design

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER Design. This design is intended to reduce the volume of oil spilled from tankers by giving the crew a tanker properly designed and equipped to allow large quantities of oil from ruptured tank(s) to flow safely to a fully-inerted central ballast tank. In addition to reducing the volume of oil spilled, the design also addresses many of the shortcomings of the DOUBLE HULL DESIGN which are increasingly becoming a concern. The following is a brief review of the development of the CENTRAL BALLAST TANKER. The simple operational features, stability, low cost and ease of maintenance of the single hull tanker were important and can be retained with the CENTRAL BALLAST DESIGN.

  4. Central nervous system

    MedlinePLUS

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  5. Impact of inquiry based distance learning and availability of classroom materials on physical science content knowledge of teachers and students in central Appalachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Timothy John

    Physical science is important for developing scientific literacy yet a majority of teachers responsible for physical science courses do not have an academic degree in physical science. Programs aimed at increasing teacher content knowledge can be time consuming. This dissertation examines the impact of an inquiry based, professional development program offered via distance learning on teacher content knowledge and the role of teacher content knowledge on student understanding and attitudes toward science. Seventy-three teachers participated in the study, including Group I teachers (n = 39) who completed a distance learning course, a control group (Group II) with no intervention (n = 17), and Group III teachers (n = 17) who received classroom materials and no course intervention. A multiple-choice assessment was administered to teachers at the beginning and end of the summer. A similar multiple-choice assessment was administered during the school year to students (n=3,790) of those teachers. A teacher survey assessing the frequency of activity use and teachers' perceptions of the kit was administered to teachers at the end of the school year. A student survey assessing frequency of activities in the classroom, opinions of how to learn science, and attitudes toward science was administered to students during the school year. While Group II (50.6%) and Group III (52.2%) teacher scores were both lower than Group I teacher scores (67.4%), students in Group III (42.9%) outperformed students in Group II (39.4%) following instruction, at a level equal to Group I students (43.6%). Thus, providing materials/activities was as effective at increasing student understanding as providing materials/activities and increasing teacher understanding. However, while teachers in Group I and III report similar use of and satisfaction with the materials/activities, the percentage of Group I students reporting frequent use of inquiry based activities in the classroom, strong belief that inquiry based activities help them learn science, and positive attitudes toward science increased, while the percentages of students in Groups II and III decreased. These results suggest that in order to maximize students' understanding of and attitudes toward science, professional development programs should not only include inquiry pedagogy and laboratory materials but also emphasize teacher understanding. KEYWORDS: Professional development, distance learning, classroom materials, student content knowledge, teacher content knowledge

  6. Optimization of a QuEChERS based method by means of central composite design for pesticide multiresidue determination in orange juice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Tiele M; Kemmerich, Magali; Martins, Manoel L; Prestes, Osmar D; Adaime, Martha B; Zanella, Renato

    2016-04-01

    In this study, different extraction procedures based on the QuEChERS method were compared for the multiresidue determination of pesticides in orange juice by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). After choosing preliminary conditions, an experimental design was carried out with the variables C18, PSA, NaOH and CH3COONa to optimize the sample preparation step. The validation results of the validation were satisfactory, since the method presented recoveries between 70% and 118%, with RSD lower than 19% for spike levels between 10 and 100?gL(-1). The method limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 3.0 to 7.6?gL(-1) and from 4.9 to 26?gL(-1), respectively. The method developed was adequate for the determination of 74 pesticide residues in orange juice. PMID:26593461

  7. Central electron temperature estimations of TJ-II neutral beam injection heated plasmas based on the soft x ray multi-foil technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baiao, D.; Varandas, C.

    2012-05-15

    The core electron temperature (T{sub e0}) of neutral beam heated plasmas is determined in TJ-II stellarator by using soft x ray detectors with beryllium filters of different thickness, based on the method known as the foil absorption technique. T{sub e0} estimations are done with the impurity code IONEQ, making use of complementary information from the TJ-II soft x ray tomography and the VUV survey diagnostics. When considering the actual electron density and temperature profile shapes, an acceptable agreement is found with Thomson scattering measurements for 8 different magnetic configurations. The impact of the use of both neutral beam injectors on the T{sub e0} measurements is addressed. Also, the behaviour of T{sub e0} during spontaneous profile transitions is presented.

  8. Community-based technology transfer in rural aquaculture: the case of mudcrab Scylla serrata nursery in ponds in Northern Samar, Central Philippines.

    PubMed

    Baticados, Didi B; Agbayani, Renato F; Quinitio, Emilia T

    2014-12-01

    Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from <1.0 to 4.0 cm for 42 days, or by-phases. However, technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies. PMID:24817087

  9. Base of the upper layer of the phase-three Elkhorn-Loup groundwater-flow model, north-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    The Elkhorn and Loup Rivers in Nebraska provide water for irrigation, recreation, hydropower produc­tion, aquatic life, and municipal water systems for the Omaha and Lincoln metropolitan areas. Groundwater is another important resource in the region and is extracted primarily for agricultural irrigation. Water managers of the area are interested in balancing and sustaining the long-term uses of these essential surface-water and groundwater resources. Thus, a cooperative study was established in 2006 to compile reliable data describing hydrogeologic properties and water-budget components and to improve the understanding of stream-aquifer interactions in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. A groundwater-flow model was constructed as part of the first two phases of that study as a tool for under­standing the effect of groundwater pumpage on stream base flow and the effects of management strategies on hydrologically connected groundwater and surface-water supplies. The third phase of the study was implemented to gain additional geologic knowledge and update the ELM with enhanced water-budget information and refined discretization of the model grid and stress periods. As part of that effort, the ELM is being reconstructed to include two vertical model layers, whereas phase-one and phase-two simulations represented the aquifer system using one vertical model layer. This report presents a map of and methods for developing the elevation of the base of the upper model layer for the phase-three ELM. Digital geospatial data of elevation contours and geologic log sites used to esti­mate elevation contours are available as part of this report.

  10. Climatic and environmental reconstructions based on fossil assemblages from middle devensian (Weichselian) deposits of the river Thames at south kensington, central London, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coope, G. R.; Gibbard, P. L.; Hall, A. R.; Preece, R. C.; Robinson, J. E.; Sutcliffe, A. J.

    Fossiliferous silts within the Late Pleistocene Kempton Park Gravel, of the River Thames Valley, were exposed in 1980 during foundation works for the Ismaili Centre in South Kensington, London. The results of a multidisciplinary study of the geomorphology, sediments, fossil plants, vertebrates, molluscs, ostracods and insects are reported. The silts were deposited under two distinct climatic regimes; a lower unit accumulated when the climate was arctic and an upper when the temperatures were at least as warm as those of the present day. Both these units occupy the same channel system and are separated from one another by less than a metre of sediment, implying that the climatic change was probably sudden and intense. The strongest evidence for this climatic difference comes from a study of the Coleoptera, which show an almost complete replacement of the arctic element in the fauna by a suite of temperate species. Palaeotemperature reconstructions using the Mutual Climatic Range method, based on the coleopteran assemblages from the lower unit, suggest that the mean temperature of the warmest month was 9±2 °C and that of the coldest month -22±10 °C. For the upper unit the mean temperature of the warmest month had risen to about 17 °C and that of the coldest month to about -4 °C. The episode represented by the lower unit, with its arctic climate, had not previously been recognized in the Thames Valley. The fauna from the upper, temperate, unit is very similar to that from other sites in the Kempton Park Gravel, such as that from Isleworth, 10 km upriver, which, like the upper unit at the Ismaili Centre, was characterized by the virtual absence of trees. It would appear that in such cases this treelessness does not indicate cold conditions, equivalent to those of the modern tundra, but may instead result from a combination of ecological and temporal factors. The value of multidisciplinary studies in reaching such conclusions is emphasized. The temperate episode described here is correlated with the thermal maximum at the early part of the Upton Warren Interstadial Complex. An earlier suggestion, based on amino acid epimerization ratios, that the Upton Warren Interstadial correlates with Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5a is not supported by the data, which show no evidence of the forested environments that characterized this period in both Britain and the adjacent Continent. It is thought that the temperate deposits at the Ismaili Centre belong to the Middle (Pleniglacial), rather than the Early, Devensian (Weichselian) and are equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Stage 3.

  11. No Apparent Reduction in Schistosome Burden or Genetic Diversity Following Four Years of School-Based Mass Drug Administration in Mwea, Central Kenya, a Heavy Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Lelo, Agola E.; Mburu, David N.; Magoma, Gabriel N.; Mungai, Ben N.; Kihara, Jimmy H.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Loker, Eric S.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Steinauer, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease that infects over 200 million people worldwide. To combat this disease, in 2012, the World Health Organization announced a goal of reducing and eliminating transmission of schistosomes. Current control focuses primarily on mass drug administration (MDA). Therefore, we monitored transmission of Schistosoma mansoni via fecal egg counts and genetic markers in a typical school based MDA setting to ascertain the actual impacts of MDA on the targeted schistosome population. Methods For 4 years, we followed 67 children enrolled in a MDA program in Kenya. Infection status and egg counts were measured each year prior to treatment. For 15 of these children, for which there was no evidence of acquired resistance, meaning they became re-infected following each treatment, we collected microsatellite genotype data from schistosomes passed in fecal samples as a representation of the force of transmission between drug treatments. We genotyped a total of 4938 parasites from these children, with an average of 329.2 parasites per child for the entire study, and an average of 82.3 parasites per child per annual examination. We compared prevalence, egg counts, and genetic measures including allelic richness, gene diversity (expected heterozygosity), adult worm burdens and effective number of breeders among time points to search for evidence for a change in transmission or schistosome populations during the MDA program. Findings We found no evidence of reduced transmission or schistosome population decline over the course of the program. Although prevalence declined in the 67 children as it did in the overall program, reinfection rates were high, and for the 15 children studied in detail, schistosome egg counts and estimated adult worm burdens did not decline between years 1 and 4, and genetic diversity increased over the course of drug treatment. Interpretation School based control programs undoubtedly improve the health of individuals; however, our data show that in an endemic area, such a program has had no obvious effect on reducing transmission or of significantly impacting the schistosome population as sampled by the children we studied in depth. Results like these, in combination with other sources of information, suggest more integrated approaches for interrupting transmission and significantly diminishing schistosome populations will be required to achieve sustainable control. PMID:25299057

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in a central district in Islamic Republic of Iran: a population-based study on adults aged 40-80 years.

    PubMed

    Katibeh, M; Hosseini, S; Soleimanizad, R; Manaviat, M R; Kheiri, B; Khabazkhoob, M; Daftarian, N; Dehghan, M H

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Islamic Republic of Iran were mainly performed in provinces with large populations. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus in an adult population (40-80 years old) from Yazd district. Multistage, systematic cluster random sampling was used in a crosssectional, population-based survey. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected, with diabetes defined as fasting blood sugar ? 7 mmol/L or a positive medical history of diabetes. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of diabetes in 2090 individuals participants was 24.5% (95% CI: 22.2-26.8%), including 10.5% new cases. For each year of ageing, the prevalence of diabetes increased significantly by 4% and this trend was more pronounced in females than males. Low education and hypertension were significantly associated with diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Yazd is greater than the average levels nationwide and those of nearby countries. PMID:26370000

  13. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time-location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: model evaluation in central North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Long, Thomas C; Schultz, Bradley D; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E; Isaacs, Kristin K; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M; Devlin, Robert B; Batterman, Stuart A; Buckley, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time-location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

  14. GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time–location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: Model evaluation in central North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael S.; Long, Thomas C.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E.; Isaacs, Kristin K.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W.; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Buckley, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time–location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

  15. Detection of PTEN nonsense mutation and psiPTEN expression in central nervous system high-grade astrocytic tumors by a yeast-based stop codon assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C L; Tada, M; Kobayashi, H; Nozaki, M; Moriuchi, T; Abe, H

    2000-09-01

    We have developed a new yeast-based assay for the detection of PTEN nonsense mutation, and applied it to a total of 42 astrocytic tumors. The assay utilizes homologous recombination of PCR-amplified PTEN cDNA samples to a yeast vector which expresses an in-frame PTEN::ADE2 chimera protein. An allele of nonsense mutation in the sample PTEN mRNA gives a truncated chimera protein in a yeast cell, resulting in the formation of a red colony. The assay and subsequent sequence analysis demonstrated nonsense mutations as red colonies of more than 10% in one of 10 anaplastic astrocytomas and six of 18 glioblastomas, but none in six pilocytic astrocytomas or in eight astrocytomas. Sequence analysis of white colonies showed one missense mutation in a glioblastoma. Interestingly, four of seven nonsense mutations were frame-shifts due to exon skipping. In addition, pink colonies were found in one of six pilocytic astrocytomas, three of eight astrocytomas, two of 10 anaplastic astrocytomas, and 10 of 18 glioblastomas. Sequence analysis of the pink colonies revealed a sequence similar to those reported as psiPTEN/PTH2. By testing mRNA and genomic DNA, it was found to be a processed pseudogene which was transcribed. The psiPTEN expression was complementary to PTEN mutation, for 14 of 18 glioblastomas showed either PTEN mutation or psiPTEN expression and only one case showed both PTEN mutation and psiPTEN expression (P<0.046), suggesting a pathological role of psiPTEN expression as an alternative to PTEN mutation in glioblastomas. PMID:10980610

  16. Sensitivity of Off-Channel Salmon Rearing Habitats to Changing Base Flows in Low-Gradient Reaches of Central Idaho Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J. A.; Thurow, R.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Bohn, C.

    2010-12-01

    Critical rearing habitats for juvenile salmon and trout are frequently in off-channel areas of shallow, low-velocity water. Typically, these are remnants of abandoned channel positions that are still hydraulically connected to the contemporary main channel. However, the size and spatial arrangement of this habitat is strongly dependent on water stage in the main channel. In two salmon-bearing streams in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho, we used a high-resolution channel DEM and a 1D fluid dynamics model to define the location, depth, total area, frequency, and timing and duration of flooding of off-channel habitat. We then predicted changes in water surface elevation in the main channel over a range of low flow discharges and remapped the functional off-channel areas at each flow stage. Measurements at nearby gages indicate that average late summer and autumn low flows in these streams have declined by about 7% per decade over the prior 60 years. Modern off-channel habitat along the 20km of study streams is not uniformly arranged, even at high flows, and the distribution becomes still more restricted in space and time as flows decline. Progeny of summer- and early fall-spawning Chinook salmon rear for up to 2 years in these streams before migrating to the ocean, with much of that time spent in the off-channel habitat. Progeny of spring-spawning steelhead use the same areas for up to 3 years. While much prior research has focused on the effects of climate change on the availability and condition of spawning sites and on water temperatures, this study documents likely changes in the amount and condition of rearing habitat. Further investigation is needed to understand the ecological consequences and whether the declining anadromous fish populations may be at some risk from diminishing rearing habitat during declining base flows caused by external forces, such as a changing climate, dams, or water extractions.

  17. XNAT Central: Open sourcing imaging research data.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Rick; Horton, William; Olsen, Timothy; McKay, Michael; Archie, Kevin A; Marcus, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    XNAT Central is a publicly accessible medical imaging data repository based on the XNAT open-source imaging informatics platform. It hosts a wide variety of research imaging data sets. The primary motivation for creating XNAT Central was to provide a central repository to host and provide access to a wide variety of neuroimaging data. In this capacity, XNAT Central hosts a number of data sets from research labs and investigative efforts from around the world, including the OASIS Brains imaging studies, the NUSDAST study of schizophrenia, and more. Over time, XNAT Central has expanded to include imaging data from many different fields of research, including oncology, orthopedics, cardiology, and animal studies, but continues to emphasize neuroimaging data. Through the use of XNAT's DICOM metadata extraction capabilities, XNAT Central provides a searchable repository of imaging data that can be referenced by groups, labs, or individuals working in many different areas of research. The future development of XNAT Central will be geared towards greater ease of use as a reference library of heterogeneous neuroimaging data and associated synthetic data. It will also become a tool for making data available supporting published research and academic articles. PMID:26143202

  18. Study of Clouds Behavior in Central Amazonia Region around Manaus City, using Caliop Information and Comparison with Measurements from Ground Based Instruments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, H. M.; Barja Gonzalez, B.; Rosas, J.; Gouveia, D. A.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds are very important in the climatic system. They can affect the atmospheric radiation budget by reflecting the incoming solar radiation and absorbing the outgoing terrestrial radiation. Semitransparent or optically thin cirrus clouds are almost all the time in the tropics region. They are composed by ice crystals. They are related with the dehydration of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In despite of the importance of the clouds, the understanding of cloud characteristics and their effect on radiation is limited. Climate observations and the models outputs have been indicating cloud properties have changed and continue to change with climate warming. Inclusion of active remote sensors as Lidar on board satellites has constituted a great advance on the atmospheric remote sensing. This type of instrument is able to retrieve the profile of clouds mainly semitransparent ones determining multiple layers of these cloud types. We present in this paper a study of the cloud optical depth (COD) and the occurrence frequency and frequency profile of clouds in a region around Embrapa measurement site at Manaus (2.89 ºS, 59.97 ºW, 100 masl). For this purpose level 2 version 3 cloud profile data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on board Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite is used. The studied period extend from June 2006 to June 2014. The cloud optical depth frequency distributions are determined for all cloud types; resulting more frequent the semitransparent cloud types with lowest COD values. The higher COD values correcponding to the opaque cloud types. Mean monthly and hourly behaviors of the occurrence frequency of cloud types are studied. Cirrus transparent is the most frequent cloud type in all months and hours, with a maximum in September and 5 at GMT. Also, are presented and discussed the monthly and hourly frequency profile of all cloud types and the semitransparent cirrus cloud type. These results are compared with cloud optical depth measurements from the ground based Lidar and sun-photometer installed in the Embrapa experimental site.

  19. Video Lab -NOAA Central Library NOAA Central Library

    E-print Network

    2015 Video Lab - NOAA Central Library NOAA Central Library 1315 East West Highway, SSMC3, 2nd Floor Silver Spring, MD 20910 www.lib.noaa.gov #12;NOAA Central Library Video Lab The NOAA Central Library Video Lab is available to all NOAA scientists for their business related media work, including digital

  20. Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.L.

    1992-03-01

    This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

  1. Current and future centrally acting antitussives.

    PubMed

    Bolser, Donald C

    2006-07-28

    The purpose of this review is to highlight some important issues regarding current centrally acting antitussive drugs as well as discuss the implications of these matters on the development of future cough suppressants. Drugs that act in the central nervous system to inhibit cough are termed centrally acting and this designation is based exclusively on evidence obtained from animal models. This classification can include drugs that act both at peripheral and central sites following systemic administration. These drugs are intended to reduce the frequency and/or intensity of coughing resulting from disorders of any etiology. There are a number of central cough suppressants identified by their efficacy in animal models and the most prominent of these are codeine and dextromethorphan. Although the exact neural elements on which these drugs act are currently unknown, they are thought to inhibit a functionally identified component of the central system for cough known as the gating mechanism. The efficacy of codeine and dextromethorphan in humans has recently been questioned. These drugs are less effective on cough induced by upper airway disorders than in pathological conditions involving the lower airways in humans. The reasons for this difference in antitussive sensitivity are not clear. We propose that sensory afferents from different regions of the airways actuate coughing in humans by antitussive sensitive and insensitive control elements in the central nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with results from an animal model in which laryngeal and tracheobronchial cough had different sensitivities to codeine. Other factors that may be very important in the action of central antitussive drugs in humans include the role of sensations produced by a tussigenic stimulus as well as plasticity of central pathways in response to airway inflammation. Resolution of these issues in the human will be a challenging process, but one which will lay the foundation for the development of more effective cough suppressants. PMID:16517221

  2. Current and future centrally acting antitussives?

    PubMed Central

    Bolser, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight some important issues regarding current centrally acting antitussive drugs as well as discuss the implications of these matters on the development of future cough suppressants. Drugs that act in the central nervous system to inhibit cough are termed centrally acting and this designation is based exclusively on evidence obtained from animal models. This classification can include drugs that act both at peripheral and central sites following systemic administration. These drugs are intended to reduce the frequency and/or intensity of coughing resulting from disorders of any etiology. There are a number of central cough suppressants identified by their efficacy in animal models and the most prominent of these are codeine and dextromethorphan. Although the exact neural elements on which these drugs act are currently unknown, they are thought to inhibit a functionally identified component of the central system for cough known as the gating mechanism. The efficacy of codeine and dextromethorphan in humans has recently been questioned. These drugs are less effective on cough induced by upper airway disorders than in pathological conditions involving the lower airways in humans. The reasons for this difference in antitussive sensitivity are not clear. We propose that sensory afferents from different regions of the airways actuate coughing in humans by antitussive sensitive and insensitive control elements in the central nervous system. This hypothesis is consistent with results from an animal model in which laryngeal and tracheobronchial cough had different sensitivities to codeine. Other factors that may be very important in the action of central antitussive drugs in humans include the role of sensations produced by a tussigenic stimulus as well as plasticity of central pathways in response to airway inflammation. Resolution of these issues in the human will be a challenging process, but one which will lay the foundation for the development of more effective cough suppressants. PMID:16517221

  3. Glueballs: A central mystery

    E-print Network

    F. Close

    2000-06-26

    Glueball candidates and qqbar mesons have been found to be produced with different momentum and angular dependences in the central region of pp collisions. This talk illustrates this phenomenon and explains the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0++,0-+, 1++, 2++ and 2-+. For production of 0++ and 2++ mesons the analysis reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates. An explanation is given for the absence of 0-+ glueball candidates in central production at present energies and the opportunity for their discovery at RHIC is noted.

  4. Central American update

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1987-07-01

    The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers, and technicians. The energy resources project began in March 1985. The progress being made in El Salvador (production well logging and geophysical operations), Panama (site selection for the first temperature-gradient well), and Honduras (well drilling of temperature-gradient wells) is summarized.

  5. POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC

    E-print Network

    POWER CENTRALIZED SEMIGROUPS PRIMOZ MORAVEC Abstract. A semigroup is said to be power centralized if for every pair of elements x and y there exists a power of x commuting with y. The structure of power centralized groups and semigroups is investigated. In particular, we characterize 0-simple power centralized

  6. 76 FR 30938 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfield andA Field-Based Aquatic Life Benchmark for Conductivity in Central...Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

  7. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  8. [Primary central nervous system vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Schuster, S; Magnus, T

    2015-12-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare disorder. However, it is often considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular or inflammatory CNS diseases. Diagnosis is challenging, as specific biomarkers are lacking and the clinical presentation can be variable. A definitive diagnosis can only be established by biopsy of the inflammatory changes in the vascular wall. Alternatively, the diagnosis of PACNS can also be based on the synopsis of clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Different subtypes of PACNS have been described in recent years, depending on the size of the affected vessels or histopathological patterns. Based on selective literature research in the database PubMed on the subject of CNS vasculitis, this article reviews the diagnostic characteristics and differential diagnosis of the condition. We suggest a diagnostic algorithm customized to the size of the affected vessels. Lastly, therapeutic options and the outcome of PACNS are briefly outlined. PMID:26589203

  9. Central Idaho Debris Flow

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    During August 2013, the Beaver Creek wildfire burned more than 114,000 acres in south-central Idaho. Shortly after the fire was contained, heavy rainfall triggered numerous debris flows, including this one in Badger Gulch. USGS hydrologists Dave Evetts (left) and Jake Jacobson examine the debris flo...

  10. Developing a Central Claim

    E-print Network

    draft. In effect, you will have a working claim that guides your outlining and drafting is essential to writing an effective argumentative essay. (See the Writing Studio's Argument Essay handout claim. Central claims: your helpful guide from outlining to drafting to revising Throughout the process

  11. Ghrelin in Central Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ferrini, F; Salio, C; Lossi, L; Merighi, A

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide synthesized by endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, is released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. Since discovery, the hypothalamus was identified as the main source of ghrelin in the CNS, and effects of the peptide have been mainly observed in this area of the brain. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have reported ghrelin synthesis and effects in specific populations of neurons also outside the hypothalamus. Thus, ghrelin activity has been described in midbrain, hindbrain, hippocampus, and spinal cord. The spectrum of functions and biological effects produced by the peptide on central neurons is remarkably wide and complex. It ranges from modulation of membrane excitability, to control of neurotransmitter release, neuronal gene expression, and neuronal survival and proliferation. There is not at present a general consensus concerning the source of ghrelin acting on central neurons. Whereas it is widely accepted that the hypothalamus represents the most important endogenous source of the hormone in CNS, the existence of extra-hypothalamic ghrelin-synthesizing neurons is still controversial. In addition, circulating ghrelin can theoretically be another natural ligand for central ghrelin receptors. This paper gives an overview on the distribution of ghrelin and its receptor across the CNS and critically analyses the data available so far as regarding the effects of ghrelin on central neurotransmission. PMID:19721816

  12. Central Exclusive Dijet Production

    SciTech Connect

    Dechambre, A.; Cudell, J. R.; Ivanov, I. P.; Hernandez, O.

    2008-08-29

    The ingredients of central exclusive production cross section include large perturbative corrections and soft quantities that must be parametrized and fitted to data. In this talk, we summarize the results of a study of the uncertainties coming from these ingredients, in the case of exclusive dijet production.

  13. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described. PMID:26614804

  14. Central sensitization theory of migraine: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Dodick, David; Silberstein, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The clinical science of migraine headache continues to evolve. Theories of the pathophysiology of migraine have progressed from the early vascular basis of migraine to more complex current theories that emphasize the centrality of neuronal dysfunction. The most recently articulated theory of migraine is the central sensitization hypothesis, which proposes that altered processing of sensory input in the brainstem, principally the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, could account for many of the temporal and symptomatic features of migraine, as well as its poor response to triptan therapy when such treatment is initiated hours after the onset of pain. Both preclinical and clinical data support the central sensitization theory. A critical clinical implication of this theory is that drugs that are capable of either aborting or arresting the process of central sensitization, most prominently dihydroergotamine, may have a unique role in the treatment of migraine. An additional, and highly practical, implication is based upon the finding that cutaneous allodynia-pain arising from innocuous stimulation of the skin, as in hair brushing or the application of cosmetics-is an easily identifiable marker of central sensitization. Thus, the presence or absence of cutaneous allodynia can be integrated into the routine clinical assessment of migraine and utilized as a determinant of treatment. Future basic and clinical research on central sensitization is likely to be of ongoing importance to the field. PMID:17078850

  15. CENTRAL ROTATIONS OF MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Rukdee, Surangkhana; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Thomas, Jens; Williams, Michael J.; Noyola, Eva; Opitsch, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Most Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit measurable flattening, even if on a very low level. Both cluster rotation and tidal fields are thought to cause this flattening. Nevertheless, rotation has only been confirmed in a handful of GCs, based mostly on individual radial velocities at large radii. We are conducting a survey of the central kinematics of Galactic GCs using the new Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W. We detect rotation in all 11 GCs that we have observed so far, rendering it likely that a large majority of the Milky Way GCs rotate. We use published catalogs of GCs to derive central ellipticities and position angles. We show that in all cases where the central ellipticity permits an accurate measurement of the position angle, those angles are in excellent agreement with the kinematic position angles that we derive from the VIRUS-W velocity fields. We find an unexpected tight correlation between central rotation and outer ellipticity, indicating that rotation drives flattening for the objects in our sample. We also find a tight correlation between central rotation and published values for the central velocity dispersion, most likely due to rotation impacting the old dispersion measurements.

  16. Ecological response surfaces nested in a process-based vegetation-water blance model to investigate species-level sensitivity to projected climatic chanage in the North American Central Grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    Empirical ecological response surfaces were nested in MAPSS, a process-based vegetation-water balance model, to increase the taxonomic resolution of simulations of vegetation change under altered climates in the Central Grasslands. Response surfaces developed for dominant grass species predict the probability of dominance as a function of both climatic variables and variables derived by MAPSS. The former include indices of warmth and moisture more directly related to the response of plants than annual or monthly measures of temperature or precipitation commonly used in ecological response surface modeling. The MAPSS-derived predictor variables include evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and lifeform LAI. Under current climatic conditions, the response surfaces provide estimates of grass species dominance with a high degree of success. Much of the variation in the simulated probability of dominance is related to the species` individualistic response to regional gradients of temperature and moisture. The equilibrium response under different doubled-CO2 climatic scenarios suggests the potential for significant change in the distribution of species dominance consistent with biome-level change simulated by MAPSS.

  17. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  18. Compact Central WENO Schemes for multidimensional conservationlaws

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Doron; Puppo, Gabriella; Russo, Giovanni

    1999-06-01

    We present a new third-order central scheme for approximating solutions of systems of conservation laws in one and two space dimensions. In the spirit of Godunov-type schemes, our method is based on reconstructing a piecewise-polynomial interpolant from cell-averages which is then advanced exactly in time.

  19. The Vessantara Jataka from Central Asia

    E-print Network

    Banerjee, P.

    1974-07-23

    noted, is uncertain. He, hwever, suggests the possibility of its being derived from or based on the princely insignia used in Bactria or Sogdiana 'through which the Central Asian adapata­ tion of Graeco- Buddhist art passed into the Tarim Basin' 2...

  20. Central arterial pressure assessment with intensity POF sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Cátia; Gonçalves, Steve; Antunes, Paulo; Bastos, José M.; Pinto, João. L.; André, Paulo

    2015-09-01

    The central pressure monitoring is considered a new key factor in hypertension assessment and cardiovascular prevention. In this work, it is presented the central arterial systolic pressure assessment with an intensity based POF sensor. The device was tested in four subjects, and stable pulse waves were obtained, allowing the calculation of the central pressure for all the subjects. The results shown that the sensor performs reliably, being a simple and low-cost solution to the intended application.

  1. FNAL central email systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Pasetes, Ray; Hill, Kevin; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    The FNAL Email System is the primary point of entry for email destined for an employee or user at Fermilab. This centrally supported system is designed for reliability and availability. It uses multiple layers of protection to help ensure that: (1) SPAM messages are tagged properly; (2) All mail is inspected for viruses; and (3) Valid mail gets delivered. This system employs numerous redundant subsystems to accomplish these tasks.

  2. Fires in Central America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    As can be seen in this true-color scene acquired on April 2, 2002, many fires dot the landscape across portions of Central America. This image spans from Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula across Guatemala and into El Salvador and Honduras. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The red boxes indicate where active fires were burning.

  3. Central ignition scenarios for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Redi, M.H.; Bateman, G.

    1986-03-01

    The possibility of obtaining ignition in TFTR by means of very centrally peaked density profiles is examined. It is shown that local central alpha heating can be made to exceed local central energy losses (''central ignition'') under global conditions for which Q greater than or equal to 1. Time dependent 1-D transport simulations show that the normal global ignition requirements are substantially relaxed for plasmas with peaked density profiles. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  4. School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of