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Sample records for central limit theory

  1. Randomized central limit theorems: A unified theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The central limit theorems (CLTs) characterize the macroscopic statistical behavior of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. The CLTs assert that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ aggregate statistics are either Gaussian or Lévy, and that the universal probability laws governing ensembles’ extreme statistics are Fréchet, Weibull, or Gumbel. The scaling schemes underlying the CLTs are deterministic—scaling all ensemble components by a common deterministic scale. However, there are “random environment” settings in which the underlying scaling schemes are stochastic—scaling the ensemble components by different random scales. Examples of such settings include Holtsmark’s law for gravitational fields and the Stretched Exponential law for relaxation times. In this paper we establish a unified theory of randomized central limit theorems (RCLTs)—in which the deterministic CLT scaling schemes are replaced with stochastic scaling schemes—and present “randomized counterparts” to the classic CLTs. The RCLT scaling schemes are shown to be governed by Poisson processes with power-law statistics, and the RCLTs are shown to universally yield the Lévy, Fréchet, and Weibull probability laws.

  2. A Randomized Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT), one of the most elemental pillars of Probability Theory and Statistical Physics, asserts that: the universal probability law of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands with zero mean and finite variance, scaled by the square root of the aggregate-size (√{n}), is Gaussian. The scaling scheme of the CLT is deterministic and uniform - scaling all aggregate-summands by the common and deterministic factor √{n}. This Letter considers scaling schemes which are stochastic and non-uniform, and presents a "Randomized Central Limit Theorem" (RCLT): we establish a class of random scaling schemes which yields universal probability laws of large aggregates of independent and identically distributed random summands. The RCLT universal probability laws, in turn, are the one-sided and the symmetric Lévy laws.

  3. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

  4. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  5. A Central Theory of Biology

    PubMed Central

    Torday, John S.

    2015-01-01

    The history of physiologic cellular–molecular interrelationships can be traced all the way back to the unicellular state by following the pathway formed by lipids ubiquitously accommodating calcium homeostasis, and its consequent adaptive effects on oxygen uptake by cells, tissues and organs. As a result, a cohesive, mechanistically integrated view of physiology can be formulated by recognizing the continuum comprising conception, development, physiologic homeostasis and death mediated by soluble growth factor signaling. Seeing such seemingly disparate processes as embryogenesis, chronic disease and dying as the gain and subsequent loss of cell–cell signaling provides a novel perspective for physiology and medicine. It is emblematic of the self-organizing, self-referential nature of life, starting from its origins. Such organizing principles obviate the pitfalls of teleologic evolution, conversely providing a way of resolving such seeming dichotomies as holism and reductionism, genotype and phenotype, emergence and contingence, proximate and ultimate causation in evolution, cells and organisms. The proposed approach is scale-free and predictive, offering a Central Theory of Biology. PMID:25911556

  6. Continuum limit of quenched theories

    SciTech Connect

    Holdom, B.

    1989-02-27

    We study chiral-symmetry breaking in quenched gauge theories with ultraviolet cutoff ..lambda.., to all orders in the gauge coupling. For large ..lambda../kappa, where kappa is the chiral-symmetry-breaking scale, we derive ..lambda../kappaproportionalexp(const/ ..sqrt..(..cap alpha..-..cap alpha../sub c/) as ..cap alpha --> cap alpha../sub c/+. This is a gauge-invariant, universal consequence of quenched theories. But we argue that this relation does not define a ..beta.. function. We also obtain an explicit expression for the self-energy ..sigma..(p) which applies over most of the range kappa

  7. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Central limit theorem and deformed exponentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignat, C.; Plastino, A.

    2007-11-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) can be ranked among the most important ones in probability theory and statistics and plays an essential role in several basic and applied disciplines, notably in statistical thermodynamics. We show that there exists a natural extension of the CLT from exponentials to so-called deformed exponentials (also denoted as q-Gaussians). Our proposal applies exactly in the usual conditions in which the classical CLT is used.

  8. Central limit theorems under special relativity

    PubMed Central

    McKeague, Ian W.

    2015-01-01

    Several relativistic extensions of the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution have been proposed, but they do not explain observed lognormal tail-behavior in the flux distribution of various astrophysical sources. Motivated by this question, extensions of classical central limit theorems are developed under the conditions of special relativity. The results are related to CLTs on locally compact Lie groups developed by Wehn, Stroock and Varadhan, but in this special case the asymptotic distribution has an explicit form that is readily seen to exhibit lognormal tail behavior. PMID:25798020

  9. Central limit behavior of deterministic dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirnakli, Ugur; Beck, Christian; Tsallis, Constantino

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the probability density of rescaled sums of iterates of deterministic dynamical systems, a problem relevant for many complex physical systems consisting of dependent random variables. A central limit theorem (CLT) is valid only if the dynamical system under consideration is sufficiently mixing. For the fully developed logistic map and a cubic map we analytically calculate the leading-order corrections to the CLT if only a finite number of iterates is added and rescaled, and find excellent agreement with numerical experiments. At the critical point of period doubling accumulation, a CLT is not valid anymore due to strong temporal correlations between the iterates. Nevertheless, we provide numerical evidence that in this case the probability density converges to a q -Gaussian, thus leading to a power-law generalization of the CLT. The above behavior is universal and independent of the order of the maximum of the map considered, i.e., relevant for large classes of critical dynamical systems.

  10. Extensions of theories from soft limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; Cha, Peter; Mizera, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    We study a variety of field theories with vanishing single soft limits. In all cases, the structure of the soft limit is controlled by a larger theory, which provides an extension of the original one by adding more fields and interactions. Our main example is the U( N ) non-linear sigma model in its CHY representation. Its extension is a theory in which the NLSM Goldstone bosons interact with a cubic biadjoint scalar. Other theories we study and extend are the special Galileon and Born-Infeld theory, including its maximally supersymmetric version in four dimensions, the DBI-Volkov-Akulov theory. In all the cases, we propose the CHY representation of the complete tree-level S-matrix of the extended theories. In fact, CHY formulas are the key technique for studying the single soft limit behavior of the original theories. As a byproduct, we show that the tree-level S-matrix of the extended NLSM theory can be constructed using a very compact BCFW-like recursion relation, where physical poles are at most linear in the deformation parameter.

  11. Central Limit Theorem: New SOCR Applet and Demonstration Activity.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Ivo D; Christou, Nicolas; Sanchez, Juana

    2008-07-01

    Modern approaches for information technology based blended education utilize a variety of novel instructional, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically linked, interactive content and multifaceted learning environments, which may facilitate student comprehension and information retention. In this manuscript, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools for improving student motivation and learning of the theory, practice and usability of the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) in probability and statistics courses. Our approach is based on harnessing the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) to design a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the meaning and the power of the CLT. The CLT applet and activity have clear common goals; to provide graphical representation of the CLT, to improve student intuition, and to empirically validate and establish the limits of the CLT. The SOCR CLT activity consists of four experiments that demonstrate the assumptions, meaning and implications of the CLT and ties these to specific hands-on simulations. We include a number of examples illustrating the theory and applications of the CLT. Both the SOCR CLT applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://www.socr.ucla.edu/htmls/SOCR_Experiments.html and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_GeneralCentralLimitTheorem). PMID:21833159

  12. Central Limit Theorem: New SOCR Applet and Demonstration Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas; Sanchez, Juana

    2011-01-01

    Modern approaches for information technology based blended education utilize a variety of novel instructional, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically linked, interactive content and multifaceted learning environments, which may facilitate student comprehension and information retention. In this manuscript, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools for improving student motivation and learning of the theory, practice and usability of the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) in probability and statistics courses. Our approach is based on harnessing the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (SOCR) to design a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the meaning and the power of the CLT. The CLT applet and activity have clear common goals; to provide graphical representation of the CLT, to improve student intuition, and to empirically validate and establish the limits of the CLT. The SOCR CLT activity consists of four experiments that demonstrate the assumptions, meaning and implications of the CLT and ties these to specific hands-on simulations. We include a number of examples illustrating the theory and applications of the CLT. Both the SOCR CLT applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://www.socr.ucla.edu/htmls/SOCR_Experiments.html and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_GeneralCentralLimitTheorem). PMID:21833159

  13. Orientifold limit of F-theory vacua

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, A. |

    1997-06-01

    We show how an F theory compactified on a Calabi-Yau (n+1)-fold in an appropriate weak coupling limit reduces formally to an orientifold of type IIB theory compactified on an auxiliary complex n-fold. In some cases (but not always) if the original (n+1)-fold is singular, then the auxiliary n-fold is also singular. We illustrate this by analyzing F theory on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau three-folds on base F{sub n}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Kinetic theory of diffusion-limited nucleation.

    PubMed

    Philippe, T; Bonvalet, M; Blavette, D

    2016-05-28

    We examine binary nucleation in the size and composition space {R,c} using the formalism of the multivariable theory [N. V. Alekseechkin, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)]. We show that the variable c drops out of consideration for very large curvature of the new phase Gibbs energy with composition. Consequently nuclei around the critical size have the critical composition, which is derived from the condition of criticality for the canonical variables and is found not to depend on surface tension. In this case, nucleation kinetics can be investigated in the size space only. Using macroscopic kinetics, we determine the general expression for the condensation rate when growth is limited by bulk diffusion, which accounts for both diffusion and capillarity and exhibits a different dependence with the critical size, as compared with the interface-limited regime. This new expression of the condensation rate for bulk diffusion-limited nucleation is the counterpart of the classical interface-limited result. We then extend our analysis to multicomponent solutions. PMID:27250310

  15. Kinetic theory of diffusion-limited nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, T.; Bonvalet, M.; Blavette, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examine binary nucleation in the size and composition space {R,c} using the formalism of the multivariable theory [N. V. Alekseechkin, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)]. We show that the variable c drops out of consideration for very large curvature of the new phase Gibbs energy with composition. Consequently nuclei around the critical size have the critical composition, which is derived from the condition of criticality for the canonical variables and is found not to depend on surface tension. In this case, nucleation kinetics can be investigated in the size space only. Using macroscopic kinetics, we determine the general expression for the condensation rate when growth is limited by bulk diffusion, which accounts for both diffusion and capillarity and exhibits a different dependence with the critical size, as compared with the interface-limited regime. This new expression of the condensation rate for bulk diffusion-limited nucleation is the counterpart of the classical interface-limited result. We then extend our analysis to multicomponent solutions.

  16. Liouville theory with a central charge less than one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribault, Sylvain; Santachiara, Raoul

    2015-08-01

    We determine the spectrum and correlation functions of Liouville theory with a central charge less than (or equal) one. This completes the definition of Liouville theory for all complex values of the central charge. The spectrum is always spacelike, and there is no consistent timelike Liouville theory. We also study the non-analytic conformal field theories that exist at rational values of the central charge. Our claims are supported by numerical checks of crossing symmetry. We provide Python code for computing Virasoro conformal blocks, and correlation functions in Liouville theory and (generalized) minimal models.

  17. The Limits of Subsistence: Agriculture and Industry in Central Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudup, Mary Beth

    Current interpretations of central Appalachia's chronic poverty focus on the region's economic dependence on the bituminous coal industry, controlled by absentee investors and serving an external market. Such theories overlook the ways in which the agricultural sector shaped subsequent industrial development. By analyzing the farm economy of 16…

  18. Simplifying Central Place Theory Using GIS and GPS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theo, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    A constant struggle for teachers at all levels is finding ways to successfully teach students complex theories and concepts. Student comprehension is often enhanced by applying these theories and concepts to real world situations. This project demonstrates central place theory by examining highway billboard signs along major Wisconsin highways. In…

  19. Central limit theorem for reducible and irreducible open quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Przemysław; Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-04-01

    In this work we aim at proving central limit theorems for open quantum walks on {{Z}}^d . We study the case when there are various classes of vertices in the network. In particular, we investigate two ways of distributing the vertex classes in the network. First, we assign the classes in a regular pattern. Secondly, we assign each vertex a random class with a transition invariant distribution. For each way of distributing vertex classes, we obtain an appropriate central limit theorem, illustrated by numerical examples. These theorems may have application in the study of complex systems in quantum biology and dissipative quantum computation.

  20. Central limit theorem for reducible and irreducible open quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Przemysław; Pawela, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    In this work we aim at proving central limit theorems for open quantum walks on {mathbb {Z}}^d. We study the case when there are various classes of vertices in the network. In particular, we investigate two ways of distributing the vertex classes in the network. First, we assign the classes in a regular pattern. Secondly, we assign each vertex a random class with a transition invariant distribution. For each way of distributing vertex classes, we obtain an appropriate central limit theorem, illustrated by numerical examples. These theorems may have application in the study of complex systems in quantum biology and dissipative quantum computation.

  1. Improving Conceptions in Analytical Chemistry: The Central Limit Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Lopez, Margarita; Carrasquillo, Arnaldo, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the central limit theorem (CLT) and its relation to analytical chemistry. The pedagogic rational, which argues for teaching the CLT in the analytical chemistry classroom, is discussed. Some analytical chemistry concepts that could be improved through an understanding of the CLT are also described. (Contains 2 figures.)

  2. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  3. Central Limit Theorems and Uniform Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Jenish, Nazgul; Prucha, Ingmar R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decades, spatial-interaction models have been increasingly used in economics. However, the development of a sufficiently general asymptotic theory for nonlinear spatial models has been hampered by a lack of relevant central limit theorems (CLTs), uniform laws of large numbers (ULLNs) and pointwise laws of large numbers (LLNs). These limit theorems form the essential building blocks towards developing the asymptotic theory of M-estimators, including maximum likelihood and generalized method of moments estimators. The paper establishes a CLT, ULLN, and LLN for spatial processes or random fields that should be applicable to a broad range of data processes. PMID:20161289

  4. Neurodynamic system theory: scope and limits.

    PubMed

    Erdi, P

    1993-06-01

    This paper proposes that neurodynamic system theory may be used to connect structural and functional aspects of neural organization. The paper claims that generalized causal dynamic models are proper tools for describing the self-organizing mechanism of the nervous system. In particular, it is pointed out that ontogeny, development, normal performance, learning, and plasticity, can be treated by coherent concepts and formalism. Taking into account the self-referential character of the brain, autopoiesis, endophysics and hermeneutics are offered as elements of a poststructuralist brain (-mind-computer) theory. PMID:8236061

  5. Metasemantics: On the Limits of Semantic Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, T.

    2009-01-01

    METASEMANTICS is a wake-up call for semantic theory: It reveals that some semantic questions have no adequate answer. (This is meant to be the "epistemic" point that certain semantic questions cannot be "settled"--not a metaphysical point about whether there is a fact-of-the-matter.) METASEMANTICS thus checks our default "optimism" that any…

  6. Range-limited centrality measures in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N.; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2012-06-01

    Here we present a range-limited approach to centrality measures in both nonweighted and weighted directed complex networks. We introduce an efficient method that generates for every node and every edge its betweenness centrality based on shortest paths of lengths not longer than ℓ=1,...,L in the case of nonweighted networks, and for weighted networks the corresponding quantities based on minimum weight paths with path weights not larger than wℓ=ℓΔ, ℓ=1,2...,L=R/Δ. These measures provide a systematic description on the positioning importance of a node (edge) with respect to its network neighborhoods one step out, two steps out, etc., up to and including the whole network. They are more informative than traditional centrality measures, as network transport typically happens on all length scales, from transport to nearest neighbors to the farthest reaches of the network. We show that range-limited centralities obey universal scaling laws for large nonweighted networks. As the computation of traditional centrality measures is costly, this scaling behavior can be exploited to efficiently estimate centralities of nodes and edges for all ranges, including the traditional ones. The scaling behavior can also be exploited to show that the ranking top list of nodes (edges) based on their range-limited centralities quickly freezes as a function of the range, and hence the diameter-range top list can be efficiently predicted. We also show how to estimate the typical largest node-to-node distance for a network of N nodes, exploiting the afore-mentioned scaling behavior. These observations were made on model networks and on a large social network inferred from cell-phone trace logs (˜5.5×106 nodes and ˜2.7×107 edges). Finally, we apply these concepts to efficiently detect the vulnerability backbone of a network (defined as the smallest percolating cluster of the highest betweenness nodes and edges) and illustrate the importance of weight-based centrality measures in

  7. Range-limited centrality measures in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N; Chawla, Nitesh V; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2012-06-01

    Here we present a range-limited approach to centrality measures in both nonweighted and weighted directed complex networks. We introduce an efficient method that generates for every node and every edge its betweenness centrality based on shortest paths of lengths not longer than ℓ=1,...,L in the case of nonweighted networks, and for weighted networks the corresponding quantities based on minimum weight paths with path weights not larger than w(ℓ)=ℓΔ, ℓ=1,2...,L=R/Δ. These measures provide a systematic description on the positioning importance of a node (edge) with respect to its network neighborhoods one step out, two steps out, etc., up to and including the whole network. They are more informative than traditional centrality measures, as network transport typically happens on all length scales, from transport to nearest neighbors to the farthest reaches of the network. We show that range-limited centralities obey universal scaling laws for large nonweighted networks. As the computation of traditional centrality measures is costly, this scaling behavior can be exploited to efficiently estimate centralities of nodes and edges for all ranges, including the traditional ones. The scaling behavior can also be exploited to show that the ranking top list of nodes (edges) based on their range-limited centralities quickly freezes as a function of the range, and hence the diameter-range top list can be efficiently predicted. We also show how to estimate the typical largest node-to-node distance for a network of N nodes, exploiting the afore-mentioned scaling behavior. These observations were made on model networks and on a large social network inferred from cell-phone trace logs (∼5.5×10(6) nodes and ∼2.7×10(7) edges). Finally, we apply these concepts to efficiently detect the vulnerability backbone of a network (defined as the smallest percolating cluster of the highest betweenness nodes and edges) and illustrate the importance of weight-based centrality

  8. On the quenched central limit theorem for random dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Aimino, Romain

    2016-06-01

    We provide a necessary and sufficient condition under which the quenched central limit theorem without random centering holds for one-dimensional random systems that are uniformly expanding. This condition holds in particular when all the maps preserve a common measure. We also give a counter example which shows that this condition is not necessarily satisfied when the maps do not preserve a common measure.

  9. Pushing Higgs effective theory to its limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehmer, Johann; Freitas, Ayres; López-Val, David; Plehn, Tilman

    2016-04-01

    At the LHC, an effective theory of the Higgs sector allows us to analyze kinematic distributions in addition to inclusive rates, although there is no clear hierarchy of scales. We systematically analyze how well dimension-6 operators describe LHC observables in comparison to the full theory, and in a range where the LHC will be sensitive. The key question is how the breakdown of the dimension-6 description affects Higgs measurements during the upcoming LHC run for weakly interacting models. We cover modified Higgs sectors with a singlet and doublet extension, new top partners, and a vector triplet. First, weakly interacting models only generate small relevant subsets of dimension-6 operators. Second, the dimension-6 description tends to be justified at the LHC. Scanning over model parameters, significant discrepancies can nevertheless arise; their main source is the matching procedure in the absence of a well-defined hierarchy of scales. While these issues require vigilance, they should not present a major problem for future LHC analyses.

  10. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  11. Central charge bounds in 4D conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rattazzi, Riccardo; Vichi, Alessandro; Rychkov, Slava

    2011-02-15

    We derive model-independent lower bounds on the stress tensor central charge C{sub T} in terms of the operator content of a 4-dimensional conformal field theory. More precisely, C{sub T} is bounded from below by a universal function of the dimensions of the lowest and second-lowest scalars present in the conformal field theory. The method uses the crossing symmetry constraint of the 4-point function, analyzed by means of the conformal block decomposition.

  12. Central Limit Theorems for the Shrinking Target Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haydn, Nicolai; Nicol, Matthew; Vaienti, Sandro; Zhang, Licheng

    2013-12-01

    Suppose B i := B( p, r i ) are nested balls of radius r i about a point p in a dynamical system ( T, X, μ). The question of whether T i x∈ B i infinitely often (i.o.) for μ a.e. x is often called the shrinking target problem. In many dynamical settings it has been shown that if diverges then there is a quantitative rate of entry and for μ a.e. x∈ X. This is a self-norming type of strong law of large numbers. We establish self-norming central limit theorems (CLT) of the form (in distribution) for a variety of hyperbolic and non-uniformly hyperbolic dynamical systems, the normalization constants are . Dynamical systems to which our results apply include smooth expanding maps of the interval, Rychlik type maps, Gibbs-Markov maps, rational maps and, in higher dimensions, piecewise expanding maps. For such central limit theorems the main difficulty is to prove that the non-stationary variance has a limit in probability.

  13. The nonrelativistic limit of (central-extended) Poincare group and some consequences for quantum actualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ardenghi, Juan S.; Castagnino, M.; Campoamor-Stursberg, R.

    2009-10-15

    The nonrelativistic limit of the centrally extended Poincare group is considered and their consequences in the modal Hamiltonian interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed [O. Lombardi and M. Castagnino, Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys 39, 380 (2008); J. Phys, Conf. Ser. 128, 012014 (2008)]. Through the assumption that in quantum field theory the Casimir operators of the Poincare group actualize, the nonrelativistic limit of the latter group yields to the actualization of the Casimir operators of the Galilei group, which is in agreement with the actualization rule of previous versions of modal Hamiltonian interpretation [Ardenghi et al., Found. Phys. (submitted)].

  14. lambdaphi/sup 4/ theory in the nonrelativistic limit

    SciTech Connect

    Beg, M.A.B.; Furlong, R.C.

    1985-03-15

    We show that the nonrelativistic limit of the lambdaphi/sup 4/ theory is trivial in 1+3 dimensions; the renormalized coupling constant vanishes and the S matrix reduces to the unit matrix. Our result is consistent with, though not sufficient to establish, the triviality of the Lorentz-invariant theory.

  15. Central charge and renormalization in supersymmetric theories with vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Shizuya, K.

    2005-03-15

    Some quantum features of vortices in supersymmetric theories in 1+2 dimensions are studied in a manifestly supersymmetric setting of the superfield formalism. A close examination of the supercurrent that accommodates the central charge and super-Poincare charges in a supermultiplet reveals that there is no genuine quantum anomaly in the supertrace identity and in the supercharge algebra, with the central-charge operator given by the bare Fayet-Iliopoulos term alone. The central charge and the vortex spectrum undergo renormalization on taking the expectation value of the central-charge operator. It is shown that the vortex spectrum is exactly determined at one-loop while the spectrum of the elementary excitations receives higher-order corrections.

  16. Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    We derive scalar effective field theories-Lagrangians, symmetries, and all-from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist. PMID:26196613

  17. Continuous-variable entanglement distillation and noncommutative central limit theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Genoni, Marco G.; Eisert, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Entanglement distillation transforms weakly entangled noisy states into highly entangled states, a primitive to be used in quantum repeater schemes and other protocols designed for quantum communication and key distribution. In this work, we present a comprehensive framework for continuous-variable entanglement distillation schemes that convert noisy non-Gaussian states into Gaussian ones in many iterations of the protocol. Instances of these protocols include (a) the recursive-Gaussifier protocol, (b) the temporally reordered recursive-Gaussifier protocol, and (c) the pumping-Gaussifier protocol. The flexibility of these protocols gives rise to several beneficial trade-offs related to success probabilities or memory requirements, which can be adjusted to reflect experimental demands. Despite these protocols involving measurements, we relate the convergence in this protocol to new instances of noncommutative central limit theorems, in a formalism that we lay out in great detail. Implications of the findings for quantum repeater schemes are discussed.

  18. Planar Limit of Orientifold Field Theories and Emergent Center Symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Armoni, Adi; Shifman, Mikhail; Unsal, Mithat

    2007-12-05

    We consider orientifold field theories (i.e. SU(N) Yang-Mills theories with fermions in the two-index symmetric or antisymmetric representations) on R{sub 3} x S{sub 1} where the compact dimension can be either temporal or spatial. These theories are planar equivalent to supersymmetric Yang-Mills. The latter has Z{sub N} center symmetry. The famous Polyakov criterion establishing confinement-deconfinement phase transition as that from Z{sub N} symmetric to Z{sub N} broken phase applies. At the Lagrangian level the orientifold theories have at most a Z{sub 2} center. We discuss how the full Z{sub N} center symmetry dynamically emerges in the orientifold theories in the limit N {yields} {infinity}. In the confining phase the manifestation of this enhancement is the existence of stable k-strings in the large-N limit of the orientifold theories. These strings are identical to those of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. We argue that critical temperatures (and other features) of the confinement-deconfinement phase transition are the same in the orientifold daughters and their supersymmetric parent up to 1/N corrections. We also discuss the Abelian and non-Abelian confining regimes of four-dimensional QCD-like theories.

  19. Effective Field Theories from Soft Limits of Scattering Amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    We derive scalar effective field theories—Lagrangians, symmetries, and all—from on-shell scattering amplitudes constructed purely from Lorentz invariance, factorization, a fixed power counting order in derivatives, and a fixed order at which amplitudes vanish in the soft limit. These constraints leave free parameters in the amplitude which are the coupling constants of well-known theories: Nambu-Goldstone bosons, Dirac-Born-Infeld scalars, and Galilean internal shift symmetries. Moreover, soft limits imply conditions on the Noether current which can then be inverted to derive Lagrangians for each theory. We propose a natural classification of all scalar effective field theories according to two numbers which encode the derivative power counting and soft behavior of the corresponding amplitudes. In those cases where there is no consistent amplitude, the corresponding theory does not exist.

  20. Tate form and weak coupling limits in F-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esole, Mboyo; Savelli, Raffaele

    2013-06-01

    We consider the weak coupling limit of F-theory in the presence of non-Abelian gauge groups implemented using the traditional ansatz coming from Tate's algorithm. We classify the types of singularities that could appear in the weak coupling limit and explain their resolution. In particular, the weak coupling limit of SU( n) gauge groups leads to an orientifold theory which suffers from conifold singulaties that do not admit a crepant resolution compatible with the orientifold involution. We present a simple resolution to this problem by introducing a new weak coupling regime that admits singularities compatible with both a crepant resolution and an orientifold symmetry. We also comment on possible applications of the new limit to model building. We finally discuss other unexpected phenomena as for example the existence of several non-equivalent directions to flow from strong to weak coupling leading to different gauge groups.

  1. Planetary Accretion, Oxygen Isotopes and the Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Hill, Hugh G. M.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of presolar dust into increasingly larger aggregates (CAIs and Chondrules, Asteroids, Planets) should result in a very drastic reduction in the numerical spread in oxygen isotopic composition between bodies of similar size, in accord with the Central Limit Theorem. Observed variations in oxygen isotopic composition are many orders of magnitude larger than would be predicted by a simple, random accumulation model that begins in a well-mixed nebula - no matter which size-scale objects are used as the beginning or end points of the calculation. This discrepancy implies either that some as yet unspecified process acted on the solids in the Solar Nebula to increase the spread in oxygen isotopic composition during each and every stage of accumulation or that the nebula was heterogeneous and maintained this heterogeneity throughout most of nebular history. Large-scale nebular heterogeneity would have significant consequences for many areas of cosmochemistry, including the application of some well-known isotopic systems to the dating of nebular events or the prediction of bulk compositions of planetary bodies on the basis of a uniform cosmic abundance.

  2. Open string Regge trajectory and its field theory limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Francisco; Thorn, Charles B.

    2011-07-01

    We study the properties of the leading Regge trajectory in open string theory including the open string planar one-loop corrections. With SU(N) Chan-Paton factors, the sum over planar open string multiloop diagrams describes the ’t Hooft limit N→∞ with Ngs2 fixed. Our motivation is to improve the understanding of open string theory at finite α' as a model of gauge field theories. SU(N) gauge theories in D space-time dimensions are described by requiring open strings to end on a stack of N Dp-branes of space-time dimension D=p+1. The large N leading trajectory α(t)=1+α't+Σ(t) can be extracted, through order g2, from the s→-∞ limit, at fixed t, of the four open string tree and planar loop diagrams. We analyze the t→0 behavior with the result that Σ(t)˜-Cg2(-α't)(D-4)/2/(D-4). This result precisely tracks the 1-loop Reggeized gluon of gauge theory in D>4 space-time dimensions. In particular, for D→4 it reproduces the known infrared divergences of gauge theory in 4 dimensions with a Regge trajectory behaving as -ln⁡(-α't). We also study Σ(t) in the limit t→-∞ and show that, when D<8, it behaves as α't/(ln⁡(-α't))γ, where γ>0 depends on D and the number of massless scalars. Thus, as long as 4

  3. Logarithmic conformal field theories as limits of ordinary CFTs and some physical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardy, John

    2013-12-01

    We describe an approach to logarithmic conformal field theories as limits of sequences of ordinary conformal field theories with varying central charge c. Logarithmic behaviour arises from degeneracies in the spectrum of scaling dimensions at certain values of c. The theories we consider are all invariant under some internal symmetry group, and logarithmic behaviour occurs when the decomposition of the physical observables into irreducible operators becomes singular. Examples considered are quenched random magnets using the replica formalism, self-avoiding walks as the n → 0 limit of the O(n) model, and percolation as the limit Q → 1 of the Potts model. In these cases we identify logarithmic operators and pay particular attention to how the c → 0 paradox is resolved and how the b-parameter is evaluated. We also show how this approach gives information on logarithmic behaviour in the extended Ising model, uniform spanning trees and the O( - 2) model. Most of our results apply to general dimensionality. We also consider massive logarithmic theories and, in two dimensions, derive sum rules for the effective central charge and the b-parameter.

  4. Some steps toward a central theory of ecosystem dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ulanowicz, Robert E

    2003-12-01

    Ecology is said by many to suffer for want of a central theory, such as Newton's laws of motion provide for classical mechanics or Schroedinger's wave equation provides for quantum physics. From among a plurality of contending laws to govern ecosystem behavior, the principle of increasing ascendency shows some early promise of being able to address the major questions asked of a theory of ecosystems, including, "How do organisms come to be distributed in time and space?, what accounts for the log-normal distribution of species numbers?, and how is the diversity of ecosystems related to their stability, resilience and persistence?" While some progress has been made in applying the concept of ascendency to the first issue, more work is needed to articulate exactly how it relates to the latter two. Accordingly, seven theoretical tasks are suggested that could help to establish these connections and to promote further consideration of the ascendency principle as the kernel of a theory of ecosystems. PMID:14667780

  5. Bed-limited cracks in effective medium theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tod, S. R.

    2003-02-01

    An effective medium theory typically requires the description of a mean crack shape. In general, for simplicity, this is taken to be a flat, circular (`penny-shaped') crack. However, this places an unnecessary limitation on the theory, when it is perhaps more realistic to describe a crack in terms of having a bounded width and an otherwise ellipsoidal shape. The generalization of the method of smoothing, as proposed by Hudson (1994, Geophys. J. Int.,117, 555-561) , to extend his original model (Hudson, 1980. Math. proc. Camb. phil. Soc.,88, 371-384), has been used to study the role of the crack width and the ratio of the two larger dimensions in determining the properties of the effective medium. In general, this leads to a description of the medium as having orthorhombic symmetry, and provides a suitable description of a material where the crack dimensions are restricted in one direction owing to, for example, bed-limiting effects, while remaining unconfined in other directions. An elliptical flat crack limit is determined, analoguous to the circular crack description of the original Hudson model. In addition to the isolated crack description, the theory is extended to include the fluid flow mechanism of Tod (2001, Geophys. J. Int.,146, 249-263) that models the flow as being dominated by crack-to-crack flow and is valid for low matrix porosities and over a large range of frequencies, provided that the wavelength is much greater than the crack dimensions.

  6. On the limits of psychoanalytic theory: a cautionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Horner, Althea J

    2006-01-01

    Citing the complexities of the human mind with respect to early development and its functioning in later life, the author cautions against the reliance on any individual psychoanalytic theory in clinical work. Psychoanalytic theories, in general, do not take into account many factors such as the patient's constitutional givens, his or her inborn temperament, family system factors, the impact of the autonomous functions on development, the limits of the child in Piagetian terms, or post-oedipal learning. The analyst's favorite theory may become a belief system that shapes his or her understanding of the patient leading to an imposition of the theory on the data. The analyst's sense of certainty about his or her favorite theory may be based on a transference to the author of the theory or from its fit with his or her own psychological makeup. Cited is Greenson's position (1969/1978) that if he tries to imagine an analytic session with a "true believer" analyst repeating the catechism of his school, he would find it "hard to see this as a living creative experience for either the patient or the therapist" (p. 354). Ultimately, not accountable in terms of any psychoanalytic theory, there is something ineffable, which is the persistent and basically indestructible essence of the person that cannot be explained on the basis of good mothering or on the basis of a facilitating environment. Whether this is thought of as "soul" or "spirit," or even a Winnicottian "true self," it is not something the psychotherapist can omnipotently create. It can only be discovered - unearthed, unburied, cleared away of emotional clutter. PMID:17274735

  7. THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    WONG,SK; CHAN,VS

    2002-11-01

    OAK B202 THE LARGE ASPECT RATIO LIMIT OF NEOCLASSICAL TRANSPORT THEORY. This article presents a comprehensive description of neoclassical transport theory in the banana regime for large aspect ratio flux surfaces of arbitrary shapes. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to obtain analytical solutions for plasma distribution functions and to compute transport coefficients. The method provides justification for retaining only the part of the Fokker-Planck operator that involves the second derivative with respect to the cosine of the pitch angle for the trapped and barely circulating particles. It leads to a simple equation for the freely circulating particles with boundary conditions that embody a discontinuity separating particles moving in opposite directions. Corrections to the transport coefficients are obtained by generalizing an existing boundary layer analysis. The system of moment and field equations is consistently taken in the cylinder limit, which facilitates discussion of the treatment of dynamical constraints. it is shown that the nonlocal nature of Ohm's law in neoclassical theory renders the mathematical problem of plasma transport with changing flux surfaces nonstandard.

  8. Limits on Higgs boson couplings in Effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, N.; Reid, T.

    2016-02-01

    We review the Effective Field Theory (EFT) to make projections on physics beyond the Standard Model in the Higgs sector. We provide relations between the non-Standard Model couplings of the Strongly-Interacting Light Higgs (SILH) effective Lagrangian implemented in the eHDecay package and the corresponding terms of the spin-0 Higgs Characterisation model's effective Lagrangian used with the aMC@NLO Monte Carlo generator. Constraints on BSM couplings are determined on the basis of existing experimental limits on Higgs boson width and branching ratios.

  9. Theory and practice: Science for undergraduates of limited English proficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Judith W.

    1993-06-01

    Between 1980 and 1990, the total number of Asian, Hispanic, American Indian, and foreign undergraduates increased by more than 50% at public and private, four-year and two-year colleges. Many of these students may be of limited English proficiency, suggesting that the traditional science lecture/lab format may need modification to incorporate the theory of second language acquisition as it pertains to the practice of content instruction. Various methods exist to improve science instruction for limited English proficient undergraduates. These included the adjunct and tutorial models, sheltered or bridge science instruction, faculty development, and science instruction in the students' native language. Any plan for science education reform at the collegiate level or for increasing minority participation in science must address the needs of the growing population of undergraduates who speak English as a second language.

  10. Limit Theory for Panel Data Models with Cross Sectional Dependence and Sequential Exogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Kuersteiner, Guido M.; Prucha, Ingmar R.

    2013-01-01

    The paper derives a general Central Limit Theorem (CLT) and asymptotic distributions for sample moments related to panel data models with large n. The results allow for the data to be cross sectionally dependent, while at the same time allowing the regressors to be only sequentially rather than strictly exogenous. The setup is sufficiently general to accommodate situations where cross sectional dependence stems from spatial interactions and/or from the presence of common factors. The latter leads to the need for random norming. The limit theorem for sample moments is derived by showing that the moment conditions can be recast such that a martingale difference array central limit theorem can be applied. We prove such a central limit theorem by first extending results for stable convergence in Hall and Hedye (1980) to non-nested martingale arrays relevant for our applications. We illustrate our result by establishing a generalized estimation theory for GMM estimators of a fixed effect panel model without imposing i.i.d. or strict exogeneity conditions. We also discuss a class of Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimators that can be analyzed using our CLT. PMID:23794781

  11. Einstein - Cartan - Dirac theory in the low-energy limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P.; Ryder, L. H.

    1997-12-01

    We look for manifestations of the effects of torsion in the low-energy limit in the context of Einstein - Cartan - Dirac theory (or any theory of gravity in which the torsion tensor is purely axial). To proceed, we introduce the mathematical law governing the transport of orthonormal bases or tetrads in a spacetime with torsion. This law is applied to compute the metric and connection in a rotating and accelerating frame, or laboratory. A spin-0264-9381/14/12/031/img1 particle is placed in this rotating and accelerating frame and the low-energy limit of the Dirac equation is taken by means of the Foldy - Wouthuysen transformation. In addition to obtaining the Bonse - Wroblewski phase shift due to acceleration, Sagnac-type effects, rotation - spin couplings of the Mashhoon type, redshift of the kinetic energy and the spin - orbit coupling term of Hehl and Ni, we also obtain several interesting and significant terms as a consequence of introducing torsion into spacetime. We give a detailed interpretation of these additional terms and discuss their observability in the light of current well-known experimental techniques.

  12. Shielded attractive shell model again: resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force potential.

    PubMed

    Reščič, J; Kalyuzhnyi, Y V; Cummings, P T

    2016-10-19

    The approach developed earlier to describe the dimerizing shielded attractive shell (SAS) primitive model of chemical association due to Cummings and Stell is generalized and extended to include a description of a polymerizing SAS model. Our extension is based on the combination of the resummed thermodynamic perturbation theory for central force (RTPT-CF) associating potential and self consistent scheme, which takes into account the changes in the system free volume due to association. Theoretical results for thermodynamical properties of the model at different bonding length, density and temperature are compared against newly generated computer simulation results. The theory gives very accurate predictions for the model with bonding length L (*) from the range 0  <  L (*)  <  0.6 at all values of the density and temperature studied, including the limit of infinitely large temperature. PMID:27545613

  13. Scaling theory for the quasideterministic limit of continuous bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2012-05-01

    Deterministic rate equations are widely used in the study of stochastic, interacting particles systems. This approach assumes that the inherent noise, associated with the discreteness of the elementary constituents, may be neglected when the number of particles N is large. Accordingly, it fails close to the extinction transition, when the amplitude of stochastic fluctuations is comparable with the size of the population. Here we present a general scaling theory of the transition regime for spatially extended systems. We demonstrate this through a detailed study of two fundamental models for out-of-equilibrium phase transitions: the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) that belongs to the directed percolation equivalence class and the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model belonging to the dynamic percolation class. Implementing the Ginzburg criteria we show that the width of the fluctuation-dominated region scales like N^{-κ}, where N is the number of individuals per site and κ=2/(d_{u}-d), d_{u} is the upper critical dimension. Other exponents that control the approach to the deterministic limit are shown to be calculable once κ is known. The theory is extended to include the corrections to the front velocity above the transition. It is supported by the results of extensive numerical simulations for systems of various dimensionalities. PMID:23004734

  14. Orbit Limited Theory in the Solar Wind - kappa Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinović, M. M.

    2016-06-01

    When a solid object is immersed into ionized gas it gets brought to a certain value of electrostatic potential and surrounded by a space charge region called `plasma sheath'. Through this region, particles are attracted or repelled from the surface of the charge collecting object. For collisionless plasma, this process is described by the so-called orbit limited theory, which explains how the collection of particles is determined by the collector geometry and plasma velocity distribution function (VDF). In this article, we provide explicit orbit-limited currents expressions for generalized Lorentzian (κ) distributions. This work is useful to describe the charging processes of objects in non-collisional plasmas like the solar wind, where the electrons VDF is often observed to exhibit quasi power-law populations of suprathermal particles. It is found that these 'suprathermals' considerably increase the charge collection. Since the surface charging process that determines the value of electrostatic potential is also affected by the plasma VDF, calculation of the collector potential in the solar wind is described along with some quantitative predictions.

  15. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  16. Theory of Space Charge Limited Current in Fractional Dimensional Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ang, L. K.

    The concept of fractional dimensional space has been effectively applied in many areas of physics to describe the fractional effects on the physical systems. We will present some recent developments of space charge limited (SCL) current in free space and solid in the framework of fractional dimensional space which may account for the effect of imperfectness or roughness of the electrode surface. For SCL current in free space, the governing law is known as the Child-Langmuir (CL) law. Its analogy in a trap-free solid (or dielectric) is known as Mott-Gurney (MG) law. This work extends the one-dimensional CL Law and MG Law for the case of a D-dimensional fractional space with 0 < D <= 1 where parameter D defines the degree of roughness of the electrode surface. Such a fractional dimensional space generalization of SCL current theory can be used to characterize the charge injection by the imperfectness or roughness of the surface in applications related to high current cathode (CL law), and organic electronics (MG law). In terms of operating regime, the model has included the quantum effects when the spacing between the electrodes is small.

  17. Hydrodynamic limit of Wigner-Poisson kinetic theory: Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we revisit the hydrodynamic limit of the Langmuir wave dispersion relation based on the Wigner-Poisson model in connection with that obtained directly from the original Lindhard dielectric function based on the random-phase-approximation. It is observed that the (fourth-order) expansion of the exact Lindhard dielectric constant correctly reduces to the hydrodynamic dispersion relation with an additional term of fourth-order, beside that caused by the quantum diffraction effect. It is also revealed that the generalized Lindhard dielectric theory accounts for the recently discovered Shukla-Eliasson attractive potential (SEAP). However, the expansion of the exact Lindhard static dielectric function leads to a k{sup 4} term of different magnitude than that obtained from the linearized quantum hydrodynamics model. It is shown that a correction factor of 1/9 should be included in the term arising from the quantum Bohm potential of the momentum balance equation in fluid model in order for a correct plasma dielectric response treatment. Finally, it is observed that the long-range oscillatory screening potential (Friedel oscillations) of type cos(2k{sub F}r)/r{sup 3}, which is a consequence of the divergence of the dielectric function at point k = 2k{sub F} in a quantum plasma, arises due to the finiteness of the Fermi-wavenumber and is smeared out in the limit of very high electron number-densities, typical of white dwarfs and neutron stars. In the very low electron number-density regime, typical of semiconductors and metals, where the Friedel oscillation wavelength becomes much larger compared to the interparticle distances, the SEAP appears with a much deeper potential valley. It is remarked that the fourth-order approximate Lindhard dielectric constant approaches that of the linearized quantum hydrodynamic in the limit if very high electron number-density. By evaluation of the imaginary part of the Lindhard dielectric function, it is shown that the

  18. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  19. Central Limit Theorems for Linear Statistics of Heavy Tailed Random Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaych-Georges, Florent; Guionnet, Alice; Male, Camille

    2014-07-01

    We show central limit theorems (CLT) for the linear statistics of symmetric matrices with independent heavy tailed entries, including entries in the domain of attraction of α-stable laws and entries with moments exploding with the dimension, as in the adjacency matrices of Erdös-Rényi graphs. For the second model, we also prove a central limit theorem of the moments of its empirical eigenvalues distribution. The limit laws are Gaussian, but unlike the case of standard Wigner matrices, the normalization is the one of the classical CLT for independent random variables.

  20. Assessment of the statistics of the Strehl ratio: predictions of central limit theorem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Glenn A.

    2006-11-01

    For a beam propagating through turbulence, the statistics of the Strehl ratio are determined by recognizing that the real and imaginary parts of the on-axis far-field pattern can be represented as the sum of many contributions from the aperture. With this in mind, the central limit theorem (CLT) can be used to develop the statistics of the real and imaginary parts of the optical field, which through the appropriate mathematical manipulations as described here can then be used to develop the probability distribution of the far-field irradiance. The results obtained in this way (which we call the CLT theory or analysis) provide an analytic expression that agrees with the results of detailed wave-optics simulations. This provides an approach by which the statistics of the Strehl ratio can be rapidly determined. A key feature of this work is that the analytic results depend on the values of a few relevant turbulence parameters that include r0,fG, and σ2l. Therefore, a measurement of these parameters at various sites of interest allows us to rapidly assess the detailed nature of the statistical fluctuations of the far-field irradiance that will be experienced at these locations.

  1. String theories as the adiabatic limit of Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander D.

    2015-08-01

    We consider Yang-Mills theory with a matrix gauge group G on a direct product manifold M =Σ2×H2 , where Σ2 is a two-dimensional Lorentzian manifold and H2 is a two-dimensional open disc with the boundary S1=∂H2 . The Euler-Lagrange equations for the metric on Σ2 yield constraint equations for the Yang-Mills energy-momentum tensor. We show that in the adiabatic limit, when the metric on H2 is scaled down, the Yang-Mills equations plus constraints on the energy-momentum tensor become the equations describing strings with a world sheet Σ2 moving in the based loop group Ω G =C∞(S1,G )/G , where S1 is the boundary of H2. By choosing G =Rd -1 ,1 and putting to zero all parameters in Ω Rd -1 ,1 besides Rd -1 ,1 , we get a string moving in Rd -1 ,1 . In another paper of the author, it was described how one can obtain the Green-Schwarz superstring action from Yang-Mills theory on Σ2×H2 while H2 shrinks to a point. Here we also consider Yang-Mills theory on a three-dimensional manifold Σ2×S1 and show that in the limit when the radius of S1 tends to zero, the Yang-Mills action functional supplemented by a Wess-Zumino-type term becomes the Green-Schwarz superstring action.

  2. Theory-independent limits on correlations from generalized Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, Joe; Lal, Raymond; Pusey, Matthew F.

    2014-11-01

    Bayesian networks provide a powerful tool for reasoning about probabilistic causation, used in many areas of science. They are, however, intrinsically classical. In particular, Bayesian networks naturally yield the Bell inequalities. Inspired by this connection, we generalize the formalism of classical Bayesian networks in order to investigate non-classical correlations in arbitrary causal structures. Our framework of ‘generalized Bayesian networks’ replaces latent variables with the resources of any generalized probabilistic theory, most importantly quantum theory, but also, for example, Popescu-Rohrlich boxes. We obtain three main sets of results. Firstly, we prove that all of the observable conditional independences required by the classical theory also hold in our generalization; to obtain this, we extend the classical d-separation theorem to our setting. Secondly, we find that the theory-independent constraints on probabilities can go beyond these conditional independences. For example we find that no probabilistic theory predicts perfect correlation between three parties using only bipartite common causes. Finally, we begin a classification of those causal structures, such as the Bell scenario, that may yield a separation between classical, quantum and general-probabilistic correlations.

  3. Theory of Mind and Central Coherence in Adults with High-Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaumont, Renae; Newcombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The study investigated theory of mind and central coherence abilities in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger syndrome (AS) using naturalistic tasks. Twenty adults with HFA/AS correctly answered significantly fewer theory of mind questions than 20 controls on a forced-choice response task. On a narrative task, there were no…

  4. The Free Will Theorem and Limits on Realistic Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    The rGRWf model (Tumulka 2006) is a proposed solution of the measurement problem of quantum mechanics involving a stochastic nonlinear wave equation embedded in a relativistic framework. Its primary feature is a mechanism that suppresses superpositions of macroscopically different states for macroscopic systems. However, the Free Will Theorem (FWT) proposed by Conway and Kochen (Conway and Kochen 2007, 2009) purports to prove that no theory that is both non-deterministic and relativistic can reproduce all possible measurement results on a system of two entangled spin-one particles. Here we examine both the rGRWf model and the FWT. It is demonstrated that underlying assumptions in the postulates of the FWT rule out certain classes of realistic physical theories. These underlying assumptions and the characteristics of physical theories permitted by the FWT axioms are discussed.

  5. Limits to Fourier theory in high thermal conductivity single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Cahill, David G.

    2015-11-01

    We report the results of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) experiments that examine the ability of Fourier theory to predict the thermal response in single crystals when heater dimensions are small. We performed TDTR measurements on Al-coated diamond, 6H-SiC, GaP, Ge, MgO, GaAs, and GaSb single crystals with a wide range of laser spot size radii, 0.7 μm < w 0 < 12 μm. When the laser spot-size is large, w 0 ≈ 12 μm, TDTR data for all crystals are in agreement with predictions of Fourier theory with bulk thermal conductivity values. When the laser spot-size is small, w 0 < 2 μm, there are significant differences between the predictions of Fourier theory and TDTR data for all crystals except MgO.

  6. Renormalized perturbation theory - Vlasov-Poisson system, weak turbulence limit, and gyrokinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Z.; Mahadjan, S. M.

    1988-10-01

    The self-consistency of the renormalized perturbation theory of Zhang and Mahajan (1985) is demonstrated by applying it to the Vlasov-Poisson system and showing that the theory has the correct weak turbulence limit. Energy conservation is proved to arbitrary high order for the electrostatic drift waves. The theory is applied to derive renormalized equations for a low-beta gyrokinetic system. Comparison of this theory with other current theories is presented.

  7. The solar cycle - A central-source wave theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Studies stimulated by the interpretation of the Elatina formation in South Australia as a fossil record of solar activity have led to discoveries of previously unnoticed features of the sunspot cycle record and to a theory of origin of the sunspot cycle that postulates a solar core in torsional motion and a magnetomechanical wave that couples to the photosphere. The considerations supporting the solar interpretation of the Elatina formation are gathered together.

  8. Reopening the Black Box: Toward a Limited Effects Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Herbert J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses eight limiting factors on media effects, identifying and raising research questions about agents and structures that limit the potential effects of the mass media on the behavior and attitudes of people and on the actions of institutions. Discusses the ignorance of researchers about how people use, and live with, the mass media. (SR)

  9. Cognitive Adaptation Theory and Breast Cancer Recurrence: Are There Limits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomich, Patricia L.; Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2006-01-01

    Relations of the components of cognitive adaptation theory (self-esteem, optimism, control) to quality of life and benefit finding were examined for 70 women (91% Caucasian) diagnosed with Stage I, II, or III breast cancer over 5 years ago. Half of these women experienced a recurrence within the 5 years; the other half remained disease free. Women…

  10. The Power of Doing: A Learning Exercise That Brings the Central Limit Theorem to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Barbara A.; Zhang, Xiaolong

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates an active learning technique for teaching the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) in an introductory undergraduate business statistics class. Groups of students carry out one of two experiments in the lab, tossing a die in sets of 5 rolls or tossing a die in sets of 10 rolls. They are asked to calculate the sample average of each…

  11. A Central Limit Theorem for the Effective Conductance: Linear Boundary Data and Small Ellipticity Contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskup, M.; Salvi, M.; Wolff, T.

    2014-06-01

    Given a resistor network on with nearest-neighbor conductances, the effective conductance in a finite set with a given boundary condition is the minimum of the Dirichlet energy over functions with the prescribed boundary values. For shift-ergodic conductances, linear (Dirichlet) boundary conditions and square boxes, the effective conductance scaled by the volume of the box converges to a deterministic limit as the box-size tends to infinity. Here we prove that, for i.i.d. conductances with a small ellipticity contrast, also a (non-degenerate) central limit theorem holds. The proof is based on the corrector method and the Martingale Central Limit Theorem; a key integrability condition is furnished by the Meyers estimate. More general domains, boundary conditions and ellipticity contrasts will be addressed in a subsequent paper.

  12. Gender, Education, and Society: The Limits and Possibilities of Feminist Reproduction Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillabough, Jo-Anne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current place of reproduction theory within larger debates about gender in education. Focuses on the issue of what limits feminist reproduction theory in the study of gender inequality in schools. Argues that gender theories may fail because they sometimes emerge as political and sensational rather than public and ethical. (CAJ)

  13. Quantum theory of space charge limited current in solids

    SciTech Connect

    González, Gabriel

    2015-02-28

    We present a quantum model of space charge limited current transport inside trap-free solids with planar geometry in the mean field approximation. We use a simple transformation which allows us to find the exact analytical solution for the steady state current case. We use our approach to find a Mott-Gurney like behavior and the mobility for single charge carriers in the quantum regime in solids.

  14. Limits to northward drift of the Paleocene Cantwell Formation, central Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Gromme, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Paleocene Cantwell Formation in central Alaska apparently originated at a paleolatitude of 83oN (alpha 95 = 9.7o), as indicated by paleomagnetic results. When compared with the Paleocene pole for the North American craton, the 95% confidence limits of the results suggest that terranes N of the Denali fault have moved no more than 550km northward relative to the North American craton since Paleocene time.-Authors

  15. Central limit behavior in the Kuramoto model at the “edge of chaos”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    We study the relationship between chaotic behavior and the Central Limit Theorem (CLT) in the Kuramoto model. We calculate sums of angles at equidistant times along deterministic trajectories of single oscillators and we show that, when chaos is sufficiently strong, the Pdfs of the sums tend to a Gaussian, consistently with the standard CLT. On the other hand, when the system is at the “edge of chaos” (i.e. in a regime with vanishing Lyapunov exponents), robust q-Gaussian-like limit distributions naturally emerge, consistently with recently proved generalizations of the CLT.

  16. Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    G. B. Cotten

    2000-08-01

    This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable.

  17. Thermodynamic limit in number theory: Riemann-Beurling gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia, B. L.

    1994-03-01

    We study the grand canonical version of a solved statistical model, the Riemann gas: a collection of bosonic oscillators with energies the logarithms of the prime numbers. The introduction of a chemical potential μ amounts to multiply each prime by e -μ, the corresponding gases could be called Beurling gases because they are defined by the choice of appropriate generalized primes when considered as canonical ensembles; one finds generalized Hagedorn singularities in the temperature. The discrete spectrum can be treated as continuous in its high energy region; this approximation allows us to study the high energy level density and is applied to Beurling gases. It is expected to be accurate for the high temperature behaviour. One model (the logarithmic gases) will be studied in more detail, it corresponds to the choice of all the integers strictly larger than one as Beurling primes; we give an explicit formula for its grand canonical thermodynamic potential F - μ N in terms of a hypergeometric function and check the approximation on the Hagedorn phenomenon. Related physical situations include string theories and quark deconfinement where one needs a better understanding of the nature of the Hagedorn transitions.

  18. On a CFT limit of planar γi-deformed N = 4 SYM theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    We show that an integrable four-dimensional non-unitary field theory that was recently proposed as a certain limit of the γi-deformed N = 4 SYM theory is incomplete and not conformal - not even in the planar limit. We complete this theory by double-trace couplings and find conformal one-loop fixed points when admitting respective complex coupling constants. These couplings must not be neglected in the planar limit, as they can contribute to planar multi-point functions. Based on our results for certain two-loop planar anomalous dimensions, we propose tests of integrability.

  19. Zipf's law is not a consequence of the central limit theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troll, G.; Beim Graben, P.

    1998-02-01

    It has been observed that the rank statistics of string frequencies of many symbolic systems (e.g., word frequencies of natural languages) follows Zipf's law in good approximation. We show that, contrary to claims in the literature, Zipf's law cannot be realized by the central limit theorem(s). The observation that a log-normal distribution of string frequencies yields an approximately Zipf-like rank statistics is actually misleading. Indeed, Zipf's law for the rank statistics is strictly equivalent to a power law distribution of frequencies. There are two natural ways to perform the infinite size limit for the vocabulary. The first one is the method of choice in the literature; it makes the upper word length bound tend to infinity and leads in the case of a multistate Bernoulli process via a central limit theorem to a log-normal frequency distribution. An alternative and for text samples actually better realizable way is to make the lower frequency bound tend to zero. This limit procedure leads to a power law distribution and hence to Zipf's law-at least for Bernoulli processes and to a very good approximation for natural languages where it passes the χ2 test. For the Bernoulli case we will give a heuristic proof.

  20. Ambiguity Detection in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: Is Central Coherence or Theory of Mind Impaired?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Sourn-Bissaoui, Sandrine; Caillies, Stephanie; Gierski, Fabien; Motte, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of central coherence skills and theory of mind competences in ambiguity detection in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS). We sought to pinpoint the level at which AS individuals experience difficulty detecting semantic ambiguity and identify the factors that account for their problems. We…

  1. Theory and simulation of central force model potentials: Application to homonuclear diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresme, Fernando; Abascal, José L. F.; Lomba, Enrique

    1996-12-01

    Structure and thermodynamics of fluids made of particles that interact via a central force model potential are studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations and integral equation theories. The Hamiltonian has two terms, an intramolecular component represented by a harmonic oscillatorlike potential and an intermolecular interaction of the Lennard-Jones type. The potential does not fulfill the steric saturation condition so it leads to a polydisperse system. First, we investigate the association (clustering) and thermodynamic properties as a function of the potential parameters, such as the intramolecular potential depth, force constant, and bond length. It is shown that the atomic hypernetted chain (HNC) integral equation provides a correct description of the model as compared with simulation results. The calculation of the HNC pseudospinodal curve indicates that the stability boundaries between the vapor and liquid phases are strongly dependent on the bond length and suggests that there might be a direct gas-solid transition for certain elongations. On the other hand, we have assessed the ability of the model to describe the thermodynamics and structure of diatomic liquids such as N2 and halogens. To this end we have devised a procedure to model the intramolecular potential depth to reproduce the complete association limit (i.e., an average number of bonds per particle equal to one). This constraint is imposed on the Ornstein-Zernike integral equation in a straightforward numerical way. The structure of the resulting fluid is compared with results from molecular theories. An excellent agreement between the HNC results for the associating fluid and the reference interaction site model (RISM)-HNC computations for the atom-atom model of the same fluid is obtained. There is also a remarkable coincidence between the simulation results for the molecular and the associating liquids, despite the polydisperse character of the latter. The stability boundaries in the complete

  2. On discrete field theory properties of the dimer and Ising models and their conformal field theory limits

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, Igor; Loebl, Martin; Somberg, Petr

    2013-05-15

    We study various mathematical aspects of discrete models on graphs, specifically the Dimer and the Ising models. We focus on proving gluing formulas for individual summands of the partition function. We also obtain partial results regarding conjectured limits realized by fermions in rational conformal field theories.

  3. Non-normalizable densities in strong anomalous diffusion: beyond the central limit theorem.

    PubMed

    Rebenshtok, Adi; Denisov, Sergey; Hänggi, Peter; Barkai, Eli

    2014-03-21

    Strong anomalous diffusion, where ⟨|x(t)|(q)⟩ ∼ tqν(q) with a nonlinear spectrum ν(q) ≠ const, is wide spread and has been found in various nonlinear dynamical systems and experiments on active transport in living cells. Using a stochastic approach we show how this phenomenon is related to infinite covariant densities; i.e., the asymptotic states of these systems are described by non-normalizable distribution functions. Our work shows that the concept of infinite covariant densities plays an important role in the statistical description of open systems exhibiting multifractal anomalous diffusion, as it is complementary to the central limit theorem. PMID:24702341

  4. Slaves, embryos, and nonhuman animals: moral status and the limitations of common morality theory.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ronald A

    2005-12-01

    Common morality theory must confront apparent counterexamples from the history of morality, such as the widespread acceptance of slavery in prior eras, that suggest core norms have changed over time. A recent defense of common morality theory addresses this problem by drawing a distinction between the content of the norms of the common morality and the range of individuals to whom these norms apply. This distinction is successful in reconciling common morality theory with practices such as slavery, but only at the cost of underscoring the limits of common morality theory, in particular its inability to resolve disputes about the moral status of entities. Given that many controversies in bioethics center on the disputed status of various entities, such as embryos and nonhuman animals, this is an important limitation. Nonetheless, common morality theory still can be a useful resource in diminishing moral conflict on issues that do not involve disputes over moral status. PMID:16453948

  5. Influence of global correlations on central limit theorems and entropic extensivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, John A.; Fuentes, Miguel A.; Moyano, Luis G.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2006-12-01

    We consider probabilistic models of N identical distinguishable, binary random variables. If these variables are strictly or asymptotically independent, then, for N→∞, (i) the attractor in distribution space is, according to the standard central limit theorem, a Gaussian, and (ii) the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy S≡-∑i=1Wpln pi (where W=2 N) is extensive, meaning that S BGS( N)∼ N. If these variables have any nonvanishing global (i.e., not asymptotically independent) correlations, then the attractor deviates from the Gaussian. The entropy appears to be more robust, in the sense that, in some cases, SBGS remains extensive even in the presence of strong global correlations. In other cases, however, even weak global correlations make the entropy deviate from the normal behavior. More precisely, in such cases the entropic form Sq≡{1}/{q-1} (1-∑i=1Wpiq) (with S 1tbnd6 S BGS) can become extensive for some value of q≠1. This scenario is illustrated with several new as well as previously described models. The discussion illuminates recent progress into q-describable nonextensive probabilistic systems, and the conjectured q-Central Limit Theorem ( q-CLT) which posses a q-Gaussian attractor.

  6. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833

  7. Upper limits to the magnetic field in central stars of planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Martínez González, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Leone, F.

    2014-06-01

    More than about 20 central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs) have been observed spectropolarimetrically, yet no clear, unambiguous signal of the presence of a magnetic field in these objects has been found. We perform a statistical (Bayesian) analysis of all the available spectropolarimetric observations of CSPN to constrain the magnetic fields in these objects. Assuming that the stellar field is dipolar and that the dipole axis of the objects is oriented randomly (isotropically), we find that the dipole magnetic field strength is smaller than 400 G with 95% probability using all available observations. The analysis introduced allows integration of future observations to further constrain the parameters of the distribution, and it is general, so that it can be easily applied to other classes of magnetic objects. We propose several ways to improve the upper limits found here.

  8. The Star Forming Main Sequence and its Scatter as Conequences of the Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Star formation rates of disk galaxies strongly correlate with stellar mass, with a small dispersion in specific star formation rate at fixed mass. With such small scattter this main sequence of star formation has been interpreted as deterministic and fundamental. Here it is demonstrated that it is a simple consequence off he central limit theorem. Treating the star formation histories of galaxies as integrable, non-differentiable functions, where stochastic changes in star formation rate in a galaxy's history are not fully independent of each other, we derive the median specific star formation rate for the flat part of the main sequence from 0

  9. Nonergodicity and central-limit behavior for long-range Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluchino, A.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    2007-10-01

    We present a molecular dynamics test of the Central-Limit Theorem (CLT) in a paradigmatic long-range-interacting many-body classical Hamiltonian system, the HMF model. We calculate sums of velocities at equidistant times along deterministic trajectories for different sizes and energy densities. We show that, when the system is in a chaotic regime (specifically, at thermal equilibrium), ergodicity is essentially verified, and the Pdfs of the sums appear to be Gaussians, consistently with the standard CLT. When the system is, instead, only weakly chaotic (specifically, along longstanding metastable Quasi-Stationary States), nonergodicity (i.e., discrepant ensemble and time averages) is observed, and robust q-Gaussian attractors emerge, consistently with recently proved generalizations of the CLT.

  10. A central-limit theorem for a single-false match rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, Zachariah; Schuckers, Michael E.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we present a central limit theorem (CLT) for the estimation of a false match rate for a single matching system. The false match rate is often a significant factor in an evaluation of such a matching system. To achieve the main result here we utilize the covariance/correlation structure for matching proposed by Schuckers. Along with the main result we present an illustration of the methodology here on biometric authentication data from Ross and Jain. This illustration is from resampling match decisions on three different biometric modalities: hand geometry, fingerprint and facial recognition and shows that as the number of matching pairs grows the sampling distribution for an FMR approaches a Gaussian distribution. These results suggest that statistical inference for a FMR based upon a Gaussian distribution is appropriate.

  11. Central limit theorem for a class of globally correlated random variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budini, Adrián A.

    2016-06-01

    The standard central limit theorem with a Gaussian attractor for the sum of independent random variables may lose its validity in the presence of strong correlations between the added random contributions. Here, we study this problem for similar interchangeable globally correlated random variables. Under these conditions, a hierarchical set of equations is derived for the conditional transition probabilities. This result allows us to define different classes of memory mechanisms that depend on a symmetric way on all involved variables. Depending on the correlation mechanisms and statistics of the single variables, the corresponding sums are characterized by distinct probability densities. For a class of urn models it is also possible to characterize their domain of attraction, which, as in the standard case, is parametrized by the probability density of each random variable. Symmetric and asymmetric q -Gaussian attractors (q <1 ) arise in a particular two-state case of these urn models.

  12. A Preferentially Segregated Recycling Vesicle Pool of Limited Size Supports Neurotransmission in Native Central Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Vincenzo; Burden, Jemima J.; Thorpe, Julian R.; Smith, Ikuko T.; Smith, Spencer L.; Häusser, Michael; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Summary At small central synapses, efficient turnover of vesicles is crucial for stimulus-driven transmission, but how the structure of this recycling pool relates to its functional role remains unclear. Here we characterize the organizational principles of functional vesicles at native hippocampal synapses with nanoscale resolution using fluorescent dye labeling and electron microscopy. We show that the recycling pool broadly scales with the magnitude of the total vesicle pool, but its average size is small (∼45 vesicles), highly variable, and regulated by CDK5/calcineurin activity. Spatial analysis demonstrates that recycling vesicles are preferentially arranged near the active zone and this segregation is abolished by actin stabilization, slowing the rate of activity-driven exocytosis. Our approach reveals a similarly biased recycling pool distribution at synapses in visual cortex activated by sensory stimulation in vivo. We suggest that in small native central synapses, efficient release of a limited pool of vesicles relies on their favored spatial positioning within the terminal. PMID:23141069

  13. Supergrassmannian and large N limit of quantum field theory with bosons and fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Konechny, Anatoly; Turgut, O. Teoman

    2002-03-01

    We study a large N{sub c} limit of a two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory coupled to bosons and fermions in the fundamental representation. Extending an approach due to Rajeev we show that the limiting theory can be described as a classical Hamiltonian system whose phase space is an infinite-dimensional supergrassmannian. The linear approximation to the equations of motion and the constraint yields the 't Hooft equations for the mesonic spectrum. Two other approximation schemes to the exact equations are discussed.

  14. On the deconfining limit in (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Yasuhiro

    2010-03-01

    We consider (2+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory on S×S×R in the framework of a Hamiltonian approach developed by Karabali, Kim and Nair. The deconfining limit in the theory can be discussed in terms of one of the S radii of the torus ( S×S), while the other radius goes to infinity. We find that the limit agrees with the previously known result for a dynamical propagator mass of a gluon. We also make comparisons with numerical data.

  15. Life-history variation of a neotropical thrush challenges food limitation theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferretti, V.; Llambias, P.E.; Martin, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Since David Lack first proposed that birds rear as many young as they can nourish, food limitation has been accepted as the primary explanation for variation in clutch size and other life-history traits in birds. The importance of food limitation in life-history variation, however, was recently questioned on theoretical grounds. Here, we show that clutch size differences between two populations of a neotropical thrush were contrary to expectations under Lack's food limitation hypothesis. Larger clutch sizes were found in a population with higher nestling starvation rate (i.e. greater food limitation). We experimentally equalized clutches between populations to verify this difference in food limitation. Our experiment confirmed greater food limitation in the population with larger mean clutch size. In addition, incubation bout length and nestling growth rate were also contrary to predictions of food limitation theory. Our results demonstrate the inability of food limitation to explain differences in several life-history traits: clutch size, incubation behaviour, parental feeding rate and nestling growth rate. These life-history traits were better explained by inter-population differences in nest predation rates. Food limitation may be less important to life history evolution in birds than suggested by traditional theory. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  16. HARD X-RAY FLUX UPPER LIMITS OF CENTRAL COMPACT OBJECTS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Erdeve, I.; Kalemci, E.; Alpar, M. A.

    2009-05-10

    We searched for hard X-ray (20-300 keV) emission from nine central compact objects (CCOs) 1E 1207.4-5209, 1WGA J1713-3949, J082157.5-430017, J085201.4-461753, J160103.1-513353, J1613483-5055, J181852.0-150213, J185238.6+004020, and J232327.9+584843 with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory observatory. We applied spectral imaging analysis and did not detect any of the sources with luminosity upper limits in the range of 10{sup 33}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} in the 20-75 keV band. For nearby CCOs (less than 4 kpc), the upper-limit luminosities are an order of magnitude lower than the measured persistent hard X-ray luminosities of anomalous X-ray pulsars. This may indicate that the CCOs are low magnetic field systems with fallback disks around them.

  17. Tau leaping of stiff stochastic chemical systems via local central limit approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yushu; Rathinam, Muruhan

    2013-06-01

    Stiffness manifests in stochastic dynamic systems in a more complex manner than in deterministic systems; it is not only important for a time-stepping method to remain stable but it is also important for the method to capture the asymptotic variances accurately. In the context of stochastic chemical systems, time stepping methods are known as tau leaping. Well known existing tau leaping methods have shortcomings in this regard. The implicit tau method is far more stable than the trapezoidal tau method but underestimates the asymptotic variance. On the other hand, the trapezoidal tau method which estimates the asymptotic variance exactly for linear systems suffers from the fact that the transients of the method do not decay fast enough in the context of very stiff systems. We propose a tau leaping method that possesses the same stability properties as the implicit method while it also captures the asymptotic variance with reasonable accuracy at least for the test system S{sub 1}↔S{sub 2}. The proposed method uses a central limit approximation (CLA) locally over the tau leaping interval and is referred to as the LCLA-τ. The CLA predicts the mean and covariance as solutions of certain differential equations (ODEs) and for efficiency we solve these using a single time step of a suitable low order method. We perform a mean/covariance stability analysis of various possible low order schemes to determine the best scheme. Numerical experiments presented show that LCLA-τ performs favorably for stiff systems and that the LCLA-τ is also able to capture bimodal distributions unlike the CLA itself. The proposed LCLA-τ method uses a split implicit step to compute the mean update. We also prove that any tau leaping method employing a split implicit step converges in the fluid limit to the implicit Euler method as applied to the fluid limit differential equation.

  18. Tau leaping of stiff stochastic chemical systems via local central limit approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yushu; Rathinam, Muruhan

    2013-06-01

    Stiffness manifests in stochastic dynamic systems in a more complex manner than in deterministic systems; it is not only important for a time-stepping method to remain stable but it is also important for the method to capture the asymptotic variances accurately. In the context of stochastic chemical systems, time stepping methods are known as tau leaping. Well known existing tau leaping methods have shortcomings in this regard. The implicit tau method is far more stable than the trapezoidal tau method but underestimates the asymptotic variance. On the other hand, the trapezoidal tau method which estimates the asymptotic variance exactly for linear systems suffers from the fact that the transients of the method do not decay fast enough in the context of very stiff systems. We propose a tau leaping method that possesses the same stability properties as the implicit method while it also captures the asymptotic variance with reasonable accuracy at least for the test system S1↔S2. The proposed method uses a central limit approximation (CLA) locally over the tau leaping interval and is referred to as the LCLA-τ. The CLA predicts the mean and covariance as solutions of certain differential equations (ODEs) and for efficiency we solve these using a single time step of a suitable low order method. We perform a mean/covariance stability analysis of various possible low order schemes to determine the best scheme. Numerical experiments presented show that LCLA-τ performs favorably for stiff systems and that the LCLA-τ is also able to capture bimodal distributions unlike the CLA itself. The proposed LCLA-τ method uses a split implicit step to compute the mean update. We also prove that any tau leaping method employing a split implicit step converges in the fluid limit to the implicit Euler method as applied to the fluid limit differential equation.

  19. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  20. Revising an Extension Education Website for Limited Resource Audiences Using Social Marketing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Spend Smart Eat Smart (SSES), a unique website combining nutrition and food buying education for limited resource audiences (LRAs), was revised using social marketing theory to make it more appealing and relevant to LRAs (25-40 years). Focus groups and surveys identified the needs and preferences of LRAs. Needs were cooking, basic health, and…

  1. A Grounded Theory of Connectivity and Persistence in a Limited Residency Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.; Snyder, Martha M.; Dringus, Laurie P.; Maddrey, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Limited-residency and online doctoral programs have an attrition rate significantly higher than traditional programs. This grounded-theory study focused on issues pertaining to communication between students, their peers and faculty and how interpersonal communication may affect persistence. Data were collected from 17 students actively working on…

  2. 75 FR 38452 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska License Limitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... October 1, 1998 (63 FR 52642), and the LLP was implemented on January 1, 2000. The LLP for groundfish... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Central Gulf of Alaska License Limitation Program; Amendment 86 AGENCY: National... endorsement on licenses issued under the license limitation program (LLP) if those licenses have been used...

  3. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. 5: Post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. L.; Caves, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    The post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory of gravity is evaluated and is shown to be identical to that of general relativity, except for the PPN parameter alpha sub 2, which is related to the difference in propagation speeds for gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Both the value of alpha sub 2 and the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant depend on the present cosmological structure of the Universe. If the cosmological structure has a specific but presumably special form, the Newtonian gravitational constant assumes its current value, alpha sub 2 is zero, the post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory is identical to that of general relativity--and standard solar system experiments cannot distinguish between the two theories.

  4. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. V - Post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D. L.; Ni, W.-T.; Caves, C. M.; Will, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    The post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory of gravity is evaluated and is shown to be identical to that of general relativity, except for the post-Newtonian parameter alpha sub 2 (which is related to the difference in propagation speeds for gravitational and electromagnetic waves). Both the value of alpha sub 2 and the value of the Newtonian gravitational constant depend on the present cosmological structure of the Universe. If the cosmological structure has a specific (but presumably special) form, the Newtonian gravitational constant assumes its current value, alpha sub 2 is zero, the post-Newtonian limit of Rosen's theory is identical to that of general relativity - and standard solar system experiments cannot distinguish between the two theories.

  5. Experimental and theoretical examples of the value and limitations of transition state theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    Value and limitations of transition-state theory (TST) are reviewed. TST analyses of the temperature dependence of the 'direct' reactions CH3 + CH3CHO yields CH4 + CH3CO(1) and O + CH4 yields OH + CH3(2) are presented in detail, and other examples of TST usefulness are recalled. Limitations are discussed for bimolecular processes in terms of 'complex' vs. 'direct' mechanisms. The reaction OH + CO yields CO2 + H is discussed in this context. Limitations for unimolecular processes seem to arise only for simple bond fission processes, and recent advances are noted.

  6. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California

    PubMed Central

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R.; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C.; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M.; Vetter, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5–38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  7. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California.

    PubMed

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M; Vetter, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5-38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  8. F-theory on Spin(7) manifolds: weak-coupling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Federico; Grimm, Thomas W.; Palti, Eran; Pugh, Tom G.

    2014-02-01

    F-theory on appropriately fibered Spin(7) holonomy manifolds is defined to arise as the dual of M-theory on the same space in the limit of a shrinking fiber. A class of Spin(7) orbifolds can be constructed as quotients of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau fourfolds by an anti-holomorphic involution. The F-theory dual then exhibits one macroscopic dimension that has the topology of an interval. In this work we study the weak-coupling limit of a subclass of such constructions and identify the objects that arise in this limit. On the Type IIB side we find space-time filling O7-planes as well as O5- planes and orbifold five-planes with a (-1) FL factor localised on the interval boundaries. These orbifold planes are referred to as X5-planes and are S-dual to a D5-O5 system. For other involutions exotic O3-planes and X3-planes on top of a six-dimensional orbifold singularity can appear. We show that the objects present preserve a mutual supersymmetry of four supercharges in the bulk of the interval and two supercharges on the boundary. It follows that in the infinite-interval and weak-coupling limit full four-dimensional = 1 supersymmetry is restored, which on the Type IIA side corresponds to an enhancement of supersymmetry by winding modes in the vanishing interval limit.

  9. A new VLA/e-MERLIN limit on central images in the gravitational lens system CLASS B1030+074

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Jonathan; Jackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal; Biggs, Andrew; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chapman, Scott; De Zotti, Gianfranco; McKean, John; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Scott, Douglas; Serjeant, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    We present the new Very Large Array 22 GHz and extended Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network 5 GHz observations of CLASS B1030+074, a two-image strong gravitational lens system whose background source is a compact flat-spectrum radio quasar. In such systems we expect a third image of the background source to form close to the centre of the lensing galaxy. The existence and brightness of such images is important for investigation of the central mass distributions of lensing galaxies, but only one secure detection has been made so far in a galaxy-scale lens system. The noise levels achieved in our new B1030+074 images reach 3 μJy beam-1 and represent an improvement in central image constraints of nearly an order of magnitude over previous work, with correspondingly better resulting limits on the shape of the central mass profile of the lensing galaxy. Simple models with an isothermal outer power-law slope now require either the influence of a central supermassive black hole (SMBH), or an inner power-law slope very close to isothermal, in order to suppress the central image below our detection limit. Using the central mass profiles inferred from light distributions in Virgo galaxies, moved to z = 0.5, and matching to the observed Einstein radius, we now find that 45 per cent of such mass profiles should give observable central images, 10 per cent should give central images with a flux density still below our limit, and the remaining systems have extreme demagnification produced by the central SMBH. Further observations of similar objects will therefore allow proper statistical constraints to be placed on the central properties of elliptical galaxies at high redshift.

  10. A volume-limited sample of X-ray galaxy groups and clusters - III. Central abundance drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, E. K.; Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a search and study of central abundance drops in a volume-limited sample (z ≤ 0.071) of 101 X-ray galaxy groups and clusters. These are best observed in nearby, and so best resolved, groups and clusters, making our sample ideal for their detection. Out of the 65 groups and clusters in our sample for which we have abundance profiles, 8 of them have certain central abundance drops, with possible central abundance drops in another 6. All sources with central abundance drops have X-ray cavities, and all bar one exception have a central cooling time of ≤1 Gyr. These central abundance drops can be generated if the iron injected by stellar mass-loss processes in the core of these sources is in grains, which then become incorporated in the central dusty filaments. These, in turn, are dragged outwards by the bubbling feedback process in these sources. We find that data quality significantly affects the detection of central abundance drops, inasmuch as a higher number of counts in the central 20 kpc of a source makes it easier to detect a central abundance drop, as long as these counts are more than ˜13 000. On the other hand, the magnitude of the central abundance drop does not depend on the number of these counts, though the statistical significance of the measured drop does. Finally, in line with the scenario briefly outlined above, we find that, for most sources, the location of X-ray cavities acts as an upper limit to the location of the peak in the radial metallicity distribution.

  11. Orbital-motion-limited theory of dust charging and plasma response

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Xian-Zhu Luca Delzanno, Gian

    2014-12-15

    The foundational theory for dusty plasmas is the dust charging theory that provides the dust potential and charge arising from the dust interaction with a plasma. The most widely used dust charging theory for negatively charged dust particles is the so-called orbital motion limited (OML) theory, which predicts the dust potential and heat collection accurately for a variety of applications, but was previously found to be incapable of evaluating the dust charge and plasma response in any situation. Here, we report a revised OML formulation that is able to predict the plasma response and hence the dust charge. Numerical solutions of the new OML model show that the widely used Whipple approximation of dust charge-potential relationship agrees with OML theory in the limit of small dust radius compared with plasma Debye length, but incurs large (order-unity) deviation from the OML prediction when the dust size becomes comparable with or larger than plasma Debye length. This latter case is expected for the important application of dust particles in a tokamak plasma.

  12. Limits to physiological plasticity of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa from the central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Maren; Roder, Cornelia M.; Büchel, Claudia; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2014-12-01

    Many coral species display changing distribution patterns across coral reef depths. While changes in the underwater light field and the ability to associate with different photosynthetic symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium explain some of the variation, the limits to physiological plasticity are unknown for most corals. In the central Red Sea, colonies of the branching coral Pocillopora verrucosa are most abundant in shallow high light environments and become less abundant in water depths below 10 m. To further understand what determines this narrow distribution, we conducted a cross-depths transplant experiment looking at physiological plasticity and acclimation in regard to depth. Colonies from 5, 10, and 20 m were collected, transplanted to all depths, and re-investigated after 30 and 210 d. All coral colonies transplanted downward from shallow to deep water displayed an increase in photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments, which resulted in higher photosynthetic efficiency. Shallow-water specimens transplanted to deeper water showed a significant decrease in total protein content after 30 and 210 d under low light conditions compared to specimens transplanted to shallow and medium depths. Stable isotope data suggest that heterotrophic input of carbon was not increased under low light, and consequently, decreasing protein levels were symptomatic of decreasing photosynthetic rates that could not be compensated for through higher light-harvesting efficiency. Our results provide insights into the physiological plasticity of P. verrucosa in changing light regimes and explain the observed depth distribution pattern. Despite its high abundance in shallow reef waters, P. verrucosa possesses limited heterotrophic acclimation potential, i.e., the ability to support its mainly photoautotrophic diet through heterotrophic feeding. We conclude that P. verrucosa might be a species vulnerable to sudden changes in underwater light fields resulting from processes such as

  13. Sanov and central limit theorems for output statistics of quantum Markov chains

    SciTech Connect

    Horssen, Merlijn van; Guţă, Mădălin

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we consider the statistics of repeated measurements on the output of a quantum Markov chain. We establish a large deviations result analogous to Sanov’s theorem for the multi-site empirical measure associated to finite sequences of consecutive outcomes of a classical stochastic process. Our result relies on the construction of an extended quantum transition operator (which keeps track of previous outcomes) in terms of which we compute moment generating functions, and whose spectral radius is related to the large deviations rate function. As a corollary to this, we obtain a central limit theorem for the empirical measure. Such higher level statistics may be used to uncover critical behaviour such as dynamical phase transitions, which are not captured by lower level statistics such as the sample mean. As a step in this direction, we give an example of a finite system whose level-1 (empirical mean) rate function is independent of a model parameter while the level-2 (empirical measure) rate is not.

  14. Limited preparation contextuality in quantum theory and its relation to the Cirel'son bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup; Ambainis, Andris; Rai, Ashutosh

    2015-09-01

    The Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem lies at the heart of the foundations of quantum mechanics. It establishes the impossibility of explaining predictions of quantum theory by any noncontextual ontological model. Spekkens generalized the notion of KS contextuality in [Phys. Rev. A 71, 052108 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevA.71.052108] for arbitrary experimental procedures (preparation, measurement, and transformation procedures). Interestingly, later on it was shown that preparation contextuality powers parity-oblivious multiplexing [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 010401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.010401], a two-party information theoretic game. Thus, using resources of a given operational theory, the maximum success probability achievable in such a game suffices as a bona fide measure of preparation contextuality for the underlying theory. In this work we show that preparation contextuality in quantum theory is more restricted compared to a general operational theory known as box world. Moreover, we find that this limitation of quantum theory implies the quantitative bound on quantum nonlocality as depicted by the Cirel'son bound.

  15. Can quantum transition state theory be defined as an exact t = 0+ limit?

    PubMed

    Jang, Seogjoo; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-02-28

    The definition of the classical transition state theory (TST) as a t → 0+ limit of the flux-side time correlation function relies on the assumption that simultaneous measurement of population and flux is a well defined physical process. However, the noncommutativity of the two measurements in quantum mechanics makes the extension of such a concept to the quantum regime impossible. For this reason, quantum TST (QTST) has been generally accepted as any kind of quantum rate theory reproducing the TST in the classical limit, and there has been a broad consensus that no unique QTST retaining all the properties of TST can be defined. Contrary to this widely held view, Hele and Althorpe (HA) [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084108 (2013)] recently suggested that a true QTST can be defined as the exact t → 0+ limit of a certain kind of quantum flux-side time correlation function and that it is equivalent to the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) TST. This work seeks to question and clarify certain assumptions underlying these suggestions and their implications. First, the time correlation function used by HA as a starting expression is not related to the kinetic rate constant by virtue of linear response theory, which is the first important step in relating a t = 0+ limit to a physically measurable rate. Second, a theoretical analysis calls into question a key step in HA's proof which appears not to rely on an exact quantum mechanical identity. The correction of this makes the true t = 0+ limit of HA's QTST different from the RPMD-TST rate expression, but rather equal to the well-known path integral quantum transition state theory rate expression for the case of centroid dividing surface. An alternative quantum rate expression is then formulated starting from the linear response theory and by applying a recently developed formalism of real time dynamics of imaginary time path integrals [S. Jang, A. V. Sinitskiy, and G. A. Voth, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 154103 (2014)]. It is shown

  16. Can quantum transition state theory be defined as an exact t = 0+ limit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seogjoo; Voth, Gregory A.

    2016-02-01

    The definition of the classical transition state theory (TST) as a t → 0+ limit of the flux-side time correlation function relies on the assumption that simultaneous measurement of population and flux is a well defined physical process. However, the noncommutativity of the two measurements in quantum mechanics makes the extension of such a concept to the quantum regime impossible. For this reason, quantum TST (QTST) has been generally accepted as any kind of quantum rate theory reproducing the TST in the classical limit, and there has been a broad consensus that no unique QTST retaining all the properties of TST can be defined. Contrary to this widely held view, Hele and Althorpe (HA) [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084108 (2013)] recently suggested that a true QTST can be defined as the exact t → 0+ limit of a certain kind of quantum flux-side time correlation function and that it is equivalent to the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) TST. This work seeks to question and clarify certain assumptions underlying these suggestions and their implications. First, the time correlation function used by HA as a starting expression is not related to the kinetic rate constant by virtue of linear response theory, which is the first important step in relating a t = 0+ limit to a physically measurable rate. Second, a theoretical analysis calls into question a key step in HA's proof which appears not to rely on an exact quantum mechanical identity. The correction of this makes the true t = 0+ limit of HA's QTST different from the RPMD-TST rate expression, but rather equal to the well-known path integral quantum transition state theory rate expression for the case of centroid dividing surface. An alternative quantum rate expression is then formulated starting from the linear response theory and by applying a recently developed formalism of real time dynamics of imaginary time path integrals [S. Jang, A. V. Sinitskiy, and G. A. Voth, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 154103 (2014)]. It is shown

  17. Kinetic theory of a two-dimensional magnetized plasma. II - Balescu-Lenard limit.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahala, G.

    1972-01-01

    The kinetic theory of a two-dimensional one-species plasma in a uniform dc magnetic field is investigated in the small plasma parameter limit. The plasma consists of charged rods interacting through the logarithmic Coulomb potential. Vahala and Montgomery earlier (1971) derived a Fokker-Planck equation for this system, but it contained a divergent integral, which had to be cut off on physical grounds. This cutoff is compared to the standard cutoff introduced in the two-dimensional unmagnetized Fokker-Planck equation. In the small plasma parameter limit, it is shown that the Balescu-Lenard collision term is zero in the long time average limit if only two-body interactions are considered. The energy transfer from a test particle to an equilibrium plasma is discussed and is also shown to be zero in the long time average limit. This supports the unexpected result of zero Balescu-Lenard collision term.

  18. Chiral Lagrangians from lattice gauge theories in the strong coupling limit

    SciTech Connect

    Nagao, Taro; Nishigaki, Shinsuke M.

    2001-07-01

    We derive nonlinear {sigma} models (chiral Lagrangians) over symmetric spaces U(n), U(2n)/Sp(2n), and U(2n)/O(2n) from U(N), O(N), and Sp(2N) lattice gauge theories coupled to n flavors of staggered fermions, in the large-N and g{sup 2}N limit. To this end, we employ Zirnbauer{close_quote}s color-flavor transformation. We prove the spatial homogeneity of the vacuum configurations of mesons by explicitly solving the large-N saddle point equations, and thus establish these patterns of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the above limit.

  19. Beyond Orbital-Motion-Limited theory effects for dust transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Tang, Xianzhu

    2015-05-29

    Dust transport in tokamaks is very important for ITER. Can many kilograms of dust really accumulate in the device? Can the dust survive? The conventional dust transport model is based on Orbital-Motion-Limited theory (OML). But OML can break in the limit where the dust grain becomes positively charged due to electron emission processes because it overestimates the dust collected power. An OML+ approximation of the emitted electrons trapped/passing boundary is shown to be in good agreement with PIC simulations.

  20. Living with limited time: Socioemotional selectivity theory in the context of health adversity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Singh, Sarah J; Stanton, Annette L; Low, Carissa A

    2015-06-01

    The current research was designed to test the applicability of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), a life span theory that posits that perceived time remaining in life (time perspective) is a critical determinant of motivation, to individuals who face foreshortened futures (limited time perspective) due to life-limiting medical illness. In Study 1, we investigated whether life goals and biases in attention and memory for valenced emotional stimuli differed between women living with metastatic breast cancer (n = 113; theoretically living under greater limited time perspective than peers without cancer) and similarly aged women without a cancer diagnosis (n = 50; theoretically living under greater expansive time perspective than peers with cancer) in accordance with SST. As hypothesized, metastatic group goals reflected greater emphasis on limited versus expansive time perspective relative to comparison group goals. Hypotheses regarding biases in attention and memory were not supported. Study 2 followed metastatic group participants over 3 months and revealed that, consistent with hypotheses, whereas limited time perspective goals predicted decreased intrusive thoughts about cancer, expansive time perspective goals predicted decreased perceived cancer-related benefits. Together, these studies suggest that SST is a useful lens through which to view some components of motivation and psychological adjustment among individuals confronting medically foreshortened futures. PMID:25984789

  1. Living With Limited Time: Socioemotional Selectivity Theory in the Context of Health Adversity

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan-Singh, Sarah J.; Stanton, Annette L.; Low, Carissa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current research was designed to test the applicability of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST; Carstensen, 2006), a life span theory that posits that perceived time remaining in life (time perspective) is a critical determinant of motivation, to individuals who face foreshortened futures (limited time perspective) due to life-limiting medical illness. In Study 1, we investigated whether life goals and biases in attention and memory for valenced emotional stimuli differed between women living with metastatic breast cancer (n = 113; theoretically living under greater limited time perspective than peers without cancer) and similarly aged women without a cancer diagnosis (n = 50; theoretically living under greater expansive time perspective than peers with cancer) in accordance with SST. As hypothesized, metastatic group goals reflected greater emphasis on limited versus expansive time perspective relative to comparison group goals. Hypotheses regarding biases in attention and memory were not supported. Study 2 followed metastatic group participants over 3 months and revealed that, consistent with hypotheses, whereas limited time perspective goals predicted decreased intrusive thoughts about cancer, expansive time perspective goals predicted decreased perceived cancer-related benefits. Together, these studies suggest that SST is a useful lens through which to view some components of motivation and psychological adjustment among individuals confronting medically foreshortened futures. PMID:25984789

  2. On gauge enhancement and singular limits in G 2 compactifications of M-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, James; Morrison, David R.

    2016-04-01

    We study the physics of singular limits of G 2 compactifications of M-theory, which are necessary to obtain a compactification with non-abelian gauge symmetry or massless charged particles. This is more difficult than for Calabi-Yau compactifications, due to the absence of calibrated two-cycles that would have allowed for direct control of W-boson masses as a function of moduli. Instead, we study the relationship between gauge enhancement and singular limits in G 2 moduli space where an associative or coassociative submanifold shrinks to zero size; this involves the physics of topological defects and sometimes gives indirect control over particle masses, even though they are not BPS. We show how a lemma of Joyce associates the class of a three-cycle to any U(1) gauge theory in a smooth G 2 compactification. If there is an appropriate associative submanifold in this class then in the limit of nonabelian gauge symmetry it may be interpreted as a gauge theory worldvolume and provides the location of the singularities associated with non-abelian gauge or matter fields. We identify a number of gauge enhancement scenarios related to calibrated submanifolds, including Coulomb branches and non-isolated conifolds, and also study examples that realize them.

  3. Taylor's power law and fluctuation scaling explained by a central-limit-like convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2011-06-01

    A power function relationship observed between the variance and the mean of many types of biological and physical systems has generated much debate as to its origins. This Taylor's law (or fluctuation scaling) has been recently hypothesized to result from the second law of thermodynamics and the behavior of the density of states. This hypothesis is predicated on physical quantities like free energy and an external field; the correspondence of these quantities with biological systems, though, remains unproven. Questions can be posed as to the applicability of this hypothesis to the diversity of observed phenomena as well as the range of spatial and temporal scales observed with Taylor's law. We note that the cumulant generating functions derived from this thermodynamic model correspond to those derived over a quarter century earlier for a class of probabilistic models known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models. These latter models are characterized by variance-to-mean power functions; their phenomenological basis rests with a central-limit-theorem-like property that causes many statistical systems to converge mathematically toward a Tweedie form. We review evaluations of the Tweedie Poisson-gamma model for Taylor's law and provide three further cases to test: the clustering of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the horse chromosome 1, the clustering of genes within human chromosome 8, and the Mertens function. This latter case is a number theoretic function for which a thermodynamic model cannot explain Taylor's law, but where Tweedie convergence remains applicable. The Tweedie models are applicable to diverse biological, physical, and mathematical phenomena that express power variance functions over a wide range of measurement scales; they provide a probabilistic description for Taylor's law that allows mechanistic insight into complex systems without the assumption of a thermodynamic mechanism.

  4. The Star-Forming Main Sequence as a Natural Consequence of the Central Limit Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, Daniel David

    2015-08-01

    Star-formation rates (SFR) of disk galaxies correlate with stellar mass, with a small dispersion in SSFR at fixed mass, sigma~0.3 dex. With such scatter this star-formation main sequence (SFMS) has been interpreted as deterministic and fundamental. Here I demonstrate that such a correlation arises naturally from the central limit theorem. The derivation begins by approximating in situ stellar mass growth as a stochastic process, much like a random walk, where the expectation of SFR at any time is equal to the SFR at the previous time. The SFRs of real galaxies, however, do not experience wholly random stochastic changes over time, but change in a highly correlated fashion due to the long reach of gravity and the correlation of structure in the universe. We therefore generalize the results for star-formation as a stochastic process that has random correlations over random and potentially infinite timescales. For unbiased samples of (disk) galaxies we derive expectation values for SSFR and its scatter, such that =2/T, and Sig[SFR/M]=. Note that this relative scatter is independent of mass and time. This derived correlation between SFR and stellar mass, and its evolution, matches published data to z=10 with sufficient accuracy to constrain cosmological parameters from the data. This statistical approach to the diversity of star-formation histories reproduces several important observables, including: the scatter in SSFR at fixed mass; the forms of SFHs of nearby dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way. At least one additional process beyond a single one responsible for in situ stellar mass growth will be required to match the evolution of the stellar mass function, and we discuss ways to generalize the framework. The implied dispersion in SFHs, and the SFMS's insensitivity to timescales of stochasticity, thus substantially limits the ability to connect massive galaxies to their progenitors over long cosmic baselines. Such analytical work shows promise for

  5. Symmetry limit theory for cantilever beam-columns subjected to cyclic reversed bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetani, K.; Nakamura, Tsuneyoshi

    THE BEHAVIOR of a linear strain-hardening cantilever beam-column subjected to completely reversed plastic bending of a new idealized program under constant axial compression consists of three stages: a sequence of symmetric steady states, a subsequent sequence of asymmetric steady states and a divergent behavior involving unbounded growth of an anti-symmetric deflection mode. A new concept "symmetry limit" is introduced here as the smallest critical value of the tip-deflection amplitude at which transition from a symmetric steady state to an asymmetric steady state can occur in the response of a beam-column. A new theory is presented for predicting the symmetry limits. Although this transition phenomenon is phenomenologically and conceptually different from the branching phenomenon on an equilibrium path, it is shown that a symmetry limit may theoretically be regarded as a branching point on a "steady-state path" defined anew. The symmetry limit theory and the fundamental hypotheses are verified through numerical analysis of hysteretic responses of discretized beam-column models.

  6. The role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in central processing limitation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Soutschek, Alexander; Taylor, Paul C J; Schubert, Torsten

    2016-09-01

    When humans perform two tasks simultaneously, responses to the second task are increasingly delayed as the interval between the two tasks decreases (psychological refractory period). This delay of the second task is thought to reflect a central processing limitation at the response selection stage. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this central processing limitation remain unclear. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we examined the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in a dual-task paradigm in which participants performed an auditory task 1 and a visual task 2. We found that dMFC TMS, relative to control conditions, reduced the psychological refractory period for task 2 processing, whereas we observed no dMFC TMS effects on task 1 processing. This suggests a causal role of the dMFC in coordinating response selection processes at the central bottleneck. PMID:27083589

  7. Identification of Misconceptions in the Central Limit Theorem and Related Concepts and Evaluation of Computer Media as a Remedial Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho; And Others

    Central limit theorem (CLT) is considered an important topic in statistics, because it serves as the basis for subsequent learning in other crucial concepts such as hypothesis testing and power analysis. There is an increasing popularity in using dynamic computer software for illustrating CLT. Graphical displays do not necessarily clear up…

  8. Toward a limited realism for psychiatric nosology based on the coherence theory of truth.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S

    2015-04-01

    A fundamental debate in the philosophy of science is whether our central concepts are true or only useful instruments to help predict and manipulate the world. The first position is termed 'realism' and the second 'instrumentalism'. Strong support for the instrumentalist position comes from the 'pessimistic induction' (PI) argument. Given that many key scientific concepts once considered true (e.g., humors, ether, epicycles, phlogiston) are now considered false, how, the argument goes, can we assert that our current concepts are true? The PI argument applies strongly to psychiatric diagnoses. Given our long history of abandoned diagnoses, arguments that we have finally 'gotten it right' and developed definitive psychiatric categories that correspond to observer-independent reality are difficult to defend. For our current diagnostic categories, we should settle for a less ambitious vision of truth. For this, the coherence theory, which postulates that something is true when it fits well with the other things we confidently know about the world, can serve us well. Using the coherence theory, a diagnosis is real to the extent that it is well integrated into our accumulating scientific data base. Furthermore, the coherence theory establishes a framework for us to evaluate our diagnostic categories and can provide a set of criteria, closely related to our concept of validators, for deciding when they are getting better. Finally, we need be much less skeptical about the truth status of the aggregate concept of psychiatric illness than we are regarding the specific categories in our current nosology. PMID:25181016

  9. Chandrasekhar limit: an elementary approach based on classical physics and quantum theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In a brief article published in 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made public an important astronomical discovery. In his article, the then young Indian astrophysicist introduced what is now known as the Chandrasekhar limit. This limit establishes the maximum mass of a stellar remnant beyond which the repulsion force between electrons due to the exclusion principle can no longer stop the gravitational collapse. In the present article, we create an elemental approximation to the Chandrasekhar limit, accessible to non-graduate science and engineering students. The article focuses especially on clarifying the origins of Chandrasekhar’s discovery and the underlying physical concepts. Throughout the article, only basic algebra is used as well as some general notions of classical physics and quantum theory.

  10. Detailed numerical investigation of the Bohm limit in cosmic ray diffusion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A. E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com

    2014-04-10

    A standard model in cosmic ray diffusion theory is the so-called Bohm limit in which the particle mean free path is assumed to be equal to the Larmor radius. This type of diffusion is often employed to model the propagation and acceleration of energetic particles. However, recent analytical and numerical work has shown that standard Bohm diffusion is not realistic. In the present paper, we perform test-particle simulations to explore particle diffusion in the strong turbulence limit in which the wave field is much stronger than the mean magnetic field. We show that there is indeed a lower limit of the particle mean free path along the mean field. In this limit, the mean free path is directly proportional to the unperturbed Larmor radius like in the traditional Bohm limit, but it is reduced by the factor δB/B {sub 0} where B {sub 0} is the mean field and δB the turbulent field. Although we focus on parallel diffusion, we also explore diffusion across the mean field in the strong turbulence limit.

  11. Chaos, scaling and existence of a continuum limit in classical non-Abelian lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, H.B.; Rugh, H.H.; Rugh, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    We discuss space-time chaos and scaling properties for classical non-Abelian gauge fields discretized on a spatial lattice. We emphasize that there is a {open_quote}no go{close_quotes} for simulating the original continuum classical gauge fields over a long time span since there is a never ending dynamical cascading towards the ultraviolet. We note that the temporal chaotic properties of the original continuum gauge fields and the lattice gauge system have entirely different scaling properties thereby emphasizing that they are entirely different dynamical systems which have only very little in common. Considered as a statistical system in its own right the lattice gauge system in a situation where it has reached equilibrium comes closest to what could be termed a {open_quotes}continuum limit{close_quotes} in the limit of very small energies (weak non-linearities). We discuss the lattice system both in the limit for small energies and in the limit of high energies where we show that there is a saturation of the temporal chaos as a pure lattice artifact. Our discussion focuses not only on the temporal correlations but to a large extent also on the spatial correlations in the lattice system. We argue that various conclusions of physics have been based on monitoring the non-Abelian lattice system in regimes where the fields are correlated over few lattice units only. This is further evidenced by comparison with results for Abelian lattice gauge theory. How the real time simulations of the classical lattice gauge theory may reach contact with the real time evolution of (semi-classical aspects of) the quantum gauge theory (e.g. Q.C.D.) is left an important question to be further examined.

  12. The many-nucleon theory of nuclear collective structure and its macroscopic limits: an algebraic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, D. J.; McCoy, A. E.; Caprio, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    The nuclear collective models introduced by Bohr, Mottelson and Rainwater, together with the Mayer-Jensen shell model, have provided the central framework for the development of nuclear physics. This paper reviews the microscopic evolution of the collective models and their underlying foundations. In particular, it is shown that the Bohr-Mottelson models have expressions as macroscopic limits of microscopic models that have precisely defined expressions in many-nucleon quantum mechanics. Understanding collective models in this way is especially useful because it enables the analysis of nuclear properties in terms of them to be revisited and reassessed in the light of their microscopic foundations.

  13. Occupancy of phase space, extensivity of Sq, and q-generalized central limit theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2006-06-01

    Increasing the number N of elements of a system typically makes the entropy to increase. The question arises on what particular entropic form we have in mind and how it increases with N. Thermodynamically speaking it makes sense to choose an entropy which increases linearly with N for large N, i.e., which is extensive. If the N elements are probabilistically independent (no interactions) or quasi-independent (e.g., short-range interacting), it is known that the entropy which is extensive is that of Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon, SBG≡-k∑i=1Wpilnpi. If they are, however, globally correlated (e.g., through long-range interactions), the answer depends on the particular nature of the correlations. There is a large class of correlations (in one way or another related to scale-invariance) for which an appropriate entropy is that on which nonextensive statistical mechanics is based, i.e., Sq≡k(1-∑i=1Wpiq)/q-1 ( S1=SBG), where q is determined by the specific correlations. We briefly review and illustrate these ideas through simple examples of occupation of phase space. A very similar scenario emerges with regard to the central limit theorem (CLT). If the variables that are being summed are independent (or quasi-independent, in the sense that they gradually become independent if N→∞), two basic possibilities exist: if the variance of the random variables that are being composed is finite, the N→∞ attractor in the space of distributions is a Gaussian, whereas if it diverges, it is a Lévy distribution. If the variables that are being summed are however globally correlated, there is no reason to expect the usual CLTs to hold. The N→∞ attractor is expected to depend on the nature of the correlations. That class of correlations (or part of it) that makes Sq to be extensive for q≠1 is expected to have a qe-Gaussian as its N→∞ attractor, where qe depends on q [ qe(q) such that qe(1)=1], and where qe-Gaussians are proportional to [1-(1-qe)β x2] ( β>0; qe<3

  14. Advantages and limitations of density functional theory in block copolymer directed self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jimmy; Laachi, Nabil; Delaney, Kris T.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2015-03-01

    A major challenge in the application of block copolymer directed self-assembly (DSA) to advanced lithography is the exploration of large design spaces, including the selection of confinement shape and size, surface chemistry to affect wetting conditions, copolymer chain length and block fraction. To sweep such large spaces, a computational model is ideally both fast and accurate. In this study, we investigate various incarnations of the density functional theory (DFT) approach and evaluate their suitability to DSA applications. We introduce a new optimization scheme to capitalize on the speed advantages of DFT, while minimizing loss of accuracy relative to the benchmark of self-consistent field theory (SCFT). Although current DFT models afford a 100-fold reduction in computational complexity over SCFT, even the best optimized models fail to match SCFT density profiles and make extremely poor predictions of commensurability windows and defect energetics. These limitations suggest that SCFT will remain the gold standard for DSA simulations in the near future.

  15. Theory of cylindrical and spherical Langmuir probes in the limit of vanishing Debye number

    SciTech Connect

    Parrot, M.J.M.; Storey, L.R.O.; Parker, L.W.; Laframboise, J.G.

    1982-12-01

    A theory has been developed for cylindrical and spherical probes and other collectors in collisionless plasmas, in the limit where the ratio of Debye length to probe radius (the Debye number lambda/sub D/) vanishes. Results are presented for the case of equal electron and ion temperatures. On the scale of the probe radius, the distributions of potential and density in the presheath appear to have infinite slope at the probe surface. The dimensionless current--voltage characteristic is the same for the cylinder as for the sphere, within the limits of error of the numerical results, although no physical reason for this is evident. As the magnitude of probe potential (relative to space) increases, the current does not saturate abruptly but only asymptotically; its limiting value is about 45% larger than at space potential. Probe currents for small nonzero lambda/sub D/ approach those for zero lambda/sub D/ only very slowly, showing power-law behavior as function of lambda/sub D/ in the limit as lambda/sub D/ ..-->.. 0, with power-law exponents less than unity, resulting in infinite limiting derivatives with respect to lambda/sub D/.

  16. Aurora B suppresses microtubule dynamics and limits central spindle size by locally activating KIF4A

    PubMed Central

    Nunes Bastos, Ricardo; Gandhi, Sapan R.; Baron, Ryan D.; Gruneberg, Ulrike; Nigg, Erich A.

    2013-01-01

    Anaphase central spindle formation is controlled by the microtubule-stabilizing factor PRC1 and the kinesin KIF4A. We show that an MKlp2-dependent pool of Aurora B at the central spindle, rather than global Aurora B activity, regulates KIF4A accumulation at the central spindle. KIF4A phosphorylation by Aurora B stimulates the maximal microtubule-dependent ATPase activity of KIF4A and promotes its interaction with PRC1. In the presence of phosphorylated KIF4A, microtubules grew more slowly and showed long pauses in growth, resulting in the generation of shorter PRC1-stabilized microtubule overlaps in vitro. Cells expressing only mutant forms of KIF4A lacking the Aurora B phosphorylation site overextended the anaphase central spindle, demonstrating that this regulation is crucial for microtubule length control in vivo. Aurora B therefore ensures that suppression of microtubule dynamic instability by KIF4A is restricted to a specific subset of microtubules and thereby contributes to central spindle size control in anaphase. PMID:23940115

  17. Theoretical frameworks for testing relativistic gravity. IV - A compendium of metric theories of gravity and their post-Newtonian limits.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1972-01-01

    Metric theories of gravity are compiled and classified according to the types of gravitational fields they contain, and the modes of interaction among those fields. The gravitation theories considered are classified as (1) general relativity, (2) scalar-tensor theories, (3) conformally flat theories, and (4) stratified theories with conformally flat space slices. The post-Newtonian limit of each theory is constructed and its Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) values are obtained by comparing it with Will's version of the formalism. Results obtained here, when combined with experimental data and with recent work by Nordtvedt and Will and by Ni, show that, of all theories thus far examined by our group, the only currently viable ones are general relativity, the Bergmann-Wagoner scalar-tensor theory and its special cases (Nordtvedt; Brans-Dicke-Jordan), and a recent, new vector-tensor theory by Nordtvedt, Hellings, and Will.

  18. Energy Densities in the Strong-Interaction Limit of Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Mirtschink, André; Seidl, Michael; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2012-09-11

    We discuss energy densities in the strong-interaction limit of density functional theory, deriving an exact expression within the definition (gauge) of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole. Exact results for small atoms and small model quantum dots (Hooke's atoms) are compared with available approximations defined in the same gauge. The idea of a local interpolation along the adiabatic connection is discussed, comparing the energy densities of the Kohn-Sham, the physical, and the strong-interacting systems. We also use our results to analyze the local version of the Lieb-Oxford bound, widely used in the construction of approximate exchange-correlation functionals. PMID:26605721

  19. Unique laminar-flow stability limit based shallow-water theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1993-01-01

    Two approaches are generally taken in deriving the stability limit for the Froude member (Fs) for laminar sheet flow. The first approach used the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, while the second uses the cross-section-averaged equations of continuity and motion. Because both approaches are based on shallow-water theory, the values of Fs obtained from both approaches should be identical, yet in the literature they are not. This suggests that a defect exists in at least one of the two approaches. After examining the governing equations used in both approaches, one finds that the existing cross-section -averaged equation of motion is dependent on the frame of reference.

  20. Ecological optimality in water-limited natural soil-vegetation systems. I - Theory and hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    The solution space of an approximate statistical-dynamic model of the average annual water balance is explored with respect to the hydrologic parameters of both soil and vegetation. Within the accuracy of this model it is shown that water-limited natural vegetation systems are in stable equilibrium with their climatic and pedologic environments when the canopy density and species act to minimize average water demand stress. Theory shows a climatic limit to this equilibrium above which it is hypothesized that ecological pressure is toward maximization of biomass productivity. It is further hypothesized that natural soil-vegetation systems will develop gradually and synergistically, through vegetation-induced changes in soil structure, toward a set of hydraulic soil properties for which the minimum stress canopy density of a given species is maximum in a given climate. Using these hypotheses, only the soil effective porosity need be known to determine the optimum soil and vegetation parameters in a given climate.

  1. Theory of deviations from the limiting near-dissociation behavior of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roy, R. J.

    1980-12-01

    The nature of the deviations from the limiting near-dissociation behavior of diatomic molecule properties is investigated. It is shown that for strongly bound species the leading deviations from the limiting behavior associated with the asymptotically dominant potential energy term can be quantitatively attributed to the higher inverse power terms contributing to the long-range potential. The properties of the derived expressions show that experimental vibrational energies should often obey the limiting near-dissociation equation even when the dominant potential energy term is responsible for only a fraction of the potential strength at the levels' outer turning points. In contrast, rotational constant values (and other properties) are quite sensitive to the presence of additional contributions to the long-range potential, and deviations from their predicted limiting behavior should provide a sensitive new means of determining values of higher-order potential coefficients. The theory is illustrated by and tested against results for B(3 Pi Ou +) state I2 and for simple model potentials.

  2. The periodic sℓ(2|1) alternating spin chain and its continuum limit as a bulk logarithmic conformal field theory at c = 0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainutdinov, A. M.; Read, N.; Saleur, H.; Vasseur, R.

    2015-05-01

    The periodic sℓ(2|1) alternating spin chain encodes (some of) the properties of hulls of percolation clusters, and is described in the continuum limit by a logarithmic conformal field theory (LCFT) at central charge c = 0. This theory corresponds to the strong coupling regime of a sigma model on the complex projective superspace CP 1|1 = U(2|1) /(U(1) × U(1|1)), and the spectrum of critical exponents can be obtained exactly. In this paper we push the analysis further, and determine the main representation theoretic (logarithmic) features of this continuum limit by extending to the periodic case the approach of [1] [N. Read and H. Saleur, Nucl. Phys. B 777 (2007) 316]. We first focus on determining the representation theory of the finite size spin chain with respect to the algebra of local energy densities provided by a representation of the affine Temperley-Lieb algebra at fugacity one. We then analyze how these algebraic properties carry over to the continuum limit to deduce the structure of the space of states as a representation over the product of left and right Virasoro algebras. Our main result is the full structure of the vacuum module of the theory, which exhibits Jordan cells of arbitrary rank for the Hamiltonian.

  3. Comparison of dust charging between orbital-motion-limited theory and particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2015-11-15

    The Orbital-Motion-Limited (OML) theory has been modified to predict the dust charge and the results were contrasted with the Whipple approximation [X. Z. Tang and G. L. Delzanno, Phys. Plasmas 21, 123708 (2014)]. To further establish its regime of applicability, in this paper, the OML predictions (for a non-electron-emitting, spherical dust grain at rest in a collisionless, unmagnetized plasma) are compared with particle-in-cell simulations that retain the absorption radius effect. It is found that for large dust grain radius r{sub d} relative to the plasma Debye length λ{sub D}, the revised OML theory remains a very good approximation as, for the parameters considered (r{sub d}/λ{sub D} ≤ 10, equal electron and ion temperatures), it yields the dust charge to within 20% accuracy. This is a substantial improvement over the Whipple approximation. The dust collected currents and energy fluxes, which remain the same in the revised and standard OML theories, are accurate to within 15%–30%.

  4. Forecasting sales of new vehicle with limited data using Bass diffusion model and Grey theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Noratikah; Ismail, Zuhaimy

    2015-02-01

    New product forecasting is a process that determines a reasonable estimate of sales attainable under a given set of conditions. There are several new products forecasting method in practices and Bass Diffusion Model (BDM) is one of the most common new product diffusion model used in many industries to forecast new product and technology. Hence, this paper proposed a combining BDM with Grey theory to forecast sales of new vehicle in Malaysia that certainly have limited data to build a model on. The aims of this paper is to examine the accuracy of different new product forecasting models and thus identify which is the best among the basic BDM and combining BDM with Grey theory. The results show that combining BDM with Grey theory performs better than the basic BDM based on in-sample and out-sample mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Results also reveals combining model forecast more effectively and accurately even with insufficient previous data on the new vehicle in Malaysia.

  5. Nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory in inertial and noninertial frames and the principle of equivalence

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Padmanabhan, T.

    2011-10-15

    We discuss the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory in an inertial frame, in the Rindler frame and in the presence of a weak gravitational field, and attempt to highlight and clarify several subtleties. In particular, we study the following issues: (a) While the action for a relativistic free particle is invariant under the Lorentz transformation, the corresponding action for a nonrelativistic free particle is not invariant under the Galilean transformation, but picks up extra contributions at the end points. This leads to an extra phase in the nonrelativistic wave function under a Galilean transformation, which can be related to the rest energy of the particle even in the nonrelativistic limit. We show that this is closely related to the peculiar fact that the relativistic action for a free particle remains invariant even if we restrict ourselves to O(1/c{sup 2}) in implementing the Lorentz transformation. (b) We provide a brief critique of the principle of equivalence in the quantum mechanical context. In particular, we show how solutions to the generally covariant Klein-Gordon equation in a noninertial frame, which has a time-dependent acceleration, reduce to the nonrelativistic wave function in the presence of an appropriate (time-dependent) gravitational field in the c{yields}{infinity} limit, and relate this fact to the validity of the principle of equivalence in a quantum mechanical context. We also show that the extra phase acquired by the nonrelativistic wave function in an accelerated frame, actually arises from the gravitational time dilation and survives in the nonrelativistic limit. (c) While the solution of the Schroedinger equation can be given an interpretation as being the probability amplitude for a single particle, such an interpretation fails in quantum field theory. We show how, in spite of this, one can explicitly evaluate the path integral using the (nonquadratic) action for a relativistic particle (involving a square root) and

  6. Normal-to-anomalous diffusion transition in disordered correlated potentials: From the central limit theorem to stable laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado-García, R.; Maldonado, Cesar

    2013-12-01

    We study the diffusion of an ensemble of overdamped particles sliding over a tilted random potential (produced by the interaction of a particle with a random polymer) with long-range correlations. We found that the diffusion properties of such a system are closely related to the correlation function of the corresponding potential. We model the substrate as a symbolic trajectory of a shift space which enables us to obtain a general formula for the diffusion coefficient when normal diffusion occurs. The total time that the particle takes to travel through n monomers can be seen as an ergodic sum to which we can apply the central limit theorem. The latter can be implemented if the correlations decay fast enough in order for the central limit theorem to be valid. On the other hand, we presume that when the central limit theorem breaks down the system give rise to anomalous diffusion. We give two examples exhibiting a transition from normal to anomalous diffusion due to this mechanism. We also give analytical expressions for the diffusion exponents in both cases by assuming convergence to a stable law. Finally we test our predictions by means of numerical simulations.

  7. Normal-to-anomalous diffusion transition in disordered correlated potentials: from the central limit theorem to stable laws.

    PubMed

    Salgado-García, R; Maldonado, Cesar

    2013-12-01

    We study the diffusion of an ensemble of overdamped particles sliding over a tilted random potential (produced by the interaction of a particle with a random polymer) with long-range correlations. We found that the diffusion properties of such a system are closely related to the correlation function of the corresponding potential. We model the substrate as a symbolic trajectory of a shift space which enables us to obtain a general formula for the diffusion coefficient when normal diffusion occurs. The total time that the particle takes to travel through n monomers can be seen as an ergodic sum to which we can apply the central limit theorem. The latter can be implemented if the correlations decay fast enough in order for the central limit theorem to be valid. On the other hand, we presume that when the central limit theorem breaks down the system give rise to anomalous diffusion. We give two examples exhibiting a transition from normal to anomalous diffusion due to this mechanism. We also give analytical expressions for the diffusion exponents in both cases by assuming convergence to a stable law. Finally we test our predictions by means of numerical simulations. PMID:24483421

  8. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. ) tree-limit surveillance during recent decades, central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Kullman, L. )

    1993-02-01

    The altitudinal tree-limit of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been surveyed at the population level since the early- and mid-1970s in the Swedish Scandes. Elevational tree-limit advance was recorded for the majority of sites, despite statistically stable, although highly fluctuating climate with clusters of exceptionally cold winters and many relatively cool summers. The new tree-limit derived from pines established in the late 1950s. Tree-limit rise was concurrent with net population decline for the period 1972 to 1991, mainly as a result of failing regeneration. The main factor of individual vitality depression and mortality was deduced to be winter desiccation. The progressive tree-limit has a tendency for slow upslope advance during periods of climatic stability, even if punctuated by shorter events of unfavorable climate. Pine tree-limit dynamics is suggested to be a complex of climate/age/disturbance interactions. The tree-limit may decline altitudinally mainly in response to secular climate cooling, which makes it best suited for surveying sustained climatic trends and analogous paleoclimatic reconstruction. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  9. Individual Differences in Executive Function and Central Coherence Predict Developmental Changes in Theory of Mind in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that individuals with autism show atypicalities in multiple cognitive domains, including theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and central coherence (CC). In this study, the longitudinal relationships among these 3 aspects of cognition in autism were investigated. Thirty-seven cognitively able children…

  10. Strings on AdS2 and the high-energy limit of noncritical M-theory

    SciTech Connect

    Horava, Petr; Horava, Petr; Keeler, Cynthia A.

    2007-04-16

    Abstract. Noncritical M-theory in 2+1 dimensions has been defined as a double-scaling limit of a nonrelativistic Fermi liquid on a flat two-dimensional plane. Here we study this noncritical M-theory in the limit of high energies, analogous to the alpha' --> infinity limit of string theory. In the related case of two-dimensional Type 0A strings, it has been argued that the conformal alpha' --> infinity limit leads to AdS_2 with a propagating fermion whose mass is set by the value of the RR flux. Here we provide evidence that in the high-energy limit, the natural ground state of noncritical M-theory similarly describes the AdS_2 x S1 spacetime, with a massless propagating fermion. We argue that the spacetime effective theory in this background is captured by a topological higher-spin extension of conformal Chern-Simons gravity in 2+1 dimensions, consistently coupled to a massless Dirac field. Intriguingly, the two-dimensional plane populated by the original nonrelativistic fermions is essentially the twistor space associated with the symmetry group of the AdS_2 x S1 spacetime; thus, at least in the high-energy limit, noncritical M-theory can be nonperturbatively described as a"Fermi liquid on twistor space.''

  11. Mapping children’s politics: the promise of articulation and the limits of nonrepresentational theory

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Katharyne; Elwood, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Reflecting wider debates in the discipline, recent scholarship in children’s geographies has focused attention on the meanings of the political. While supportive of work that opens up new avenues for conceptualizing politics beyond the liberal rational subject, we provide a critique of research methods which delink politics from historical context and relations of power. Focusing on the use of nonrepresentational theory as a research methodology, the paper points to the limits of this approach for children’s political formation as well as for sustained scholarly collaboration. We argue instead for a politics of articulation, in the double sense of communication and connection. An empirical case study is used as an illustrative example. PMID:25635154

  12. Drivers' compliance with speed limits: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Mark A; Armitage, Christopher J; Baughan, Christopher J

    2003-10-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB; I. Ajzen, 1985) was applied to drivers' compliance with speed limits. Questionnaire data were collected for 598 drivers at 2 time points separated by 3 months. TPB variables, demographic information, and self-reported prior behavior were measured at Time 1, and self-reported subsequent behavior was measured at Time 2. In line with the TPB, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control were positively associated with behavioral intention, and intention and perceived control were positively associated with subsequent behavior. TPB variables mediated the effects of age and gender on behavior. Prior behavior was found to moderate the perceived control-intention and perceived control-subsequent behavior relationships. Practical implications of the findings for road safety and possible avenues for further research are discussed. PMID:14516256

  13. Credibility theory based dynamic control bound optimization for reservoir flood limited water level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Ping; Ji, Changming; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic control operation of reservoir flood limited water level (FLWL) can solve the contradictions between reservoir flood control and beneficial operation well, and it is an important measure to make sure the security of flood control and realize the flood utilization. The dynamic control bound of FLWL is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir dynamic control operation. In order to optimize the dynamic control bound of FLWL by considering flood forecasting error, this paper took the forecasting error as a fuzzy variable, and described it with the emerging credibility theory in recent years. By combining the flood forecasting error quantitative model, a credibility-based fuzzy chance constrained model used to optimize the dynamic control bound was proposed in this paper, and fuzzy simulation technology was used to solve the model. The FENGTAN reservoir in China was selected as a case study, and the results show that, compared with the original operation water level, the initial operation water level (IOWL) of FENGTAN reservoir can be raised 4 m, 2 m and 5.5 m respectively in the three division stages of flood season, and without increasing flood control risk. In addition, the rationality and feasibility of the proposed forecasting error quantitative model and credibility-based dynamic control bound optimization model are verified by the calculation results of extreme risk theory.

  14. Search for grand-unified-theory magnetic monopoles at a flux level below the Parker limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, P. B.; Guo, S.-L.; Ahlen, S. P.; Fleischer, R. L.

    1984-04-01

    Results are presented from the first directs search for grand-unified-theory magnetic monopoles with adequate sensitivity to detect a flux as small as the Parker flux (Turner et al., 1983). It is pointed out that if stable monopole-nucleus bound states exist, then the observed absence of monopole tracks in the 4.6 x 10 to the 8th-yr-old mica detector places an upper limit of 10 to the -17th to 10 to the-16th/sq cm-sr-sec on the flux of grand-unified-theory monopoles having a velocity of 3 x 10 to the -4th c to 1.5 x 10 to the -3rd c. The scenario treated here has four aspects. The first is that monopoles enter the earth's atmosphere with a net electric charge less than or equal to zero. The second is that as the monopoles pass through the earth they eventually capture nuclei in bound states through magnetic dipole-magnetic monopole interaction. The third is that the nucleus-monopole composite passes through a naturally occurring underground sample of muscovite mica, undergoing elastic nuclear collisions that result in the formation of a trail of lattice defects in the mica. The fourth is that the track survives as long as the mica remains unheated and may be enlarged to macroscopic dimensions by retrieving the mica and etching it in hydrofluoric acid.

  15. Coarse-grained spin density-functional theory: Infinite-volume limit via the hyperfinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Paul E.

    2013-06-01

    Coarse-grained spin density functional theory (SDFT) is a version of SDFT which works with number/spin densities specified to a limited resolution — averages over cells of a regular spatial partition — and external potentials constant on the cells. This coarse-grained setting facilitates a rigorous investigation of the mathematical foundations which goes well beyond what is currently possible in the conventional formulation. Problems of existence, uniqueness, and regularity of representing potentials in the coarse-grained SDFT setting are here studied using techniques of (Robinsonian) nonstandard analysis. Every density which is nowhere spin-saturated is V-representable, and the set of representing potentials is the functional derivative, in an appropriate generalized sense, of the Lieb internal energy functional. Quasi-continuity and closure properties of the set-valued representing potentials map are also established. The extent of possible non-uniqueness is similar to that found in non-rigorous studies of the conventional theory, namely non-uniqueness can occur for states of collinear magnetization which are eigenstates of Sz.

  16. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in West Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to numerous alternatives in crop sequence and changes in crop yield and price, finding the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.)-based crop rotations for...

  17. Central limit theorem for the solution to the heat equation with moving time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junfeng; Tudor, Ciprian A.

    2016-03-01

    We consider the solution to the stochastic heat equation driven by the time-space white noise and study the asymptotic behavior of its spatial quadratic variations with “moving time”, meaning that the time variable is not fixed and its values are allowed to be very big or very small. We investigate the limit distribution of these variations via Malliavin calculus.

  18. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture In The Central High Plains With Limited Irrigation Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on limited water supplies will require maximizing crop production per unit water. Field studies are being carried out to develop water production functions for crops grown in the Great Plains. Irrigation water is applied through drip irrigation systems; precipitation and reference...

  19. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2, 3, and 4 yr. limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.) based crop rotations for grain yield, available soil water, crop water productivity, and profitability in co...

  20. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    PubMed

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services

  1. Band limited emission with central frequency around 2 Hz accompanying powerful cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troitskaia, V. A.; Shepetnov, K. S.; Dvobnia, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    It has been found that powerful cyclones are proceeded, accompanied and followed by narrow band electromagnetic emission with central frequency around 2 Hz. It is shown that the signal from this emission is unique and clearly distinguishable from known types of magnetic pulsations, spectra of local thunderstorms, and signals from industrial sources. This emission was first observed during an unusually powerful cyclone with tornadoes in the western European part of the Soviet Union, which passed by the observatory of Borok from south to north-east. The emission has been confirmed by analysis of similar events in Antarctica. The phenomenon described presents a new aspect of interactions of processes in the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere.

  2. Transhepatic venous approach to permanent pacemaker placement in a patient with limited central venous access

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Adeel M; Harris, Gregory S; Movahed, Assad; Chiang, Karl S; Chelu, Mihail G; Nekkanti, Rajasekhar

    2015-01-01

    The end-stage renal disease population poses a challenge for obtaining venous access required for life-saving invasive cardiac procedures. In this case report, we describe an adult patient with end-stage renal disease in whom the hepatic vein was the only available access to implant a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. A 63-year-old male with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis and permanent atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter presented with symptomatic bradycardia. Imaging studies revealed all traditional central venous access sites to be occluded/non-accessible. With the assistance of vascular interventional radiology, a trans-hepatic venous catheter was placed. This was then used to place a right ventricular pacing lead with close attention to numerous technical aspects. The procedure was completed successfully with placement of a single-lead permanent cardiac pacemaker. PMID:26380831

  3. Central diabetes insipidus as a very late relapse limited to the pituitary stalk in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Shinkoda, Yuichi; Hazeki, Daisuke; Imamura, Mari; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-07-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and relapse are frequently seen in multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We present two females with multifocal LCH who developed CDI 9 and 5 years after the initial diagnosis, respectively, as a relapse limited to the pituitary stalk. Combination chemotherapy with cytarabine reduced the mass in the pituitary stalk. Although CDI did not improve, there has been no anterior pituitary hormone deficiency (APHD), neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system (ND-CNS) or additional relapse for 2 years after therapy. It was difficult to predict the development of CDI in these cases. CDI might develop very late in patients with multifocal LCH, and therefore strict follow-up is necessary, especially with regard to symptoms of CDI such as polydipsia and polyuria. For new-onset CDI with LCH, chemotherapy with cytarabine might be useful for preventing APHD and ND-CNS. PMID:27089406

  4. Interplay of the sign problem and the infinite volume limit: Gauge theories with a theta term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yiming; Cohen, Thomas; Goldbloom-Helzner, Ari; McPeak, Brian

    2016-06-01

    QCD and related gauge theories have a sign problem when a θ term is included; this complicates the extraction of physical information from Euclidean-space calculations as one would do in lattice studies. The sign problem arises in this system because the partition function for configurations with fixed topological charge Q , ZQ, are summed weighted by exp (i Q θ ) to obtain the partition function for fixed θ , Z (θ ). The sign problem gets exponentially worse numerically as the space-time volume is increased. Here it is shown that, apart from the practical numerical issues associated with large volumes, there are some interesting issues of principle. A key quantity is the energy density as a function of θ , ɛ (θ )=-log (Z (θ ) )/V . This is expected to be well defined in the large four-volume limit. Similarly, one expects the energy density for a fixed topological density ɛ ˜(Q /V )=-log (ZQ )/V to be well defined in the limit of large four volumes. Intuitively, one might expect that if one had the infinite volume expression for ɛ ˜(Q /V ) to arbitrary accuracy, then one could reconstruct ɛ (θ ) by directly summing over the topological sectors of the partition function. We show here that there are circumstances where this is not the case. In particular, this occurs in regions where the curvature of ɛ (θ ) is negative.

  5. Near-Infrared and Optical Limits for the Central X-Ray Point Source in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesen, R. A.; Pavlov, G. G.; Sanwal, D.

    2006-01-01

    We set new near-infrared and optical magnitude limits for the central X-ray point source (XPS) in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on HST images. Near-infrared images of the center of Cas A taken with the NICMOS 2 camera in combination with the F110W and F160W filters (~J and H bands) have magnitude limits >=26.2 and >=24.6, respectively. These images reveal no sources within a 1.2" radius (corresponding to a 99% confidence limit) of the Chandra XPS position. The NICMOS data, taken together with broadband optical magnitude limits (R~28 mag) obtained from a deep STIS CCD exposure taken with a clear filter (50CCD), indicate that the XPS luminosities are very low in the optical/NIR bands (e.g., LH<3×1029 ergs s-1) with no optical, J-, or H-band counterpart to the XPS easily detectable by HST. The closest detected object lies 1.8" from the XPS's nominal coordinates, with magnitudes R=25.7, mF110W=21.9, and mF160W=20.6, and is a foreground, late-type star as suggested by Kaplan, Kulkarni, and Murray. We discuss the nature of the Cas A central compact object on the basis of these near-infrared and optical flux limits. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-8692 and GO-9798.

  6. Generalised Central Limit Theorems for Growth Rate Distribution of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayasu, Misako; Watanabe, Hayafumi; Takayasu, Hideki

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a solvable model of randomly growing systems consisting of many independent subunits. Scaling relations and growth rate distributions in the limit of infinite subunits are analysed theoretically. Various types of scaling properties and distributions reported for growth rates of complex systems in a variety of fields can be derived from this basic physical model. Statistical data of growth rates for about 1 million business firms are analysed as a real-world example of randomly growing systems. Not only are the scaling relations consistent with the theoretical solution, but the entire functional form of the growth rate distribution is fitted with a theoretical distribution that has a power-law tail.

  7. Local overexpression of interleukin-11 in the central nervous system limits demyelination and enhances remyelination.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Anurag; Janssens, Kris; Bogie, Jeroen; Van Den Haute, Chris; Struys, Tom; Lambrichts, Ivo; Baekelandt, Veerle; Stinissen, Piet; Hendriks, Jerome J A; Slaets, Helena; Hellings, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Demyelination is one of the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, no therapy is available which directly potentiates endogenous remyelination. Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a member of the gp130 family of cytokines, is upregulated in MS lesions. Systemic IL-11 treatment was shown to ameliorate clinical symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. IL-11 modulates immune cells and protects oligodendrocytes in vitro. In this study, the cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model was used to elucidate effects of IL-11 on de- and remyelination, independent of the immune response. Prophylactic-lentiviral- (LV-) mediated overexpression of IL-11 in mouse brain significantly limited acute demyelination, which was accompanied with the preservation of CC1(+) mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) and a decrease in microglial activation (Mac-2(+)). We further demonstrated that IL-11 directly reduces myelin phagocytosis in vitro. When IL-11 expressing LV was therapeutically applied in animals with extensive demyelination, a significant enhancement of remyelination was observed as demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining and electron microscopy imaging. Our results indicate that IL-11 promotes maturation of NG2(+) OPCs into myelinating CC1(+) OLs and may thus explain the enhanced remyelination. Overall, we demonstrate that IL-11 is of therapeutic interest for MS and other demyelinating diseases by limiting demyelination and promoting remyelination. PMID:23818742

  8. Local Overexpression of Interleukin-11 in the Central Nervous System Limits Demyelination and Enhances Remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Anurag; Janssens, Kris; Bogie, Jeroen; Van Den Haute, Chris; Struys, Tom; Lambrichts, Ivo; Baekelandt, Veerle; Stinissen, Piet; Hendriks, Jerome J. A.; Hellings, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Demyelination is one of the pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, no therapy is available which directly potentiates endogenous remyelination. Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a member of the gp130 family of cytokines, is upregulated in MS lesions. Systemic IL-11 treatment was shown to ameliorate clinical symptoms in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. IL-11 modulates immune cells and protects oligodendrocytes in vitro. In this study, the cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model was used to elucidate effects of IL-11 on de- and remyelination, independent of the immune response. Prophylactic-lentiviral- (LV-) mediated overexpression of IL-11 in mouse brain significantly limited acute demyelination, which was accompanied with the preservation of CC1+ mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) and a decrease in microglial activation (Mac-2+). We further demonstrated that IL-11 directly reduces myelin phagocytosis in vitro. When IL-11 expressing LV was therapeutically applied in animals with extensive demyelination, a significant enhancement of remyelination was observed as demonstrated by Luxol Fast Blue staining and electron microscopy imaging. Our results indicate that IL-11 promotes maturation of NG2+ OPCs into myelinating CC1+ OLs and may thus explain the enhanced remyelination. Overall, we demonstrate that IL-11 is of therapeutic interest for MS and other demyelinating diseases by limiting demyelination and promoting remyelination. PMID:23818742

  9. Carbon balance indicates a time limit for cultivation of organic soils in central Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sonja; Ammann, Christof; Alewell, Christine; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands serve as important carbon sinks. Globally, more than 30% of the soil organic carbon is stored in organic soils, although they cover only 3% of the land surface. The agricultural use of organic soils usually requires drainage thereby transforming these soils from a net carbon sink into a net source. Currently, about 2 to 3 Gt CO2 are emitted world-wide from degrading organic soils (Joosten 2011; Parish et al. 2008) which is ca. 5% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Besides these CO2 emissions, the resulting subsidence of drained peat soils during agricultural use requires that drainage system are periodically renewed and finally to use pumping systems after progressive subsidence. In Switzerland, the Seeland region is characterised by fens which are intensively used for agriculture since 1900. The organic layer is degrading and subsequently getting shallower and the underlying mineral soil, as lake marl or loam, is approaching the surface. The questions arises for how long and under which land use practises and costs these soils can be cultivated in the near future. The study site was under crop rotation until 2009 when it was converted to extensively used grassland with the water regime still being regulated. The soil is characterised by a degraded organic horizon of 40 to 70 cm. Since December 2014 we are measuring the carbon exchange of this grassland using the Eddy-Covariance method. For 2015, the carbon balance indicates that the degraded fen is a strong carbon source, with approximately 500 g C m‑2 a‑1. The carbon balance is dominated by CO2 emissions and harvest. Methane emissions are negligible. With the gained emission factors different future scenarios are evaluated for the current cultivation practise of organic soils in central Switzerland. Joosten, H., 2011: Neues Geld aus alten Mooren: Über die Erzeugung von Kohlenstoffzertifikaten aus Moorwiedervernässungen. Telma Beiheft 4, 183-202. Parish, F., A. Sirin, D. Charman, H. Joosten, T

  10. Limiting the Number of Lumens in Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters to Improve Outcomes and Reduce Cost: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Ratz, David; Hofer, Timothy; Flanders, Scott A; Saint, Sanjay; Chopra, Vineet

    2016-07-01

    BACKGROUND The number of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lumens is associated with thrombotic and infectious complications. Because multilumen PICCs are not necessary in all patients, policies that limit their use may improve safety and cost. OBJECTIVE To design a simulation-based analysis to estimate outcomes and cost associated with a policy that encourages single-lumen PICC use. METHODS Model inputs, including risk of complications and costs associated with single- and multilumen PICCs, were obtained from available literature and a multihospital collaborative quality improvement project. Cost savings and reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infection and deep vein thrombosis events from institution of a single-lumen PICC default policy were reported. RESULTS According to our model, a hospital that places 1,000 PICCs per year (25% of which are single-lumen and 75% multilumen) experiences annual PICC-related maintenance and complication costs of $1,228,598 (95% CI, $1,053,175-$1,430,958). In such facilities, every 5% increase in single-lumen PICC use would prevent 0.5 PICC-related central line-associated bloodstream infections and 0.5 PICC-related deep vein thrombosis events, while saving $23,500. Moving from 25% to 50% single-lumen PICC utilization would result in total savings of $119,283 (95% CI, $74,030-$184,170) per year. Regardless of baseline prevalence, a single-lumen default PICC policy would be associated with approximately 10% cost savings. Findings remained robust in multiway sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION Hospital policies that limit the number of PICC lumens may enhance patient safety and reduce healthcare costs. Studies measuring intended and unintended consequences of this approach, followed by rapid adoption, appear necessary. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:811-817. PMID:27033138

  11. Limitations of selective deltamethrin application for triatomine control in central coastal Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This year-long study evaluated the effectiveness of a strategy involving selective deltamethrin spraying and community education for control of Chagas disease vectors in domestic units located in rural communities of coastal Ecuador. Results Surveys for triatomines revealed peridomestic infestation with Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Panstrongylus howardi, with infestation indices remaining high during the study (13%, 17%, and 10%, at initial, 6-month, and 12-month visits, respectively), which indicates a limitation of this strategy for triatomine population control. Infestation was found 6 and 12 months after spraying with deltamethrin. In addition, a large number of previously vector-free domestic units also were found infested at the 6- and 12-month surveys, which indicates new infestations by sylvatic triatomines. The predominance of young nymphs and adults suggests new infestation events, likely from sylvatic foci. In addition, infection with Trypanosoma cruzi was found in 65%, 21% and 29% at initial, 6-month and 12-month visits, respectively. All parasites isolated (n = 20) were identified as TcI. Conclusion New vector control strategies need to be devised and evaluated for reduction of T. cruzi transmission in this region. PMID:21332985

  12. Self-organized criticality attributed to a central limit-like convergence effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendal, Wayne S.

    2015-03-01

    Self-organized criticality is a hypothesis used to explain the origin of 1 / f noise and other scaling behaviors. Despite being proposed nearly 30 years ago, no consensus exists as to its exact definition or mathematical mechanism(s). Recently, a model for 1 / f noise was proposed based on a family of statistical distributions known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models. These distributions are characterized by an inherent scale invariance that manifests as a variance to mean power law, called fluctuation scaling; they also serve as foci of convergence in a limit theorem on independent and identically distributed distributions. Fluctuation scaling can be modeled by self-similar stochastic processes that relate the variance to mean power law to 1 / f noise through their correlation structure. A hypothesis is proposed whereby the effects of self-organized criticality are mathematically modeled by the Tweedie distributions and their convergence behavior as applied to self-similar stochastic processes. Sandpile model fluctuations are shown to manifest 1 / f noise, fluctuation scaling, and to conform to the Tweedie compound Poisson distribution. The Tweedie models and their convergence theorem allow for a mechanistic explanation of 1 / f noise and fluctuation scaling in phenomena conventionally attributed to self-organized criticality, thus providing a paradigm shift in our understanding of these phenomena.

  13. Development of the new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory

    SciTech Connect

    Veshchunov, M. S.

    2012-04-15

    The new approach to the diffusion-limited reaction rate theory, recently proposed by the author, is further developed on the base of a similar approach to Brownian coagulation. The traditional diffusion approach to calculation of the reaction rate is critically analyzed. In particular, it is shown that the traditional approach is applicable only in the special case of reactions with a large reaction radius and the mean inter-particle distances, and become inappropriate in calculating the reaction rate in the case of a relatively small reaction radius. In the latter case, most important for chemical reactions, particle collisions occur not in the diffusion regime but mainly in the kinetic regime characterized by homogeneous (random) spatial distribution of particles on the length scale of the mean inter-particle distance. The calculated reaction rate for a small reaction radius in three dimensions formally (and fortuitously) coincides with the expression derived in the traditional approach for reactions with a large reaction radius, but notably deviates at large times from the traditional result in the planar two-dimensional geometry. In application to reactions on discrete lattice sites, new relations for the reaction rate constants are derived for both three-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices.

  14. Al-Air Batteries: Fundamental Thermodynamic Limitations from First Principles Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Leanne D.; Noerskov, Jens K.; Luntz, Alan C.

    2015-03-01

    The Al-air battery possesses high theoretical specific energy (4140 Wh/kg) and is therefore an attractive candidate for vehicle propulsion applications. However, the experimentally observed open-circuit potential is much lower than what thermodynamics predicts, and this potential loss is widely believed to be an effect of corrosion. We present a detailed study of the Al-air battery using density functional theory. The results suggest that the difference between bulk thermodynamic and surface potentials is due to both the effects of asymmetry in multi-electron transfer reactions that define the anodic dissolution of Al and, more importantly, a large chemical step inherent to the formation of bulk Al(OH)3 from surface intermediates. The former results in an energy loss of 3%, while the latter accounts for 14 -29% of the total thermodynamic energy depending on the surface site where dissolution occurs. Therefore, the maximum open-circuit potential of the Al anode is only -1.87 V vs. SHE in the absence of thermal excitations, contrary to -2.34 V predicted by bulk thermodynamics at pH 14.6. This is a fundamental limitation of the system and governs the maximum output potential, which cannot be improved even if corrosion effects were completely suppressed. Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the ReLiable Project (#11-116792) funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research.

  15. Al-Air Batteries: Fundamental Thermodynamic Limitations from First-Principles Theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Leanne D; Nørskov, Jens K; Luntz, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    The Al-air battery possesses high theoretical specific energy (4140 W h/kg) and is therefore an attractive candidate for vehicle propulsion. However, the experimentally observed open-circuit potential is much lower than what bulk thermodynamics predicts, and this potential loss is typically attributed to corrosion. Similarly, large Tafel slopes associated with the battery are assumed to be due to film formation. We present a detailed thermodynamic study of the Al-air battery using density functional theory. The results suggest that the maximum open-circuit potential of the Al anode is only -1.87 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode at pH 14.6 instead of the traditionally assumed -2.34 V and that large Tafel slopes are inherent in the electrochemistry. These deviations from the bulk thermodynamics are intrinsic to the electrochemical surface processes that define Al anodic dissolution. This has contributions from both asymmetry in multielectron transfers and, more importantly, a large chemical stabilization inherent to the formation of bulk Al(OH)3 from surface intermediates. These are fundamental limitations that cannot be improved even if corrosion and film effects are completely suppressed. PMID:26263108

  16. Doubling of states, quantum anomalies, and possible cosmological consequences in the continuum limit of the theory of discrete quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Vergeles, S. N.

    2008-01-15

    The problem of the doubling of states is investigated in the framework of the theory of discrete quantum gravity under the assumption that the theory has a continuum (macroscopic) limit. It is demonstrated that irregular (in some sense) modes of fields (i.e., modes that change abruptly on scales of a lattice step and have a finite energy when the lattice step tends to zero) are separated from the normal modes. Some cosmological consequences of this finding are discussed.

  17. Determination of Detection Limits and Quantitation Limits for Compounds in a Database of GC/MS by FUMI Theory

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Shinya; Hayashi, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a stochastic method for estimating the detection limits (DLs) and quantitation limits (QLs) of compounds registered in a database of a GC/MS system and prove its validity with experiments. The approach described in ISO 11843 Part 7 is adopted here as an estimation means of DL and QL, and the decafluorotriphenylphosphine (DFTPP) tuning and retention time locking are carried out for adjusting the system. Coupled with the data obtained from the system adjustment experiments, the information (noise and signal of chromatograms and calibration curves) stored in the database is used for the stochastic estimation, dispensing with the repetition measurements. Of sixty-six pesticides, the DL values obtained by the ISO method were compared with those from the statistical approach and the correlation between them was observed to be excellent with the correlation coefficient of 0.865. The accuracy of the method proposed was also examined and concluded to be satisfactory as well. The samples used are commercial products of pesticides mixtures and the uncertainty from sample preparation processes is not taken into account. PMID:27162706

  18. Determination of Detection Limits and Quantitation Limits for Compounds in a Database of GC/MS by FUMI Theory.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shinya; Hayashi, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a stochastic method for estimating the detection limits (DLs) and quantitation limits (QLs) of compounds registered in a database of a GC/MS system and prove its validity with experiments. The approach described in ISO 11843 Part 7 is adopted here as an estimation means of DL and QL, and the decafluorotriphenylphosphine (DFTPP) tuning and retention time locking are carried out for adjusting the system. Coupled with the data obtained from the system adjustment experiments, the information (noise and signal of chromatograms and calibration curves) stored in the database is used for the stochastic estimation, dispensing with the repetition measurements. Of sixty-six pesticides, the DL values obtained by the ISO method were compared with those from the statistical approach and the correlation between them was observed to be excellent with the correlation coefficient of 0.865. The accuracy of the method proposed was also examined and concluded to be satisfactory as well. The samples used are commercial products of pesticides mixtures and the uncertainty from sample preparation processes is not taken into account. PMID:27162706

  19. Collection-limited theory interprets the extraordinary response of single semiconductor organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Biswajit; Baradwaj, Aditya G.; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Boudouris, Bryan W.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) architecture has dominated the literature due to its ability to be implemented in devices with relatively high efficiency values. However, a simpler device architecture based on a single organic semiconductor (SS-OPV) offers several advantages: it obviates the need to control the highly system-dependent nanoscale BHJ morphology, and therefore, would allow the use of broader range of organic semiconductors. Unfortunately, the photocurrent in standard SS-OPV devices is typically very low, which generally is attributed to inefficient charge separation of the photogenerated excitons. Here we show that the short-circuit current density from SS-OPV devices can be enhanced significantly (∼100-fold) through the use of inverted device configurations, relative to a standard OPV device architecture. This result suggests that charge generation may not be the performance bottleneck in OPV device operation. Instead, poor charge collection, caused by defect-induced electric field screening, is most likely the primary performance bottleneck in regular-geometry SS-OPV cells. We justify this hypothesis by: (i) detailed numerical simulations, (ii) electrical characterization experiments of functional SS-OPV devices using multiple polymers as active layer materials, and (iii) impedance spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, we show that the collection-limited photocurrent theory consistently interprets typical characteristics of regular SS-OPV devices. These insights should encourage the design and OPV implementation of high-purity, high-mobility polymers, and other soft materials that have shown promise in organic field-effect transistor applications, but have not performed well in BHJ OPV devices, wherein they adopt less-than-ideal nanostructures when blended with electron-accepting materials. PMID:26290582

  20. Collection-limited theory interprets the extraordinary response of single semiconductor organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, Biswajit; Baradwaj, Aditya G; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Boudouris, Bryan W; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-09-01

    The bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) architecture has dominated the literature due to its ability to be implemented in devices with relatively high efficiency values. However, a simpler device architecture based on a single organic semiconductor (SS-OPV) offers several advantages: it obviates the need to control the highly system-dependent nanoscale BHJ morphology, and therefore, would allow the use of broader range of organic semiconductors. Unfortunately, the photocurrent in standard SS-OPV devices is typically very low, which generally is attributed to inefficient charge separation of the photogenerated excitons. Here we show that the short-circuit current density from SS-OPV devices can be enhanced significantly (∼100-fold) through the use of inverted device configurations, relative to a standard OPV device architecture. This result suggests that charge generation may not be the performance bottleneck in OPV device operation. Instead, poor charge collection, caused by defect-induced electric field screening, is most likely the primary performance bottleneck in regular-geometry SS-OPV cells. We justify this hypothesis by: (i) detailed numerical simulations, (ii) electrical characterization experiments of functional SS-OPV devices using multiple polymers as active layer materials, and (iii) impedance spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, we show that the collection-limited photocurrent theory consistently interprets typical characteristics of regular SS-OPV devices. These insights should encourage the design and OPV implementation of high-purity, high-mobility polymers, and other soft materials that have shown promise in organic field-effect transistor applications, but have not performed well in BHJ OPV devices, wherein they adopt less-than-ideal nanostructures when blended with electron-accepting materials. PMID:26290582

  1. The effect of task order predictability in audio-visual dual task performance: Just a central capacity limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Töllner, Thomas; Strobach, Tilo; Schubert, Torsten; Müller, Hermann J.

    2012-01-01

    In classic Psychological-Refractory-Period (PRP) dual-task paradigms, decreasing stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) between the two tasks typically lead to increasing reaction times (RT) to the second task and, when task order is non-predictable, to prolonged RTs to the first task. Traditionally, both RT effects have been advocated to originate exclusively from the dynamics of a central bottleneck. By focusing on two specific electroencephalographic brain responses directly linkable to perceptual or motor processing stages, respectively, the present study aimed to provide a more detailed picture as to the origin(s) of these behavioral PRP effects. In particular, we employed 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) tasks requiring participants to identify the pitch of a tone (high versus low) in the auditory, and the orientation of a target object (vertical versus horizontal) in the visual, task, with task order being either predictable or non-predictable. Our findings show that task order predictability (TOP) and inter-task SOA interactively determine the speed of (visual) perceptual processes (as indexed by the PCN timing) for both the first and the second task. By contrast, motor response execution times (as indexed by the LRP timing) are influenced independently by TOP for the first, and SOA for the second, task. Overall, this set of findings complements classical as well as advanced versions of the central bottleneck model by providing electrophysiological evidence for modulations of both perceptual and motor processing dynamics that, in summation with central capacity limitations, give rise to the behavioral PRP outcome. PMID:22973208

  2. Drought limitations to leaf-level gas exchange: results from a model linking stomatal optimization and cohesion-tension theory.

    PubMed

    Novick, Kimberly A; Miniat, Chelcy F; Vose, James M

    2016-03-01

    We merge concepts from stomatal optimization theory and cohesion-tension theory to examine the dynamics of three mechanisms that are potentially limiting to leaf-level gas exchange in trees during drought: (1) a 'demand limitation' driven by an assumption of optimal stomatal functioning; (2) 'hydraulic limitation' of water movement from the roots to the leaves; and (3) 'non-stomatal' limitations imposed by declining leaf water status within the leaf. Model results suggest that species-specific 'economics' of stomatal behaviour may play an important role in differentiating species along the continuum of isohydric to anisohydric behaviour; specifically, we show that non-stomatal and demand limitations may reduce stomatal conductance and increase leaf water potential, promoting wide safety margins characteristic of isohydric species. We used model results to develop a diagnostic framework to identify the most likely limiting mechanism to stomatal functioning during drought and showed that many of those features were commonly observed in field observations of tree water use dynamics. Direct comparisons of modelled and measured stomatal conductance further indicated that non-stomatal and demand limitations reproduced observed patterns of tree water use well for an isohydric species but that a hydraulic limitation likely applies in the case of an anisohydric species. PMID:26466749

  3. Expansive Learning: Benefits and Limitations of Subject-Scientific Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotluschen, Anke

    2005-01-01

    One critical learning theory that has survived is once again being acclaimed. Subject-scientific theory requires learners to be taken seriously. Their reasons and resistance need to be brought into the open. This requirement was too radical for schools since it does not allow a fixed syllabus. It has borne fruit, however, in continuing education.…

  4. Three Decades of Implementation Research in Higher Education: Limitations and Prospects of Theory Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohoutek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article adopts a comparative approach to review three periods of theory development in research into higher education policy implementation. Given the conceptual affinity between Cerych and Sabatier's 1986 seminal study into higher education policy implementation and public policy implementation theory, the field of public policy is chosen for…

  5. GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has antinociceptive activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, H.; Birch, P. J.; Harrison, S. M.; Palmer, E.; Manchee, G. R.; Judd, D. B.; Naylor, A.; Scopes, D. I.; Hayes, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. The pharmacological profile of GR94839, a kappa-opioid agonist with limited access to the central nervous system, has been investigated. Its antinociceptive activity has been compared with that of GR103545, a centrally-penetrating kappa-agonist and ICI204448, the previously described peripherally-selective kappa-agonist. 2. GR94839 was a potent agonist in the rabbit vas deferens in vitro assay for kappa-opioid receptors (IC50: 1.4 +/- 0.3 nM; n = 6), but had limited activity at mu- or delta-opioid receptors. 3. In the mouse abdominal constriction test, GR94839 was 238 fold more potent when given i.c.v. (ED50: 0.008 (0.004-0.029) mg kg-1; n = 18) than when s.c. (ED50: 1.9 (0.7-3.1) mg kg-1; n = 30). In comparison, GR103545 was equipotent when given i.c.v. or s.c. 4. After intravenous administration, the maximum plasma to brain concentration-ratio attained by GR94839 was 18 compared with 2 for GR85571, a structurally-related kappa-agonist that is centrally-penetrating. 5. GR94839 inhibited the 2nd phase of the rat formalin response at doses 7 fold lower than those required to inhibit the 1st phase (ED50 vs 1st phase: 10.2 (6.7-17.1) mg kg-1, s.c.; ED50 vs 2nd phase: 1.4 (1.0-1.8) mg kg-1, s.c.; n = 18). GR103545 was equipotent against the two phases. 6. Intraplantar administration of the opioid antagonists, norbinaltorphimine (100 micrograms) or naltrexone (1 microgram), reversed the antinociceptive effect of systemic GR94839 (3 mg kg-1, s.c.) against the 2nd phase of the formalin response and intraplantar injection of GR94839 (30-100 micrograms) selectively inhibited the 2nd phase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1327387

  6. Timbercrest Elementary and the University of Central Florida: From Theory into Practice--A School's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banta, Sarah; Cool, Mary; Hansen, Mary; Heckler, Jessica; Masker, Trish; Plavchan, Krista; Sobol, Michele; Blessing, Lew; Starzynski, Mary; Carr, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    From an informal discussion to being awarded the National Association for Professional Development School's Award for Exemplary Professional Development School Achievement, this article presents the story of the Timbercrest Elementary/University of Central Florida Professional Development School Partnership's journey. As the authors shared their…

  7. Excited-State Absorption from Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Optical Limiting in Zinc Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sean A; Cramer, Christopher J; Govind, Niranjan

    2016-04-01

    Optical-limiting materials are capable of attenuating light to protect delicate equipment from high-intensity light sources. Phthalocyanines have attracted a lot of attention for optical-limiting applications due to their versatility and large nonlinear absorption. With excited-state absorption (ESA) being the primary mechanism for optical limiting behavior in phthalocyanines, the ability to tune the optical absorption of ground and excited states in phthalocyanines would allow for the development of advanced optical limiters. We recently developed a method for the calculation of ESA based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory propagation of an excited-state density. In this work, we apply the approach to zinc phthalocyanine, demonstrating the ability of our method to efficiently identify the optical limiting potential of a molecular complex. PMID:27007445

  8. The viability and limitations of percolation theory in modeling the electrical behavior of carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Rezvanian, O.; Peters, K.; Zikry, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    A new modeling method has been proposed to investigate how the electrical conductivity of carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced polymer composites are affected by tunneling distance, volume fraction, and tube aspect ratios. A search algorithm and an electrical junction identification method was developed with a percolation approach to determine conductive paths for three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanotube arrangements and to account for electron tunneling effects. The predicted results are used to understand the limitations of percolation theory and experimental measurements and observations, and why percolation theory breaks down for specific CNT arrangements.

  9. Demonstrating Energy Migration in Coupled Oscillators: A Central Concept in the Theory of Unimolecular Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Ronald E.

    2005-01-01

    This physical chemistry lecture demonstration is designed to aid the understanding of intramolecular energy transfer processes as part of the presentation of the theory of unimolecular reaction rates. Coupled pendulums are used to show the rate of migration of energy between oscillators under resonant and nonresonant conditions with varying…

  10. Event Schemas in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Theory of Mind and Weak Central Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loth, Eva; Gomez, Juan Carlos; Happe, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Event schemas (generalized knowledge of what happens at common real-life events, e.g., a birthday party) are an important cognitive tool for social understanding: They provide structure for social experiences while accounting for many variable aspects. Using an event narratives task, this study tested the hypotheses that theory of mind (ToM)…

  11. Nanoscale Capillary Flows in Alumina: Testing the Limits of Classical Theory.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wenwen; McKenzie, David R

    2016-07-21

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes have well-formed cylindrical channels, as small as 10 nm in diameter, in a close packed hexagonal array. The channels in AAO membranes simulate very small leaks that may be present for example in an aluminum oxide device encapsulation. The 10 nm alumina channel is the smallest that has been studied to date for its moisture flow properties and provides a stringent test of classical capillary theory. We measure the rate at which moisture penetrates channels with diameters in the range of 10 to 120 nm with moist air present at 1 atm on one side and dry air at the same total pressure on the other. We extend classical theory for water leak rates at high humidities by allowing for variable meniscus curvature at the entrance and show that the extended theory explains why the flow increases greatly when capillary filling occurs and enables the contact angle to be determined. At low humidities our measurements for air-filled channels agree well with theory for the interdiffusive flow of water vapor in air. The flow rate of water-filled channels is one order of magnitude less than expected from classical capillary filling theory and is coincidentally equal to the helium flow rate, validating the use of helium leak testing for evaluating moisture flows in aluminum oxide leaks. PMID:27336652

  12. In the footsteps of Robert Marshall: Proposed research of white spruce growth and movement at the tree limit, central Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Droessler, T.D.

    1992-03-01

    The proposed research will quantify white spruce growth and document its latitudinal stability at the tree limit in the central Brooks Range over the life span of the living trees. The goal is to link tree growth and tree position to summer temperature and precipitation. Historical records from 1929 to 1938 from work by Robert Marshall have been used to identify tree limit sites and provide information to interpret the present location of the tree limit.

  13. Precision spectroscopy of trapped highly charged heavy elements: pushing the limits of theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillaspy, J. D.

    2014-11-01

    Atomic spectroscopy results from the electron beam ion trap at the National Institute of Standards and Technology have generally agreed with the predictions of theory extremely well. An interesting exception is our recent result on the helium isoelectronic sequence at Z = 22, which agrees instead with a meta-analysis of all prior measurements above Z = 15, but disagrees with both theory and a contemporaneous report of an independent measurement at Z = 18 which claims to validate theory to high accuracy. Here, a potential systematic shift involving high-n satellite lines induced by double charge exchange is quantitatively estimated and shown to be potentially significant in experiments involving gasses. Suggestions for further refinements in estimating the magnitude of this systematic shift are given.

  14. Chandrasekhar Limit: An Elementary Approach Based on Classical Physics and Quantum Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinochet, Jorge; Van Sint Jan, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In a brief article published in 1931, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar made public an important astronomical discovery. In his article, the then young Indian astrophysicist introduced what is now known as the "Chandrasekhar limit." This limit establishes the maximum mass of a stellar remnant beyond which the repulsion force between electrons…

  15. Errors, limitations, and pitfalls in the diagnosis of central and peripheral nervous system lesions in intraoperative cytology and frozen sections

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Priyanka; Amit, Sonal; Gupta, Raghvendra; Agarwal, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Context: Intraoperative cytology and frozen section play an important role in the diagnosis of neurosurgical specimens. There are limitations in both these procedures but understanding the errors and pitfalls may help in increasing the diagnostic yield. Aims: To find the diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative cytology and frozen section for central and peripheral nervous system (PNS) lesions and analyze the errors, pitfalls, and limitations in these procedures. Settings and Design: Eighty cases were included in this prospective study in a span of 1.5 years. Materials and Methods: The crush preparations and the frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin method. The diagnosis of crush smears and the frozen sections were compared with the diagnosis in the paraffin section, which was considered as the gold standard. Statistical Analyses Used: Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: The diagnostic accuracy of crush smears was 91.25% with a sensitivity of 95.5% and specificity of 100%. In the frozen sections, the overall diagnostic accuracy was 95%, sensitivity was 96.8%, and specificity was 100%. The categories of pitfalls noted in this study were categorization of spindle cell lesions, differentiation of oligodendroglioma from astrocytoma in frozen sections, differentiation of coagulative tumor necrosis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) from the caseous necrosis of tuberculosis, grading of gliomas in frozen section, and differentiation of the normal granular cells of the cerebellum from the lymphocytes in cytological smears. Conclusions: Crush smear and frozen section are complimentary procedures. When both are used together, the diagnostic yield is substantially increased. PMID:27279685

  16. The structures of interstitial hydrogen centers in VO2 in the dilute limit from their vibrational properties and theory.

    PubMed

    Yin, Weikai; Qin, Ying; Fowler, W Beall; Stavola, Michael; Boatner, Lynn A

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of a large concentration of H into VO2 is known to suppress the insulating phase of the metal-insulator transition that occurs upon cooling below 340 K. We have used infrared spectroscopy and complementary theory to study the properties of interstitial H and D in VO2 in the dilute limit to determine the vibrational frequencies, thermal stabilities, and equilibrium positions of isolated interstitial H and D centers. The vibrational lines of several OH and OD centers were observed to have thermal stabilities similar to that of the hydrogen that suppresses the insulating phase. Theory associates two of the four possible OH configurations for Hi in the insulating VO2 monoclinic phase with OH lines seen by experiment. Furthermore, theory predicts the energies and vibrational frequencies for configurations with Hi trapped near a substitutional impurity and suggests such defects as candidates for additional OH centers that have been observed. PMID:27465290

  17. The structures of interstitial hydrogen centers in VO2 in the dilute limit from their vibrational properties and theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yin, W.; Qin, Ying; Fowler, W. B.; Stavola, M.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-07-28

    The introduction of a large concentration of H into VO2 is known to suppress the insulating phase of the metal-insulator transition that occurs upon cooling below 340 K. We have used infrared spectroscopy and complementary theory to study the properties of interstitial H and D in VO2 in the dilute limit to determine the vibrational frequencies, thermal stabilities, and equilibrium positions of isolated interstitial H and D centers. The vibrational lines of several OH and OD centers were observed to have thermal stabilities similar to that of the hydrogen that suppresses the insulating phase. Theory associates two of the fourmore » possible OH configurations for Hi in the insulating VO2 monoclinic phase with OH lines seen by experiment. Furthermore, theory predicts the energies and vibrational frequencies for configurations with Hi trapped near a substitutional impurity and suggests such defects as candidates for additional OH centers that have been observed.« less

  18. Diffraction limit of the theory of multiple small-angle neutron scattering by a dense system of scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzheparov, F. S.; Lvov, D. V.

    2016-02-01

    Multiple small-angle neutron scattering by a high-density system of inhomogeneities has been considered. A combined approach to the analysis of multiple small-angle neutron scattering has been proposed on the basis of the synthesis of the Zernike-Prince and Moliére formulas. This approach has been compared to the existing multiple small-angle neutron scattering theory based on the eikonal approximation. This comparison has shown that the results in the diffraction limit coincide, whereas differences exist in the refraction limit because the latter theory includes correlations between successive scattering events. It has been shown analytically that the existence of correlations in the spatial position of scatterers results in an increase in the number of unscattered neutrons. Thus, the narrowing of spectra of multiple small-angle neutron scattering observed experimentally and in numerical simulation has been explained.

  19. Do Deaf Adults with Limited Language Have Advanced Theory of Mind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Jian; Su, Yanjie; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies show that deaf children have deficits in false belief understanding due to their language impairment. However, it is not clear whether deaf adults still have problems in advanced theory of mind (ToM). The present study examined deaf adults' performance on three aspects of advanced ToM. All of the deaf groups lacking mental state…

  20. Analysis and correlation with theory of rotor lift-limit test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, M.

    1979-01-01

    A wind tunnel test program to define the cruise performance and determine any limitations to lift and propulsive force of a conventional helicopter rotor is described. A 2.96 foot radius model rotor was used. The maximum lift and propulsive force obtainable from an articulated rotor for advance ratios of 0.4 to 0.67, and the blade load growth as the lift approaches the limit are determined. Cruise rotor performance for advance ratios of 0.4 to 0.67 and the sensitivity of the rotor forces and moments to rotor control inputs as the lift limit is approached are established.

  1. Accurate integral equation theory for the central force model of liquid water and ionic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiye, Toshiko; Haymet, A. D. J.

    1988-10-01

    The atom-atom pair correlation functions and thermodynamics of the central force model of water, introduced by Lemberg, Stillinger, and Rahman, have been calculated accurately by an integral equation method which incorporates two new developments. First, a rapid new scheme has been used to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation. This scheme combines the renormalization methods of Allnatt, and Rossky and Friedman with an extension of the trigonometric basis-set solution of Labik and co-workers. Second, by adding approximate ``bridge'' functions to the hypernetted-chain (HNC) integral equation, we have obtained predictions for liquid water in which the hydrogen bond length and number are in good agreement with ``exact'' computer simulations of the same model force laws. In addition, for dilute ionic solutions, the ion-oxygen and ion-hydrogen coordination numbers display both the physically correct stoichiometry and good agreement with earlier simulations. These results represent a measurable improvement over both a previous HNC solution of the central force model and the ex-RISM integral equation solutions for the TIPS and other rigid molecule models of water.

  2. The light asymptotic limit of conformal blocks in Toda field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Hasmik; Poghossian, Rubik; Sarkissian, Gor

    2016-05-01

    We compute the light asymptotic limit of A n-1 Toda conformal blocks by using the AGT correspondence. We show that for certain class of CFT blocks the corresponding Nekrasov partition functions in this limit are simplified drastically being represented as a sum of a restricted class of Young diagrams. In the particular case of A 2 Toda we also compute the corresponding conformal blocks using conventional CFT techniques finding a perfect agreement with the results obtained from the Nekrasov partition functions.

  3. Measurements of Hbeta Stark central asymmetry and its analysis through standard theory and computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Djurović, S; Cirisan, M; Demura, A V; Demchenko, G V; Nikolić, D; Gigosos, M A; González, M A

    2009-04-01

    Experimental measurements of the center of the H_{beta} Stark profile on three different installations have been done to study its asymmetry in wide ranges of electron density, temperature, and plasma conditions. Theoretical calculations for the analysis of experimental results have been performed using the standard theory and computer simulations and included separately quadrupolar and quadratic Stark effects. Earlier experimental results and theoretical calculations of other authors have been reviewed as well. The experimental results are well reproduced by the calculations at high and moderate densities. PMID:19518354

  4. Driven colloidal fluids: construction of dynamical density functional theories from exactly solvable limits.

    PubMed

    Scacchi, Alberto; Krüger, Matthias; Brader, Joseph M

    2016-06-22

    The classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) provides an approximate extension of equilibrium DFT to treat nonequilibrium systems subject to Brownian dynamics. However, the method fails when applied to driven systems, such as sheared colloidal dispersions. The breakdown of DDFT can be traced back to an inadequate treatment of the flow-induced distortion of the pair correlation functions. By considering the distortion of the pair correlations to second order in the flow-rate we show how to systematically correct the DDFT for driven systems. As an application of our approach we consider Poiseuille flow. The theory predicts that the particles will accumulate in spatial regions where the local shear rate is small, an effect known as shear-induced migration. We compare these predictions to Brownian dynamics simulations with generally good agreement. PMID:27115521

  5. Driven colloidal fluids: construction of dynamical density functional theories from exactly solvable limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scacchi, Alberto; Krüger, Matthias; Brader, Joseph M.

    2016-06-01

    The classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) provides an approximate extension of equilibrium DFT to treat nonequilibrium systems subject to Brownian dynamics. However, the method fails when applied to driven systems, such as sheared colloidal dispersions. The breakdown of DDFT can be traced back to an inadequate treatment of the flow-induced distortion of the pair correlation functions. By considering the distortion of the pair correlations to second order in the flow-rate we show how to systematically correct the DDFT for driven systems. As an application of our approach we consider Poiseuille flow. The theory predicts that the particles will accumulate in spatial regions where the local shear rate is small, an effect known as shear-induced migration. We compare these predictions to Brownian dynamics simulations with generally good agreement.

  6. Kinetic limitations on the diffusional control theory of the ablation rate of carbon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, H. G.

    1971-01-01

    It is shown that the theoretical maximum oxidation rate is limited in many cases even at temperatures much higher than 1650 deg K, not by oxygen transport, but by the kinetics of the carbon-oxygen reaction itself. Mass-loss rates have been calculated at air pressures of 0.01 atm, 1 atm, and 100 atm. It is found that at high temperatures the rate of the oxidation reaction is much slower than has generally been assumed on the basis of a simple linear extrapolation of Scala's 'fast' and 'slow' rate expressions. Accordingly it cannot be assumed that a transport limitation inevitably must be reached at high temperatures.

  7. The limits of local correlation theory: electronic delocalization and chemically smooth potential energy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Subotnik, Joseph E; Sodt, Alex; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2008-01-21

    Local coupled-cluster theory provides an algorithm for measuring electronic correlation quickly, using only the spatial locality of localized electronic orbitals. Previously, we showed [J. Subotnik et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074116 (2006)] that one may construct a local coupled-cluster singles-doubles theory which (i) yields smooth potential energy surfaces and (ii) achieves near linear scaling. That theory selected which orbitals to correlate based only on the distances between the centers of different, localized orbitals, and the approximate potential energy surfaces were characterized as smooth using only visual identification. This paper now extends our previous algorithm in three important ways. First, locality is now based on both the distances between the centers of orbitals as well as the spatial extent of the orbitals. We find that, by accounting for the spatial extent of a delocalized orbital, one can account for electronic correlation in systems with some electronic delocalization using fast correlation methods designed around orbital locality. Second, we now enforce locality on not just the amplitudes (which measure the exact electron-electron correlation), but also on the two-electron integrals themselves (which measure the bare electron-electron interaction). Our conclusion is that we can bump integrals as well as amplitudes, thereby gaining a tremendous increase in speed and paradoxically increasing the accuracy of our LCCSD approach. Third and finally, we now make a rigorous definition of chemical smoothness as requiring that potential energy surfaces not support artificial maxima, minima, or inflection points. By looking at first and second derivatives from finite difference techniques, we demonstrate complete chemical smoothness of our potential energy surfaces (bumping both amplitudes and integrals). These results are significant both from a theoretical and from a computationally practical point of view. PMID:18205484

  8. Perturbation theory of relativistic corrections. 1. The non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and a direct perturbation expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzelnigg, W.

    1989-03-01

    After a discussion of the problems associated with the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and of the expansion of the exact eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the H atom in powers of c -2 the traditional approaches for a perturbation theory of relativistic effects are critically reviewed. Then a direct perturbation theory is presented, that is characterized by a change of the metric in 4-component spinor space such that the Lévy-Leblond equation appears as the straightforward non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation. The various orders in perturbation theory of the energy and the wave function are derived first in a direct way, then in a resolvent formalism. The formulas are very compact and easily generalizeable to arbitrary order. All integrals that arise to any order exist, and no controlled cancellation of divergent terms (as in other approaches) is necessary. In the same philosophy an iterative approach towards the solution of the Dirac equation is derived, in which the solution of the Schrödinger equation is the first iteration step.

  9. Exploring the remarkable limits of continuum elastic theory to understand the nanomechanics of viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Wouter; Gibbons, Melissa; Klug, William; Wuite, Gijs

    2009-03-01

    We report nanoindentation experiments by atomic force microscopy on capsids of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). HBV is investigated because its capsids can form in either a smaller T=3 or a bigger T=4 configuration, making it an ideal system to test the predictive power of continuum elastic theory to describe nanometre-sized objects. It is shown that for small, consecutive indentations the particles behave reversibly linear and no material fatigue occurs. For larger indentations the particles start to deform non-linearly. The experimental force response fits very well with finite element simulations on coarse grained models of HBV capsids. Furthermore, this also fits with thin shell simulations guided by the F"oppl- von K'arm'an (FvK) number (the dimensionless ratio of stretching and bending stiffness of a thin shell). Both the T=3 and T=4 morphology are very well described by the simulations and the capsid material turns out to have the same Young's modulus, as expected. The presented results demonstrate the surprising strength of continuum elastic theory to describe indentation of viral capsids.

  10. The heat dissipation limit theory and evolution of life histories in endotherms--time to dispose of the disposable soma theory?

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Król, Elzbieta

    2010-11-01

    A major factor influencing life-history strategies of endotherms is body size. Larger endotherms live longer, develop more slowly, breed later and less frequently, and have fewer offspring per attempt at breeding. The classical evolutionary explanation for this pattern is that smaller animals experience greater extrinsic mortality, which favors early reproduction at high intensity. This leads to a short lifespan and early senescence by three suggested mechanisms. First, detrimental late-acting mutations cannot be removed because of the low force of selection upon older animals (mutation accumulation). Second, genes that promote early reproduction will be favored in small animals, even if they have later detrimental effects (antagonistic pleiotropy). Third, small animals may be forced to reduce their investment in longevity assurance mechanisms (LAMs) in favor of investment in reproduction (the disposable soma theory, DST). The DST hinges on three premises: that LAMs exist, that such LAMs are energetically expensive and that the supply of energy is limited. By contrast, the heat dissipation limit (HDL) theory provides a different conceptual perspective on the evolution of life histories in relation to body size. We suggest that rather than being limited, energy supplies in the environment are often unlimited, particularly when animals are breeding, and that animals are instead constrained by their maximum capacity to dissipate body heat, generated as a by-product of their metabolism. Because heat loss is fundamentally a surface-based phenomenon, the low surface-to-volume ratio of larger animals generates significant problems for dissipating the body heat associated with reproductive effort, which then limits their current reproductive investment. We suggest that this is the primary reason why fecundity declines as animal size increases. Because large animals are constrained by their capacity for heat dissipation, they have low reproductive rates. Consequently, only

  11. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Andrey I.; Voll, Lars B.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-01-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting (“periodic rolling”). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear. PMID:26979092

  12. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Andrey I; Voll, Lars B; Psakhie, Sergey G; Popov, Valentin L

    2016-01-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting ("periodic rolling"). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear. PMID:26979092

  13. Ring-polymer instanton theory of electron transfer in the nonadiabatic limit

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Jeremy O.

    2015-10-07

    We take the golden-rule instanton method derived in the previous paper [J. O. Richardson, R. Bauer, and M. Thoss, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 134115 (2015)] and reformulate it using a ring-polymer instanton approach. This gives equations which can be used to compute the rates of electron-transfer reactions in the nonadiabatic (golden-rule) limit numerically within a semiclassical approximation. The multidimensional ring-polymer instanton trajectories are obtained efficiently by minimization of the action. In this form, comparison with Wolynes’ quantum instanton method [P. G. Wolynes, J. Chem. Phys. 87, 6559 (1987)] is possible and we show that our semiclassical approach is the steepest-descent limit of this method. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of both methods and give examples of where the new approach is more accurate.

  14. Universal limiting shape of worn profile under multiple-mode fretting conditions: theory and experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, Andrey I.; Voll, Lars B.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-03-01

    We consider multiple-mode fretting wear in a frictional contact of elastic bodies subjected to a small-amplitude oscillation, which may include in-plane and out-of-plane translation, torsion and tilting (“periodic rolling”). While the detailed kinetics of wear depends on the particular loading history and wear mechanism, the final worn shape, under some additional conditions, occurs to be universal for all types and loading and wear mechanisms. This universal form is determined solely by the radius of the permanent stick region and the maximum indentation depth during the loading cycle. We provide experimental evidence for the correctness of the theoretically predicted limiting shape. The existence of the universal limiting shape can be used for designing joints which are resistant to fretting wear.

  15. Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults' recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Opitz, Philipp C; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-08-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the "positivity effect," and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants' recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults' recall is typically more positive than younger adults' recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age. PMID:27112461

  16. Computer-Enriched Instruction (CEI) Is Better for Preview Material Instead of Review Material: An Example of a Biostatistics Chapter, the Central Limit Theorem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Lai-Chu; Huang, Yu-Hsun; Chang, Yi-Hu; Chiu, Yeo-Ju; Chen, Yi-Fen; Napper, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the timing using computer-enriched instruction (CEI), before or after a traditional lecture to determine cross-over effect, period effect, and learning effect arising from sequencing of instruction. A 2 x 2 cross-over design was used with CEI to teach central limit theorem (CLT). Two sequences of graduate students in nursing…

  17. A Microsoft® Excel Simulation Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem's Appropriateness for Comparing the Difference between the Means of Any Two Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, David H.; Powell, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Using Microsoft® Excel, several interactive, computerized learning modules are developed to illustrate the Central Limit Theorem's appropriateness for comparing the difference between the means of any two populations. These modules are used in the classroom to enhance the comprehension of this theorem as well as the concepts that provide the…

  18. Limitations of effective medium theory in multilayer graphite/hBN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, René; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Gjerding, Morten Niklas; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-07-01

    We apply effective medium theory (EMT) to metamaterials consisting of a varying number of consecutive sheets of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride, and compare this with a full calculation of the permittivity and the reflection based on the tight binding method and the transfer matrix method in order to study the convergence to EMT. We find that convergence is reached for both in-plane and out-of-plane directions already for five sheets but that for ≈30 sheets multiple reflection effects causes the reflection spectrum to differ from EMT. We show that modes that are evanescent in air are extremely sensitive to the electronic details of the sheets near the structure boundary and that EMT estimates poorly the reflection of these modes, causing an overestimation of the Purcell factor. Finally, we offer an improved EMT, which gives far better convergence in the low-energy regime.

  19. Spin Chain in Magnetic Field: Limitations of the Large-N Mean-Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlfeld, K.; Chen, Cheng-Chien; van Veenendaal, M. ; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by the recent success in describing the spin and orbital spectrum of a spin-orbital chain using a large-N mean-field approximation [Phys. Rev. B 91, 165102 (2015)], we apply the same formalism to the case of a spin chain in the external magnetic field. It occurs that in this case, which corresponds to N=2 in the approximation, the large-N mean-field theory cannot qualitatively reproduce the spin excitation spectra at high magnetic fields, which polarize more than 50% of the spins in the magnetic ground state. This, rather counterintuitively, shows that the physics of a spin chain can under some circumstances be regarded as more complex than the physics of a spin-orbital chain.

  20. Spin Chain in Magnetic Field: Limitations of the Large-N Mean-Field Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wohlfeld, K.; Chen, Cheng-Chien; van Veenendaal, M.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2015-02-01

    Motivated by the recent success in describing the spin and orbital spectrum of a spin-orbital chain using a large-N mean-field approximation [Phys. Rev. B 91, 165102 (2015)], we apply the same formalism to the case of a spin chain in the external magnetic field. It occurs that in this case, which corresponds to N=2 in the approximation, the large-N mean-field theory cannot qualitatively reproduce the spin excitation spectra at high magnetic fields, which polarize more than 50% of the spins in the magnetic ground state. This, rather counterintuitively, shows that the physics of a spin chain can under some circumstancesmore » be regarded as more complex than the physics of a spin-orbital chain.« less

  1. Quantum limits on optical phase estimation accuracy from classical rate-distortion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ranjith

    2014-12-04

    The classical information-theoretic lower bound on the distortion of a random variable upon transmission through a noisy channel is applied to quantum-optical phase estimation. An approach for obtaining Bayesian lower bounds on the phase estimation accuracy is described that employs estimates of the classical capacity of the relevant quantum-optical channels. The Heisenberg limit for lossless phase estimation is derived for arbitrary probe state and prior distributions of the phase, and shot-noise scaling of the phase accuracy is established in the presence of nonzero loss for a parallel entanglement-assisted strategy with a single probe mode.

  2. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.

    2014-07-22

    This report consists of two parts. In the first part we describe a study of the heating of microprotrusions on surfaces of accelerating structures. This ;process is believed to lead to breakdown in these structures. Our study revealed that for current accelerator parameters melting should not occur due to space charge limitations of the current emitted by a protrusion. The second part describes a novel concept to develop THz range sources based on harmonic cyclotron masers for driving future colliders. This work was stimulated by a recent request of SLAC to develop high power, high-efficiency sources of sub-THz radiation for future high-gradient accelerators.

  3. Bogolubov-Hartree-Fock Theory for Strongly Interacting Fermions in the Low Density Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräunlich, Gerhard; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert

    2016-06-01

    We consider the Bogolubov-Hartree-Fock functional for a fermionic many-body system with two-body interactions. For suitable interaction potentials that have a strong enough attractive tail in order to allow for two-body bound states, but are otherwise sufficiently repulsive to guarantee stability of the system, we show that in the low-density limit the ground state of this model consists of a Bose-Einstein condensate of fermion pairs. The latter can be described by means of the Gross-Pitaevskii energy functional.

  4. Basis set limit geometries for ammonia at the SCF and MP2 levels of theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    The controversy over the Hartree-Fock bond angle of NH3 is resolved and the convergence of the geometry for the molecule as the basis set is systematically improved with both SCF and correlated MP2 wave functions. The results of the geometrical optimizations, carried out in four stages with a series of uncontracted bases sets, are shown. The obtained structure for NH3 supports the results of Radom and Rodwell (1980) that the Hartree-Fock limit angle is significantly greater than was previously believed.

  5. Anisotropy in the lowermost mantle: to the limits of ray theory (and beyond)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, A.; Walker, A.; Wookey, J. M.; Kendall, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    It seems that the Earth's mantle flows on the order of centimetres per year, but it has thus far been impossible to directly constrain details of flow direction or magnitude through our primary means of probing the deep interior--seismic waves. Yet the presence of anisotropy in the upper and lowermost mantle presents an intriguing possibility: if this is due to lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of anisotropic minerals in response to flow, one may be able to ';invert' for the recent strain history in these regions. New mineral physics experiments and numerical modelling will help define slip systems for mantle minerals and under which conditions LPO develops, eventually removing two key current unknowns. Homogenisation techniques (e.g., viscoplastic self-consistent method) to model LPO development from strain history exist and are in active development. Models of mantle convection are increasingly complex and will in future include viscosity which depends on strain history and LPO. The key step in retrieving flow from seismic observables, therefore, is to obtain enough information about the type of anisotropy present in order to relate it to the alignment of mineral grains. Here we focus on the seismological ';worst case' of the lowermost mantle--D″--where surface waves are not available, giving the most pessimistic view of progress. The infinite frequency (ray theory) assumption is often made when forward modelling wave propagation because it allows for rapid computation. Any inversion for flow must be computationally tractable, so we must assess the applicability of this assumption. To do so, we compute the wave field making no assumptions about the symmetry of elasticity in the Earth; i.e., we permit all 21 elastic constants to vary. Calculations are performed at the same frequency as observations (0.01-0.2 Hz). We use the spectral element method, which scales well for very large calculations. In particular we use a modified version of SPECFEM3D_GLOBE which

  6. Shot-Noise Limited Single-Molecule FRET Histograms: Comparison between Theory and Experiments†

    PubMed Central

    Nir, Eyal; Michalet, Xavier; Hamadani, Kambiz M.; Laurence, Ted A.; Neuhauser, Daniel; Kovchegov, Yevgeniy; Weiss, Shimon

    2011-01-01

    We describe a simple approach and present a straightforward numerical algorithm to compute the best fit shot-noise limited proximity ratio histogram (PRH) in single-molecule fluorescence resonant energy transfer diffusion experiments. The key ingredient is the use of the experimental burst size distribution, as obtained after burst search through the photon data streams. We show how the use of an alternated laser excitation scheme and a correspondingly optimized burst search algorithm eliminates several potential artifacts affecting the calculation of the best fit shot-noise limited PRH. This algorithm is tested extensively on simulations and simple experimental systems. We find that dsDNA data exhibit a wider PRH than expected from shot noise only and hypothetically account for it by assuming a small Gaussian distribution of distances with an average standard deviation of 1.6 Å. Finally, we briefly mention the results of a future publication and illustrate them with a simple two-state model system (DNA hairpin), for which the kinetic transition rates between the open and closed conformations are extracted. PMID:17078646

  7. Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Limitations of the Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jielun; Lenschow, Donald; LeMone, Margaret; Mahrt, Larry

    2015-04-01

    Turbulent fluxes from the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study in 1999 (CASES-99) field experiment are further analyzed for both day- and nighttime as a follow-on to the investigation of the nighttime turbulence in Sun et al. (2012). The behavior of momentum and heat fluxes is investigated as functions of wind speed and the bulk temperature difference between observation heights and the surface. Vertical variations of momentum and heat flux at a given height z are correlated and are explained in terms of the energy and heat balance in a layer above the ground surface in which the surface heating/cooling and momentum sink need to be included. In addition, the surface also plays an important role in constraining the size of the dominant turbulent eddies, which is directly related to turbulence strength and the length scale of turbulence generation. The turbulence generation is not related to local vertical gradients especially under neutral condition as assumed in Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Based on the observed relationships between momentum and heat fluxes, a new bulk formula for turbulence parameterization is developed to mainly examine the above-mentioned surface effects on vertical variation of turbulent momentum and heat fluxes. The new understanding of the observed relationships between these turbulent variables and mean variables explains the observed nighttime turbulence regime change observed in Sun et al. (2012) as well as the daytime momentum and heat flux variations with height up to the maximum observation height of 55 m.

  8. Limitations on K-T mass extinction theories based upon the vertebrate record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archibald, J. David; Bryant, Laurie J.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of extinction are only as good as the patterns of extinction that they purport to explain. Often such patterns are ignored. For the terminal Cretaceous events, different groups of organisms in different environments show different patterns of extinction that to date cannot be explained by a single causal mechanism. Several patterns of extinction (and/or preservational bias) can be observed for the various groups of vertebrates from the uppermost Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation and lower Paleocene Tullock Formation in eastern Montana. The taxonomic level at which the percentage of survivals (or extinctions) is calculated will have an effect upon the perception of faunal turnover. In addition to the better known mammals and better publicized dinosaurs, there are almost 60 additional species of reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish in the HELL Creek Formation. Simple arithmetic suggests only 33 percent survival of these vertebrates from the Hell Creek Fm. into the Tullock Fm. A more critical examination of the data shows that almost all Hell Creek species not found in the Tullock are represented in one of the following categories; extremely rare forms, elasmobranch fish that underwent rapid speciation taxa that although not known or rare in the Tullock, are found elsewhere. Each of the categories is largely the result of the following biases: taphonomy, ecological differences, taxonomic artifact paleogeography. The two most important factors appear to be the possible taphonomic biases and the taxonomic artifacts. The extinction patterns among the vertebrates do not appear to be attributable to any single cause, catastrophic or otherwise.

  9. Strong electrolyte continuum theory solution for equilibrium profiles, diffusion limitation, and conductance in charged ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, D G

    1985-01-01

    The solution for the ion flux through a membrane channel that incorporates the electrolyte nature of the aqueous solution is a difficult theoretical problem that, until now, has not been properly formulated. The difficulty arises from the complicated electrostatic problem presented by a high dielectric aqueous channel piercing a low dielectric lipid membrane. The problem is greatly simplified by assuming that the ratio of the dielectric constant of the water to that of the lipid is infinite. It is shown that this is a good approximation for most channels of biological interest. This assumption allows one to derive simple analytical expressions for the Born image potential and the potential from a fixed charge in the channel, and it leads to a differential equation for the potential from the background electrolyte. This leads to a rigorous solution for the ion flux or the equilibrium potential based on a combination of the Nernst-Planck equation and strong electrolyte theory (i.e., Gouy-Chapman or Debye-Huckel). This approach is illustrated by solving the system of equations for the specific case of a large channel containing fixed negative charges. The following characteristics of this channels are discussed: anion and mono- and divalent cation conductance, saturation of current with increasing concentration, current-voltage relationship, influence of location and valence of fixed charge, and interaction between ions. The qualitative behavior of this channel is similar to that of the acetylcholine receptor channel. PMID:2410048

  10. Rate- and Extent-Limiting Factors of Oral Drug Absorption: Theory and Applications.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kiyohiko; Terada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-01

    The oral absorption of drugs has been represented by various concepts such as the absorption potential, the maximum absorbable dose, the biopharmaceutics classification system, and in vitro-in vivo correlation. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the theoretical relationships between these concepts. It shows how a simple analytical solution for the fraction of a dose absorbed (Fa equation) can offer a theoretical base to tie together the various concepts, and discusses how this solution relates to the rate-limiting cases of oral drug absorption. The article introduces the Fa classification system as a framework in which all the above concepts were included, and discusses its applications for food effect prediction, active pharmaceutical ingredient form selection, formulation design, and biowaiver strategy. PMID:25712830

  11. Theory of remote entanglement via quantum-limited phase-preserving amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveri, Matti; Zalys-Geller, Evan; Hatridge, Michael; Leghtas, Zaki; Devoret, Michel H.; Girvin, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    We show that a quantum-limited phase-preserving amplifier can act as a which-path information eraser when followed by heterodyne detection. This "beam splitter with gain" implements a continuous joint measurement on the signal sources. As an application, we propose heralded concurrent remote entanglement generation between two qubits coupled dispersively to separate cavities. Dissimilar qubit-cavity pairs can be made indistinguishable by simple engineering of the cavity driving fields providing further experimental flexibility and the prospect for scalability. Additionally, we find an analytic solution for the stochastic master equation, a quantum filter, yielding a thorough physical understanding of the nonlinear measurement process leading to an entangled state of the qubits. We determine the concurrence of the entangled states and analyze its dependence on losses and measurement inefficiencies.

  12. The limitations of Slater's element-dependent exchange functional from analytic density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zope, Rajendra R.; Dunlap, Brett I.

    2006-01-01

    Our recent formulation of the analytic and variational Slater-Roothaan (SR) method, which uses Gaussian basis sets to variationally express the molecular orbitals, electron density, and the one-body effective potential of density-functional theory, is reviewed. Variational fitting can be extended to the resolution of identity method, where variationality then refers to the error in each two-electron integral and not to the total energy. However, a Taylor-series analysis shows that all analytic ab initio energies calculated with variational fits to two-electron integrals are stationary. It is proposed that the appropriate fitting functions be charge neutral and that all ab initio energies be evaluated using two-center fits of the two-electron integrals. The SR method has its root in Slater's Xα method and permits an arbitrary scaling of the Slater-Gàspàr-Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation potential around each atom in the system. The scaling factors are Slater's exchange parameters α. Of several ways of choosing these parameters, two most obvious are the Hartree-Fock (HF) αHF values and the exact atomic αEA values. The former are obtained by equating the self-consistent Xα energy and the HF energies, while the latter set reproduces exact atomic energies. In this work, we examine the performance of the SR method for predicting atomization energies, bond distances, and ionization potentials using the two sets of α parameters. The atomization energies are calculated for the extended G2 set of 148 molecules for different basis-set combinations. The mean error (ME) and mean absolute error (MAE) in atomization energies are about 25 and 33kcal /mol, respectively, for the exact atomic αEA values. The HF values of exchange parameters αHF give somewhat better performance for the atomization energies with ME and MAE being about 15 and 26kcal/mol, respectively. While both sets give performance better than the local-density approximation or the HF theory, the errors in

  13. A Theory for the RF Surface Field for Various Metals at the Destructive Breakdown Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Perry B.

    2006-11-27

    By destructive breakdown we mean a breakdown event that results in surface melting over a macroscopic area in a high E-field region of an accelerator structure. A plasma forms over the molten area, bombarding the surface with an intense ion current ({approx}108 A/cm2), equivalent to a pressure of about a thousand Atmospheres. This pressure in turn causes molten copper to migrate away from the iris tip, resulting in measurable changes in the iris shape. The breakdown process can be roughly divided into four stages: (1) the formation of ''plasma spots'' at field emission sites, each spot leaving a crater-like footprint; (2) crater clustering, and the formation of areas with hundreds of overlapping craters; (3) surface melting in the region of a crater cluster; (4) the process after surface melting that leads to destructive breakdown. The physics underlying each of these stages is developed, and a comparison is made between the theory and experimental evidence whenever possible. The key to preventing breakdown lies in stage (3). A single plasma spot emits a current of several amperes, a portion of which returns to impact the surrounding area with a power density on the order 107 Watt/cm2. This power density is not quite adequate to melt the surrounding surface on a time scale short compared to the rf pulse length. In a crater field, however, the impact areas from multiple plasma spots overlap to provide sufficient power density for surface melting over an area on the order of 0.1 mm2 or more. The key to preventing breakdown is to choose an iris tip material that requires the highest power density (proportional to the square of the rf surface field) for surface melting, taking into account the penetration depth of the impacting electrons. The rf surface field required for surface melting (relative to copper) has been calculated for a large number elementary metals, plus stainless-steel and carbon.

  14. Refined Zigzag Theory for Homogeneous, Laminated Composite, and Sandwich Plates: A Homogeneous Limit Methodology for Zigzag Function Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tessler, Alexander; DiSciuva, Marco; Gherlone, marco

    2010-01-01

    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich plates is presented from a multi-scale formalism starting with the inplane displacement field expressed as a superposition of coarse and fine contributions. The coarse kinematic field is that of first-order shear-deformation theory, whereas the fine kinematic field has a piecewise-linear zigzag distribution through the thickness. The condition of limiting homogeneity of transverse-shear properties is proposed and yields four distinct sets of zigzag functions. By examining elastostatic solutions for highly heterogeneous sandwich plates, the best-performing zigzag functions are identified. The RZT predictive capabilities to model homogeneous and highly heterogeneous sandwich plates are critically assessed, demonstrating its superior efficiency, accuracy ; and a wide range of applicability. The present theory, which is derived from the virtual work principle, is well-suited for developing computationally efficient CO-continuous finite elements, and is thus appropriate for the analysis and design of high-performance load-bearing aerospace structures.

  15. The limits of behaviour change theory: condom use and contexts of HIV risk in the Kolkata sex industry.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catrin; Lambert, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses ethnographic data from a sex workers' HIV project in India to consider the appropriateness of individual, social/group and structural theories of health behaviour when applied to HIV-prevention initiatives. Existing theories are critiqued for their modernist representation of behaviour as determined by individual rational decision-making processes or by external structural forces, with inadequate recognition being given to the roles that human agency, subjective meaning and local context play in everyday actions. Analysis of sex workers' accounts of their sexual practices suggests that existing theories of health behaviour can only partially account for sexual behaviour change retrospectively and that they have limited predictive value with respect to the outcomes of individual sexual encounters. Our data show that these outcomes were, in fact, highly context dependent, while possibilities for action were ultimately strongly constrained by structural forces. Findings suggest that interventions need to adopt an integrated, structurally-oriented approach for promoting safer sexual practices in sex work settings. Recognising that no one model of health behaviour is likely to be adequate in explaining or predicting behaviour change encourages responsiveness to local people's agency, recognises the different (health- and non-health-related) registers of risk with which people operate and encourages flexibility according to local contingencies and contexts. PMID:18038279

  16. A Detailed Look at a Pluto Central Flash Occultation: Limits on Pluto's Haze Opacity, Oblateness and Surface Frost Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Young, Leslie A.; Howell, Robert R.; French, Richard G.

    2014-11-01

    We report a new analysis of occultation lightcurves observed in 2007 (from Mt John Observatory) and 2011 (from San Pedro Martir Observatory). In both cases, lightcurves were observed simultaneously in two wavelengths, and in the 2007 case, a double-peaked central flash was observed. In contrast to the wavelength-dependent opacities reported by Elliot et al. (Nature 2003; 424:165) in 2002, we see no evidence for an opacity source in Pluto's atmosphere that has greater extinction at shorter wavelengths. From the separation of the peaks in the 2007 central flash lightcurves, we find the oblateness of Pluto's atmosphere (equatorial vs. polar radii of pressure contours near R = 1215 km) of 1.03 ± 0.002. If this oblateness were caused solely by zonal winds, the wind speed at the equator would have to be 206 km/s; an alternative explanation is that the equatorial bulge is caused by warmer temperatures above the equator than the poles. Finally, the amplitudes of the central flash peaks are very sensitive to the surface pressure. If that pressure is driven by the vapor pressure of nitrogen ice, then the ice temperature of 42 ± 2 K reported by Tryka et al. (Icarus 1994; 212:513) is too high and produces central flash amplitudes that are much too bright. We find that the observed central flash peak amplitudes are consistent with nitrogen ice temperatures near 37 K, closer to the alpha-beta transition temperature (35.6 K) of nitrogen ice.

  17. A Theory for the RF Surface Field for Various Metals at the Destructive Breakdown Limit

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Perry B.; /SLAC

    2007-03-06

    By destructive breakdown we mean a breakdown event that results in surface melting over a macroscopic area in a high E-field region of an accelerator structure. A plasma forms over the molten area, bombarding the surface with an intense ion current ({approx} 10{sup 8} A/cm{sup 2}), equivalent to a pressure of about a thousand Atmospheres. This pressure in turn causes molten copper to migrate away from the iris tip, resulting in measurable changes in the iris shape. The breakdown process can be roughly divided into four stages: (1) the formation of ''plasma spots'' at field emission sites, each spot leaving a crater-like footprint; (2) crater clustering, and the formation of areas with hundreds of overlapping craters; (3) surface melting in the region of a crater cluster; (4) the process after surface melting that leads to destructive breakdown. The physics underlying each of these stages is developed, and a comparison is made between the theory and experimental evidence whenever possible. The key to preventing breakdown lies in stage (3). A single plasma spot emits a current of several amperes, a portion of which returns to impact the surrounding area with a power density on the order 10{sup 7} Watt/cm{sup 2}. This power density is not quite adequate to melt the surrounding surface on a time scale short compared to the rf pulse length. In a crater field, however, the impact areas from multiple plasma spots overlap to provide sufficient power density for surface melting over an area on the order of 0.1 mm{sup 2} or more. The key to preventing breakdown is to choose an iris tip material that requires the highest power density (proportional to the square of the rf surface field) for surface melting, taking into account the penetration depth of the impacting electrons. The rf surface field required for surface melting (relative to copper) has been calculated for a large number elementary metals, plus stainless-steel and carbon.

  18. Vibrational spectra from atomic fluctuations in dynamics simulations. I. Theory, limitations, and a sample application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Tavan, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which combine density functional theory (DFT) descriptions of a molecule with a molecular mechanics (MM) modeling of its solvent environment, have opened the way towards accurate computations of solvation effects in the vibrational spectra of molecules. Recently, Wheeler et al. [ChemPhysChem 4, 382 (2002)] have suggested to compute these spectra from DFT/MM-MD trajectories by diagonalizing the covariance matrix of atomic fluctuations. This so-called principal mode analysis (PMA) allegedly can replace the well-established approaches, which are based on Fourier transform methods or on conventional normal mode analyses. By scrutinizing and revising the PMA approach we identify five conditions, which must be guaranteed if PMA is supposed to render exact vibrational frequencies. Besides specific choices of (a) coordinates and (b) coordinate systems, these conditions cover (c) a harmonic intramolecular potential, (d) a complete thermal equilibrium within the molecule, and (e) a molecular Hamiltonian independent of time. However, the PMA conditions [(c)-(d)] and [(c)-(e)] are generally violated in gas phase DFT-MD and liquid phase DFT/MM-MD trajectories, respectively. Based on a series of simple analytical model calculations and on the analysis of MD trajectories calculated for the formaldehyde molecule in the gas phase (DFT) and in liquid water (DFT/MM) we show that in both phases the violation of condition (d) can cause huge errors in PMA frequency computations, whereas the inevitable violations of conditions (c) and (e), the latter being generic to the liquid phase, imply systematic and sizable underestimates of the vibrational frequencies by PMA. We demonstrate that the huge errors, which are caused by an incomplete thermal equilibrium violating (d), can be avoided if one introduces mode-specific temperatures Tj and calculates the frequencies from a "generalized virial" (GV) expression instead from PMA. Concerning ways to

  19. Theory of factors limiting high gradient operation of warm accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Antonsen, Thomas M.; Kishek, Rami

    2014-07-25

    This final report summarizes the research performed during the time period from 8/1/2010 to 7/31/2013. It consists of two parts describing our studies in two directions: (a) analysis of factors limiting operation of dielectric-loaded accelerating (DLA) structures where the main problem is the occurrence of multipactor on dielectric surfaces, and (b) studies of effects associated with either RF magnetic or RF electric fields which may cause the RF breakdown in high-gradient metallic accelerating structures. In the studies of DLA structures, at least, two accomplishments should be mentioned: the development of a 3D non-stationary, self-consistent code describing the multipactor phenomena and yielding very good agreement with some experimental data obtained in joint ANL/NRL experiments. In the metallic structures, such phenomena as the heating and melting of micro-particles (metallic dust) by RF electric and magnetic fields in single-shot and rep-rate regimes is analyzed. Also, such processes in micro-protrusions on the structure surfaces as heating and melting due to the field emitted current and the Nottingham effect are thoroughly investigated with the account for space charge of emitted current on the field emission from the tip.

  20. Irrigation Water Supply and Management in the Central High Plains: Can Agriculture Compete for a Limited Resource?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The era of expanding irrigated agriculture in the central high plains has come to an end, and we are likely entering a period of contraction. Contraction has begun in Colorado where the state estimates that current consumptive use exceeds sustainable supplies by about 10%. Groundwater pumping has ...

  1. Rocks: A Concrete Activity That Introduces Normal Distribution, Sampling Error, Central Limit Theorem and True Score Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This report introduces a short, hands-on activity that addresses a key challenge in teaching quantitative methods to students who lack confidence or experience with statistical analysis. Used near the beginning of the course, this activity helps students develop an intuitive insight regarding a number of abstract concepts which are key to…

  2. Improvement/Maintenance and Reorientation as Central Features of Coping with Major Life Change and Loss: Contributions of Three Life-Span Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the common and unique contributions of three major life-span theories in addressing improvement/maintenance and reorientation, which represent central processes of coping with major life change and loss. For this purpose, we review and compare the dual-process model of assimilative and accommodative coping, the model of…

  3. Hydrogen peroxide and central redox theory for aerobic life: A tribute to Helmut Sies: Scout, trailblazer, and redox pioneer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dean P

    2016-04-01

    When Rafael Radi and I wrote about Helmut Sies for the Redox Pioneer series, I was disappointed that the Editor restricted us to the use of "Pioneer" in the title. My view is that Helmut was always ahead of the pioneers: He was a scout discovering paths for exploration and a trailblazer developing strategies and methods for discovery. I have known him for nearly 40 years and greatly enjoyed his collegiality as well as brilliance in scientific scholarship. He made monumental contributions to 20th century physiological chemistry beginning with his first measurement of H2O2 in rat liver. While continuous H2O2 production is dogma today, the concept of H2O2 production in mammalian tissues was largely buried for half a century. He continued this leadership in research on oxidative stress, GSH, selenium, and singlet oxygen, during the timeframe when physiological chemistry and biochemistry transitioned to contemporary 21st century systems biology. His impact has been extensive in medical and health sciences, especially in nutrition, aging, toxicology and cancer. I briefly summarize my interactions with Helmut, stressing our work together on the redox code, a set of principles to link mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics, H2O2 metabolism, redox signaling and redox proteomics into central redox theory. PMID:27095208

  4. Individual differences in executive function and central coherence predict developmental changes in theory of mind in autism.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2010-03-01

    There is strong evidence to suggest that individuals with autism show atypicalities in multiple cognitive domains, including theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and central coherence (CC). In this study, the longitudinal relationships among these 3 aspects of cognition in autism were investigated. Thirty-seven cognitively able children with an autism spectrum condition were assessed on tests targeting ToM (false-belief prediction), EF (planning ability, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control), and CC (local processing) at intake and again 3 years later. Time 1 EF and CC skills were longitudinally predictive of change in children's ToM test performance, independent of age, language, nonverbal intelligence, and early ToM skills. Predictive relations in the opposite direction were not significant, and there were no developmental links between EF and CC. Rather than showing problems in ToM, EF and CC as co-occurring and independent atypicalities in autism, these findings suggest that early domain-general skills play a critical role in shaping the developmental trajectory of children's ToM. PMID:20210511

  5. SENSITIVITY OF NORMAL THEORY METHODS TO MODEL MISSPECIFICATION IN THE CALCULATION OF UPPER CONFIDENCE LIMITS ON THE RISK FUNCTION FOR CONTINUOUS RESPONSES. (R825385)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal theory procedures for calculating upper confidence limits (UCL) on the risk function for continuous responses work well when the data come from a normal distribution. However, if the data come from an alternative distribution, the application of the normal theory procedure...

  6. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-11-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  7. Saturation and the limit of jet mixing enhancement by single frequency plane wave excitation - Experiment and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1988-01-01

    The limitations of single frequency plane wave excitation in mixing enhancement are investigated for a circular jet. Measurements made in an 8.8 cm diameter jet are compared with a theoretical model. The measurements are made to quantify mixing at excitation amplitudes up to 2 percent of the jet exit velocity. The initial boundary layer state, the exit mean and fluctuating velocity profiles and spectra are documented for all cases considered. The amplitude of the fundamental wave is recorded along the jet axis for various levels of excitation. As the amplitude of excitation is increased the jet spreading rate is increased, but beyond a saturation amplitude further increases have no effect on the spreading. The experimental results are compared with theoretical estimates. In the theory the flow is split into the mean flow, large scale motions, and fine scale turbulence. Shape assumptions for the mean flow, and fine scale turbulence along with the shape for the large scale motions obtained from a linear stability theory provide the closure. The experimental results compare reasonably well with predictions.

  8. Saturation and the limit of jet mixing enhancement by single frequency plane wave excitation: Experiment and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    1988-01-01

    The limitations of single frequency plane wave excitation in mixing enhancement are investigated for a circular jet. Measurements made in an 8.8 cm diameter jet are compared with a theoretical model. The measurements are made to quantify mixing at excitation amplitudes up to 2 percent of the jet exit velocity. The initial boundary layer state, the exit mean and fluctuating velocity profiles and spectra are documented for all cases considered. The amplitude of the fundamental wave is recorded along the jet axis for various levels of excitation. As the amplitude of excitation is increased the jet spreading rate is increased, but beyond a saturation amplitude further increases have no effect on the spreading. The experimental results are compared with theoretical estimates. In the theory the flow is split into the mean flow, large scale motions, and fine scale turbulence. Shape assumptions for the mean flow, and fine scale turbulence along with the shape for the large scale motions obtained from a linear stability theory provide the closure. The experimental results compare reasonably well with predictions.

  9. Estimating limiting age for Pleistocene erosional surfaces in central Montana by uranium-series dating of associated travertines.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Lindsey, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of three travertine samples from the southeast side of The Park (central Montana) yield an average uranium-thorium age of 73 000 yr. Another sample from the west side of The Park is 320 000 yr old. These results indicate that travertine deposits may have formed at several intervals. The surface beneath The Park travertine is older than about 320 000 yr. Number 2 pediment gravels that contain travertine downslope from the oldest dated sample may be younger than about 320 000 yr. -Authors

  10. Using Variable Speed Limits to Eliminate Wide Moving Jams: a Study Based on Three-Phase Traffic Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yizhi; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jianming; Li, Li

    2012-09-01

    One frequently observed congested traffic flow pattern is wide moving jam (WMJ), in which the average vehicle speed is very low and the density is very high. In some recent studies, variable speed limits (VSL) were proposed as effective measures to eliminate or abate the influence of jam waves. However, in most of these studies, the stochastic features of driving behaviors and the resulting uncertainty of traffic flow dynamics were not fully considered. In this paper, we use cellular automaton (CA) model-based simulations to test the performances of different VSL control strategies and apply the three-phase traffic theory to further analyze the obtained results. Based on the simulation results, we got two novel findings. Firstly, we observed seven, instead of the previously assumed six, states of traffic flow in the evolution process of WMJ, when VSL were applied. Secondly and more importantly, we found that inappropriate speed limit may induce new WMJ and exaggerate congestions in two ways: one way corresponds to an F → J transition and the other corresponds to an F → S → J transition. Based on these findings, the appropriate lower bound of VSL was finally discussed in this paper.