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1

Concomitant solitary median maxillary central incisor and fused right mandibular incisor in primary dentition.  

PubMed

Solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a unique developmental anomaly in primary dentition. It involves central incisor tooth germs and may or may not be associated with other anomalies. Its presence, concomitant with fusion of right mandibular incisors has not previously been reported. A 5-year-old girl was presented with a single symmetrical primary maxillary incisor at the midline, with the absence of labial frenulum, an indistinct philtrum and a prominent midpalatal ridge. There was an associated fused tooth in the right incisor region and radiographic examination confirmed only one maxillary central incisor in both the dentitions. Family history revealed that the father of the girl also had a similar anomaly providing probable evidence of etiological role for heredity in SMMCI. PMID:23230364

Shilpa, G; Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Gokhale, Niraj; Yamini, V

2012-09-01

2

A case of impacted maxillary central incisor and its management  

PubMed Central

Impaction of maxillary permanent central incisor is not a frequently reported case in dental practice, but its treatment is challenging because of its importance to facial esthetics. Early detection of such teeth is most important if complications are to be avoided. We report a case of a 14-year-old female with an impacted central incisor tooth in the maxillary anterior region. The impacted supernumerary tooth which was preventing the eruption of permanent incisor was surgically removed. Combined approach with surgical exposure and the application of an orthodontic force brought the impacted left maxillary central incisor down to its proper position in the dental arch. PMID:23066245

Kannan, Prem Kumar Karupanna Pillai Subbiah; Palanisamy, Senthil Kumar Kullam Palayam; Kumar, Tamizharasi Senthil

2012-01-01

3

Prosthetic considerations in the restoration of orthodontically treated maxillary lateral incisors to replace missing central incisors: A clinical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of young patients with missing maxillary incisors poses a challenge to prosthodontists and orthodontists. The 2 principal treatment options are (1) the reopening or maintenance of space for future autotransplantation and\\/or prosthodontic restoration of the missing teeth, or (2) total orthodontic space closure, followed by prosthodontic modification of the lateral incisors to simulate the central incisors. This article

Stella Chaushu; Adrian Becker; Maya Zalkind

2001-01-01

4

Multidisciplinary solution for an avulsed upper central incisor: case report.  

PubMed

This case report refers to an 18-year-old female who suffered from dental trauma when she was 7?years old caused by a bicycle accident. Her maxillary right central incisor was avulsed, and the left one was extrusively luxated. The left central incisor was correctly repositioned and immobilized with a semi-rigid splint. The right one could not be found. She presented with class II malocclusion and severe negative arch-length discrepancies in both arches. The treatment objectives were the following: recover smile esthetics by replacing the maxillary right central incisor, correct the class II relationship, and optimally reduce mandibular and maxillary crowding. Extractions of the maxillary left lateral incisor and the lower right first bicuspid were performed; thus, the maxillary right lateral incisor would function as a maxillary right central incisor, the canines would function as lateral incisors, and the first bicuspids would function as canines. This allowed for the malocclusion to be corrected while simultaneously reestablishing the smile esthetics, without the use of an osseointegrated implant. A good occlusion with coincident upper and lower midlines was achieved. After orthodontic therapy, the patient underwent periodontal surgery to improve her gingival margins. Subsequent teeth bleaching was performed, and the patient received six porcelain veneers. A combination of orthodontic space closure and prosthetic rehabilitation may be the best treatment option after severe traumatic tooth loss. PMID:21564520

Drummond, Stephanie; Pessica, Lívia Saladini Vieira; Monnerat, Aline Borges Luiz; Monnerat, Antonio Fernando; de Oliveira Almeida, Marco Antonio

2011-06-01

5

Extraction of Maxillary Central Incisors: An Orthodontic-Restorative Treatment  

PubMed Central

Malformed central incisors with poor prognosis could be candidates for extraction especially in crowded dental arches. This case report refers to a 12-year-old boy who suffered from malformed upper central incisors associated with severe attrition. Upper lateral incisors were positioned palatally and canines were rotated and positioned in the high buccal area. The patient had class II malocclusion and space deficiency in both dental arches. Due to incisal wear and malformed short maxillary central incisors and the need for root canal therapy with a major crown build-up, these teeth were extracted. The maxillary lateral incisors were substituted. Thus the maxillary canines were substituted for lateral incisors and the first premolars were substituted for canines. In the lower dental arch the first bicuspids were extracted. Composite resin build-up was performed on the maxillary lateral incisors and canines. This allowed for the crowding and the malocclusion to be corrected. Subsequent gingivectomy improved the patient's gingival margins and smile esthetics one month after orthodontic therapy. PMID:25400954

Hedayati, Zohreh; Zare, Maryam; Bahramnia, Fateme

2014-01-01

6

Dental transposition of canine and lateral incisor and impacted central incisor treatment: A case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dental transposition and impaction are disorders related to ectopic eruption or failure in tooth eruption, which can affect child physical, mental and social development and may be difficult to be clinically solved. Methods We describe a case of transposition between the upper left canine and lateral incisor associated with impaction of the central incisor on the same side, in a 12-year-old patient. Conservative treatment involving surgical-orthodontic correction of transposed teeth and traction of the central incisor was conducted. Conclusion The option of correcting transposition and orthodontic traction by means of the segmented arch technique with devices such as cantilever and TMA rectangular wire loops, although a complex alternative, was proved to be esthetically and functionally effective. PMID:24713567

Gebert, Tarcisio Jacinto; Palma, Vinícius Canavarros; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

2014-01-01

7

An efficient biomechanical approach for the management of an impacted maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

Treatment of an impacted maxillary central incisor poses a unique challenge to the orthodontist because of its position within the esthetic zone, requiring careful management of the soft tissues and an effective biomechanical setup for alignment. This article describes a novel method of extending an extrusion wire from cross tubes attached on the base archwire for forced eruption of impacted central incisors. The effectiveness and versatility of this method are demonstrated with 2 patients. PMID:25085308

Chandhoke, Taranpreet K; Agarwal, Sachin; Feldman, Jonathan; Shah, Raja A; Upadhyay, Madhur; Nanda, Ravindra

2014-08-01

8

Esthetic periodontal surgery for impacted dilacerated maxillary central incisors.  

PubMed

Clinicians do not frequently see impacted dilacerated maxillary incisors in their patients. When they do, there are several diagnostic and management challenges for correcting root dilacerations. An unfavorable esthetic outcome might occur as a result of soft-tissue complications during surgical eruption procedures. We present 2 patients with an impacted and dilacerated maxillary central incisor. Computed tomography scans with 3-dimensional reformation were used to accurately assess the positions of the dilacerated teeth, the degree of dilaceration, and the stage of root formation. The therapy primarily involved 2-stage crown exposure surgery combined with orthodontic traction. An apicoectomy was performed on 1 dilacerated tooth; the other exhibited pulp vitality. This article highlights the periodontal surgical strategies for the esthetic management of inverted crowns. Through periodontal plastic surgery and interdisciplinary cooperation, the impacted dilacerated central incisors were properly aligned, and successful esthetic results were achieved. PMID:22999678

Wei, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yi-Chun; Kaung, Shou-Shin; Yang, Shue-Fen; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin

2012-10-01

9

Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Failure of eruption of primary teeth can be considered rare, especially in maxillary anterior teeth. The problem can be either mechanical obstruction of eruption or a failure of the eruption mechanism. This case report presents failure of eruption of the maxillary right deciduous central incisor in a 4-year-old girl. The unerupted primary tooth was removed surgically. The histological finding revealed fibroma with reactive giant cells. Periodic follow-up visits were advised to monitor the developing dentition and to ensure enough space for the permanent incisor. How to cite this article: Shakra KA. Management of Unerupted Maxillary Deciduous Central Incisor: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):58-60. PMID:25206241

2014-01-01

10

Clinical evaluation of a patient with single maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

Hypodontia in permanent dentition is the most common developmental anomaly and frequently found in the second premolar and maxillary lateral incisor In the primary dentition, however, hypodontia appears to be less frequent, with the exception of cases such as ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip and palate. We report a child with one primary maxillary central incisor at midline. The presence of a single permanent maxillary central incisor was also confirmed by radiological examination. Other intraoral abnormalities were detected including absence of upper labial frenulum and abnormal palatal structure, but no other facial or brain anomalies. Although the condition is exceedingly rare, a thorough examination for more serious anomalies should be conducted since it is suggested to be the mildest feature of holoprosencephaly. PMID:11874011

Youko, Kamasaki; Satoshi, Fukumoto; Kubota, Kazumi; Goto, George

2002-01-01

11

Fragment Reattachment after Atypical Crown Fracture in Maxillary Central Incisor  

PubMed Central

Background. Fracture by trauma is one of the most common types of dental injury in the permanent dentition among children and teenagers. Aim. The aim of this study was to report the treatment performed to an atypical dental trauma case in a maxillary central incisor of a young patient by means of reattachment of the tooth fragment. Case Description. A 12-year-old male patient suffered a vertical crown fracture to the maxillary right central incisor. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a conservative restorative treatment which consisted in the reattachment of the tooth fragment with flow resin was performed in order to preserve the dental element and to obtain maximum aesthetics. Conclusion. The reattachment of fractured fragment is a fast and easy technique that can be used successfully as an option to restore dental element which suffered trauma. Clinical Significance. This technique restores the aesthetics and function of the dental element with minimal discomfort to the patient. PMID:25610663

Vaz, Vanessa Torraca Peraro; Presoto, Cristina Dupim; Jordão, Keren Cristina Fagundes; Paleari, André Gustavo; Dantas, Andrea Abi-Rached; Segalla, José Claudio Martins; de Oliveira Junior, Osmir Batista

2014-01-01

12

[Impacted upper central incisor. Surgical-orthodontic treatment].  

PubMed

This study goes through the aetio-pathogenetic factors which cause the upper central incisor's inclusion and then it analyses the various clinical pictures to which odontologist's attention may be called. It is in this context that the study describes afterwards several problems pertinent to disinclusion's surgical techniques and to scientific methods about included teeth's hooking and about their odontological settling in the dental arch. PMID:2394287

Panigada, G

1990-02-15

13

Treatment strategies for missing maxillary central incisor--an orthodontist's perspective.  

PubMed

The loss of maxillary central incisors at an early age has psychological, esthetic, and functional implications. Multiple treatment options are available for replacing missing central incisors. The management demands a multidisciplinary approach involving the orthodontist, prosthodontist, and periodontist. Treatment planning requires consideration of a variety of clinical and nonclinical factors. This clinical report attempts to demonstrate different strategies for the management of unilaterally and bilaterally missing central incisors. PMID:24417492

Gautam, Rajaganesh; Nene, Purvaja; Mehta, Kunal; Nene, Salil; Hegde, Ashwith; Jaju, Rajbala

2014-08-01

14

Concomitant dilaceration, transposition, and intraosseous migration: report of a patient treated with maxillary canine-central incisor substitution.  

PubMed

This case report describes the multidisciplinary treatment of a male with a dilacerated maxillary left central incisor and transposition of the ipsilateral maxillary canine and lateral incisor. The initial treatment plan involved removal of the dilacerated incisor with mechanical eruption and alignment of the ectopic left canine, aiming to substitute the lateral incisor for the missing central incisor. However, the plan was modified to include eruption of the canine in the central incisor region in response to progressive ectopic development and mesial transmigration of the maxillary left canine. Although substitution of a maxillary canine for a central incisor is comparatively rare, the canines offer a relatively favorable template to simulate a central incisor. For this growing patient with a combination of dental trauma and developmental anomalies, maxillary canine-central incisor replacement was a viable option, offering excellent esthetic results without recourse to prosthetic replacement. PMID:25263154

Campbell, Ciara M; DiBiase, Andrew; Fleming, Padhraig S

2014-10-01

15

Endodontic Management of a Mandibular Central Incisor with Type IV Canal Pattern: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The success of endodontic treatment requires the knowledge of tooth morphology and its variations. Mandibular incisor’s anatomy presents a challenge when an endodontic access is made, because of its small size and high prevalence of two canals. We are describing a Weine’s Type IV root canal configuration that was detected in a mandibular central incisor, which was demonstrated by a radiographic examination. This article also focuses on the successful endodontic treatment of a mandibular central incisor with a single canal at the pulp chamber, which divided into two distinct and separate canals (buccolingual) at the middle third of the root. PMID:24783153

Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Sharma, Jyotika; Mittal, Shifali; Ahuja, Tarun

2014-01-01

16

Premolar transplantation in a patient with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome.  

PubMed

This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an 11-year-old girl with solitary median maxillary central incisor syndrome, a presumed microform of holoprosencephaly. Because both second premolars were missing in the maxilla, deciduous molar extraction and orthodontic space opening were performed, moving the solitary median maxillary central incisor electively off-center. A mandibular second premolar was transplanted to replace the missing incisor. The resulting spaces could be orthodontically closed in both arches. Prosthodontic reshaping of the transplanted tooth after debonding completed the dental treatment. PMID:25432260

Pseiner, Bernhard C

2014-12-01

17

Movement of an upper central incisor across the midline in a patient with cleft of primary palate.  

PubMed

Orthodontic treatment for a 10-years-old girl, with repaired bilateral cleft lip and left incomplete unilateral alveolar cleft, was performed by moving her right maxillary central incisor across the midline to replace her congenital missing central incisor and then moving the right lateral incisor toward the midline to act as a new central incisor. A malformed supernumerary tooth, positioned between the right central and lateral incisor, was extracted during incisor movement. Significant lip profile improvement was accomplished by maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth retraction into three-premolar extraction spaces. Not only natural functional occlusion, deviated midpalatal suture along the central incisor, and no obvious root resorption were obtained but also narrowing the alveolar bone cleft which was beneficial for bone continuity supporting dental structures, satisfactory results were possible for the patient with primary palate cleft. PMID:24386757

Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Pisek, Poonsak; Chittiwatanapong, Nisa

2013-09-01

18

Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

The endodontic management of immature permanent incisors in young children can be challenging. This case reported an avulsed immature maxillary central incisors that underwent complete endodontic obturation using mineral trioxide aggregate. A 10-year-old male who suffered a fall injury avulsed both his central incisors. The revascularization process was not possible due to patient compliance and geographic reasons. Mineral trioxide aggregate was utilized as a novel endodontic treatment. After one year post-injury, the teeth remained symptom-free, the clinical and radiographic follow-up showed evidence of healthy periodontium. How to cite this article: Al-Kahtani A. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):88-96. PMID:24155609

Al-Kahtani, Ahmed

2013-01-01

19

Managing the severely proclined maxillary anteriors by extracting traumatized right maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl reported with severely proclined maxillary anterior teeth with fractured and discolored right maxillary central incisor with questionable prognosis. Autotransplantation of premolar to replace central incisor was considered a risky option as patient was 14-year-old with presence of advanced root development of premolar. The immediate placement of the prosthetic implant was also not possible because of patient's age. Therefore, it was decided to use the space obtained by extracting questionable maxillary right central incisor for orthodontic purpose and also sacrificing the healthy premolar is invariably an excessive biological cost for a modest functional and aesthetic gain. Hence, the treatment plan for this case includes extraction of right maxillary central incisor and left maxillary first premolar, movement of right maxillary lateral incisor mesially, achieving normal axial inclination of maxillary anteriors with normal overjet and overbite. Mandibular arch was treated nonextraction due to congenitally missing central incisors with presence of normally inclined lower anteriors thereby maintaining Angles class I occlusion. Tipping, usually, seen in Begg mechanotherapy was used for our advantage to correct severely proclined maxillary anteriors with simultaneous bite opening mechanics. Case was completed in 19 months and posttreatment records including photographs, radiographs and study models were made. Begg wrap around the retainer was placed in the maxillary arch allowing natural settling of occlusion. PMID:25395777

Jain, Mahesh; Mogra, Subraya; Chalasani, Srikrishna; D'mello, Kuldeep; Dhakar, Nidhi

2014-10-01

20

Orthodontic, genetic, and periodontal considerations in the treatment of impacted maxillary central incisors: A study of twins.  

PubMed

Treatment of twins each with one impacted maxillary central incisor and a mesiodens is described. Treatment included rapid expansion, extraction of the mesiodens, surgical exposure of the impacted central incisor, and its forced eruption. The impacted incisor was brought into functional position in one patient but was lost in the other because of insufficient root length and high mobility. Orthodontic, genetic, and periodontal considerations of these 2 cases are evaluated. PMID:10629522

Brand, A; Akhavan, M; Tong, H; Kook, Y A; Zernik, J H

2000-01-01

21

Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study  

PubMed Central

Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal. PMID:24963266

Kavitha, M.; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B.; Lakshmi, Amudha

2014-01-01

22

Management of an intruded primary central incisor with a natural crown under general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Tooth intrusion is the most common trauma during early infancy. Primary maxillary central incisors are the most affected teeth. There are a few treatment approaches which depend upon the severity of the trauma, and the treatment must be managed professionally. In this case report, a 3-year-old girl with a history of trauma 40 days before referring to our pediatric clinic is presented. Deciduous maxillary right central incisor was intruded through labial and alveolar socket and completely covered with soft tissue. The intruded deciduous incisor tooth was surgically extracted and impression was taken under general anesthesia. The removable partial prosthesis was completed by using the patient's own extracted tooth. Using natural crown on removable prosthesis gives psychological satisfaction to the patient and his/her family, and can be better tolerated since its shape, size, and color are exactly in harmony. PMID:24966781

Altunsoy, Mustafa; Bilgin, Mehmet Selim

2014-01-01

23

Management of an intruded primary central incisor with a natural crown under general anesthesia.  

PubMed

Tooth intrusion is the most common trauma during early infancy. Primary maxillary central incisors are the most affected teeth. There are a few treatment approaches which depend upon the severity of the trauma, and the treatment must be managed professionally. In this case report, a 3-year-old girl with a history of trauma 40 days before referring to our pediatric clinic is presented. Deciduous maxillary right central incisor was intruded through labial and alveolar socket and completely covered with soft tissue. The intruded deciduous incisor tooth was surgically extracted and impression was taken under general anesthesia. The removable partial prosthesis was completed by using the patient's own extracted tooth. Using natural crown on removable prosthesis gives psychological satisfaction to the patient and his/her family, and can be better tolerated since its shape, size, and color are exactly in harmony. PMID:24966781

Altunsoy, Mustafa; Bilgin, Mehmet Selim

2014-04-01

24

Transposition of maxillary canine to central incisor site: aetiology, treatment options and case report.  

PubMed

Dental transposition is relatively infrequent anomaly of the developing dentition. This article focuses on canine transposition and explores the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of this challenging anomaly. Specifically, the management of a case of canine transposition involving an unerupted maxillary central incisor is described. PMID:24521750

Ali, Zohaib; Jaisinghani, Aneel C; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

2014-09-01

25

Multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted maxillary central incisor: Surgical and orthodontic management  

PubMed Central

Various anomalies in the size, shape, number, structure and eruption of the teeth are often observed clinical conditions. Supernumerary teeth can be found in almost any region of the dental arch, and most of the times they are asymptomatic, and are routinely found during radiographic evaluation. The most common cause of impacted maxillary incisors is the presence of the supernumerary teeth. This paper describes a case of multiple supernumerary teeth associated with an impacted permanent maxillary central incisor in an 11-year old child along with its surgical and orthodontic management. PMID:22919229

Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Hegde, Manjunath; Baliga, Sudhindra; Munshi, Autar Krishen

2012-01-01

26

Treatment of severe rotations of maxillary central incisors with whip appliance: Report of three cases  

PubMed Central

The routine treatment for rotated maxillary incisor is a fixed appliance, but in some instance the use of this method is impossible. In addition, in only limited cases of rotation, removable appliance is applicable. In this study, the use of a semi-removable appliance is presented, which has some benefits over the other methods. In this study, the corrections of about 70-90° rotation of the maxillary central incisors in different phases of mixed dentition were performed in three patients using whip appliance. This method was performed using a simple removable appliance such as Hawley appliance and whip spring that forced the couple to derotate the tooth. In all cases, treatment was successfully completed in relative short duration. Whip appliance can be recommended as an effective method to correct rotation of maxillary incisor in mixed dentition with several advantages like rapid correction. PMID:24688574

Parisay, Iman; Boskabady, Marzie; Abdollahi, Mojtaba; Sufiani, Mostafa

2014-01-01

27

Contour changes in human alveolar bone following tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to apply cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to observe contour changes in human alveolar bone after tooth extraction of the maxillary central incisor and to provide original morphological evidence for aesthetic implant treatment in the maxillary anterior area. Forty patients were recruited into the study. Each patient had two CBCT scans (CBCT I and CBCT II), one taken before and one taken three months after tooth extraction of maxillary central incisor (test tooth T). A fixed anatomic reference point was used to orient the starting axial slice of the two scans. On three CBCT I axial slices, which represented the deep, middle, and shallow layers of the socket, labial and palatal alveolar bone widths of T were measured. The number of sagittal slices from the start point to the pulp centre of T was recorded. On three CBCT II axial slices, the pulp centres of extracted T were oriented according to the number of moved sagittal slices recorded in CBCT I. Labial and palatal alveolar bone widths at the oriented sites were measured. On the CBCT I axial slice which represented the middle layer of the socket, sagittal slices were reconstructed. Relevant distances of T on the sagittal slice were measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor. On the CBCT II axial slice, which represented the middle layer of the socket, relevant distances recorded in CBCT I were transferred on the sagittal slice. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides was measured, as were the alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor at the oriented site. Intraobserver reliability assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was high. Paired sample t-tests were performed. The alveolar bone width and tooth length of the opposite central incisor showed no statistical differences (P<0.05). The labial alveolar bone widths of T at the deep, middle, and shallow layers all showed statistical differences. However, no palatal alveolar bone widths showed any statistical differences. The width reduction of alveolar bone was 1.2, 1.6, and 2.7 mm at the deep, middle, and shallow layers, respectively. The height reduction of alveolar bone on labial and palatal sides of T both showed statistical differences, which was 1.9 and 1.1 mm, respectively. PMID:25471836

Li, Bei; Wang, Yao

2014-01-01

28

Management of an unerupted dilacerated maxillary central incisor: a case report.  

PubMed

A case with a dilacerated maxillary permanent central incisor, treated with forced eruption technique is illustrated and the results of the 4-year follow up are presented. After the successful eruption of the tooth, the root development was completed and the root canal was obliterated. The 4-year follow-up results revealed the tooth to be still functional and the radiographic evaluation showed that the periodontal and periapical tissues were intact and healthy. In conclusion, the impacted dilacerated incisor diagnosed in the early mixed dentition should be treated with the aid of orthodontic traction. The long-term follow up showed that once the tooth is placed in the occlusion properly, it may function well esthetically and preserve its periodontal and periapical health. PMID:17635362

Kuvvetli, Senem Selvi; Seymen, Figen; Gencay, Koray

2007-08-01

29

Surgical and orthodontic management of fused maxillary central and lateral incisors in early mixed dentition stage.  

PubMed

Fusion is one of the developmental dental anomalies in which two adjacent teeth are joined at the crown level forming a single tooth with an enlarged crown. Fusion causes some clinical problems such as unaesthetic appearance, pain, caries, and malocclusion. The management of fusion often needs multidisciplinary approach to give best possible esthetic and functional outcome. This paper reports a case of 9-year-old boy with fused maxillary left central and lateral incisors who was treated with 2 × 4 fixed orthodontic appliances after surgical separation of fused teeth. PMID:25371828

Ramamurthy, Suresh; Satish, Ramaswamy; Priya, Kalidass

2014-01-01

30

Surgical and Orthodontic Management of Fused Maxillary Central and Lateral Incisors in Early Mixed Dentition Stage  

PubMed Central

Fusion is one of the developmental dental anomalies in which two adjacent teeth are joined at the crown level forming a single tooth with an enlarged crown. Fusion causes some clinical problems such as unaesthetic appearance, pain, caries, and malocclusion. The management of fusion often needs multidisciplinary approach to give best possible esthetic and functional outcome. This paper reports a case of 9-year-old boy with fused maxillary left central and lateral incisors who was treated with 2 × 4 fixed orthodontic appliances after surgical separation of fused teeth. PMID:25371828

Ramamurthy, Suresh; Satish, Ramaswamy; Priya, Kalidass

2014-01-01

31

Multidisciplinary treatment approach to restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor.  

PubMed

This case report demonstrates sequential periodontic, orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment modalities to save and restore deep horizontally fractured maxillary central incisor. The location of fracture was deep in the mucosa which reveals less than 2 mm of tooth structure to receive the crown. The procedures like surgical crown lengthening, endodontic post placement, orthodontic forced eruption, core build-up and metal-ceramic crown restoration were sequentially performed to conserve the fractured tooth. Forced eruption is preferred to surgical removal of supporting alveolar bone, since forced eruption preserves the biologic width, maintains esthetics, and at the same time exposes sound tooth structure for the placement of restorative margins. PMID:24939276

Patil, Pravinkumar G; Nimbalkar-Patil, Smita P; Karandikar, Aamod B

2014-01-01

32

Mandibular incisor extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranio-mandibular dysfunction therapy of a moderate Angle Class III malocclusion with retroclined incisors with anterior crossbite and pronounced crowding was based not on extraction of the first premolars but on protrusion of the incisors and the extraction of one lower incisor.

Hans-Jürgen Pauls

1999-01-01

33

Corono-radicular biological restoration of maxillary central incisors by direct method  

PubMed Central

This case report refers to the esthetic and functional restorations of extensively damaged maxillary central incisors with dental caries in a 32-year-old woman, with the use of posts and crowns made from natural extracted teeth. Proper restoration of such teeth with the use of natural teeth fragments are known as “biological restoration.” Biological restorations can be done by using the fragments of the patients own tooth and if that is not available, tooth fragment can be obtained from an extracted tooth. These biological posts and crowns present a low cost option and an alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged teeth. There are limitations with the use of natural extracted teeth (homogenous bonding) for restoration such as the difficulty of finding teeth with a similar color and shape as that of the destroyed element, or patient may refuse to accept a tooth fragment from another patient, which prevents execution of the restoration.

Aggarwal, Sonia; Sahoo, Sujit Ranjan; Pandharkar, Kartik

2014-01-01

34

Gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region of Saudi schoolchildren aged 10-15 years.  

PubMed

Incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region was examined in a sample of 1336 male and female Saudi schoolchildren aged from 10-15 yr. Gingival recession was found in 9.88% with no significant difference in the affected teeth by age (p greater than 0.8361). There was a significant difference in the mean clinical crown length between the affected and adjacent teeth (p less than 0.0001). The highest significant association of gingival recession was found with inflammation (p less than 0.0001), anterior crowding (p less than 0.0009) and frenal involvement (p less than 0.0001). The results of this investigation suggest that future studies should be made to evaluate the effect of miswak as a cleansing agent for the gingival tissues among the Saudi population. PMID:6576884

Younes, S A; El Angbawi, M F

1983-08-01

35

Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown–root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor  

PubMed Central

This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth. PMID:23087746

Zahedpasha, Samir; Safarcherati, Hengameh; Rahmati-Kamel, Manouchehr; Mehrani-Sabet, Javad

2012-01-01

36

Replacement of maxillary permanent central incisors lost due to trauma in the mixed-dentition.  

PubMed

Traumatic injuries to anterior teeth in children range from minor chipping to total tooth loss and occur more often in boys than in girls. The treatment of permanent tooth loss in younger patients is complicated by the difficulty of doing restorative procedures which may be influenced by pulpal size, clinical crown height, and a dental profile which is constantly changing. This case report presented a situation involving a 9-year-old boy who had experienced traumatic loss of the maxillary central incisors. Innovative materials coupled with sound principles of removable partial denture design were utilized to fabricate a cast metal removable denture prosthesis to satisfy the esthetic, functional and psychological dental needs of the patient and his parents. PMID:25265859

Rubel, Barry; Hill, Edward E

2014-08-01

37

Minimally invasive restoration of a maxillary central incisor with a partial veneer.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive treatment modalities allow for the preservation of sound tooth substance. However, by limiting the preparation to the extent of a defect, the transition between restoration and natural tooth may be moved to more visible areas. The materials available for the restoration of a limited defect in the anterior area are either resin composite materials or porcelain. A patient was presented who asked for the replacement of a discolored filling on the maxillary right central incisor. Tooth preparation was limited to the extent of the old filling, and a porcelain partial veneer restoration was fabricated. Despite the horizontal finish line in the middle of the clinical crown, a result could be achieved that was regarded as a success by the patient. This type of restoration proves to be a suitable alternative to direct composite restorations in the anterior area for the reconstruction of a limited defect, eg, due to a dental trauma. PMID:22319761

Horvath, Sebastian; Schulz, Claus-Peter

2012-01-01

38

Effects of post-core design and ferrule on fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of Problem. Studies concerning the effects of post-core design and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth remain controversial. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of post-core design and ferrule on the fracture resistance of root canal treated human maxillary central incisors restored with metal ceramic crowns. Material and Methods.

Lu Zhi-Yue; Zhang Yu-Xing

2003-01-01

39

Surgical management of multiple supernumerary teeth and an impacted maxillary permanent central incisor.  

PubMed

Hyperdontia is the condition of having supernumerary teeth, or teeth which appear in addition to the regular number of teeth. It is a developmental anomaly and has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. The most common site is the maxillary incisor region; but the prevalence of more than three teeth supernumerary tooth is less than 1%. A case of 13 year male patient is reported with a multiple impacted supernumerary tooth in maxillary anterior region hindering the eruption of right permanent central incisor. The supernumerary tooth was treated via surgical approach followed by an interim prosthesis for permanent central incisor which later on erupted in due course of time. Background Supernumerary teeth may be defined as any teeth or tooth substance in excess of the usual configuration of 20 deciduous and 32 permanent teeth. The presence of supernumerary teeth in the premaxillary region often poses unique diagnostic and managerial concerns for the practitioner. Rarely is the surplus number compensated by an absence or deficiency of other teeth. Therefore, the dysfunctional nature of supernumerary teeth and their ability to create a variety of pathological disturbances in the normal eruption and position of adjacent teeth warrants their early detection and prudent management. Approximately 76-86% of cases represent single-tooth hyperdontia, with two supernumerary teeth noted in 12-23% and three or more extra teeth noted in less than 1% of cases. Multiple supernumerary teeth are also associated with many syndromes like cleidocranial dysplasia and Gardner’s syndrome etc. However, it is rare to find multiple supernumeraries in individuals with no other associated disease or syndrome. In such cases, the maxillary anterior region is the common site of occurrence. The exact aetiology is not clearly understood. The supernumerary teeth result from any disturbance in the initiation and proliferation stages of odontogenesis. There are several theories regarding the development of a supernumerary tooth-phylogenetic reversion (atavism) theory, dichotomy of tooth germ theory and hyperactivity of the dental lamina. The latter being the most accepted theory, states that the remnants of dental lamina or palatal offshoots of active dental lamina are induced to develop into an extra tooth bud, which results in the formation of a supernumerary tooth. Genetics is also considered to contribute to the development of supernumerary teeth, as these have been diagnosed in twins, siblings and sequential generations of a family. Classification of supernumerary teeth may be on the basis of position or form. Positional variations include mesiodens, paramolars, distomolars and parapremolars. Variations in form consist of conical types, tuberculate types, supplemental teeth and odontomes. Supernumerary teeth may, therefore, vary from a simple odontome, through a conical or tuberculate tooth to a supplemental tooth which closely resembles a normal tooth. Also, the site and number of supernumeraries can vary greatly. This report presents a case of a non-syndromic male patient with multiple supernumerary teeth and a permanent impacted tooth in the maxillary anterior region. PMID:23704467

Rallan, Mandeep; Rallan, Neelakshi Singh; Goswami, Mousumi; Rawat, Kamini

2013-01-01

40

Unique CAD/CAM three-quarter crown restoration of a central incisor: a case report.  

PubMed

Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) dentistry has been in use for more than 2 decades. Recent improvements in this technology have made CAD/CAM restorations a viable alternative for routine dental care. This technology is being taught in dental schools to prepare students for contemporary dental practice and is particularly useful in unique restorative situations that allow conservation of tooth structure. This case report describes the restoration of a central incisor that was previously restored with an unesthetic three-quarter gold crown. The tooth exhibited recurrent caries and an unaffected labial wall of supported enamel. A CAD/CAM three-quarter crown was planned to conserve tooth structure. After preparation, the tooth was scanned for a CAD/CAM crown in order to fabricate a ceramic restoration, which was then milled and bonded, producing an esthetic result. Typically, in cases of esthetic enhancement, a labial laminate restoration is fabricated, but in this situation, a different approach was necessary to make a design for the lingual surface of an anterior tooth. PMID:23823342

Goldberg, Marvin B; Siegel, Sharon C; Rezakani, Niloufar

2013-07-01

41

Treatment of class II malocclusion with open bite and absence of central maxillary incisor lost by trauma aided by use of orthodontic mini-implants.  

PubMed

The aim of this article is to report the clinical case of non-surgical treatment of a Class II malocclusion with anterior open bite, associated with absence of a maxillary central incisor avulsed due to trauma. Treatment proceeded with the use of orthodontic mini-implants as an anchorage device for intrusion of the maxillary molars and for mesial movement of the lateral incisor to replace the central incisor. Treatment resulted in good occlusion, with anterior and lateral guides, enhancement of the facial profile, and good dental esthetic appearance without the need for prosthetic treatment. The treatment outcome was satisfactory but needs long-term or permanent retention. PMID:23331427

Pithon, Matheus Melo

2014-02-01

42

Treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and compromised ferrule: a clinical report.  

PubMed

This clinical report presents the treatment of a maxillary central incisor with class III invasive cervical resorption and a compromised ferrule. Nonsurgical endodontic therapy combined with periodontal surgery was provided for debridement. Direct light-polymerizing resin-modified glass ionomer cement and a zirconia crown were used to repair the defect. Symptomatic endodontic complication was diagnosed with localized cone beam computed tomography at 6-month follow-up, and periapical microsurgery was rendered. The patient was followed-up for 30 months after treatment and had no further complications. PMID:24423455

Harris, Bryan T; Caicedo, Ricardo; Lin, Wei-Shao; Morton, Dean

2014-05-01

43

Disparities in gingival height in the mandibular central incisor region of children aged 6--12 years.  

PubMed

An investigation of disparate gingival heights of the mandibular central incisor region in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years was undertaken. Unaffected paired teeth demonstrated an age-associated increase in clinical crown length, similar to previous reports, suggesting a gradual remodelling of soft tissues. Affected teeth displayed a rapid increase in clinical crown length suggesting that by age 10 years true recession had occurred. Significant associations with gingival inflammation (at the 0.1% level), and with anterior crowding (at the 0.2% level), occurred. Frenal involvement did not influence the position of the gingival margin. PMID:6941875

Powell, R N; McEniery, T M

1981-02-01

44

Stress distribution in the cervical region of an upper central incisor in a 3D finite element model.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in the cervical region of a sound upper central incisor in two clinical situations, standard and maximum masticatory forces, by means of a 3D model with the highest possible level of fidelity to the anatomic dimensions. Two models with 331,887 linear tetrahedral elements that represent a sound upper central incisor with periodontal ligament, cortical and trabecular bones were loaded at 45 masculine in relation to the tooth's long axis. All structures were considered to be homogeneous and isotropic, with the exception of the enamel (anisotropic). A standard masticatory force (100 N) was simulated on one of the models, while on the other one a maximum masticatory force was simulated (235.9 N). The software used were: PATRAN for pre- and post-processing and Nastran for processing. In the cementoenamel junction area, tensile forces reached 14.7 MPa in the 100 N model, and 40.2 MPa in the 235.9 N model, exceeding the enamel's tensile strength (16.7 MPa). The fact that the stress concentration in the amelodentinal junction exceeded the enamel's tensile strength under simulated conditions of maximum masticatory force suggests the possibility of the occurrence of non-carious cervical lesions such as abfractions. PMID:19684951

Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola; Vasconcellos, Adalberto Bastos de; Poiate Junior, Edgard; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostílio Cervantes

2009-01-01

45

Fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with varying ferrule heights and configurations: In vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the best ferrule configuration of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were collected. Teeth were allocated into following four groups of each having 10 teeth. Group 1 teeth restored with crowns (CRN), Group 2 endodontically treated teeth restored with crowns (RCT and CRN), Group 3 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 2 mm ferrule (2 FRL), Group 4 endodontically treated teeth restored with cast dowel cores and crowns incorporating uniform 1 mm ferrule (1 FRL). Crown preparation was performed with varying ferrule heights, crowns were cemented with resin modified glass ionomer cement and were kept in 100% humidity for 3 days, all specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min. Results were obtained in the form of kilo Newton and Newton. Result: The statistical analysis applied was an analysis of variance to detect the presence of group differences. Pair wise comparisons between the groups were analyzed with the Tukey Kramer significant difference test for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: Ferrule had a significant role in the fracture resistance of custom cast post core restored teeth. Endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with a uniform 2 mm ferrule were more fracture resistant than those with a uniform 1 mm ferrule. PMID:24778504

Singh, Smita; Thareja, Prerna

2014-01-01

46

A Fused Maxillary Central Incisor and Its Multidisciplinary Treatment: An 18-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Fused teeth may cause aesthetic, spacing, periodontal, eruption, and caries problems. The present case report describes a 7-year-old boy patient with a chief complaint of unerupted maxillary incisor. Radiographic examination indicated a fused tooth which had two fused roots but two independent root canals. A complex management of a fused tooth is really difficult to standardize. In this case an orthodontic, endodontic, and surgical treatment (intentional replantation) allowed the tooth to be retained until 18 years following intervention. Maintenance of the root and alveolar bone in young adults at least until full skeletal maturation should be the main treatment objective. PMID:24738034

Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Cahuana, Abel

2014-01-01

47

Orthodontic treatment of an ankylosed maxillary central incisor through osteogenic distraction.  

PubMed

Tooth ankylosis is one of the various problems in dentistry and requires special treatment approaches for satisfactory results. In the orthodontic treatment of an ankylosed tooth, different treatment modalities have been put into practice including both orthodontic and orthodontic-surgical approaches. For favorable results, gingival margin esthetics must be considered as much as leveling the ankylosed tooth in the arch. Distraction osteogenesis accompanied by orthodontic mechanics is a sensible way of achieving this goal. However, devices used in the distraction protocol are high in price and bulky in shape, causing functional and esthetic problems for the patient. This report describes treatment of an infrapositioned ankylosed incisor with continuous distraction forces produced by conventional orthodontic mechanics. In conclusion, the ankylosed tooth was leveled in the upper arch successfully with a harmonic gingival margin. PMID:19905868

Dolanmaz, Do?an; Karaman, Ali Ihya; Pampu, A Alper; Topkara, Ahu

2010-03-01

48

Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.  

PubMed

Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position. PMID:24290551

Lin, Yng-Tzer J

2013-01-01

49

Incisor crown bending strength correlates with diet and incisor curvature in anthropoid primates.  

PubMed

Anthropoid incisors are large relative to the postcanine dentition and function in the preprocessing of food items. Previous analyses of anthropoid incisor allometry and shape demonstrate that incisor morphology is correlated with preferred foods and that more frugivorous anthropoids have larger and more curved incisors. Although the relationship between incisal crown curvature and preferred foods has been well documented in extant and fossil anthropoids, the functional significance of curvature variation has yet to be conclusively established. Given that an increase in crown curvature will increase maximum linear crown dimensions, and bending resistance is a function of linear crown dimensions, it is hypothesized that incisor crown curvature functons to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces. This study uses beam theory to calculate the mesiodistal and labiolingual bending strengths of the maxillary and mandibular incisors of hominoid and platyrrhine taxa with differing diets and variable degrees of incisal curvature. Results indicate that bending strength correlates with incisal curvature and that frugivores have elevated incisor bending resistance relative to folivores. Maxillary central incisor bending strengths further discriminate platyrrhine and hominoid hard- and soft-object frugivores suggesting this crown is subjected to elevated occlusal loading relative to other incisors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that incisor crown curvature functions to increase incisor crown resistance to bending forces but does not preclude the possibility that incisor bending strength is a composite function of multiple dentognathic variables including, but not limited to, incisor crown curvature. Anat Rec, 298:463-478, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25156755

Deane, Andrew S

2015-02-01

50

Influence of post and resin cement on stress distribution of maxillary central incisors restored with direct resin composite.  

PubMed

The current study evaluated the influence of two endodontic post systems and the elastic modulus and film thickness of resin cement on stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor (MCI) restored with direct resin composite using finite element analysis (FEA). A three-dimensional model of an MCI with a coronary fracture and supporting structures was performed. A static chewing pressure of 2.16 N/mm2 was applied to two areas on the palatal surface of the composite restoration. Zirconia ceramic (ZC) and glass fiber (GF) posts were considered. The stress distribution was analyzed in the post, dentin and cement layer when ZC and GF posts were fixed to the root canals using resin cements of different elastic moduli (7.0 and 18.6 GPa) and different layer thicknesses (70 and 200 microm). The different post materials presented a significant influence on stress distribution with lesser stress concentration when using the GF post. The higher elastic modulus cement created higher stress levels within itself. The cement thicknesses did not present significant changes. PMID:19363979

Spazzin, A O; Galafassi, D; de Meira-Júnior, A D; Braz, R; Garbin, C A

2009-01-01

51

A longitudinal study of isolated gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region of children aged 6-8 years.  

PubMed

A 2-year longitudinal investigation of isolated gingival recession was undertaken in 42 children aged 6-8 years at the commencement of the study. Gingival inflammation was controlled by supervised tooth brushing or professional plaque control. Mandibular anterior crowding considered to have contributed to the degree of recession was untreated in 11 subjects, while in 13 subjects serial extractions had been undertaken. No attempt was made to correct frenal involvement in those subjects (9) where it might have been considered a contributing etiologic factor. After 2 years, improvement in gingival contour was most apparent in those subjects whose gingival inflammation had been controlled. This was achieved more readily with professional plaque control than with supervised tooth brushing. Improvement in arch alignment and gingival contour was greater in untreated subjects than in those receiving serial extractions. WHen gingival inflammation was controlled evidence of frenal involvement declined. Control of gingival inflammation appears to be the most important factor in the treatment of isolated gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region. PMID:6958683

Powell, R N; McEniery, T M

1982-09-01

52

A new syndrome with overlapping features of Townes-brocks syndrome and single median maxillary central incisor syndrome.  

PubMed

A 14-month-old boy with overlapping features of Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) and single median maxillary incisor syndrome (SMMCIS) is being reported with brief review of the above syndromes and possible differential diagnosis. PMID:23716951

Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh; Balachandran, Sathish

2012-09-01

53

A new syndrome with overlapping features of Townes-brocks syndrome and single median maxillary central incisor syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 14-month-old boy with overlapping features of Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) and single median maxillary incisor syndrome (SMMCIS) is being reported with brief review of the above syndromes and possible differential diagnosis. PMID:23716951

Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun; Chandrasekaran, Venkatesh; Balachandran, Sathish

2012-01-01

54

Clinical course and implications of congenital nasal pyriform stenosis and solitary median maxillary central incisor in a newborn: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and solitary median maxillary central incisor are uncommon anomalies and are associated with further malformations. Solitary median maxillary central incisor itself has initially no impact on a child’s health, but congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis is a potentially life-threatening condition. Case presentation A Caucasian baby boy showed severe dyspnoea and was intubated orotracheally. Multiple anomalies were detected, including urogenital and craniofacial malformations. Computed tomography scans revealed congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis with a diameter of 4.9mm and a solitary median maxillary central incisor. A 3.0mm tube was inserted in his left nasal cavity, and the baby was able to breathe sufficiently and spontaneously. The nasal tube was removed after seven days, and the baby was discharged under application of decongestant drops. After seven months, the baby was readmitted with respiratory distress, and surgery was carried out using an intraoral sublabial approach. The stenotic area of the pyriform aperture was widened, and 3.0mm tubes were inserted in both nasal cavities for 10 days. Over a period of six months, no further respiratory distress has occurred. Conclusions The decision to perform surgery was delayed since the baby’s nasal breathing was adequate as a result of the insertion of a nasal tube. Since treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, it is appropriate in some cases to take a conservative approach at first, and to keep surgery as a last resort. Once a conservative approach has been selected for congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis, awareness of the life-threatening nature of the condition should be kept in mind, and a surgical approach must still be taken into account. PMID:24950703

2014-01-01

55

Acute treatment of a concomitant horizontal root fracture and luxation of the coronal fragment of the right upper central incisor: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a case of a horizontal intra-alveolar root fracture between the middle and apical third of the upper right central incisor associated with an extrusive luxation of the coronal fragment, in a 24-year-old male patient. Twenty minutes after being accidentally hit by a metallic device, the patient's coronal portion was repositioned and splinted under local anesthesia. After that, we lost sight of the patient. One year later, the patient showed up. The splint was lost, the tooth showed physiological mobility and responded to pulp testing. Radiographs showed healing of the horizontal fracture and normal periodontal ligament. PMID:20455916

Berrezouga, Latifa; Belkhir, Chems; Jbir, Ridha; Belkhir, Mohamed Semir

2010-08-01

56

Maxillary incisor impaction and its relationship to canine displacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the eruption status of unerupted maxillary permanent canines in patients who also had an impacted central incisor. Seventy-five unilateral cases of the incisor anomaly were retrospectively examined. Using the initial panoramic films, we assessed the positions of the ipsilateral and contralateral canines and the lateral incisors and the timing (eruption progress) of the canines. The

Stella Chaushu; Yerucham Zilberman; Adrian Becker

2003-01-01

57

Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

2003-06-01

58

Orthodontic treatment of an ankylosed maxillary central incisor through single-tooth osteotomy by using interdental space regained from microimplant anchorage.  

PubMed

This case report describes the treatment of a boy, aged 13.6 years, whose ankylosed maxillary left central incisor had been avulsed and replanted 2.5 years earlier. Ankylosis of the tooth and adjacent alveolar process led to the development of infraocclusion, migration of adjacent teeth, midline deviation, and a vertical alveolar bone defect. Initially, distal tooth movement in the maxillary arch was performed with microimplant anchorage to gain space for repositioning the ankylosed tooth. Then a single-tooth osteotomy was performed in 1 surgical stage to allow for inferior repositioning of the tooth and bone. The ankylosed tooth was successfully leveled in the maxillary arch with a harmonic gingival margin. The total treatment period was 18 months, and the results were acceptable at 14 months after debonding. PMID:22284297

Chae, Jong-Moon; Paeng, Jun-Young

2012-02-01

59

Endodontic and Esthetic Management of a Dilacerated Maxillary Central Incisor Having Two Root Canals Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Aid  

PubMed Central

Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics. PMID:24955260

Sharma, Sarang; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Mittal, Meenu

2014-01-01

60

Treatment of a patient with a crowded Class I malocclusion and a congenitally missing mandibular incisor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case report describes the management of maxillary and mandibular crowding in a patient with facial esthetic concerns and a tooth-size discrepancy due to a missing mandibular central incisor. The treatment included extracting the remaining mandibular central incisor and the 2 maxillary first premolars. The mandibular canines were repositioned to substitute for lateral incisors, and the mandibular premolars were used

Patrick Curiel; Margherita Santoro

2002-01-01

61

Incisor microwear of Sumatran anthropoid primates.  

PubMed

Several studies have suggested that incisor microwear reflects diet and feeding adaptations of anthropoids. However, such studies have been largely qualitative, and interpretations have relied on anecdotal references to diet and tooth use reported in the socioecology literature. The current study relates incisor microwear in four anthropoid primates to specific ingestive behaviors and food types. Central incisor casts of wild-shot museum specimens of Hylobates lar, Macaca fascicularis, Pongo pygmaeus, and Presbytis thomasi were examined by scanning electron microscopy, and analyzed using a semiautomated image analysis procedure. Microwear patterns were used to generate predictions regarding diet and anterior tooth use. These predictions were evaluated using data collected during a 1 year study of feeding behavior of these same taxa in the wild (Ungar, 1992, 1994a,b). Results suggest that (1) enamel prism relief is associated with the effectiveness of etching reagents in foods, (2) dental calculus buildup results from a lack of incisor use and perhaps the ingestion of sugar-rich foods, (3) striation density varies with degree of anterior tooth use in the ingestion of abrasive food items, (4) striation breadth is proposed to relate to the ratio of exogenous grit to phytoliths consumed; and (5) preferred striation orientation indicates the direction that food items are pulled across the incisors during ingestion. It is concluded that incisor microwear studies can contribute to the understanding of diets and feeding behaviors of extinct primates. PMID:7943190

Ungar, P S

1994-07-01

62

Maxillary lateral incisor implants: Planning with the aid of orthodontics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implants are commonly used to replace congenitally missing lateral incisors in adolescent orthodontic patients. However, these restorations are often challenging for the orthodontist, surgeon, and restorative dentist. In some patients the space across the alveolar crest is too narrow to permit the surgeon to place the implant. Occasionally the root apices of the adjacent central incisor and canine are in

Vincent G. Kokich

2004-01-01

63

Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors  

PubMed Central

This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment.

2015-01-01

64

A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Odontomas are a common type of odontogenic tumor, usually asymptomatic and mostly detected on routine radiographic examination. An 11-years-old male child with the chief complaint of mobility of deciduous dentition in the upper front region was diagnosed with an odontome with an impacted central incisor, missing lateral incisor and retained deciduous incisors following radiographic analysis. Histopathology revealed a compound odontoma following a conservative enucleation. Odontomas associated with primary dentition, impacted teeth and erupting into oral cavity have been described, but the association with a missing lateral incisor makes this an interesting case report. How to cite this article: Nammalwar RB, Moses J. A Rare Association of Compound Odontome with Missing Lateral Incisor. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(1):50-53. PMID:25206239

Moses, Joyson

2014-01-01

65

The association between traumatic dental injuries and atypical external root resorption in maxillary primary incisors.  

PubMed

Atypical root resorption (ARR), which is observed on radiographs of primary incisors, has been reported in the dental literature to result from digit sucking; thus ignoring any association between ARR and traumatic dental injuries (TDI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the contributions of sucking habits and TDI to external ARR in primary incisors. A history of dental trauma was assessed based on clinical and radiographic findings. Periapical radiographs of the premaxilla were evaluated for the presence of ARR. The presence or history of sucking habits was based on parents' report. Data were collected from files of 727 patients with a mean age of 52 months. Sixty-four children (8.8%) presented ARR in one or both central incisors. All 64 had experienced some type of TDI. Five hundred and forty-nine (76%) of the children had sucking habits; of them, 501 were pacifier-suckers and 48 digit suckers. Digit sucking was found in only 4 (6%) of the 64 children presenting ARR. These findings support the association of traumatic dental injury, and not of digit sucking, with ARR in primary incisors. PMID:25283588

Holan, Gideon; Yodko, Elizabeth; Sheinvald-Shusterman, Kineret

2015-02-01

66

Mandibular incisor dimensions and crowding.  

PubMed

Previous authors have suggested that well-aligned mandibular incisors are narrower mesiodistally than incisors which crowd and that reducing mesiodistal dimensions of the mandibular incisors to fit a specific size range will prevent future malalignment. This study examined 164 cases from the records of the University of Washington Department of Orthodontics, 134 of which had been orthodontically treated and were a minimum of 10 years postretention. Measurements were made from the postretention plaster casts and from serial cephalometric head films. Statistical tests showed that there was a weak association between incisor widths or MD/FL dimensions ratio and irregular alignment over the long term. Mean dimensional differences between crowded and uncrowded incisors were small in the few pooled or segregated groups in which statistically significant differences were found. When incisor dimensions were combined with pretreatment, posttreatment, or long-term cephalometric and cast measurements, only weak and not clinically useful associations were found with long-term incisor alignment. While there was a weak tendency for narrower incisors to be associated with better alignment in some instances, narrower mesiodistal widths of mandibular incisors did not ensure long-term stability in orthodontically treated cases. PMID:6594936

Gilmore, C A; Little, R M

1984-12-01

67

Treatment of mandibular anterior crowding with incisor extraction using lingual orthodontics: a case report.  

PubMed

A 20-year-old woman presented with a labially displaced mandibular right central incisor with severe attrition. Her maxillary dentition was well-aligned, and she had a straight profile. The respective central incisor was extracted. Subsequently, all teeth were aligned and the extraction space was closed with 2D lingual brackets. The result was esthetically pleasing. PMID:21490996

Viswanath, Divya; Shetty, Sandeep; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Husain, Akhter

2010-01-01

68

Post-traumatic impaction of maxillary incisors: diagnosis and treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Aim To provide clinicians with useful information for immediate diagnosis and management of impacted maxillary incisors due to trauma. Methods We present a case of post-traumatic impaction of a central right maxillary incisor in a young patient. The treatment plan consisted in the interceptive management (surgical and orthodontic), the valuation of the necessary space to move the impacted tooth in the normal position and the biomechanical approach for anchorage, avoiding prosthetic/implants replacement. Results The therapy of an impacted maxillary incisor due to trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach: orthodontic, surgical, endodontic and periodontal considerations are essential for successful treatment. Conclusions Surgical exposure and orthodontic traction is the treatment most often used in case of posttraumatic impacted incisor: this technique in fact can lead to suitable results at the periodontal, occlusal and esthetics levels at an early stage and more definitively than with other treatment options. PMID:23991268

Paoloni, Valeria; Pavoni, Chiara; Mucedero, Manuela; Bollero, Patrizio; Laganà, Giuseppina; Cozza, Paola

2013-01-01

69

Apexogenesis and revascularization treatment procedures for two traumatized immature permanent maxillary incisors: a case report  

PubMed Central

Traumatic injuries to an immature permanent tooth may result in cessation of dentin deposition and root maturation. Endodontic treatment is often complicated in premature tooth with an uncertain prognosis. This article describes successful treatment of two traumatized maxillary central incisors with complicated crown fracture three months after trauma. The radiographic examination showed immature roots in maxillary central incisors of a 9-year-old boy with a radiolucent lesion adjacent to the right central incisor. Apexogenesis was performed for the left central incisor and revascularization treatment was considered for the right one. In 18-month clinical and radiographic follow-up both teeth were asymptomatic, roots continued to develop, and periapical radiolucency of the right central incisor healed. Considering the root development of these contralateral teeth it can be concluded that revascularization is an appropriate treatment method in immature necrotic teeth. PMID:24010086

Forghani, Maryam; Maghsoudlou, Amir

2013-01-01

70

Incisor crown shape and crowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between the shape of mandibular incisor crowns and crowding. Study models of 50 untreated white subjects (25 men and 25 women) with varying degrees of crowding were studied. The lower incisors were sectioned and imaged at the contact point and midpoint levels, and the mesiodistal width was measured. Crowding was quantified

Anwar Ali Shah; Claire Elcock; Alan H. Brook

2003-01-01

71

The influence of varying maxillary lateral incisor dimensions on perceived smile aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the influence of varying the dimensions of the maxillary lateral incisors on perceived smile aesthetics.Design Clinical study.Setting Postgraduate dental teaching hospital.Methods A photograph of a female smile displaying only the lips and teeth was digitally altered. First, the width of the maxillary lateral incisors, in proportion to the central incisor, was

S. M. N. Bukhary; D. S. Gill; D. R. Moles; C. J. Tredwin

2007-01-01

72

Middle Paleolithic human deciduous incisor from Khudji, Tajikistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997 a human mandibular second deciduous incisor was discovered during excavations at the central Asian Middle Paleolithic site of Khudji, Tajikistan. The specimen was associated with a late Middle Paleolithic assemblage in a minimally disturbed cultural layer. The specimen is average in size for Late Pleistocene archaic human di2s and differs from many late archaic human di2s in having

Erik Trinkaus; Vadim A. Ranov; Stanislav Lauklin

2000-01-01

73

Inverted Impacted Primary Maxillary Incisors: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Tooth impaction rarely occurs in primary dentition. Most of the primary teeth impactions are seen in second molars. The purpose of this article is to present a 4-year-old girl with bilateral impaction of inverted primary maxillary central incisors which trauma had displaced their tooth germ before erupting. PMID:23066483

Seraj, B.; Ghadimi, S.; Mighani, G.; Zare, H.; Rabbani, M.

2012-01-01

74

Patterns of Crowding of Permanent Mandibular Incisors Before Eruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of the radiographs taken of 37 mandibles from children ten months to seven years of age showed that the unerupted, permanent mandibular central incisors were rotated in 45 of 74 jaw halves (60.8%). The type of rotation in which the mesial aspect is directed lingually was most commonly seen (44.6%). The next most common observation was of jaw halves

Kooji Kindaichi

1976-01-01

75

Extraction of a mandibular incisor in a Class I malocclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single mandibular central incisor was removed to treat a Class I malocclusion with crowding and a midline discrepancy. This case report was submitted under category number 10 (optional) and it was believed that the results illustrated the Board objectives of (1) facial harmony, soft tissue balance, and proper proportion, (2) maximum health of the teeth, the supporting tissues and

Daniel J. Grob

1995-01-01

76

Restoring the fractured root-canal-treated maxillary lateral incisor: In search of an evidence-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

expertise. The entire case was then reviewed by an expert in evidence-based medicine and discussed with the first author. Results: Each of the 4 experts relied on different arti- cles in justifying their clinical decisions. The minimal overlap in the literature they cited largely explains the different treatment suggestions: While the endodontist preferred a metal post-and-core and a porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM)

Jens C. Türp; Guido Heydecke; Gabriel Krastl; Oliver Pontius; Gerd Antes

77

Impacted permanent incisors associated with compound odontoma.  

PubMed

Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumours of the maxillary bones, characterised by a slow growth and benign behaviour. They are usually small, asymptomatic and diagnosed after routine radiographic examination. The aim of this study was to report a case of a compound odontoma in the anterior maxilla of a 7-year-old girl, which was causing the impaction of the maxillary right central and lateral incisors, as well as the prolonged retention of the corresponding primary teeth. We also aimed to review the literature about these tumours, since they are not part of the dentist's day-to-day clinical practice. The clinical and radiographic features, the diagnosis and treatment of the case were discussed in this work. PMID:25583937

Machado, Cintia de Vasconcellos; Knop, Luégya Amorin Henriques; Siquara da Rocha, Maria Celina Barreiros; Telles, Paloma Dias da Silva

2015-01-01

78

Comparison of the Physiological Properties of Human Periodontal-Masseteric Reflex Evoked by Incisor and Canine Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR) differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in seven healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL) and the correlation coefficient (CC) between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality. PMID:22754541

Ohmori, Hiroko; Kirimoto, Hiroaki; Ono, Takashi

2012-01-01

79

Effect of connector design on fracture resistance in all-ceramic fixed partial dentures for mandibular incisor region.  

PubMed

Yttrium tetragonal zirconia polycrystal frameworks were prepared for all-ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) for the mandibular incisor region. The effects of the cross-sectional area and morphology of the connector on its strength were evaluated by fracture tests. Nine types of zirconia framework for a 3-unit FPD for a defect of 1 mandibular central incisor were prepared, each differing in cross-sectional area and morphology. Fracture tests were performed by loading until fracture using a universal testing machine. Fracture load was determined and fracture site examined. Significant differences were observed in fracture load according to the morphology and cross-sectional area of the connector (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Fracture load differed significantly among all groups according to cross-sectional area, and was also greater when the shape of the connector formed an isosceles triangle widest at the base and the connector had the same height and width. These values still far exceeded 311 N, however, which is the average occlusal force in the incisor region. The results of this study suggest that connector design affects fracture load. PMID:25212560

Murase, Toshihiko; Nomoto, Syuntaro; Sato, Toru; Shinya, Akimasa; Koshihara, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Hiromitsu

2014-01-01

80

Complete Bilateral Gemination of Maxillary Incisors with Separate Root Canals  

PubMed Central

Developmental anomalies in the hard tissue are seen frequently in dental practice. Gemination and fusion are the most commonly encountered anomalies, and distinction between the two is always challenging. Gemination, also called double tooth, is an anomaly exhibiting two joined crowns and usually a single root. It represents an incomplete attempt of a single tooth germ to split. It is considered multifactorial in etiology, with genetic and environmental causes. This paper discusses a rare example of bilateral gemination (prevalence 0.04%) of maxillary central incisors with completely separated roots. Multidisciplinary care ensured a successful esthetic and functional outcome. PMID:25254121

Mahendra, Lodd; Govindarajan, Sujatha; Jayanandan, Muruganandhan; Shamsudeen, Shaik Mohammed; Kumar, Nalin; Madasamy, Ramasamy

2014-01-01

81

Abnormalities of the maxillary incisors in children with cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

Dental anomalies of the maxillary anterior teeth were studied in seventy-seven children affected by unilateral and bilateral clefts of the lip and alveolar process, with or without involvement of the palate. As for the permanent lateral incisor in the cleft area, our results show that its congenital absence is the most frequent abnormality followed by anomalies in size and shape and supernumerary teeth. Enamel hypoplasia was found to affect the permanent central incisor on the cleft side more frequently. Early recognition of tooth abnormalities during the primary dentition phase for an interceptive treatment of potentially severe problems was emphasized. PMID:8636477

Vichi, M; Franchi, L

1995-01-01

82

Morphological features of the maxillary incisors roots and relationship with neighbouring anatomical structures: possible implications in endodontic surgery.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the root apex of the upper incisors and neighbouring anatomical structures as well as the morphology of the root-end foramen after apicoectomy. Fifty-seven patients requiring endodontic surgical treatment for a maxillary anterior root were enrolled. A preoperative diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scan was analysed to determine: the distance between the anterior wall of the nasopalatine duct and the central (CI-ND) incisor root 4mm from the apex; and the distance between the floor of the nasal cavity and the tip of either the central (CI-NF) or the lateral (LI-NF) incisor root. After apicoectomy, root-end foramen endoscopic pictures were taken in order to characterize their morphology. Fifty-nine central and 26 lateral incisors were evaluated. The average CI-ND was 4.71 ± 1.26 (SD) mm. The average CI-NF was 10.62 ± 2.25 mm. The average LI-NF was 13.05 ± 2.43 mm. The foramen shape after apicoectomy was ovoid to circular in about 90% of cases in both central and lateral incisors. A sound knowledge of the anatomical relationships at the surgical site is essential for the clinician to perform a safe endodontic surgical procedure. PMID:22137335

Taschieri, S; Weinstein, T; Rosano, G; Del Fabbro, M

2012-05-01

83

Comparative studies between mice molars and incisors are required to draw an overview of enamel structural complexity  

PubMed Central

In the field of dentistry, the murine incisor has long been considered as an outstanding model to study amelogenesis. However, it clearly appears that enamel from wild type mouse incisors and molars presents several structural differences. In incisor, exclusively radial enamel is observed. In molars, enamel displays a high level of complexity since the inner part is lamellar whereas the outer enamel shows radial and tangential structures. Recently, the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2BR) was shown to be involved in ameloblast function and enamel mineralization. The incisors from 5HT2BR knockout (KO) mice exhibit mineralization defects mostly in the outer maturation zone and porous matrix network in the inner zone. In the molars, the mutation affects both secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis since pronounced alterations concern overall enamel structures. Molars from 5HT2BR KO mice display reduction in enamel thickness, alterations of inner enamel architecture including defects in Hunter-Schreger Bands arrangements, and altered maturation of the outer radial enamel. Differences of enamel structure were also observed between incisor and molar from other KO mice depleted for genes encoding enamel extracellular matrix proteins. Thus, upon mutation, enamel analysis based exclusively on incisor defects would be biased. In view of the functional relationship between enamel structure and tooth morphogenesis, identification of molecular actors involved in amelogenesis requires comparative studies between mice molars and incisors. PMID:25285079

Goldberg, Michel; Kellermann, O.; Dimitrova-Nakov, S.; Harichane, Y.; Baudry, A.

2014-01-01

84

Emerging therapies for the management of traumatized immature permanent incisors.  

PubMed

Early loss of immature permanent teeth due to pulpal necrosis secondary to trauma can have dire consequences for a child's growth and development. The treatment alternatives include surgical endodontics, traditional calcium hydroxide apexification, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apexification. These options pose potential complications, including: arrest of root development; weakened dentinal walls; and increased potential for fracture. Revascularization of the dentin-pulp complex is a new approach that involves disinfecting the root canal system followed by tissue repair and regeneration while allowing for continued root development and thickening of the lateral dentinal walls through deposition of new hard tissue. The purpose of this report was to present the revascularization of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor that had evidence of external root resorption. Six months later, internal bleaching was performed to remove cervical discoloration from the triple antibiotic paste. At 18 months, the tooth remained vital and had evidence of continued root development. PMID:22353461

Miller, Elizabeth K; Lee, Jessica Y; Tawil, Peter Z; Teixeira, Fabricio B; Vann, William F

2012-01-01

85

Reposition of intruded permanent incisor by a combination of surgical and orthodontic approach: a case report.  

PubMed

This report presents a case of a completely intrusive luxation of an immature permanent central incisor in a 7 years 9 months-old girl. Because there are severe intrusive trauma and cortical alveolar bone fracture, it was impossible to reposition with orthodontic or surgical method alone. The intruded tooth was repositioned to healthy alveolar bone level by using surgical extrusion and stabilization with sutures and periodontal pack. After healing of adjacent bone, the intruded maxillary central incisor erupted orthodontically by removable orthodontic appliance. It was moved from a high position to level of adjacent tooth in about 7 months. A radiograph was taken 6 months after ceasing forced eruption, which demonstrated minor root resorption, but the alveolar bone height had increased. PMID:12175126

Jang, Ki-Taeg; Kim, Jung-Wook; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Chong-Chul; Hahn, Se-Hyun; García-Godoy, Franklin

2002-01-01

86

Mandibular incisor extraction: indications and long-term evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The extraction of a lower incisor constitutes a therapeutic alternative limited to certain occlusal situations, i.e. supernumerary incisors, tooth size anomalies (peg-shaped upper laterals), ectopic eruption and anterior crossbites. The effect of the extraction of a single incisor on the out of retention alignment of lower anterior teeth was studied in 26 treated cases. Initial (T1), final (T2) and

Jose-Antonio Canut

1996-01-01

87

Bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular incisors with Talon's cusp: A rare case report  

PubMed Central

Whenever nature diverts from the “normal or usual” it gives rise to something called “abnormal or unusual,” which we call “a Disorder”. Fusion of two teeth is a common developmental disorder that is seen by a clinician. However, bilateral fusion along with Talon's cusp is very rarely seen and reported in literature. This article describes a rare case of the bilateral fusion of permanent mandibular central and lateral incisors, along with presence of Talon's cusp on the left fused teeth. PMID:21887010

Prabhakar, Attiguppe Ramasetty; Kaur, Taranjot; Nadig, Basappa

2009-01-01

88

An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

2006-01-01

89

The Adaptive Significance of Enamel Loss in the Mandibular Incisors of Cercopithecine Primates (Mammalia: Cercopithecidae): A Finite Element Modelling Study  

PubMed Central

In several primate groups enamel is reduced or absent from the lingual (tongue) side of the mandibular incisor crowns akin to other placental and marsupial mammalian groups such as rodents, lagomorphs and wombats. Here we investigate the presumed adaptation of crowns with unilateral enamel to the incision of tough foods in cercopithecines, an Old World monkey subfamily, using a simulation approach. We developed and validated a finite element model of the lower central incisor of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) with labial enamel only to compute three-dimensional displacements and maximum principal stresses on the crown subjected to compressive loads varying in orientation. Moreover, we developed a model of a macaque incisor with enamel present on both labial and lingual aspects, thus resembling the ancestral condition found in the sister taxon, the leaf-eating colobines. The results showed that, concomitant with experimental results, the cercopithecine crown with unilateral enamel bends predominantly towards the inside of the mouth, while displacements decreased when both labial and lingual enamel are present. Importantly, the cercopithecine incisor crown experienced lower maximum principal stress on the lingual side compared to the incisor with enamel on the lingual and labial aspects under non-axial loads directed either towards the inside or outside of the mouth. These findings suggest that cercopithecine mandibular incisors are adapted to a wide range of ingestive behaviours compared to colobines. We conclude that the evolutionary loss of lingual enamel in cercopithecines has conferred a safeguard against crown failure under a loading regime assumed for the ingestion (peeling, scraping) of tough-skinned fruits. PMID:24831704

Kupczik, Kornelius; Lev-Tov Chattah, Netta

2014-01-01

90

Evaluation of the relationship between upper incisor exposure and cephalometric variables in Korean young adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to classify Korean young adults into 3 groups on the basis of upper incisor exposure rates (UIERs) and to compare the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue variables. Methods Samples were obtained from 127 students at the College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University in South Korea. Facial photographs of frontal posed smiles and lateral cephalograms of the subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into 3 groups on the basis of UIERs and 20 measurements were compared among the 3 groups. The correlations between the variables were determined. Results Male and female subjects showed significant differences in the group distribution. Male subjects showed higher frequencies of low smiles, and female subjects showed higher frequencies of high smiles. The vertical height of the anterior alveolar process of the maxilla directly correlated with the UIER. However, the UIER showed no significant correlation with the vertical height of the anterior basal bone or the inclination of the upper incisor axis. In female subjects, the upper central incisor clinical crown length showed an inverse correlation with the UIER. However, this variable showed no significant correlation with the UIER in male subjects. Conclusions The UIER was directly correlated with the levator muscle activity of the upper lip and inversely correlated with the upper lip thickness, yet there was no correlation between the UIER and upper lip length at rest. PMID:24228237

Han, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Eon-Hwa; Cho, Jin-Hyoung; Chae, Jong-Moon; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Chang, Na-Young

2013-01-01

91

Cone beam-computed topographic evaluation of a central incisor with an open apex and a failed root canal treatment using one-step apexification with Biodentine™: A case report  

PubMed Central

A symptomatic endodontically treated immature tooth with periapical pathology presents multiple challenges to the clinician. Owing to incomplete root formation, gutta percha removal has to be done carefully without further damaging the periapical tissue or pushing the obturating material beyond the apex. Nonsurgical approach toward treating such a tooth would necessitate the creation of an apical barrier followed by conventional root canal treatment. Current literature suggests one-step apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), with an apical matrix as the treatment of choice. A new calcium silicate-based cement also called as dentine substitute by the manufacturers with good handling properties has been introduced recently by the trade name Biodentine™ (Septodont, St. Maurdes Fossés, France). This case report presents management of a secondary endodontic case with an open apex treated with the concept of ‘lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR)’ using triantibiotic paste and Biodentine™ for apical barrier formation. A 12-month follow up with cone beam-computed topography (CBCT) exhibited progressive involution of periapical radiolucency with indications of good healing of the periapical tissues and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:24944456

Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Patil, Santosh

2014-01-01

92

Cone beam-computed topographic evaluation of a central incisor with an open apex and a failed root canal treatment using one-step apexification with Biodentine™: A case report.  

PubMed

A symptomatic endodontically treated immature tooth with periapical pathology presents multiple challenges to the clinician. Owing to incomplete root formation, gutta percha removal has to be done carefully without further damaging the periapical tissue or pushing the obturating material beyond the apex. Nonsurgical approach toward treating such a tooth would necessitate the creation of an apical barrier followed by conventional root canal treatment. Current literature suggests one-step apexification with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), with an apical matrix as the treatment of choice. A new calcium silicate-based cement also called as dentine substitute by the manufacturers with good handling properties has been introduced recently by the trade name Biodentine™ (Septodont, St. Maurdes Fossés, France). This case report presents management of a secondary endodontic case with an open apex treated with the concept of 'lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR)' using triantibiotic paste and Biodentine™ for apical barrier formation. A 12-month follow up with cone beam-computed topography (CBCT) exhibited progressive involution of periapical radiolucency with indications of good healing of the periapical tissues and absence of clinical symptoms. PMID:24944456

Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Bijay; Patil, Santosh

2014-05-01

93

Mandibular lateral incisor-canine transposition associated with dental anomalies.  

PubMed

Tooth transposition is a rare positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems. Its etiology is an enigma. The occurrence of mandibular canine/lateral incisor transposition is a relatively rare anomaly. Two rooted canine/rotated incisor transposition has not been reported previously in the clinical dental literature. We describe a case with transposition of a mandibular two rooted canine and a lateral incisor with 180 degrees rotation. Possible causes such as trauma and tooth agenesis were absent in this case. Due to the root anomaly, we consider that our case may have a genetic etiology. Although the mandibular lateral incisor and canine were not in their normal anatomic positions, there were no functional or esthetic problems. PMID:16015651

Kansu, Ozden; Avcu, Nihal

2005-09-01

94

Endodontic treatment of maxillary lateral incisors with anatomical variations  

PubMed Central

Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit a single root with a single canal. However, maxillary lateral incisor teeth with unusual morphology of root canal system are frequently reported. These cases of variable root canal anatomy can be treated well by nonsurgical endodontic methods. A detailed description of root canal morphology is fundamental for successful endodontic treatment. Treatment using an operating microscope, radiographs from different angles, and cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT) can produce more predictable endodontic outcomes. PMID:24303362

Lee, Moon-Hwan; Ha, Jung-Hong; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Young-Kyung

2013-01-01

95

Managing the patient with missing or malformed maxillary central incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

retrieved, the roots were intact, and the patient was taken to his pediatric dentist within 1 hour of the traumatic incident. During that time, the teeth were kept in room-temperature water. The dentist reimplanted the teeth and stabilized them with a flexible archwire bonded to the labial surfaces of the adjacent anterior teeth. Unfortunately, the teeth could not be seated

Vincent G. Kokicha; Katherine E. Crabillb Seattle

96

Dendritic cells and macrophages expressing class II antigens in the normal rat incisor pulp.  

PubMed

This study has identified and characterized class II (Ia) antigen-expressing cells in the normal rat incisor pulp by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Two types of Ia-expressing cells occurred: one with a pronounced dendritic appearance located primarily in the periphery of the pulp, and one with morphological characteristics similar to those of macrophages. The latter cells were mainly observed in the central portion of the pulp. A numerical ratio of 1:4 was established between the two cell types. The existence of Ia-expressing cells suggests an inherent capacity of the pulp to process and present foreign antigens. PMID:3170880

Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G; Scheynius, A; Ambrose, W

1988-10-01

97

Orthodontic extrusion of subgingivally fractured incisor before restoration. A case report: 3-years follow-up.  

PubMed

Orthodontic forced eruption may be a suitable approach without risking the esthetic appearance in tooth fracture below the gingival attachment or alveolar bone crest. Extrusion of such teeth allows elevating the fracture line above the epithelial attachment and so the proper finishing margins can be prepared. Restoration after orthodontic eruption may present a more conservative treatment choice in young patients compared with the prosthetic restoration after extraction. This case describes a multidisciplinary approach using the orthodontic forced eruption facilitating the composite restoration of a fractured upper permanent central incisor. PMID:15876331

Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Malkoc, Siddik

2005-06-01

98

Establishment of crown-root domain borders in mouse incisor.  

PubMed

Teeth are composed of two domains, the enamel-covered crown and the enamel-free root. The understanding of the initiation and regulation of crown and root domain formation is important for the development of bioengineered teeth. In most teeth the crown develops before the root, and erupts to the oral cavity whereas the root anchors the tooth to the jawbone. However, in the continuously growing mouse incisor the crown and root domains form simultaneously, the crown domain forming the labial and the root domain the lingual part of the tooth. While the crown-root border on the incisor distal side supports the distal enamel extent, reflecting an evolutionary diet adaptation, on the incisor mesial side the root-like surface is necessary for the attachment of the interdental ligament between the two incisors. Therefore, the mouse incisor exhibits a functional distal-mesial asymmetry. Here, we used the mouse incisor as a model to understand the mechanisms involved in the crown-root border formation. We analyzed the cellular origins and gene expression patterns leading to the development of the mesial and distal crown-root borders. We discovered that Barx2, En1, Wnt11, and Runx3 were exclusively expressed on the mesial crown-root border. In addition, the distal border of the crown-root domain might be established by cells from a different origin and by an early Follistatin expression, factor known to be involved in the root domain formation. The use of different mechanisms to establish domain borders gives indications of the incisor functional asymmetry. PMID:23684768

Juuri, Emma; Saito, Kan; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Michon, Frederic

2013-10-01

99

Incisor microwear and diet in three species of Colobus.  

PubMed

Examination of incisor microwear in three species of Colobus revealed that the predominantly folivorous C. badius more closely resembles C. satanas, a seed predator/folivore, than C. guereza, another predominantly folivorous species. This demonstrates that species of the same broad dietary category can have very different patterns of incisor microwear, indicative of differences in food procurement behavior and/or the physical properties of dietary items for some portion of the diet. Conversely, species of different categories can have microwear patterns that, superficially at least, are quite similar. The dissimilarity in incisor microwear between C. badius and C. guereza is mirrored to a certain extent in molar microwear, although the differences are not nearly so great on the molars. The differences between C. badius and C. guereza may involve different food items in the major, folivorous portions of their diets, or they may relate to differences in the very minor fruit and bark components. The similar microwear patterns of C. badius and C. satanas demonstrate that incisor microwear by itself is unreliable for assigning fossil species to broad dietary categories. Incisor microwear can be used to infer finer dietary distinctions in fossil species for which dietary category has been determined by other means. PMID:2227724

Kelley, J

1990-01-01

100

View west; interior view of central bay Naval Base ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View west; interior view of central bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

101

View east; interior view of central bay Naval Base ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View east; interior view of central bay - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Foundry-Propeller Shop, North of Porter Avenue, west of Third Street West, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

102

Radiologically determined orthodontically induced external apical root resorption in incisors after non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This study aims to critically evaluate orthodontically induced external apical root resorption (OIEARR) in incisors of patients undergoing non-surgical orthodontic treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion by a systematic review of the published data. An electronic search of two databases was performed; the bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. Studies were included if they examined the amount of OIEARR in incisors produced during non-surgical orthodontic treatment of individuals with class II division I malocclusion in the permanent dentition. Individuals had no previous history of OIEARR, syndromes, pathologies, or general diseases. Study selections, risk of bias assessment, and data extraction were performed in duplicate. Eight studies of moderate methodological quality were finally included. An increased prevalence (65.6% to 98.1%) and mild to moderate severity of OIEARR (<4 mm and <1/3 original root) were reported. No sex difference in root resorption was found. For the maxillary incisors, there was no evidence that either the central or lateral incisor was more susceptible to OIEARR. A weak to moderate positive correlation between treatment duration and root resorption, and anteroposterior apical displacement and root resorption was found. Current limited evidence suggests that non-surgical comprehensive orthodontic treatment to correct class II division 1 malocclusions causes increased prevalence and severity of OIEARR the more the incisor roots are displaced and the longer this movement takes. PMID:25139200

Tieu, Long D; Saltaji, Humam; Normando, David; Flores-Mir, Carlos

2014-01-01

103

A study on evaluation of center of resistance of maxillary four incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction: A finite element study  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the center of resistance of maxillary incisors during simultaneous intrusion and retraction. Subjects and Methods: In this study, the following steps were employed namely, (1) Preprocessing - the creation of geometric model, mesh generation and boundary conditions. (2) Postprocessing - the tooth movement and determination of center of resistance. Results: The center of the mid-sagittal plane approximately 6 mm apical and 4 mm posterior to a line perpendicular to the occlusal plane from the labial alveolar crest of the central incisor resistance for the maxillary four incisors was located within the. Conclusion: Finite element is a sound mechanical method of analysis as it was sufficient enough to provide insight into interactions between orthodontic forces, and dental tissues and reliability of this study. Further by using this study clinically, the center of resistance can be precisely located in single rooted tooth during orthodontic treatment. PMID:25210384

Aruna, J.

2014-01-01

104

Transposition of mandibular lateral incisor-canine (mn.i2.C) associated with hypodontia: a review and rare clinical case.  

PubMed

Transposition is a unique and extreme form of ectopic eruption in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the position which is normally occupied by other permanent teeth. Tooth transpositions are rare and they can be complete or incomplete. The aetiology of transposition is still obscure. Various populations have been studied, to determine the prevalence of tooth transpositions. 20% of the transpositions which occur on the maxillary arch involve the canine and the lateral incisor. Although they are rare, transpositions may involve the maxillary lateral and central incisors. Among all transpositions, Mandibular Lateral Incisor-Canine (Mn.I2.C) is the rarest, with a prevalence rate of 0.03%. Although various reports have been published on tooth transpositions, very few have noted the agenesis of teeth, particularly Mn.I2.C and its management. We are reporting a rare clinical case with associated hypodontia. PMID:24959525

Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Athimuthu, Anantharaj; Prasanna, Praveen; Jagadeesh, Ramya B

2014-04-01

105

Orthodontic Treatment of a Mandibular Incisor Extraction Case with Invisalign  

PubMed Central

Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

Zawawi, Khalid H.

2014-01-01

106

Orthodontic treatment of a mandibular incisor extraction case with invisalign.  

PubMed

Mandibular incisor extraction for orthodontic treatment is considered an unusual treatment option because of the limited number of patients that meet the criteria for such treatment. Accurate diagnosis and treatment planning is essential to achieve the desired results. Adult orthodontic patients are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations and reject the idea of conventional fixed appliances. In recent years, Invisalign appliances have gained tremendous attention for orthodontic treatment of adult patients to meet their esthetic demands. In this case report, a case of Class I malocclusion was treated with mandibular incisor extraction using the Invisalign appliance system. Successful tooth alignment of both arches was achieved. The use of Invisalign appliance is an effective treatment option in adult patients with Class I malocclusion that requires incisor extraction due to moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:25024852

Zawawi, Khalid H

2014-01-01

107

Localized periodontal defect associated with unusual furcation involvement on a mandibular incisor.  

PubMed

A localized periodontal defect associated with an unusual furcation on a mandibular central incisor and its treatment sequences are presented. A 54-year-old woman presented with a persistent localized periodontal defect, which was not responsive to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. An exploratory surgery revealed complete through and through furcation involvement on the right mandibular central incisor, resulting in a three-walled infrabony defect. Following thorough mechanical debridement and root planing, the infrabony aspect of the defect was grafted with freeze-dried bone allograft combined with the recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB. The flaps were positioned to enable patient's home care and professional dental cleaning. Follow-up examination revealed uneventful healing and resolution of the infrabony periodontal defect. Clinicians should be aware of this unusual condition and consider it as a potential etiology when dealing with a persistent localized periodontal defect in the mandibular anterior sextant, which may not respond to the conventional nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Eliminating the active disease as well as enabling careful maintenance and oral hygiene may prevent further deterioration and result in a stable long-term outcome preserving the compromised tooth. PMID:23878844

Kwon, TaeHyun; Intini, Giuseppe; Kim, David M; Levin, Liran

2013-10-01

108

[Early treatment of mandibular incisor-canine crowding].  

PubMed

In the mixed dentition, lower incisor crowding can exist. He may be transitory or increase with dental arch evolution because of reduction of arch length by loss of leeway space. Early diagnosis allows the instauration of interceptive therapy, to ovoid extractions. Preserve or loss leeway space will depend of orthodontic space management. The clinical case presented in this article shows the interest of early treatment of incisor crowding to preserve arch length and make the leeway space available to resolve the crowding. PMID:21688604

Rerhrhaye, W; Zaoui, F; Aalloula, E

2011-03-01

109

Talon cusps occurring concurrently with dens invaginatus on a permanent maxillary lateral incisor: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

A talon cusp is a prominent accessory horn-like structure that projects from the cingulum or cementoenamel junction of the maxillary or mandibular teeth. It can occur in primary and permanent dentition and can lead to occlusal interference, irritation of the tongue, pulpal necrosis, caries, and periodontal problems. Talon cusp has been reported to affect both sexes, and may be unilateral or bilateral. Talon cusps occur most often on the palatal surface of permanent maxillary incisors. A comprehensive literature review revealed only 6 reported cases of facial talon cusps. A talon cusp occurring simultaneously with dens invaginatus in a tooth is extremely rare; to date, only 9 case reports have been published. This article presents a unique case of concurrent dens invaginatus and palatal and facial talon cusps in the right maxillary central incisor of a 12-year-old girl. PMID:24784523

Colak, Hakan; Yilmaz, Cicek; Keklik, Hakan; Colak, Tugba

2014-01-01

110

Dental anomalies in the incisor-canine region in patients with cleft lip and palate - literature review.  

PubMed

Tooth disorders in the anterior region of the maxilla are very common among patients with cleft lip, alveolar bone and palate. The authors concentrate on dental disorders, erupting problems and root development, specifying dental anomalies - especially regarding the lateral incisor, central incisor and canine. Disorders may relate to the shape of the tooth, its location, size, number and they can be considered separately or together. Anomalies can be affected by many factors, such as orthodontic or surgical treatment, the presence of supernumerary teeth, lack of bone, genetic factors and many others. Each group of cleft is different and the following anomalies can be identified: UCLP (unilateral cleft lip and palate), BCLP (bilateral cleft lip and palate), UCLA (unilateral cleft lip and alveolus) and BCLA (bilateral cleft lip and alveolus). This article is intended to summarise some of the most recent knowledge about tooth disorders in the anterior region of cleft lip and palate patients and present them in an orderly way. PMID:25171623

Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna; Dubowik, Magdalena; Szel?g, Janina; Kawala, Beata

2014-01-01

111

Environmental seasonality and incremental growth rates of beaver ( Castor canadensis) incisors: implications for palaeobiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periradicular bands are incremental structures seen on the external dentin surfaces of rodent incisors. They correspond to circadian developmental rhythms in dentin growth and provide a record of the growth rate of the incisor along its longitudinal axis. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between daily environmental temperatures and longitudinal growth rates of incisors in 40 Recent beavers

Caroline Rinaldi; Theodore M. Cole

2004-01-01

112

Postretention mandibular incisor stability after premolar serial extractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mandibular incisor alignmentin serial extraction cases, using the longitudinal dental cast records of the Burlington Growth Center as a control sample. Various parameters were investigated and the statistical differences determined between the treated and untreated groups. The results were also compared with data from serial extraction groups that subsequently had orthodontic

Donald G. Woodside; P. Emile Rossouw; David Shearer

1999-01-01

113

Correlation between mandibular incisor crown morphologic index and postretention stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Considering postretention stability as a result of successful orthodontic treatment, we aimed to verify the influence of mandibular-incisor-crown morphology in the relapse of mandibular anterior crowding. Methods: The sample comprised 56 white subjects of both sexes with Class I and Class II malocclusions at pretreatment, treated with extraction of 4 first premolars and edgewise mechanics. No patient underwent interproximal

Marcos Roberto de Freitas; Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro de Castro; Guilherme Janson; Karina Maria Salvatore Freitas; José Fernando Castanha Henriquesa

2006-01-01

114

Repair of perforating inflammatory root resorption in a previously traumatized incisor: 36-month follow-up.  

PubMed

Inflammatory root resorption is a serious complication of dental trauma, which leads to progressive loss of the root structure. The purpose of this report was to present a case of perforating inflammatory root resorption in a previously traumatized young incisor tooth with incomplete root development. A 12-year-old girl, who had suffered a traumatic dental injury 4 years earlier, was referred with symptoms of pain and swelling in a permanent maxillary central incisor. The tooth had been root-filled and had thin dentinal walls and a wide open apex. During retreatment, a perforating resorption site was observed on the root's distal aspect. Because the entire root canal filling could not be removed, the resorption site was repaired with white mineral trioxide aggregate in the presence of the remaining gutta-percha. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was conducted for 36 months, demonstrating arrest of the resorptive process, regeneration of the periradicular tissues, and re-establishment of the periodontal space. PMID:22828765

Cehreli, Zafer C; Guzeler, Irem; Uysal, Serdar

2012-01-01

115

Relationship of occlusion and periodontal disease: part IX-incisor inclination and periodontal status.  

PubMed

In this study population the following observations have been made: Periodontal destruction, gingival inflammation and mobility were not significantly related to axial inclination of the incisor teeth. Labial gingival recession of the mandibular incisor was related to linguoversion (less than 85 degrees to GoGn). No other associations between incisor inclination and labial or lingual recession were found. Age was not related to either maxillary or mandibular incisor inclination. The periodontal-incisor inclination relationships reported above for periodontal destruction and gingival inflammation were not altered by the factor of age. Study of the secondary influence of incisor inclination on the relationships of selected occlusal factors and periodontal pathosis showed: A. Severe overjet (more than 6mm) had been found to be associated with more periodontal destruction. With severe overjet maxillary incisors in linguoversion (less than 100 degrees to SN) were somewhat healthier than all others. Among the same cases of severe overjet mandibular incisors in labioversion had slightly more disease than all others. B. The absence of a significant correlation between anterior overbite or crowding reported previously was not influenced by incisor inclination. C. Facial alveolar bone thickness, observed clinically, was studied for its relation to periodontal destruction and gingival inflammation. Thick facial alveolar bone was found to be associated with increased pathosis. This finding was not consistent for the maxillary and mandibular incisor and the influence of other factors might be suspected: Incisor inclination had no effect on the bone thickness-periodontal disease findings. PMID:1064347

Geiger, A M; Wasserman, B H

1976-04-01

116

Finite element analysis of equine incisor teeth. Part 2: investigation of stresses and strain energy densities in the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone during tooth movement.  

PubMed

This study investigated the hypothetical contribution of biomechanical loading to the onset of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) and to elucidate the physiological age-related positional changes of the equine incisors. Based on high resolution micro-computed tomography (?CT) datasets, 3-dimensional models of entire incisor arcades and the canine teeth were constructed representing a young and an old incisor dentition. Special attention was paid to constructing an anatomically correct model of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Using previously determined Young's moduli for the equine incisor PDL, finite element (FE) analysis was performed. Resulting strains, stresses and strain energy densities (SEDs), as well as the resulting regions of tension and compression within the PDL and the surrounding bone were investigated during occlusion. The results showed a distinct distribution pattern of high stresses and corresponding SEDs in the PDL and bone. Due to the tooth movement, peaks of SEDs were obtained in the PDL as well as in the bone on the labial and palatal/lingual sides of the alveolar crest. At the root, highest SEDs were detected in the PDL on the palatal/lingual side slightly occlusal of the root tip. This distribution pattern of high SEDs within the PDL coincides with the position of initial resorptive lesions in EOTRH affected teeth. The position of high SEDs in the bone can explain the typical age-related alteration of shape and angulation of equine incisors. PMID:24252223

Schrock, P; Lüpke, M; Seifert, H; Staszyk, C

2013-12-01

117

[Agenesis of the upper lateral incisor: orthodontic therapy and replacement].  

PubMed

In this paper the Authors outline an uneven prevalence of superior lateral incisors agenesis. The treatment of this situation can be accomplished by various methods. It is possible to obtain the complete closure of dental spaces or maintain the physiological space. The Authors present four cases of young patients in which they decided to maintain orthodontically the space and to put them adhesive bridges. PMID:2700494

Gatti, C; Garattini, G; Pignanelli, M

1989-01-01

118

[Dento-alveolar cleft and the lateral incisor].  

PubMed

In the period of 1980 to 1990, 55 cleft, lip and palate patients, ranging in age from nine to twelve years, were treated. With 52% of them the lateral incisor on the cleft side was agenetic, in 24% normally developed and in 24% malformed. The malformed and the fissural teeth were removed during bone grafting of the dento-alveolar cleft. In almost all cases a well-formed tooth arch could be obtained by orthodontic treatment. PMID:11917879

van der Wal, K G

1993-10-01

119

Forced eruption of maxillary incisor teeth from the lingual side.  

PubMed

A major disadvantage in using the forced eruption technique is the necessity for the placement of an unesthetic orthodontic appliance, especially when the tooth involved is a maxillary incisor. The aim of this article is to present two alternative simple, specific task-oriented devices that may be placed on the lingual side of the teeth and may be used in the anterior of the mouth without compromising appearance. PMID:15202587

Chaushu, Stella; Zahavi, Thomas; Becker, Adrian

2004-06-01

120

Oxygen distribution and consumption in rat lower incisor pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to determine the oxygen tension (PO2) and rate of oxygen consumption in the pulp. Twelve rats were anaesthetised and artificially ventilated. Under an operating microscope, a recessed oxygen-sensitive microelectrode was inserted into the pulp through a small saline-covered cavity on the labial surface of the lower incisor. PO2 was measured as a function of the transverse distance

C. Y Yu; N. M Boyd; S. J Cringle; V. A Alder; D. Y Yu

2002-01-01

121

Replantation of an Avulsed Maxillary Incisor after 12 Hours: Three-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Tooth avulsion is defined as the complete displacement of the tooth out of its alveolar socket. The treatment of choice is immediate replantation or if that is not possible, placement of the tooth in an appropriate storage media. This report presents replantation of an avulsed maxillary central incisor after 12 hours of storage in milk. The tooth was replanted and splinted. One week later, it was treated endodontically and calcium hydroxide dressing was placed for 1 month; subsequently, the tooth was obturated with gutta-percha. During three years of follow-up, no evidence of ankylosis or inflammatory resorption was observed. After three years, the tooth was stable and remained functional and esthetically acceptable. PMID:23411596

Moradian, Hamid; Badakhsh, Samaneh; Rahimi, Mehran; Hekmatfar, Somayeh

2013-01-01

122

Cluster Analysis Based on the Central Tendency Deviation Principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our main goal is to introduce three clustering functions based on the central tendency deviation principle. According to this\\u000a approach, we consider to cluster two objects together providing that their similarity is above a threshold. However, how to\\u000a set this threshold ? This paper gives some insights regarding this issue by extending some clustering functions designed for\\u000a categorical data to

Julien Ah-pine

2009-01-01

123

Maxillary lateral incisor of subjects with cleft lip and/or palate: Part 1.  

PubMed

As a pilot study, dental casts of 30 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate were selected and examined from the longitudinal data in the Department of Orthodontics, Kyushu University Dental Hospital. Dental casts of the anterior teeth were sectioned at right angles to the long axis of the tooth 2 to 3 mm below the incisal edge. The teeth were differentiated according to their cross sections. They were classed as lateral incisors or other types by the ratio of labiolingual diameter to mesiodistal diameter and the flatness labiolingually. Dental casts of 309 additional patients with cleft alveolus were examined subjectively based on above findings. In primary dentition, 183 of 184 teeth on the cleft side were incisal type. One tooth was canine type. In permanent dentition, 42 of 78 teeth on the cleft side were conical type, 20 teeth were intermediate type, and 16 teeth were incisal type. As a conclusion, the tooth on the cleft side is almost certain to be a lateral incisor, not a supernumerary canine tooth. As well, their form was normal in the majority of the primary dentition, but malformed in the permanent one. PMID:1643070

Suzuki, A; Takahama, Y

1992-07-01

124

Peg-shaped and small lateral incisors not at higher risk for root resorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the pattern of external root resorption for peg-shaped and small lateral incisors according to various conditions and to compare it with that of normal-shaped lateral incisors. The periapical radiographs of 114 patients with 60 peg-shaped and 54 small lateral incisors were measured before and after treatment. Crown shape was assessed by examining

Yoon-Ah Kook; Sohee Park; Glenn T. Sameshima

2003-01-01

125

Reversed palatal perforation by upper incisors in ageing blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi)  

PubMed Central

Blind mole-rats (Spalax ehrenbergi) are fossorial solitary rodents that present striking morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations to the subterranean environment in which they live. Previous studies have shown that mole-rats are specialised in tooth-digging. The rapid eruption-rate of their incisors has evolved to compensate for their excessive wear by excavation. Males use their incisors more than females for digging and fighting, and their rate of incisor eruption is significantly more rapid than in females. Since mole-rats use their incisors for digging throughout the year, we suggest that continuous mechanical pressure on their oral tissues concentrated at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to cell and tissue fatigue. We provide evidence for 5 stages of palatal perforation by the upper incisors at their apical sites, with maximum perforation characterising aged males. Interspecies comparisons with 7 other fossorial and semi-fossorial rodent species, and with beavers, which expose their incisors to enormous mechanical pressure, revealed that this palatal perforation is unique to the male mole-rat. We suggest that while the fast eruption rate of incisors in the mole-rat compensates for the rapid wear resulting from digging, evolutionary adaptation to continuous tooth-digging is still ongoing, since the physical pressure of digging at the apical sites of the upper incisors leads to tissue destruction, breakage of the palatal bone and possibly to death, as a result of maxillary inflammation. PMID:11760890

ZURI, I.; TERKEL, J.

2001-01-01

126

A Study of Central Auction Based Wholesale Electricity Markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deregulation of electricity markets produced significant economic benefits, reducing prices to customers and opening several opportunities for new actors, e.g., new generators and distributors. A prominent scientific and technological challenge is the automation of such markets. In particular, we focus our attention on wholesale electricity markets based on a central auction. In these markets, generators sell electricity by means of a central auction to a public authority. Instead, the distribution of electricity to customers takes part in retail markets. The main works presented in the literature model wholesale markets as oligopolies, neglecting thus the specific auction mechanism. In this paper, we enrich these models by introducing an auction mechanism shaped on that used in the Italian wholesale electricity market, we solve the winner determination problem, and we preliminarily study the problem of searching for equilibria.

Ceppi, Sofia; Gatti, Nicola

127

Non-linear viscoelastic finite element analysis of the effect of the length of glass fiber posts on the biomechanical behaviour of directly restored incisors and surrounding alveolar bone.  

PubMed

The study aimed at estimating the effect of insertion length of posts with composite restorations on stress and strain distributions in central incisors and surrounding bone. The typical, average geometries were generated in a FEA environment. Dentin was considered as an elastic orthotropic material, and periodontal ligament was coupled with nonlinear viscoelastic mechanical properties. The model was then validated with experimental data on displacement of incisors from published literature. Three post lengths were investigated in this study: root insertion of 5, 7, and 9 mm. For control, a sound incisor model was generated. Then, a tearing load of 50 N was applied to both sound tooth and simulation models. Post restorations did not seem to affect the strain distribution in bone when compared to the control. All simulated post restorations affected incisor biomechanics and reduced the root's deforming capability, while the composite crowns underwent a higher degree of deformation than the sound crown. No differences could be noticed in incisor stress and strain. As for the influence of post length, it was not shown to affect the biomechanics of restored teeth. PMID:18833761

Ferrari, Marco; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Apicella, Davide; Aversa, Raffaella; Apicella, Antonio

2008-07-01

128

Orthodontic Management of Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a woman, aged 15 years, with permanent dentition, brachyfacial typology, with congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. Multibracket straightwire fixed appliance was used to open the space for dental implant placement, and treat the impaired occlusion. The missing lateral incisors were substituted with oral implants. PMID:24711929

Rongo, Roberto; Cupo, Antonello; Valletta, Rosa

2014-01-01

129

Relapse of mandibular incisor alignment is not associated with the total posttreatment mandibular rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to determine whether total posttreatment mandibular rotation is associated with mandibular incisor crowding after retention. METHODS: Mandibular incisor irregularity (II) at least 10 years out of retention (T3) measured on dental casts from the postretention database at the University of Washington in Seattle was used to define subjects (II >\\/=6 mm, relapse group) and controls (II

Piotr Fudalej; Anne-Marie Bollen; Isabel A. Hujoel

2010-01-01

130

Treatment of a crowded Class II malocclusion with significant maxillary incisor protrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case report of a 10-year-old girl with a skeletal and dental Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is presented. There was marked arch length deficiency in the mandibular arch and significant maxillary incisor protrusion. The patient was treated with maxillary premolar extractions and early maxillary treatment for incisor retraction. The treatment was completed nonsurgically with full treatment later and a

David M. Meyer

1995-01-01

131

The use of the lingual arch in the mixed dentition to resolve incisor crowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mixed dentition, arch length preservation, maintaining the leeway space, can often provide adequate space to resolve lower incisor crowding. Yet the frequency of this occurrence is not known. To obtain this information, lingual arches were placed in the mandibular arches of 107 consecutive mixed dentition patients with incisor crowding to preserve arch length and make the leeway space

Mathew M. Brennan; Anthony A. Gianelly

2000-01-01

132

The Relation between Tooth Shape Ratio and Incisor Arrangement in Japanese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether the relationship between tooth shape ratio and incisor arrangement proposed by Peck et al. in 1972 was applicable to Japanese children, we compared two groups, one with normal permanent dentition and another with crowded permanent dentition, using chronologically constructed plaster dentition models. Tooth shape ratio was obtained by dividing the incisor mesio-distal width by the labio-lingual width

Hiroki Imai; Rie Kuwana; Takuro Yonezu; Masashi Yakushiji

2006-01-01

133

Identification of genetic risk factors for maxillary lateral incisor agenesis.  

PubMed

Tooth agenesis affects 20% of the world population, and maxillary lateral incisors agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most frequent subtypes, characterized by the absence of formation of deciduous or permanent lateral incisors. Odontogenesis is a complex mechanism regulated by sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, controlled by activators and inhibitors involved in several pathways. Disturbances in these signaling cascades can lead to abnormalities in odontogenesis, resulting in alterations in the formation of the normal teeth number. Our aim was to study a large number of genes encoding either transcription factors or key components in signaling pathways shown to be involved in tooth odontogenesis. We selected 8 genes-MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, SPRY2, TGFA, SPRY4, and WNT10A-and performed one of the largest case-control studies taking into account the number of genes and variants assessed, aiming at the identification of MLIA susceptibility factors. We show the involvement of PAX9, EDA, SPRY2, SPRY4, and WNT10A as risk factors for MLIA. Additionally, we uncovered 3 strong synergistic interactions between MLIA liability and MSX1-TGFA, AXIN2-TGFA, and SPRY2-SPRY4 gene pairs. We report the first evidence of the involvement of sprouty genes in MLIA susceptibility. This large study results in a better understanding of the genetic components and mechanisms underlying this trait. PMID:24554542

Alves-Ferreira, M; Pinho, T; Sousa, A; Sequeiros, J; Lemos, C; Alonso, I

2014-05-01

134

A cross-sectional clinical study on shape of nose inner-canthal distance and geometric progression as predictors for width of the maxillary incisor teeth  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship of anatomical landmarks of the face and geometric progression as predictors for the width of the maxillary incisor teeth. Materials and Methods: The central incisor width (CIW), lateral incisor width (LIW), inner-canthal distance (ICD) and inter-alar distance (IAD) from a total of 150 subjects were measured clinically. The width of the root of the nose (WRN) was measured on standard photographs of the subjects. Student t-test has been used to find the significance of parameters between male and female. Pearson correlation has been used to find any relation of the parameters. Results: The IAD and the WRN measurements suggest that the shape of the nose is wider and more triangular in males. The mean maxillary CIW and ICD was significantly higher in males than females. Conclusion: The proportion of IAD to WRN seems to be a reliable guide for deciding the proportion of the maxillary central and LIW. The ICD, when multiplied by a decreasing function value of the geometric progression term 0.618 and divided by 2, was a reliable predictor of the maxillary CIW. PMID:25097395

Reddy, Naveen; Singh, T. Rajesh; Reddy, Swetha; Guruprasad, Yadavalli

2014-01-01

135

Relationships between tooth eruption, occlusion and alveolar bone resorption: histochemical and cytological studies of bone remodeling on rat incisor alveolar bone facing the enamel after root resection.  

PubMed

The labial side of rat incisor alveolar bone facing the enamel is continuously resorbed as the result of compressive force produced by the occlusion and eruption of incisors. In order to clarify the relationship between this mechanical compressive force and the bone cells involved in bone remodeling, we examined morphological changes occurring in the alveolar bone once the compressive force was eliminated by the removal of the proliferative odontogenic base (root resection according to Berkovitz and Thomas, 1969). After root resection, the incisor migrated halfway along the socket. On the crestal part where incisor still existed, active osteoclasts were prominent on the bone surface, and flattened mononuclear cells lay close upon active osteoclasts. Sinusoidal blood vessels or capillaries were observed at short distances from the bone surface. On the basal part where socket was vacant, osteoblasts lined up on the newly formed bone, and the osteogenic cell layer lay on the osteoblasts. Between the two parts, which correspond to the reversal phase proposed by Baron (1977), osteoblastic cells with developed cell organelles increased in number and the distance between blood vessels and bone surface increased. Osteoclasts reduced their activities, and osteoblastic cells often wedged themselves between the osteoclasts and bone surface. These findings indicate that the elimination of compressive force mediated by incisors leads to the activation of osteoblastic cells and inactivation of osteoclasts, which results in a conversion from bone resorption to bone formation. Thus, osteoblastic cells may play an important role in controlling osteoclastic activity in conversion from bone resorption to bone formation, partly by a direct effect and partly by controlling the access of blood vessels to the bone surface. PMID:2078397

Irie, K; Ozawa, H

1990-12-01

136

Aerial and Ground-Based Remote Sensing In Central America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of archaeological features is most successful when instrumentation and imagery are carefully selected bearing in mind the nature of the remains and the local context. Instruments need to be calibrated to local conditions, and extensive field verification studies are necessary. This is illustrated by remote sensing in two research programs in Central America: the Arena1 Research Program in Costa Rica and the Ceren Research Program in El Salvador. Satellite and aircraft remote sensing was successful in the former, while the Ceren site required the development of ground-based geophysical exploration techniques. In both cases, remote sensing contributed information that was not available by any other means, thus allowing new interpretations and a fuller understanding of ancient societies.

Sheets, Payson; Sever, Thomas L.; Conyers, Larry

2003-01-01

137

Eruption disturbances of the maxillary incisors: a literature review.  

PubMed

Eruption disturbances can be broadly classified as disturbances related to time and disturbances related to position. Time related disturbances include premature eruption, delayed eruption or impactions. A common feature of these is a significant deviation in eruption time within the established norms for a particular age, sex, race or ethnicity. Although root development represents the fundamental biologic parameter for tooth eruption, chronological age at presentation is used as the first criteria in the establishment of the diagnosis of prematurity or a delay in eruption. Eruption disturbances related to position include ectopic eruption and transpositions. Positional deviations too can cause a delay in eruption time, however more commonly the involved tooth erupts within the expected time frame with an abnormality in position. The focus of this paper is to present a systematic review of the literature including classification, etiology and treatment modalities available for eruption disturbances of the maxillary incisors. PMID:18524273

Huber, Kristin L; Suri, Lokesh; Taneja, Parul

2008-01-01

138

Angle Class I malocclusion treated with lower incisor extraction.  

PubMed

In planning orthodontic cases that include extractions as an alternative to solve the problem of negative space discrepancy, the critical decision is to determine which teeth will be extracted. Several aspects must be considered, such as periodontal health, orthodontic mechanics, functional and esthetic alterations, and treatment stability. Despite controversies, extraction of teeth to solve dental crowding is a therapy that has been used for decades. Premolar extractions are the most common, but there are situations in which atypical extractions facilitate mechanics, preserve periodontal health and favor maintenance of the facial profile, which tends to unfavorably change due to facial changes with age. The extraction of a lower incisor, in selected cases, is an effective approach, and literature describes greater post-treatment stability when compared with premolar extractions. This article reports the clinical case of a patient with Angle Class I malocclusion and upper and lower anterior crowding, a balanced face and harmonious facial profile. The presence of gingival and bone recession limited large orthodontic movements. The molars and premolars were well occluded, and the discrepancy was mainly concentrated in the anterior region of the lower dental arch. The extraction of a lower incisor in the most ectopic position and with compromised periodontium, associated with interproximal stripping in the upper and lower arches, was the alternative of choice for this treatment, which restored function, providing improved periodontal health, maintained facial esthetics and allowed finishing with a stable and balanced occlusion. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diplomate title. PMID:24094026

Barbosa, Vanessa Leal Tavares

2013-01-01

139

Orthodontic treatment for a patient with hypodontia involving the maxillary lateral incisors.  

PubMed

Developmental absence of maxillary lateral incisors is not uncommon in orthodontic patients. Treatment depends on a number of factors, including skeletal pattern, type of malocclusion, overjet, and the shape and color of the canines. Management can be broadly divided into space closure, space opening or redistribution, and prosthetic replacement. The purpose of this article was to report the treatment of a girl with an Angle Class I malocclusion with missing maxillary lateral incisors and severe crowding in the mandibular labial segment. Treatment included preadjusted fixed appliances, extraction of the mandibular first premolars, and space closure of the maxillary labial segment space with the canines substituted for the maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:21536213

Al-Anezi, Saud A

2011-05-01

140

A centralized quantum switch network based on probabilistic channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a practical scheme for deterministically teleporting quantum information via probabilistic communication channels in a centralized quantum switch network. In the network, a central quantum switch agent is assigned for regulating probabilistic channels so as to construct a direct deterministic channel between the sender and the receiver. This scheme is further extended to a hierarchical network and a tree network involving multiple agents. The advantage of the scheme is that all required multi qubit gates from distributed terminal agents are uniformly performed by a central agent, with which the physical design of terminal nodes is greatly simplified and more reliable deterministic teleportation can be realized in a centralized quantum probabilistic network.

Jiang, Min; Wu, Re-Bing; Li, Hui; Zhang, Zeng-ke

2013-01-01

141

Dimensional changes in height of labial alveolar bone of proclined lower incisor after lingual positioning by orthodontic treatment: A cephalometric study on adult Bengali population  

PubMed Central

Aim: The study aims to know whether modern orthodontic treatment procedure do actually cause permanent bone loss at the alveolar bone crest or improve alveolar bone morphology on labial aspect of permanent incisors which are to be moved lingually. Settings and Design: Manual tracings of pre and post treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were used. Material and Method: The cephalometric radiographs of 34 adult bengali subjects whose orthodontic treatment involved lingual positioning of procumbent mandibular central incisors were examined to determine the morphologic changes (bone height) in the labial alveolar bone that resulted from orthodontic treatment. Result: Comparison of tracings of radiographs taken before and after treatment indicated that 57.6% shows an increase in labial alveolar bone height, 30.3% shows decreased value and 12.1% shows no change with the decrease in the angulation between long axis of lower incisor and mandibular plane (GoGn). In the increase group there is a significant increase in the distance ‘incisal edge to D point’ whereas this dimension decreased significantly in the rest of the cases. In addition, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.56) was found between the changes in the distance from the incisal edge to the ‘D’ point and the alveolar bone height. But no significant relation was found between alveolar bone height and decrease in angulation of lower incisor either in the ‘increase group’ (r = 0.13, p > 0.05) or in the ‘decrease group’ (r = 0.37, p > 0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that during orthodontic treatment that involves lingual positioning of procumbent teeth but no intrusion, an increase in the amount of buccal alveolar bone may take place.

Shaw, Amit

2015-01-01

142

Excess NF-?B Induces Ectopic Odontogenesis in Embryonic Incisor Epithelium.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling plays critical roles in many physiological and pathological processes, including regulating organogenesis. Down-regulation of NF-?B signaling during development results in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The roles of NF-?B signaling in tooth development, however, are not fully understood. We examined mice overexpressing IKK?, an essential component of the NF-?B pathway, under keratin 5 promoter (K5-Ikk?). K5-Ikk? mice showed supernumerary incisors whose formation was accompanied by up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Apoptosis that is normally observed in wild-type incisor epithelium was reduced in K5-Ikk? mice. The supernumerary incisors in K5-Ikk? mice were found to phenocopy extra incisors in mice with mutations of Wnt inhibitor, Wise. Excess NF-?B activity thus induces an ectopic odontogenesis program that is usually suppressed under physiological conditions. PMID:25376721

Blackburn, J; Kawasaki, K; Porntaveetus, T; Kawasaki, M; Otsuka-Tanaka, Y; Miake, Y; Ota, M S; Watanabe, M; Hishinuma, M; Nomoto, T; Oommen, S; Ghafoor, S; Harada, F; Nozawa-Inoue, K; Maeda, T; Peterková, R; Lesot, H; Inoue, J; Akiyama, T; Schmidt-Ullrich, R; Liu, B; Hu, Y; Page, A; Ramírez, Á; Sharpe, P T; Ohazama, A

2015-01-01

143

Labial and lingual talon cusps of a primary lateral incisor: a case report.  

PubMed

Talon cusp occurs as a result of disturbances during the morpho-differentiation stage of tooth development. It is more common on the palatal surface of the permanent maxillary incisors. It can be unilateral/bilateral, but can also occur on the same tooth. Only 2 published reports exist documenting talons on both labial and lingual surfaces of the same tooth in permanent incisors. The purpose of this case report was to present a rare case of a facial and palatal talon cusp on the primary maxillary right lateral incisor in a 5-year-old girl with bilateral cleft lip. In this case, the morphology of the primary incisor was "+" shaped on occlusal view. PMID:16317970

Jeevarathan, J; Deepti, A; Muthu, M S; Sivakumar, N; Soujanya, K

2005-01-01

144

Treatment of Two Canals in All Mandibular Incisor Teeth in the Same Patient  

PubMed Central

The main reason for unfavourable outcome in endodontic treatment of mandibular incisor is the inability to detect the presence of second canal. Pain even after extirpation of complete pulp tissue from root canal of vital teeth is the main indication of hidden canals. The present case report is also on pain because of another neglected canal in all mandibular incisors in the same patient. PMID:25478246

Kokane, Vandana B.; Patil, Swapnil N.; Gunwal, Mohit K.; Kubde, Rajesh; Atre, Swaraj

2014-01-01

145

Comparisons of nipple attachment and incisor growth among four species of voles (Microtus).  

PubMed

Patterns of nipple attachment and incisor growth were compared between four species of voles (Microtus). Offspring of two highly social species, prairie voles (M. ochrogaster) and pine voles (M. pinetorum), were shown to cling tightly to the nipples of their dams on Days 2, 6, and 10. This pattern contrasted to weak nipple attachment displayed by two less-social species, meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus) and montane voles (M. montanus). Lengths of the upper (maxillary) and lower (mandibular) incisors of the four species were recorded throughout the first 10 days of age and in adults. Incisors of the pine and prairie voles typically erupted earlier and grew longer than those of the meadow or montane voles during the first few days of development. Incisors grew at a substantial rate in the latter two species, such that they equalled or surpassed the incisor lengths of the former two species as Day 10 and weaning approached. Patterns of incisor growth, in part, reflected those for nipple attachment, but do not appear to account substantially for differences in nipple attachment. PMID:7926283

Salo, A L; Shapiro, L E; Dewsbury, D A

1994-07-01

146

Association of dentoskeletal morphology with incisor inclination in angle class II patients: a retrospective cephalometric study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify possible dentoskeletal parameters associated with variation of anterior tooth inclination in Angle Class II subdivisions. Methods Pre-treatment lateral radiographs of 144 Class II patients (68 males, 76 females) aged 9 to 17 years were classified for upper incisor inclination into three groups (proclined, normally inclined, retroclined) homogeneous for gender and skeletal jaw relationship. The effect of age on the 22 cephalometric variables was controlled by covariance analysis. Results Multivariate analysis of the cephalometric parameters indicated significant inter-group differences. Systematic associations with incisor inclination were revealed using rank correlation: Lower incisor proclination, Wits appraisal and gonial angle significantly decreased (0.04 ? p ? 0.002), while intercisal angle, mandibular total and corpus length and nasolabial angle increased (0.04 ? p ? 0.001) with decreasing incisor proclination. Conclusions Clear-cut classification criteria and control of confounding effects may clarify conflicting previous findings on dentoskeletal differences between Class II subdivisions in the mixed dentition. Only minor dentoskeletal differences appear to be associated with incisor inclination. The increased interincisal and nasolabial angle in Class II division 2 subjects are due to reclination of both upper and lower incisors. Jaw positions and chin prominence are not significantly different between the subdivisions. However, Wits appraisal is decreased in Class II division 2. The increased mandibular length observed in Class II division 2 requires further scrutinization. PMID:24004488

2013-01-01

147

Cross-sectional study of correlation between mandibular incisor crowding and third molars in young Brazilians  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate transversally the clinical correlation between lower incisor crowding and mandible third molar. Study Design: Three hundred healthy volunteers (134 male and 166 female), aged 20.4 (±2.4) years-old were submitted to a complete clinical examination and filled up a questionnaire about gender, age, total teeth number and presence or absence of superior and inferior third molar. After a recent panoramic radiography were evaluated. The multiple logistic regression showed that none of the studied factors influenced the mandibular incisor crowding. Results: The proportion of both molars present or both absent was higher than the other conditions (Chi-square, p<.0001). The multiple logistic regression showed that any of the studied factors, influenced (p>.05) the mandibular incisor crowding. Despite the statistical significance, wear orthodontics appliances showed a little correlation (odds ratios < 1.0) in the mandibular incisor crowding. Conclusion: Presence of maxillary and/or mandibular third molars has no relation with the lower incisor crowding. Key words:Malocclusion, third molars, lower incisor crowding, mandible. PMID:23385508

Karasawa, Lilian H.; Groppo, Francisco C.; Prado, Felippe B.; Caria, Paulo H F.

2013-01-01

148

Aesthetic Rehabilitation of a Complicated Crown-Root Fracture of the Maxillary Incisor: Combination of Orthodontic and Implant Treatment  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to present a complex rehabilitation, of fractured tooth, with implants in anterior region considering the orthodontics extrusion to clinical success. At 7 years old, the patient fractured the maxillary left central incisor and the dentist did a crown with the fragment. Twenty years later, the patient was referred to a dental clinic for orthodontic treatment, with the chief complaint related to an accentuated deep bite, and a professional started an orthodontic treatment. After sixteen months of orthodontic treatment, tooth 21 fractured. The treatment plan included an orthodontic extrusion of tooth 21 and implant placement. This case has been followed up and the clinical and radiographic examinations show excellence esthetic results and satisfaction of patient. The forced extrusion can be a viable treatment option in the management of crown root fracture of an anterior tooth to gain bone in a vertical direction. This case emphasizes that to achieve the esthetic result a multidisciplinary approach is necessary. PMID:24872900

de Avila, Érica Dorigatti; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Campos Velo, Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo; Mollo, Francisco de Assis; Borelli Barros, Luiz Antonio

2014-01-01

149

Reactive Robot Navigation Based on a Combination of Central and Peripheral Vision  

E-print Network

Reactive Robot Navigation Based on a Combination of Central and Peripheral Vision Abstract In this paper, we present a new method for vision-based, reactive robot navigation that enables a robot to move in the middle of the free space by exploiting both central and peripheral vision. The system employs a forward

Trahanias, Panos

150

Comparison of the outcomes of the lower incisor extraction, premolar extraction and non-extraction treatments.  

PubMed

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the treatment outcome of lower incisor extraction and to compare it with premolar extraction and non-extraction treatment. The sample consisted of 60 subjects with Class I malocclusion and moderate crowding. The sample was separated into three groups: extraction of a lower incisor group, extraction of a four first premolar group and a non-extraction group. All groups involved 13 girls and 7 boys with a total of 20 patients. The Peer assessment rating (PAR) index was applied to a patient's pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) dental casts. T1 dental casts were also used for determining Bolton discrepancy. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. For the mean percentage PAR score reduction for each group, there was one significant difference seen between the lower incisor extraction group and the non-extraction group (P = 0.047). For the mean anterior ratios, there were significant differences among premolar extraction group versus non-extraction group (P = 0.042) and non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.000). For the mean overall ratios, there were significant differences among the premolar extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.048) and the non-extraction group versus lower incisor extraction group (P = 0.001). Orthodontic treatment without extraction has a better treatment outcome than the four-first premolar extraction and single lower incisor extraction protocols in Class I cases with moderate to severe mandibular anterior crowding. PMID:21745824

Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Malkoc, Siddik; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

2012-12-01

151

Weighting links based on edge centrality for community detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Link weights have the equally important position as links in complex networks, and they are closely associated with each other for the emergence of communities. How to assign link weights to make a clear distinction between internal links of communities and external links connecting communities is of vital importance for community detection. Edge centralities provide a powerful approach for distinguishing internal links from external ones. Here, we first use edge centralities such as betweenness, information centrality and edge clustering coefficient to weight links of networks respectively to transform unweighted networks into weighted ones, and then a weighted function that both considers links and link weights is adopted on the weighted networks for community detection. We evaluate the performance of our approach on random networks as well as real-world networks. Better results are achieved on weighted networks with stronger weights of internal links of communities, and the results on unweighted networks outperform that of weighted networks with weaker weights of internal links of communities. The availability of our findings is also well-supported by the study of Granovetter that the weak links maintain the global integrity of the network while the strong links maintain the communities. Especially in the Karate club network, all the nodes are correctly classified when we weight links by edge betweenness. The results also give us a more comprehensive understanding on the correlation between links and link weights for community detection.

Sun, Peng Gang

2014-01-01

152

Lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a South European male population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis impacted canines and supernumerary teeth in a young adult male population. Materials and Methods: The panoramic radiographs of 1745 military students (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.52 years) who attended the Center of Aviation Medicine of the Armed Forces of Greece during the period 1997-2011 were initially analyzed for lateral incisor agenesis by two observers. After exclusion of the known orthodontic cases, a subgroup of 1636 examinees (mean age: 18.6 ± 0.44 years) was evaluated for canine impaction and supernumerary teeth. Results: Twenty-eight missing lateral incisors were observed in 22 military students, indicating an incidence of 1.3% in the investigated population. No lateral incisor agenesis was detected in the mandibular arch. A prevalence rate of 0.8% was determined for canine impaction in the sample of young adults. The majority of impacted teeth (86.7%) were diagnosed in the maxillary arch. Thirty-five supernumerary teeth were observed in 24 examinees (prevalence rate: 1.5%). The ratio of supernumerary teeth located in the maxilla versus the mandible was 2.2:1. The most common type of supernumerary tooth was the upper distomolar. Conclusion: The prevalence of lateral incisor agenesis, canine impaction, and supernumerary teeth ranged from 0.8 to 1.5% in the sample of male Greek military students. PMID:24926206

Delli, Konstantina; Livas, Christos; Bornstein, Michael M.

2013-01-01

153

Orthodontic management of traumatic avulsion of permanent incisors in a child with sickle cell anaemia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Avulsion of permanent teeth in children resulting from trauma is an acute emergency presentation. When not adequately managed, it may result in functional and aesthetic disturbances, with implications for more complicated and prolonged treatment which require planning and biocompatibility in terms of forces used in moving the teeth orthodontically. Literature is scarce on a reported case of this nature and this is the first report in the literature in Nigeria. Case presentation We report on a case of avulsion of both maxillary central incisors in an 8-year-old male child of Sub-Saharan African ethnicity with sickle cell anaemia. One of the incisors produced by the parents was replanted at the clinic. The replanted tooth was later traumatized during the course of treatment which resulted in mobility and subsequent extraction of the tooth. At a later presentation at the clinic, orthodontic therapy was instituted. While orthodontic therapy has been considered to be completely noninvasive, special precautions should be taken in the clinical management of sickle cell anaemia patients to prevent local vaso-occlusive events. Conclusion The sequeale of traumatic avulsion in a medically compromised patient with sickle cell anaemia is presented. Prompt and early presentation for dental management is very important; while prevention and management of dental trauma should be recognized as a public health issue. Dental trauma in sickle cell anaemia can be minimized by practicing preventive measures with the use of mouth guard which is an effective device for preventing dental injuries, and patients should be advised to wear them during activities to prevent dental injuries. PMID:19918455

Folakemi, Oredugba A; Edamisan, Temiye O

2009-01-01

154

Static Thrust of an Annular Nozzle with a Concave Central Base  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A static test of an annular nozzle with a concave central base, producing a jet in which tangents to the jet streamlines at the exit converged toward a region on the axis of symmetry downstream of the exit, has indicated good thrust performance. A value of nozzle-flow coefficient only slightly less than unity indicates the internal loss to be small. Pressures on the concave central base are relatively large and positive, and a predictable portion of the total thrust of the jet is exerted on the central base.

Corson, Blake W., Jr.; Mercer, Charles E.

1960-01-01

155

Restoration of incisor area using one-piece implants: Evaluation of crestal bone resorption  

PubMed Central

Background: One-piece implants (OPIs) incorporate the trans-mucosal abutment facing the soft tissues as an integral part of the implant. Since OPIs become more and more popular and no report specifically focuses on OPIs inserted in incisors’ area, a retrospective study is performed. Materials and Methods: Fifty-five OPIs were inserted in incisors’ area in a series of patients admitted at the Dental Clinic, University of Chieti (Italy), for evaluation and implant treatment between January and December 2010. Results: In our study, the survival rate and success rate were 96.2% and 96.1%, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that no studied variable had an impact on the survival (i.e., lost implants) and clinical success (i.e., crestal bone resorption). Conclusions: OPIs are reliable devices for oral rehabilitation in the incisors’ area. PMID:23814574

Carinci, Francesco

2012-01-01

156

Effects of mandibular incisor extraction on anterior occlusion in adults with Class III malocclusion and reduced overbite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the treatment outcome and changes in mandibular incisor position after extraction of one single incisor in 36 adult orthodontic cases with combined Class III and open bite tendencies. The cases consisted of 21 female and 15 male patients with an average age of 27.8 years (standard deviation [SD], 11.1 years) at the

Espen Færøvig; Björn U. Zachrisson

1999-01-01

157

Orthodontic treatment of unilateral cleft lip and alveolus patient with maxillary lateral incisor missing: case report.  

PubMed

The esthetics of a patient with a cleft lip and alveolus and missing maxillary lateral incisor is important. A girl, aged 9 years 3 months with repaired left unilateral cleft of primary palate only was referred for orthodontic evaluation of her anterior tooth-crowding. She was unhappy with the unattractive appearance of her maxillary anterior teeth, which were behind her mandibular anterior teeth. Alveolar bone grafting along with canine substitution to replace her missing lateral incisor were recommended for this patient. The post-treatment results were excellent with good occlusion, acceptable profile, and remained stable one year after conclusion of active treatment. PMID:24386758

Pisek, Poonsak; Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Pasasuk, Apaporn; Somsuk, Thanatpiya

2013-09-01

158

Iatrogenic absence of maxillary canines: Bolton discrepancy treated with mandibular incisor extraction.  

PubMed

This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with iatrogenic absence of the maxillary canines, moderate maxillary and severe mandibular dental crowding, a Bolton discrepancy with a large mandibular anterior excess, a maxillary right lateral incisor crossbite, and Angle Class II molar relationships. The treatment consisted of fixed appliance therapy, mandibular incisor extraction, tooth bleaching, and dental recontouring. This method of treatment maintained the patient's good facial appearance, improved the dental esthetics, and provided a good functional occlusion, eliminating the arch length and Bolton discrepancies and providing a good outcome with minimal undesirable effects. PMID:23631973

Simão, Tassiana Mesquita; Valladares-Neto, José; Rino-Neto, José; de Paiva, João Batista

2013-05-01

159

Centralizing Data Management with Considerations of Uncertainty and Information-Based Flexibility  

E-print Network

This paper applies the theory of real options to analyze how the value of information-based flexibility should affect the decision to centralize or decentralize data management under low and high uncertainty. This study ...

Velu, Chander K.

160

Autotransplantation of a Supernumerary Tooth to Replace a Misaligned Incisor with Abnormal Dimensions and Morphology: 2-Year Follow-Up  

PubMed Central

Autotransplantation is a viable treatment option to restore esthetics and function impaired by abnormally shaped teeth when a suitable donors tooth is available. This paper describes the autotransplantation and 2-year follow-up of a supernumerary maxillary incisor as a replacement to a misaligned maxillary incisor with abnormal crown morphology and size. The supernumerary incisor was immediately autotransplanted into the extraction site of the large incisor and was stabilized with a bonded semirigid splint for 2 weeks. Fixed orthodontic therapy was initiated 3 months after autotransplantation. Ideal alignment of the incisors was accomplished after 6 months along with radiographic evidence of apical closure and osseous/periodontal regeneration. In autogenous tooth transplantation, a successful clinical outcome can be achieved if the cases are selected and treated properly. PMID:23476813

Tirali, R. Ebru; Sar, Cagla; Ates, Ufuk; Kizilkaya, Metin; Cehreli, S. Burcak

2013-01-01

161

Chytridiomycosis risk among Central European amphibians based on surveillance data.  

PubMed

The Czech Republic hosts a surprisingly rich biodiversity of amphibians representing the majority of amphibian species present in all of Central and Eastern Europe. Surveillance data of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) collected during 2008 to 2012 were analysed for basic patterns of prevalence and infection intensity among species, age groups and localities. In addition, an investigation was made into possible data bias due to varying PCR inhibition. Infection prevalence in the genus Pelophylax was significantly higher than in other sampled taxa, while Bombina and Bufo were infected with intermediate prevalence. Individual mortalities putatively caused by chytridiomycosis were detected in Bombina and Bufo, but not in Pelophylax. Differences among localities were seen to modulate the pathogen's infection rate and influence overall individual infection intensities. PCR inhibition occurred significantly more often in samples from the genus Pelophylax than in other tested taxa (Bufo bufo, B. viridis, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus and Rana dalmatina). Although we found no completely inhibited samples within the genus Bombina, the infection loads were lower in the sample set processed without bovine serum albumin, suggesting some level of PCR inhibition. The combination of high Bd prevalence with no apparent deleterious effect and the high dispersal abilities of water frogs predispose them to act as vectors for chytridiomycosis. It is possible that the role of Pelophylax frogs in the spread of Bd is overlooked due to a large proportion of unrecognized false negatives, but this issue needs further confirmation. PMID:25392037

Balá, Vojtech; Vojar, Jir?í; Civi, Petr; Andera, Martin; Rozínek, Roman

2014-11-14

162

A diagnostic dilemma of central skull base osteomyelitis mimicking neoplasia in a diabetic patient  

PubMed Central

We present a case which illustrates the diagnostic difficulty in distinguishing between osteomyelitis of the central skull base and base of skull tumours. A woman in her early forties presented with seizures and multiple cranial nerve palsies. She also had a background of chronic otalgia and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The clinical diagnosis of skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) was made, but both MRI and bone scans were unable to distinguish this from a skull base malignancy on imaging criteria. Eventually biopsies were required to exclude the diagnosis of malignancy and the patient was treated for central SBO. PMID:23355560

Ganhewa, Aparna Dasunmalee; Kuthubutheen, Jafri

2013-01-01

163

Biofilm-based central line-associated bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

Different types of central venous catheters (CVCs) have been used in clinical practice to improve the quality of life of chronically and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, indwelling devices are usually associated with microbial biofilms and eventually lead to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs).An estimated 250,000-400,000 CLABSIs occur every year in the United States, at a rate of 1.5 per 1,000 CVC days and a mortality rate of 12-25 %. The annual cost of caring for patients with CLABSIs ranges from 296 million to 2.3 billion dollars.Biofilm formation occurs on biotic and abiotic surfaces in the clinical setting. Extensive studies have been conducted to understand biofilm formation, including different biofilm developmental stages, biofilm matrix compositions, quorum-sensing regulated biofilm formation, biofilm dispersal (and its clinical implications), and multi-species biofilms that are relevant to polymicrobial infections.When microbes form a matured biofilm within human hosts through medical devices such as CVCs, the infection becomes resistant to antibiotic treatment and can develop into a chronic condition. For that reason, many techniques have been used to prevent the formation of biofilm by targeting different stages of biofilm maturation. Other methods have been used to diagnose and treat established cases of CLABSI.Catheter removal is the conventional management of catheter associated bacteremia; however, the procedure itself carries a relatively high risk of mechanical complications. Salvaging the catheter can help to minimize these complications.In this article, we provide an overview of microbial biofilm formation; describe the involvement of various genetic determinants, adhesion proteins, organelles, mechanism(s) of biofilm formation, polymicrobial infections, and biofilm-associated infections on indwelling intravascular catheters; and describe the diagnosis, management, and prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections. PMID:25366227

Yousif, Ammar; Jamal, Mohamed A; Raad, Issam

2015-01-01

164

On the Cutting Edge of Organ Renewal: Identification, Regulation, and Evolution of Incisor Stem Cells  

E-print Network

). This intriguing phenomenon was experimentally confirmed some 40 years later by Oudet, who cut off rabbit incisors at the gingival (or gum) level and found that these teeth indeed regenerated (Oudet, 1823). These first steps. Studies using mouse genetics, as well as other experimental approaches such as explant cul- tures, have

Klein, Ophir

165

Isolation and Culture of Dental Epithelial Stem Cells from the Adult Mouse Incisor  

PubMed Central

Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie tooth regeneration and renewal has become a topic of great interest1-4, and the mouse incisor provides a model for these processes. This remarkable organ grows continuously throughout the animal's life and generates all the necessary cell types from active pools of adult stem cells housed in the labial (toward the lip) and lingual (toward the tongue) cervical loop (CL) regions. Only the dental stem cells from the labial CL give rise to ameloblasts that generate enamel, the outer covering of teeth, on the labial surface. This asymmetric enamel formation allows abrasion at the incisor tip, and progenitors and stem cells in the proximal incisor ensure that the dental tissues are constantly replenished. The ability to isolate and grow these progenitor or stem cells in vitro allows their expansion and opens doors to numerous experiments not achievable in vivo, such as high throughput testing of potential stem cell regulatory factors. Here, we describe and demonstrate a reliable and consistent method to culture cells from the labial CL of the mouse incisor. PMID:24834972

Chavez, Miquella G.; Hu, Jimmy; Seidel, Kerstin; Li, Chunying; Jheon, Andrew; Naveau, Adrien; Horst, Orapin; Klein, Ophir D.

2014-01-01

166

Recessive anonychia totalis and dominant aplasia (or hypoplasia) of upper lateral incisors in the same kindred  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses the occurrence of 2 genetic traits, autosomal recessive anonychia and autosomal dominant hypoplasia of the upper lateral incisors (ULI) in 4 (2 males and 2 females) members of 2 sibships of the same kindred. Three of them also had spaced teeth and agenesis of one or more third molars. Anonychia was also present in another

N. Freire-Maia; Marta Pinheiro

1979-01-01

167

Mandibular incisor stability after bimaxillary orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction in the upper arch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To evaluate long-term changes in the lower incisor region, a comparison was made between children with large overjet treated with extraction of the upper first premolars and fixed appliances in both jaws and untreated children with normal occlusion. The treatment group consisted of 26 children and was studied with plaster models on 5 occasions: before treatment, at the end

Ulrike Schütz-Fransson; Krister Bjerklin; Jüri Kurol

1998-01-01

168

No Correlation between Primary Mandibular Anterior Crowding and Vertical Craniofacial Configuration or Lower Incisor Inclination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between primary mandibular anterior crowding and vertical cranofacial configuration or sagittal lower incisor inclination. The collective comprised 100 consecutive patients (50 males, 50 females) subject to 4 selection criteria: mandibular anterior crowding S 1.0 mm, no provious orthodontic therapy, completely preserved deciduous canines and molars, and lateral cephalograms of

Rainer-Reginald Miethke

2000-01-01

169

Endodontic Treatment and Esthetic Management of a Geminated Central Incisor Bearing a Talon Cusp  

PubMed Central

Gemination with talon cusps is an uncommon morphologic dental anomaly, characterized by the formation of clinically wide tooth that can cause significant aesthetic and clinical problems including esthetic impairment, pain, caries susceptibility, and tooth crowding. These morphological dental anomalies have specific treatment needs due to the abnormal morphology and need virtuous radiologic diagnosis. Multidisciplinary approach can supply success of the treatment plan that can provide esthetic and occlusal requirements. In this case report, the multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of geminated tooth with talon cusp is presented with the clinical and radiographic findings. PMID:24715989

Tar?m Erta?, Elif; Y?rcal? At?c?, Meral; Arslan, Hakan; Ya?a, Bilal; Erta?, Hüseyin

2014-01-01

170

Randomized, controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in central pain in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Central pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and often refractory to treatment. Methods: We conducted a single-center, 5-week (1-week run-in, 4-week treatment), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in 66 patients with MS and central pain states (59 dysesthetic, seven painful spasms) of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM), containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) delivered via an oromu- cosal spray, as adjunctive

David J. Rog; Turo J. Nurmikko; Tim Friede; Carolyn A. Young

2005-01-01

171

Eigenvector Centrality Based on Shared Research Topics in a Scientific Community  

E-print Network

Eigenvector Centrality Based on Shared Research Topics in a Scientific Community Antonio P researchers and interest groups that join them on the base of shared research topics in a given scientific Scientific communities are commonly defined as networks of scientists, researchers and professionals who aim

Boyer, Edmond

172

Bacterial penetration of the root canal of intact incisor teeth after a simulated traumatic injury.  

PubMed

One of the aims in treating traumatised teeth is to maintain the vitality of the pulp or allow conditions favourable for pulp revascularisation. However, infection of the pulp and root canal system may prevent this. A number of pathways have been proposed that allow bacteria to invade the root canal system, however most of these pathways cannot account for pulp infection in teeth that did not sustain injury to the periodontal attachment. Enamel/dentine cracks have been proposed as a portal for bacterial invasion of seemingly intact teeth and the aim of this study was to determine if bacteria could invade the root canal system after a simulated traumatic episode. Twenty intact and sound upper central incisors were chosen and prepared. One tooth was selected as a sterility control and the external crown surface of the remaining 19 teeth was subjected to infection with Streptococcus gordonii in a bacterial microleakage model. Over 7 days samples of growth media from the root canal system were taken and tested for bacteria. Sixteen of the teeth did not demonstrate bacterial invasion over the time frame. These teeth were then prepared for testing in a pendulum impact device and were subjected to a blow which did not fracture the crowns or dislodge the tooth from its simulated alveolus. The teeth were then prepared and tested in the bacterial microleakage model. After impact seven of the teeth demonstrated bacterial invasion of the root canal system (P = 0.002). These teeth were then reprepared for testing in the bacterial microleakage model. The crowns of five teeth, selected at random, were coated with two layers of light cured unfilled resin, the remaining two were used as positive controls. All the teeth coated with resin did not demonstrate bacterial invasion (P = 0.00), while the positive controls demonstrated invasion. The results suggested that enamel/dentine infractions were pathways for bacterial invasion of the root canal system of traumatised teeth. The application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown prevented infection. PMID:9206377

Love, R M

1996-12-01

173

Evaluation of the Effect of Different Ferrule Designs on Fracture Resistance of Maxillary Incisors Restored with Bonded Posts and Cores  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In cases of severe hard tissue loss, 2 mm circumferential ferrule is difficult to achieve. So in these cases we should use different ferrule designs. This in vitro study investigated the effect of different ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of teeth restored with bonded post and cores. Materials and Methods: Forty freshly-extracted central incisors were endodontically treated. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups; group 1 were teeth with 2 mm circumferential ferrule above the CEJ, group 2 were teeth with 2 mm ferrule only on the palatal side of the teeth, group 3 consisted of teeth with 2 mm ferrule only on the facial side and group 4 were teeth with 2 mm ferrule on the palatal and facial side of teeth with interproximal concavities. All teeth were restored with fiber posts and composite cores. The specimen was mounted on a universal testing machine and compressive load was applied to the long axis of the specimen until failure occurred. Results: The fracture resistance was 533.79 ± 232.28 in group 1, 634.75± 133.35 in group 2, 828.90 ±118.27 in group 3 and 678.78± 160.20 in group 4. The post hoc analysis showed statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 3. Conclusions: The results of this in vitro study showed that facial ferrule increases the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with bonded post and cores. PMID:21998789

Mahdavi Izadi, Z.; Jalalian, E.; Eyvaz Ziaee, A.; Zamani, L.; Javanshir, B.

2010-01-01

174

Another one bites the dust: Does incisor-arcade size affect mass gain and survival in grazing  

E-print Network

in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, over 9 years. In adult ewes, incisor mouflon d'Amérique (Ovis canadensis) à Ram Mountain, Alberta (Canada), durant 9 années. Chez les brebis

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

175

Prevalence of tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor associated with palatally displaced canine (PDC) anomaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-eight nonsyndromic North American white orthodontic patients with palatal displacement of one or both maxillary canine teeth were studied for associated tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors. Agenesis of permanent teeth was identified by x-ray film analysis. Conical crown-size reduction (peg-shape anomaly) of the maxillary lateral incisor (I2) was determined by direct observation. Increases in absence of third molars

Sheldon Peck; Leena Peck; Matti Kataja

1996-01-01

176

Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with two roots; a case report with 6 months follow-up.  

PubMed

Maxillary lateral incisors are widely known to be single rooted with one root canal. Although rare cases with root canal variations are being reported in many populations, the reports regarding Iranian population is extremely limited. In this report, we are presenting the endodontic treatment of a double rooted maxillary lateral incisor. These rare root-canal variations should be considered in pretreatment evaluations by clinicians who perform endodontic treatments. PMID:25469361

Hoseini, Atefeh; Abbaszadegan, Abbas

2014-12-01

177

Treatment of severe inflammatory root resorption in a young permanent incisor with mineral trioxide aggregate.  

PubMed

Inflammatory root resorption is a pathologic condition caused by several etiologic factors including traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor affected by severe, perforating inflammatory root resorption. An 11-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary lateral incisor associated with pain, mobility and a sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed a large periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root. After removal of the root canal filling, the tooth was treated with intracanal calcium hydroxide for 2 weeks. The calcium hydroxide dressing was then removed and the entire root canal was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. The endodontic access cavity was restored with composite resin. After 1 year, advanced osseous healing of the periradicular region had occurred and no clinical symptoms were apparent. PMID:21846458

Guzeler, Irem; Uysal, Serdar; Cehreli, Zafer C

2011-01-01

178

Facial talon cusp in primary maxillary lateral incisor: a report of two unusual cases.  

PubMed

Talon cusp is an uncommon dental anomaly in which an accessory cusp-like structure projects from the cingulum area or cemento-enamel junction of the maxillary or mandibular anterior teeth. This anomalous cusp resembles an eagle's talon. It occurs in both the primary and the permanent dentition. A comprehensive literature review shows that only 37?cases of talon cusps have been reported in the primary dentition, of which only 4?cases report this anomaly on the primary maxillary lateral incisor. Though labial/facial talon cusps have been reported in the permanent dentition, no case of a labial talon has been reported in the primary dentition. We report two females with cleft lip and palate with facial talon cusps on the primary lateral incisor and believe that these are the first cases to be reported. Clinical considerations and debate on the etiology of this anomaly are discussed. PMID:16546848

Batra, Puneet; Enocson, Lars; Hagberg, Catharina

2006-04-01

179

Unilateral Fusion of Maxillary Lateral Incisor: Diagnosis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of this paper is to report a dental fusion case focusing on clinical and radiographic features for the diagnosis. Method. To report a case of right maxillary lateral incisor fusion and a supernumerary tooth, the anatomy of the root canal and dental united portion were assessed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results. The clinical examination showed dental juxtaposition with the absence of interdental papilla and esthetic impairment in the right maxillary lateral incisor region. The periapical radiography did not provide enough information for the differential diagnosis due to the inherent limitations of this technique. CBCT confirmed the presence of tooth fusion. Conclusion. CBCT examination supports the diagnosis and provides both the identification of changes in tooth development and the visualization of their extent and limits. PMID:25587463

Castro, Iury Oliveira; Estrela, Carlos; Souza, Vinícius Rezende; Lopes, Lawrence Gonzaga; de Souza, João Batista

2014-01-01

180

Reattachment of fractured maxillary incisors using fiber-reinforced post: Two case reports  

PubMed Central

Objective: The reattachment of the crown fragment to a fractured tooth is a conservative treatment that should be considered for young patients with crown-root fractures to the maxillary incisors if the subgingival fracture can be exposed to provide isolation. Gingivectomy, the surgical or orthodontic extrusion of the apical fragment is necessary to expose the subgingival fracture. This report demonstrates the treatment of two cases with the combination of gingivectomy or resective osseous surgery, reattachment of coronal fracture and fiber-reinforced polymer posts and shows three years long term follow-up. Subgingivally extended crown-root fractures of maxillary incisors were restored with a combination of chemically cured resin material, light cured resin material and polyethylene fiber. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this case report, it was demonstrated that reattachment of tooth fragments can successfully benefit periodontal health, aesthetic needs and normal functioning after three years. PMID:22509128

Tosun, Gul; Yildiz, Esma; Elbay, Mesut; Sener, Yagmur

2012-01-01

181

Design of central pattern generator for humanoid robot walking based on multi-objective GA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the field of humanoid robotics attracts more and more interest and the research on humanoid locomotion based on central pattern generators (CPG) reveals many challenging aspects. This paper describes the design of CPG for stable humanoid bipedal locomotion using an evolutionary approach. In this research, each joint of the humanoid is driven by a neuron that consists of two

Jiang Shan; Cheng Junshi; Chen Jiapin

2000-01-01

182

RoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System  

E-print Network

RoomZoner: Occupancy-based Room-Level Zoning of a Centralized HVAC System Tamim Sookoor & Kamin) system to be retrofitted to enable room-level conditioning of a residence. This is a compelling Monitoring, Programmable Thermostats, Wireless Sensor Networks 1. INTRODUCTION Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs

Whitehouse, Kamin

183

Treatment outcome and efficacy of an aligner technique – regarding incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of orthodontic treatment using the Invisalign® system. Particularly, we analyzed the influence of auxiliaries (Attachment/Power Ridge) as well as the staging (movement per aligner) on treatment efficacy. Methods We reviewed the tooth movements of 30 consecutive patients who required orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®. In all patients, one of the following tooth movements was performed: (1) Incisor Torque >10°, (2) Premolar derotation >10° (3) Molar distalization >1.5 mm. The groups (1)-(3) were subdivided: in the first subgroup (a) the movements were supported with the use of an attachment, while in the subgroup (b) no auxiliaries were used (except incisor torque, in which Power Ridges were used). All tooth movements were performed in a split-mouth design. To analyze the clinical efficacy, pre-treatment and final plaster cast models were laser-scanned and the achieved tooth movement was determined by way of a surface/surface matching algorithm. The results were compared with the amount of tooth movement predicted by ClinCheck®. Results The overall mean efficacy was 59% (SD?=?0.2). The mean accuracy for upper incisor torque was 42% (SD?=?0.2). Premolar derotation showed the lowest accuracy with approximately 40% (SD?=?0.3). Distalization of an upper molar was the most effective movement, with efficacy approximately 87% (SD?=?0.2). Conclusion Incisor torque, premolar derotation and molar distalization can be performed using Invisalign® aligners. The staging (movement/aligner) and the total amount of planned movement have an significant impact on treatment efficacy. PMID:24923279

2014-01-01

184

Histology of enamel organ and chemical composition of adjacent enamel in rat incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  By avoiding chemical fixation and using a freeze-drying technique, it proved possible to examine the enamel organ of rat mandibular\\u000a incisors histologically while retaining the adjacent enamel of the same tooth for chemical analysis. The dramatic alterations\\u000a which occur in enamel organ histology, such as ameloblast shortening and the development of the papillary layer, could then\\u000a be compared directly with

C. Robinson; H. D. Briggs; P. J. Atkinson

1981-01-01

185

A unique treatment approach for maxillary canine-lateral incisor transposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maxillary canine-lateral incisor transposition [Mx3-2] is a relatively rare anomaly, with both dental and facial esthetic implications. A challenging treatment approach for selected cases is described in detail, including the mechanics and sequencing used to align the completely transposed teeth to their normal anatomic position in the arch. The long-term esthetic outcome warrants the longer treatment time and greater efforts

Yehoshua Shapira; Mladen M. Kuftinec

2001-01-01

186

Management of geminated maxillary lateral incisor using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic tool.  

PubMed

Geminated teeth are consequences of developmental anomalies leading to joined elements, due to incomplete attempt of one tooth germ to divide into two. This case report describes successful endodontic treatment of an unaesthetic geminated permanent maxillary lateral incisor tooth and its esthetic rehabilitation using all ceramic crowns. Newer imaging technique like cone beam computed tomography was taken for the better understanding of the complicated root canal morphology. PMID:24944458

James, Elizabeth Prabha; Johns, Dexton Antony; Johnson, Ki; Maroli, Ramesh Kumar

2014-05-01

187

A case of maloccluded incisor teeth in a beaver: castor canadensis.  

PubMed

A three-year-old female beaver (Castor canadensis) was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Chungbuk National University. It had been raised in the Cheong-ju zoo and had a history of malocclusion caused by improper feeding. General anesthesia was induced, and preoperative intraoral dental radiographs of the rostal maxillary and mandibular dentition were taken and lateral and ventrodorsal extraoral radiographs of the cheek teeth were also taken. The radiographs were negative for apical pathology and revealed a normal appearance of the cheek teeth. The lesion was likely to be related to the excessive length of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Odontoplasty was performed to reduce overgrowth of the crowns of the incisors. Sequential transverse sections were removed until the crown was reduced by approximately its original length. The pulp chamber was not approached during the operation, as confirmed by postoperative intraoral radiographic evaluation of the incisors. Recovery from anesthesia was uneventful and the beaver returned to normal masticatory activities immediately after the operation. PMID:15933441

Kim, Joong-hyun; Lee, Jae Yeong; Han, Tae-Sung; Han, Kyu-bo; Kang, Seong Soo; Bae, Chun Sik; Choi, Seok Hwa

2005-06-01

188

The multidisciplinary management of fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth in cleft lip adolescence.  

PubMed

Fusion, an uncommon anomaly of the hard dental tissues, is potentially the cause of clinical problems related to esthetics, tooth spacing, and other periodontal complications. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgical, endodontic, restorative, and orthodontic attention for the successful, functional, and esthetic rehabilitation of a maxillary left lateral incisor fused with a supernumerary tooth in unilateral cleft lip adolescence in contralateral side. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a fusion between the left maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth was diagnosed in the patient, and a small connection was detected between the pulp systems of the two root canals. The case reported in this paper presents the successful resolution of a fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth, using endodontic, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic management. The decision made in extracting or retaining the fused tooth depends on the arch discrepancy and esthetic needs. Future studies, with long-term followup, will be helpful in evaluating the long-term efficacy of the different treatment options. PMID:24516763

Yagci, Ahmet; Cantekin, Kenan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Pala, Kansad

2014-01-01

189

The Multidisciplinary Management of Fused Maxillary Lateral Incisor with a Supernumerary Tooth in Cleft Lip Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Fusion, an uncommon anomaly of the hard dental tissues, is potentially the cause of clinical problems related to esthetics, tooth spacing, and other periodontal complications. This paper describes a multidisciplinary approach involving surgical, endodontic, restorative, and orthodontic attention for the successful, functional, and esthetic rehabilitation of a maxillary left lateral incisor fused with a supernumerary tooth in unilateral cleft lip adolescence in contralateral side. After clinical and radiographic examinations, a fusion between the left maxillary lateral incisor and a supernumerary tooth was diagnosed in the patient, and a small connection was detected between the pulp systems of the two root canals. The case reported in this paper presents the successful resolution of a fused maxillary lateral incisor with a supernumerary tooth, using endodontic, surgical, restorative, and orthodontic management. The decision made in extracting or retaining the fused tooth depends on the arch discrepancy and esthetic needs. Future studies, with long-term followup, will be helpful in evaluating the long-term efficacy of the different treatment options. PMID:24516763

Yagci, Ahmet; Cantekin, Kenan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Pala, Kansad

2014-01-01

190

On the cutting edge of organ renewal: identification, regulation and evolution of incisor stem cells  

PubMed Central

The rodent incisor is one of a number of organs that grow continuously throughout the life of an animal. Continuous growth of the incisor arose as an evolutionary adaptation to compensate for abrasion at the distal end of the tooth. The sustained turnover of cells that deposit the mineralized dental tissues is made possible by epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells residing at the proximal end of the incisor. A complex network of signaling pathways and transcription factors regulates the formation, maintenance, and differentiation of these stem cells during development and throughout adulthood. Research over the past 15 years has led to significant progress in our understanding of this network, which includes FGF, BMP, Notch, and Hh signaling, as well as cell adhesion molecules and microRNAs. This review surveys key historical experiments that laid the foundation of the field and discusses more recent findings that definitively identified the stem cell population, elucidated the regulatory network, and demonstrated possible genetic mechanisms for the evolution of continuously growing teeth. PMID:24307456

Hu, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien; Mushegyan, Vagan; Klein, Ophir D.

2014-01-01

191

Banding patterns in rat incisor enamel stained by histochemical complexing methods for calcium.  

PubMed

A characteristic banding pattern can be visualized at the surface of the rat incisor in the maturation zone of amelogenesis by staining with glyoxal bis(2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA). Other banding patterns can be obtained with certain histological and fluorochrome stains and by radioautography following 45Ca injection. In this study, several histochemical reagents known to complex with different states of calcium were used to stain the surface of enamel. Rat incisors were quickly dissected and immediately immersed in solutions containing the following calcium-binding reagents: arsenazo III, calmagite, murexide, N,N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine, and calcein. Routinely, one contralateral lower incisor from each pair was counterstained with GBHA in order to relate each of the staining patterns to the banded distribution of maturation ameloblasts that is reflected by the characteristic GBHA staining pattern in the enamel. Each of the reagents used in this study demonstrated a staining pattern consisting of a series of broad bands running transversely and obliquely across the enamel. In all cases, the dyes stained predominantly that enamel associated with ruffle-ended ameloblasts, i.e. enamel left unstained by GBHA. Some of the reagents also stained enamel in the secretion zone. The appearance and distribution of the staining patterns reflect the banded distribution of maturation ameloblasts and appear to be controlled on a time scale related to the rapid modulation of these cells. PMID:2471424

McKee, M D; Warshawsky, H

1989-05-01

192

Bioenergy and economic analysis of soybean-based crop production systems in central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the energy requirement and energy input–output relationship of soybean-based crop production systems viz., soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean–mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.) and soybean–chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in central India. Using a pre-tested questionnaire, 135 farmers were selected through a multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. Results revealed that manures and chemical

K. G Mandal; K. P Saha; P. K Ghosh; K. M Hati; K. K Bandyopadhyay

2002-01-01

193

The Shannon-entropy-based uncertainty relation for D-dimensional central potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The uncertainty relation based on the Shannon entropies of the probability densities in position and momentum spaces is improved for quantum systems in arbitrary D-dimensional spherically symmetric potentials. To find this, we have used the Lp - Lq norm inequality of De Carli and the logarithmic uncertainty relation for the Hankel transform of Omri. Applications to some relevant three-dimensional central potentials are shown.

Rudnicki, ?ukasz; Sánchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesús S.

2012-06-01

194

Deformations in Central Europe: finite element approach and comparison with GPS-based strain determinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From a geological point of view, the area of Central Europe is very complex. At the same time Europe is being affected by the forces associated with tectonic Africa, as well as Atlantic (ridge) push. In our study the general strain pattern of Central Europe was determined from two different approaches. The first one was finite element approach (FEM). The area of Europe was subdivided into more than 50 elements corresponding to the main geological units and the two-dimensional model of strain field in Central Europe was developed. In order to model a diverse nature of geological structures two approaches were investigated: elastic and more sophisticated made by adding some viscosity properties. Various parameters (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, lithosphere thickness, etc.) with the use of the ABAQUS software were implemented. The second approach was based on the method using sites' velocities determined by continuous GPS measurements. EPN network as well as ASG-EUPOS Polish system were utilised. More than 300 European sites with the precisely known velocities in global ITRF2008 reference frame formed the basis for these determinations by using GRID_STRAIN software. This geometrical method allows determining the magnitude and the main strain directions as well. The presentation describes results of numerical calculations and their comparison on the area of Central Europe.

Bogusz, Janusz; Jarosinski, Marek; Araszkiewicz, Andrzej; Figurski, Mariusz; Klos, Anna; Kontny, Bernard

2013-04-01

195

Indirect usage of miniscrew anchorage to intrude overerupted mandibular incisors in a Class II patient with a deep overbite.  

PubMed

Vertical dentoalveolar discrepancies are a common problem in orthodontic patients but are often difficult to treat with traditional mechanics. This case report illustrates the successful treatment of overerupted mandibular incisors via the indirect use of miniscrew anchorage. A woman (age, 22 years 9 months) had chief complaints of maxillary incisor protrusion and crooked teeth. An excessive curve of Spee caused by elongation of the mandibular incisors was also found. The patient was diagnosed with a severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion and a deep overbite. After extraction of the mandibular first premolars and the subsequent leveling phase, the elongated incisors were intruded with a novel method, which involved the combined use of sectional archwires and miniscrews placed in the premolar areas. After the procedure, the mandibular incisors had been intruded by 6.5 mm with no undesirable side effects. The total active treatment period was 42 months. The resultant occlusion and satisfactory facial profile were maintained after 30 months of retention. Our novel intrusion approach shows potential for correcting a deep overbite. PMID:23540627

Ishihara, Yoshihito; Kuroda, Shingo; Sugawara, Yasuyo; Balam, Tarek A; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

2013-04-01

196

A multidisciplinary treatment of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: a 14-year follow-up case report.  

PubMed

Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and the teeth, including the presentation of malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion must be considered. The objective of this study was to describe the etiology, prevalence and alternative treatment modalities for dental agenesis and to present a clinical case of agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors treated by the closure of excessive spaces and canine re-anatomization. A clinical case is presented to illustrate the interdisciplinary approach between orthodontics and restorative dentistry for improved esthetic results. In this report, the treatment of a girl with a Class II malocclusion of molars and canines with missing maxillary lateral incisors and convex facial profile is shown. Treatment was successfully achieved and included the space closure of the areas corresponding to the missing upper lateral incisors, through movement of the canines and the posterior teeth to mesial by fixed appliances as well as the canines transformation in the maxillary lateral incisors. This is a 14-year follow-up case report involving orthodontics and restorative dentistry in which pretreatment, posttreatment, and long-term follow-up records for the patient are presented. PMID:25466480

Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Morandini, Ana Carolina Faria; Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues de; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Castro, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; Insabralde, Natalia Martins

2014-10-01

197

A multidisciplinary treatment of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors: a 14-year follow-up case report  

PubMed Central

Absence of the maxillary lateral incisor creates an aesthetic problem which can be managed in various ways. The condition requires careful treatment planning and consideration of the options and outcomes following either space closure or prosthetic replacement. Recent developments in restorative dentistry have warranted a re-evaluation of the approach to this clinical situation. Factors relating both to the patient and the teeth, including the presentation of malocclusion and the effect on the occlusion must be considered. The objective of this study was to describe the etiology, prevalence and alternative treatment modalities for dental agenesis and to present a clinical case of agenesis of the maxillary lateral incisors treated by the closure of excessive spaces and canine re-anatomization. A clinical case is presented to illustrate the interdisciplinary approach between orthodontics and restorative dentistry for improved esthetic results. In this report, the treatment of a girl with a Class II malocclusion of molars and canines with missing maxillary lateral incisors and convex facial profile is shown. Treatment was successfully achieved and included the space closure of the areas corresponding to the missing upper lateral incisors, through movement of the canines and the posterior teeth to mesial by fixed appliances as well as the canines transformation in the maxillary lateral incisors. This is a 14-year follow-up case report involving orthodontics and restorative dentistry in which pretreatment, post-treatment, and long-term follow-up records for the patient are presented. PMID:25466480

de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; MORANDINI, Ana Carolina Faria; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; CASTRO, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; INSABRALDE, Natalia Martins

2014-01-01

198

A Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probe as a Central Nervous System Disease Biomarker  

PubMed Central

Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are important biomarkers for diseases associated with an impaired central nervous system (CNS). A new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 to detect the levels of homocysteine is successfully implemented using Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' blood serum. In addition, a rapid identification of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in blood serum of PD patients was also performed using the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from both analyses were in agreement. The new chemoassay utilizing coumarin-based fluorescent probe 1 offers a cost- and time-effective method to identify the biomarkers in CNS patients. PMID:25390405

Yap, Ann-Chee; Mahamad, Ummi Affah; Lim, Shen-Yang; Kim, Hae-Jo; Choo, Yeun-Mun

2014-01-01

199

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 2 Workplans  

E-print Network

, Tashkent, Uzbekistan Wheat IPM Package: Dr. Nurali Saidov, IPM CRSP Coordinator, Tajikistan Dr. Doug Landis countries include - Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia approaches and technologies for IPM packages for Wheat, Potato and Tomato in three host countries (Tajikistan

200

Bedside prediction of airway length by measuring upper incisor manubrio-sternal joint length  

PubMed Central

Background: Malpositioning of endotracheal tube may lead to serious complications like endobronchial intubation or accidental extubation. Using anatomical measurements for prediction of airway length would be more practical in resource constrained settings. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade 1 or 2, without any evidence of difficult airway, were randomly allocated to two cohorts — a model cohort of 70 (50 males) and test cohort of 30 (20 males) subjects. Height, the straight length from the upper incisor to manubrio-sternal joint in fully extended head position (IncManustL), the length from upper incisor to the carina in neutral head position (IncCarinaL), and degree of neck extension were measured in all subjects. Relationship between the two lengths in the model cohort was explored by Pearson's coefficient (r). Predictions were made for subjects in the test cohort and actual and predicted values assessed for agreement using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Good agreement was found between IncManustL and IncCarinaL for both male (r = 0.69) and female (r = 0.54) subjects. Multiple regression analysis suggested height to be another significant predictor, unlike age, weight, and neck extension. The gender-specific regression equations were used to predict IncCarinaL for the test cohort. ICC for absolute agreement between the actual and predicted values was 0.723 (95% CI 0.495-0.858). Conclusions: It is possible to predict airway length in adult Indian subjects by making two simple anatomical measurements, namely stature and incisor manubrio-sternal joint length. PMID:24803755

Mukherjee, Sudipta; Ray, Manjushree; Pal, Rita

2014-01-01

201

Recessive anonychia totalis and dominant aplasia (or hypoplasia) of upper lateral incisors in the same kindred  

PubMed Central

This paper describes and discusses the occurrence of 2 genetic traits, autosomal recessive anonychia and autosomal dominant hypoplasia of the upper lateral incisors (ULI) in 4 (2 males and 2 females) members of 2 sibships of the same kindred. Three of them also had spaced teeth and agenesis of one or more third molars. Anonychia was also present in another dead sib. Many other cases of aplasia and/or hypoplasia of ULI, as well as persistence of deciduous ULI, have been verified in the same kindred. Images PMID:469885

Freire-Maia, N.; Pinheiro, Marta

1979-01-01

202

Early Diagnosis of Bilateral Supplemental Primary and Permanent Maxillary Lateral Incisors: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Supernumerary teeth occur frequently in permanent dentition, but they are rarely found in primary dentition. Supernumerary teeth of orthodox shape and size that resemble normal dentition are called ‘supplemental teeth’. Supplemental teeth are less common than supernumerary teeth and are often overlooked because of their normal shape and size. Supplemental teeth may cause esthetic problems, delayed eruption and crowding, and they require early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. The case reported here is one of bilateral supplemental teeth impeding the eruption of permanent maxillary lateral incisors, and it emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment during early mixed dentition. PMID:21494392

Yildirim, Gozde; Bayrak, Sule

2011-01-01

203

Integrated flight/propulsion control system design based on a centralized approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated flight/propulsion control system design is presented for the piloted longitudinal landing task with a modern, statically unstable, fighter aircraft. A centralized compensator based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery methodology is first obtained to satisfy the feedback loop performance and robustness specificiations. This high-order centralized compensator is then partitioned into airframe and engine sub-controllers based on modal controllability/observability for the compensator modes. The order of the sub-controllers is then reduced using internally-balanced realization techniques and the sub-controllers are simplified by neglecting the insignificant feedbacks. These sub-controllers have the advantage that they can be implemented as separate controllers on the airframe and the engine while still retaining the important performance and stability characteristics of the full-order centralized compensator. Command prefilters are then designed for the closed-loop system with the simplified sub-controllers to obtain the desired system response to airframe and engine command inputs, and the overall system performance evaluation results are presented.

Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bullard, Randy E.

1989-01-01

204

Type III talon cusp and Type III B dens invaginatus occurring simultaneously in a mandibular lateral incisor.  

PubMed

Talon cusp and dens invaginatus are developmental anomalies of the human dentition. They not only affect the esthetic appearance of teeth but also may create difficulties during dental treatment and lead to a number of dental problems. Both anomalies are observed most commonly in the lateral maxillary incisor and rarely in the mandibular dentition. The simultaneous occurrence of talon cusp and dens invaginatus in a single tooth is very rare in the mandibular dentition and, to the authors' knowledge, has not yet been reported in a mandibular lateral incisor. This article presents a rare case of dens invaginatus and talon cusp occurring concurrently in a mandibular lateral incisor. Three-dimensional imaging modality was used to describe the complex internal anatomy. PMID:25184727

Dharmani, Umesh; Rajput, Akhil; Chaudhary, Sarika; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

2014-01-01

205

A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of an intruded maxillary permanent incisor complicated by the presence of two mesiodentes.  

PubMed

Treatment of a traumatically intruded maxillary incisor with an immature apex remains controversial. Treatment options include observation, surgical repositioning, or orthodontic forced eruption. Likewise, the ideal timing of surgical removal of a mesiodens is highly controversial: immediate versus delayed intervention. The complications associated with untreated supernumerary teeth include: overretention of primary teeth, delayed eruption of permanent incisors, rotations, impaction, diastema, pulp necrosis and root resorption. Less common sequelae include enlarged follicular sacs, cystic degeneration and nasal eruption. This paper describes another risk factor associated with delayed removal of a mesiodens previously not mentioned in the dental literature, namely potential complications arising from a traumatic injury, in particular intrusion, of the maxillary permanent incisors. PMID:11132511

Kupietzky, A; Rotstein, I; Kischinovsky, D

2000-01-01

206

Assessing the ecological base and peak flow of the alpine streams in Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological base and peak flow are crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may severely damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme conditions. Aquatic insects are selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base and peak flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. Two streams located at the alpine area in central Taiwan are selected as the study area to evaluate the base and peak flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to Dec 2008) collected from one stream Creek C originating from Sitou Area in Central Taiwan shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 32.47% and 31.11%, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Good" and "Very Good" level while the river pollution index (RPI) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 95% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.0234 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate result and ecological peak flow in rainy and typhoon seasons.

Wei, C.; Yang, P. S.; Tian, P. L.

2009-04-01

207

Use of Forsus fatigue-resistant device in a patient with Class I malocclusion and mandibular incisor agenesis.  

PubMed

Orthodontic treatment in patients with congenitally missing teeth can be challenging. In this case report, we describe the treatment of a 15-year-old girl with mild dental crowding and 2 congenitally missing mandibular incisors. The Forsus fatigue-resistant device was used to move the mandible and the mandibular teeth forward. A new balanced and stable occlusion was achieved after treatment. When the treatment plan includes moving the mandibular teeth forward in a patient with mandibular incisor agenesis, the profile and the skeletal and dental features should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that balanced and esthetic results are achieved. PMID:24880853

Zhang, Ruofang; Bai, Yuxing; Li, Song

2014-06-01

208

Prevalence of lesions in incisors of mule deer from Colorado Springs, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Lesions in teeth may be influenced by exposure to fluorides, malnutrition and trauma. Incisors of 228 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) taken from the USAF Academy, Colorado Springs, CO during the 1993 hunting season were examined for lesions. A classification scheme (scale = 0--5) for lesions was derived from the method of Shupe et al. 1963. Lesions were present in at least one incisor of 84.6% of deer. Of the deer with lesions, 86% had at least one tooth with very slight effect (one to few white spots), 9.8% had a slight effect (generalized mottling), 2.6% had a moderate effect (generalized mottling and wear), 10.04% had a marked effect (mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel) , and 0.5 % ad severe effects (hypoplasia of the enamel and abnormal wear). Lesions that affect the enamel are produced during the period of formation of the tooth. The severity of lesions depends on the cause and the length of exposure to the causative agent. Generally mottling and hypoplasia of the enamel are associated with fluorosis. The relationship of lesions to bone and tooth fluoride concentrations was examined.

Borrero, L.M.; Scanlon, P.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife Science

1995-12-31

209

Adaptive diversity of incisor enamel microstructure in South American burrowing rodents (family Ctenomyidae, Caviomorpha)  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to analyse the morphofunctional and adaptive significance of variation in the upper incisor enamel microstructure of South American burrowing ctenomyids and other octodontoid taxa. We studied the specialized subterranean tooth-digger †Eucelophorus chapalmalensis (Pliocene – Middle Pleistocene), and compared it with other fossil and living ctenomyids with disparate digging adaptations, two fossorial octodontids and one arboreal echimyid. Morphofunctionally significant enamel traits were quite similar among the species studied despite their marked differences in habits, digging behaviour and substrates occupied, suggesting a possible phylogenetic constraint for the Octodontoidea. In this context of relative similarity, the inclination of Hunter–Schreger bands, relative thickness of external index (EI) and prismless enamel zone were highest in †Eucelophorus, in agreement with its outstanding craniomandibular tooth-digging specialization. Higher inclination of Hunter–Schreger bands reinforces enamel to withstand high tension forces, while high external index provides greater resistance to wear. Results suggest increased frequency of incisor use for digging in †Eucelophorus, which could be related to a more extreme tooth-digging strategy and/or occupancy of hard soils. Higher external index values as recurring patterns in distant clades of tooth-digging rodents support an adaptive significance of this enamel trait. PMID:17584181

Vieytes, Emma C; Morgan, Cecilia C; Verzi, Diego H

2007-01-01

210

Investigation of the maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and associated dental anomalies in an orthodontic patient population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of maxillary lateral incisor (MLI) agenesis and associated dental anomalies as well as skeletal patterns in an orthodontic population, and then to compare it with the prevalence of these anomalies in the general population. Study Design: The material of the present study included the records of the 3872 orthodontic patients. The followings were recorded for each subject with the agenesis of MLI: Age, sex, unilateral or bilateral absence, anterior-posterior skeletal relationship of the maxilla and mandible, and presence of associated dental anomalies. The occurrence of these anomalies was compared with data previously reported for the general populations. Results: Of the 3872 patients examined, 94 were found to have agenesis of the MLI, representing a prevalence of 2.4 per cent, with females being more frequently observed. The most commonly found associated anomalies were ectopic eruption of maxillary canines and reduced or peg- shaped contralateral incisor with the frequencies of 21.3 per cent and 20.2 per cent respectively. Conclusions: Patients with agenesis of MLI showed a significantly higher prevalence of skeletal Class III malocclusion compared with the general population. The prevalence of ectopic eruption, transposition, and transmigration of the maxillary canine and reduced or peg- shaped MLIs were significantly increased. Key words:Hypodontia, missing laterals, associated dental anomalies. PMID:22549676

Kamak, Hasan; Yildirim, Hanifi; Ceylan, Ismail

2012-01-01

211

Shear bond strength of dentin and deproteinized enamel of AI mouse incisors  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the adhesion through shear bond strength (SBS) testing of a resin composite bonded with a self-etching bonding system (SEB) to amelogenesis imperfecta (AI)-affected deproteinized mouse enamel or dentin; and to compare wild-type (WT), amelogenin null (AmelxKO) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 null (Mmp20KO) enamel and dentin phenotypes using microCT and nanoindentation. Methods Enamel incisor surfaces of WT, AmelxKO and Mmp20KO mice were treated with SEB with and without NaOCl and tested for SBS. Incisor dentin was also treated with SEB and tested for SBS. These surfaces were further examined by SEM. MicroCT and nanoindentation analyses were performed on mouse dentin and enamel. Data were analyzed for significance by ANOVA. Results Deproteinization did not improve SBS of SEB to these AI-affected enamel surfaces. SBS of AmelxKO teeth was similar in dentin and enamel; however, it was higher in Mmp20KO dentin. The nanohardness of knockout enamel was significantly lower than WT, while knockout dentin nanohardness was not different from WT. Conclusions Using animal AI models, it was demonstrated that enamel NaOCl deproteinization of hypoplastic and hypoplastic-hypomaturation enamel did not increase shear bond strength while removal of the defective enamel allowed optimal dentin bonding. PMID:25303500

Pugach, M.K.; Ozer, F.; Mulmadgi, R.; Li, Y.; Suggs, C.; Wright, J.T.; Bartlett, J.D.; Gibson, C.W.; Lindemeyer, R.G.

2014-01-01

212

Centralized PI control for high dimensional multivariable systems based on equivalent transfer function.  

PubMed

This article presents a new scheme to design full matrix controller for high dimensional multivariable processes based on equivalent transfer function (ETF). Differing from existing ETF method, the proposed ETF is derived directly by exploiting the relationship between the equivalent closed-loop transfer function and the inverse of open-loop transfer function. Based on the obtained ETF, the full matrix controller is designed utilizing the existing PI tuning rules. The new proposed ETF model can more accurately represent the original processes. Furthermore, the full matrix centralized controller design method proposed in this paper is applicable to high dimensional multivariable systems with satisfactory performance. Comparison with other multivariable controllers shows that the designed ETF based controller is superior with respect to design-complexity and obtained performance. PMID:24954810

Luan, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Fei

2014-09-01

213

Structural analysis of the central Columbia Plateau utilizing radar, digital topography, and magnetic data bases  

SciTech Connect

Interest in the Hanford site (Washington) as a nuclear production, power, and waste disposal site has led to generation of a vast quantity of geophysical and remote sensing data sets of the central Columbia Plateau. To data, these various studies, including at least 13 independent magnetic linear and image lineament studies, have not been adequately correlated. Therefore, these studies provide a unique opportunity to compare and contrast the viability of the different geophysical and remote sensing techniques. The geology of the central Columbia Plateau is characterized by subdued topography and limited outcrop, with most of the exposure concentrated in localized folded/faulted mountains (the Yakima folds) and along river canyons. In order to efficiently compare lineament data bases, we have written an automated computer routine that correlated lineaments that are within a user specified distance of each other. The angle between their trends has to be less than an input maximum separation angle. If more than two lineament maps exist for the area, the analyst may also specify the minimum number of times each structure must be seen. The lineament correlation routine was applied to data bases of all aeromagnetic linears as well as lineaments seen on radar and a digital elevation model DEM image. Geologic structures align with a set of three-dimensional planar structures identified with our Geologic Spatial Analysis (GSA) system. The GSA analysis is based upon computer automated detection of valley bottoms as defined by a DEM.

Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.; Johnson, L.K.; Brougher, C.W. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Geology; Foley, M.G.; Beaver, D.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-08-01

214

Central skull base osteomyelitis: new insights and implications for diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Central skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) is a life-threatening disease originating from ear and from sinonasal infections. The intention of this study was to evaluate contemporary trends in etiology, diagnosis, management, and outcome of SBO and to draw the clinician's attention on this probably underestimated disease. Over a 6-year period we performed this systematic study in an academic quaternary medical care and skull base center including 20 patients (mean age 63.7 years) with central SBO, which is one of the largest series from a single center. In contrast to previous studies we explicitly excluded infections limited to malignant external otitis only but did not restrict central SBO to conditions unrelated to aural pathology. Fifteen patients had otogenic and five sinugenic SBO; four patients had fungal or mixed fungal infections. Pre-existing illnesses altering bone vascularization were detected in 70 % of the patients and had a negative effect on the improvement of cranial nerve palsies that were found in 14 patients. In relation, patients with otogenic SBO more often had local and systemic predisposing factors. Contrary to previous studies 16 patients (80 %) underwent surgical therapy and none of our patients died. A meta-analysis of five recent studies was done and compared with our own data and two previous meta-analyses. The present study highlights several important aspects with major implications for diagnosis and treatment of SBO that have not been adequately addressed as yet. In contrast to the restrictive attitude towards surgery in literature we recommend early and radical operative treatment to reduce its mortality. PMID:25381580

Ridder, Gerd J; Breunig, Christine; Kaminsky, Jan; Pfeiffer, Jens

2014-11-01

215

New approaches to solve old water problems: community based organizations in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dry summer of 2009 has once again shown unsteadiness of economy of the Central-Asian countries, first of all, in agricultural sector and serious dependence of the region on water resources. For example, decreasing of water level in Toktogul reservoir forces the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic, the country where the largest rivers of the Central Asia originate, to the systematic switching-off of the electricity in three regions. Already in the spring of 2009, the experts predicted decreasing of gross production of agriculture in region, especially for the main cultures of cotton and rice. Coupled by natural cataclysms, the problems with water resources management have seriously aggravated conditions that are directly reflected on the livelihood of the rural population of Central Asia. This demands a search for new approaches and methods of solution of the main problems of water resources management. Despite the fact that the main issues of water distribution are solved at a level of the governments of the countries of Central Asia, a serious role in this process is associated directly to local water users. In recent years in some countries of the region, a process of creation of new community based Institutes of water resources management like Water Users Associations of (WUA) has started. The main idea for creation of these organizations is the necessity to involve the local water users like farmers to the process of water resources management and distribution. However, activity of the WUAs in the region has shown certain weaknesses both regarding the legal status of these organizations and institutional development. The main weakness of many WUAs is a lack of opportunities and mechanisms of involving of associations in decision-making processes. Members of WUAs have an opportunity to participate in distribution of water only within the borders of the associations while the main requirement of efficient water resources management is the principle of the integrated water management. The essence of this principle is that issues of water use and water distribution should be solved in coordination and in view of interests of all partners from other countries of the region. The next important issue is the necessity to strengthen the institutional capacity of WUAs. First of all, it is related to providing new approaches in training of members of associations in organizational management, fundraising, and modern technologies of natural resources management. It would be useful as well to strengthen cooperation between WUAs of neighboring countries in order to create information exchange and distribution of best practices between them. Hence, cooperation between the WUAs of the Central Asia countries could become an example for local governments for an integrated solution of problems of distribution and water resources management in the region.

Nurymgereyev, Kanysh

2010-05-01

216

Central obesity in Yemeni children: A population based cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To establish percentile curves and to explore prevalence and correlates of central obesity among Yemeni children in a population based cross-sectional study. METHODS: A representative sample of 3114 Yemeni children (1564 boys, 1550 girls) aged 6-19 years participating in the HYpertension and Diabetes in Yemen study was studied. Data collection was conducted at home by survey teams composed of two investigators of both genders. Study questionnaire included questions about demographics, lifestyle, and medical history. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumferences. Waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were then calculated. Age and gender specific smoothed percentiles of WC, WHR, and WHtR were obtained using lambda-mu-sigma parameters (LMS method). The independent predictors of central obesity defined as (1) WC percentile ? 90th; (2) WHtR ? 0.5; or (3) WC percentile ? 90th and WHtR ? 0.5, were identified at multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, urban/rural location, years of school education, sedentary/active life-style. RESULTS: Percentile curves for WC, WHR and WHtR are presented. Average WC increased with age for both genders. Boys had a higher WC than girls until early adolescence and thereafter girls had higher values than boys. WHR decreased both in boys and girls until early adolescence. Thereafter while in boys it plateaued in girls it continued to decrease. Mean WHtR decreased until early adolescence with no gender related differences and thereafter increased more in girls than in boys towards adult age. Prevalence of central obesity largely varied according to the definition used which was 10.9% for WC ? 90th percentile, 18.3% for WHtR ? 0.5, and 8.6% when fulfilling both criteria. At adjusted logistic regression WC ? 90th percentiles and WHtR ? 0.5 were less prevalent in rural than in urban areas (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.41-0.67 and 0.66, 0.54-0.79 respectively), being more prevalent in children with sedentary lifestyle rather than an active one (1.52, 95%CI: 1.17-1.98 and 1.42, 95%CI: 1.14-1.75, respectively). CONCLUSION: Yemeni children central obesity indices percentile curves are presented. Central obesity prevalence varied according to the definition used and was more prevalent in urban sedentary subjects. PMID:24009819

Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Massetti, Luciano; Aklan, Hameed; Al-Karewany, Mahdi; Goshae, Husni Al; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

2013-01-01

217

Prediction of width of un-erupted incisors, canines and premolars in a Ugandan population: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate prediction of the space forms an important part of an orthodontic assessment in the mixed dentition. However the most commonly used methods of space analysis are based on data developed on Caucasian populations. In order to provide more accurate local data we set out to develop a formula for predicting the widths of un-erupted canines and premolars for a Ugandan population and to compare the predicted widths of the teeth from this formula with those obtained from Moyers’ tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Methods Dental casts were prepared using mandibular and maxillary arch impressions of 220 children (85 boys/135 girls) aged 12–17?years recruited from schools in Kampala, Uganda. The mesio-distal width of the mandibular incisors, mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars were measured with a pair of digital calipers. Based on regression analysis, predictive equations were derived and the findings were compared with those presented in Moyers’ probability tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the tooth widths predicted by our equations and those from Moyers’ probability tables at the 65th and 75th percentile probabilities for the girls and at 75th level in boys in the mandibular arch. While in the maxillary arch no statistically significant differences at the 75th and 95th levels were noted in girls. There were statistically significant differences between predicted tooth sizes using equations from the present study and those predicted from the Tanaka and Johnston regression equations. Conclusions In this Ugandan population, Moyers’ probability tables could be used to predict tooth widths at specific percentile probabilities, but generally, Tanaka and Johnston technique tends to overestimate the tooth widths. PMID:22824246

2012-01-01

218

E-cadherin regulates the behavior and fate of epithelial stem cells and their progeny in the mouse incisor$  

E-print Network

. All rights reserved. Introduction Adult stem cells enable the regeneration and renewal of manyE-cadherin regulates the behavior and fate of epithelial stem cells and their progeny in the mouse online 18 April 2012 Keywords: E-cadherin Epithelial stem cells Cell migration Cell proliferation Incisor

Klein, Ophir

219

Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals  

PubMed Central

This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

2014-01-01

220

Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals.  

PubMed

This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

2014-07-01

221

Conventional Treatment of Dens Invaginatus in Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Sinus Tract: One Year Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with dens invaginatus in association with sinus tract and lateroradicular lesion is reported. Invaginated teeth present technical difficulties with respect to their management because of complicated canal morphology. This case was treated by conventional root canal treatment. At follow up examination after one year the tooth was asymptomatic and radiographically showed repair of

Heike Steffen; Christian Splieth

2005-01-01

222

Long-term effects of Herbst treatment on the mandibular incisor segment: A cephalometric and biometric investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to analyze mandibular incisor changes during and after Herbst treatment with respect to tooth inclination and anterior crowding. The sample consisted of 24 Class II, Division 1 subjects (15 boys and 9 girls) treated with the Herbst appliance. Dental casts and lateral head films from before and after treatment, 6 months after treatment and

Ken Hansen; Theodoros G. Koutsonas; Hans Pancherz

1997-01-01

223

Long-term development in the mandible and incisor crowding with and without an orthodontic stabilising appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In children with dentoalveolar Class Il malocclusion with proclined upper incisors treated with extraction of the maxillary first premolars and appliance in the upper jaw only has been reported to increase the lower arch crowding when compared with children with untreated normal occlusion. Stabilising orthodontic appliances might therefore be useful in the lower jaw. A comparison was made of

Ulrike Schütz-Fransson; Krister Bjerklin; Jüri Kurol

1998-01-01

224

CENTERA: A Centralized Trust-Based Efficient Routing Protocol with Authentication for Wireless Sensor Networks.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present CENTERA, a CENtralized Trust-based Efficient Routing protocol with an appropriate authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (WSN). CENTERA utilizes the more powerful base station (BS) to gather minimal neighbor trust information from nodes and calculate the best routes after isolating different types of "bad" nodes. By periodically accumulating these simple local observations and approximating the nodes' battery lives, the BS draws a global view of the network, calculates three quality metrics-maliciousness, cooperation, and compatibility-and evaluates the Data Trust and Forwarding Trust values of each node. Based on these metrics, the BS isolates "bad", "misbehaving" or malicious nodes for a certain period, and put some nodes on probation. CENTERA increases the node's bad/probation level with repeated "bad" behavior, and decreases it otherwise. Then it uses a very efficient method to distribute the routing information to "good" nodes. Based on its target environment, and if required, CENTERA uses an authentication scheme suitable for severely constrained nodes, ranging from the symmetric RC5 for safe environments under close administration, to pairing-based cryptography (PBC) for hostile environments with a strong attacker model. We simulate CENTERA using TOSSIM and verify its correctness and show some energy calculations. PMID:25648712

Tajeddine, Ayman; Kayssi, Ayman; Chehab, Ali; Elhajj, Imad; Itani, Wassim

2015-01-01

225

New neonatal classification of unilateral cleft lip and palate part 2: to predict permanent lateral incisor agenesis and maxillary growth.  

PubMed

Objectives : To bring a neonatal classification system of unilateral cleft lip and palate and to correlate this classification with the distribution of the permanent lateral incisor and maxillary growth. Design : Retrospective with longitudinal follow-up. Setting : Tertiary. Patients : A total of 112 individuals with treated unilateral cleft lip and palate and 30 controls. Main Outcome Measures : Unilateral cleft lip and palate neonatal casts were classified anatomically in four categories, in which Class 1 corresponds to a maxillary arch with a narrow alveolar cleft; Class 2 corresponds to a balanced form; Class 3 corresponds to a wide cleft and short maxilla; and Class 4 corresponds to a wide cleft and long maxilla. The classification was correlated with the distribution of the permanent lateral incisor. Maxillary growth was evaluated using a cephalometric analysis after the age of 10 years. Results : Clinical classification of unilateral cleft lip and palate found 10 cases of Class 1 (8.9%), 34 cases of Class 2 (30.4%), 46 cases of Class 3 (41.1%), and 22 cases of Class 4 (19.6%). The permanent lateral incisor was most often present in narrower clefts (Classes 1 and 2); whereas, large clefts (Classes 3 and 4) were relatively more frequently associated with an agenesis of the permanent lateral incisor (P = .019). Maxillary growth impairment was most severe in Class 3, with a mean sella-nasion-A point angle at 71.9° ± 4.6° (P < .001). Conclusions : Using the cleft width, arch form, and shape of the nasal septum, unilateral cleft lip and palate can be classified into four different classes at birth, which can all give information about permanent lateral incisor agenesis and maxillary growth. PMID:23621660

Doucet, Jean-Charles; Delestan, Christian; Montoya, Pedro; Matei, Lucia; Bigorre, Michèle; Herlin, Christian; Baümler, Caroline; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Captier, Guillaume

2014-09-01

226

Comparison of Intrusion Effects on Maxillary Incisors Among Mini Implant Anchorage, J-Hook Headgear and Utility Arch  

PubMed Central

Background: Intrusion of maxillary incisors is one of the most important and difficult tooth movements to achieve as a part of orthodontic therapy. A variety of techniques were used in the past to intrude the maxillary incisors before the emergence of mini implants in Orthodontics. Mini implants are temporary anchorage devices used to produce various tooth movements. The research was carried out to evaluate and compare the efficiency of producing intrusion of maxillary incisors using mini implants, utility arch and j- hook headgear. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 subjects divided into 3 Groups equally. Group 1- mini implant anchorage, Group 2 - j- hooks headgear and Group 3- utility arch were used for intrusion of the maxillary incisors. Conventional lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and at the end of intrusion. Five cephalometric parameters were used to measure the amount of intrusion attained in each Group. Intra Group comparisons were done using student t-test and inter Group comparisons were done using ANOVA The duration of intrusion was four months in all the three Groups. Results: In Group 1 the mean average intrusion attained was 2.1 mm, the mean average intrusion attained in Group 2 was 0.7 mm, and the mean average intrusion achieved in Group 3 was 1.4 mm with a side effect of 0.75 mm of molar extrusion. Conclusion: Although, both mini implants and utility arch can be used to attain significant amounts of incisor intrusion but using mini implants will produce true intrusion without any other side effects. PMID:25177631

Kumar, Sridhar Prem; Manjula, W.S.

2014-01-01

227

Force Eruption of Mandibular Second Incisor in an 11- Year Old Boy: A Technical Report  

PubMed Central

There is a great challenge in the treatment of deeply fractured and un-restorable teeth among dentists. Orthodontic force eruption is a method of treatment for these teeth to preserve natural root system and periodontal structures. This technical report is a new modification of this procedure presented in an 11- year old boy with deeply fractured left second mandibular incisor. The fractured teeth were treated with root canal therapy and a file #80 was modified to become a hook cemented into the fractured tooth. Anterior teeth were splinted and used as anchorage to help the root extrusion. 1-year follow up of the tooth showed the convenience of the treatment. This simple and low-cost method can be an acceptable alternative to the current high cost techniques, achieving the same results. PMID:24724126

Sobhnamayan, F; Moazami, F; Hamedi, S; Meshki, R

2013-01-01

228

Direct pulp capping in an immature incisor using a new bioactive material  

PubMed Central

Preservation of the pulp in a traumatized immature fractured incisor tooth is of prime importance in order to achieve apexogenesis, a natural apical closure. The main factor influencing this is pulpal protection by a bioactive material proving optimum marginal seal in preventing any microleakage. This case report presents an 8-year-old female diagnosed with Ellis Class 3 fracture of immature tooth 11 involving the mesial pulp horn. Under rubber dam isolation, a partial pulpotomy was performed and the pulp was sealed using a new bioactive material BIODENTINE to stimulate apexogenesis, dentine replacement and pulp protection. The fractured segment was reattached for optimum esthetics, which was a concern for the patient. The patient was followed-up for 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, which revealed continued apical closure and maintenance of pulp vitality. The patient remained asymptomatic. This case report provides evidence for the potential use of Biodentine as an effective pulp capping material in the future. PMID:25191081

Bhat, Sham S.; Hegde, Sundeep K.; Adhikari, Fardin; Bhat, Vidya S.

2014-01-01

229

Physics-based real time ground motion parameter maps: the Central Mexico example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the use of near real time ground motion simulations in the generation of ground motion parameter maps for Central Mexico. Simple algorithm approaches to predict ground motion parameters of civil protection and risk engineering interest are based on the use of observed instrumental values, reported macroseismic intensities and their correlations, and ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). A remarkable example of the use of this approach is the worldwide Shakemap generation program of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Nevertheless, simple approaches rely strongly on the availability of instrumental and macroseismic intensity reports, as well as the accuracy of the GMPEs and the site effect amplification calculation. In regions where information is scarce, the GMPEs, a reference value in a mean sense, provide most of the ground motion information together with site effects amplification using a simple parametric approaches (e.g. the use of Vs30), and have proven to be elusive. Here we propose an approach that includes physics-based ground motion predictions (PBGMP) corrected by instrumental information using a Bayesian Kriging approach (Kitanidis, 1983) and apply it to the central region of Mexico. The method assumes: 1) the availability of a large database of low and high frequency Green's functions developed for the region of interest, using fully three-dimensional and representative one-dimension models, 2) enough real time data to obtain the centroid moment tensor and a slip rate function, and 3) a computational infrastructure that can be used to compute the source parameters and generate broadband synthetics in near real time, which will be combined with recorded instrumental data. By using a recently developed velocity model of Central Mexico and an efficient finite element octree-based implementation we generate a database of source-receiver Green's functions, valid to 0.5 Hz, that covers 160 km x 300 km x 700 km of Mexico, including a large portion of the Pacific Mexican subduction zone. A subset of the velocity and strong ground motion data available in real time is processed to obtain the source parameters to generate broadband ground motions in a dense grid ( 10 km x 10 km cells). These are interpolated later with instrumental values using a Bayesian Kriging method. Peak ground velocity and acceleration, as well as SA (T=0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2s) maps, are generated for a small set of medium to large magnitude Mexican earthquakes (Mw=5 to 7.4). We evaluate each map by comparing against stations not considered in the computation.

Ramirez Guzman, L.; Contreras Ruiz Esparza, M. G.; Quiroz Ramirez, A.; Carrillo Lucia, M. A.; Perez Yanez, C.

2013-12-01

230

[Central neurobiological mechanism of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome based on chronic stress: a review].  

PubMed

Some researchers focus on research of the nature of syndromes. The methods of combining traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and diseases and the correspondence between formulas and syndromes may be used in research of the nature of syndromes. According to combined theories of zang-organ state and seven emotions in traditional Chinese medicine with stress theory in modern medicine, the authors applied the methods of chronic immobilization stress to induce liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome in rats based on the thinking of relativity on formula and syndrome. The research showed that the central neurobiology mechanism of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome closely correlates to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, brain-gut axis, myriad central neurotrophic factors, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones and their receptors, involving in many encephalic regions such as the hypothalamus, hippocampus, cortex, amygdale, etc. The authors will combine their previous work with multi-disciplinary research, such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and bioinformatics in future studies, to reveal the scientific connotations of liver depression and spleen deficiency syndrome. PMID:22237267

Li, Xiao-hong; Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Yue-yun; Chen, Jia-xu

2012-01-01

231

Incisor crowding in untreated persons 15-50 years of age: United States, 1988-1994.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the prevalence of mandibular incisor irregularity (II) among untreated adults in the United States and (2) evaluate the factors explaining individual differences in II. Data were derived for a random sample of 9044 individuals (49% male and 51% female; 35% Mexican American, 34% black, and 31% white) between 15 and 50 years of age collected as part of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Although the differences were small (0.5 mm), males had significantly greater II than did females; blacks showed less II than did whites (0.9 mm) and Mexican Americans (1.1 mm). Family income was negatively related with II. Incisor irregularity increased in a curvilinear fashion with age, with the greatest increases occurring during early adulthood. Although the number of premolars and molars (first and second) were positively related with II, the presence of third molars had a negative effect on II. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that the ethnicity, the number of first and second molars, sex, and age combined to explain differences in II. Odds ratios were relatively low, indicating that these factors explained relatively small amounts of between-subject variation. We conclude that (1) approximately 50% of individuals in the United States who were 15-50 years of age have little or no II, 23% have moderate II, and 17% have severe irregularity, (2) erupted third molars are not associated with increased crowding, (3) crowding increases most during early adulthood, and (4) although individual differences in crowding are multifactorial, the primary determinants remain unidentified. PMID:14580016

Buschang, Peter H; Shulman, Jay D

2003-10-01

232

WNT10A mutations account for ¼ of population-based isolated oligodontia and show phenotypic correlations.  

PubMed

A large proportion (>50%) of patients with isolated oligodontia were recently reported with WNT10A mutations. We have analyzed a population-based cohort of 102 individuals diagnosed with non-syndromic oligodontia and a mean of 8.2 missing teeth. The cohort included 94 families and screening of WNT10A identified that 26 probands (27.7%) had at least one WNT10A variant. When we included the MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, EDAR, and EDARADD genes, 38.3% of probands were positive for a mutation. Biallelic WNT10A mutations were strongly associated with a larger number of missing teeth (11.09) when compared to both monoallelic WNT10 mutations (6.82) and the group without mutations in WNT10A, MSX1, PAX9, AXIN2, EDA, EDAR, or EDARADD (7.77). Genotype-phenotype analysis of individuals with WNT10A mutations showed that premolars were the most common missing teeth. Furthermore, biallelic WNT10A mutations were associated with absence of maxillary and mandibular molars as well as mandibular central incisors. Maxillary central incisors were always present. Thus, our study indicates that WNT10A mutations are associated with both the type and numbers of missing teeth. Furthermore, we show that this population-based cohort of isolated oligodontia had a considerably lower frequency of mutated WNT10A alleles and a lower mean number of missing teeth when compared to patients recruited from dental specialist centers. PMID:24449199

Arzoo, Pakeeza Shaiq; Klar, Joakim; Bergendal, Birgitta; Norderyd, Johanna; Dahl, Niklas

2014-02-01

233

Characteristics and composition of atmospheric aerosols in Phimai, central Thailand during BASE-ASIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.183°N, 102.565°E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 ± 64 Mm-1; absorption: 15 ± 8 Mm-1; PM10 concentration: 33 ± 17 ?g m-3), and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 ± 3.6 ?g m-3; EC: 2.0 ± 2.3 ?g m-3) and secondary species (SO42-: 6.4 ± 3.7 ?g m-3, NH4+: 2.2 ± 1.3 ?g m-3). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 ± 0.33 ?g m-3). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 ± 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 ± 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

2013-10-01

234

Assessing the ecological base flow in an experimental watershed of Central Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological base flow is crucial for the assessment and design for habitat rehabilitation and recovery. The amount of discharge affects the aquatic creatures and may damage the existence and balance of the community under extreme low conditions. Aquatic insect is selected as the target species in this study to evaluate the influence of the discharge and to estimate the ecological base flow. The distribution of the number of species and abundance (density) versus discharge is assessed to define the critical discharge. A stream located at the alpine area in central Taiwan is selected as the study area to evaluate the base flow. From the preliminary data (Aug 2008 to May 2009) collected from Creek C of Sitou watershed (area: 1.3 km^2) shows that the abundance of several species varies with the discharge. The dominate family and genus of aquatic insects is Baetidae (Order Ephemeroptera) and Baetis spp. that accounts for 26.3 and 17.2 %, respectively. The Hilsenhoff family biotic index (FBI) shows that the water quality is classified to "Excellent" and "Good" level while the EPT Index (Index of three orders: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera) indicates that the stream is non-polluted. The discharge of base flow interpreted from the 90%, 95% and 96% curve of duration for the daily discharge is 0.1582, 0.0476 and 0.0378 cms; the threshold value evaluated by curve of abundance vs. discharge is 0.0154 cms. Consistent observations are yet to be collected to yield more accurate results.

Wei, Chiang; Yang, Ping-Shih; Tian, Pei-Ling

2010-05-01

235

Precipitation frequency analysis based on regional climate simulations in Central Alberta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Regional Climate Model (RCM), MM5 (the Fifth Generation Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model), is used to simulate summer precipitation in Central Alberta. MM5 was set up with a one-way, three-domain nested framework, with domain resolutions of 27, 9, and 3 km, respectively, and forced with ERA-Interim reanalysis data of ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The objective is to develop high resolution, grid-based Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves based on the simulated annual maximums of precipitation (AMP) data for durations ranging from 15-min to 24-h. The performance of MM5 was assessed in terms of simulated rainfall intensity, precipitable water, and 2-m air temperature. Next, the grid-based IDF curves derived from MM5 were compared to IDF curves derived from six RCMs of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) set up with 50-km grids, driven with NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy) Reanalysis II data, and regional IDF curves derived from observed rain gauge data (RG-IDF). The analyzed results indicate that 6-h simulated precipitable water and 2-m temperature agree well with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data. However, compared to RG-IDF curves, IDF curves based on simulated precipitation data of MM5 are overestimated especially for IDF curves of 2-year return period. In contract, IDF curves developed from NARCCAP data suffer from under-estimation and differ more from RG-IDF curves than the MM5 IDF curves. The over-estimation of IDF curves of MM5 was corrected by a quantile-based, bias correction method. By dynamically downscale the ERA-Interim and after bias correction, it is possible to develop IDF curves useful for regions with limited or no rain gauge data. This estimation process can be further extended to predict future grid-based IDF curves subjected to possible climate change impacts based on climate change projections of GCMs (general circulation models) of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).

Kuo, Chun-Chao; Gan, Thian Yew; Hanrahan, Janel L.

2014-03-01

236

Characteristics and Composition of Atmospheric Aerosols in Phimai, Central Thailand During BASE-ASIA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Popular summary: Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the Earth's climate system, and can also have adverse effects on air quality and human health. The environmental impacts of aerosols, on the other hand, are highly regional, since their temporal/spatial distribution is inhomogeneous and highly depends on the regional emission sources. To better understand the effects of aerosols, intensive field experiments are necessary to characterize the chemical and physical properties on a region-by-region basis. From late February to early May in 2006, NASA/GSFC's SMARTLabs facility was deployed at a rural site in central Thailand, Southeast Asia, to conduct a field experiment dubbed BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment). The group was joined by scientists from the University of Hawaii and other regional institutes. Comprehensive measurements were made during the experiment, including aerosol chemical composition, optical and microphysical properties, as well as surface energetics and local . meteorology. This study analyzes part of the data from the BASE-ASIA experiment. It was found that, even for the relatively remote rural site, the aerosol loading was still substantial. Besides agricultural burning in the area, industrial pollution near the Bangkok metropolitan area, about 200 km southeast of the site, and even long-range transport from China, also contribute to the area's aerosol loading. The results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow. Abstract: Comprehensive measurements of atmospheric aerosols were made in Phimai, central Thailand (15.l83 N, 102.565 E, elevation: 206 m) during the BASE-ASIA field experiment from late February to early May in 2006. The observed aerosol loading was sizable for this rural site (mean aerosol scattering: 108 +/- 64 Mm(exp -1); absorption: 15 +/- 8 Mm(exp -1); PM(sub 10) concentration: 33 +/- 17 miro-g/ cubic m and dominated by submicron particles. Major aerosol compounds included carbonaceous (OC: 9.5 +/- 3.6miro-g/ cubic m; EC: 2.0 2.3 miro-g/ cubic m and secondary species (SO4(2-): 6.4 +/- 3.7 miro-g/ cubic m, NH4(+): 2.2 +/- 1.3 miro-g/ cubic m). While the site was seldom under the direct influence of large forest fires to its north, agricultural fires were ubiquitous during the experiment, as suggested by the substantial concentration of K+ (0.56 +/- 0.33 micro-g/ cubic m). Besides biomass burning, aerosols in Phimai during the experiment were also strongly influenced by industrial and vehicular emissions from the Bangkok metropolitan region and long-range transport from southern China. High humidity played an important role in determining the aerosol composition and properties in the region. Sulfate was primarily formed via aqueous phase reactions, and hygroscopic growth could enhance the aerosol light scattering by up to 60%, at the typical morning RH level of 85%. The aerosol single scattering albedo demonstrated distinct diurnal variation, ranging from 0.86 +/- 0.04 in the evening to 0.92 +/- 0.02 in the morning. This experiment marks the first time such comprehensive characterization of aerosols was made for rural central Thailand. Our results indicate that aerosol pollution has developed into a regional problem for northern Indochina, and may become more severe as the region's population and economy continue to grow.

Li, Can; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Kim, Jin Young; Howell, Steven G.; Huebert, Barry J.; Ji, Qiang; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Hansell, Richard A.; Bell, Shaun W.

2012-01-01

237

Secretion of Shh by a neurovascular bundle niche supports mesenchymal stem cell homeostasis in the adult mouse incisor  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are typically defined by their in vitro characteristics, and as a consequence the in vivo identity of MSCs and their niches are poorly understood. To address this issue, we used lineage tracing in a mouse incisor model and identified the neurovascular bundle (NVB) as an MSC niche. We found that NVB sensory nerves secrete Shh protein, which activates Gli1 expression in periarterial cells that contribute to all mesenchymal derivatives. These periarterial cells do not express classical MSC markers used to define MSCs in vitro. In contrast, NG2+ pericytes represent an MSC subpopulation derived from Gli1+ cells; they express classical MSC markers and contribute little to homeostasis but are actively involved in injury repair. Likewise, incisor Gli1+ cells but not NG2+ cells exhibit typical MSC characteristics in vitro. Collectively, we demonstrate that MSCs originate from periarterial cells and are regulated by Shh secretion from a NVB. PMID:24506883

Zhao, Hu; Feng, Jifan; Seidel, Kerstin; Shi, Songtao; Klein, Ophir; Sharpe, Paul; Chai, Yang

2014-01-01

238

Survival of resin-bonded bridgework provided for post-orthodontic hypodontia patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To analyse the clinical performance and factors influencing the survival of resin-bonded bridgework provided for hypodontia patients with missing maxillary lateral incisors, following orthodontic treatment to open, maintain or redistribute the missing tooth space.Design A retrospective analysis of patients treated at a single centre using case notes with all patients invited for review to corroborate findings.Setting Departments of Orthodontics,

R W Wassell; N J Jepson; F S Nohl; M J Garnett

2006-01-01

239

Replacement of missing lateral incisors with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses: a clinical report  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message This report describes the use of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic veneer-fixed dental prostheses in replacing congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors. This kind of prosthesis has an advantage over a lingual-retainer resin-bonded fixed dental prosthesis in its capability of changing the color and shape of the abutment teeth. The prostheses provided an acceptable esthetics and comfort for the patient. PMID:25356269

Bissasu, Sami M; Al-houri, Nabil A

2014-01-01

240

Differential staining of glycosaminoglycans in the predentine and dentine of rat incisor using Cuprolinic Blue at various magnesium chloride concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Rat incisors were fixed with a solution of 0.05% Cuprolinic Blue and 2.5% glutaraldehyde in the presence of various concentrations of MgCl2 according to the critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) principle. This method allows glycosaminoglycans (GAG) to be properly preserved and visualized. Small granules were stained by the cationic dye in the predentine in the absence of MgCl2. These granules grew

M. Goldberg; D. S. Septier

1992-01-01

241

Short-term treatment effects of quad-helix on maxillomandibular expansion in patients with maxillary incisor crowding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the maxillary arch expansion on maxillomandibular arch widths in\\u000a patients treated with the quad-helix versus untreated controls. The treatment group consisted of 50 consecutive patients treated\\u000a for maxillary incisor crowding with a quad-helix appliance in the early mixed dentition. Lateral cephalograms and dental casts\\u000a taken at the start (T0)

Isao Shundo; Yoshiki Kobayashi; Toshiya Endo

242

An Unusual Type II Dens Invaginatus with Calcified Canals in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor – A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Dens invaginatus is a developmental malformation resulting from the invagination of enamel organ into the dental papilla. Management of dens invaginatus is an endodontic challenge. Presence of calcified canals in dens invaginatus makes it even more complicated. Modification of the treatment plan is required to treat such cases. This case report deals with the management of a Type II Dens Invaginatus in a lateral incisor with calcified canals. PMID:24179951

Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Geethapriya, Nagarajan; Pradeepkumar, Angambakam Rajasekaran; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam

2013-01-01

243

Data Base of Meteorological Conditions and Corresponding Satellite Radiances for the Central United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical retrieval of an atmospheric thermal and moisture profile from satellite radiance observations requires an initial guess solution to linearize the inverse radiative transfer problem. The accuracy of the final retrieved solution is dependent on the accuracy of the initial guess profile. This thesis documents efforts to optimize this initial guess for a mesoscale region by creating a large data base of representative atmospheric conditions. Within the Midwest and Mississippi Valley regions of the central United States, over 70,000 RAOB (Rawinsonde Observation) soundings from a five year period were used for data base initialization. During a quality control check of the input soundings, 60% were discovered to contain at least one non-surface layer exhibiting a superadiabatic lapse rate, generally considered to be nonexistent. The majority of these reported superadiabatic layers, real or erroneous, were subtle. Severe superadiabatic reports were obviously erroneous, capable of propagation into forward radiance models, meteorological analyses and forecasts, etc. Following quality control, more than 60,000 clean soundings remained. The region was segregated according to surface elevation to account for the meteorological and radiational differences inherent with large surface pressure variation. After generating a consistent state vector for all input soundings, a principal component analysis (PCA) using the correlation matrix was performed. Depending upon the surface elevation, between 29 and 35 modes were selected for retention since they were able to reconstruct the profiles to within the original RAOB measurement precision. Clustering was performed using the principal component loadings as input. The clustering process attempted to make objects within each cluster as similar as possible while making the clusters themselves dissimilar. A total of 454 objects closest to their cluster means were chosen as representatives for ultimate inclusion in the atmospheric data base. For each included atmospheric state, simulated brightness temperatures and corresponding gradient matrix were generated with a radiance model. Required inference of clouds and skin temperature introduced some error at this point. Sets of radiance states were generated for different combinations of satellite radiometer, surface elevation, and scan angle. After radiance bias identification and removal, TOVS observations were taken to evaluate data base performance. Returned atmospheric conditions were differenced with collocated RAOB data to determine errors. For clear conditions, mean temperature errors were 1-2 C with a standard deviation of approximately 3 C. The data base of representative atmospheric states offers retrieval algorithms a superior first guess profile over climatology values which are commonly used.

Slonaker, Richard L.

244

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Reduce Health Disparities in East and Central Harlem  

PubMed Central

Objective It is important to teach community members about the causes, magnitude and effects of health disparities that affect them, and to partner with them to develop, test and disseminate programs that they can sustain to improve health. East and Central Harlem are two underserved, predominantly minority, inner-city communities whose residents have disproportionately high morbidity and mortality from chronic conditions. We developed an approach to educate and work together with Harlem residents to study health disparities, and to use peer-led classes to improve chronic disease management and outcomes. Methods Researchers and community leaders formed a community-based research core (“Core”) with funds from a large health disparities grant. We then assembled a community advisory board and partnered with them to start a community newsletter to explain the causes of local health disparities and suggest ways to eliminate them. Together, we also began to create a self-sustaining cadre of community-based peer educators to teach culturally acceptable chronic disease self-management skills. Results The recruited board consists of 33 leaders of community-based health and social service organizations, religious institutions, and tenant organizations, as well as local activists. We produced and distributed our first educational newsletter to more than 4,000 community leaders, members and community-based organizations. We also adapted an existing chronic disease self-management program for the Harlem population and developed strategies to recruit peer educators and sustain their efforts in the future. To help them attain expertise in teaching chronic disease self-management, the board selected four individuals to become master peer-education trainers. The board then helped recruit more than 60 community members and leaders for our first two peer-education courses. Conclusions Researchers, clinicians and community leaders worked together to disseminate knowledge about health disparities and a peer-organized education program to address these disparities. This approach provides a foundation to attain a cadre of community-based experts to inform the community about ways to reduce health disparities. By pooling local and academic expertise and resources, we hope to develop programs that are workable, effective and sustainable without outside control or funding. PMID:15592655

Horowitz, Carol R.; Arniella, Agueda; James, Sherline; Bickell, Nina A.

2015-01-01

245

Evidence-Based Decision Making in School District Central Offices: Toward a Policy and Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

District central office administrators increasingly face policy demands to use "evidence" in their decision making. These demands up the ante on education policy researchers and policy makers to better understand what evidence use in district central offices entails and the conditions that may support it. To that end, the authors conducted a…

Honig, Meredith I.; Coburn, Cynthia

2008-01-01

246

Coal-based stratigraphy for upper Fort Union Group (Paleocene), west-central North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of an evaluation of lithologic and geophysical logs from 2500 shallow drill holes and information from a limited number of natural outcrops and mine highwalls, a detailed stratigraphic framework was constructed for the Paleocene strata of the Sentinel Butte and upper Bullion Creek formations (upper Fort Union Group) in the Knife River area in west-central North Dakota. The study sequence was found to be characterized by at least seven major coals continuous over the 8000 km/sup 2/ (3089 mi/sup 2/) of the study area instead of a large number of locally persistent coals, as interpreted by previous investigations of surface sections. A series of geologic cross sections demonstrates the correlation of the lignite beds in the upper Bullion Creek and Sentinel Butte formations and together provide a three-dimensional picture of coal distribution in the study area. Each major lignite bed has been named and assigned both type and reference test holes. The recognition of coals continuous over the study area provides a means of correlating this complex terrestrial section. The resulting framework in turn provides a basis for (1) the development of a chronostratigraphy and biostratigraphy, (2) a more accurate evaluation of the magnitude and distribution of coal resources, and (3) an appraisal of depositional setting and history. The recognition of widespread coals in the upper Fort Union strata in other portions of the basin suggests the potential for establishing a basinwide stratigraphic framework based on these coals.

Groenewold, G.; Hemish, L.; Daly, D.J.; Schmit, C.

1986-08-01

247

Seismic hazard assessment in central Ionian Islands area (Greece) based on stress release models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term probabilistic seismic hazard of central Ionian Islands (Greece) is studied through the application of stress release models. In order to identify statistically distinct regions, the study area is divided into two subareas, namely Kefalonia and Lefkada, on the basis of seismotectonic properties. Previous results evidenced the existence of stress transfer and interaction between the Kefalonia and Lefkada fault segments. For the consideration of stress transfer and interaction, the linked stress release model is applied. A new model is proposed, where the hazard rate function in terms of X( t) has the form of the Weibull distribution. The fitted models are evaluated through residual analysis and the best of them is selected through the Akaike information criterion. Based on AIC, the results demonstrate that the simple stress release model fits the Ionian data better than the non-homogeneous Poisson and the Weibull models. Finally, the thinning simulation method is applied in order to produce simulated data and proceed to forecasting.

Votsi, Irene; Tsaklidis, George M.; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria E.

2011-08-01

248

Double talon cusps on supernumerary tooth fused to maxillary central incisor: Review of literature and report of case.  

PubMed

Human tooth development is a continuous process begin at the sixth weeks in utero and extends to about sixth months after birth for the primary dentition and from sixteenth week in utero to late adolescence for permanent dentition. There is no other organ of the human body which takes so long to attain its ultimate morphology as dentition. Several physiologic growth processes participate in the progressive development of the teeth including: initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, apposition, calcification, and eruption. Aberrations in different stages of tooth development can result in unique manifestations both in primary and permanent dentitions. The fact that premaxilla is the predilection site for the occurrence of supernumerary teeth, talon cusp, dens invaginatus, and geminated teeth may suggest that the embryological development of premaxilla differ from other sites of the jaws. The dental abnormalities presented in this review are of great concern to dentist and parents because they create clinical, pathological and esthetic problems. Dental practitioner should be aware of the clinical sign, associated problems and treatment options for a given case. Key words:Double talon cusps, fusion, supernumerary, case report. PMID:25593664

Hattab, Faiez N

2014-10-01

249

Double talon cusps on supernumerary tooth fused to maxillary central incisor: Review of literature and report of case  

PubMed Central

Human tooth development is a continuous process begin at the sixth weeks in utero and extends to about sixth months after birth for the primary dentition and from sixteenth week in utero to late adolescence for permanent dentition. There is no other organ of the human body which takes so long to attain its ultimate morphology as dentition. Several physiologic growth processes participate in the progressive development of the teeth including: initiation, proliferation, histodifferentiation, morphodifferentiation, apposition, calcification, and eruption. Aberrations in different stages of tooth development can result in unique manifestations both in primary and permanent dentitions. The fact that premaxilla is the predilection site for the occurrence of supernumerary teeth, talon cusp, dens invaginatus, and geminated teeth may suggest that the embryological development of premaxilla differ from other sites of the jaws. The dental abnormalities presented in this review are of great concern to dentist and parents because they create clinical, pathological and esthetic problems. Dental practitioner should be aware of the clinical sign, associated problems and treatment options for a given case. Key words:Double talon cusps, fusion, supernumerary, case report. PMID:25593664

2014-01-01

250

A tunable protein-based scaffold for the study of central nervous system regeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central nervous system (CNS) injuries pose a significant and potentially debilitating health problem in society today and, to date, no successful clinical repair strategies have been advanced. The development of effective treatments is severely hindered by the quick formation of a complex, inhibitory scar at the site of CNS injury. This scar both physically blocks and chemically suppresses nerve regeneration. It has been hypothesized that combinatorial approaches involving biomaterial scaffolds, cell transplantation, and pro-survival factors, which provide a more permissive growth environment, have the highest chance of stimulating regeneration. The work completed in this thesis focuses on the design and characterization of a biomimetic hydrogel scaffold constructed from chemically crosslinked recombinant proteins. This protein-based scaffold has been designed to offer a flexible platform for the systematic optimization of key scaffold design parameters, such as mechanical strength, degradation, cellular interaction, molecule delivery, and topography. Specifically, a collection of proteins containing sequences previously shown to enhance cell adhesion, to promote neurite extension, and to exhibit varying susceptibility to cleavage by neurite-secreted proteases were synthesized to serve as the polymer backbone for the scaffold. Experiments were conducted to analyze the capacity of scaffolds, constructed from single proteins or mixtures of proteins, to independently control cell behavior, scaffold degradation properties, and scaffold mechanical properties based upon differences in the primary protein sequence and crosslinking conditions. In addition, composite scaffolds constructed by layered spatial deposition of chemically crosslinked, protease-degradable proteins were applied to the formation of dynamic internal, three-dimensional scaffold patterns that can be directly coupled to molecule delivery. Overall, this work demonstrates the tunable and bio-functional nature of these hydrogels and sets the framework for future studies into the development of effective protein-engineered scaffolds for CNS regeneration.

Straley, Karin

251

GROUND BASED LIDAR OBSERVATIONS OF AEROSOL AND CIRRUS CLOUDS OPTICAL PROPERTIES IN CENTRAL AMAZON DURING THE DRY SEASON  

E-print Network

to perform continuous measurements of aerosols and water vapor and aiming to study and monitor the atmosphereGROUND BASED LIDAR OBSERVATIONS OF AEROSOL AND CIRRUS CLOUDS OPTICAL PROPERTIES IN CENTRAL AMAZON Paulo, São Paulo, S.P., Brazil E-mail: hbarbosa@if.usp.br A permanent UV Raman Lidar station, designed

Barbosa, Henrique

252

Centralized route recovery based on multi-hop wakeup time estimation for wireless sensor networks with ultra low duty cycles  

E-print Network

Centralized route recovery based on multi-hop wakeup time estimation for wireless sensor networks packet flooding for route recovery and solves the high energy consumption problem caused by each node sensor networks (WSNs) are currently used in various fields and play an important role for creating smart

Bahk, Saewoong

253

New Reforms in the Management of the University: Transition from Centralized to Decentralized (University-Based Management) in Iran  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on new reforms in Iran's higher education management system--Transition from centralized to decentralized (University-Based management--UBM). This is an important subject since Iran's Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology (MSRT) has begun to introduce new reforms for the improvement and the enhancement of Iranian…

Mehralizadeh, Y.

2005-01-01

254

Incidence of pulp necrosis subsequent to pulp canal obliteration from trauma of permanent incisors.  

PubMed

Little long-term data are available on the frequency by which pulp canal obliteration (PCO) subsequent to trauma leads to pulp necrosis (PN). In this study, 82 concussed, subluxated, extruded, laterally luxated, and intruded permanent incisors presenting with PCO were followed for a period of 7 to 22 yr (mean 16 yr). At final clinical examination, 51% of the observed teeth responded normally to electric pulp testing (EPT). An additional 40% of the teeth although not responding to EPT were clinically and radiographically within normal limits. Yellow discoloration was a frequent finding. During the observation period, periapical bone lesions suggesting PN developed in seven teeth (8.5%). Twenty-yr pulp survival rate was 84%, as determined from life-table calculations. There was no higher frequency of PN in obliterated teeth subjected to caries, new trauma, orthodontic treatment, or complete crown coverage than intact teeth. Although the incidence of PN in teeth displaying PCO seems to increase over the course of time, prophylactic endodontic intervention on a routine basis does not seem justified. PMID:9198446

Robertson, A; Andreasen, F M; Bergenholtz, G; Andreasen, J O; Norén, J G

1996-10-01

255

Ontogeny of class II antigen expressing cells in rat incisor pulp.  

PubMed

Class II antigen expressing cells are generally associated with the early phase of the immune response. Dendritic cells and macrophages expressing these cell surface antigens have recently been demonstrated and characterized in the dental pulp. The present study was undertaken to determine when the pulp receives its immunologic defense potential by examining the temporal appearance of class II antigen expressing cells in the rat incisor pulp. Pulp tissue specimens obtained at various time periods from a gestational age of 16 days to 14 wk after birth were examined by immunohistochemistry using O x 6 as a primary antibody and the ABC-technique. Comparisons were made with tissue samples from the spleen, intestine, skin and oral mucosa. At birth, all tissues, except for the pulp, presented cells expressing class II antigen with a dendritic appearance in a number and orientation resembling the mature tissue. A complete distribution of these cells was not seen in the dental pulp until 7 weeks following birth. Data show that the dental pulp acquires its ultimate structural arrangement of immune cells later than other tissues. PMID:1754840

Jontell, M; Jiang, W H; Bergenholtz, G

1991-10-01

256

Er:YAG Laser and Fractured Incisor Restorations: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of an Er:YAG laser on enamel and dentine in cases of dental restorations involving fractured teeth, utilizing the dental fragment. Materials and Methods. Seventy-two freshly extracted bovine incisors were fractured at the coronal level by using a hammer applied with a standardized method, and the fragment was reattached by using three different methods: Er:YAG laser, orthophosphoric acid, and laser plus acid. The different groups were evaluated by a test realized with the dynamometer to know the force required to successfully detach the reattached fragment and by a microinfiltration test by using a 0.5% methylene blue solution followed by the optic microscope observation. Results. The compression test showed only a slight difference between the three groups, without any statistical significance. The infiltration test used to evaluate the marginal seal between the fracture fragment and the tooth demonstrated that etching with Er:YAG laser alone or in combination with orthophosphoric acid gives better results than orthophosphoric acid alone, with a highly significant statistical result. Discussion. Reattaching a tooth fragment represents a clinically proven methodology, in terms of achieving resistance to detachment, and the aim of this work was to demonstrate the advantages of Er:YAG laser on this procedure. Conclusion. This “in vitro” study confirms that Er:YAG laser can be employed in dental traumatology to restore frontal teeth after coronal fracture. PMID:23091491

Fornaini, C.; Petruzzella, S.; Podda, R.; Merigo, E.; Nammour, S.; Vescovi, P.

2012-01-01

257

Modified subfossil aye-aye incisors from southwestern Madagascar: species allocation and paleoecological significance.  

PubMed

Two of the three drilled aye-aye incisors collected in 1901 by Grandidier at the subfossil site of Lamboharana were recently rediscovered in uncatalogued collections of the Institut de Paléontologie in Paris. These teeth are not much wider or thicker than those of the extant aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), but their arc of curvature is noticeably greater. These facts indicate that the teeth probably belong to D. robusta, a large extinct aye-aye whose dentition is otherwise unknown. No other remains referable to Daubentonia have been reported from Lamboharana, although D. robusta is known from other localities in the southwest. The presence of Daubentonia in southern Madagascar does not demonstrate that this region was markedly more humid or densely forested in the recent past. It remains to be established whether the extinction of D. robusta throughout its range in southern Madagascar, and local disappearance of D. madagascariensis everywhere but in the eastern forest biotope, is due to late Holocene climatic change, to anthropogenic effects, or both factors combined. PMID:3254846

MacPhee, R D; Raholimavo, E M

1988-01-01

258

Changes in amelogenesis in the rat incisor following short-term hypocalcaemia.  

PubMed

There is a relationship between hypocalcaemia and the enamel hypoplasia. Earlier studies in rats have reported a severe hypocalcaemia and enamel hypoplasia a month after thyro-parathyroidectomy (TPTX). The aims of this study were to look at earlier stages and to attempt to correlate morphological changes with alterations in the distribution of amelogenin. Twenty-five Wistar rats were, under anaesthesia, thyro-parathyroidectomized. Sham operated rats were included as controls. After 14, 30 or 57 days, the animals were reanesthatized and the tissues fixed by intracardiac perfusion of fixative. The lower incisors were processed for light microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. After 14 days the thyro-parathyroidectomised rats were severely hypocalcaemic but amelogenesis was morphologically similar to controls. After 30 and 57 days, enamel defects were observed in the late secretory and early maturation stages in the thyro-parathyroidectomised rats. The immunocytochemical study revealed a concentration of stippled material immunolabelled for amelogenin at the secretory pole of the ameloblasts in the hypocalcaemic rats. The absence of enamel defects after 14 days suggests that this was an insufficient hypocalcaemic period to induce morphological alterations. The concentration of stippled material containing amelogenin suggests that alterations in matrix formation may be the basis of the morphological changes. PMID:15721149

Yamaguti, Paulo M; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Acevedo, Ana Carolina

2005-02-01

259

WNT10A coding variants and maxillary lateral incisor agenesis with associated dental anomalies.  

PubMed

Congenital maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) is one of the most common subtypes of dental agenesis. Because little is known with regard to the aetiology of this anomaly, the aim of the study was to determine the contribution of nucleotide variants in wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10A (WNT10A), msh homeobox 1 (MSX1), and paired box 9 (PAX9) to the risk of MLIA in a Polish population. Coding regions of the selected genes were analysed by direct sequencing in a group of 20 individuals with unilateral and bilateral MLIA, associated or not with other dental anomalies. The frequencies of the identified nucleotide variants were assessed in an additional cohort of patients with isolated dental agenesis (n = 147) and in 178 controls. Mutation screening showed four non-synonymous substitutions located in the highly conserved coding sequence of WNT10A in five (25%) of the 20 patients. Analysis of genotyping results revealed that three of these variants - p.Arg113Cys, p.Phe228Ile, and the newly identified p.Arg171Leu - may represent aetiological mutations underlying MLIA with associated dental anomalies. No mutations that were potentially aetiologic were identified in MSX1 and PAX9. In conclusion, this is the first report implicating coding variants in the WNT10A gene in the aetiology of MLIA. These results will require further confirmation using larger-scale studies. PMID:25545742

Mostowska, Adrianna; Biedziak, Barbara; Zadurska, Ma?gorzata; Matuszewska-Trojan, Sylwia; Jagodzi?ski, Pawe? P

2015-02-01

260

Effect of high phosphorus diet on tooth microstructure of rodent incisors.  

PubMed

Enamel hypoplasia and disruption of dentinogenesis are the most common abnormalities of development and mineralization of human teeth. Several reports are available in the literature on the influence of dietary calcium on the formation of human and rodent tooth; however, the information about the influence of dietary phosphorus on the tooth formation is scarce. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the chronic effect of high phosphorus diet and improper dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio on the mandibular incisor microstructure in a hystricomorph rodent--Octodon degu--using macroscopic observation, histopathological examination, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The present study shows that enamel and dentin development is disturbed under high phosphorus diet and improper calcium to phosphorus ratio. Disturbed mineral metabolism resulted in enamel depigmentation, enamel hypoplasia, enamel pitting and altered dentin morphology. The results suggest that more attention should be focused on dietary phosphorus content when facing altered tooth structure in young patients with deciduous or permanent dentition. Furthermore, we showed that degus can be used as an experimental animal model for the study of the developmental teeth disturbances. PMID:21571111

Jekl, Vladimir; Krejcirova, Lenka; Buchtova, Marcela; Knotek, Zdenek

2011-09-01

261

An EO-Based Approach to Modelling Ecosystem Health in Response to Wildfire in Central Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of ecosystem health is becoming more relevant in a world where ecosystems are being used unsustainably and have been showing increased signs of stress and dysfunction. Therefore, this research has set out to establish an Earth Observation (EO) based methodology in conjunction with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to establish and monitor the indicators of ecosystem health in a region affected by wildfire in Central Greece. A further goal has been to assess the responses of ecosystem health to wildfire and urban expansion in the studied region. The methodology integrated GIS software and EO data to assess ecosystem characteristics including: vigour, organisation and resilience. The characteristics were quantified using remote sensing techniques focusing on Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images derived from Landsat imagery from 1999-2011. Topographic features including slope and aspect were extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). These elements were then assigned weightings based upon research and combined in a model to produce a map of ecosystem health. The map of ecosystem health was validated against a compound topographic index that was produced for the study region, completed by overlaying the layers in Google Earth. This software allowed for a direct comparison of each layer. The results of the model have demonstrated correlations with past wildfires and the associated recovery. The findings are in agreement with the hypothesis that ecosystem health maps can illustrate the effect wildfires have on ecosystem health, thus providing useful information to land managers and policy makers who manage wildfire. The results further demonstrate that the resolution of Landsat imagery is excellent for obtaining a general overview of ecosystem health mapping. The methods described in this study could provide more detailed information if applied to high resolution imagery such as Worldview or IKONOS data. Results could be further enhanced with hyperspectral sensors due to the possibility of detecting chemical processes associated with ecosystem process. The method is robust enough to be transferable to other regions, with some minor changes based on a specified climate for a given location. The launch of Landsat 8 will ensure the continued acquisition and availability of Landsat data as well as provide high quality images, also making it possible to develop this method to potentially contribute to an operational estimation of ecosystem health recovery after wildfire.

Evans, Aaron; Petropoulos, George P.

2014-05-01

262

Epidemiology of Idiopathic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in Taiwan, 2001–2006: A Population-based Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The epidemiology of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is not well understood in an Asian population. The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for corticosteroid-unrelated CSCR using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Methods and Results From 2001 to 2006, a total of 786 patients (500 [63.6%] males) who were newly diagnosed with CSCR, aged from 20 to 64 years and had no history of corticosteroid prescription were identified as incident cases of idiopathic CSCR. 3606 age-, gender-, and enrollment time-matched subjects were randomly selected as the control group. The mean annual incidence was 0.21‰ (0.27‰ for males, and 0.15‰ for females; P<0.001), with a male/female ratio of 1.74. The peak incidence was in the 35- to 39-year-old age group (0.30‰), followed by the 40- to 44-year-old age group (0.26‰). Males had a significantly higher mean annual incidence than female only in the middle age groups. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for potential risk factors of idiopathic CSCR. Only exposure to anti-anxiety drugs (OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–2.44) was found to be independently associated with idiopathic CSCR among males. No risk factors of idiopathic CSCR were found for females. Conclusions This study provides the nationwide, population-based data on the incidence of idiopathic CSCR in adult Asians, and suggests that exposure to anti-anxiety drugs is an independent risk factor for idiopathic CSCR among males. PMID:23826160

Tsai, Der-Chong; Chen, Shih-Jen; Huang, Chin-Chou; Chou, Pesus; Chung, Chia-Min; Huang, Po-Hsun; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Chen, Tseng-Ji

2013-01-01

263

Attenuation Tomography Based on Strong Motion Data: Case Study of Central Honshu Region, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional frequency dependent S-wave quality factor (Q?(f)) value for the central Honshu region of Japan has been determined in this paper using an algorithm based on inversion of strong motion data. The method of inversion for determination of three-dimensional attenuation coefficients is proposed by H ashida and S himazaki (J Phys Earth. 32, 299-316, 1984) and has been used and modified by J oshi (Curr Sci. 90, 581-585, 2006; Nat Hazards. 43, 129-146, 2007) and J oshi et al. (J. Seismol. 14, 247-272, 2010). Twenty-one earthquakes digitally recorded on strong motion stations of Kik-net network have been used in this work. The magnitude of these earthquake ranges from 3.1 to 4.2 and depth ranging from 5 to 20 km, respectively. The borehole data having high signal to noise ratio and minimum site effect is used in the present work. The attenuation structure is determined by dividing the entire area into twenty-five three-dimensional blocks of uniform thickness having different frequency-dependent shear wave quality factor. Shear wave quality factor values have been determined at frequencies of 2.5, 7.0 and 10 Hz from record in a rectangular grid defined by 35.4°N to 36.4°N and 137.2°E to 138.2°E. The obtained attenuation structure is compared with the available geological features in the region and comparison shows that the obtained structure is capable of resolving important tectonic features present in the area. The proposed attenuation structure is compared with the probabilistic seismic hazard map of the region and shows that it bears some remarkable similarity in the patterns seen in seismic hazard map.

Kumar, Parveen; Joshi, A.; Verma, O. P.

2013-12-01

264

Molecular- and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia.  

PubMed

Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sediments. However, the extent to which metabarcoding truly reflects plant composition remains unclear, as does its power to identify species with no pollen or macrofossil evidence. Here, we compared pollen-based and metabarcoding approaches to explore the Holocene plant composition around two lakes in central Scandinavia. At one site, we also compared barcoding results with those obtained in earlier studies with species-specific primers. The pollen analyses revealed a larger number of taxa (46), of which the majority (78%) was not identified by metabarcoding. The metabarcoding identified 14 taxa (MTUs), but allowed identification to a lower taxonomical level. The combined analyses identified 52 taxa. The barcoding primers may favour amplification of certain taxa, as they did not detect taxa previously identified with species-specific primers. Taphonomy and selectiveness of the primers are likely the major factors influencing these results. We conclude that metabarcoding from lake sediments provides a complementary, but not an alternative, tool to pollen analysis for investigating past flora. In the absence of other fossil evidence, metabarcoding gives a local and important signal from the vegetation, but the resulting assemblages show limited capacity to detect all taxa, regardless of their abundance around the lake. We suggest that metabarcoding is followed by pollen analysis and the use of species-specific primers to provide the most comprehensive signal from the environment. PMID:23587049

Parducci, Laura; Matetovici, Irina; Fontana, Sonia L; Bennett, K D; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Haile, James; Kjaer, Kurt H; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Drouzas, Andreas D; Willerslev, Eske

2013-07-01

265

Elevated Serum 25(OH)-Vitamin D Levels Are Negatively Correlated with Molar-Incisor Hypomineralization.  

PubMed

To date, the precise etiology of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is uncertain. Vitamin D plays a key role in hard tissue formation. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and dental health data obtained from 1,048 children in a 10-year follow-up of the Munich GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. The dental examination included the diagnosis of MIH and recording of (non-)cavitated caries lesions in primary and permanent teeth. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were taken from blood samples of the 10-year investigation and measured with a fully automated, modular system. Different logistic regression and Poisson hurdle models were calculated. MIH was diagnosed in 13.6% of the study population. Approximately 16.4% of the children demonstrated caries-related defects (D3-4MFS > 0). The mean season-adjusted concentration of 25(OH)D was 75.8 nmol/l (standard deviation 22.0 nmol/l). After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, parental education, equivalent income, and television/personal computer (TV/PC) viewing hours, a 10 nmol/l increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was significantly associated with a lower odds ratio of having MIH (OR = 0.89; P = 0.006). Furthermore, higher 25(OH)D values were associated with a lower number of caries-affected permanent teeth. It is concluded that elevated serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with better dental health parameters. PMID:25503610

Kühnisch, J; Thiering, E; Kratzsch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R; Hickel, R; Heinrich, J

2015-02-01

266

Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural parks are present. All the area shows a strong correlation between the geological setting and the relief energy associated to topography assessment. Three main outcrop complexes are present: a fluvial lacustrine, where the lowest slope values and plain area are widespread; a terrigenous one, with a medium slope value; and a calcareous complex corresponding to the mountain areas and the highest amplitude of relief. This partition matches different geomorphological processes and landforms, ensuring a widespread distribution of geodiversity. The final map is a digital data that localizes areas with, respectively, null or minimum, medium, and high geodiversity values. The highest class overlaps to geosites areas, to high values of amplitude of relief and where the geomorphological processes are more effective and various. This confirms the method accuracy. The results obtained represent an important advancement in geodiversity research and a significant instrument for economic development and conservation management.

Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

2014-05-01

267

Estimation of Evapotranspiration of Almond orchards using Remote Sensing based SEBAL model in Central Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration is one of the main components of the hydrologic cycle and its impact to hydrology, agriculture,forestry and environmental studies is very crucial. SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land) is an image-processing model comprised of twenty-five computational sub-models that computes actual evapotranspiration (ETa) and other energy exchanges as a component of energy balance which is used to derive the surface radiation balance equation for the net surface radiation flux (Rn) on a pixel-by-pixel basis. For this study, SEBAL method is applied to Level 1B dataset of visible, near-infrared and thermal infrared radiation channels of MASTER instrument on-board NASA-DC 8 flight. This paper uses the SEBAL method to (1) investigate the spatial distribution property of land surface temperature (Ls), NDVI, and ETa over the San Joaquin valley. (2) Estimate actual evapotranspiration of almond class on pixel-by-pixel basis in the Central valley, California. (3) Comparison of actual Evapotranspiration obtained from SEBAL model with reference evapotranspiration (Eto) using Penman Monteiths method based on the procedures and available data from California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) stations. The results of the regression between extracted land surface temperature, NDVI and, evapotranspiration show negative (-) correlation. On the other hand Ls possessed a slightly stronger negative correlation with the ETa than with NDVI for Almond class. The correlation coefficient of actual ETa estimates from remote sensing with Reference ETo from Penmann Monteith are 0.8571. ETa estimated for almond crop from SEBAL were found to be almost same with the CIMIS_Penman Monteith method with bias of 0.77 mm and mean percentage difference is 0.10%. These results indicate that combination of MASTER data with surface meteorological data could provide an efficient tool for the estimation of regional actual ET used for water resources and irrigation scheduling and management. Keywords: Evapotranspiration, Hydrologic cycle, SEBAL, net surface radiation flux, MASTER, NDVI, Penman Monteith, CIMIS, Surface Temperature

Roy, S.; Ustin, S.; Kefauver, S. C.

2009-12-01

268

Functional Anatomy of Incisal Biting in Aplodontia rufa and Sciuromorph Rodents – Part 2: Sciuromorphy Is Efficacious for Production of Force at the Incisors  

PubMed Central

The protrogomorph condition of the rodent masticatory apparatus is thought to be present in only one living species, the mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa. The major anatomical difference between protrogomorphs and sciuromorphs is that the relative size of one part of the masseter muscle, the anterior lateral masseter, is much greater in sciuromorphs than in protrogomorphs. The mechanics of force production at the incisors were compared in A. rufa and six sciuromorph rodents. Is the sciuroid masticatory apparatus more effective for production of forces at the incisors during biting than the primitive, protrogomorph condition? To answer this question, three measures of mechanical ability were employed and three hypotheses were tested: (1) the mechanical advantage of the adductor musculature is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa; (2) the relative force produced at the incisors is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa, and (3) the relative amount of force produced that can be used to drive the incisors into an object, is greater in sciuromorphs than in A. rufa. The results demonstrated that the protrogomorph, A. rufa, is not as efficient at generating bite forces at the incisors as the sciuromorphs. PMID:20160427

Druzinsky, Robert E.

2010-01-01

269

Resolution limit of the white-light interferometric sensor for absolute position measurement based on central fringe maximum identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a simple theoretical analysis together with an experimental verification of the analysis that provides an estimation of the resolution limit of the white-light interferometric sensor for absolute position measurement based on central fringe maximum identification is presented. The resolution better than 10 pm is obtained in the white-light interferometric sensing system where the signal-to-noise ratio was greater than 80 dB.

Manojlovi?, L. M.; Živanov, M. B.; Slankamenac, M. P.; Stupar, D. Z.; Baji?, J. S.

2014-09-01

270

Coal-based stratigraphy for upper Fort Union Group (Paleocene), west-central North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of an evaluation of lithologic and geophysical logs from 2500 shallow drill holes and information from a limited number of natural outcrops and mine highwalls, a detailed stratigraphic framework was constructed for the Paleocene strata of the Sentinel Butte and upper Bullion Creek formations (upper Fort Union Group) in the Knife River area in west-central North Dakota.

G. Groenewold; L. Hemish; D. J. Daly; C. Schmit

1986-01-01

271

A Centralized, Computerized, and Relational Data Base for Student Clinical Placements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A centralized relational database is used to manage information on advanced practice nursing students and their preceptors at Johns Hopkins University. The system relieves faculty of time-consuming tasks and enables rapid report generation, consistent tracking, and timely communications. (SK)

Lears, Mary Kathleen; Olsen, Sharon J.; Morrison, Candis; Vessey, Judith A.

1998-01-01

272

SEASONAL ACTIVITY OF PINK HIBISCUS MEALYBUG IN EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA BASED ON PHEREOMONE TRAPPING OF MALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A research project was established in East Central Florida communities of Melbourne (Brevard County) and Port Saint Lucie (St. Lucie County) to assess the seasonal activity of pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM) using sticky traps baited with a new synthetic pheromone. The residual activity of synthetic ph...

273

A model-based reconstruction of Holocene treeline dynamics in the Central Swiss Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 We used the forest succession model F ?? C ??? to simulate Holocene treeline dynamics along an elevational transect in the Central European Alps, in order to explore the extent and cause of changes in treeline altitude and composition. 2 A temperature reconstruction independent of vegetation proxies was used to drive the model, and the simulation results were

C. HEIRI; H. BUGMANN; W. TINNER; O. HEIRI; H. LISCHKE

2006-01-01

274

Geodynamics of Central Europe Based On Observations of The GPS Euref Stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When azimuths of the horizontal movement vectors processed from GPS data mon- itored during several campaigns on regional networks situated in the Central Europe (the East Sudeten, the West Alps, the Trans-Alpen area) were compared, they dis- played remarkable changed in their values evaluated from two sequential campaigns with respect to next ones. As adopted, the GPS data processed of one campaign are ordinarily linked to a close EUREF station (or stations) to be joined to an Interna- tional Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Even though the interconnection to the ITRF, the vector azimuths for one site evaluated from different campaigns can still show changes. To eliminate this effect, available movements of the Central European EUREF stations were analysed with respect to geological structural units in that rela- tively coincident character of geodynamic movements are expected. Several "geody- namic" units were identified and delineated for an area of the Central Europe. Then, directions of the horizontal vector azimuths of network sites were incorporated into the unit scheme above mentioned. The paper will present data analysis of the EU- REF stations, the geodynamic unit scheme for the Central Europe and comparisons of geodynamic horizontal movements of the EUREF stations and the network sites. Fur- ther, an assessment of interrelated movements among the individual structural units was estimated. The geodynamic pattern of Central European unit movements brings more transparent understanding of mutual relations between EUREF stations and the regional GPS networks observations. The data analyse of GPS observations were sup- ported by the program of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport 'Research Centre', No. LN00A005, and by the project of the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic, No. 205/01/0480.

Schenk, V.

275

Red/near-infrared luminescence tuning of group-14 element complexes of dipyrrins based on a central atom.  

PubMed

A dipyrrin complex has been one of the most utilized fluorescent dyes, and a variety of dipyrrin complexes show intriguing functions based on the various coordination structures of the central element. We now report the synthesis, structure, and photophysical properties of germanium and stannane complexes of the N2O2-type tetradentate dipyrrin, L·Ge and L·Sn, which are heavier analogues of the previously reported dipyrrin silicon complex, L·Si. The central group-14 atoms of the monomeric complexes have geometries close to trigonal bipyramidal (TBP), in which the contribution of the square-pyramidal (SP) character becomes higher as the central atom is heavier. Interestingly, L·Sn formed a dimeric structure in the crystal. All complexes L·Si, L·Ge, and L·Sn showed a fluorescence in the red/NIR region. Fluorescence quantum yields of L·Ge and L·Sn are higher than that of L·Si. These results indicated that the central atom on the dipyrrin complexes contributes not only to the geometry difference but also to tuning the fluorescence properties. PMID:24422462

Yamamura, Masaki; Albrecht, Marcel; Albrecht, Markus; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Arai, Tatsuo; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

2014-02-01

276

Central giant cell granuloma mimicking an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.  

PubMed

Central giant cell granulomas are non-neoplastic lesions of unknown etiology. They affect females more than males with the mandibular anterior region being the most common site of occurrence. Clinically central giant cell granulomas present as asymptomatic, expansile swellings causing deviation of associated teeth. Radiologically they usually presents as multilocular lesions causing expansion or perforation of cortical bone. Central giant cell granulomas are usually confused as other lesions both clinically and radiologically, and a definitive diagnosis can be made only histologically. We report here a rare case of central giant cell granuloma in association with congenitally missing tooth which was misdiagnosed to be an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor both clinically and radiologically. This case report also highlights yet another unique presentation of central giant cell granulomas that is in association with a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor. PMID:22090775

Daryani, Deepak; Gopakumar, R

2011-07-01

277

Co-Existence of Two Dens Invaginations with One Dens Evagination in a Maxillary Lateral Incisor: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

A case with two simultaneous dens invaginations (DIs) and one dens evagination (DE) in a permanent maxillary lateral incisor is reported for the first time in a 21-year-old girl. DE known as talon cusp of the anterior teeth is a rare entity and its co-existence with DI has been reported scarcely in the literature. Simultaneous occurrence of two DIs with one DE has not been reported elsewhere. Undoubtedly, familiarity with the internal anatomy of such a rare condition can help prevent pulpal disease while performing restorative procedures.

Satvati, Seyed Amir; Shooriabi, Mohammad; Sharifi, Rouhollah; Parirokh, Masoud; Sahebnasagh, Marzieh; Assadian, Hadi

2014-01-01

278

Prediction of extreme floods in the eastern Central Andes based on a complex networks approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfall events in the Central Andes of South America. These events are spatially extensive and often result in substantial natural hazards for population, economy and ecology. Here we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by introducing the concept of network divergence on directed networks derived from a non-linear synchronization measure. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and predict more than 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of rainfall events above the 99th percentile in the Central Andes. In addition to the societal benefits of predicting natural hazards, our study reveals a linkage between polar and tropical regimes as the responsible mechanism: the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics.

Boers, N.; Bookhagen, B.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Marwan, N.; Kurths, J.; Marengo, J. A.

2014-10-01

279

Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

Klein, T.L.

2004-01-01

280

Pollen-based reconstructions of late Holocene climate from the central and western Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lake-sediment cores from the western and central Canadian Arctic were used to investigate late Holocene climate variability\\u000a in the region. Both cores were analyzed for pollen, organic matter, biogenic silica, and magnetic susceptibility, and were\\u000a dated using a combination of 210Pb and 14C techniques. Core MB01, from southwestern Victoria Island, provides a 2600-year-long record. Fossil pollen percentages, along\\u000a with

Matthew C. Peros; Konrad Gajewski

2009-01-01

281

The role of emotion on the recall of central and peripheral information from script-based text.  

PubMed

In three experiments, script-based stories were used to provide thematic emotion. Consistent with past research expressing emotion thematically, emotion aided recall of both central and peripheral information. However, emotion had to be directly associated with the central or peripheral information, and emotion only facilitated memory for peripheral information when peripheral information alone was associated with the emotion. Emotion did not aid overall recall of stories. Positive and negative emotions were generally better recalled when they were incongruent with the information they were associated with, such as a positive emotion associated with an interruptive action. These results provide evidence that thematically expressed, low arousal emotion can have facilitative effects on memory. Implications for the role of emotion on memory are discussed. PMID:24625271

Davidson, Denise; Vanegas, Sandra B

2015-01-01

282

Synthesis and in vitro transfection efficiency of spermine-based cationic lipids with different central core structures and lipophilic tails.  

PubMed

Twelve spermine-based cationic lipids with four different central core structures (di(oxyethyl)amino, di(oxyethyl)amino carboxy, 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl and 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl) and three hydrophobic tails (lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid) were synthesized. The liposomes containing lipids and DOPE showed moderate to good in vitro DNA delivery into HeLa cells. GFP expression experiments revealed that liposomes composed of lipids with 3-amino-1,2-dioxypropyl as a central core structure exhibited highest transfection efficiency under serum-free condition. Whereas, lipid with 2-amino-1,3-dioxypropyl core structure showed highest transfection under 10% serum condition. Moreover, the liposomes and lipoplexes composted of these cationic lipids exhibited low cytotoxicity. PMID:25556091

Niyomtham, Nattisa; Apiratikul, Nuttapon; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Opanasopit, Praneet; Yingyongnarongkul, Boon-Ek

2015-02-01

283

An Immature Type II Dens Invaginatus in a Mandibular Lateral Incisor with Talon's Cusp: A Clinical Dilemma to Confront  

PubMed Central

Dens invaginatus (DI) is a malformation of teeth probably resulting from an infolding of the dental papilla during tooth development. DI is classified as type I, II, and III by Oehlers depending on the severity of malformation. The maxillary lateral incisor is the most commonly affected tooth. Structural defects do exist in the depth of the invagination pits, and as a consequence, the early development of caries and the subsequent necrosis of the dental pulp, as well as abscess and cyst formation are clinical implications associated with DI. Occasionally, we can see more than one developmental anomaly occurring in a single tooth. In such cases it becomes important to identify the anomalies and initiate a proper treatment plan for good prognosis. In this paper, an unusual case of DI which clinically presented as a huge talons cusp affecting a mandibular lateral incisor tooth is described. This case report illustrates grinding of the talons cusp followed by nonsurgical endodontic management of dens invaginatus type II with an immature apex and periapical lesions, in which Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) shows a complete periapical healing with bone formation at the site of the lesions. PMID:24660071

Singal, Deepa; Giri, K. Y.; Keerthi, S. Sruthi

2014-01-01

284

Prosthodontic considerations in the implant-supported all-ceramic restoration of congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor: a clinical report.  

PubMed

The congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor is the most common agenesis in the anterior region. There are several treatment options for this anomaly, which causes severe deficiencies: orthodontic space closure, tooth-supported restoration, or single-tooth implant. Each of these solutions has a high degree of success if used in the correct situation. An implant-supported restoration with an interdisciplinary approach provides a predictable outcome. This article describes the treatment of a patient with agenesis of the maxillary left lateral incisor. After orthodontic space management, it was decided to restore the tooth with an all-ceramic crown cemented on a zirconia custom abutment, which fractured after only 6 weeks of service. Fractographic analysis revealed that the failure was due to over-reduction of the buccal wall to correct the labial emergence of the implant. Zirconia abutments should be designed with even wall thicknesses of at least 0.8 mm to avoid areas that may compromise functional success. PMID:24118630

Martínez-Rus, Francisco; Rivera, Begoña; Özcan, Mutlu; Pradíes, Guillermo

2014-04-01

285

Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

2014-01-01

286

Bmi1 represses Ink4a/Arf and Hox genes to regulate stem cells in the rodent incisor  

PubMed Central

The polycomb group gene Bmi1 is required for maintenance of adult stem cells in many organs1, 2. Inactivation of Bmi1 leads to impaired stem cell self-renewal due to deregulated gene expression. One critical target of BMI1 is Ink4a/Arf, which encodes the cell cycle inhibitors p16ink4a and p19Arf3. However, deletion of Ink4a/Arf only partially rescues Bmi1 null phenotypes4, indicating that other important targets of BMI1 exist. Here, using the continuously-growing mouse incisor as a model system, we report that Bmi1 is expressed by incisor stem cells and that deletion of Bmi1 resulted in fewer stem cells, perturbed gene expression, and defective enamel production. Transcriptional profiling revealed that Hox expression is normally repressed by BMI1 in the adult, and functional assays demonstrated that BMI1-mediated repression of Hox genes preserves the undifferentiated state of stem cells. As Hox gene upregulation has also been reported in other systems when Bmi1 is inactivated1, 2, 5–7, our findings point to a general mechanism whereby BMI1-mediated repression of Hox genes is required for the maintenance of adult stem cells and for prevention of inappropriate differentiation. PMID:23728424

Biehs, Brian; Hu, Jimmy Kuang-Hsien; Strauli, Nicolas B.; Sangiorgi, Eugenio; Jung, Heekyung; Heber, Ralf-Peter; Ho, Sunita; Goodwin, Alice F.; Dasen, Jeremy S.; Capecchi, Mario R.; Klein, Ophir D.

2013-01-01

287

Fracture resistance of cementum-extended composite fillings in severely damaged deciduous incisors: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to comparatively assess the fracture resistance of the cementum-extended and conventional composite fillings with or without intracanal composite posts in severely damaged deciduous incisors. Materials and Methods: This in vitro study was performed on 60 extracted deciduous maxillary incisors that were randomly divided into four groups: Group 1: Composite filling (CF); Group 2: Composite filling with composite posts (CF + CP); Group 3: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum (ceCF); Group 4: Composite filling extended 0.5 mm to cementum with composite posts (ceCF + CP). The fracture resistance was assessed by exerting a progressively increasing load with a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a Universal Testing Machine. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by SPSS-18 using one-way analysis of variance at ? < 0.05. Results: The mean fracture resistance (MFR) values of the experimental groups were 410.57 ± 139.44 N, 564.44 ± 92.63 N, 507.5 ± 76.37 N and 601.08 ± 96.04 N. A significant difference was found between the MFR of Groups 1 and 2, Groups 1 and 4 and Groups 3 and 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A superior outcome was achieved by intracanal composite posts in both conventional and cementum-extended composite fillings. PMID:25512722

Seraj, Bahman; Ehsani, Sara; Taravati, Shirin; Ghadimi, Sara; Fatemi, Mostafa; Safa, Sahar

2014-01-01

288

Conservation Action Based on Threatened Species Capture Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Richness in Breeding and Wintering Populations of Central Asian Birds  

PubMed Central

Although phylogenetic diversity has been suggested to be relevant from a conservation point of view, its role is still limited in applied nature conservation. Recently, the practice of investing conservation resources based on threatened species was identified as a reason for the slow integration of phylogenetic diversity in nature conservation planning. One of the main arguments is based on the observation that threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree. However this argument seems to dismiss the fact that conservation action is a spatially explicit process, and even if threatened species are not evenly distributed over the phylogenetic tree, the occurrence of threatened species could still indicate areas with above average phylogenetic diversity and consequently could protect phylogenetic diversity. Here we aim to study the selection of important bird areas in Central Asia, which were nominated largely based on the presence of threatened bird species. We show that although threatened species occurring in Central Asia do not capture phylogenetically more distinct species than expected by chance, the current spatially explicit conservation approach of selecting important bird areas covers above average taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of breeding and wintering birds. We conclude that the spatially explicit processes of conservation actions need to be considered in the current discussion of whether new prioritization methods are needed to complement conservation action based on threatened species. PMID:25337861

Schweizer, Manuel; Ayé, Raffael; Kashkarov, Roman; Roth, Tobias

2014-01-01

289

Pliocene-Quaternary evolution of the continental shelf of central Vietnam based on high resolution seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continental shelf of central Vietnam is characterized by complex geological structures in a strike-slip setting and thus by unique morphology compared to other parts of the Vietnam shelf. Studying the Pliocene-Quaternary sediments in this area allows the processes that control the stratigraphic evolution to be highlighted. In this paper, we present new results derived from high resolution seismic data that reveal the geological evolution of the continental shelf of central Vietnam during the Pliocene-Quaternary. Our results demonstrate that the continental shelf of central Vietnam is narrow relatively to other parts of the Vietnam shelf. The evolution of the shelf during the Pliocene-Quaternary was controlled by the pre-Pliocene rifting process. However, fault systems below the present shelf were not strongly active during the Pliocene-Quaternary period, except for several listric faults in the slope. Nonetheless, Quaternary volcanic activities occurred widely both offshore and onshore, especially near the major faults. The Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary deposits were subdivided into 7 units based on unconformities as result of marine regression corresponding to glacial cycles. Sedimentary environments during this period consist of coastal plain, fluvial, nearshore and shelf environments. Most of the Holocene sediments were trapped nearshore while the outer shelf is characterized by abundant lag gravels as a result of rapid sea level rise between ˜20 and 8 ka.

Tan, Mai Thanh; Dung, Le Van; Bach, Le Duy; Bieu, Nguyen; Nghi, Tran; Long, Hoang Van; Huong, Phan Thien

2014-01-01

290

Exploring a type of central pattern generator based on hindmarsh-rose model: from theory to application.  

PubMed

This paper proposes the idea that Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuronal model can be used to develop a new type of central pattern generator (CPG). Some key properties of HR model are studied and proved to meet the requirements of CPG. Pros and cons of HR model are provided. A CPG network based on HR model is developed and the related properties are investigated. We explore the bipedal primary gaits generated by the CPG network. The preliminary applications of HR model are tested on humanoid locomotion model and functional electrical stimulation (FES) walking system. The positive results of stimulation and experiment show the feasibility of HR model as a valid CPG. PMID:25146328

Zhang, Dingguo; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Xiangyang

2015-02-01

291

The beaver Anchitheriomys from the Miocene of Central Europe  

SciTech Connect

New finds of teeth and mandibles of Anchitheriomys from the Hambach opencast lignite mine in Northwest Germany and the first detailed descriptions of other mandibles from South Germany and Switzerland allow a review of the Central European specimens of this rare beaver genus. The metric variation of cheek teeth and especially the great differences in dimensions of incisors can be much better assessed. The observed range in size can be attributed to ontogenetic changes, and all material is assigned to Anchitheriomys suevicus. Stratigraphically, this species is restricted to the early middle Miocene, European Mammalian Neogene biozones MN 5-6.

Stefen, C.; Mors, T. [Museum Tierkunde, Dresden (Germany)

2008-09-15

292

Peripherally inserted central catheter: compliance with evidence-based indications for insertion in an inpatient setting.  

PubMed

A randomized, retrospective chart review was conducted at a medium-sized community hospital to verify appropriateness of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in 49 inpatient patients. Study results support the Infusion Nurses Society recommendation to use PICCs to facilitate either short- or long-term intravenous therapy of vesicants, irritants, and any medications with a pH less than 5 or greater than 9 and osmolarity greater than 600 mOsm/L. All PICC insertion criteria recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were met except one--the intended duration of intravenous therapy of more than 6 days. Identical PICC selection criteria are needed to standardize clinical practice. PMID:23823005

Wojnar, Danuta G; Beaman, Margaret L

2013-01-01

293

Study of attenuation structure for central Anatolia region, Turkey based on Keskin seismic array data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Anatolia is bounded in the north by the well-known north Anatolian fault system (NAFS) and on the south-southwest is bounded by the east Anatolian fault system (EAFS). The central area does not have major faults and acts as a single block moving westward. This region is not considered as seismically active as the NAFS or EAFS but the recent moderate-size Bala earthquakes (Ml=5.7, Ml= 5.5) on 20 and 27 December 2007 near the Tuz golu fault may be an indication of future seismic activity. In order to get a better picture of the crustal structure of this region we applied Coda Normalization method for the measurement of Qs-1 as a function of frequency for the frequencies 1.5, 3, 6, 8 Hz. 20 and 27 December 2007 Bala earthquakes (Ml magnitude 5.6 an 5.5) and their aftershocks recorded by the Keskin seismic array (International Monitoring System code BRTR) is analyzed in this study. Keskin seismic array has a small aperture circular design with 6 vertical short period and 1 broadband borehole seismometers. In addition, Multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method was applied to the data for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation inm the region at the same frequencies. MLTWA method allowed a separation between the intrinsic attenuation and scattering attenuation. Preliminary results show a relatively low attenuation compared to western and eastern anatolia regions. This might be explained by the less seismicity in the region. A study of the regional and site attenuation of seismic waves of earthquakes in this area will contribute in predicting earthquake generated ground-motion and becomes vital in making decisions for earthquake regulations, building codes and to monitoring nuclear explosions.

Semin, K. U.; Ozel, N. M.

2011-12-01

294

CENTRAL AVENUE CENTRAL AVENUE  

E-print Network

., 10 am­4 pm 2 China Moon Restaurant 121 Central Park Sq. 662-2883 Chinese, Thai, and vegetarian. Mon am­3 pm Sat.­Sun., 7 am­3 pm 8 El Parasol 1903 Central Avenue 661-0303 Native New Mexican food. Mon, hamburgers, and New Mexican food. Tues.­Fri., 6 am­1 pm Sat., 7 am­noon Closed Sunday & Monday 11 Sonic Drive

295

CENTRAL AVENUE CENTRAL AVENUE  

E-print Network

Sun., 10 am­4 pm 2 China Moon Restaurant 121 Central Park Sq. 662-2883 Chinese, Thai, and vegetarian Mexican food. Mon.­Fri., 7 am­6 pm Sat., 8 am­2 pm; Sun., 9 am­2 pm 9 Home Run Pizza 1627 Central Avenue-7591 Breakfast burritos, hamburgers, and New Mexican food. Tues.­Fri., 6 am­1 pm Sat., 7 am­noon Closed Sunday

296

Central Issues in the Use of Computer-Based Materials for High Volume Entrepreneurship Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses issues relating to the use of computer-based learning (CBL) materials for entrepreneurship education at university level. It considers CBL as a means of addressing the increased volume and range of provision required in the current context. The issues raised in this article have importance for all forms of computer-based…

Cooper, Billy

2007-01-01

297

An Evaluation of Incisor Relapse in Premolar Extraction and Nonextraction Patients Premolar Çekimli ve Çekimsiz Hastalarda Kesici Relapsinin De?erlendirilmesi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term postretention changes in four first premolar extraction and nonextraction patients to detect relapse in maxillary and mandibular dental arches and consider the associated factors with upper and lower incisor crowding. Subjects and Method: 15 cases were treated by four first premolar extraction and 30 cases without extraction. All of

TANER DDS; Derya GERMEÇ DDS

298

Association between Dental Erosion and Diet in Brazilian Adolescents Aged from 15 to 19: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Dental erosion is a pathological condition resulting from the irreversible dissolution of the mineralized portion of the teeth, being recognized in modern society as an important cause of loss of tooth structure. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and its association with diet in Brazilian adolescents of Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. A population-based study was conducted on a stratified sample of 675 adolescents aged from 15 to 19 of both sexes using the index proposed by O'Sullivan. Dental examinations were performed by two calibrated dentists (kappa?=?0.82). The significance level adopted was 5%. The prevalence of dental erosion was 21%, and the upper central incisors and lateral incisors were the most affected elements, with 50.5% and 40.2%, respectively. The buccal surface showed greater impairment (51.4%) and 67.8% of teeth with dental erosion had more than half of the surface of affected area. Most damage was on the enamel (93.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between the occurrence of dental erosion and gender, age, socioeconomic status, self-reported ethnicity, and diet. There was high prevalence of dental erosion in its early stages among adolescents and there were no significant differences in the frequency of the consumption of foods and beverages and the presence of dental erosion. PMID:24695943

Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; dos Santos, Fábio Gomes; Moura, Eline Freitas de Farias; da Costa, Fernanda Clotilde Mariz; Auad, Sheyla Marcia; de Paiva, Saul Martins; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

2014-01-01

299

Glycosiderophores: synthesis of tris-hydroxamate siderophores based on a galactose or glycero central scaffold, Fe(III) complexation studies.  

PubMed

A series of five new hexadentate tris-hydroxamate ligands based on a d-galactose or a glycerol scaffold have been synthesized. Protonation and ferric complex formation constants have been determined from solution studies by potentiometric and spectrophotometric titrations. All ligands form 1:1 Fe:L complexes. The calculated pFe values at pH 7.4 span over the range 19.2-23.0 depending on the scaffold and on the length of the spacers between hydroxamate and central scaffold and on the N-methyl substitution. This new kind of artificial siderophores based on a glycoscaffold is of interest as it opens up an easy way to modulate the pFe. PMID:22551986

Neff, Christelle; Bellot, François; Waern, Jenny-Birgitta; Lambert, François; Brandel, Jérémy; Serratrice, Guy; Gaboriau, François; Policar, Clotilde

2012-07-01

300

Security of Business to Business and Business to Customer Software Applications based on the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (CDMB) and evolutionary models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development, implementation and testing for Security of Business to Business and Business to Customer Software Applications System is based on the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (CDMB), where we derive DNA Cryptographic Keys based on evolutionary models as public-key algorithms are based on mathematical functions rather than on substitution and permutation involving the use of two separate keys, in

Tatiana Hodorogea; Ionas Szilard Otto

2011-01-01

301

Development and Delivery of Ecologically-based IPM Packages in Central Asia Central Asia Regional IPM Program Year 3 Work plans  

E-print Network

, Tajikistan Dr. Doug Landis, Michigan State University Dr. Mustapha El-Bouhssini, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria Dr countries include Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The technical objectives of the Central Asia and technologies for IPM packages for wheat, potatoes and tomatoes in three host countries (Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan

302

Indoor Mobile Robot Navigation by Central Following Based on Monocular Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops the indoor mobile robot navigation by center following based on monocular vision. In our method, based on the frontal image, two boundary lines between the wall and baseboard are detected. Then, the appearance based obstacle detection is applied. When the obstacle exists, the avoidance or stop movement is worked according to the size and position of the obstacle, and when the obstacle does not exist, the robot moves at the center of the corridor. We developed the wheelchair based mobile robot. We estimated the accuracy of the boundary line detection, and obtained fast processing speed and high detection accuracy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our mobile robot by the stopping experiments with various obstacles and moving experiments.

Saitoh, Takeshi; Tada, Naoya; Konishi, Ryosuke

303

Centralized Monitoring of the Microsoft Windows-based computers of the LHC Experiment Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control system of each of the four major Experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is distributed over up to 160 computers running either Linux or Microsoft Windows. A quick response to abnormal situations of the computer infrastructure is crucial to maximize the physics usage. For this reason, a tool was developed to supervise, identify errors and troubleshoot such a large system. Although the monitoring of the performance of the Linux computers and their processes was available since the first versions of the tool, it is only recently that the software package has been extended to provide similar functionality for the nodes running Microsoft Windows as this platform is the most commonly used in the LHC detector control systems. In this paper, the architecture and the functionality of the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) client developed to provide centralized monitoring of the nodes running different flavour of the Microsoft platform, as well as the interface to the SCADA software of the control systems are presented. The tool is currently being commissioned by the Experiments and it has already proven to be very efficient optimize the running systems and to detect misbehaving processes or nodes.

Varela Rodriguez, F.

2011-12-01

304

Centralized role-based access control for federated multi-domain environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secure interaction among multiple security domains is a major, concern. In this paper, we highlight the issues of secure\\u000a interoperability among multiple security domains operating under the widely accepted Role Based Access Control (RBAC) model.\\u000a We propose a model called CRBAC that easily establishes a global policy for roles mapping among multiple security domains.\\u000a Our model is based on

Yu Guangcan; Li Zhengding; Li Ruixuan; Mudar Sarem

2006-01-01

305

The central role of chloride in the metabolic acid-base changes in canine parvoviral enteritis.  

PubMed

The acid-base disturbances in canine parvoviral (CPV) enteritis are not well described. In addition, the mechanisms causing these perturbations have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to assess acid-base changes in puppies suffering from CPV enteritis, using a modified strong ion model (SIM). The hypothesis of the study was that severe acid-base disturbances would be present and that the SIM would provide insights into pathological mechanisms, which have not been fully appreciated by the Henderson-Hasselbalch model. The study analysed retrospective data, obtained from 42 puppies with confirmed CPV enteritis and 10 healthy control dogs. The CPV-enteritis group had been allocated a clinical score, to allow classification of the data according to clinical severity. The effects of changes in free water, chloride, l-lactate, albumin and phosphate were calculated, using a modification of the base excess algorithm. When the data were summated for each patient, and correlated to each individual component, the most important contributor to the metabolic acid-base changes, according to the SIM, was chloride (P<0.001). Severely-affected animals tended to demonstrate hypochloraemic alkalosis, whereas mildly-affected puppies had a hyperchloraemic acidosis (P=0.007). In conclusion, the acid-base disturbances in CPV enteritis are multifactorial and complex, with the SIM providing information in terms of the origin of these changes. PMID:24613416

Burchell, Richard K; Schoeman, Johan P; Leisewitz, Andrew L

2014-04-01

306

The effects of incisor inclination changes on the position of point A in Class II division 2 malocclusion using three-dimensional evaluation: a long-term prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate change in the sagittal position of point A due to orthodontic treatment by orthodontic community-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and methods: 40 subjects (22 males and 18 females) who had Class II division 2 malocclusion were recruited, and 40 subjects (23 males and 17 females) who had minor crowding in the beginning of the treatment and required no or minimal maxillary anterior tooth movement were served as control. The changes in maxillary incisor inclination, sagittal position of point A, SNA angle, and movement of incisor root apex and incisal edge were calculated before and after CBCT treatment. Results: Maxillary incisors were significantly proclined in the study group but not in the control group. This proclination resulted in 2.95 mm backward movement of the root apex and 6.23 mm forward movement of the incisal edge of maxillary incisors. Point A moved 1.24 mm and 0.18 mm backward in the study and control groups, respectively. Incisor root apex and incisal edge almost remained stable in the control group. No significant change was observed in the SNA angle in both the study and control groups. However, the change in SNA between the two groups was found to be significant. Conclusions: Proclination of maxillary incisors with backward movement of incisor root apex caused posterior movement of point A. This posterior movement significantly affects the SNA angle. PMID:25419382

Chen, Qiushuo; Zhang, Caixia; Zhou, Yu

2014-01-01

307

Magmatic occurrences in the Central Arava (southern Israel) based on Geology and Magnetometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eshet Ridge is located in the Central Arava near Wadi Paran. Geological data were collected using ground magnetic surveys and petrophysical measurements (magnetic susceptibility and density). The goal was to reveal the structure and nature of a concealed magmatic body under the ridge. Integrated gravity and magnetic interpretation together with seismic reflection data (including 2¾ modeling) indicated the presence of a deep-seated basic magmatic intrusion. Occurrence of Fe-mineralized rocks along the ridge supports subsurface data. The magmatic body was intruded in the hard Turonian rocks of the Eshet Ridge. Basic magmatic exposures dating from the Early Miocene were evident along Wadi Ashosh (in the eastern Negev) and its margins 18 km. to the north of the ridge. A new outcrop of basic magmatic intrusion was found southwest of the Tzukim settlement. Magnetic measurements indicated a similarity between their magnetic pattern and the Ashosh basic magmatics, which were dated to 20.4 ± 0.7 Ma. Volcanoclastic tuff pebbles (magnetic susceptibility of around 2-7 * 10-3 SI) surrounded by conglomerate were discovered at two sites in Wadi Demma and Wadi Menuha (streams that drain near the Eshet Ridge and 2 km south of it, respectively). The conglomerates contained mostly limestone, chalk and chert fragments; not more than 5% of which were volcanic pebbles. Two pebbles were dated to 24.4 ± 0.7and 21.5 ± 0.5 Ma. The magmatic outcrops in Wadi Ashosh, the magmatic dyke near Tzukim and the volcanic purple and black pebbles near Wadi Menuha were all dated to the very Late Oligocene-Early Miocene. The magmatic body identified in this study under the Eshet Ridge was termed the Eshet Intrusion and is connected to, and even the source of, all these phenomena.

Hanan, Ginat; Michael, Rybakov; Boris, Shirman; Michael, Lazar

2014-05-01

308

Short-term treatment effects of quad-helix on maxillomandibular expansion in patients with maxillary incisor crowding.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the maxillary arch expansion on maxillomandibular arch widths in patients treated with the quad-helix versus untreated controls. The treatment group consisted of 50 consecutive patients treated for maxillary incisor crowding with a quad-helix appliance in the early mixed dentition. Lateral cephalograms and dental casts taken at the start (T0) and end (T1) of the quad-helix treatment were obtained. The control group consisted of 50 untreated patients with the same type of malocclusion. Two consecutive lateral cephalograms and dental casts of each untreated patient were taken at about the same time as T0 and T1. All these study materials were analyzed for comparison between the two groups. The mean ages at T0 and T1 in the two groups were about the same. The maxillary first molars moved and tipped distally in the treatment group and mesially in the control group. The quad-helix treatment actually expanded the mandibular and maxillary arches concurrently. The more the maxillary arch widths were expanded and the less the maxillary first molars were inclined distally, the more the mandibular arch widths were expanded. The quad-helix activation caused lingual tipping and mesiobuccal rotation of the maxillary first molars. The mesiobuccal rotation of the maxillary first molars could turn molar occlusal relationships for the better from Class II to Class I. The quad-helix treatment gives rise to spontaneous expansion of the mandibular arch concurrent with maxillary expansion in the early mixed dentition patients with maxillary incisor crowding. PMID:21674183

Shundo, Isao; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Endo, Toshiya

2012-01-01

309

Properly managed forage-based cow-calf operations in south Central Florida are environmentally friendly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil phosphorus levels in subtropical forage-based beef cattle pastures with bahiagrass (BG) and rhizoma peanut – mixed grass (RP-G) declined from 1988 to 2004. During the past 15 years, there was no buildup of Mehlich-1 extractable soil P and other crop nutrients despite annual nitrogen and phospho...

310

Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

2012-01-01

311

Knowledge-Based, Central Nervous System (CNS) Lead Selection and Lead Optimization for CNS Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

The central nervous system (CNS) is the major area that is affected by aging. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), brain cancer, and stroke are the CNS diseases that will cost trillions of dollars for their treatment. Achievement of appropriate blood–brain barrier (BBB) penetration is often considered a significant hurdle in the CNS drug discovery process. On the other hand, BBB penetration may be a liability for many of the non-CNS drug targets, and a clear understanding of the physicochemical and structural differences between CNS and non-CNS drugs may assist both research areas. Because of the numerous and challenging issues in CNS drug discovery and the low success rates, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to deprioritize their drug discovery efforts in the CNS arena. Prompted by these challenges and to aid in the design of high-quality, efficacious CNS compounds, we analyzed the physicochemical property and the chemical structural profiles of 317 CNS and 626 non-CNS oral drugs. The conclusions derived provide an ideal property profile for lead selection and the property modification strategy during the lead optimization process. A list of substructural units that may be useful for CNS drug design was also provided here. A classification tree was also developed to differentiate between CNS drugs and non-CNS oral drugs. The combined analysis provided the following guidelines for designing high-quality CNS drugs: (i) topological molecular polar surface area of <76 Å2 (25–60 Å2), (ii) at least one (one or two, including one aliphatic amine) nitrogen, (iii) fewer than seven (two to four) linear chains outside of rings, (iv) fewer than three (zero or one) polar hydrogen atoms, (v) volume of 740–970 Å3, (vi) solvent accessible surface area of 460–580 Å2, and (vii) positive QikProp parameter CNS. The ranges within parentheses may be used during lead optimization. One violation to this proposed profile may be acceptable. The chemoinformatics approaches for graphically analyzing multiple properties efficiently are presented. PMID:22267984

2011-01-01

312

A conodont-based standard reference section in central Nevada for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ranges of conodonts in stratigraphic sections at five localities in the Monitor and Antelope ranges of central Nevada are used graphically to assemble a standard reference section for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series. The base of the series is officially 0.3 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in the stratotype in Whiterock Canyon (Monitor Range). The top is the level at which Baltoniodus gerdae makes a brief appearance in an exposure of the Copenhagen Formation on the flanks of Hill 8308 in the western Antelope Range. Graphic compilation of the sections considered in this report also indicates that a level correlative with the base of the Whiterockian Series in the stratotype section is 66 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in its de facto type section on Martin Ridge in the eastern part of the Monitor Range. Ranges, diversity, and the composition of the conodont faunas differ markedly in lithofacies adjacent to the basal boundary of the series; hence we are unable to identify a single conodont species, in a credible developmental sequence, to serve as biological marker of that boundary.

Sweet, W.C.; Ethington, R.L.; Harris, A.G.

2005-01-01

313

A radar?based methodology for preparing a severe thunderstorm climatology in central Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radar data Analysis, Processing and Interactive Display (RAPID) system, developed by McGill University researchers, synthesizes spherical coordinate radar data onto Cartesian maps displaying Constant Altitude Plan Position Indicator (CAPPI) reflectivity, Vertically Integrated Liquid water content (VIL), and other radar?based parameters. In this study, Carvel radar (53.34°N, 114.09°W) data from July 2000 were processed using McGill's RAPID software. Specifically, we

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter; Aldo Bellon; David Hudak

2004-01-01

314

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-print Network

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01

315

Simulation of a rubber plantation productivity in central Cambodia using the individual-based dynamic vegetation model SEIB-DGVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide a useful tool for building strategy of forest plantation management, we developed the Spatially Explicit Individual-Based (SEIB) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) applicable to simulate productivity of tree plantations (SEIB-PP). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers that are being replaced. Describing both primary and latex productivities in rubber plantations via SEIB-PP is, therefore, important to understanding the climatic impacts on productive processes. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia, and here, we show some examples of projections: the rubber plantation production under future climate change conditions.

Kumagai, T.; SATO, H.; Shinjiro, Ph. D., F.

2013-12-01

316

Remotely Sensed Drought Estimation in Central Greece based on Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Droughts are regional phenomena and have been referred to as "non events", since their basic cause is the lack of precipitation events in a region over a period of time associated with a higher than normal temperatures. The severity of drought depends upon the degree of moisture deficiency, the duration and the size of the affected area. Drought impacts significantly affect the ecosystems, social - economic environment and mainly agricultural areas which necessitate the monitoring and assessment of drought's onset, duration, severity and areal extent. There is a variety of drought indices provided in literature. Among them the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) has been recently developed and applied. RDI is used to estimate the hydro-meteorological drought conditions based on precipitation and potential evapotraspiration. This index is already applied in several areas of Greece using conventional ground measurements. In order to map the drought conditions over a large area, Remote Sensing and GIS techniques could be utilized. This work estimates RDI based on remotely sensed and GIS data for the spatial detection of drought in Greece. The data set consists of monthly air temperature derived from NOAA/AVHRR satellite image of Land Surface Temperature (LST) in 8 x 8 km pixel size, and monthly cumulative precipitation maps extracted from daily ground measurements values. The timeseries covers a twenty hydrological years time period from 1981 to 2001 due to the limited availability of satellite data. Monthly potential evapotraspiration is estimated by the Blaney - Criddle method, using maps of air temperature, crop coefficients and day- hours for each pixel with 500 x 500 m resolution. Monthly RDI maps for 3-, 6-, 9 and 12-month are extracted from 1981 to 2001 hydrological years and they compared with the conventional data based RDI in selected areas. The correlation between conventional and satellite RDI in these areas indicates that RDI seems adequate to estimate and monitor the hydro- meteorological drought spatially variation.

Kanellou, Efrossini; Domenikiotis, Christos; Dalezios, Nicolas

2010-05-01

317

Healthcare information exchange system based on a Hybrid central/federated model.  

PubMed

The quality of care can be significantly enhanced and healthcare cost can be substantially reduced if healthcare providers can have access to patient records that are scattered among several paper and electronic based systems. Major challenges of Healthcare Information Exchange result from patient's medical records being kept in several healthcare provider offices, clinics and hospitals in different formats. There are two major problems with healthcare information retrieval. The first problem is lack of visibility and knowledge as to where patient's medical records reside. The second problem is lack of access to information and also incompatibility of data formats. A considerable coverage of Electronic Information Exchange among Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems remains to be implemented despite extensive standardization efforts toward providing solutions. The adoption pace of available standards and solutions has been slow with the exception of some public/government entities. This paper describes a comprehensive and practical solution based on a distributed system with independent subsystems that control and manage processes and data flow of information exchange. The Registrar Subsystem creates a directory of healthcare providers and patients. The Security Subsystem provides authentication and authorization services across all subsystems. The Locators address patient and medical location lookup. The Agents act on behalf of healthcare providers to communicate with other subsystems. The Mediators facilitate information retrieval. The Solution comprises of three levels of participation that allows healthcare providers to join the system easily by starting from basic semi-manual information exchange level and then migrating to a fully electronic and automated information exchange. The Solution is modeled based on variety of standards and protocols used in Internet and other application fields as well as healthcare specific standards and proposals. PMID:25570220

Ghane, Kamran

2014-08-01

318

Wetlands Maps of Central Canada based on L-band SAR Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many boreal wetlands appear to be evolving into significant sources of greenhouse gases. The ability to accurately quantify the locations, types, and extents of northern wetlands is important to understanding their role in the global carbon cycle and responses to changes in climate. However, due to the extent of boreal wetlands and their inaccessibility, there have been few maps produced of this important ecosystem. To address this need, we have been constructing high-resolution (100 m) thematic maps of North American boreal wetlands. The maps are developed using space-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR), which is capable of efficiently providing high-resolution imagery of vast and often inaccessible regions. Unlike optical imagery, space-based SAR imagery is unaffected by cloud cover. Additionally, L-band SAR is able to sense vegetation structure and moisture content, as well as ground and surface water characteristics (even under vegetation canopies), thereby providing information unobtainable from optical sensors. Space-based L-band SAR thus constitutes an excellent tool for mapping boreal wetlands. One wetlands map is based on HH-polarized L-band SAR imagery from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1), collected for both summer and winter in the late 1990s. A second map is based on dual-polarized (HH and HV) imagery from the Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR) sensor, collected in the summer of 2007. Prior to classification, a sequence of preprocessing steps are executed, including filtering, mosaicking, resampling, reprojection, co-registration, and the formation of supplementary data layers such as image texture, topographic slope, and proximity to water. This preprocessing is implemented by a semi-automated software suite specifically designed to handle the large volumes of data involved in the project. Training/testing data needed in the classification process are formed by merging national wetland inventory and land cover databases. Finally, a 'Random Forests' decision tree classifier takes in the processed SAR and other data layers, along with the training/testing data, and uses them to produce a thematic wetlands map. The accuracy of the resulting classification product is quantified by calculating producer and user error statistics for all validation pixels within the mapped region. Thematic change maps are generated from the SAR-derived maps, thereby allowing decadal changes in wetland extent and type to be identified. These change maps provide information on wetland dynamics and responses to anthropogenic and climatic influences over a large spatial area. This work was done in part within the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative, with portions carried out at the University of Southern California and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under contract to National Aeronautics and Space Administration. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility.

Whitcomb, J.; Moghaddam, M.; Clewley, D.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Chapman, B. D.

2013-12-01

319

Axioms for Centrality  

E-print Network

Given a social network, which of its nodes are more central? This question has been asked many times in sociology, psychology and computer science, and a whole plethora of centrality measures (a.k.a. centrality indices, or rankings) were proposed to account for the importance of the nodes of a network. In this paper, we try to provide a mathematically sound survey of the most important classic centrality measures known from the literature and propose an axiomatic approach to establish whether they are actually doing what they have been designed for. Our axioms suggest some simple, basic properties that a centrality measure should exhibit. Surprisingly, only a new simple measure based on distances, harmonic centrality, turns out to satisfy all axioms; essentially, harmonic centrality is a correction to Bavelas's classic closeness centrality designed to take unreachable nodes into account in a natural way. As a sanity check, we examine in turn each measure under the lens of information retrieval, leveraging sta...

Boldi, Paolo

2013-01-01

320

Quaternary Inferences on Central Arctic Ocean Circulation and Sediment Provenance Based on Diffuse Spectral Reflectance Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstruction of Arctic Ocean surface circulation during the quaternary provides an important constraint on the potential magnitude of future Arctic change based on the observed range of natural variation in this climatically sensitive region. The second leg of the 2005 Healy-Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition (HOTRAX) recovered 21 jumbo piston cores across the Arctic Ocean, spanning the Alpha-Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges, providing unprecedented coverage of the major Arctic basins. Inter-comparison of shipboard lithostratigraphy with Multi-Sensor core logs enables preliminary correlation of material from the Alpha- Mendeleev Ridges, and with less certainty, the Lomonosov Ridge. Some unique stratigraphic features such as a distinctive change in lithology and prominent IRD layers provide the basis for correlation with previously developed stratigraphies. This overall correlation is confirmed by 1 cm post-cruise color reflectance measurements and indicates an overall increase in sedimentation rates from the Alpha Ridge to the southern Mendeleev Ridge, and even higher rates for the Lomonosov Ridge. Principle Component Analysis of the reflectance data using representative cores raised from the major Arctic Ocean ridge systems extract components interpreted to be related to smectite-chlorite (53%), illite (39%), and goethite (4%). Together these three components account for 95% of the variance in the data set. In addition, the first two components can be used to reconstruct downcore sediment Mn oxide fluctuations, a useful proxy for glacial-interglacial intervals. Downcore analysis of the resulting components indicates an inverse correlation between smectite- chlorite which reaches maxima during interglacial and interstadial intervals when sediment Mn is also high, and illite and goethite which reach maxima during glacial and stadial intervals when sediment Mn is low. These variations are likely driven by contrasts in glacial vs. interglacial sedimentation regimes, bottom water residence times, and changes in the interplay of the Beaufort Gyre and the Transpolar Drift.

Ortiz, J. D.; Polyak, L.; Jakobsson, M.; Darby, D.

2006-12-01

321

Electronic Medical Record in Central Polyclinic of Isfahan Oil Industry: A Case Study Based on Technology Acceptance Model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Today, health information technologies are base of health services and Electronic Medical Record is one of them. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) on EMR at Central Polyclinic Oil Industry that is a pioneer in implementation of EMR in Isfahan. Methods This study was an applied and analytical survey that it was done at the Central Polyclinic Oil Industry. Because statistical population were limited, sampling bas been done by conducting the census and the sample was according to the population. The data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire that it was validated by experts and its reliability was confirmed by test retest. The questionnaire was developed in 5 scopes including external factors (data quality and user interface), perceived usefulness, perceived ease of usefulness, attitude toward using, and behavioral intention to use. The Results analyzed by SPSS. Results There was a significant relationship between data quality with PU(r=/295, p/005). Discussion The survey of the scopes in the polyclinic showed that there is relationship among user interface, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of usefulness, attitude toward using, and behavioral intention to use, but data quality has no relationship with attitude. It seems the system designers didn’t consider to data quality characteristics. It is proposed that they consult with health information management professionals for improvement the existing system. PMID:23572857

Tavakoli, Nahid; Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Shahin, Arash; Mokhtari, Habibollah; Rafiei, Maryam

2013-01-01

322

Aetiologies of Central Nervous System infections in adults in Kathmandu, Nepal: A prospective hospital-based study  

PubMed Central

We conducted a prospective hospital based study from February 2009-April 2011 to identify the possible pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital (Patan Hospital) in Kathmandu, Nepal. The pathogens of CNS infections were confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using molecular diagnostics, culture (bacteria) and serology. 87 patients were recruited for the study and the etiological diagnosis was established in 38% (n = 33). The bacterial pathogens identified were Neisseria meningitidis (n = 6); Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 5) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) in 13/87(14%). Enteroviruses were found in 12/87 (13%); Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) in 2/87(2%). IgM against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was detected in the CSF of 11/73 (15%) tested samples. This is the first prospective molecular and serology based CSF analysis in adults with CNS infections in Kathmandu, Nepal. JEV and enteroviruses were the most commonly detected pathogens in this setting. PMID:23924886

Giri, Abhishek; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Rishav; van Tan, Le; Thi Thuy Chinh, Bkrong Nguyen; Krishna K. C., Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Shakya, Mila; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Basnyat, Buddha

2013-01-01

323

Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to improve the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy in the central nervous system  

PubMed Central

Antiretroviral drug therapy plays a cornerstone role in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Despite obvious advances over the past 3 decades, new approaches toward improved management of infected individuals are still required. Drug distribution to the central nervous system (CNS) is required in order to limit and control viral infection, but the presence of natural barrier structures, in particular the blood–brain barrier, strongly limits the perfusion of anti-HIV compounds into this anatomical site. Nanotechnology-based approaches may help providing solutions for antiretroviral drug delivery to the CNS by potentially prolonging systemic drug circulation, increasing the crossing and reducing the efflux of active compounds at the blood–brain barrier, and providing cell/tissue-targeting and intracellular drug delivery. After an initial overview on the basic features of HIV infection of the CNS and barriers to active compound delivery to this anatomical site, this review focuses on recent strategies based on antiretroviral drug-loaded solid nanoparticles and drug nanosuspensions for the potential management of HIV infection of the CNS. PMID:24741312

Gomes, Maria João; Neves, José das; Sarmento, Bruno

2014-01-01

324

A central support system can facilitate implementation and sustainability of a Classroom-based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics.  

PubMed

In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"-a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the Genomics Education Partnership, a nationwide faculty consortium that aims to provide undergraduates with a research experience in genomics through a scheduled course (a classroom-based undergraduate research experience, or CURE). We examine the common barriers encountered in implementing a CURE, program elements of most value to faculty, ways in which a shared core support system can help, and the incentives for and rewards of establishing a CURE on our diverse campuses. While some of the barriers and rewards are specific to a research project utilizing a genomics approach, other lessons learned should be broadly applicable. We find that a central system that supports a shared investigation can mitigate some shortfalls in campus infrastructure (such as time for new curriculum development, availability of IT services) and provides collegial support for change. Our findings should be useful for designing similar supportive programs to facilitate change in the way we teach science for undergraduates. PMID:25452493

Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E J; Bednarski, April E; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J; DiAngelo, Justin R; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P; Kopp, Olga R; Kuleck, Gary A; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L; Reed, Laura D; Regisford, E Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A; Rosenwald, Anne G; Rubin, Michael R; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T; Spana, Eric P; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C R

2014-01-01

325

Temporary replacement of missing maxillary lateral incisors with orthodontic miniscrew implants in growing patients: rationale, clinical technique, and long-term results.  

PubMed

The missing maxillary lateral incisor in adolescent patients presents an orthodontic challenge. Historically, there have been three treatment options to address this clinical problem: (1) canine substitution, (2) tooth auto-transplantation, and (3) dental restoration. Unfortunately, these methods are not without limitation. A novel treatment concept, originating in 2003 and utilizing orthodontic miniscrew implants, is presented along with the rationale, clinical technique and 8 years of follow-up. PMID:25138368

Cope, Jason B; McFadden, David

2014-09-01

326

Late Quaternary ostracode-based paleoenvironmental reconstructions from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala and Lake Chalco, central Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern and fossil ostracodes in lakes from central Mexico (Chalco) to lowland Guatemala (Petén Itzá) were used to infer paleoenvironmental conditions during the last 45 ka. Ostracode-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction from sediment cores in Lake Petén Itzá was based on a modern calibration data set from 63 water bodies in Guatemala, Mexico (Yucatán Peninsula) which provided information on the modern ecological preferences of 29 ostracode species. Statistical analysis indicated that lake water conductivity and chemical composition determine ostracode distributions on the Yucatán Peninsula and that lake level is a strong determinant of species distribution in Lake Petén Itzá. Transfer functions were applied to fossil species assemblages in long sediment cores from Lake Petén Itzá to infer past conductivity and lake level. Over the past 45 ka, ostracodes in Lake Petén Itzá were sensitive to fluctuations in lake water chemical composition and lake stage. Relative abundances of ostracode taxa and stable isotope values in their shells indicate large environmental changes from the LGM to deglaciation, and into the Holocene. The LGM was characterized by low species richness (n=4), dominance of benthic taxa, cold conditions and moderate to high lake levels. The deglaciation displayed higher species richness (n=6), dominance of nektobenthic taxa, and alternating dry and wet conditions, with low to relatively high lake levels. The Holocene was dominated by the deep-water ostracode Physocypria globula, indicating warmer temperatures and higher lake levels. Preliminary results from Lake Chalco sediment cores indicate ostracodes were scarce during the LGM and deglacial, but displayed higher abundances in older deposits. Ostracodes identified in the sediment record include Limnocythere sp., Candona patzcuaro and Darwinula stevensoni. The only species in common with the Lake Petén Itzá record is D. stevensoni. Deglacial species richness in Chalco (n=3) was lower than in Lake Petén Itzá (n=6). Because the species in Lake Chalco cores differ from those in the Petén Itzá record, a training set specifically for central Mexico was developed, using 28 water bodies. About 15 ostracode species have been identified and transfer functions to infer environmental variables will be developed. We will compare stable oxygen and carbon isotope records, measured on fossil ostracode remains in dated cores from Lakes Chalco and Petén Itzá, to infer past regional climate conditions.

Perez, L.; Lozano, S.; Caballero, M.; Brenner, M.; Schwalb, A.

2013-05-01

327

Base surge deposits, eruption history, and depositional processes of a wet phreatomagmatic volcano in Central Anatolia (Cora Maar)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cora Maar is a Quaternary volcano located to the 20 km northwest of Mount Erciyes, the largest of the 19 polygenetic volcanic complexes of the Cappadocian Volcanic Province in central Anatolia. Cora Maar is a typical example of a maar-diatreme volcano with a nearly circular crater with a mean diameter of c.1.2 km, and a well-bedded base surge-dominated maar rim tephra sequence up to 40 m in thickness. Having a diameter/depth ratio ( D/ d) of 12, Cora is a relatively "mature" maar compared to recent maar craters in the world. Cora crater is excavated within the andesitic lava flows of Quaternary age. The tephra sequence is not indurated, and consists of juvenile clasts up to 70 cm, non-juvenile clasts up to 130 cm, accretionary lapilli up to 1.2 cm in diameter, and ash to lapilli-sized tephra. Base surge layers display well-developed antidune structures indicating the direction of the transport. Both progressive and regressive dune structures are present within the tephra sequence. Wavelength values increase with increasing wave height, and with large wavelength and height values. Cora tephra display similarities to Taal and Laacher See base surge deposits. Impact sags and small channel structures are also common. Lateral and vertical facies changes are observed for the dune bedded and planar bedsets. According to granulometric analyses, Cora Maar tephra samples display a bimodal distribution with a wide range of Md ? values, characteristic for the surge deposits. Very poorly sorted, bimodal ash deposits generally vary from coarse tail to fine tail grading depending on the grain size distribution while very poorly sorted lapilli and block-rich deposits display a positive skewness due to fine tail grading.

Gençalio?lu-Ku?cu, Gonca; Atilla, Cüneyt; Cas, Ray A. F.; Ku?cu, ?lkay

2007-01-01

328

Central Asia IPM CRSP 2008-09 Annual Report 1 Ecologically-Based Participatory and Collaborative Research and  

E-print Network

of California, Davis Research Fellows in Central Asia: Dr. Nurali Saidov (Tajikistan), Dr. Barno Tashpulatova Host Countries: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan #12;Central Asia IPM CRSP 2008-09 Annual Report 2 into existing farming systems in various agro- ecological zones of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan in collaboration

329

A study of sustainable development of chinese central cities based on the grey fixed-weight clustering method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable development of the central cities has great effect on the development of Chinese urbanization. In this paper, we present a synthetic index system to appraise the urban sustainable development level with respect to economy, society, and environment. Combining the grey fixed-weight clustering method with the levelled eigenvalue method, we evaluate the sustainable development level of 18 central cities

Zhang Guangyi; Li Xiaohui; Tan Qingmei

2007-01-01

330

periostin Null Mice Exhibit Dwarfism, Incisor Enamel Defects, and an Early-Onset Periodontal Disease-Like Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Periostin was originally identified as an osteoblast-specific factor and is highly expressed in the embryonic periosteum, cardiac valves, placenta, and periodontal ligament as well as in many adult cancerous tissues. To investigate its role during development, we generated mice that lack the periostin gene and replaced the translation start site and first exon with a lacZ reporter gene. Surprisingly, although periostin is widely expressed in many developing organs, periostin-deficient (perilacZ) embryos are grossly normal. Postnatally, however, ?14% of the nulls die before weaning and all of the remaining perilacZ nulls are severely growth retarded. Skeletal analysis revealed that trabecular bone in adult homozygous skeletons was sparse, but overall bone growth was unaffected. Furthermore, by 3 months, the nulls develop an early-onset periodontal disease-like phenotype. Unexpectedly, these mice also show a severe incisor enamel defect, although there is no apparent change in ameloblast differentiation. Significantly, placing the perilacZ nulls on a soft diet that alleviated mechanical strain on the periodontal ligament resulted in a partial rescue of both the enamel and periodontal disease-like phenotypes. Combined, these data suggest that a healthy periodontal ligament is required for normal amelogenesis and that periostin is critically required for maintenance of the integrity of the periodontal ligament in response to mechanical stresses. PMID:16314533

Rios, Hector; Koushik, Shrinagesh V.; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Ming; Lindsley, Andrew; Rogers, Rhonda; Chen, Zhi; Maeda, Manabu; Kruzynska-Frejtag, Agnieszka; Feng, Jian Q.; Conway, Simon J.

2005-01-01

331

Multiple traumatic injury to maxillary incisors in an adolescent female: treatment outcome with two years follow-up  

PubMed Central

Summary Number, type and severity of dental injuries per patient differ according to the patient’s age and the cause of accident. The trauma group resulting from pedestrian-, bicycle-, and car-related injuries is usually dominated by multiple dental injuries, injuries to the supporting bone and soft-tissue injuries. This report describes a case of a 16.2-year-old female who suffered traumatic injuries to her permanent maxillary incisors after a car accident. Concussion of tooth 12, extrusive luxation of tooth 11, avulsion of tooth 21 and subluxation with complicated crown fracture of tooth 22 were observed at the emergency visit 75 minutes after the trauma. Tooth 21 was dry stored for 15 minutes, then in milk for 60 minutes. The treatment plan according to IADT guidelines was performed with the satisfaction of the dentists and the patient. After 1 year follow- up a replacement root resorption of tooth 21 was diagnosed; it was then considered severe at the time of the 2 year control visit. Educational programs are essential to optimize the treatment outcome both at the accident site and also at the dental office. PMID:23991273

Biagi, Roberto; Cardarelli, Filippo; Storti, Ennio; Majorana, Alessandra; Farronato, Giampietro

2013-01-01

332

A pollen-based reconstruction of summer temperature in central North America and implications for circulation patterns during medieval times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a reconstruction of mean summer temperature for the northern Midwest of the USA based on lacustrine pollen records from three different lakes in Wisconsin. The results suggest a relatively warm period during the earlier part of the record (~ 1200-1500 CE) followed by a cooler Little Ice Age (~ 1500-1900) and a subsequent warming to modern conditions. The reconstructed modern summer mean temperature is in good agreement with observations, and the decades of the 1930s to 1950s appear to be the warmest such period in the proxy record (through 1974). Analyses of circulation features associated with the warmest summers in the recent climate record suggest a prevalence of continental ridging accompanied by generally dry conditions during these warm summers in the Midwest. Drought reconstruction using the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and tree-ring records as predictors also yield relatively dry conditions in medieval times for the central US. As reported in a number of recent studies, possible forcing mechanisms include La Niña-like conditions in the equatorial Pacific and warmer than average waters in the tropical Indo-western Pacific Ocean possibly coupled to a positive mode of the AMO/NAO North Atlantic circulation pattern.

Wahl, Eugene R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Ohlwein, Christian

2012-03-01

333

Applicability of a monoclonal antibody-based dipstick in diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in the Central Region of Ghana.  

PubMed

Summary We tested a rapid visually read monoclonal antibody (MoAb) based dipstick assay for specific diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis against microscopy and the use of haematuria and proteinuria in a schistosomiasis haematobia endemic area in the Central Region of Ghana. The study group consisted of 141 school children (83 males, 58 females) aged 8-19 years. A total of 129 of 141 (91.5%) submitted stool samples, and 7.8% had Schistosoma mansoni, 55% had hookworms and 6.2% had tapeworms. The presence of S. mansoni and intestinal parasites did not appear to influence the results of the MoAb-dipstick assay. The urinary schistosomiasis prevalence by MoAb-dipstick (78%) was higher (P < 0.05) than the estimate by microscopy (60.3%), microhaematuria (27%) and proteinuria (30.5%). The MoAb-dipstick correctly identified 98.8% of microscopically confirmed cases and missed one (1.3%). The dipstick was also positive for 26 of 56 (46.4%) egg-negative individuals, thereby giving a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 53.6%. On the other hand, microhaematuria and proteinuria were 38.8% and 30.6% sensitive, and 91.1% and 69.6% specific, respectively. Microhaematuria and proteinuria were less sensitive (P < 0.05) than both microscopy and MoAb-dipstick. PMID:15361112

Bosompem, Kwabena M; Owusu, Osei; Okanla, E O; Kojima, Somei

2004-09-01

334

GIS-based probability assessment of natural hazards in forested landscapes of Central and South-Eastern Europe.  

PubMed

We assessed the probability of three major natural hazards--windthrow, drought, and forest fire--for Central and South-Eastern European forests which are major threats for the provision of forest goods and ecosystem services. In addition, we analyzed spatial distribution and implications for a future oriented management of forested landscapes. For estimating the probability of windthrow, we used rooting depth and average wind speed. Probabilities of drought and fire were calculated from climatic and total water balance during growing season. As an approximation to climate change scenarios, we used a simplified approach with a general increase of pET by 20%. Monitoring data from the pan-European forests crown condition program and observed burnt areas and hot spots from the European Forest Fire Information System were used to test the plausibility of probability maps. Regions with high probabilities of natural hazard are identified and management strategies to minimize probability of natural hazards are discussed. We suggest future research should focus on (i) estimating probabilities using process based models (including sensitivity analysis), (ii) defining probability in terms of economic loss, (iii) including biotic hazards, (iv) using more detailed data sets on natural hazards, forest inventories and climate change scenarios, and (v) developing a framework of adaptive risk management. PMID:20535611

Lorz, C; Fürst, C; Galic, Z; Matijasic, D; Podrazky, V; Potocic, N; Simoncic, P; Strauch, M; Vacik, H; Makeschin, F

2010-12-01

335

GIS-based Probability Assessment of Natural Hazards in Forested Landscapes of Central and South-Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assessed the probability of three major natural hazards—windthrow, drought, and forest fire—for Central and South-Eastern European forests which are major threats for the provision of forest goods and ecosystem services. In addition, we analyzed spatial distribution and implications for a future oriented management of forested landscapes. For estimating the probability of windthrow, we used rooting depth and average wind speed. Probabilities of drought and fire were calculated from climatic and total water balance during growing season. As an approximation to climate change scenarios, we used a simplified approach with a general increase of pET by 20%. Monitoring data from the pan-European forests crown condition program and observed burnt areas and hot spots from the European Forest Fire Information System were used to test the plausibility of probability maps. Regions with high probabilities of natural hazard are identified and management strategies to minimize probability of natural hazards are discussed. We suggest future research should focus on (i) estimating probabilities using process based models (including sensitivity analysis), (ii) defining probability in terms of economic loss, (iii) including biotic hazards, (iv) using more detailed data sets on natural hazards, forest inventories and climate change scenarios, and (v) developing a framework of adaptive risk management.

Lorz, C.; Fürst, C.; Galic, Z.; Matijasic, D.; Podrazky, V.; Potocic, N.; Simoncic, P.; Strauch, M.; Vacik, H.; Makeschin, F.

2010-12-01

336

Central heating plant economic evaluation program. Volume 3. Military base weather information data management program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Public Law has directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to rehabilitate and convert its existing domestic power plants to burn more coal. Other Federal legislation requires DOD to use the most economic fuel for any new heating system. This five-volume report discusses the Central Heating Plant Economic Evaluation Program (CHPECON), a computer program for screening potential new and retrofit steam/power generation facilities. Volume 1 is the Technical Reference. Volume 2 is the User`s Manual. Volume 3 is the Military Base Weather Information Data Management Program. Volume 4 is the Coalfield Properties Information Data Management Program. Volume 5 is the Emission Regulations Data Management Program. CHPECON provides screening criteria to evaluate competing combustion technologies using coal, gas, or oil; detailed conceptual facility design information; budgetary facility costs; and economic measures of project acceptability including total life cycle costs and levelized cost of service. The program provides sufficient flexibility to vary critical design and operating parameters to determine project sensitivity and parametric evaluation.

Lin, M.C.; Moshage, R.; Schanche, G.; Blazek, C.; Biederman, R.

1995-01-01

337

Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Gingiva: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present a case of an uncommon and slow-growing tumor known as a central odontogenic fibroma (COF). The patient in question is a 53-year-old African-American man who was referred for periodontal evaluation of asymptomatic space formation between the mandibular central incisors. Clinical and radiological evaluations disclosed tumor-like tissue expanding the alveolar ridge in the buccolingual dimension, along with thinning of the cortical plates. Surgical excision was performed, and the specimen was sent for histopathology, which later confirmed that the lesion was a COF. Periodontal regenerative therapy was performed to rebuild the hard and soft tissue that had been compromised as a result of tumor expansion. The site was grafted, with excellent results. PMID:25646136

Soolari, Ahmad; Khan, Asghar

2015-01-01

338

Efficacy of two cannabis based medicinal extracts for relief of central neuropathic pain from brachial plexus avulsion: results of a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of cannabis-based medicines for treatment of chronic pain associated with brachial plexus root avulsion. This condition is an excellent human model of central neuropathic pain as it represents an unusually homogenous group in terms of anatomical location of injury, pain descriptions and patient demographics. Forty-eight patients with at least one avulsed root and

Jonathan S. Berman; Catherine Symonds; Rolfe Birch

2004-01-01

339

Pliocene to Quaternary Central American tephrostratigraphy based on marine Tephras from ODP and DSDP sites - first comprehensive study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) is, and has been, one of the most active volcanic regions and generated numerous Plinian eruptions along his 1200 km extension. The best preserved archive of this volcanism can be found as ash layers in the marine sediments downwind from the volcanic sources on the Pacific floor. Numerous ash layers up to 8 Mio old, which occur in ODP and DSDP cores of Legs 66, 67, and 202, originated in Central America and southern Mexico. The cores lie across the ash distribution areas expected from dominant wind directions as identified by mapped fallout deposits. We have chosen 145 ash layers of all three Legs for first detailed analysis of these sites to built up a data base for upcoming IODP cruise 334: Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project. The ash layers commonly have sharp contacts at the bottom and diffuse transitions to terrigenous and pelagic sediments at the top. Ash layer thickness ranges from 0.5 to 60 cm with typical grain sizes from medium silt to coarse sand. The mineral assemblages are typical for arc volcanism (plagioclase, pyroxene, hornblende, and olivine). The most evolved tephras also contain biotite. Electron microprobe analyses of 1300 glass shards yield compositions ranging from basaltic andesite to rhyolite and trachyte. Felsic ashes can be divided into seven compositional groups by means of silica and potassium contents. Correlations between marine ashes and on-land tephras are constrained by petrographical and stratigraphical criteria, major element geochemistry of glasses and minerals, and trace element data from LA-ICP-MS analyses. Due to limited exposure on land, such correlations with individual tephras are only possible for deposits of late Pleistocene to Holocene age. Older ash layers, however, can be correlated with regional arc segments making use of systematic along-arc variations of trace-element characteristics (Zr/Nb, Ba/La, Ce/Yb, La/Yb and Ba/Zr) of the arc rocks. Results show that source areas of the ash layers are distributed along the entire CAVA, as well as at the Southern Mexican Arc. The marine tephra record provides important data for ongoing studies of CAVA volcanism: (a) dating of undated land tephra by correlation with marine ashes and the ages derived by sedimentation rates; (b) stratigraphic correlations along the entire arc can be traced much more completely in the marine sediment cores than by limited onshore outcrops alone; (c) long-term changes in magmatic evolution of volcanic complexes can be reconstructed by using the marine archive of ash layers.

Strehlow, K.; Kutterolf, S.; Freundt, A.; Kwasnitschka, T.

2010-12-01

340

Effects of aliskiren- and ramipril-based treatment on central aortic blood pressure in elderly with systolic hypertension: a substudy of AGELESS  

PubMed Central

Background Systolic hypertension is the most common form of hypertension in elderly patients. There is increasing evidence that measurement of central aortic pressure (CAP) better accounts for cardiovascular risk than brachial blood pressure (BP). The Aliskiren for GEriatric LowEring of SyStolic hypertension (AGELESS) study in elderly patients with systolic hypertension showed that aliskiren-based therapy provided greater reductions in peripheral BP than ramipril-based therapy over 12 and 36 weeks of treatment. Here, we present CAP results in a substudy of elderly patients from the AGELESS study. Methods This was a post hoc analysis of a 36-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, optional-titration study in patients ?65 years of age with systolic BP ?140 mmHg. Changes in both central and peripheral BP and pulse pressure (PP) and changes in systolic and PP amplification ratios from baseline to the week 36 end point with aliskiren-based versus ramipril-based therapy were analyzed. Results Of the 901 patients randomized in the overall study, 154 patients (aliskiren, n=78; ramipril, n=76) had CAP data. Numerically comparable reductions were seen for central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) in aliskiren-based therapy (baseline: 143.7±15.0; week 36: ?20.3±16.2) compared with ramipril-based therapy (baseline: 147.9±11.9; week 36: ?20.7±14.6). However, for the change in central aortic diastolic pressure, the least squares mean between-treatment difference (?3.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, ?6.76, ?0.43; P=0.0263]) was in favor of aliskiren, while the other changes were comparable between the two groups with a trend in favor of aliskiren for CASP as well (?2.6 mmHg [95% confidence interval, ?7.38, 2.19; P=0.2855)]. Correlation coefficients for change from baseline between CASP and systolic BP and between central aortic pulse pressure and PP (r=0.8, P<0.0001) were highly significant. Conclusion Aliskiren-based therapy provides comparable reductions in CASP to ramipril-based therapy. Although the results did not reach statistical significance, these findings, when coupled with those of the main study, suggest that aliskiren may offer effective control of central BP in elderly patients with systolic hypertension and may be a good alternative to ramipril. PMID:25061313

Baschiera, Fabio; Chang, William; Brunel, Patrick

2014-01-01

341

ScienceCentral: open access full-text archive of scientific journals based on Journal Article Tag Suite regardless of their languages.  

PubMed

ScienceCentral, a free or open access, full-text archive of scientific journal literature at the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies, was under test in September 2013. Since it is a Journal Article Tag Suite-based full text database, extensible markup language files of all languages can be presented, according to Unicode Transformation Format 8-bit encoding. It is comparable to PubMed Central: however, there are two distinct differences. First, its scope comprises all science fields; second, it accepts all language journals. Launching ScienceCentral is the first step for free access or open access academic scientific journals of all languages to leap to the world, including scientific journals from Croatia. PMID:24266292

Huh, Sun

2013-01-01

342

Mutation analysis of BRIP1 in male breast cancer cases: a population-based study in Central Italy.  

PubMed

Breast cancer (BC) in men is rare compared with BC in women, but its incidence is increasing along with attention toward this uncommon disease. Although with some differences, male and female BC share similar genetic predisposition factors, including BRCA1/2, CHEK2, and PALB2 mutations. As other BRCA1/2 functionally related DNA repair genes, such as CHEK2 and PALB2, BRIP1 is considered a moderate-penetrance BC susceptibility gene. At present, the role of BRIP1 on BC susceptibility in men is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess whether BRIP1 variants may contribute to male BC (MBC) risk, by screening 97 MBC cases, all negative for BRCA1/2, CHEK2, and PALB2 mutations, selected from a population-based series of 126 MBCs from Central Italy. A total of five BRIP1 germ-line sequence alterations, three coding, and two non-coding variants, were detected in our series. The two non-coding variants IVS4-28G > A and 3'UTR 4049C > T were classified as neutral by in silico analysis. Of the three coding variants, one was a silent variant (E879E) and two resulted in amino acid substitution (R264W and P919S) showing a putative pathogenic role by in silico analysis. However, further analysis of tumor-associated loss of heterozygosity and the frequency of variant alleles, tested in 203 male population controls, suggested a neutral effect for both of these variants. Overall, our results indicate that BRIP1 variants may not play a relevant role in MBC predisposition. PMID:21165771

Silvestri, Valentina; Rizzolo, Piera; Falchetti, Mario; Zanna, Ines; Masala, Giovanna; Bianchi, Simonetta; Palli, Domenico; Ottini, Laura

2011-04-01

343

Questionnaire-based survey on the clinical management of canine leishmaniosis in the Madrid region (central Spain).  

PubMed

This paper describes a questionnaire designed to gain information on how veterinarians clinically manage canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in the Madrid region (central Spain). The present survey is one of the several similar questionnaire-based surveys conducted within the framework of the project EDEN (Emerging Diseases in a changing European eNvironment). The questionnaire sought to obtain data regarding the main clinical manifestations observed, the diagnostic methods used and the preventive measures recommended. Its Spanish version was sent by post to veterinary practitioners within the study area in two lots, one sent out in December 2006 and the other in March 2007. Only 174 of the 760 questionnaires sent were completed and returned (reply rate of 23%). Among the completed questionnaires, clinics differed widely in terms of features such as the habitats of the dogs (urban, peri-urban or rural) and patient volumes. Clinics attending dogs from peri-urban/rural habitats reported more suspected (p<0.001), confirmed (p=0.001) and newly diagnosed (p=0.001) cases/year than clinics providing service to a city clientele alone. According to the veterinary practitioners, skin lesions, lymphadenomegaly and weight loss were commonly observed, although these signs are not specific to CanL. Signs described to be of high diagnostic value were epistaxis and kidney disease. All the veterinarians polled reported that a suspicion of Leishmania infantum infection was confirmed by at least a serological method; the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) being the technique most used. To prevent the disease, most vets recommended topical synthetic pyrethroids applied as impregnated collars or spot-ons. It is observed that despite considerable progress is being made in clinical management and controlling the disease, in Madrid Region its incidence continues to increase. PMID:21821298

Gálvez, R; Miró, G; Descalzo, M A; Molina, R

2011-10-01

344

Field based measurements of albedo for two candidate perennial cellulosic feedstocks and row crops in Central Illinois  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy present the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as a climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observationally and modeling based approaches, including life cycle analyses have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and biophysical increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo, which will alter the local energy balance and could cause a local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. To address this factor an experiment consisting of paired fields of Miscanthus and Switchgrass, two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional row crops was established in central Illinois. Data from the first two growing seasons indicate that this effect is most pronounced during the spring and fall as perennial biofuel crops green up earlier and senesce later than common annual row crops. The albedo of the perennials converges to that of the row crops during the growing season as the canopies develop. During the early winter, before the perennial crops are harvested, the albedo over fallow soybean and maize fields can vary greatly depending on snowfall and, to a lesser extent, soil moisture, whereas perennials show less variation. Thus, perennial biofuel crops also have the potential to buffer the local environment against short-term variations in climate. These factors should be considered when evaluating the tradeoffs and climate-regulation services associated with large-scale planting of bioenergy crops.

Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Bernacchi, C. J.

2012-12-01

345

Mapping hydrological environments in central Amazonia: ground validation and surface model based on SRTM DEM data corrected for deforestation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important freely available digital elevation models (DEMs) for Amazonia is the one obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). However, since SRTM tends to represent the vegetation surface instead of the ground surface, the broad use of SRTM DEM as a framework for terrain description in Amazonia is hampered by the presence of deforested areas. We present here two datasets: (1) a deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM for the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, in central Amazonia, which passed through a careful identification of different environments and has deforestation features corrected by a new method of increasing pixel values of the DEM; and (2) a set of eighteen hydrological-topographic descriptors based on the corrected SRTM DEM. The hydrological-topographic description was generated by the Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm, which normalizes the terrain elevation (a.s.l.) by the elevation of the nearest hydrologically connected drainage. The validation of the HAND dataset was done by in situ hydrological description of 110 km of walking trails also available in this dataset. The new SRTM DEM expands the applicability of SRTM data for landscape modelling; and the datasets of hydrological features based on topographic modelling is undoubtedly appropriate for ecological modelling and an important contribution for environmental mapping of Amazonia. The deforestation-corrected SRTM DEM is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.318.3/ppbio; the polygons selected for deforestation correction are available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.317.3/ppbio; the set of hydrological-topographic descriptors is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.544.2/ppbio; and the environmental description of access trails is available at http://ppbio.inpa.gov.br/knb/metacat/naman.541.2/ppbio.

Moulatlet, G. M.; Rennó, C. D.; Costa, F. R. C.; Emilio, T.; Schietti, J.

2014-07-01

346

Effects of unpolymerized resin components on the function of accessory cells derived from the rat incisor pulp.  

PubMed

Monomeric resin components from dental composites are toxic to fibroblasts in culture and thus may interfere with the local immune system of the pulp, reducing its effective defense potential, either by cytotoxicity or by a more specific immune mechanism. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to observe the cytotoxic effects elicited by certain unpolymerized components of resin composites upon the function of accessory pulp cells in mitogen-induced proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Accessory cells from the rat incisor pulp were released following enzymatic digestion with collagenase. The assay included incubation of these cells with purified T-lymphocytes from cervical lymph nodes for 72 h in the presence of different concentrations of the resin components. The proliferative T-lymphocyte response was monitored by 3H-thymidine incorporation. Initially, we conducted experiments on spleen cells to determine the proper concentration intervals for suitable testing of the resin components. To assess the individual susceptibility of accessory cells and T-lymphocytes, we pre-treated each of these cells with some of the test materials prior to assay. At low concentrations, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), bisglycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA), triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), and bis-phenol A (BPA) increased spleen cell proliferation to concanavalin A (con A). Purified T-lymphocytes stimulated by pulpal cells did not show enhanced responses to UDMA, bis-GMA, glycidyl mehtacrylate (GMA), or N,N,-dihydroxyethyl-p-toluidine (DHEpT). At higher concentrations, all substances except camphoroquinone (CAMP) showed inhibitory effects in both test systems. The in vitro study shows that resin components can evoke either immunosuppression or immunostimulation on mitogen-driven proliferation of purified T-lyumphocytes and spleen cells. PMID:7790593

Jontell, M; Hanks, C T; Bratel, J; Bergenholtz, G

1995-05-01

347

Hypohyperdontia: Agenesis of three third molars and mandibular centrals associated with midline supernumerary tooth in mandible.  

PubMed

Agenesis of teeth in a patient who also presents with a supernumerary tooth is one of the rare numerical anomalies in human dentition. Agenesis of third molars was shown to be associated with other missing permanent teeth. A review of literature on hypodontia including third molar agenesis, hyperdontia and a concomitant presence of these two conditions which is termed as hypohyperdontia is presented along with a case showing agenesis of three third molars, both mandibular central incisors and a midline supernumerary tooth. PMID:22114403

Nuvvula, Sivakumar; Kiranmayi, M; Shilpa, G; Nirmala, S V S G

2010-07-01

348

Pedostratigraphy of pre-Quaternary/Quaternary red paleosols from Central Europe based on geochemical and clay mineralogical proxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical and mineralogical studies of paleosols provide essential information for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental interpretation of continental deposits and can present a high-resolution proxy for paleoclimate. Consequently, paleosols can help to interpret the history of sediment deposition and the autogenic and allogenic processes that influenced a sedimentary basin. Paleosols are also helpful in stratigraphic studies, including sequence stratigraphic analyses. They are used for stratigraphic correlations at the local and basinal scale, and some workers have calculated sediment accumulation rates based on the degree of paleosol development. The horizons of paleosols are widely used as key horizons for the stratigraphic subdivision of continental sedimentary series. The reliability of usage of paleopedologic data has increased, especially with the development of methods of absolute and relative dating: radiocarbon, luminescent, paleomagnetic, amino acid, and paleontological (palynological and paleofaunistic) with geochemical and clay mineralogical data. The use of paleosols as components of the stratigraphic record has increased, especially after paleosols morphotypical features of different ages were studied. Paleosols in various sediment sections were once compound units of soil covers of different ages. Results from geochemical climofunctions applied to Upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene red clays and paleosols located in East-Central Europe (Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Serbia and Romania) together with other geochemical data, clay mineralogy and fossil record, indicate that there were three major periods of their development. 1. The older type red clay/paleosol (age ~4.2-3.2 Ma) is red kaolinitic clay containing typically disordered kaolinite, mixed-layer smectite/kaolinite, smectite and little gibbsite. It was formed in the local subaerial weathering crust in warm, humid, subtropical or monsoon climate. 2. The younger type (age ~3.2-2.5 Ma) contains red (or "reddish") clay beds. It contains relatively fresh material (illite, chlorite), the weathering products are predominantly smectite and goethite formed under warm and drier climate in environmental conditions of savannah and steppe or forest steppe. 3. The basal red paleosol layer of the loess-paleosol series (age ~1.0-0.5 Ma) contain similar material as the 2nd type. The slightly but significantly lesser degree of weathering (more illite and chlorite, less smectite) indicates cooling of the climate. This contribution was made possible through financial support by 'Developing Competitiveness of Universities in the South Transdanubian Region (SROP-4.2.1.B-10/2/KONV-2010-0002)' and Austrian Agency for International Education & Research, financed by the Scholarship Foundation of the Republic of Austria (OeAD). It was additionally supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for G. Újvári.

Kovács, János; Újvári, Gábor; Seelos, Klemens; Varga, György; Ottner, Franz; Lukoczki, Georgina

2013-04-01

349

Adapting to climate variability and change: experiences from cereal-based farming in the central rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions-the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers' perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new risks outside the range of current experiences. To enable farmers to adapt to these impacts critical technological, institutional, and market-access constraints need to be removed. Inconsistencies between farmers' perceptions and observed climate trends (e.g., decrease in annual rainfall) could lead to sub-optimal or counterproductive adaptations, and therefore must be removed by better communication and capacity building, for example through Climate Field Schools. Enabling strategies, which are among others targeted at agricultural inputs, credit supply, market access, and strengthening of local knowledge and information services need to become integral part of government policies to assist farmers to adapt to the impacts of current and future climate change. PMID:23943096

Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

2013-11-01

350

Adapting to Climate Variability and Change: Experiences from Cereal-Based Farming in the Central Rift and Kobo Valleys, Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-holder farmers in Ethiopia are facing several climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall with severe droughts which can have devastating effects on their livelihoods. Projected changes in climate are expected to aggravate the existing challenges. This study examines farmer perceptions on current climate variability and long-term changes, current adaptive strategies, and potential barriers for successful further adaptation in two case study regions—the Central Rift Valley (CRV) and Kobo Valley. The study was based on a household questionnaire, interviews with key stakeholders, and focus group discussions. The result revealed that about 99 % of the respondents at the CRV and 96 % at the Kobo Valley perceived an increase in temperature and 94 % at CRV and 91 % at the Kobo Valley perceived a decrease in rainfall over the last 20-30 years. Inter-annual and intraseasonal rainfall variability also has increased according to the farmers. The observed climate data (1977-2009) also showed an increasing trend in temperature and high inter-annual and intra-seasonal rainfall variability. In contrast to farmers’ perceptions of a decrease in rainfall totals, observed rainfall data showed no statistically significant decline. The interaction among various bio-physical and socio-economic factors, changes in rainfall intensity and reduced water available to crops due to increased hot spells, may have influenced the perception of farmers with respect to rainfall trends. In recent decades, farmers in both the CRV and Kobo have changed farming practices to adapt to perceived climate change and variability, for example, through crop and variety choice, adjustment of cropping calendar, and in situ moisture conservation. These relatively low-cost changes in farm practices were within the limited adaptation capacity of farmers, which may be insufficient to deal with the impacts of future climate change. Anticipated climate change is expected to impose new risks outside the range of current experiences. To enable farmers to adapt to these impacts critical technological, institutional, and market-access constraints need to be removed. Inconsistencies between farmers’ perceptions and observed climate trends (e.g., decrease in annual rainfall) could lead to sub-optimal or counterproductive adaptations, and therefore must be removed by better communication and capacity building, for example through Climate Field Schools. Enabling strategies, which are among others targeted at agricultural inputs, credit supply, market access, and strengthening of local knowledge and information services need to become integral part of government policies to assist farmers to adapt to the impacts of current and future climate change.

Kassie, Belay Tseganeh; Hengsdijk, Huib; Rötter, Reimund; Kahiluoto, Helena; Asseng, Senthold; Van Ittersum, Martin

2013-11-01

351

Ankylosed maxillary incisor with severe root resorption treated with a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy, vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis, and mini-implant anchorage.  

PubMed

Dentoalveolar ankylosis interferes with the vertical growth of the alveolar process, which can lead to an open bite, an unesthetic smile, and occlusal disharmony. This case report presents a new treatment protocol for an ankylosed tooth with severe root resorption using a combined surgical orthodontic management protocol involving a single-tooth dento-osseous osteotomy and vertical alveolar distraction osteogenesis with intraoral elastics and mini-implant anchorage. After distraction and active orthodontic treatment, the patient's anterior open bite was corrected. A Class I dental relationship was achieved, overjet was decreased, and a normal incisor relationship was obtained. PMID:25172260

Sen???k, Neslihan Ebru; Koçer, Gülperi; Kaya, Bulem Üreyen

2014-09-01

352

Analysis of bacterial core communities in the central Baltic by comparative RNA–DNA-based fingerprinting provides links to structure–function relationships  

PubMed Central

Understanding structure–function links of microbial communities is a central theme of microbial ecology since its beginning. To this end, we studied the spatial variability of the bacterioplankton community structure and composition across the central Baltic Sea at four stations, which were up to 450?km apart and at a depth profile representative for the central part (Gotland Deep, 235?m). Bacterial community structure was followed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)- and 16S rRNA gene-based fingerprints using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis. Species composition was determined by sequence analysis of SSCP bands. High similarities of the bacterioplankton communities across several hundred kilometers were observed in the surface water using RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints. In these surface communities, the RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints resulted in very different pattern, presumably indicating large difference between the active members of the community as represented by RNA-based fingerprints and the present members represented by the DNA-based fingerprints. This large discrepancy changed gradually over depth, resulting in highly similar RNA- and DNA-based fingerprints in the anoxic part of the water column below 130?m depth. A conceivable mechanism explaining this high similarity could be the reduced oxidative stress in the anoxic zone. The stable communities on the surface and in the anoxic zone indicate the strong influence of the hydrography on the bacterioplankton community structure. Comparative analysis of RNA- and DNA-based community structure provided criteria for the identification of the core community, its key members and their links to biogeochemical functions. PMID:21697960

Brettar, Ingrid; Christen, Richard; Höfle, Manfred G

2012-01-01

353

Building a Digital Soil Data Base of the Solim˜ oes River Region in the Brazilian Central Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The region near the Solimoes river in the Brazilian Central Amazon re- ceives much attention because of oil and gas transport from the Urucu river Province to the refinery in Manaus. Information about soil characteristics and its spatial dis- tribution is important to allow secure intervention in the case of an accident (oil spill). The objectives of this chapter is

W. G. Teixeira; W. Arruda; H. N. Lima; S. A. Iwata; G. C. Martins

354

Climate variability in the Aral Sea basin (Central Asia) during the late Holocene based on vegetation changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution pollen analyses (?50 yr) from sediment cores retrieved at Chernyshov Bay in the NW Large Aral Sea record shifts in vegetational development from subdesertic to steppe vegetation in the Aral Sea basin during the late Holocene. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, we reconstruct and date for the first time significant changes in moisture conditions in Central Asia during

Philippe Sorrel; Speranta-Maria Popescu; Stefan Klotz; Jean-Pierre Suc; Hedi Oberhänsli

2007-01-01

355

Genetic Structure of Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from Central United States Based on Mitochondrial ND5 Sequences  

E-print Network

GENETICS Genetic Structure of Aedes vexans (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from Central United,1 AND ALBERTO B. BROCE3 Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 99(1): 157Ð163 (2006) ABSTRACT Aedes vexans (Meigen areas in this species. KEY WORDS Aedes vexans, mitochondrial DNA, genetic variation, population

Szalanski, Allen L.

356

The application of GIS-based logistic regression for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains, Central Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a first step forward in regional hazard management, multivariate statistical analysis in the form of logistic regression was used to produce a landslide susceptibility map in the Kakuda-Yahiko Mountains of Central Japan. There are different methods to prepare landslide susceptibility maps. The use of logistic regression in this study stemmed not only from the fact that this approach relaxes

Lulseged Ayalew; Hiromitsu Yamagishi

2005-01-01

357

Restoration of a nonrestorable central incisor using forced orthodontic eruption, immediate implant placement, and an all-ceramic restoration: a clinical report.  

PubMed

The long-term clinical and esthetic success of an implant-supported restoration is determined by stable periimplant soft-tissue morphology that is in harmony with the surrounding tissue architecture of the natural dentition. An interdisciplinary approach can significantly improve predictability when restoring missing teeth in the anterior maxilla. This clinical report describes the application of forced orthodontic eruption prior to initiation of surgical and restorative implant treatment to achieve a coronal shift of bone and gingiva and enhance the 3-dimensional topography of the recipient implant site. PMID:17936123

Holst, Stefan; Hegenbarth, Ernst A; Schlegel, K Andreas; Holst, Alexandra I

2007-10-01

358

Study on Corporate Hereditary Central Dogma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on analyzing the central dogma of biology, this paper raises hypothesis, using the analogism method to set up the corporate hereditary central dogma. It analyzes the differences between the Corporate hereditary central dogma and the central dogma of biology, which explains the significance of research on Corporate hereditary central dogma; it discusses the meanings of all factors of Corporate

Li Xianbai

2010-01-01

359

Quaternary paleoceanography of the central Arctic based on Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Arctic Coring Expedition 302 foraminiferal assemblages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) Hole 4C from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean recovered a continuous 18 m record of Quaternary foraminifera yielding evidence for seasonally ice-free interglacials during the Matuyama, progressive development of large glacials during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT) ?1.2–0.9 Ma, and the onset of high-amplitude 100-ka orbital cycles ?500

Thomas M. Cronin; Shannon A. Smith; Frédérique Eynaud; Matthew O'Regan; John King

2008-01-01

360

Indications of habitat use patterns among small cetaceans in the central North Pacific based on fisheries observer data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological specimens and environmental data collected by observers monitoring Japanese squid driftnet fishing operations during the summers of 1990 and 1991 in the central North Pacific (37°N-46°N, and 170°E-150°W) were used to explore habitat use patterns am ong three small cetacean species common to that area: the Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), Pacific white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) and northern right

Richard C. Ferrero; Roderick C. Hobbs; Glenn R. VanBlaricom

2002-01-01

361

Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.  

PubMed

Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7?±?0.3)?×?10¹??N?m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900?±?400?yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

2013-01-01

362

Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model  

PubMed Central

Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7?±?0.3)?×?1017?N?m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900?±?400?yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

Zhang, Shimin

2013-01-01

363

Congenitally Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors: Update on the Functional and Esthetic Parameters of Patients Treated with Implants or Space Closure and Teeth Recontouring  

PubMed Central

Maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) is a condition that affects both dental esthetics and function in young patients, and represents an important challenge for clinicians. Although several treatment options are available, the mesial repositioning of the canines followed by teeth recontouring into lateral incisors; or space opening/maintenance followed by implant placement have recently emerged as two important treatment approaches. In this article, the current and latest literature has been reviewed in order to summarize the functional and esthetic outcomes obtained with these two forms of treatment of MLIA patients in recent years. Indications, clinical limitations and the most important parameters to achieve the best possible results with each treatment modality are also discussed. Within the limitations of this review, it is not possible to assert at this point in time that one treatment approach is more advantageous than the other. Long-term followup studies comparing the existing treatment options are still lacking in the literature, and they are necessary to shed some light on the issue. It is possible, however, to state that adequate multidisciplinary diagnosis and planning are imperative to define the treatment option that will provide the best individual results for patients with MLIA. PMID:25646137

Pini, Núbia Inocencya Pavesi; Marchi, Luciana Manzotti De; Pascotto, Renata Corrêa

2015-01-01

364

A New PCR-Based Approach Indicates the Range of Clonorchis sinensis Now Extends to Central Thailand  

PubMed Central

Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for ‘Opisthorchis-like’ eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals) were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis–endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future epidemiological surveys. PMID:19156191

Traub, Rebecca J.; Macaranas, Julie; Mungthin, Mathirut; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Cribb, Thomas; Murrell, K. Darwin; Thompson, R. C. Andrew

2009-01-01

365

Development of trigger-based semi-automated surveillance of ventilator-associated pneumonia and central line-associated bloodstream infections in a Dutch intensive care  

PubMed Central

Background Availability of a patient data management system (PDMS) has created the opportunity to develop trigger-based electronic surveillance systems (ESSs). The aim was to evaluate a semi-automated trigger-based ESS for the detection of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in the intensive care. Methods Prospective comparison of surveillance was based on a semi-automated ESS with and without trigger. Components of the VAP/CLABSI definition served as triggers. These included the use of VAP/CLABSI-related antibiotics, the presence of mechanical ventilation or an intravenous central line, and the presence of specific clinical symptoms. Triggers were automatically fired by the PDMS. Chest X-rays and microbiology culture results were checked only on patient days with a positive trigger signal from the ESS. In traditional screening, no triggers were used; therefore, chest X-rays and culture results had to be screened for all patient days of all included patients. Patients with pneumonia at admission were excluded. Results A total of 553 patients were screened for VAP and CLABSI. The incidence of VAP was 3.3/1,000 ventilation days (13 VAP/3,927 mechanical ventilation days), and the incidence of CLABSI was 1.7/1,000 central line days (24 CLABSI/13.887 central line days). For VAP, the trigger-based screening had a sensitivity of 92.3%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 99.8% compared to traditional screening of all patients. For CLABSI, sensitivity was 91.3%, specificity 100%, and negative predictive value 99.6%. Conclusions Pre-selection of patients to be checked for signs and symptoms of VAP and CLABSI by a computer-generated automated trigger system was time saving but slightly less accurate than conventional surveillance. However, this after-the-fact surveillance was mainly designed as a quality indicator over time rather than for precise determination of infection rates. Therefore, surveillance of VAP and CLABSI with a trigger-based ESS is feasible and effective. PMID:25646148

2014-01-01

366

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS) of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Gafurov, A.; Illigner, J.; Zubovich, A.

2013-02-01

367

A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains - from measurements to data bases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS), are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan) which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS) do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

Schöne, T.; Zech, C.; Unger-Shayesteh, K.; Rudenko, V.; Thoss, H.; Wetzel, H.-U.; Zubovich, A.

2012-06-01

368

Unusual polymorphism in new bent-shaped liquid crystals based on biphenyl as a central molecular core.  

PubMed

Bent-shaped mesogens possessing a biphenyl as a central core have been synthesized and the role of the terminal chain and the orientation of the ester as a linkage group have been investigated. For the studied molecular core we have established that both parameters play an important role for the mesomorphic properties. The polyfluoroalkyl terminal chain supports the formation of mesophases, and the introduction of a chiral lactate terminal chain destabilizes mesophases for the first type of mutual orientation of ester groups, attached to the central core. On the contrary, for the opposite orientation of esters, the terminal chain has no effect on the mesomorphic properties, and columnar phases have been found for all compounds. A unique phase sequence has been found for the mesogen with the fluorinated chain. A generalized tilted smectics, SmCG, have been observed in a temperature interval between two different lamellar SmCP phases and characterized by X-ray and dielectric measurements. The dielectric spectroscopy data are unique and presented for the first time in the SmCG phase providing new information about the molecular dynamics. PMID:24778734

Ková?ová, Anna; Sv?tlík, Svatopluk; Kozmík, Václav; Svoboda, Ji?í; Novotná, Vladimíra; Pociecha, Damian; Gorecka, Ewa; Podoliak, Natalia

2014-01-01

369

Unusual polymorphism in new bent-shaped liquid crystals based on biphenyl as a central molecular core  

PubMed Central

Summary Bent-shaped mesogens possessing a biphenyl as a central core have been synthesized and the role of the terminal chain and the orientation of the ester as a linkage group have been investigated. For the studied molecular core we have established that both parameters play an important role for the mesomorphic properties. The polyfluoroalkyl terminal chain supports the formation of mesophases, and the introduction of a chiral lactate terminal chain destabilizes mesophases for the first type of mutual orientation of ester groups, attached to the central core. On the contrary, for the opposite orientation of esters, the terminal chain has no effect on the mesomorphic properties, and columnar phases have been found for all compounds. A unique phase sequence has been found for the mesogen with the fluorinated chain. A generalized tilted smectics, SmCG, have been observed in a temperature interval between two different lamellar SmCP phases and characterized by X-ray and dielectric measurements. The dielectric spectroscopy data are unique and presented for the first time in the SmCG phase providing new information about the molecular dynamics. PMID:24778734

Ková?ová, Anna; Sv?tlík, Svatopluk; Kozmík, Václav; Novotná, Vladimíra; Pociecha, Damian; Gorecka, Ewa; Podoliak, Natalia

2014-01-01

370

Fault-based earthquake rupture forecast in Central Italy: lessons learned with the L’Aquila Mw 6.3 event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LAyered Seismogenic Source model in Central Italy (LASSCI), developed in the early of 2000 and published in 2006, has been updated twice (initially at the date of April 1st, 2009 and on August, 1st) and then submitted to the CSEP-project (Study of Earthquake Predictability) for validation. The LASSCI-2006 model is supported by good fault-based definition of seismogenic sources, and simplistic physically-motivated models of earthquake occurrence; improvements of LASSCI-2009 model concern basic assumptions of errors propagation and higher accuracy in earthquake probabilities. On April the 6th an Mw 6.3 earthquake struck L’Aquila, one of the most important and populated cities in central Italy, and its neighborhood. Our results show that the causative fault was the one having the highest probability of a characteristic earthquake in the mid-term, according to a renewal model conditioned to the time elapsed since the last event. Peak ground accelerations expected not to be exceeded at 90% probability level in 50 years, in pre-event condition and in the near field, are in reasonable agreement with the observed values. The aggregate probability of having a maximum-sized event on at least one of the neighboring sources (less than 25km distance from L’Aquila) in the next 5 years decreases (from 10% to 7%) but still remains a peak value along the Central Apennines. Our method, based on fault-models and renewal processes at individual seismogenic source, represents a better approximation to reality than stationary, catalogue-based approaches. It explains consistently the latest empirical data, and time-dependent seismic hazard map should have a prompt utilization in reconstruction and seismic retrofitting.

Pace, B.; Peruzza, L.; Visini, F.

2009-12-01

371

Effects of seasonal variability in across- and alongshore transport of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae on model-based pre-recruitment indices off central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An individual-based model (IBM) of anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) larvae was coupled to a climatological hydrodynamic (Regional Oceanic Modeling System, ROMS) model for central-southern Chile to answer the question as to whether or not across- and alongshore transport off central-southern Chile enhances retention in the spawning areas during the winter and summer reproductive periods, using model-based pre-recruitment indices (simulated transport success to nursery areas). The hydrodynamic model validation showed that ROMS captures the mean Seas Surface Temperature and Eddie Kinetic Energy observed in satellite-based data over the entire region. The IBM was used to simulate the transport of eggs and larvae from spawning zones in central Chile (Constitución, Dichato, Gulf of Arauco and Lebu-Corral) to historical nursery areas (HRZ, region between 35°S and 37°S). Model results corroborated HRZ as the most successful pre-recruitment zone (particles originated in the Dichato and Gulf of Arauco spawning areas), as well as identifying Lebu-Corral as a zone of high retention with a high associated pre-recruitment index (particles originated in the Lebu-Corral spawning zone). The highest pre-recruitment values were mainly found in winter. The Constitución and Dichato spawning zones displayed a typical summer upwelling velocity pattern, while the Gulf of Arauco in summertime showed strong offshore and alongshore velocity components. The Lebu-Corral region in winter presented important near-surface cross-shore transport towards the coast (associated with downwelling events), this might be one of the major mechanisms leading to high retention levels and a high pre-recruitment index for Lebu-Corral spawning zone. The limitations of the modeling approach are discussed and put into perspective for future work.

Parada, Carolina; Colas, Francois; Soto-Mendoza, Samuel; Castro, Leonardo

2012-01-01

372

Glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve for Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata based on outcrops in the North American Midcontinent and North-Central Texas  

SciTech Connect

Based on lithologic and faunal analysis of uppermost Carboniferous through Lower Permian strata (Wabaunsee through lower Chase groups) exposed from southeastern Nebraska through north-central Oklahoma, a preliminary glacial-eustatic sea-level fluctuation curve is presented herein. In addition to the sea-level curve presented for the Midcontinent region, one for coeval outcropping strata (middle and upper Cisco Group) of the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is also presented based on similar criteria. This sea-level curve is derived from new field studies as well as a refinement of earlier curves presented by Harrison (1973), and Boardman and Malinky (1985). The conclusion on the nature of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary strata cyclothems in the Midcontinent is mirrored by the results of that from North-Central Texas. Each of the primary biostratigraphically-based picks for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary coincide with either intermediate of major cycles in both study areas. Utilization of a glacial-eustatic maximum transgressive event for the Carboniferous-Permian boundary should result in a more correlatable level for intercontinental correlation.

Boardman, D.R. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). School of Geology)

1993-02-01

373

Distribution of types for six PCR-based loci; LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC and HLA-DQA1 in central Pyrenees and Teruel (Spain).  

PubMed

The PCR-based DNA loci LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC and HLA DQA1 are widely used in forensic casework analyses. Population data on the distribution of allele frequencies are desired to estimate the rarity of a DNA profile. We studied the allele distributions at these forensically important DNA markers in two Spanish populations (Central Pyrenees and Teruel). Results were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Furthermore, there was little evidence for departures from expectation of independence between loci within the two sample populations. Tests for homogeneity were carried out between the two Spanish populations and a U.S. Caucasian population. PMID:9144942

Bell, B; Budowle, B; Martinez-Jarreta, B; Casalod, Y; Abecia, E; Castellano, M

1997-05-01

374

A mathematical model to design a lignocellulosic biofuel supply chain system with a case study based on a region in Central Texas.  

PubMed

This study formulates a model to maximize the profit of a lignocellulosic biofuel supply chain ranging from feedstock suppliers to biofuel customers. The model deals with a time-staged, multi-commodity, production/distribution system, prescribing facility locations and capacities, technologies, and material flows. A case study based on a region in Central Texas demonstrates application of the proposed model to design the most profitable biofuel supply chain under each of several scenarios. A sensitivity analysis identifies that ethanol (ETOH) price is the most significant factor in the economic viability of a lignocellulosic biofuel supply chain. PMID:21724388

An, Heungjo; Wilhelm, Wilbert E; Searcy, Stephen W

2011-09-01

375

Remote sensing and hydrological measurement based irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta, Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Aral Sea Basin, where the Central Asian countries compete for limited water resources, reliable information on the actual water use for eight million ha of irrigated land are rare. In this study, spatially distributed land use data, seasonal actual evapotranspiration, and reference evapotranspiration derived from multitemporal MODIS data were combined with in situ water flow measurements for irrigation performance assessments in the upper Amu Darya Delta. The functioning of the major irrigation and drainage which supplies an agricultural area of 270,000 ha in the Uzbek province Khorezm was analysed using water balancing and adequacy indicators of irrigation water use. An average relative evapotranspiration of 95% indicated fulfilled water demands and partly over-irrigation, whereas values below 75% disclosed inadequate water supply in distant parts of the irrigation system. On the other hand, immense water withdrawals of approximately 24,000 m3 ha-1 recorded at the system boundaries between April and September 2005 clearly exceeded the field water demands for cotton cultivation. Only 46% of the total irrigation amounts were consumed for crop production at field level. Throughout the vegetation period, approximately 58% of the total available water left the region as drainage water. Monthly observations of the depleted fraction and the drainage ratio highlighted drainage problems and rising groundwater levels at regional scale. In the most distant downstream subsystem, a high risk of groundwater and soil salinity during the main irrigation phase was found. A combination of high conveyance losses, hydraulic problems, direct linkages between irrigation and drainage, and low field application efficiencies were identified as major reasons for underperforming irrigation. The findings underlined the necessity of water saving and of reconsidering water distribution in Khorezm. The remote sensing approach was concluded as a reliable data basis for regular performance assessments for all irrigation systems in Central Asia.

Conrad, C.; Dech, S. W.; Hafeez, M.; Lamers, J. P. A.; Tischbein, B.

376

An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell: a model of a central utility plant.  

SciTech Connect

This central utilities plant model details the major elements of a central utilities plant for several classes of users. The model enables the analyst to select optional, cost effective, plant features that are appropriate to a fuel cell application. These features permit the future plant owner to exploit all of the energy produced by the fuel cell, thereby reducing the total cost of ownership. The model further affords the analyst an opportunity to identify avoided costs of the fuel cell-based power plant. This definition establishes the performance and capacity information, appropriate to the class of user, to support the capital cost model and the feasibility analysis. It is detailed only to the depth required to identify the major elements of a fuel cell-based system. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

Not Available

1993-06-30

377

A detailed Holocene glacial-periglacial reconstruction based on multidisciplinary studies of a 60 m permafrost core from central Svalbard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summer 2012, a 60 m sedimentary permafrost core was retrieved from the lower part of the Adventdalen Valley, central Svalbard, as part of the Longyearbyen CO2 project. The core was taken in 3 m long sections, with 20 % core loss, and reached the sedimentary bedrock (Lower Cretaceous). Thus our samples had the potential to represent the entire Quaternary and reflect changes in the sedimentary environments through time. The stratigraphy and sedimentology of the core was first investigated, to establish an overall geological model for the sampling site. The general stratigraphy encompasses a layer of basal till at the bottom of the core. This is overlain by marine sediments documenting a transition from glacial-proximal to open-marine conditions. Subsequently, a thick package of deltaic sediments records the progradation of the local river system. Finally, aeolian sediments, characterizing the modern environment, form the top few meters of the core. The ice content of the permafrost is generally low. Gravimetric water content generally ranges between 20% and 40%, but is considerably higher in some ice-rich layers. High resolution optically stimulated luminescence dating of the core sediment shows that deposition was very fast and took place primarily during the mid Holocene, with very rapid sedimentation of around 4 m/ka. With the onset of aeolian deposition (around 3-4 ka) the sedimentation rate decreased significantly to 1m/ka. The microbial diversity and activity of the core are being studied displaying decreasing activity with depth. Microbial community and functional gene numbers indicate variations with depth and geochemistry. Incubation studies have been performed primarily on the upper 30 m, and indicate a potential CO2 production from all depth intervals being studied. The potential for using foraminifer studies for both dating and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are evaluated with the intension of comparison with previous studies of marine sediment cores both from the fjords in the Svalbard area and from the Barents Sea and Fram Strait region. This multidisciplinary approach is allowing us to build the first detailed palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Holocene glacial-periglacial interaction in the lowlands of central Svalbard; this includes a detailed reconstruction of the permafrost conditions.

Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne; Elberling, Bo; Gilbert, Graham L.; Thiel, Christine; Murray, Andrew; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Dypvik, Henning; Lomstein, Bente; Hovgaard, Jonas; Christensen, Anne T.; Mørkved, Pål T.; Reigstad, Laila J.; Fromreide, Siren; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

2014-05-01

378

Cicada Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by University of Connecticut, "is designed to be a center for the exchange of scientific information concerning cicadas of the world." This Cicada Central website links to reprints for scientific literature concerning cicadas, a list of cicada researchers from around the world, a list of world cicada tribes, and more.

Simon, Chris

379

Engineering Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering Central website provides a plethora of listings of employment resources for engineers. The website allows users to submit their resume to a resume bank, browse through entry-level jobs, as well as post jobs online. Several links that point to other engineering resources are also provided.

1999-01-01

380

Raman amplification-based WDM-PON architecture with centralized Raman pump-driven, spectrum-sliced erbium ASE and polarization-insensitive EAMs.  

PubMed

We propose a novel wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network (PON) architecture based on the distributed Raman amplification and pump recycling techniques, which features fully bidirectional transmission, relaxed signal power margin, and active light source-free, colorless subscriber units. The reuse of non-negligible residual Raman pump power as a pump for an erbium fiber-based upstream broadband ASE source allows for fully-centralized control of light sources at optical network units (ONUs), while distributed Raman amplification over a transmission link enables us to obtain lossless low power signal transmission. Furthermore, low-cost and colorless ONUs can be realized by use of the Raman pump-recycled erbium ASE and polarization-insensitive electroabsorption modulators. Error-free upstream transmission over a 50 km fiber link is successfully achieved at a data rate of 622 Mbit/s. PMID:19529284

Lee, Ju Han; Han, Young-Geun; Lee, Sang Bae; Kim, Chul Han

2006-10-01

381

Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.  

PubMed

Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. PMID:25279440

Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

2015-01-01

382

Moho structure of Central America based on three-dimensional lithospheric density modelling of satellite-derived gravity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central American isthmus hosts a highly variable Moho structure due to the diverse origin and composition of the crustal basement and the influence of large-scale neotectonic processes. Gravity data from the combined geopotential model EGM2008 were interpreted via forward modelling to outline the three-dimensional lithospheric density structure along the Middle American Trench, as well as the segmentation of the oceanic Cocos and Nazca plates and the overriding Caribbean plate. In this work, results for the depth of the Moho obtained from the density model are presented. The Quaternary volcanic arc correlates with a maximum Moho depth of 44 km in western Guatemala. To the south-east of the continental shelf, the Caribbean plate shows Moho depths between 20 and 12 km whereas to the north, values as shallow as 8 km are observed at the Cayman trough. For the oceanic Cocos plate, depths between 16 and 21 km are obtained for the Moho along the Cocos ridge, contrasting with values between 15 and 12 km for the seamount segment and 8 and 11 km for the segments of the crust that are not affected by the Galapagos hot-spot track.

Lücke, Oscar H.

2014-10-01

383

Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit  

PubMed Central

Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co–factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits. PMID:25279440

Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

2015-01-01

384

GRACE Data-based Estimation of Spatial Variations in Water Storage over the Central Asia during 2003-2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used the GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) satellite gravity data obtained from January 2003 to January 2013, with supports of other data, including the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) and CMAP (Climate Prediction Center's Merged Analysis of Precipitation) precipitation data, the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, and the DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data, to analyze the annual variations in water storage over central Asia. Following conclusions can be drawn from this study. (1) The amplitudes of the annual variations in the water storage exhibit a general E-W increasing trend. (2) The water storage has an increasing trend in the following areas: the Balkhash Basin, the Ob River Basin, and the middle and lower reaches of the Yenisei River Basin. This is caused by the global warming, the melting of permafrost, and the vegetation coverage continued to increase, as well as the improved industrial technologies to reduce water usage, and the other natural and human factors. (3) The water storage has a decreasing trend in the following areas: the Syr Darya River Basin, the Amu Darya River Basin, and the conjunction area between the Euphrates-Tigris Basin and the southwestern shore of the Caspian Sea. (4) The water storage is primarily influenced by the precipitation, the evaporation, the vegetation coverage, and the topography. (5) The water storage maximum normally responds to the precipitation maximum with certain time lags.

Sun, Q.; Tashpolat, T.; Ding, J. L.; Zhang, F.; Mamat, S.

2014-11-01

385

New data on age of ore-hosting sequence of the Saf'yanovka deposit, Central Urals, based on foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Saf'yanovka copper massive sulfide deposit is situated 10 km northeast from the town of Rezh, on the eastern slope of the Central Urals. The ore-hosting plagiorhyolite-dacitic sequence consists of tephrites and tuffites with interlayers of dark gray siliceous-carboniferous pelites and psephytes from 0.1 to 1.5 m thick. The shells of the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer were identified in one of the lightened interlayers in the siliceous-carboniferous sequence. The samples for study were taken from the southern part of the orebody in the open-pit between prospecting lines 2 and 3, horizons 170 and 157. The inner part of the shell is composed of quartz and apatite, and the wall, by apatite with rare calcite grains. One shell contains a tacking disk allowing us to refer these foraminifers to the attached benthos typical of the shallow marine basin (sublitoral). In the Urals, the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer is known in limestones from the Eifel-Givetian (Langurskii and Vysotinskii Horizons); the siliceous-carboniferous rocks from the ore-hosting sequence from the Saf'yanovka deposit has the same age.

Chuvashov, B. I.; Anfimov, A. L.; Soroka, E. I.; Yaroslavtseva, N. S.

2011-08-01

386

A model for neurosurgical humanitarian aid based on 12 years of medical trips to South and Central America.  

PubMed

The pediatric neurosurgical mission trips led by physicians at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) Health Systems began in 1996 with the formation of Medical Outreach to Children, founded by 1 of the authors (J.D.W.) after a visit to Guatemala. Since then, 19 surgical trips to 4 different countries in Central and South America have been coordinated from 1996 to 2008. This humanitarian work serves a number of purposes. First and foremost, it provides children with access to surgical care that they would otherwise not receive, thereby significantly improving their quality of life. Second, the visiting surgical team participates in the education of local physicians, parents, and caregivers to help improve the healthcare provided to the children. Last, the team works to promote sustainable global health solutions in the countries it travels to by generating a forum for clinical and public health research discourse. Thus far, a total of 414 children have undergone 463 operations, including 154 initial shunt surgeries, 110 myelomeningocele repairs, 39 lipoma resections, 33 tethered cord releases, 18 shunt revisions, 16 encephalocele repairs, 9 lipomyelomeningocele repairs, and 7 diastematomyelia repairs. The complication rate has been 5-8%, and the team has obtained reliable follow-up in approximately 77% of patients. A correlation was found between an increase in the number of trained neurosurgeons in the host countries and a decrease in the average age of patients treated by the visiting surgical team over time. It is also hypothesized that a decrease in the percentage of myelomeningocele repairs performed by the surgical team (as a fraction of total cases between 1996 and 2006) correlates to an increase in the number of local neurosurgeons able to treat common neural tube defects in patients of younger ages. Such analysis can be used by visiting surgical teams to assess the changing healthcare needs in a particular host country. PMID:19569901

Mainthia, Rajshri; Tye, Gary W; Shapiro, Jay; Doppenberg, Egon M R; Ward, John D

2009-07-01

387

The role of inherited structures in the evolution of the Meknassy Basin, Central Tunisia, based on geological-geophysical transects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses seismic data, well data, and surface geologic data to present a detailed description of the Meknassy Basin in the Atlas fold and thrust belt of central Tunisia. These data reveal that the Meknassy Basin is bounded by major faults, along which Triassic evaporites have been intruded. The anticlines and synclines of the basin are delimited by two N-S main faults (the North-South Axis and the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault) and are subdivided by associated N120° and N45° trending fault-related anticlines. The Meknassy Basin is characterized by brittle structures associated with a deep asymmetric geometry that is organized into depressions and uplifts. Halokinesis of Triassic evaporites began during the Jurassic and continued during the Cretaceous period. During extensional deformation, salt movement controlled the sediment accumulation and the location of pre-compressional structures. During compressional deformation, the remobilization of evaporites accentuated the folded uplifts. A zone of decollement is located within the Triassic evaporites. The coeval strike-slip motion along the bounding master faults suggests that the Meknassy Basin was initiated as a pull-apart basin with intrusion of Triassic evaporites. The lozenge structure of the basin was caused by synchronous movements of the Sidi Ali Ben Oun fault and the North-South Axis (sinistral wrench faults) with movement of NW-SE first-order dextral strike-slip faults. Sediment distribution and structural features indicate that a major tectonic inversion has occurred at least since Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic. The transpressional movements are marked by reverse faults and folds associated with unconformities and with remobilization of Triassic evaporites. The formation of different structural features and the evolution of the Meknassy Basin and its neighboring uplifts have been controlled by conjugate dextral and sinistral strike-slip movements and thrust displacement.

Haji, Taoufik; Zouaghi, Taher; Boukadi, Noureddine

2014-08-01

388

Phosphatic glauconitic sandstone and oncolite deposition at the Upper Paleozoic base of Etivuluk Group, North-Central Brooks Range, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Picnic Creek allochthon in the central Brooks Range is dominated by bedded cherts and shales. In the Killik River quadrangle, bedded black cherts of the Lisburne Group are overlain by a thin diagnostic clastic unit composed of sandstone and conglomerate. The sandstone is a thin (0.35-m), laterally extensive, planar, laminated litharenite with an average Q:F:L of 40:17:43 and a Qp:Lv:Ls of 12:8:80. The provenance is interpreted to be a recycled orogen dominated by uplifted sedimentary sequences with minor plutonic, metamorphic, and volcanic sources. The presence of glauconite (7%) and authigenic phosphate (18%) indicates deposition in a shelf environment. This phosphatic sandstone forms part of the matrix in a conglomerate at one locality. The conglomerate is lenticular (2 m X 10 m), crudely graded, and very poorly sorted, and it contains black chert ripups. Clasts are composed of onscoids (70%), chert (22%), shale (5%), and limestone (3%). Barite preferentially replaces all clasts except chert and part of the matrix. The oncolites are SS-type mode C hemispheroids, indicating formation in a continuously agitated shallow to intertidal marine environment. Sedimentologic and petrographic observations suggest that the phosphatic glauconitic sandstone developed in a shelf environment, and the oncolitic conglomerate is a debris flow off a nearby carbonate platform that transported shallow-water material out onto the shelf. Preservation of unaltered echinoderm fragments and calcareous algal oncolites clearly indicates deposition above the CCD. Radiolarians from immediately above the clastics include spongy tetrahedral Latentifistulidea, which suggests that sandstone and conglomerate deposition probably occurred in the Morrowan (Early Pennsylvanian).

Siok, J.P.; Mull, C.G.

1985-04-01

389

Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage. Evaluation of systems concepts based on heat storage in aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work undertaken by the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage team from the USA and Canada is documented. The analytic effort was divided between heat pump systems and systems without heat pumps. The aquifer based system configurations that were analyzed are defined, and the approach and methodology employed in this analysis are outlined. Principal results are presented in terms of

V. G. Chant; D. S. Breger

1984-01-01

390

A Central Support System Can Facilitate Implementation and Sustainability of a Classroom-Based Undergraduate Research Experience (CURE) in Genomics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In their 2012 report, the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology advocated "replacing standard science laboratory courses with discovery-based research courses"--a challenging proposition that presents practical and pedagogical difficulties. In this paper, we describe our collective experiences working with the…

Lopatto, David; Hauser, Charles; Jones, Christopher J.; Paetkau, Don; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Dunbar, David; MacKinnon, Christy; Stamm, Joyce; Alvarez, Consuelo; Barnard, Daron; Bedard, James E. J.; Bednarski, April E.; Bhalla, Satish; Braverman, John M.; Burg, Martin; Chung, Hui-Min; DeJong, Randall J.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Emerson, Julia; Frary, Amy; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Haberman, Adam; Hark, Amy T.; Hoogewerf, Arlene; Johnson, Diana; Kadlec, Lisa; Kaehler, Marian; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Kokan, Nighat P.; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Lopilato, Jane; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan C.; McNeil, Gerard; Mel, Stephanie; Nagengast, Alexis; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Parrish, Susan; Preuss, Mary L.; Reed, Laura D.; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Robic, Srebrenka; Roecklien-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Rubin, Michael R.; Saville, Kenneth; Schroeder, Stephanie; Sharif, Karim A.; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher D.; Smith, Mary; Smith, Sheryl T.; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Youngblom, James; Zhou, Leming; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine; Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Threlfall, Jennifer; Elgin, Sarah C. R.

2014-01-01

391

Grief-Processing-Based Psychological Intervention for Children Orphaned by AIDS in Central China: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their…

Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui; Heath, Melissa Allen

2014-01-01

392

IPO Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IPO (Initial Public Offerings) Central, provided by The Reference Press, contains a wealth of information on IPOs. It features a complete list of companies that "filed for an initial public offering of common stock on or after May 6, 1996, the first day that all US companies were required to file electronically," along with EDGAR Online SEC filings. This directory can be accessed alphabetically or by date, and the latest filings are available under a separate menu item. IPO Central also highlights one featured IPO per week, with a free link to a Hoover Online profile on that company. "The Insider" offers short analytical columns on IPOs, and the "Beginner's Guide" has links to basic IPO information to help the novice. The site also offers links to other IPO-related sites. IPO Central does not at this time offer a searchable interface to its directory, but the providers promise improved search features soon. Note that listings are removed from the directory after six months and that EDGAR Online is in no way related to SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) EDGAR.

393

Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage. Evaluation of systems concepts based on heat storage in aquifers  

SciTech Connect

The work undertaken by the aquifer seasonal thermal energy storage team from the USA and Canada is documented. The analytic effort was divided between heat pump systems and systems without heat pumps. The aquifer-based system configurations that have been analyzed are defined, and the approach and methodology employed in this analysis are outlined. Principal results are presented in terms of optimum designs for reference cases, and sensitivity results around the reference cases for selected variables. Characteristics of system designs are given for a wide range of key design parameters. Finally, a detailed list of system parameter values and more detailed results of the analysis are presented. (LEW)

Chant, V.G.; Breger, D.S.

1984-10-01

394

Update of likelihood-based ground-motion model selection for seismic hazard analysis in western central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scherbaum et al. [(2004) Bull Seismolo Soc Am 94(6): 2164–2185] proposed a likelihood-based approach to select and rank ground-motion\\u000a models for seismic hazard analysis in regions of low-seismicity. The results of their analysis were first used within the\\u000a PEGASOS project [Abrahamson et al. (2002), In Proceedings of the 12 ECEE, London, 2002, Paper no. 633] so far the only application\\u000a of a

Esther Hintersberger; Frank Scherbaum; Sebastian Hainzl

2007-01-01

395

Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these Article 76 mapping missions comprises, by far, the most comprehensive contribution to the last Version 3.0 of IBCAO.

Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

2013-12-01

396

Pathophysiology of metabolic alkalosis: a new classification based on the centrality of stimulated collecting duct ion transport.  

PubMed

Metabolic alkalosis is a unique acid-base disorder because it can be induced and sustained by functional alterations in renal ion transport. This review summarizes more than 50 years of research into the pathophysiologic processes causing this disorder. The evidence reviewed supports the hypothesis that virtually all forms of metabolic alkalosis are sustained by enhanced collecting duct hydrogen ion secretion, induced by stimulation of sodium uptake through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Enhanced collecting duct hydrogen ion secretion in metabolic alkalosis occurs most commonly secondary to changes in ion transport earlier along the nephron, but also can occur as the result of primary stimulation of ENaC. In both these settings, potassium secretion is stimulated, and abnormal potassium losses cause depletion of body potassium stores. Potassium depletion has a key role in sustaining metabolic alkalosis by stimulating renal hydrogen ion secretion, enhancing renal ammonium production and excretion, and downregulating sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle and early distal tubule. A new classification of the causes of metabolic alkalosis is proposed based on these pathophysiologic events rather than response to treatment. PMID:21849227

Gennari, F John

2011-10-01

397

Controls on mineralisation in the Sierra Foothills gold province, central California, USA: A GIS-based reconnaissance prospectivity analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The assessment of spatial relationships between the location, abundance and size of orogenic-gold deposits in the highly endowed Sierra Foothills gold province in California, via the combination of field studies and a GIS-based analysis, illustrates the power of such an approach to the characterisation of important parameters of mineral systems, and the prediction of districts likely to host economic mineralisation. Regional- to deposit-scale reconnaissance mapping suggests that deposition of gold-bearing quartz veins occurred in second- and third-order, east-over-west thrusts during regional east - west compression and right-lateral transpression. At the district-scale, significant zones of mineralisation correspond with such transpressional reactivation zones and dilational jogs that developed during the Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous along the misaligned segments of first-order faults throughout the Sierra Nevada Foothills Metamorphic Belt. Field-based observations and interpretation of GIS data (including solid geology, structural elements, deposit locations, magnetics, gravity) also highlight the importance of structural permeability contrasts, rheological gradients, and variations in fault orientation for localising mineralisation. Although this approach confirms empirical findings and produces promising results at the province scale, enhanced geological, structural, geophysical and geochronological data density is required to generate regionally consistent, high-quality input layers that improve predictive targeting at the goldfield to deposit-scale.

Bierlein, F.P.; Northover, H.J.; Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Marsh, E.E.

2008-01-01

398

Neuropsychology Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neuropsychology Central is devoted to the subject of - "Neuropsychology, a new branch of science with the specific and unique aim of investigating the role of individual brain systems in complex forms of mental activity." - A.R. Luria "The Working Brain" The page aims to describe the importance of neuropsychology as a science of brain and behavior, and to act as a resource for the professional and layperson alike. See links to current technology for brain imaging, and sections covering different aspects of this ever growing field such as cognitive, developmental, and geriatric Neuropsychology. In addition, a reader survey is included to facilitate the expansion of the site.

Browndyke, J. N.

1997-01-01

399

Sonnet Central  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by a dedicated sonnet aficionado, Sonnet Central is not intended for the scholar, per se, but for the reader, the Internaut with a weakness for poetry. The site contains a collection of English-language sonnets, grouped by period and region or by author, and modernized for contemporary readers. Pictures, contemporaneous critical works, a bibliography, and audio files of readings of selected poems complement the sonnets, some of which are maintained off-site (many at the University of Toronto). From Shakespeare to Wilfred Owen, selections from many well-known sonneteers are here alongside those of their less famous contemporaries.

400

Central pain.  

PubMed

Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed. PMID:25295639

Singh, Supreet

2014-12-01

401

Prenatal and Perinatal Morbidity in Children with Tic Disorders: A Mainstream School-based Population Study in Central Spain  

PubMed Central

Background While current research suggests that genetic factors confer the greatest risk for the development of tic disorders, studies of environmental factors are relatively few, with a lack of consistent risk factors across studies. Our aim is to analyze the association of tic disorders with exposure to prenatal and perinatal morbidity. Methods This was a nested case–control study design. Cases and controls were selected and identified from a mainstream, school-based sample. The diagnosis of tic disorders was assigned by a movement disorder neurologist using ‘Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision’ criteria, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities were screened using the Spanish computerized version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scale. Information regarding the exposure to pre-perinatal risk factors was collected by a retrospective review of the birth certificates. Logistic regression analyses were then performed to test the association of tic disorders with pre-perinatal risk factors. Results Out of 407 participants, complete pre-perinatal data were available in 153 children (64 with tics and 89 without tics). After adjusting for family history of tics, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, body mass index, prenatal infection, and coexisting comorbid neuropsychiatric disturbances, tic disorders were associated with prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio [OR]?=?3.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–7.60, p?=?0.007), and cesarean section (OR?=?5.78, 95% CI 1.60–20.91, p?=?0.01). Discussion This nested case–control study of children with tic disorders demonstrates higher adjusted odds for tics in children with exposure to cesarean delivery and maternal smoking. Longitudinal, population-based samples are required to confirm these results.

Cubo, Esther; Hortigüela, Montesclaros; Jorge-Roldan, Sandra; Ciciliani, Selva Esther; Lopez, Patricia; Velasco, Leticia; Sastre, Emilio; Ausin, Vanesa; Delgado, Vanesa; Saez, Sara; Gabriel-Galán, José Trejo; Macarrón, Jesús

2014-01-01

402

iTRAQ-based protein profiling provides insights into the central metabolism changes driving grape berry development and ripening  

PubMed Central

Background Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is an economically important fruit crop. Quality-determining grape components such as sugars, acids, flavors, anthocyanins, tannins, etc., accumulate in the different grape berry development stages. Thus, correlating the proteomic profiles with the biochemical and physiological changes occurring in grape is of paramount importance to advance in our understanding of berry development and ripening processes. Results We report the developmental analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Hamburg berries at the protein level from fruit set to full ripening. An iTRAQ-based bottom-up proteomic approach followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification and quantitation of 411 and 630 proteins in the green and ripening phases, respectively. Two key points in development relating to changes in protein level were detected: end of the first growth period (7?mm-to-15?mm) and onset of ripening (15?mm-to-V100, V100-to-110). A functional analysis was performed using the Blast2GO software based on the enrichment of GO terms during berry growth. Conclusions The study of the proteome contributes to decipher the biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in the development and quality traits of fruit and its derived products. These findings lie mainly in metabolism and storage of sugars and malate, energy-related pathways such as respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation, and the synthesis of polyphenolics as major secondary metabolites in grape berry. In addition, some key steps in carbohydrate and malate metabolism have been identified in this study, i.e., PFP-PFK or SuSy-INV switches among others, which may influence the final sugar and acid balance in ripe fruit. In conclusion, some proteins not reported to date have been detected to be deregulated in specific tissues and developmental stages, leading to formulate new hypotheses on the metabolic processes underlying grape berry development. These results open up new lines to decipher the processes controlling grape berry development and ripening. PMID:24152288

2013-01-01

403

A Centrality Detector Concept  

E-print Network

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This article describes the concept of the centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Sourav Tarafdar; Zvi Citron; Alexander Milov

2014-05-18

404

A centrality detector concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus-nucleus impact parameter and collision geometry of a heavy ion collision are typically characterized by assigning a collision "centrality". In all present heavy ion experiments centrality is measured indirectly, by detecting the number of particles or the energy of the particles produced in the interactions, typically at high rapidity. Centrality parameters are associated to the measured detector response using the Glauber model. This approach suffers from systematic uncertainties related to the assumptions about the particle production mechanism and limitations of the Glauber model. In the collider based experiments there is a unique possibility to measure centrality parameters by registering spectator fragments remaining from the collision. This approach does not require model assumptions and relies on the fact that spectators and participants are related via the total number of nucleons in the colliding species. This paper describes the concept of a centrality detector for heavy ion experiment, which measures the total mass number of all fragments by measuring their deflection in the magnetic field of the collider elements.

Tarafdar, Sourav; Citron, Zvi; Milov, Alexander

2014-12-01

405

Localization and centrality in networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eigenvector centrality is a common measure of the importance of nodes in a network. Here we show that under common conditions the eigenvector centrality displays a localization transition that causes most of the weight of the centrality to concentrate on a small number of nodes in the network. In this regime the measure is no longer useful for distinguishing among the remaining nodes and its efficacy as a network metric is impaired. As a remedy, we propose an alternative centrality measure based on the nonbacktracking matrix, which gives results closely similar to the standard eigenvector centrality in dense networks where the latter is well behaved but avoids localization and gives useful results in regimes where the standard centrality fails.

Martin, Travis; Zhang, Xiao; Newman, M. E. J.

2014-11-01

406

Assessment of projected climate change signals over central Africa based on a multitude of global and regional climate projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted within the scientific community that only a large ensemble of different projections will allow achieving robust climate change information for a specific region. In the framework of the project "Climate changes scenarios for the Congo basin" (funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) a regional climate change assessment is conducted by the Climate Service Center (CSC) over the greater Congo basin region. The analysis is based on a state-of-the-art multi-model multi-scenario ensemble of global and regional climate change projections. In this ensemble the results of several GCM projections from the CMIP3 and the CMIP5 projects are combined with some of the recently downscaled regional CORDEX-Africa projections. Altogether data from 77 different climate change projections are analysed; separated into 31 projections for a "high" and 46 for a "low" emission scenario. In the study several parameters and indices related to temperature and precipitation are considered for the assessment of projected climate change. The large size of the analyzed ensemble is expected to be useful for not only quantifying the magnitude of projected changes, but also to analyze their robustness as well. Moreover, potential differences between projected changes from GCMs and RCMs can also be analysed.

Hänsler, Andreas; Saeed, Fahad; Jacob, Daniela

2013-04-01

407

Assessment of projected climate change signals over central Africa based on a multitude of global and regional climate projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well accepted within the scientific community that only a large ensemble of different projections will allow achieving robust climate change information for a specific region. In the framework of the project "Climate changes scenarios for the Congo basin" (funded by the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety) a regional climate change assessment is conducted by the Climate Service Center (CSC) over the greater Congo basin region. The analysis is based on a state-of-the-art multi-model multi-scenario ensemble of global and regional climate change projections. In this ensemble the results of several GCM projections from the CMIP3 and the CMIP5 projects are combined with some of the recently downscaled regional CORDEX-Africa projections. Altogether data from 77 different climate change projections are analysed; separated into 31 projections for a "high" and 46 for a "low" emission scenario. In the study several parameters and indices related to temperature and precipitation are considered for the assessment of projected climate change. The large size of the analyzed ensemble is expected to be useful for not only quantifying the magnitude of projected changes, but also to analyze their robustness as well. Moreover, potential differences between projected changes from GCMs and RCMs can also be analysed.

Haensler, A.; Saeed, F.; Jacob, D.

2013-05-01

408

Predicting water-surface fluctuation of continental lakes: A RS and GIS based approach in Central Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Changes in the water-surface area occupied by the Cuitzeo Lake, Mexico, during the 1974-2001 period are analysed in this study. The research is based on remote sensing and geographic information techniques, as well as statistical analysis. High-resolution satellite image data were used to analyse the 1974-2000 period, and very low-resolution satellite image data were used for the 1997-2001 period. The long-term analysis (1974-2000) indicated that there were temporal changes in the surface area of the Cuitzeo Lake and that these changes were related to precipitation and temperatures that occurred in the previous year. Short-term monitoring (1997-2001) showed that the Cuitzeo Lake surface is lowering. Field observations demonstrated also that yearly desiccation is recurrent, particularly, in the western section of the lake. Results suggested that this behaviour was probably due to a drought period in the basin that began in the mid 1990s. Regression models constructed from long-term data showed that fluctuations of lake level can be estimated by monthly mean precipitation and temperatures of the previous year. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006.

Mendoza, M.E.; Bocco, G.; Bravo, M.; Lopez, Granados E.; Osterkamp, W.R.

2006-01-01

409

Trends in the characteristics of allergenic pollen circulation in central Europe based on the example of Szeged, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study is to analyse trends of the pollination season with its start and end dates, as well as trends of the annual total pollen count and annual peak pollen concentration for the Szeged agglomeration in Southern Hungary. The data set covers an 11-year period (1999-2009) and includes one of the largest spectra, with 19 taxa, as well as seven meteorological variables (minimum-, maximum- and mean temperature, total radiation, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed). For highly skewed data, such as the annual total number of pollen counts or annual peak pollen concentrations, the Mann-Kendall test has a substantially greater predictive power than the t-test. After performing Mann-Kendall tests, the annual cycles of daily slopes of pollen concentration trends and annual cycles of daily slopes of climate variable trends are calculated. This kind of trend analysis is a novel approach as it provides information on annual cycles of trends. In order to represent the strength of their relationships an association measure (AM) and a multiple association measure (MAM) are introduced. Based on climate sensitivity, the individual taxa are sorted into three categories. The results obtained for the pollen quantity and phenological characteristics are compared with two novel climate change related categories, namely risk and expansion potential due to the climate change for each taxon. The total annual pollen count and annual peak pollen concentrations indicate a small number of changes when using ordinary linear trends, while the total annual pollen count calculated via daily linear trends show significant trends (70% of them positive) for almost all taxa. However, except for Poaceae and Urtica, there is no significant change in the duration of the pollination season. The association measure performs well compared to the climate change related forces. Furthermore, remarkable changes in pollen season characteristics are also in accordance with the risk and expansion potential due to climate change.

Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Deák, Áron József

2011-10-01

410

Landslide Hazard Mapping Using Ground-based Interferometric Radar in the Fjords of South-Central Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cities of Seward and Whittier, Alaska are situated at the base of steep walls within two fjords located on the Kenai Peninsula. Historic events have shown that the combination of terrain, geology, and vegetation are factors which can lead to significant events of erosion in the surrounding slopes during periods of heavy rainfall. While other remote sensing techniques have been shown to be useful for accessing landslide hazards, local surface processes may be better understood to create more accurate hazard maps and predictive models by using data gained from interferometric radar. To gain perspective into where, and at which speed, slopes are deforming, we utilize the GPRI-2 terrestrial interferometric radar system which transmits signals in the Ku band. The GPRI-2 portable radar unit has several advantages to space-borne radar, including relative freedom of site selection and regions to target, ability to determine temporal baselines, and repeat acquisitions which can be collected with a zero spatial-baseline. There are however, problems which need to be addressed when using such a system in the fjord environments, and in particular for monitoring slope deformation in these areas. Foremost, the noise that is attributed to the atmosphere is of great concern as it is sometimes required to position the radar several kilometers away from the target, across open water. We offer our results of correcting for this interference and report the results. Secondly, we address the issue of repeat acquisitions over long periods of time, which is needed to detect movements in the slope, and report on the decorrelation of the signal in the various land cover types in the study areas. Finally, we offer suggestions of the usefulness of such a system to detect slope deformation in similar environments.

Balazs, M. S.; Meyer, F. J.; Bollian, T.; Wolken, G. J.; Prakash, A.

2013-12-01

411

Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers  

PubMed Central

Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

2012-01-01

412

A long-term retrospective outcome assessment of facial growth, secondary surgical need, and maxillary lateral incisor status in a surgical-orthodontic protocol for complete clefts.  

PubMed

In 1965, the cleft palate team at Children's Memorial Hospital embarked on a new surgical-orthodontic protocol in the habilitation of newborn complete cleft lip and palate cases. It brought the orthodontic effort into focus at birth and in planned sequence to correspond with the surgical procedures of lip closure, maxillary alveolar stabilization by means of an autogenous graft of the authors' design, and complete palate closure, all within the first year of life. The purpose of this investigation is threefold: first, to review the authors' previous publications and assess growth, secondary surgical need, and lateral incisor status of teeth adjacent to the cleft in a series of patients who have all followed a precise, early surgical/orthodontic protocol; second, to compare these cases with other collaborative studies wherein this protocol was not used; and third, to report on an additional 82 cases with regard to secondary surgical need and the status of teeth adjacent to the cleft. Methods of assessment have included cephalometric radiography, periapical and occlusal dental radiography, computer-assisted tomography, plaster cast analysis, and intraoral and extraoral photography. The authors have demonstrated, along with other collaborative studies, that there is growth as good as other similar samples wherein there was no primary osteoplasty. In addition, the authors found their incidence of orthognathic surgery to be 18.29 percent; pharyngoplasty, 3.65 percent; and oronasal fistulas requiring surgical closure, 29.27 percent. In the case of unilateral complete clefts, 53.13 percent of those lateral incisors present adjacent to the cleft area were usable, and in bilateral cases, 57.77 percent were usable. The authors remain convinced after more than 35 years of following this successful protocol that early maxillary orthopedics and their technique of primary osteoplasty in planned sequence with lip and palate closure can produce a more favorable alignment of maxillary growth potential and, with comprehensive orthodontic treatment, can lead to teeth in a better overall occlusion than if these procedures had not been undertaken. PMID:12496560

Rosenstein, Sheldon W; Grasseschi, Mitchell; Dado, Diane V

2003-01-01

413

Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report engaging in transactional sex. Respondents who were heterosexual, bisexual, or transgender were also more likely to both report multiple partnerships (OR: 1.44 [1.07–1.96], 1.99 [1.67–2.38], 1.79 [1.37–2.33], respectively) and more likely to report engaging in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.52 [1.15–2.01], 1.38 [1.17–1.63], 1.47 [1.16–1.87], respectively), as compared to those identifying as homosexual. Conclusion Violence experienced by MSM and TW is widespread in Central America. The experience of violence is shown in this study to be independently associated with risk behaviors for HIV infections. Further research and studies are needed to identify the effects violence has on HIV risk behavior among this under-researched population to improve targeted HIV prevention interventions. PMID:25361722

Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

2014-01-01

414

The Last Interglacial-Glacial cycle (MIS 5-2) re-examined based on long proxy records from central and northern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current multi-proxy studies on a long sediment sequence preserved at Sokli (N Finland), i.e. in the central area of Fennoscandian glaciations, are drastically changing classic ideas of glaciations, vegetation and climate in northern Europe during the Late Pleistocene. The sediments in the Sokli basin have escaped major glacial erosion due to non-typical bedrock conditions. In this review, the Sokli record is compared in great detail with other long proxy records from central, temperate and northern, boreal Europe. These comprise the classic records of La Grande Pile (E France) and Oerel (N Germany) and more recently obtained records from Horoszki Du?e (E Poland) and Lake Yamozero (NW Russia). The focus of the review is on pollen, lithology and macrofossil- and insect-based temperature inferences. The long records are further compared with recent proxy data from nearby terrestrial sites as well as with the rapidly accumulating high-resolution proxy data from the ocean realm. The comparison allows a re-examination of the environmental history and climate evolution of the Last Interglacial-Glacial (LI-G) cycle (MIS 5-2). It shows that environmental and climate conditions during MIS 5 (ca 130-70 ka BP) were distinctly different from those during MIS 4-2 (ca 70-15 ka BP). MIS 5 is characterized by three long forested intervals (broadly corresponding to MIS 5e, 5c, 5a), both in temperate and northern boreal Europe. These mild periods were interrupted by two short, relatively cold and dry intervals (MIS 5d and 5b) with mountain-centered glaciation in Fennoscandia. Millennial scale climate events were superimposed upon these longer lasting climate fluctuations. The time interval encompassing MIS 4-2 shows open vegetation. It is characterized by two glacial maxima (MIS 4 and 2) with sub-continental scale glaciation over northern Europe and dry conditions in strongly continental eastern European settings. High amplitude climate oscillations of millennial duration characterized the climate variability of MIS 3. Mild climate conditions in early MIS 3 caused large-scale deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, and ice-free conditions with Betula-dominated vegetation (including tree birch) persisted over large parts of Fennoscandia, possibly interrupted by glaciation, during major part of MIS 3 till ca 35 ka BP. Overall, MIS 5 was mostly mild with warmest or peak interglacial conditions at the very start during MIS 5e. MIS 4-2 was mostly cold with most extreme or peak glacial conditions in the closing phase during MIS 2. This points to a subdivision of the last climate cycle into an early, overall mild interglacial half and a late, overall cold glacial half, each with duration of ca 50 ka. This review also shows that the climate variability in central and northern Europe during the LI-G cycle was mostly in degrees of continentality with major shifts in winter temperature and precipitation values; summer temperatures, on the other hand, remained largely unchanged. It points to the waxing and waning of sea-ice over the North Atlantic Ocean as a possible characteristic feature of the Late Pleistocene. The present compilation, based on long terrestrial sequences, high-resolution multi-proxy data from the oceans, and quantified paleo-climate data, strongly favors a definition of entire Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 5 as the Last Interglacial similar as in the original marine stratigraphy and the stratigraphy at La Grande Pile in France. The proxy-based climate data places the start of the Last Glacial at the base of MIS 4 and the northwest European Pleniglacial. It shows that the division between the Eemian (MIS 5e) and the Early Weichselian (MIS 5d-a) is not useful, as not relevant from a climate point of view.

Helmens, Karin F.

2014-02-01

415

Distribution of lithostratigraphic units within the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A three-dimensional computer-based model, Version YMP.R2.0  

SciTech Connect

Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underlain by 14.0 to 11.6 Ma volcanic rocks tilted eastward 3{degree} to 20{degree} and cut by faults that were primarily active between 12.7 and 11.6 Ma. A three-dimensional computer-based model of the central block of the mountain consists of seven structural subblocks composed of six formations and the interstratified-bedded tuffaceous deposits. Rocks from the 12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon Tuff, which forms most of the exposed rocks on the mountain, to the 13.1 Ma Prow Pass Tuff are modeled with 13 surfaces. Modeled units represent single formations such as the Pah Canyon Tuff, grouped units such as the combination of the Yucca Mountain Tuff with the superjacent bedded tuff, and divisions of the Topopah Spring Tuff such as the crystal-poor vitrophyre interval. The model is based on data from 75 boreholes from which a structure contour map at the base of the Tiva Canyon Tuff and isochore maps for each unit are constructed to serve as primary input. Modeling consists of an iterative cycle that begins with the primary structure-contour map from which isochore values of the subjacent model unit are subtracted to produce the structure contour map on the base of the unit. This new structure contour map forms the input for another cycle of isochore subtraction to produce the next structure contour map. In this method of solids modeling, the model units are presented by surfaces (structure contour maps), and all surfaces are stored in the model. Surfaces can be converted to form volumes of model units with additional effort. This lithostratigraphic and structural model can be used for (1) storing data from, and planning future, site characterization activities, (2) preliminary geometry of units for design of Exploratory Studies Facility and potential repository, and (3) performance assessment evaluations.

Buesch, D.C. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nelson, J.E.; Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II; San Juan, C.A. [SAIC, Golden, CO (United States); Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Lakewood, CO (United States); Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C. [SAIC Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-09-01

416

Central Pain Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Central Pain Syndrome? Is there ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

417

Difference in capacity between macrophages and dendritic cells from rat incisor pulp to provide accessory signals to concanavalin-A-stimulated T-lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The present study compared the ability of dendritic cells and macrophages derived from the dental pulp to provide accessory signals to Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated T-lymphocytes. Pulpal cells from maxillary and mandibular rat incisors were enzymatically released with collagenase. T-lymphocytes were isolated from rat cervical lymph nodes. In initial experiments, suspensions of unseparated pulpal cells were found to provide co-stimulatory help to Con-A-treated T-lymphocytes. The proliferation rate correlated well with the number of cells in the pulp suspension and followed a time course characteristic of a Con-A-driven proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Depletion of class II molecule-expressing cells from the unpurified suspension of pulpal cells resulted in lost ability to provide accessory signals to Con-A-stimulated T-lymphocytes. In contrast, removal of ED2-positive cells, i.e., macrophages, did not affect the ability of the suspension to give this assistance. Partially purified class II molecule-expressing cells enhanced the proliferative response, while addition of enriched macrophages did not. It was concluded that cells in the normal dental pulp with the characteristics of dendritic cells have the capacity to provide help to Con-A-stimulated T-lymphocytes, while cells with the macrophage phenotype lack this ability. PMID:8006232

Jontell, M; Eklöf, C; Dahlgren, U I; Bergenholtz, G

1994-05-01

418

Evaluation of a Three-Stage Method for Improving Mandibular Retrognathia with Labially Inclined Incisors Using Genioplasty, Segmental Osteotomy, and Two-Jaw Surgery  

PubMed Central

We have sometimes encountered difficulty in improving labially inclined teeth, particularly in patients with mandibular retrognathia, because the symphysis menti is often thin and insufficient space is available to permit sagittal rotation of the teeth without root exposure from the alveolar bone. We have previously described a three-stage method to overcome this problem, involving genioplasty for improving the retruded chin, and to construct the infrastructure for subsequent subapical segmental alveolar osteotomy, subapical segmental alveolar osteotomy itself, and, finally, two-jaw surgery. Bone augmentation with thin cortical bone at the gap created on the upper surface of the advanced genial segment was also addressed in the previous report. In the present study, to confirm the benefits of the three-stage method using objective data, cephalometric evaluation was performed in each step. In all cases, pogonion (Pog) was moved forward substantially. Net linear forward movement of Pog and net changes in SN-Pog were from 12?mm to 20?mm and from 4.8° to 7.0°, respectively. Angle of mandibular incisors and interincisal angle also improved to desirable levels. Although this method requires three separate surgeries, the approach safely improves the clinical situation and accentuates treatment efficacy. PMID:24963302

Yamaguchi, Hiro-o; Koshikawa-Matsuno, Mino; Inoue, Nobuo

2014-01-01

419

A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan