Science.gov

Sample records for central lung cancer

  1. Lung cancer in central Tunisia: epidemiology and clinicopathological features.

    PubMed

    Missaoui, Nabiha; Hmissa, Sihem; Landolsi, Hanene; Korbi, Skander; Joma, Wafa; Anjorin, Affissath; Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Beizig, Nadia; Mokni, Moncef

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide but data from Tunisia are limited. The aim of this research was to describe the epidemiology, pathology and clinical features of lung cancer in Central Tunisia. All lung cancer cases diagnosed during a 15-year period were analyzed based on the data of the Cancer Registry of the Center of Tunisia. Five-year age-specific rates, world age-standardized rates (ASR), and annual percent change were calculated using annual data on population size and the estimated age structure. A total of 1,882 incident cases of lung cancer were registered (1,782 males, 100 females). The median age at diagnosis was 64 years for males and 61 years for females, with ASRs of 35.2 per 100,000 among males and 1.5 among females. Over time, there were significant decreasing trends by -6.5% (95% CI: -12.9%; -0.2%) for females and a stable incidence for males at an annual rate of +0.2% (95% CI: -1.6%; +1.8%). The predominant histological type was squamous cell carcinoma in males (36.9%) and adenocarcinoma in females (52%). During 2003-2007, adenocarcinoma became the most frequent (33.7%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (30.3%) in males. The majority of tumor cases were diagnosed at advanced stages (79.9%). In conclusion, lung cancer has remained the most common cancer diagnosed at advanced stages among Tunisian men. Our findings justify the need to plan and develop effective programs aiming at the control and prevention of the spread of lung cancer in Tunisia. PMID:22296375

  2. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  3. Lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer.

  4. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Lung Cancer What is Lung Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made ... button on your keyboard.) Two Major Types of Lung Cancer There are two major types of lung ...

  5. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of ... in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  6. Lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Kislinger, Thomas; Jurisica, Igor; Wigle, Dennis A.

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput genomic data for both lung development and lung cancer continue to accumulate. Significant molecular intersection between these two processes has been hypothesized due to overlap in phenotypes and genomic variation. Examining the network biology of both cancer and development of the lung may shed functional light on the individual signaling modules involved. Stem cell biology may explain a portion of this network intersection and consequently studying lung organogenesis may have relevance for understanding lung cancer. This review summarizes our understanding of the potential overlapping mechanisms involved in lung development and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:19202349

  7. Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  8. Basal segmental auto-transplantation after pneumonectomy for advanced central lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Oto, Takahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Toyooka, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2012-09-01

    In patients with central lung cancer that extensively involves the bronchus/pulmonary artery, a double-sleeve lobectomy is often difficult to perform. We describe a case of post-pneumonectomy basal segmental auto-transplantation using a lung preservation technique that uses cold low-potassium dextran glucose solution to protect the lung graft from ischaemia-reperfusion injury during the ex situ division of the segmental graft and the pathological investigations for the clearance of the surgical margins. A right basal segmental auto-transplantation procedure was performed in a patient with stage-IIIA squamous cell lung cancer. This technique could allow extensive pulmonary resection while minimizing the loss of pulmonary reserve. PMID:22544868

  9. What Is Lung Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ... lung cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institute’s Lung Cancer. Previous Basic Information Basic Information Basic Information ...

  10. Molecular determinants of lung cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Timothy G; Inge, Landon J; Dhruv, Harshil D; Cheung, Philip Y; Weiss, Glen J; Bremner, Ross M; Winkles, Jeffrey A; Tran, Nhan L

    2013-08-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The propensity for metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) is a major clinical hurdle contributing to the low five-year survival rate of advanced disease. CNS metastases significantly outnumber primary brain tumors and carry a dismal prognosis in part due to the inability of therapeutic agents to cross the blood brain barrier. Standard treatment using radiation has been largely ineffective in improving mortality, suggesting the need for new agents targeting the critical metastatic drivers. The genetic and molecular events governing CNS metastasis from the lung are poorly understood at this time. This review highlights genetic events associated with CNS dissemination from the lung and molecular mechanisms associated with CNS metastasis. In vivo model systems that faithfully recapitulate escape from the lung and colonization of the CNS are described as tools for understanding the metastatic phenotype and for testing new therapeutic agents. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of lung cancer metastasis to the CNS is needed to elucidate novel therapeutic avenues towards the improvement of the mortality associated with advanced stage lung cancer. PMID:25806243

  11. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Akhurst, Tim; MacManus, Michael; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-04-01

    (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) plays a key role in the evaluation of undiagnosed lung nodules, when primary lung cancer is strongly suspected, or when it has already been diagnosed by other techniques. Although technical factors may compromise characterization of small or highly mobile lesions, lesions without apparent FDG uptake can generally be safely observed, whereas FDG-avid lung nodules almost always need further evaluation. FDG-PET/CT is now the primary staging imaging modality for patients with lung cancer who are being considered for curative therapy with either surgery or definitive radiation therapy. PMID:25829084

  12. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  13. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  16. Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  17. For non-small cell lung cancer with T3 (central) disease, sleeve lobectomy or pneumonectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian-Li; Guo, Yong-Qing; Shi, Bin; Tian, Yan-Chu; Song, Zhi-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonectomy (PN) has traditionally been the treatment of choice for central lung tumors for which the alternative is sleeve lobectomy (SL). The aim of this study was to compare early and long-term results after SL and PN in focusing on T3 central non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods Patients who underwent SL (n=58) or PN (n=42) were retrospectively analyzed. For bias reduction, these 100 patients had been selected according to the following criteria: (I) tumor located in the main bronchus less than 2 cm distal to the carina; (II) there were no N2 disease; (III) no induction therapy was applied; (IV) complete resection (R0) was achieved. Results SL and PN patients had comparable mean ages, gender distribution, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), stage and tumor grade. Postoperative mortality (3.4% vs. 4.8%, P=1.0) and morbidity (41% vs. 38%, P=0.74) were similar between the two groups. Recurrences occurred in 48% of patients after SL and in 31% of those after PN (P=0.08). The 5-year survival after SL (64.8%) and PN (61.4%) was not significantly different (P=0.20). Multivariable survival analysis showed that there were no independent prognostic factors. Conclusions SL does not compromise survival for NSCLC with T3 central disease compared with PN. It is an adequate oncologic resection and should be treated as the first line intervention whenever complete resection can be achieved. PMID:27293841

  18. Lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Frödin, J E

    1996-01-01

    This synthesis of the literature on radiotherapy for lung cancer is based on 80 scientific articles, including 2 meta-analyses, 29 randomized studies, 19 prospective studies, and 21 retrospective studies. These studies involve 28172 patients. Basic treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is chemotherapy. Addition of radiotherapy to the primary tumor and mediastinum reduces local recurrence, prolongs long-term survival, and is often indicated. Current, and future, studies can be expected to show successive improvements in results for SCLC by optimizing the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Should these treatments be given simultaneously or sequentially, and in which order? Which fractionation is best? Probably, no change in resource requirements for radiotherapy will be necessary, with the possible exception of changes in fractionation. Surgery constitutes primary treatment for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stages I and II. Radiotherapy may provide an alternative for patients who are inoperable for medical reasons. The value of radiotherapy following radical surgery for NSCLC remains to be shown. It is not indicated based on current knowledge. For NSCLC stage III, radiotherapy shrinks tumors and prolongs survival at 2 and 3 years. Whether it influences long-term survival after 5 years has not been shown. Considering the side effects of treatment, one must question whether limited improvements in survival motivate routine radiotherapy in these patients. Earlier attempts to add chemotherapy to radiotherapy to improve treatment results of NSCLC have not yielded convincing results. Several studies are currently on-going. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) greatly reduces the risk for brain metastases from SCLC. However, it has little influence on survival. Many treatment centers give PCI to SCLC patients who have achieved complete remission. This practice may be questioned since PCI is associated with serious complications. PCI is

  19. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Carole A.; McErlean, Aoife M.; Ginsberg, Michelle S.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence and mortality attributed to lung cancer has risen steadily since the 1930s. Efforts to improve outcomes have not only led to a greater understanding of the etiology of lung cancer, but also the histologic and molecular characteristics of individual lung tumors. This article describes this evolution by discussing the extent of the current lung cancer epidemic including contemporary incidence and mortality trends, the risk factors for development of lung cancer, and details of promising molecular targets for treatment. PMID:24436524

  20. Lung cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Slatore, Christopher; Sockrider, Marianna

    2014-11-15

    Lung cancer is a common form of cancer.There are things you can do to lower your risk of lung cancer. Stop smoking tobacco. Ask your health care provider for help in quitting, including use of medicines to help with nicotine dependence. discuss with your healthcare provider,what you are taking or doing to decrease your risk for lung cancer PMID:25398122

  1. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  2. Welding and lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer. PMID:22343633

  3. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  4. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer: a treatment option for patients ineligible for surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Thorpe, James Andrew Charles; Stringer, Mark; Oxtoby, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review the Yorkshire Laser Centre experience with bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer in subjects not eligible for surgery and to discuss diagnostic problems and the indications for PDT in such cases. Methods Of 200 patients undergoing bronchoscopic PDT, 21 had early central lung cancer and were entered into a prospective study. Patients underwent standard investigations including white light bronchoscopy in all and autofluorescence bronchoscopy in 12 of the most recent cases. Indications for bronchoscopic PDT were recurrence/metachronous endobronchial lesions following previous treatment with curative intent in 10 patients (11 lesions), ineligibility for surgery because of poor cardiorespiratory function in 8 patients (9 lesions) and declined consent to operation in 3 patients. PDT consisted of intravenous administration of Photofrin 2 mg/kg followed by bronchoscopic illumination 24–48 h later. Results 29 treatments were performed in 21 patients (23 lesions). There was no procedure‐related or 30 day mortality. One patient developed mild skin photosensitivity. All patients expressed satisfaction with the treatment and had a complete response of variable duration. Six patients died at 3–103 months (mean 39.3), three of which were not as a result of cancer. Fifteen patients were alive at 12–82 months. Conclusion Bronchoscopic PDT in early central lung cancer can achieve long disease‐free survival and should be considered as a treatment option in those ineligible for resection. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is a valuable complementary investigation for identification of synchronous lesions and accurate illumination in bronchoscopic PDT. PMID:17090572

  5. Occupational lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cone, J E

    1987-01-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed. PMID:3303381

  6. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The author addresses the attribution of lung cancer to cigarette smoking and the problems of confounding synergistic effects of occupational and other carcinogenic risk factors, as well as the divergent trends of declining smoking rates and increasing rates of lung cancer. He also reviews the existing literature to document associations between lung cancer and occupational exposures. Finally, interventions for prevention of occupational lung cancer are discussed.

  7. Lung cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Coscio, Angela M; Garst, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in both men and women; however, there are some clear gender-based differences. As the incidence of lung cancer is declining in men, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing in women. Women are more likely than men to have adenocarcinoma, a histologic subtype that correlates with worsened prognosis, but women have improved survival compared with men. Genetic predisposition and the presence of estrogen receptors in lung cancer cells may predispose women to developing lung cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism and significance of these findings. PMID:17254523

  8. [Long-term evolution of a patient diagnosed of small lung cancer with extension to the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Barrado Los Arcos, M; Rico Osés, M; Errasti Viader, M; Campo Vargas, M; Zelaya Huerta, M V; Martínez López, E

    Cell lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer death in men and women. We report the case of a man diagnosed with small cell lung cancer, metastatic from the outset. The disease is stable at present, forty-seven months from dia-gnosis, after receiving different treatment modalities. PMID:27599956

  9. Metastatic cancer to the lung

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bladder cancer Breast cancer Colon cancer Kidney cancer Neuroblastoma Prostate cancer Sarcoma Wilms tumor Symptoms Symptoms may ... Breast cancer Cancer Chemotherapy Colon cancer Lung cancer Neuroblastoma Prostate cancer Radiation therapy Wilms tumor Update Date ...

  10. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung cancer is ... non- skin cancer in the United States. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and in women. ...

  11. Accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with contralateral central or mediastinal lung cancer relapse after pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abu Jawad, Jehad; Gkika, Eleni; Freitag, Lutz; Lübcke, Wolfgang; Welter, Stefan; Gauler, Thomas; Schuler, Martin; Eberhardt, Wilfried Ernst Erich; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment options are very limited for patients with lung cancer who experience contralateral central or mediastinal relapse following pneumonectomy. We present results of an accelerated salvage chemoradiotherapy regimen. Methods Patients with localized contralateral central intrapulmonary or mediastinal relapse after pneumonectomy were offered combined chemoradiotherapy including concurrent weekly cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and accelerated radiotherapy [accelerated fractionated (AF), 60 Gy, 8×2 Gy per week] to reduce time for repopulation. Based on 4D-CT-planning, patients were irradiated using multifield intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or helical tomotherapy. Results Between 10/2011 and 12/2012, seven patients were treated. Initial stages were IIB/IIIA/IIIB: 3/1/3; histopathological subtypes scc/adeno/large cell: 4/1/2. Tumour relapses were located in mediastinal nodal stations in five patients with endobronchial tumour in three patients. The remaining patients had contralateral central tumour relapses. All patients received 60 Gy (AF), six patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Median dose to the remaining contralateral lung, esophagus, and spinal cord was 6.8 (3.3-11.4), 8.0 (5.1-15.5), and 7.6 (2.8-31.2) Gy, respectively. With a median follow-up of 29 [17-32] months, no esophageal or pulmonary toxicity exceeding grade 2 [Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTC-AE) v. 3] was observed. Median survival was 17.2 months, local in-field control at 12 months 80%. Only two local recurrences were observed, both in combination with out-field metastases. Conclusions This intensified accelerated chemoradiotherapy schedule was safely applicable and offers a curative chance in these pretreated frail lung cancer patients. PMID:25922702

  12. Lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... any symptoms. Symptoms depend on the type of cancer you have, but may include: Chest pain Cough that does not go away Coughing up blood Fatigue Losing weight without trying Loss of appetite Shortness of breath ...

  13. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer ... in lung cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate ( ...

  14. [Photodynamic Therapy for Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Keishi; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2016-07-01

    In Japan, Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is recommended as a treatment option for centrally located early-stage lung cancers (CLELCs). It is a minimally invasive treatment with excellent anti-tumor effects. The 2nd generation photosensitizer, talaporfin sodium has strong anti-tumor effects with much less photosensitivity than porfimer sodium. Moreover, the laser equipment is compact and portable, and talaporfin sodium is now the current mainstay of PDT for lung cancer. For successful PDT, accurate evaluation of tumor extent and bronchial invasion is crucial. Detailed examination of the tumor using autofluorescence bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasonography or optical coherence tomography is extremely useful before PDT. At present, PDT has become the 1st choice of treatment for CLELC in institutions with the necessary equipment. It can also be effective for advanced lung cancer causing tracheobronchial obstruction. With such advances in PDT for CLELC, we are expanding the indications of PDT for not only CLELC, but also peripheral type lung cancer. PMID:27440036

  15. Rare lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    There are several different kinds of lung cancer, often referred to as lung cancer subtypes. Some of these occur more often than others. In this factsheet we will specifically look at the subtypes of cancers that do not happen very often and are considered 'rare'. PMID:27066129

  16. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Cancer.gov

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  17. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines. PMID:26667337

  18. Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Geena X; Raz, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States and worldwide. Since lung cancer outcomes are dependent on stage at diagnosis with early disease resulting in longer survival, the goal of screening is to capture lung cancer in its early stages when it can be treated and cured. Multiple studies have evaluated the use of chest X-ray (CXR) with or without sputum cytologic examination for lung cancer screening, but none has demonstrated a mortality benefit. In contrast, the multicenter National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) from the United States found a 20 % reduction in lung cancer mortality following three consecutive screenings with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk current and former smokers. Data from European trials are not yet available. In addition to a mortality benefit, lung cancer screening with LDCT also offers a unique opportunity to promote smoking cessation and abstinence and may lead to the diagnoses of treatable chronic diseases, thus decreasing the overall disease burden. The risks of lung cancer screening include overdiagnosis, radiation exposure, and false-positive results leading to unnecessary testing and possible patient anxiety and distress. However, the reduction in lung cancer mortality is a benefit that outweighs the risks and major health organizations currently recommend lung cancer screening using age, smoking history, and quit time criteria derived from the NLST. Although more research is needed to clearly define and understand the application and utility of lung cancer screening in the general population, current data support that lung cancer screening is effective and should be offered to eligible beneficiaries. PMID:27535387

  19. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27101251

  20. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lung cancer lung cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells ...

  1. TUBERCULOSIS AND LUNG CANCER.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Atsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer as comorbidities has been extensively discussed in many studies. In the past, it was well known that lung cancer is a specific epidemiological successor of PTB and that lung cancer often develops in scars caused by PTB. In recent years, the relevance of the two diseases has drawn attention in terms of the close epidemiological connection and chronic inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. In Japanese case series studies, most lung cancer patients with tuberculous sequelae received supportive care alone in the past, but more recently, the use of aggressive lung cancer treatment is increasing. Many studies on PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities have revealed that active PTB is noted in 2-5% of lung cancer cases, whereas lung cancer is noted in 1-2% of active PTB cases. In such instances of comorbidity, many active PTB cases showed Type II (non-extensively cavitary disease) and Spread 2-3 (intermediate-extensive diseases) on chest X-rays, but standard anti-tuberculosis treatment easily eradicates negative conversion of sputum culture for M. tuberculosis; lung cancer cases were often stage III- IV and squamous cell carcinoma predominant, and the administration of aggressive treatment for lung cancer is increasing. The major clinical problems associated with PTB and lung cancer as comorbidities include delay in diagnosis (doctor's delay) and therapeutic limitations. The former involves two factors of radiographic interpretation: the principles of parsimony (Occam's razor) and visual search; the latter involves three factors of lung cancer treatment: infectivity of M.tuberculosis, anatomical limitation due to lung damage by tuberculosis, and drug-drug interactions between rifampicin and anti-cancer drugs, especially molecularly targeted drugs. The comorbidity of these two diseases is an important health-related issue in Japan. In the treatment of PTB, the possibility of concurrent lung cancer should be kept

  2. Staging of Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of N2 means cancer has spread to the middle part of the chest (called the mediastinum). A rating ... so that the surgeon can remove the cancerous part of the lung and/or lymph node ... biopsied are your lungs, bones, and brain. These types of biopsies can be done with ...

  3. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  4. Lung cancer in Australia.

    PubMed

    McLennan, G; Roder, D M

    1989-02-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death of cancer in Australian men and the third leading cause in Australian women. Efforts are being made to reduce the incidence of this disease by smoking-cessation programmes and improved industrial hygiene, and these measures need to be encouraged strongly by all sectors of the community. On a population basis, insufficient evidence is available to justify screening procedures for the early detection of lung cancer in "at-risk" groups. Cure is possible by surgical resection in early cases. Improvements in therapeutic results with traditional cancer treatments largely have reached a plateau, but a number of newer therapies, and combinations of standard therapies, currently are being evaluated. Of particular interest is concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy in localized non-small-cell lung cancer; laser "debulking" in conjunction with radiotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer, and biological response-modifying agents in non-small-cell and small-cell lung cancer. It is important that data be collected adequately to define epidemiological changes and to evaluate treatment results (including repeat bronchoscopy, to assess local control of tumour), and that the quality of life is recorded and reported in the evaluation process. Finally, phase-III studies in lung-cancer treatments require adequate numbers of subjects to enable meaningful conclusions to be achieve objectives within a reasonable study period. PMID:2469943

  5. Lung and Bronchus Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 224,390 % of All New Cancer Cases 13.3% Estimated Deaths in 2016 158,080 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 415,707 people living with lung and bronchus ...

  6. Detection and minimally invasive treatment of early squamous lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The majority of patents presenting with NSCLC have advanced disease, which precludes curative treatment. Early detection and treatment might result in the identification of more patients with early central lung cancer and improve survival. In addition, the study of early lung cancer improves understanding of lung carcinogenesis and might also reveal new treatment targets for advanced lung cancer. Bronchoscopic investigation of the central airways can reveal both early central lung cancer in situ (stage 0) and other preinvasive lesions such as dysplasia. In the current review we discuss the detection of early squamous lung cancer, the natural history of preinvasive lesions and whether biomarkers can be used to predict progression to cancer. Finally we will review the staging and management of preinvasive lung cancer lesions and the different therapeutic modalities that are available. PMID:23858332

  7. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  8. Lung Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the breakdown of uranium in rocks and soil. It seeps up through the ground, and leaks ... substances increases the risk of lung cancer: Asbestos . Arsenic . Chromium. Nickel. Beryllium. Cadmium . Tar and soot. These ...

  9. Women and Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Horrigan Conners Center for Women’s Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, April, ... Lung Cancer in Women: The Differences in Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment Outcomes, Maria Patricia Rivera MD Expert ...

  10. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  11. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  12. Chemoprevention of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Keith, Robert L

    2009-04-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and the majority of diagnoses are made in former smokers. While avoidance of tobacco abuse and smoking cessation clearly will have the greatest impact on lung cancer development, effective chemoprevention could prove to be more effective than treatment of established disease. Chemoprevention is the use of dietary or pharmaceutical agents to reverse or inhibit the carcinogenic process and has been successfully applied to common malignancies other than lung. Despite previous studies in lung cancer chemoprevention failing to identify effective agents, our ability to determine higher risk populations and the understanding of lung tumor and pre-malignant biology continues to advance. Additional biomarkers of risk continue to be investigated and validated. The World Health Organization/International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer classification for lung cancer now recognizes distinct histologic lesions that can be reproducibly graded as precursors of non-small cell lung cancer. For example, carcinogenesis in the bronchial epithelium starts with normal epithelium and progresses through hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ to invasive squamous cell cancer. Similar precursor lesions exist for adenocarcinoma, and these pre-malignant lesions are targeted by chemopreventive agents in current and future trials. At this time, chemopreventive agents can only be recommended as part of well-designed clinical trials, and multiple trials are currently in progress and additional trials are in the planning stages. This review will discuss the principles of chemoprevention, summarize the completed trials, and discuss ongoing and potential future trials with a focus on targeted pathways. PMID:19349487

  13. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  14. Immunotherapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moundhri, M.; O'Brien, M.; Souberbielle, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    More research and new treatment options are needed in all stages of lung cancer. To this end immunotherapy needs a revival in view of recent improved technologies and greater understanding of the underlying biology. In this review we discuss mechanisms of tumour immunotherapy, non-specific, specific and adoptive, with particular reference to a direct therapeutic action on all subtypes of lung cancer. PMID:9703271

  15. [Innovation in Surgery for Advanced Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Yasunori, Sohara; Endo, Shunsuke

    2016-07-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery can be one of less invasive surgical interventions for early stage lung cancer. Locally advanced lung cancer, however, cannot avoid aggressive procedures including pneumonectomy and/or extended combined resection of chest wall, aorta, esophagus, etc. for complete resection. Surgical approach even for advanced lung cancer can be less invasive by benefit from new anti-cancer treatment, innovated manipulations of bronchoplasty and angioplasty, and bench surgery( lung autotransplantation technique). We herein reviewed the strategy to minimize invasive interventions for locally advanced lung cancer, introducing 2 successful cases with advanced lung cancer. The 1st patient is a 62-year old man with centrally advanced lung cancer invading to mediastinum. Right upper sleeve lobectomy with one-stoma carinoplasty following induction chemoradiation therapy was successful. The operation time was 241 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 60 months after surgery. The 2nd is a 79-year old man with advanced lung cancer invading to the distal aortic arch. Left upper segmentectomy following thoracic endovascular aortic repair with stentgraft was successful with no extracorporeal circulation. The operation time was 170 minutes. The performance status is good with no recurrence for 30 months after surgery. The invasiveness of surgical interventions for local advanced lung cancer can be minimized by innovated device and new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27440037

  16. [Chemoprevention of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Takaaki; Saito, Makoto; Honda, Hidetoshi; Hirata, Takeshi; Kato, Harubumi

    2003-02-01

    Since a high concentration of beta-carotene in blood reduces the risk of lung cancer, a large-scale intervention examination containing beta-carotene was conducted, mainly by the National Cancer Institute. The results showed that the risk of lung cancer increased with administration of beta-carotene. This result demonstrates that continuation of smoking is an important factor in the increased risk, and not smoking is confirmed to be the most important prevention method. The authors examined the treatment effect of raising the concentration of folic acid and vitamin B12 in blood on bronchial dysplasia as a pre-cancerous lesion. A significant medical treatment effect was see in the folic acid and vitamin B12 medication groups, which seems promising for the chemoprevention of lung cancer. PMID:12610863

  17. Radon and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Tarsheen K; El-Ghamry, Moataz N; Kloecker, Goetz H

    2012-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer, following tobacco smoke. Radon is not only an independent risk factor; it also increases the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Numerous cohort, case-control, and experimental studies have established the carcinogenic potential of radon. The possibility of radon having a causative effect on other cancers has been explored but not yet proven. One of the postulated mechanisms of carcinogenesis is DNA damage by alpha particles mediated by the production of reactive oxygen species. The latter are also thought to constitute one of the common mechanisms underlying the synergistic effect of radon and tobacco smoke. With an estimated 21,000 lung cancer deaths attributable to radon in the United States annually, the need for radon mitigation is well acknowledged. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an indoor limit of 4 picocuries (pCi)/L, and various methods are available for indoor radon reduction when testing shows higher levels. Radon mitigation should accompany smoking cessation measures in lung cancer prevention efforts. PMID:22402423

  18. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  19. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in small-cell lung cancer: Findings from a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schild, S. E.; Foster, N. R.; Meyers, J. P.; Ross, H. J.; Stella, P. J.; Garces, Y. I.; Olivier, K. R.; Molina, J. R.; Past, L. R.; Adjei, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This pooled analysis evaluated the outcomes of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in 739 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC patients with stable disease (SD) or better following chemotherapy ± thoracic radiation therapy (TRT) to examine the potential advantage of PCI in a wider spectrum of patients than generally participate in PCI trials. Patients and methods Three hundred eighteen patients with extensive SCLC (ESCLC) and 421 patients with limited SCLC (LSCLC) participated in four phase II or III trials. Four hundred fifty-nine patients received PCI (30 Gy/15 or 25 Gy/10) and 280 did not. Survival and adverse events (AEs) were compared. Results PCI patients survived significantly longer than non-PCI patients {hazard ratio [HR] = 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52–0.72]; P < 0.0001}. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 56% and 18% for PCI patients versus 32% and 5% for non-PCI patients. PCI was still significant after adjusting for age, performance status, gender, stage, complete response, and number of metastatic sites (HR = 0.82, P = 0.04). PCI patients had significantly more grade 3+ AEs (64%) compared with non-PCI patients (50%) (P = 0.0004). AEs associated with PCI included alopecia and lethargy. Dose fractionation could be compared only for LSCLC patients and 25 Gy/10 was associated with significantly better survival compared with 30 Gy/15 (HR = 0.67, P = 0.018). Conclusions PCI was associated with a significant survival benefit for both ESCLC and LSCLC patients who had SD or a better response to chemotherapy ± TRT. Dose fractionation appears important. PCI was associated with an increase in overall and specific grade 3+ AE rates. PMID:22782333

  20. Lung cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Keith, Robert L

    2012-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and the majority of diagnoses are made in former smokers. Although avoidance of tobacco abuse and smoking cessation clearly will have the greatest impact on lung cancer development, effective chemoprevention could prove to be more effective than treatment of established, advanced-stage disease. Chemoprevention is the use of dietary or pharmaceutical agents to reverse or block the carcinogenic process and has been successfully applied to common malignancies other than lung (including recent reports on the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk individuals). Despite previous studies in lung cancer chemoprevention failing to identify effective agents, our ability to define the highest-risk populations and the understanding of lung tumor and premalignant biology continue to make advances. Squamous cell carcinogenesis in the bronchial epithelium starts with normal epithelium and progresses through hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ to invasive cancer. Precursor lesions also have been identified for adenocarcinoma, and these premalignant lesions are targeted by chemopreventive agents in current and future trials. Chemopreventive agents can currently only be recommended as part of well-designed clinical trials, and multiple trials have recently been completed or are enrolling subjects. PMID:22550242

  1. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Centrally and Superiorly Located Stage I or Isolated Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y. Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei; Yang Qiuan; Liao Zhongxing; Jeter, Melenda; Bucci, M. Kara; McAleer, Mary F.; Mehran, Reza J.; Roth, Jack A.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in centrally/superiorly located non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: We delivered SBRT to 27 patients, 13 with Stage I and 14 with isolated recurrent NSCLC. A central/superior location was defined as being within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, major vessels, esophagus, heart, trachea, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body, but 1 cm away from the spinal canal. All patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography-based planning, and daily computed tomography-on-rail guided SBRT. The prescribed dose of 40 Gy (n = 7) to the planning target volume was escalated to 50 Gy (n = 20) in 4 consecutive days. Results: With a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 6-40 months), the crude local control at the treated site was 100% using 50 Gy. However, 3 of 7 patients had local recurrences when treated using 40 Gy. Of the patients with Stage I disease, 1 (7.7%) and 2 (15.4%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastases, respectively. Of the patients with recurrent disease, 3 (21.4%) and 5 (35.7%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, respectively. Four patients (28.6%) with recurrent disease but none with Stage I disease developed Grade 2 pneumonitis. Three patients (11.1%) developed Grade 2-3 dermatitis and chest wall pain. One patient developed brachial plexus neuropathy. No esophagitis was noted in any patient. Conclusions: Image-guided SBRT using 50 Gy delivered in four fractions is feasible and resulted in excellent local control.

  2. Lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, U

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the primary cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. First diagnosis only when disease has already reached the metastatic phase is the main reason for failure in treatment. To this regard, although low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) has proven to be effective in the early detection of lung cancer (providing both higher resectability and higher long-term survival rates), the capacity of annual CT screening to reduce lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers has yet to be demonstrated. Numerous ongoing large-scale randomised trials are under way in high-risk individuals with different study designs. The initial results should be available within the next 2 years. PMID:20424610

  3. The ALCHEMIST Lung Cancer Trial

    Cancer.gov

    A collection of material about the ALCHEMIST lung cancer trial that will examine tumor tissue from patients with early-stage, completely resected lung cancer for gene mutations in the EGFR and ALK genes, and a

  4. Screening for lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, D.

    1981-01-01

    The survival from bronchogenic carcinoma is highly dependent upon stage at the time of treatment. This is particularly true for squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma, but holds true for small cell carcinoma as well. The problem presented to the medical profession has been to find a practical means of detecting lung cancer while it is still at an early stage. Three studies in progress have indicated that a larger proportion of the patients may be found to have early stage lung cancer when screened with a combination of chest X-rays and sputum cytology. However, the detection of these early stage cases has not yet been translated into an improvement in the overall mortality rate from lung cancer. PMID:6278787

  5. [Smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Postmus, P E

    1999-11-01

    Since fifty years it is clear now that smoking of tobacco products is responsible for the lung cancer epidemic that is currently in progress worldwide. Although in the Western world a small decrease of lung cancer in males is found, the number of female patients is steadily increasing. Changes in tobacco production have resulted in exposition of smokers to other carcinogens. This is probably the cause of the change in the histological pattern with an increase of adenocarcinoma and stabilisation of squamous cell lung cancer. Despite the bad prognosis there is some hope that with improvement of early detection methods more patients can be cured. However, for a real change it is necessary to discourage smoking by all means. PMID:11930407

  6. [Research Progress of EGFR-TKI Therapy for Patients with Central Nervous System 
Metastases from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinghua; Xin, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Approximately half of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop central nervous system metastases during the course of their disease which indicate poor prognosis. A part of NSCLC patients demonstrates activating epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutations who represent effectiveness and well tolerance of EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy. Although the systemic efficacy of targeted agents is established, the efficacy of central nervous system (CNS) metastases is not as well characterized. In this article, we review recent data on the use of EGFR inhibitors for treatment of patients with NSCLC and CNS metastases. PMID:27561797

  7. Radiotherapy for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bleehen, N.M.; Cox, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    The role of radiation therapy in the management of lung cancer was reviewed at a workshop held in Cambridge, England, in June 1984. It was concluded that there was a continuing role for radiation therapy in the primary management of small cell lung cancer, including the loco-regional treatment for patients with limited disease. Radical radiotherapy for patients with non-small cell carcinoma could be curative for a proportion of patients with limited disease. Careful planning and quality control was essential. Palliative radiotherapy provided useful treatment for many other patients. Other related aspects of treatment are also presented.

  8. Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kalemkerian, Gregory P.; Akerley, Wallace; Bogner, Paul; Borghaei, Hossein; Chow, Laura QM; Downey, Robert J.; Gandhi, Leena; Ganti, Apar Kishor P.; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Grecula, John C.; Hayman, James; Heist, Rebecca Suk; Horn, Leora; Jahan, Thierry; Koczywas, Marianna; Loo, Billy W.; Merritt, Robert E.; Moran, Cesar A.; Niell, Harvey B.; O’Malley, Janis; Patel, Jyoti D.; Ready, Neal; Rudin, Charles M.; Williams, Charles C.; Gregory, Kristina; Hughes, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors account for approximately 20% of lung cancers; most (≈15%) are small cell lung cancer (SCLC). These NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for SCLC focus on extensive-stage SCLC because it occurs more frequently than limited-stage disease. SCLC is highly sensitive to initial therapy; however, most patients eventually die of recurrent disease. In patients with extensive-stage disease, chemotherapy alone can palliate symptoms and prolong survival in most patients; however, long-term survival is rare. Most cases of SCLC are attributable to cigarette smoking; therefore, smoking cessation should be strongly promoted. PMID:23307984

  9. Distinct Characteristics of Small Cell Lung Cancer Correlate With Central or Peripheral Origin: Subtyping Based on Location and Expression of Transcription Factor TTF-1.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Eisaku; Motoi, Noriko; Ono, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Hironori; Ohyanagi, Fumiyoshi; Nishio, Makoto; Okumura, Sakae; Ichinose, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2015-12-01

    Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation and a poor prognosis that is widely believed to arise in the central lung. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a peripheral marker of lung adenocarcinoma that is also highly expressed in SCLC. In this study, we examined whether SCLC is really a central-type tumor and the relationship between tumor location, TTF-1 expression and prognosis of SCLC.Ninety six SCLCs, diagnosed from biopsies or surgical materials, for which detailed computed tomography (CT) images were available, were collected consecutively from Japanese patients between 2004 and 2011. We examined the location of the primary tumor (central or peripheral) using thin-sliced CT, a TTF-1 immunohistochemical expression, and clinicopathology including prognosis.Of the 96 SCLCs, 74% (71/96) were of the peripheral type and found to have a significantly worse prognosis than central-type tumors. TTF-1 immunoreactivity was identified in 79 tumors (82%), 78% of which (62/79) were of the peripheral type and 22% of which were central. TTF-1 expression was significantly correlated with peripheral location (P = 0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that high TNM stages and the peripheral location were independent markers for poor survival.The majority of SCLCs were of the peripheral type. The peripheral-type SCLC expressed TTF-1 more frequently and had a poorer prognosis than central-type tumors did. Further analysis on original sites of SCLC, using molecular methodology, or based on another ethnicity, should be warranted. PMID:26705222

  10. Lung Cancer – Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ronan J.; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In lung cancer, early attempts to modulate the immune system via vaccine based therapeutics have to date, been unsuccessful. An improved understanding of tumor immunology has facilitated the production of more sophisticated lung cancer vaccines. It is anticipated, that it will likely require multiple epitopes of a diverse set of genes restricted to multiple haplotypes to generate a truly effective vaccine that is able to overcome the various immunologic escape mechanisms that tumors employ. Other issues to overcome include optimal patient selection, which adjuvant agent to use and how to adequately monitor for an immunological response. This review discusses the most promising vaccination strategies for non small cell lung cancer including the allogeneic tumor cell vaccine belagenpumatucel-L, which is a mixture of 4 allogeneic non small cell lung cancer cell lines genetically modified to secrete an antisense oligonucleotide to TGF-β2 and three other target protein-specific vaccines designed to induce responses against melanoma-associated antigen A3 (MAGE-A3), mucin 1 (MUC1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). PMID:21952280

  11. Nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this review is to report the Clinical Year in Review proceedings in the field of nonsmall cell lung cancer that were presented at the 2012 European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Various topics were reviewed, including epidemiology, screening, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and palliative and end of life care. PMID:23457162

  12. Update in Lung Cancer 2014.

    PubMed

    Spira, Avrum; Halmos, Balazs; Powell, Charles A

    2015-08-01

    In the past 2 years, lung cancer research and clinical care have advanced significantly. Advancements in the field have improved outcomes and promise to lead to further reductions in deaths from lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. These advances include identification of new molecular targets for personalized targeted therapy, validation of molecular signatures of lung cancer risk in smokers, progress in lung tumor immunotherapy, and implementation of population-based lung cancer screening with chest computed tomography in the United States. In this review, we highlight recent research in these areas and challenges for the future. PMID:26230235

  13. World conference on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Felip, Enriqueta; Rosell, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death. Improving this dismal outcome requires cooperation among several specialists. The 10th World Conference on Lung Cancer was held in Vancouver, Canada last month. The meeting was organised on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and the British Columbia Cancer Agency. This Conference was chaired by Nevin Murray and the scientific sessions took place 10 - 14 August, with > 3000 participating lung cancer experts. The Vancouver programme included > 140 invited speakers throughout the 'meet the professor', plenary and interactive sessions, as well as 300 oral and 500 poster presentations. PMID:14640956

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  15. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  16. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel Alberto; Wakelee, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking; however, a substantial minority of patients with the disease have never smoked. In the US it is estimated there are 17,000-26,000 annual deaths from lung cancer in never smokers, which as a separate entity would be the seventh leading cause of cancer mortality. Controversy surrounds the question of whether or not the incidence of lung cancer in never-smokers is increasing, with more data to support this observation in Asia. There are several factors associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer in never smokers including second hand smoke, indoor air pollution, occupational exposures, and genetic susceptibility among others. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histology of lung cancer in never smokers and in comparison to lung cancer in smokers appears less complex with a higher likelihood to have targetable driver mutations. PMID:26667338

  17. Screening for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, O S

    2000-05-01

    Screening for lung cancer serves to prevent deaths from this disease insofar as earlier resections are associated with higher rates of cure. There is good reason to believe that this is the case: in stage I, the 5-year survival rate with resection is 70%, whereas without resection the corresponding rate is only 10%. Before this evidence emerged, various authoritative organizations and agencies in North America advised against screening for lung cancer on the grounds of the results of several RCTs. As for CXR, I argue that the study results are consistent with up to 40% reduction in the fatality rate. Moreover, modern helical CT screening provides for detecting much smaller tumors than were detected in those studies. It is time to revoke the conclusion that screening for lung cancer does not serve to prevent deaths from this disease, and to quantify the usefulness of CT screening in particular. As for the requisite research, the prevailing orthodoxy has it that RCTs are to be used, but I argue that more meaningful results are obtainable, more rapidly and much less expensively, by the use of noncomparative (and hence unrandomized) studies. PMID:10855255

  18. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  19. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  20. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  1. UK partnership targets lung cancer.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Cancer Research UK has joined with two major pharmaceutical companies to launch a large multiarm clinical trial, dubbed the National Lung Matrix trial, to test the effectiveness of promising experimental therapies in treating rare forms of advanced lung cancer. PMID:25002593

  2. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  3. Proton Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Clinically Challenging Cases of Centrally and Superiorly Located Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Register, Steven P.; Zhang Xiaodong; Mohan, Radhe; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To minimize toxicity while maintaining tumor coverage with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for centrally or superiorly located stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we investigated passive-scattering proton therapy (PSPT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with centrally or superiorly located (within 2 cm of critical structures) stage I NSCLC were treated clinically with three-dimensional photon SBRT (50 Gy in 4 fractions). The photon SBRT plan was compared with the PSPT and IMPT plans. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was defined as the dose that exceeded the dose--volume constraints in the critical structures. Results: Only 6 photon plans satisfied the >95% planning target volume (PTV) coverage and MTD constraints, compared to 12 PSPT plans (p = 0.009) and 14 IMPT plans (p = 0.001). Compared with the photon SBRT plans, the PSPT and IMPT plans significantly reduced the mean total lung dose from 5.4 Gy to 3.5 Gy (p < 0.001) and 2.8 Gy (p < 0.001) and reduced the total lung volume receiving 5 Gy, 10 Gy, and 20 Gy (p < 0.001). When the PTV was within 2 cm of the critical structures, the PSPT and IMPT plans significantly reduced the mean maximal dose to the aorta, brachial plexus, heart, pulmonary vessels, and spinal cord. Conclusions: For centrally or superiorly located stage I NSCLC, proton therapy, particularly IMPT, delivered ablative doses to the target volume and significantly reduced doses to the surrounding normal tissues compared with photon SBRT.

  4. [Grading of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Bohle, R M; Schnabel, P A

    2016-07-01

    In comparison with other tumor entities there is no common generally accepted grading system for lung cancer with clearly defined criteria and clinical relevance. In the recent fourth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification from 2015 of tumors of the lungs, pleura, thymus and heart, there is no generally applicable grading for pulmonary adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas or rarer forms of carcinoma. Since the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification of adenocarcinomas published in 2011, 5 different subtypes with significantly different prognosis are proposed. This results in an architectural (histologic) grading, which is usually applied to resection specimens. For squamous cell carcinoma the number of different histological subtypes in the new WHO classification was reduced compared to earlier versions but without a common grading system. In recent publications nesting and budding were proposed as the main (histologic) criteria for a grading of squamous cell carcinomas. The grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the lungs in comparison with NET in other organs is presented in a separate article in this issue. Certain rare tumor types are high grade per definition: small cell, large cell and pleomorphic carcinomas, carcinosarcomas and pulmonary blastomas. In the future it is to be expected that these developments will be further refined, e. g. by adding further subtypes for adenocarcinomas and cytologic and/or nuclear criteria for adenocarcinoma and/or squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27356985

  5. [The epidemiology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently most frequently diagnosed neoplasm in males and the fifth most frequent cancer in females. In developed countries only breast cancer is diagnosed more often in women. Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in males and females. In the Europe lung cancer accounts for 21% of all cancer cases in males and 29% of all cancer deaths. The rapid increase in lung cancer incidence was observed the since beginning of the XX century till 1990-1994. The incidence in males decreased recently, but still increases in females, especially in young women. The changes in frequency of various histological subtypes of lung cancer are observed too. Despite many clinical trials, modern diagnostic techniques and improved supportive care, the prognosis remains unfavourable and long-term survival almost did not change. In Poland the incidence of lung cancer in 2002 was 81.9/100 000 in males and 22.2/100 000 in females. In both genders 1-year and 5-year survivals time are one of the shortest in Europe. PMID:17541915

  6. Bronchoscopy of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Emslander, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cancer site in men and women with a high incidence and mortality rate. Most patients are diagnosed when the disease has already spread. An early, detection and immediate and accurate histological or cytological diagnosis are essential for a hopeful outcome. In most patients, bronchoscopy is the method of choice in establishing a suspected lung neoplasm. With the rigid and flexible method, two complementary techniques are available. The methods bear a very low mortality rate if sufficient monitoring and resuscitative instrumentation is available. Rigid bronchoscopy offers the possibility of obtaining large biopsy specimens from the tumorous tissue and provides an effective tool in the control of major haemorrhage. However, it cannot be used for the inspection of further peripherally located parts of the bronchial system and needs general anaesthesia. In contrast, the flexible method can be quickly and readily performed at practically any location using portable equipment. Bronchi can be inspected up to the 8th order and with bronchial washing, forceps biopsy, brush biopsy and fluorescence bronchoscopy techniques with a high diagnostic yield are available. This holds true, especially if these sampling techniques are used as complementary methods. PMID:18493335

  7. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties. PMID:21772848

  8. Early diagnosis of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2010-03-01

    Early detection and surgical resection is essential for the treatment of lung cancer. Although the introduction of low-dose spiral computed tomography (CT) is considered to be one of the most promising clinical research developments, CT screening is used for detecting small peripheral lesions. Tumors arising in the central airways require other techniques for early detection. Centrally arising squamous cell carcinoma of the airway, especially in heavy smokers, is thought to develop through multiple stages from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia, followed by carcinoma in situ (CIS), progressing to invasive cancer. It would be ideal to be able to detect and treat preinvasive bronchial lesions defined as dysplasia and CIS before progressing to invasive cancer. Great efforts have been made to develop new mucosal imaging techniques. Bronchoscopic imaging techniques capable of detecting preinvasive lesions and currently available in clinical practice include autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB), high magnification ronchovideoscope, and narrow band imaging (NBI). For a more precise evaluation of newly detected preinvasive lesions, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used. PMID:20172431

  9. The Potential Role of Respiratory Motion Management and Image Guidance in the Reduction of Severe Toxicities Following Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Patients with Centrally Located Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Lung Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Alexander; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2014-01-01

    Image guidance allows delivery of very high doses of radiation over a few fractions, known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). This treatment is associated with excellent outcome for early stage non-small cell lung cancer and metastases to the lungs. In the delivery of SABR, central location constantly poses a challenge due to the difficulty of adequately sparing critical thoracic structures that are immediately adjacent to the tumor if an ablative dose of radiation is to be delivered to the tumor target. As of current, various respiratory motion management and image guidance strategies can be used to ensure accurate tumor target localization prior and/or during daily treatment, which allows for maximal and safe reduction of set up margins. The incorporation of both may lead to the most optimal normal tissue sparing and the most accurate SABR delivery. Here, the clinical outcome, treatment related toxicities, and the pertinent respiratory motion management/image guidance strategies reported in the current literature on SABR for central lung tumors are reviewed. PMID:25009800

  10. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk ... day and for how long you have smoked. Being around the smoke ...

  11. Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...

  12. Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158689.html Lung Cancer Surgery Worthwhile for Older Patients Study found those ... 2016 THURSDAY, May 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older lung cancer patients are surviving longer when they have lung ...

  13. Occupational exposure and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  14. Target Therapy in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cafarotti, Stefano; Lococo, Filippo; Froesh, Patrizia; Zappa, Francesco; Andrè, Dutly

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is an extremely heterogeneous disease, with well over 50 different histological variants recognized under the fourth revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) typing system. Because these variants have differing genetic and biological properties correct classification of lung cancer is necessary to assure that lung cancer patients receive optimum management. Due to the recent understanding that histologic typing and EGFR mutation status are important for target the therapy in lung adenocarcinoma patients there was a great need for a new classification that addresses diagnostic issues and strategic management to allow for molecular testing in small biopsy and cytology specimens. For this reason and in order to address advances in lung cancer treatment an international multidisciplinary classification was proposed by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and European Respiratory Society (ERS), further increasing the histological heterogeneity and improving the existing WHO-classification. Is now the beginning of personalized therapy era that is ideally finalized to treat each individual case of lung cancer in different way. PMID:26667341

  15. Proteomic biomarkers in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pastor, M D; Nogal, A; Molina-Pinelo, S; Carnero, A; Paz-Ares, L

    2013-09-01

    The correct understanding of tumour development relies on the comprehensive study of proteins. They are the main orchestrators of vital processes, such as signalling pathways, which drive the carcinogenic process. Proteomic technologies can be applied to cancer research to detect differential protein expression and to assess different responses to treatment. Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related death in the world. Mostly diagnosed at late stages of the disease, lung cancer has one of the lowest 5-year survival rates at 15 %. The use of different proteomic techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), isotope labelling (ICAT, SILAC, iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry may yield new knowledge on the underlying biology of lung cancer and also allow the development of new early detection tests and the identification of changes in the cancer protein network that are associated with prognosis and drug resistance. PMID:23606351

  16. Screening for occult lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, T. H.; MacIntosh, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A pilot screening program for the early detection of lung cancer was carried out in Saskatchewan in 1968 using chest roentgenography and cytologic examination of sputum samples. The yield from 23 000 men aged 40 years and over was only 10 cases. Nine of the men had advanced disease. One had occult lung cancer. A period of 31 months elapsed between the discovery of malignant cells in this patient's sputum and roentgenographic localization of the tumour. Following pneumonectomy he has survived with no discernible residual or metastatic tumour for 12 years. The morphologic changes in the resected lung provided a basis for discussing the preclinical phase of squamous cancer of the lung, the treatment of occult cancer and multicentric primary pulmonary tumours. The survey would have been more successful with a narrower target group and more frequent examination. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:6299495

  17. Lung Cancer Screening Recommendation Questioned.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    According to a retrospective analysis of data from the National Lung Screening Trial, participants with a history of heavy smoking who test negative for abnormalities suggestive of lung cancer on an initial low-dose CT screen may not need yearly CT scans. Instead, they could work with their doctors to devise an appropriate screening schedule based on individual risk factors. PMID:27076372

  18. Lung Cancer and Hispanics: Know the Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... other segments of the American population. However, lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death among Hispanic men and the second-leading cause among Hispanic women. November is Lung Cancer Awareness ...

  19. Targeted Therapies in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chirieac, Lucian R.; Dacic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    An ongoing research and multiple clinical trials involve new targeted therapies and less aggressive treatment regimens that improve survival in patients with lung cancer. Targeted therapeutic agents are based on the concept of discovering genetic alterations and the signaling pathways altered in cancer and have added significantly to our armamentarium in order to prolong patient survival and minimizing drug toxicity. Among 34 molecularly targeted drugs approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of various cancers since 1998 three targeted therapies have been approved for treatment of lung cancer (gefitinib in 2002, erlotinib in 2003, and bevacizumab in 2006). This review focuses on the targeted therapies in lung cancer, the molecular biomarkers that help identify patients that will benefit for these targeted therapies, describes the basic molecular biology principles and selected molecular diagnostic techniques and the pathological features correlated with molecular abnormalities in lung cancer. Lastly, new molecular abnormalities described in lung cancer that are predictive to novel promising targeted agents in various phases of clinical trials are discussed. PMID:20680095

  20. Lung cancer molecular epidemiology in China: recent trends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is both the most common diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in China. During the past three decades, the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in China are increasing rapidly. According to data from National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) in 2010, the crude incidence of lung cancer in China was 46.08 per 100,000 population (61.86 per 100,000 men and 29.54 per 100,000 women), with an estimated over 600,000 new diagnosed lung cancer patients (416,333 males and 189,613 females). Meanwhile, the crude mortality of lung cancer in China was 37.00 per 100,000 population (50.04 per 100,000 men and 23.33 per 100,000 women). Consistent with the change in developed countries, adenocarcinoma has become the most predominant histological subtype of lung cancer in China. For the majority advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, especially patients with adenocarcinoma, targeted therapy became increasing important in the treatment. Chinese researcher have done a lot work in terms of lung cancer molecular epidemiology, therefore, in this review, we further summarized the epidemiology of driver genes in NSCLC, hoping to help clinicians to better screen certain driver genes in China for treatment decisions. PMID:25806311

  1. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  2. Early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Midthun, David E

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  3. Early detection of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with lung cancer are diagnosed when they present with symptoms, they have advanced stage disease, and curative treatment is no longer an option. An effective screening test has long been desired for early detection with the goal of reducing mortality from lung cancer. Sputum cytology, chest radiography, and computed tomography (CT) scan have been studied as potential screening tests. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality with low-dose CT (LDCT) screening, and guidelines now endorse annual LDCT for those at high risk. Implementation of screening is underway with the desire that the benefits be seen in clinical practice outside of a research study format. Concerns include management of false positives, cost, incidental findings, radiation exposure, and overdiagnosis. Studies continue to evaluate LDCT screening and use of biomarkers in risk assessment and diagnosis in attempt to further improve outcomes for patients with lung cancer. PMID:27158468

  4. Photodynamic therapy in lung and gastrointestinal cancers.

    PubMed

    Karanov, S; Kostadinov, D; Shopova, M; Kurtev, P

    1990-06-01

    Twelve central bronchial carcinoma patients and two gastrointestinal (GI) tract (oesophageal and colonic) early-stage cancer patients were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Haematoporphyrin (HP/5, Jacopo Monico, Italy) at a dose of 5 mg kg-1 body weight was used as photosensitizer. Laser light at 628.2-630 nm generated by two different laser systems (gold vapour laser (I.P. Optics, Sofia, Bulgaria) in lung cancer cases and an argon dye laser system (Spectra Physics, Mountain View, U.S.A.) in GI tract cancers) was used. Lung cancers were irradiated 48 h after drug administration and GI tract cancers were irradiated 72 h after infusion of the photosensitizer. Both tumour sites were treated with a total energy dose in the range 350-600 J cm-2. Efficiency of PDT in lung cancer was evaluated by X-rays and endoscopic and functional respiratory tests for bronchial de-obstruction. Complete remission after PDT of GI tract cancers was considered to be tumour eradication (histologically and cytologically proved) and a tumour-free interval of at least 12 months. PMID:2121932

  5. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  6. CIGARETTE SMOKE AND LUNG CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps speci...

  7. Palliative Care in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Arvind M; Dashti, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women in the USA. Symptom burden in patients with advanced lung cancer is very high and has a negative impact on their quality of life (QOL). Palliative care with its focus on the management of symptoms and addressing physical, psychosocial, spiritual, and existential suffering, as well as medically appropriate goal setting and open communication with patients and families, significantly adds to the quality of care received by advanced lung cancer patients. The Provisional Clinical Opinion (PCO) of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) as well as the National Cancer Care Network's (NCCN) clinical practice guidelines recommends early integration of palliative care into routine cancer care. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of palliative care in lung cancer and will examine the evidence and recommendations with regard to a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to symptom management, as well as discussions of goals of care, advance care planning, and care preferences. PMID:27535397

  8. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Functional imaging in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harders, S W; Balyasnikowa, S; Fischer, B M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer represents an increasingly frequent cancer diagnosis worldwide. An increasing awareness on smoking cessation as an important mean to reduce lung cancer incidence and mortality, an increasing number of therapy options and a steady focus on early diagnosis and adequate staging have resulted in a modestly improved survival. For early diagnosis and precise staging, imaging, especially positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), plays an important role. Other functional imaging modalities such as dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DW-MRI) have demonstrated promising results within this field. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a brief and balanced introduction to these three functional imaging modalities and their current or potential application in the care of patients with lung cancer. PMID:24289258

  10. Impacts of Exercise on Prognostic Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-18

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Healthy, no Evidence of Disease; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. Molecular oncology of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, Shinichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Soh, Junichi; Aokage, Keiju; Yamane, Masaomi; Oto, Takahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro

    2011-08-01

    Progress in genetic engineering has made it possible to elucidate the molecular biological abnormalities in lung cancer. Mutations in KRAS and P53 genes, loss of specific alleles, and DNA methylation of the tumor suppressor genes were the major abnormalities investigated between 1980 and the 2000s. In 2004, mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene that cause oncogene addiction were discovered in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), especially in adenocarcinomas. Because they are strongly associated with sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), a great deal of knowledge has been acquired in regard to both EGFR and other genes in the EGFR family and their downstream genes. Moreover, in 2007 the existence of the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene was discovered in NSCLC; and the same as EGFR-TKIs, ALK inhibitors are being found to be highly effective in lung cancers that have this translocation. These discoveries graphically illustrate that molecular biological findings are directly linked to the development of clinical oncology and to improving the survival rates of lung cancer patients. Here, we review the remarkable progress in molecular biological knowledge acquired thus far in regard to lung cancer, especially NSCLC, and the future possibilities. PMID:21850578

  12. Lung cancer and air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J; Pope, C A

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years suggest rather consistently that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, may be responsible for increased rates of lung cancer. This evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30 to 50% increases in lung cancer rates associated with exposure to respirable particles. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the United States continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. It is not known how many people in the United States are exposed to levels of fine respirable particles that have been associated with lung cancer in recent epidemiologic studies. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the United States based largely on the results of animal studies, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution among the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer associated with air pollution. PMID:8741787

  13. Outdoor air pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A J

    2000-01-01

    In the 1950s evidence of an ongoing epidemic of lung cancer in the United States and Western Europe led researchers to examine the role of outdoor air pollution, which was considered by some to be a likely cause. Although epidemiologic research quickly identified the central role of cigarette smoking in this epidemic, and despite progress in reducing outdoor air pollution in Western industrialized countries, concerns that ambient air pollution is causing lung cancer have persisted to the present day. This concern is based on the fact that known carcinogens continue to be released into outdoor air from industrial sources, power plants, and motor vehicles, and on a body of epidemiologic research that provides some evidence for an association between outdoor air pollution and lung cancer. This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence for this association and discusses the limitations of current studies for estimating the lung cancer risk in the general population. It also identifies research needs and suggests possible approaches to addressing outstanding questions. PMID:10931793

  14. Screening and early detection of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, J; Dooms, C; Mascaux, C; Nackaerts, K

    2012-09-01

    The greatest news of the past year in this field was the first large-scale early detection trial that could prove a 20% reduction in lung cancer-related mortality by screening high-risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Several expert groups and medical societies have assessed the data and concluded that LDCT screening for lung cancer is, however, not ready for large-scale population-based implementation. Too many open questions remain, such as definition of the at-risk population, timing and intervals of screening, optimal method of acquisition and interpretation of the images, how to handle (false) positive findings, and especially cost-effectiveness in relation to other lung cancer prevention strategies, mainly smoking cessation. Further analyses and several ongoing European trials are eagerly awaited. Much hope also resides in the use of biomarkers, as their use in, e.g., blood or exhaled air may provide more easy-to-use tests to better stratify high-risk populations for screening studies. While exciting research is ongoing in this domain--e.g. with microRNAs--none of the tests has yet reached sufficient validation for clinical use. Early central lung cancers are more difficult to visualise by CT. For these patients, standard bronchoscopy, complemented by autofluoresence endoscopy, has been studied in different screening and follow-up settings. PMID:22987984

  15. Epidemiology of lung cancer in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhang, Siwei

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in China. Along with socioeconomic development, environmental problems have intensified and the burden of lung cancer continues to increase. Methods In this study, national cancer registry data was used for evaluating incidence, mortality, time trend, and prediction. Results In China in 2010, 605 900 patients were diagnosed and 486 600 patients died of lung cancer. Throughout the last three decades, the mortality of lung cancer has dramatically increased, as shown in national death surveys. From 2000 to 2010, age specific incidence of lung cancer increased in most age groups. It is estimated that in 2015, the total number of new cases of lung cancer will reach 733 300. Conclusions Lung cancer is a serious disease affecting public health and an effective control strategy is needed in China. PMID:26273360

  16. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  17. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  18. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  19. [Advances in Surgical Treatment of Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian; Bao, Feichao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, computed tomography screening has made the disease spectrum of lung cancer shift from the previously predominating central local advanced squamous cell carcinoma to early stage lung adenocarcinoma represented by solitary pulmonary nodule, ground-glass opacity (GGO) and sub-centimeter nodule. This paper reviewed the recent proceeding in the surgical management of early stage lung cancer. PMID:27335305

  20. Mouse models for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min-chul; Berns, Anton

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease and a major therapeutic burden with poor survival rates. It is responsible for 30% of all cancer deaths. Lung cancer is strongly associated with smoking, although some subtypes are also seen in non-smokers. Tumors in the latter group are mostly adenocarcinomas with many carrying mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Survival statistics of lung cancer are grim because of its late detection and frequent local and distal metastases. Although DNA sequence information from tumors has revealed a number of frequently occurring mutations, affecting well-known tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, many of the driver mutations remain ill defined. This is likely due to the involvement of numerous rather infrequently occurring driver mutations that are difficult to distinguish from the very large number of passenger mutations detected in smoking-related lung cancers. Therefore, experimental model systems are indispensable to validate putative driver lesions and to gain insight into their mechanisms of action. Whereas a large fraction of these analyzes can be performed in cell cultures in vitro, in many cases the consequences of the mutations have to be assessed in the context of an intact organism, as this is the context in which the Mendelian selection process of the tumorigenic process took place and the advantages of particular mutations become apparent. Current mouse models for cancer are very suitable for this as they permit mimicking many of the salient features of human tumors. The capacity to swiftly re-engineer complex sets of lesions found in human tumors in mice enables us to assess the contribution of defined combinations of lesions to distinct tumor characteristics such as metastatic behavior and response to therapy. In this review we will describe mouse models of lung cancer and how they are used to better understand the disease and how they are exploited to develop better intervention strategies

  1. Lung Cancer Staging and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Gavitt A; Jones, Kirk D; Jablons, David M

    2016-01-01

    The seventh edition of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) TNM staging system was developed by the International Association for the Staging of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Lung Cancer Staging Project by a coordinated international effort to develop data-derived TNM classifications with significant survival differences. Based on these TNM groupings, current 5-year survival estimates in NSLCC range from 73 % in stage IA disease to 13 % in stage IV disease. TNM stage remains the most important prognostic factor in predicting recurrence rates and survival times, followed by tumor histologic grade, and patient sex, age, and performance status. Molecular prognostication in lung cancer is an exploding area of research where interest has moved beyond TNM stage and into individualized genetic tumor analysis with immunohistochemistry, microarray, and mutation profiles. However, despite intense research efforts and countless publications, no molecular prognostic marker has been adopted into clinical use since most fail in subsequent cross-validation with few exceptions. The recent interest in immunotherapy for NSCLC has identified new biomarkers with early evidence that suggests that PD-L1 is a predictive marker of a good response to new immunotherapy drugs but a poor prognostic indicator of overall survival. Future prognostication of outcomes in NSCLC will likely be based on a combination of TNM stage and molecular tumor profiling and yield more precise, individualized survival estimates and treatment algorithms. PMID:27535389

  2. Radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Namer, M.; Lalanne, C.M.; Boublil, J.L.; Hery, M.; Chauvel, P.; Verschoore, J.; Aubanel, J.M.; Bruneton, J.N.

    1980-08-01

    Evaluation of loco-regional results obtained by radiotherapy for 31 patients with inoperable epidermoid lung cancer revealed objective remission (over 50%) in only 25% of patients. These results emphasize the limited effectiveness of radiotherapy in such cases and point out the need for increased research in radiotherapy techniques if survival rates are to be improved.

  3. Atmospheric pollution and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R

    1978-01-01

    Lung cancer is consistently more common in urban areas than in rural. The excess cannot be accounted for by specific occupational hazards but some of it might be due to the presence of carcinogens in urban air. The excess cannot be wholly due to such agents, because the excess in nonsmokers is small and variable. Cigarette consumption has also been greater in urban areas, but it is difficult to estimate how much of the excess it can account for. Occupational studies confirm that pollutants present in town air are capable of causing lung cancer in man and suggest that the pollutants and cigarette smoke act synergistically. The trends in the mortality from lung cancer in young and middle-aged men in England and Wales provide uncertain evidence but support the belief that atmospheric pollution has contributed to the production of the disease. In the absence of cigarette smoking, the combined effect of all atmospheric carcinogens is not responsible for more than about 5 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 persons per year in European populations. PMID:648488

  4. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential curative therapy is surgical resection of early stage lung cancer. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer could potentially increase the chance of cure by surgery and underlines the importance of screening and detection of lung cancer. In the past fifty years, screening of lung cancer by chest X-Ray (CXR), sputum cytology, computed tomography (CT), fluorescence endoscopy and low-dose spiral CT (LDCT) has not improved survival except for the recent report in 2010 by the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which showed a 20 percent mortality reduction in high risk participants screened with LDCT compared to those screened with CXRs. Furthermore, serum biomarkers for detection of lung cancer using free circulating DNA and RNA, exosomal microRNA, circulating tumor cells and various lung cancer specific antigens have been studied extensively and novel screening methods are being developed with encouraging results. The history of lung cancer screening trials using CXR, sputum cytology and LDCT, as well as results of trials involving various serum biomarkers, are reviewed herein. PMID:24252206

  5. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Bicheng; Doll, Donald; Shen, Kui; Kloecker, Goetz; Freter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential curative therapy is surgical resection of early stage lung cancer. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer could potentially increase the chance of cure by surgery and underlines the importance of screening and detection of lung cancer. In the past fifty years, screening of lung cancer by chest X-Ray (CXR), sputum cytology, computed tomography (CT), fluorescence endoscopy and low-dose spiral CT (LDCT) has not improved survival except for the recent report in 2010 by the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which showed a 20 percent mortality reduction in high risk participants screened with LDCT compared to those screened with CXRs. Furthermore, serum biomarkers for detection of lung cancer using free circulating DNA and RNA, exosomal microRNA, circulating tumor cells and various lung cancer specific antigens have been studied extensively and novel screening methods are being developed with encouraging results. The history of lung cancer screening trials using CXR, sputum cytology and LDCT, as well as results of trials involving various serum biomarkers, are reviewed herein. PMID:24252206

  6. Smoking and lung cancer: current trends in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Waldhör, Thomas; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Hackl, Monika; Vutuc, Christian; Haidinger, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Despite a recent decline in smoking behavior in many European countries, lung cancer rates remain high, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper aims to describe trends in smoking behavior and lung cancer incidence and mortality, including histopathological classification of lung cancer, in a Central European country: Austria. Methods Using data from the Austrian Central Cancer Registry, we calculated age-standardized incidence, histopathology-specific incidence, and age-standardized and birth cohort-specific mortality rates for all lung cancer cases in Austria. Using national survey data, we estimated prevalence of smoking in the Austrian population. Our analysis covers the time period from 1970 to 2009. Results In 2009, lung cancer incidence rates were 41.3/100,000 and 18.5/100,000 and mortality rates were 36.3/100,000 and14.5/100,000, for males and females, respectively. Male lung cancer rates declined but increased steadily in females over the past three decades. In 2009, the most common histological type is adenocarcinoma, which reflects a shift from predominantly squamous cell carcinoma and large cell carcinoma in the mid 1980s. In 2009, 27 % of men and 19 % of women were smokers, which represent a rise of smoking rates in women, especially in younger women, and a decline in the men. Conclusions While in Austrian men the lung cancer rates, in accordance with their decreasing prevalence of smoking, declined over the past 30 years, the increasing smoking prevalence and lung cancer rates in women remain a public health concern. Antismoking laws and public health initiatives to curtail smoking habits are needed in Austria, especially targeting younger women. PMID:22815002

  7. [Geographic spreading of lung cancer in Azerbaijan].

    PubMed

    Soltanov, A A

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death for both men and women. The impact of geographic as well as of exogenous factor and factors of risk, life style and environment play an important role in etiology of lung cancer. Geographic spread of lung cancer data in literature is fragmentary. The limited existing literature does not report a consistent story of geographic variation in Azerbaijan for the incidence associated with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of geographic variation on spread of lung cancer in Azerbaijan. Frequency of lung cancer in various regions of Azerbaijan; different histological types, sex, age and particular risk factors were investigated. It was revealed that epidermoid cancer was the most common histological type in all regions. The highest rate of epidermoid cancer 230 (55.56%) was revealed in industrial regions and industrial cities (Baku and Sumgait). The lowest rate of lung cancer was found in mountain region 12 (3.76%). Smoking and drinking alcohol increases risk of epidermoid cancer (41.2% of patients smoke and drink alcohol). The highest morbidity (13.55 per 100,000 population) and mortality (0.11) rates from lung cancer were observed in industrial regions. Analyses revealed that different endogenous and exogenous factors are associated with lung cancer. PMID:19202230

  8. Guidance molecules in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nasarre, Patrick; Potiron, Vincent; Drabkin, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Guidance molecules were first described in the nervous system to control axon outgrowth direction. They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. In addition, they are involved in cancer development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. This review is primarily focused on their functions in lung cancer and their involvement in lung development is also presented. Five guidance molecule families and their corresponding receptors are described, including the semaphorins/neuropilins/plexins, ephrins and Eph receptors, netrin/DCC/UNC5, Slit/Robo and Notch/Delta. In addition, the possibility to target these molecules as a therapeutic approach in cancer is discussed. PMID:20139699

  9. Lung cancer treatment outcomes in recipients of lung transplant

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lingling; Pennell, Nathan A.; Elson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung transplant recipients develop lung cancer more commonly than the general population. The best treatment approach for these patients is unclear. The goal of this study is to evaluate treatment outcomes in this population. Methods We used the Cleveland Clinic lung transplant database to identify patients diagnosed with lung cancer at the time of or after lung transplant. Transplant and lung cancer-related data were retrospectively reviewed. Results Among 847 patients underwent lung transplant between 2005 and 2013, 17 (2%) were diagnosed with lung cancer and included. Median age was 61 (range, 48–70) years. Majority were stage I/II (n=11), one had stage IIIA, five had stage IV. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were more common than small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (n=15 vs. 2). Curative treatment was performed as lobectomy in native lung (n=1), and radiation in transplanted lung (n=2). Chemotherapy was given in 10 patients, primarily carboplatin-based doublets with docetaxel, pemetrexed, or etoposide. Six of these received palliative chemotherapy for either metastases at diagnosis (n=3) or recurrence after early stage disease (n=3). Except for one patient with complete response, all others had progressive disease following palliative chemotherapy. Overall, patients who received chemotherapy had a median survival of 7.5 months from the initiation of chemotherapy, but 30% developed grade 5 sepsis. Median survival for stage I–IIIA and stage IV were 23.2 and 2.5 months respectively. Conclusions Lung cancer in lung transplant recipients carries various clinical courses. Patients with metastatic disease have substantial toxicities from chemotherapy and poor survival. Early stage patients should be offered treatment with modified dosages to decrease the risk of severe toxicities. PMID:26798588

  10. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Gregory N.; Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Camidge, D. Ross

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  12. Lung cancer screening and management.

    PubMed

    Jones, G S; Baldwin, D R

    2015-12-01

    Deaths from lung cancer are greater than for any other type of malignancy. Many people present with advanced stage cancer at diagnosis and survival is limited. Low radiation dose CT (LDCT) screening appears to offer part of the solution to this. The US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) showed a 20% reduction in cancer related mortality and a 6.7% reduction in all cause mortality in patients who had LDCT compared to chest X-ray. Lung Cancer screening is now being implemented in the US using the NLST screening criteria but many questions remain about the details of the methodology of screening and its cost effectiveness. Many of these questions are being answered by ongoing European trials that are reporting their findings. In this review we objectively analyse current research evidence and explore the issues that need to be resolved before implementation, including technical considerations, selection criteria and effective nodule management protocols. We discuss the potential barriers that will be faced when beginning a national screening programme and possible solutions to them. PMID:26605556

  13. Biological considerations in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Almand, B; Carbone, D P

    2001-01-01

    Our understanding of lung cancer biology has rapidly expanded in recent years. Lung cancer, unlike most human cancers, can be traced to an environmental risk factor in the majority of cases, and this fact is reflected in the vast number of genetic alterations discovered in lung tumors whose pathogenesis is believed to be mediated by carcinogen exposure. The discovery of these alterations has led to a greater understanding of tumor development. The dramatic progress in the understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of oncogenesis and the induction of immunity has led to a rejuvenation of efforts to apply this new knowledge to this common and refractory disease. Further, the resurgent interest in cancer immunology and tumor-host interactions holds promise for the development of new approaches to treatment based on harvesting the immune systems ability to recognize these alterations. Hopefully, this understanding will lead to novel approaches with real and convincing clinical efficacy once some of these strategies are tested in carefully performed randomized clinical trials with appropriate power to detect meaningful differences. PMID:11224984

  14. Phosphoproteomics and Lung Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    López, Elena; Cho, William C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Massive evidence suggests that genetic abnormalities contribute to the development of lung cancer. These molecular abnormalities may serve as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this deadly disease. It is imperative to search these biomarkers in different tumorigenesis pathways so as to provide the most appropriate therapy for each individual patient with lung malignancy. Phosphoproteomics is a promising technology for the identification of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer. Thousands of proteins interact via physical and chemical association. Moreover, some proteins can covalently modify other proteins post-translationally. These post-translational modifications ultimately give rise to the emergent functions of cells in sequence, space and time. Phosphoproteomics clinical researches imply the comprehensive analysis of the proteins that are expressed in cells or tissues and can be employed at different stages. In addition, understanding the functions of phosphorylated proteins requires the study of proteomes as linked systems rather than collections of individual protein molecules. In fact, proteomics approaches coupled with affinity chromatography strategies followed by mass spectrometry have been used to elucidate relevant biological questions. This article will discuss the relevant clues of post-translational modifications, phosphorylated proteins, and useful proteomics approaches to identify molecular cancer signatures. The recent progress in phosphoproteomics research in lung cancer will be also discussed. PMID:23202899

  15. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  16. Vaccine Therapy and Sargramostim With or Without Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-03-28

    Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  17. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  18. Lung cancer: Biology and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lemjabbar-Alaoui, Hassan; Hassan, Omer Ui; Yang, Yi-Wei; Buchanan, Petra

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women in the U.S. and worldwide. About 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking and the use of tobacco products. However, other factors such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution exposures, and chronic infections can contribute to lung carcinogenesis. In addition, multiple inherited and acquired mechanisms of susceptibility to lung cancer have been proposed. Lung cancer is divided into two broad histologic classes, which grow and spread differently: small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Therapeutic-modalities recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy made during the past 25 years, the prognosis for patients with lung cancer is still unsatisfactory. The responses to current standard therapies are poor except for the most localized cancers. However, a better understanding of the biology pertinent to these challenging malignancies, might lead to the development of more efficacious and perhaps more specific drugs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent developments in lung cancer biology and its therapeutic strategies, and discuss the latest treatment advances including therapies currently under clinical investigation. PMID:26297204

  19. Lung cancer stem cells—characteristics, phenotype

    PubMed Central

    George, Rachel; Sethi, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with unfavourable prognosis mainly due to the late stage of disease at presentation. High incidence and disease recurrence rates are a fact despite advances in treatment. Ongoing experimental and clinical observations suggest that the malignant phenotype in lung cancer is sustained by lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) which are putative stem cells situated throughout the airways that have the potential of initiating lung cancer formation. These cells share the common characteristic of increased proliferation and differentiation, long life span and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This review summarises the current knowledge on their characteristics and phenotype. PMID:27413709

  20. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-16

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  1. Lung Cancer Awareness Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Catherine; Laczko, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society. Tobacco use is responsible for nearly one in five deaths in the United States and the cause of premature death of approximately 2 million individuals in developed countries. Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and is a major cause of heart disease, cerebrovascular…

  2. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. PMID:25012035

  3. Bronchoplastic procedures for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Naruke, T; Yoneyama, T; Ogata, T; Suemasu, K

    1977-06-01

    Twenty patients with lung cancer have undergone bronchoplastic procedures September, 1965, to June, 1976 in our hospital. Bronchoplastic procedures are considered to be indicated for early cases of hilar lung cancer rather than for somewhat advanced cases. Endoscopic examination and roentgenograms of the bronchial arteries are needed to delineate resectional lines of bronchus, the former for deciding the mucosal extent and the latter the intrabronchial extent of the tumor. The bronchoplastic procedures we adopted were free from the risks and dangers generally accompanying the operation, and there were no postoperative deaths. For the prevention of postoperative complications, careful attention to suture technique is needed, and postoperative bronchoscopic suction of intrabronchial secretions is absolutely necessary. These procedures assure good quality of life postoperatively and improvement in the survival rate by preserving pulmonary function, enhancing curability, and increasing the operative indications. These advantages warrant high evaluation of the operation. PMID:870767

  4. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2 ¾ inches Central Nervous System (CNS): The control center for the body; includes the spinal cord and the brain Chemoprevention: ... the red blood cells that carries oxygen to body tissues Hemoptysis: ... care that focuses on pain control and comfort rather than treatment of the disease; ...

  5. Unmasking the lung cancer epigenome.

    PubMed

    Belinsky, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The reprogramming of the epigenome through silencing of genes and microRNAs by cytosine DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling is critical for the initiation and progression of lung cancer through affecting all major cell regulatory pathways. Importantly, the fact that epigenetic reprogramming is reversible by pharmacological agents has opened new avenues for clinical intervention. This review focuses on the tremendous progress made in elucidating genes and microRNAs that are epigenetically silenced in lung cancer and highlights how loss of function impacts cell phenotype and major signaling pathways. The article describes the utility of (a) an in vitro model using hTERT/Cdk4 immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell lines to identify genes and microRNAs silenced during premalignancy and (b) an in vivo orthotopic nude rat lung cancer model to evaluate response to epigenetic therapy. New insights regarding the advantage of aerosol delivery of demethylating agents and the concept of priming tumors for subsequent therapy are presented and discussed. PMID:25668024

  6. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, N.

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants’ ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants’ opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants’ responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  7. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sriram, N; Mills, Jennifer; Lang, Edward; Dickson, Holli K; Hamann, Heidi A; Nosek, Brian A; Schiller, Joan H

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  8. Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Tzouvelekis, Argyris; Nena, Evangelia; Bouros, Demosthenes

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases of either known or unknown etiology with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Lung cancer, which is the major cause of cancer death in the developed countries, is mainly attributed to cigarette smoking and exposure to inhaled carcinogens. Different studies suggest a link between ILDs and lung cancer, through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as inflammation, coagulation, dysregulated apoptosis, focal hypoxia, activation, and accumulation of myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. This paper reviews current evidence on the association between lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pneumoconiosis. PMID:22900168

  9. Year-in-Review of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In the last several years, we have made slow but steady progress in understanding molecular biology of lung cancer. This review is focused on advances in understanding the biology of lung cancer that have led to proof of concept studies on new therapeutic approaches. The three selected topics include genetics, epigenetics and non-coding RNA. This new information represents progress in the integration of molecular mechanisms that to identify more effective ways to target lung cancer. PMID:23166546

  10. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable. PMID:27178304

  11. Chemotherapy for lung cancers: here to stay.

    PubMed

    Kris, Mark G; Hellmann, Matthew D; Chaft, Jamie E

    2014-01-01

    Four decades of clinical research document the effectiveness of chemotherapy in patients with lung cancers. Chemotherapeutic agents can improve lung cancer symptoms, lengthen life in most patients with lung cancers, and enhance curability in individuals with locoregional disease when combined with surgery or irradiation. Chemotherapy's effectiveness is enhanced in patients with EGFR-mutant and ALK-positive lung cancers and can "rescue" individuals whose oncogene-driven cancers have become resistant to targeted agents. As immunotherapies become part of the therapeutic armamentarium for lung cancers, chemotherapeutic drugs have the potential to modulate the immune system to enhance the effectiveness of immune check point inhibitors. Even in this era of personalized medicine and targeted therapies, chemotherapeutic agents remain essential components in cancer care. PMID:24857127

  12. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-04

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. TNM classification for lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yoh

    2003-12-01

    The international tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system is the "international language" in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Six revisions of the TNM staging system for lung cancer have been repeated over the past 35 years after the beginning of UICC-TNM classification in 1968. The 1997 revision for lung cancer has undergone an extensive correction for many deficiencies of the old staging system. As a result, the new staging system appears to be a great improvement over previous editions. There are, however, still some controversies and proposals for revising, even when the new staging system is applied in daily diagnoses and treatment for lung cancer. In the present paper, these problems are presented and discussed. Main subjects for discussions are as follows: (1). Since the 2nd revision, T1 and T2 lesions were divided at the border of a 3 cm tumor size. Is 3 cm diameter an appropriate cut-off point for dividing T1 and T2 lesions? (2). Is it valid to subdivide T1 and T2 lesions into each A and B? (3). Is it appropriate to down-stage all of T3N0M0 to stage IIB, because there exists heterogeneity of T3? (4). Definitions of T4 lesion. (5). Controversies in three kinds of lymph node maps. Especially, where there is a boundary between N1 and N2 station in each map? (6) How to classify separate tumor nodules (STN) in the same lobe, and in the non-primary lobe. (7) Controversy exists concerning the validity of present stage grouping, because there are no significant difference of survivals between IB and IIA, IIA and IIB in most reports and also between T3N0M0 and T3N1M0 in some reports. PMID:15003094

  14. [Advances in Lung Stem Cells and Lung Cancer Stem Cells].

    PubMed

    Yin, Huijing; Deng, Jiong

    2015-10-20

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are emerging as a hot topic for cancer research. Lung CSCs share many characteristics with normal lung stem cells (SCs), including self-renewal and multi-potency for differentiation. Many molecular markers expressed in various types of CSCs were also found in lung CSCs, such as CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2). Similarly, proliferation and expansion of lung CSCs are regulated not only by signal transduction pathways functioning in normal lung SCs, such as Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, but also by those acting in tumor cells, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathways. As CSC plays an critical role in tumor recurrence, metastasis and drug-resistance, understanding the difference between lung CSCs and normal lung SCs, identifying and targeting CSC markers or related signaling pathways may increase the efficacy of therapy on lung cancer and improved survival of lung cancer patients. PMID:26483336

  15. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) has lately been recognized as a unique disease based on rapidly gained knowledge from genomic changes to treatment responses. The focus of this article is on current knowledge and challenges with regard to LCINS expanded from recent reviews highlighting five areas: (1) distribution of LCINS by temporal trends, geographic regions, and populations; (2) three well-recognized environmental risk factors; (3) other plausible environmental risk factors; (4) prior chronic lung diseases and infectious diseases as risk factors; and (5) lifestyles as risk or protective factors. This article will also bring attention to recently published literature in two pioneering areas: (1) histological characteristics, clinical features with emerging new effective therapies, and social and psychological stigma; and (2) searching for susceptibility genes using integrated genomic approaches. PMID:21500120

  16. [Epidemiologic aspects of the histologic types of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilde, J; Matthäi, C; Wilde, J

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed in the county of Erfurt including all lung cancer patients of the years 1963, 1968, and 1972 to 1977, together 2,585 males and 358 females. The following results were found: 1. The incidence of lung cancer increased significantly from 1963 to 1977. 2. About 60% of all lung cancer patients were younger than 70 years. 3. In male patients squamous cell carcinomas prevailed with 44.8%. Small cell cancers came up to 34.6% and adenocarcinomas to 10.1%. Large cell cancers reached 10.5%. These types in female patients had a proportion to each other like 26.9%: 30.8%: 30.4%: 11.9%. The proportion of adenocarcinomas increased significantly during 1963 to 1977. 4. We found a non significant age relation of histological types. The adenocarcinoma and the small cell cancers dropped with rising age. 5. The classification of histological types and the conditions of detection of lung cancers did not change in the study interval. Therefore the altering of patterns of histological types, especially the increase of adenocarcinomas was attached to the beginning of cigarette smoking in younger ages and the increasing proportion of filter tipped brands as well to a variation of exposition against professional cancerogens. 6. Patients with adenocarcinomas have the highest survival rate after 5 years: 8.1%. Squamous cell lung cancer patients have a 5 year survival rate of 6.8%. Patients with small cell cancers and large cell cancers ranged at 2.7% or 2.6%. 7. Peripheral tumors of each histological type will be detected earlier by fluorographic screening than central carcinomas. Therefore the 5 year survival rates of peripheral cancers always are more favourable than that of central cancers. 8. For the problems in exact typing and staging we propose an internationally adjusted definition of tumor localization as a third parameter for prognosis. PMID:2171236

  17. Enhanced Quitline Intervention in Smoking Cessation for Patients With Non-Metastatic Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Tobacco Use Disorder

  18. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the lungs and basics about lung cancer Treatment for lung ...

  19. MET inhibition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giaj Levra, Matteo; Novello, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Targeted agents have completely changed cancer treatment strategy, leading it from a “one size fits all” approach to a customized therapy. In this scenario Met, a heterodimere receptor tyrosine kinase deeply involved into embryogenesis and organogenesis, has been introduced many years ago as a potential target for biological agents, becoming “druggable” only in this last period of time. Met can be altered through receptor overexpression, genomic amplification, mutations or alternative splicing, autocrine or paracrine secretion of hepatic growth factor (HGF): these dysregulations stimulate tumorigenesis (in terms of cell-cell detachment, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and survival) and metastatization. Met is overexpressed in lung cancer and Met gene amplification can drive the dependency of cell survival and proliferation upon the Met signaling. Both Met overexpression and amplification seem to correlate with poor prognosis. Met amplification is also described to be linked to EGFR acquired resistance. Several Met inhibitors have been tested both in preclinical and human trials, demonstrating activity in lung cancer treatment. This paper aims to summarize data on Met biological function, on its interaction with cell signaling and other pathways and to present data on those Met inhibitors currently under evaluation. PMID:25806202

  20. Lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, L.S.; Husen, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer has been a rare disease among the Indians of the southwestern United States. However, the advent of uranium mining in the area has been associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer among Navajo uranium miners. This study centers on Navajo men with lung cancer who were admitted to the hospital from February 1965 to May 1979. Of a total of 17 patients with lung cancer, 16 were uranium miners, and one was a nonminer. The mean value of cumulative radon exposure for this group was 1139.5 working level months (WLMs). The predominant cancer type was the small cell undifferentiated category (62.5 percent). The low frequency of cigarette smoking in this group supports the view that radiation is the primary cause of lung cancer among uranium miners and that cigarette smoking acts as a promoting agent.

  1. Chemoprevention studies within lung cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, G; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, A; Infante, M; Bonanni, B

    2015-01-01

    While aggressive tobacco control and help to stop smoking are essential weapons in the fight against lung cancer, screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in high-risk populations and chemoprevention may also contribute to reducing lung cancer deaths. Persons undergoing LDCT screening are an ideal population to be tested for agents potentially able to prevent the development of lung cancer by the regression of precancerous lesions, which are routinely monitored as part of the screening process. Peripheral subsolid nodules appear as particularly suitable targets, since many are adenocarcinoma precursors. A study on inhaled budesonide (a potential chemopreventive drug) for 1 year found that the mean size of non-solid lung nodules was significantly reduced over 5 years of follow-up, compared to inhaled placebo, in a population of high-risk individuals with indeterminate lung nodules not requiring immediate specific investigation for lung cancer and detected as part of a lung cancer screening program with LDCT. A new randomised placebo-controlled phase-II trial to test the ability of aspirin to induce the regression of non-solid and partially solid nodules detected by LDCT screening has been started. The effect of aspirin on a miRNA signature able to predict the presence of both cancer and precancerous lesions in high-risk asymptomatic individuals is also being monitored in the trial. This signature was previously shown to predict the presence of both lung cancer and non-solid lung nodules in asymptomatic individuals. PMID:26635901

  2. Translocation of left inferior lobe pulmonary artery to the pulmonary artery trunk for central type non-small cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yifeng; Yang, Yang; Chen, Yong; Pan, Xufeng; Yang, Yu; Gao, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report on a technique for translocation of the left inferior lobar pulmonary artery (PA) to the PA trunk associated with bronchial sleeve resection of the left superior lobe in the treatment of bronchogenic cancer. Methods The clinical data of four non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with translocation of the left inferior lobar PA to the PA trunk associated with bronchial sleeve resection of the left superior lobe was retrospectively reviewed between June 13, 2014 and June 8, 2015. A reconstruction of the left pulmonary arteries was performed by translocating the left inferior lobar PA to the PA trunk with end-to-side anastomosis, sleeve resection of bronchus, and systemic lymphadenectomy. Results Histology confirmed squamous carcinoma in these four cases. Stage pT3N2M0-IIIA was confirmed in 2 cases, pT3N1M0-IIIA in 1 case, and pT3N0M0-IIB in 1 case. No perioperative deaths or complications were observed. Four patients underwent postoperative chemotherapies, and the end of follow-ups date was Oct. 21, 2015. Conclusions Translocation of the left inferior lobar PA to the PA trunk is practicable as a lung-sparing procedure, despite being technically challenging. PMID:27162655

  3. [Developing surgical options for lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Sihvo, Eero

    2016-01-01

    The selection of correct treatment for lung cancer is multidisciplinary collaboration and requires careful assessment of the extent of the tumor and the condition of the patient. In localized non-small cell lung cancer, mere surgery or surgery in combination with adjuvant therapies are the best options for curing the disease. The trend in modern surgery is mini-invasiveness and preservation of lung tissue. Accordingly, any unit conducting lung cancer operations should have access to all modern techniques in order to provide each patient with optimal, patient-tailored surgical therapy. PMID:27132298

  4. Classification and Pathology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Min

    2016-07-01

    Advancement in the understanding of lung tumor biology enables continued refinement of lung cancer classification, reflected in the recently introduced 2015 World Health Organization classification of lung cancer. In small biopsy or cytology specimens, special emphasis is placed on separating adenocarcinomas from the other lung cancers to effectively select tumors for targeted molecular testing. In resection specimens, adenocarcinomas are further classified based on architectural pattern to delineate tissue types of prognostic significance. Neuroendocrine tumors are divided into typical carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell carcinoma, and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma based on a combination of features, especially tumor cell proliferation rate. PMID:27261908

  5. The impact of the Cancer Genome Atlas on lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jeremy T-H; Lee, Yee Ming; Huang, R Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) has profiled more than 10,000 samples derived from 33 types of cancer to date, with the goal of improving our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer and advancing our ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer. This review focuses on lung cancer as it is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in both men and women. Particularly, non-small cell lung cancers (including lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma) were evaluated. Our goal was to demonstrate the impact of TCGA on lung cancer research under 4 themes: diagnostic markers, disease progression markers, novel therapeutic targets, and novel tools. Examples are given related to DNA mutation, copy number variation, messenger RNA, and microRNA expression along with methylation profiling. PMID:26318634

  6. Lung Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Lung Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/lungcancer.html Other topics ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Lung Cancer - Multiple Languages ... To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - ...

  7. Lung Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arabic) سرطان الرئة - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Lung Cancer Karcinom pluća - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Lung Cancer 肺癌 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  8. Recent advances in lung cancer biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides an overview of carcinogenesis, especially as related to lung cancers. Various growth factors and their mutated forms as oncogenes are discussed with respect to gene location and their role in the oncogenic process. Finally the data is related to lung cancer induction in uranium miners and exposure to radon.

  9. Gene Therapy for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lara-Guerra, Humberto; Roth, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy was originally conceived to treat monogenic diseases. The replacement of a defective gene with a functional gene can theoretically cure the disease. In cancer, multiple genetic defects are present and the molecular profile changes during the course of the disease, making the replacement of all defective genes impossible. To overcome these difficulties, various gene therapy strategies have been adopted, including immune stimulation, transfer of suicide genes, inhibition of driver oncogenes, replacement of tumor-suppressor genes that could mediate apoptosis or anti-angiogenesis, and transfer of genes that enhance conventional treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Some of these strategies have been tested successfully in non-small-cell lung cancer patients and the results of laboratory studies and clinical trials are reviewed herein. PMID:27481008

  10. [Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akinobu; Kudoh, Syoji

    2003-02-01

    It is widely known that patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are frequently associated with lung cancer. Although a complication with lung cancer is an important prognostic factor for IPF, standard treatments for lung cancer cannot be given because of IPF. Especially, the administration of many anticancer agents is limited by a complication with IPF, which is recognized as a risk factor for the development of fatal lung injury in cancer chemotherapy. Epidemiological studies reveal that cigarette smoking and occupational and environmental exposure to toxic substances are common risk factors for both IPF and lung cancer. It has been assumed that metaplasia in fibrous lesions is pathologically a precancerous lesion, but it is necessary to prove several genetic abnormalities in the process of carcinogenesis in order to clarify that. Currently, several genetic abnormalities in IPF, including in p53, K-ras, FHIT and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 type II receptor, have been reported. PMID:12610869

  11. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-17

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  12. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccomanno, Geno; Bechtel, Joel J.

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of death in the United States. Although the incidence of cigarette smoking is decreasing in the United States it appears to be increasing worldwide. The five-year survival rate has not improved in cases with advanced disease, but several articles have indicated that survival can be improved in cases diagnosed early by sputum cytology and chest x-ray. In cases diagnosed while the lesion is in the in-situ stage or measures less than 1 cm in diameter, surgical excision and/or radiation therapy improves survival; therefore, the early diagnosis of high-risk patients should be vigorously pursued. A recent study at a community hospital in Grand Junction, Colorado, presented 45 lung cancer cases diagnosed with positive sputum cytology and negative chest x-ray, and indicates that early diagnosis does improve survival. This study has been conducted during the past six years; 16 cases have survived three years and six cases show five-year survival.

  13. Asbestos, Lung Cancers, and Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Nicholas H.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since we published findings in the AJRCMB demonstrating that induction of early response fos/jun proto-oncogenes in rodent tracheal and mesothelial cells correlates with fibrous geometry and pathogenicity of asbestos. Our study was the first to suggest that the aberrant induction of signaling responses by crocidolite asbestos and erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral associated with the development of malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) in areas of Turkey, led to altered gene expression. New data questioned the widely held belief at that time that the carcinogenic effects of asbestos in the development of lung cancer and MM were due to genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Later studies by our group revealed that proto-oncogene expression and several of the signaling pathways activated by asbestos were redox dependent, explaining why antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes were elevated in lung and pleura after exposure to asbestos and how they alleviated many of the phenotypic and functional effects of asbestos in vitro or after inhalation. Since these original studies, our efforts have expanded to understand the interface between asbestos-induced redox-dependent signal transduction cascades, the relationship between these pathways and cell fate, and the role of asbestos and cell interactions in development of asbestos-associated diseases. Of considerable significance is the fact that the signal transduction pathways activated by asbestos are also important in survival and chemoresistance of MMs and lung cancers. An understanding of the pathogenic features of asbestos fibers and dysregulation of signaling pathways allows strategies for the prevention and therapy of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:20068227

  14. Study of Ponatinib in Patients With Lung Cancer Preselected Using Different Candidate Predictive Biomarkers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-07

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  15. Early Lung Cancer Diagnosis by Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuqian; Yang, Dongliang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer causes an extreme threat to human health, and the mortality rate due to lung cancer has not decreased during the last decade. Prognosis or early diagnosis could help reduce the mortality rate. If microRNA and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), as well as the corresponding autoantibodies, can be detected prior to clinical diagnosis, such high sensitivity of biosensors makes the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer realizable. This review provides an overview of tumor-associated biomarker identifying methods and the biosensor technology available today. Laboratorial researches utilizing biosensors for early lung cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23892596

  16. Occupational cancer in central European countries.

    PubMed Central

    Fabiánová, E; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Kjaerheim, K; Boffetta, P

    1999-01-01

    The countries of central Europe, including Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria, suffer from environmental and occupational health problems created during the political system in place until the late 1980s. This situation is reflected by data on workplace exposure to hazardous agents. Such data have been systematically collected in Skovakia and the Czech Republic since 1977. The data presented describe mainly the situation in the early 1990s. The number of workers exposed to risk factors at the workplace represent about 10% of the working population in Slovakia and 30% in Poland. In Slovakia in 1992 the percentage of persons exposed to chemical substances was 16.4%, to ionizing radiation 4.3%, and to carcinogens 3.3% of all workers exposed to risk factors. The total number of persons exposed to substances proven to be carcinogens in Poland was 1.3% of the employees; 2.2% were exposed to the suspected carcinogens. The incidence of all certified occupational diseases in the Slovak Republic was 53 per 100,000 insured employees in 1992. Cancers certified as occupational cancers are skin cancer caused by occupational exposure to carcinogens, lung cancer caused by ionizing radiation, and asbestosis together with lung cancer. Specific information on occupational cancers from Romania and Bulgaria was not available for this paper. It is difficult to predict a trend for future incidences of occupational cancer. Improved control technology, governmental regulatory activity to reduce exposure, surveillance of diseases and risk factors, and vigilant use of preventive measures should, however, ultimately reduce occupational cancer. PMID:10350511

  17. A clinically relevant canine lung cancer model

    SciTech Connect

    Benfield, J.R.; Shors, E.C.; Hammond, W.G.; Paladugu, R.R.; Cohen, A.H.; Jensen, T.; Fu, P.C.; Pak, H.Y.; Teplitz, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Research on early human lung cancer is difficult; we have sought a canine correlate. Regimens included endobronchial submucosal injections and topical focal applications of benzo(a)pyrene, nitrosomethylurea, dimethylbenzanthracene, and methylcholanthrene, singly or in combinations. Sustained-release discs were placed into lung parenchyma or sutured into major bronchi. Tracheal segments were isolated as cervical pedicle grafts. Gross and histological evolution was reproducible. Columnar and basal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia were early changes. Atypia occurred within 6 weeks and was found in all dogs within 16 to 18 weeks. Invasive cancers occurred within 8 to 65 months. No tracheal graft developed cancer. Of 15 dogs with parenchymal sustained-release implants, 1 to date has developed cancer in 8 months. Four endobronchial regimens have produced 16 cancers in 56 lungs at risk for 18 to 65 months. No cancers developed in 23 lungs at risk from eight other regimens. Of 10 dogs at risk for unilateral endobronchial cancer, 5 have had cancer. Of 23 dogs with both lungs at risk, 9 developed cancer. We have shown focal carcinogenesis with well-defined pathogenesis and an extended preneoplastic period at predictable sites in a lung cancer model.

  18. Scientific Advances in Lung Cancer 2015.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Anne S; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Bunn, Paul A; Carbone, David P; Warren, Graham W; Bai, Chunxue; de Koning, Harry J; Yousaf-Khan, A Uraujh; McWilliams, Annette; Tsao, Ming Sound; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Rami-Porta, Ramón; Asamura, Hisao; Van Schil, Paul E; Darling, Gail E; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Gomez, Daniel R; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Zimmermann, Stefan; Peters, Solange; Ignatius Ou, Sai-Hong; Reungwetwattana, Thanyanan; Jänne, Pasi A; Mok, Tony S; Wakelee, Heather A; Pirker, Robert; Mazières, Julien; Brahmer, Julie R; Zhou, Yang; Herbst, Roy S; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki A; Redman, Mary W; Wynes, Murry W; Gandara, David R; Kelly, Ronan J; Hirsch, Fred R; Pass, Harvey I

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer continues to be a major global health problem; the disease is diagnosed in more than 1.6 million new patients each year. However, significant progress is underway in both the prevention and treatment of lung cancer. Lung cancer therapy has now emerged as a "role model" for precision cancer medicine, with several important therapeutic breakthroughs occurring during 2015. These advances have occurred primarily in the immunotherapy field and in treatments directed against tumors harboring specific oncogenic drivers. Our knowledge about molecular mechanisms for oncogene-driven tumors and about resistance to targeted therapies has increased quickly over the past year. As a result, several regulatory approvals of new agents that significantly improve survival and quality of life for patients with lung cancer who have advanced disease have occurred. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has gathered experts in different areas of lung cancer research and management to summarize the most significant scientific advancements related to prevention and therapy of lung cancer during the past year. PMID:27013409

  19. Spectrum of early lung cancer presentation in low-dose screening CT: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Rampinelli, Cristiano; Calloni, Sonia Francesca; Minotti, Marta; Bellomi, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The typical presentation of early stage lung cancers on low-dose CT screening are non-calcified pulmonary nodules. However, there is a wide spectrum of unusual focal abnormalities that can be early presentations of lung cancer. These abnormalities include, for example, cancers associated with 'cystic airspaces' or scar-like cancers. The detection of lung cancer with low-dose CT can be affected by the absence of intravenous contrast medium. As a consequence, endobronchial and central lesions can be difficult to recognize, raising the potential for missed cancers. Focal lesions arising within pre-existing lung disease, such as lung fibrosis or apical scars, can also be early lung cancer manifestations and deserve particular consideration as recognition of these lesions may be hindered by the underlying disease. Furthermore, the unpredictable growth rate of lung cancer, which ranges from indolent to aggressive cancers, necessitates attention to the wide spectrum of progression in lung cancer appearance on serial low-dose CT scans. In this pictorial review we discuss the spectrum of early lung cancer presentation in low-dose CT screening, highlighting typical as well as unusual radiological features and the varied growth rates of early lung cancer. Teaching Points • There is a wide spectrum of early presentations of lung cancer on LDCT. • Low radiation dose and the absence of contrast medium injection can affect lung cancer detection. • Lung cancer growth shows various behaviours, ranging from indolent to aggressive cancers. • Familiarity with LDCT technique can improve CT screening effectiveness and avoid missed diagnosis. PMID:27188380

  20. Sequencing study on familial lung squamous cancer

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHAOMIN; WANG, LINA; MA, ZHENCHUAN; MA, YUEFENG; ZHAO, JIANGMAN; PENG, BO; QIAO, ZHE

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The majority of lung cancers are sporadic, and familial cases are extremely rare. Previous studies have mainly focused on sporadic lung cancer and identified a large quantity of driver genes. However, familial lung cancers are rarer and studied less. The present study recruited a Chinese family in which multiple members had developed lung squamous carcinoma. To find the causative mutations, whole exome sequencing was conducted using a peripheral blood sample of one lung squamous carcinoma patient, and certain variants were validated in more samples. Whole exome sequencing analysis obtained ~2.0 Gb of data (an average of 60x depth for each targeted base), and further validation experiments identified two functional variants in two cancer-related genes (c.1218delA:p.E406fs in PDE4DIP and C1342A:p.L448I in CLTCL1). This study therefore provides useful sources for the further study of hereditary lung cancer. PMID:26622902

  1. Metallothioneins in the lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Werynska, Bozena; Pula, Bartosz; Kobierzycki, Christopher; Dziegiel, Piotr; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna

    2015-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low weight proteins involved in several key cellular processes such as metal ions homeostasis, detoxification and scavenging of free radicals. Four groups of MTs are distinguished: MT-1, MT-2, MT-3 and MT-4. Regardless of the type, MTs are characterized by high content of cysteine, responsible for their biological properties such as binding of relevant zinc and copper ions, as well as toxic ions such as lead and cadmium. MTs were additionally shown to protect cells against oxidative stress damage and participate in differentiation, proliferation and/or apoptosis of normal and cancer cells. Many studies of different neoplasms showed association of elevated MTs levels with occurrence of chemo- and radiotherapy resistance and poor patients' outcome. In this review, we summarize and discuss the potential mechanism of action of metallotioneins in lung physiology and pathology. PMID:25815626

  2. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mitrou, Sotirios; Petrakis, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, George; Zarkavelis, George; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world. PMID:27408759

  3. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  4. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner-Warwick, M; Lebowitz, M; Burrows, B; Johnson, A

    1980-07-01

    Lung cancer was found in 20 (9.8%) of 205 patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) or 12.9% of the 155 patients in this series followed to death. An excess relative risk of lung cancer of 14.1 was found in patients with CFA compared to the general population of comparable age and sex, allowing for the lengths of follow-up of the CFA patients. The relative risk for male smokers was (observed/expected) 15+1.06 = 14.2, and for female smokers (O/E) 2/0.3 = 6.7. Only one male and one female non-smoker had lung cancer. These data suggest that there is an excess risk of lung cancer not wholly accounted for by age, sex, or smoking habit. The distribution of histological types was not obviously different from that found in lung cancer without pulmonary fibrosis. Large opacities suggestive of lung cancer were present at the time of first hospital attendance for symptoms relating to CFA in four of the 20 patients. Finger clubbing was present in 19 (95%) compared with 116/185 (63%) of those so far not developing cancer. There were no other clinical differences at presentation. In particular, cancer was not found especially in those with longer survival from the onset of symptoms of CFA or with a greater initial radiographic change. PMID:7434310

  5. Immune checkpoint blockade in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Aswin; Socinski, Mark A; Villaruz, Liza C

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapy has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of advanced lung cancer. The adaptive immune system has developed a sophisticated method of tumor growth control, but T-cell activation is regulated by various checkpoints. Blockade of the immune checkpoints with therapies targeting the PD-1 pathway, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, has been validated as a therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer. Newer therapies and novel combinations are also being evaluated, and the use of biomarkers in conjunction with these drugs is an area of active investigation. This review summarizes the current evidence for the efficacy and safety of the above approaches in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:27585231

  6. The Canadian Lung Cancer Conference 2016

    PubMed Central

    Melosky, B.; Ho, C.

    2016-01-01

    Each February, the Canadian Lung Cancer Conference brings together lung cancer researchers, clinicians, and care professionals who are united in their commitment to improve the care of patients with lung cancer. This year’s meeting, held 11–12 February, featured a resident education session, a welcome dinner, networking sessions, lectures, breakout sessions, debates, and a satellite symposium. Key themes from this year’s meeting included innovations across the care spectrum and results of recent clinical trials with targeted agents, immuno-oncology agents, and novel drug combinations.

  7. Follow-up and surveillance of the lung cancer patient following curative-intent therapy.

    PubMed

    Colice, Gene L; Rubins, Jeffrey; Unger, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The following two distinctly different issues should be taken into account when planning patient care following curative-intent therapy for lung cancer: adequate follow-up to manage complications related to the curative-intent therapy; and surveillance to detect recurrences of the primary lung cancer and/or development of a new primary lung cancer early enough to allow potentially curative retreatment. Follow-up for complications should be performed by the specialist responsible for the curative-intent therapy and should last 3 to 6 months. Recurrences of the original lung cancer will be more likely during the first 2 years after curative-intent therapy, but there will be an increased lifelong risk of approximately 1 to 2% per year of developing a metachronous, or new primary, lung cancer. A standard surveillance program for these patients is recommended based on periodic visits, with chest-imaging studies and counseling patients on symptom recognition. Whether subgroups of patients with a higher risk of developing a metachronous lung cancer (eg, those patients whose primary lung cancer was radiographically occult or central and those patients surviving for > 2 years after treatment for small cell lung cancer) should have a more intensive surveillance program is presently unclear. The surveillance program should be coordinated by a multidisciplinary tumor board and overseen by the physician who diagnosed and initiated therapy for the original lung cancer. Smoking cessation is recommended for all patients following curative-intent therapy for lung cancer. PMID:12527585

  8. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approac | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  9. Lung cancer screening guidelines: common ground and differences

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for almost one-third of all cancer related deaths. Lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation and so many lung cancers now are diagnosed in former smokers. Five-year survival of lung cancer has marginally improved over decades and significantly lags behind that of colon, breast and prostate cancer. Over the past one decade, lung cancer screening trials have shown promising results. Results from National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), have shown a significant 20% reduction in mortality with annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Based on these results, annual LDCT testing has been recommended for lung cancer screening in high risk population. However, development and acceptance of lung cancer screening as a public health policy is still in the nascent stages. Major concerns relate to risk of radiation, overdiagnosis bias, proportion of false positives and cost benefit analysis. This article reviews the literature pertaining to lung cancer screening guidelines and above mentioned concerns. PMID:25806292

  10. Lung cancer screening guidelines: common ground and differences.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Swati; Mulshine, James L

    2014-06-01

    Lung cancer accounts for almost one-third of all cancer related deaths. Lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation and so many lung cancers now are diagnosed in former smokers. Five-year survival of lung cancer has marginally improved over decades and significantly lags behind that of colon, breast and prostate cancer. Over the past one decade, lung cancer screening trials have shown promising results. Results from National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST), have shown a significant 20% reduction in mortality with annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Based on these results, annual LDCT testing has been recommended for lung cancer screening in high risk population. However, development and acceptance of lung cancer screening as a public health policy is still in the nascent stages. Major concerns relate to risk of radiation, overdiagnosis bias, proportion of false positives and cost benefit analysis. This article reviews the literature pertaining to lung cancer screening guidelines and above mentioned concerns. PMID:25806292

  11. Management of Lung Cancer in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Rao, Archana; Sharma, Namita; Gajra, Ajeet

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the USA. The median age at diagnosis of lung cancer is 70 years, and thus, about one-half of patients with lung cancer fall into the elderly subgroup. There is dearth of high level of evidence regarding the management of lung cancer in the elderly in the three broad stages of the disease including early-stage, locally advanced, and metastatic disease. A major reason for the lack of evidence is the underrepresentation of elderly in prospective randomized clinical trials. Due to the typical decline in physical and physiologic function associated with aging, most elderly do not meet the stringent eligibility criteria set forth in age-unselected clinical trials. In addition to performance status, ideally, comorbidity, cognitive, and psychological function, polypharmacy, social support, and patient preferences should be taken into account before applying prevailing treatment paradigms often derived in younger, healthier patients to the care of the elderly patient with lung cancer. The purpose of this chapter was to review the existing evidence of management of early-stage, locally advanced disease, and metastatic lung cancer in the elderly. PMID:27535398

  12. Telomerase expression in noncancerous bronchial epithelia is a possible marker of early development of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Miyazu, Yuka Matsuoka; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kurimoto, Noriaki; Iwamoto, Yasuo; Matsuura, Hiroo; Kanoh, Koji; Kohno, Nobuoki; Nishiyama, Masahiko; Hiyama, Eiso

    2005-11-01

    Centrally located lung cancers in smokers frequently associated with subsequent primary tumors. We evaluated the telomerase expression chronologically in noncancerous epithelia as a risk factor of susceptibility to lung cancer development. Telomerase protein expression was examined in situ by immunohistochemistry in 26 noncancerous bronchial epithelia adjacent to centrally located early-stage lung cancers in sequential 23 patients treated by photodynamic therapy or surgery among 206 patients who underwent autofluorescence bronchoscopy from 1997 to 2003. Among the 15 lesions in 12 patients treated by photodynamic therapy alone, 11 lesions achieved complete remission after photodynamic therapy, and none of their noncancerous bronchial epithelia was telomerase positive. On the contrary, in the remaining four lesions, either recurrence or secondary lung cancer developed adjacent to the successfully treated primary cancer within 26 months, and the telomerase protein expression in noncancerous epithelia was detected before the secondary cancer development (P < 0.001). The overall relationship of human telomerase reverse transcriptase positivity in noncancerous epithelia and subsequent lung cancer development, including patients treated by radiation or surgery, showed higher significance (P < 0.0001). Histologically "normal" bronchial epithelia in smokers may unphysiologically express telomerase as a field, and such epithelia are likely susceptible to develop lung cancer. We propose that ectopic expression of telomerase in bronchial epithelia may precede transformation in human lung cancer development and that detection of telomerase protein in noncancerous bronchial epithelia will become a useful marker detecting high-risk patients for lung cancer development. PMID:16266979

  13. Non-coding RNAs in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ricciuti, Biagio; Mecca, Carmen; Crinò, Lucio; Baglivo, Sara; Cenci, Matteo; Metro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that protein-coding genes represent less than 2% of all human genome, and the evidence that more than 90% of it is actively transcribed, changed the classical point of view of the central dogma of molecular biology, which was always based on the assumption that RNA functions mainly as an intermediate bridge between DNA sequences and protein synthesis machinery. Accumulating data indicates that non-coding RNAs are involved in different physiological processes, providing for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. They are important regulators of gene expression, cellular differentiation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stem cell maintenance. Alterations and disruptions of their expression or activity have increasingly been associated with pathological changes of cancer cells, this evidence and the prospect of using these molecules as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets, make currently non-coding RNAs among the most relevant molecules in cancer research. In this paper we will provide an overview of non-coding RNA function and disruption in lung cancer biology, also focusing on their potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. PMID:25593996

  14. Lung cancer in the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Noronha, Vanita; Pinninti, Rakesh; Patil, Vijay M; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Smoking tobacco, both cigarettes and beedis, is the principal risk factor for causation of lung cancer in Indian men; however, among Indian women, the association with smoking is not strong, suggesting that there could be other risk factors besides smoking. Despite numerous advances in recent years in terms of diagnostic methods, molecular changes, and therapeutic interventions, the outcomes of the lung cancer patients remain poor; hence, a better understanding of the risk factors may impact the preventive measures to be implemented at the community level. There is a lack of comprehensive data on lung cancer in India. In this review, we attempt to collate the available data on lung cancer from India. PMID:27606290

  15. Lung cancer in the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Vanita; Pinninti, Rakesh; Patil, Vijay M.; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Smoking tobacco, both cigarettes and beedis, is the principal risk factor for causation of lung cancer in Indian men; however, among Indian women, the association with smoking is not strong, suggesting that there could be other risk factors besides smoking. Despite numerous advances in recent years in terms of diagnostic methods, molecular changes, and therapeutic interventions, the outcomes of the lung cancer patients remain poor; hence, a better understanding of the risk factors may impact the preventive measures to be implemented at the community level. There is a lack of comprehensive data on lung cancer in India. In this review, we attempt to collate the available data on lung cancer from India. PMID:27606290

  16. Reducing the low-dose lung radiation for central lung tumors by restricting the IMRT beams and arc arrangement.

    PubMed

    Rosca, Florin; Kirk, Michael; Soto, Daniel; Sall, Walter; McIntyre, James

    2012-01-01

    To compare the extent to which 7 different radiotherapy planning techniques for mediastinal lung targets reduces the lung volume receiving low doses of radiation. Thirteen non-small cell lung cancer patients with targets, including the mediastinal nodes, were identified. Treatment plans were generated to both 60- and 74-Gy prescription doses using 7 different planning techniques: conformal, hybrid conformal/intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT), 7 equidistant IMRT beams, 2 restricted beam IMRT plans, a full (360°) modulated arc, and a restricted modulated arc plan. All plans were optimized to reduce total lung V5, V10, and V20 volumes, while meeting normal tissue and target coverage constraints. The mean values for the 13 patients are calculated for V5, V10, V20, V(ave), V0-20, and mean lung dose (MLD) lung parameters. For the 74-Gy prescription dose, the mean lung V10 was 42.7, 43.6, 48.2, 56.6, 57, 55.8, and 54.1% for the restricted ±36° IMRT, restricted modulated arc, restricted ±45° IMRT, full modulated arc, hybrid conformal/IMRT, equidistant IMRT, and conformal plans, respectively. A similar lung sparing hierarchy was found for the 60-Gy prescription dose. For the treatment of central lung targets, the ±36° restricted IMRT and restricted modulated arc planning techniques are superior in lowering the lung volume treated to low dose, as well as in minimizing MLD, followed by the ±45° restricted IMRT plan. All planning techniques that allow the use of lateral or lateral/oblique beams result in spreading the low dose over a higher lung volume. The area under the lung dose-volume histogram curve below 20 Gy, V0-20, is proposed as an alternative to individual V(dose) parameters, both as a measure of lung sparing and as a parameter to be minimized during IMRT optimization. PMID:22189028

  17. Surgery for small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    de Hoyos, Alberto; DeCamp, Malcolm M

    2014-11-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) comprises approximately 14% of all lung cancer cases. Most patients present with locally advanced or metastatic disease and are therefore treated nonoperatively with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. A small subset of patients with SCLC present with early-stage disease and will benefit from surgical resection plus chemotherapy. The rationale for radiotherapy in these patients remains controversial. PMID:25441133

  18. Advances in bronchoscopy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Dexter, Elisabeth U.

    2012-01-01

    Bronchoscopic techniques have seen significant advances in the last decade. The development and refinement of different types of endobronchial ultrasound and navigation systems have led to improved diagnostic yield and lung cancer staging capabilities. The complication rate of these minimally invasive procedures is extremely low as compared to traditional transthoracic needle biopsy and surgical sampling. These advances augment the safe array of methods utilized in the work up and management algorithms of lung cancer. PMID:23346012

  19. [Lung cancer: psychological and psychiatric aspects].

    PubMed

    Domingues, Vera; Albuquerque, Emília

    2008-01-01

    According to the literature, lung cancer patients experience greater emotional distress than other cancer patients, with scores as high as 61,6%. Poor prognosis, guilt and stigma associated with a history of smoking, may be related with this morbidity. Several studies mention the prevalence of depression to be between 16 and 22%. As distress affects the family as well, mostly those members involved in the patient care, they should not be forgotten and must be involved in the treatment plan. The authors conclude that lung cancer patients' distress is highly prevalent and interferes with quality of live and, possibly, prognosis. Therefore, psychosocial care should be integrated early in cancer treatment. PMID:18363022

  20. Immunotherapy for lung cancer: advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. To date, surgery is the first choice treatment, but most clinically diagnosed cases are inoperable. While chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are the next considered options for such cases, these treatment modalities have adverse effects and are sometimes lethal to patients. Thus, new effective strategies with minimal side effects are urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy provides either active or passive immunity to target tumors. Multiple immunotherapy agents have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against lung cancer, and some pose fewer side effects as compared to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article, we discuss studies focusing on interactions between lung cancer and the immune system, and we place an emphasis on outcome evidence in order to create a knowledge base well-grounded in clinical reality. Overall, this review highlights the need for new lung cancer treatment options, with much ground to be paved for future advances in the field. We believe that immunotherapy agents alone or with other forms of treatment can be recognized as next modality of lung cancer treatment. PMID:27168951

  1. Immunotherapy for lung cancer: advances and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. To date, surgery is the first choice treatment, but most clinically diagnosed cases are inoperable. While chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy are the next considered options for such cases, these treatment modalities have adverse effects and are sometimes lethal to patients. Thus, new effective strategies with minimal side effects are urgently needed. Cancer immunotherapy provides either active or passive immunity to target tumors. Multiple immunotherapy agents have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against lung cancer, and some pose fewer side effects as compared to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this article, we discuss studies focusing on interactions between lung cancer and the immune system, and we place an emphasis on outcome evidence in order to create a knowledge base well-grounded in clinical reality. Overall, this review highlights the need for new lung cancer treatment options, with much ground to be paved for future advances in the field. We believe that immunotherapy agents alone or with other forms of treatment can be recognized as next modality of lung cancer treatment. PMID:27168951

  2. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  3. AP-PA field orientation followed by IMRT reduces lung exposure in comparison to conventional 3D conformal and sole IMRT in centrally located lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Soyfer, Viacheslav; Meir, Yaron; Corn, Benjamin W; Schifter, Dan; Gez, Eliahu; Tempelhoff, Haim; Shtraus, Natan

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the fact that intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques do not easily enable treatment with opposed beams. Three treatment plans (3 D conformal, IMRT, and combined (anterior-posterior-posterio-anterior (AP-PA) + IMRT) of 7 patients with centrally-located lung cancer were compared for exposure of lung, spinal cord and esophagus. Combined IMRT and AP-PA techniques offer better lung tissue sparing compared to plans predicated solely on IMRT for centrally-located lung tumors. PMID:22340727

  4. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  5. Lung Cancer Screening with Low Dose CT

    PubMed Central

    Caroline, Chiles

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The announcement of the results of the NLST, showing a 20% reduction in lung-cancer specific mortality with LDCT screening in a high risk population, marked a turning point in lung cancer screening. This was the first time that a randomized controlled trial had shown a mortality reduction with an imaging modality aimed at early detection of lung cancer. Current guidelines endorse LDCT screening for smokers and former smokers ages 55 to 74, with at least a 30 pack year smoking history. Adherence to published algorithms for nodule follow-up is strongly encouraged. Future directions for screening research include risk stratification for selection of the screening population, and improvements in the diagnostic follow-up for indeterminate pulmonary nodules. As with screening for other malignancies, screening for lung cancer with LDCT has revealed that there are indolent lung cancers which may not be fatal. More research is necessary if we are to maximize the risk-benefit ratio in lung cancer screening. PMID:24267709

  6. Current Controversies in Lung Cancer Staging.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brett W; Godoy, Myrna C B; Wu, Carol C; Erasmus, Jeremy J; Truong, Mylene T

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States, and accurate staging of disease plays an important role in the formulation of treatment strategies and optimization of patient outcomes. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer has recently proposed changes to the upcoming eighth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM-8) staging system used for lung cancer. This revised classification is based on significant differences in patient survival identified on analysis of a new large international database of lung cancer cases. Key changes include: further modifications to the T descriptors based on 1 cm increments in tumor size; grouping of tumors resulting in partial or complete lung atelectasis/pneumonitis; grouping of tumors involving a main bronchus with respect to distance from the carina; reassignment of diaphragmatic invasion; elimination of mediastinal pleural invasion as a descriptor; and further subdivision of metastatic disease into distinct descriptors based on the number of extrathoracic metastases and involved organs. Because of these changes, several new stage groups have been developed, and others have shifted. Although TNM-8 represents continued improvement upon modifications previously made to the staging system, reflecting an evolving understanding of tumor behavior and patient management, several limitations and unaddressed issues persist. Understanding the proposed revisions to TNM-8 and awareness of key limitations and potential controversial issues still unaddressed will allow radiologists to accurately stage patients with lung cancer and optimize treatment decisions. PMID:27306388

  7. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    PubMed

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. PMID:25772581

  8. Occupation and smoking as risk determinants of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pukkala, E; Teppo, L; Hakulinen, T; Rimpelä, M

    1983-09-01

    The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of lung cancer was determined for different occupational groups in Finland. The data on all cases of lung cancer diagnosed in Finland in age groups of 35-69 years in 1971-1975 were supplemented by information on occupation from the 1970 census (Central Statistical Office). The expected numbers of cases were based on the sex, age and occupation-specific numbers of person-years computed in the Central Statistical Office, and sex- and age-specific incidence rates of lung cancer among the economically active population (as defined 1 January 1971). Compared with the risk of the total economically active population, the relative risk of those not active (SIR) was 1.69 for men and 0.86 for women. Lower than expected relative risks were encountered among highly educated and white-collar male workers (religious, legal, pedagogical, medical, technical and administrative work), in sales work, transport service work and among farmers. High SIRs were found in mining and quarrying, forestry, woodworking (joiners), construction, painting and among unskilled workers. Among women the numbers of cases were small and only one significant SIR was obtained; the risk was lower than expected in farming. Data on the smoking habits of males in different main occupational categories in Finland show that variation between different occupational groups in the prevalence of smoking closely corresponds to that in the SIR for lung cancer (R = 0.96). PMID:6629617

  9. Role of STAT3 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Pranabananda; Sabri, Nafiseh; Li, Jinghong; Li, Willis X

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a challenging disease. It is responsible for the high cancer mortality rates in the US and worldwide. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operative in lung cancer is an important first step in developing effective therapies. Accumulating evidence over the last 2 decades suggests a critical role for Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) as a point of convergence for various signaling pathways that are dysregulated in the disease. In this review, we discuss possible molecular mechanisms involving STAT3 in lung tumorigenesis based on recent literature. We consider possible roles of STAT3 in cancer cell proliferation and survival, in the tumor immune environment, and in epigenetic regulation and interaction of STAT3 with other transcription factors. We also discuss the potential role of STAT3 in tumor suppression, which complicates strategies of targeting STAT3 in cancer therapy. PMID:26413424

  10. High-Dose Hypofractionated Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Is Safe and Effective for Central and Peripheral Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a 12-Year Experience at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Cheek, Gregory; Zaheer, Salman; Wallen, Jason; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Katerelos, Ari; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We update our previous reports on the use of hypofractionated proton beam radiation therapy for early-stage lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had biopsy-proven non-small cell carcinoma of the lung and were medically inoperable or refused surgery. Clinical workup required staging of T1 or T2, N0, M0. Subjects received hypofractionated proton beam therapy to the primary tumor only. The dose delivered was sequentially escalated from 51 to 60 Gy, then to 70 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Endpoints included toxicity, pulmonary function, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC). Results: One hundred eleven subjects were analyzed for treatment outcomes. The patient population had the following average characteristics; age 73.2 years, tumor size 3.6 cm, and 1.33 L forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The entire group showed improved OS with increasing dose level (51, 60, and 70 Gy) with a 4-year OS of 18%, 32%, and 51%, respectively (P=.006). Peripheral T1 tumors exhibited LC of 96%, DSS of 88%, and OS of 60% at 4 years. Patients with T2 tumors showed a trend toward improved LC and survival with the 70-Gy dose level. On multivariate analysis, larger tumor size was strongly associated with increased local recurrence and decreased survival. Central versus peripheral location did not correlate with any outcome measures. Clinical radiation pneumonitis was not found to be a significant complication, and no patient required steroid therapy after treatment for radiation pneumonitis. Pulmonary function was well maintained 1 year after treatment. Conclusions: High-dose hypofractionated proton therapy achieves excellent outcomes for lung carcinomas that are peripherally or centrally located. The 70-Gy regimen has been adopted as standard therapy for T1 tumors at our institution. Larger T2 tumors show a trend toward improved outcomes with higher doses, suggesting that better results could be seen with

  11. Mineral particles, mineral fibers, and lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Churg, A.; Wiggs, B.

    1985-08-01

    The total fibrous and nonfibrous mineral content of the lung has been analyzed in a series of 14 men with lung cancer but no history of occupational dust exposure, and in a series of 14 control men matched for age, smoking history, and general occupational class. The lung cancer patients had an average of 525 +/- 369 X 10(6) exogenous mineral particles and 17.4 +/- 19.6 X 10(6) exogenous mineral fibers/g dry lung, while the controls had averages of 261 +/- 175 mineral particles and 4.7 +/- 3.2 X 10(6) mineral fibers/g dry lung. These differences are statistically significant for both particles and fibers. Kaolinite, talc, mica, feldspars, and crystalline silica comprised the majority of particles of both groups. Approximately 90% of the particles were smaller than 2 micron in diameter and approximately 60% smaller than 1 micron. In both groups, patients who had smoked more than 35 pack years had greater numbers of particles than patients who had smoked less than 35 pack years. It is concluded that, in this study, lungs from patients with lung cancer had statistically greater numbers of mineral particles and fibers than lungs from controls, and that smoking influences total long-term retention of particles from all sources.

  12. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  13. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  14. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Kita, Nobuyuki; Bandoh, Shuji; Tadokoro, Akira; Ishii, Tomoya; Dobashi, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are signs or symptoms that occur as a result of organ or tissue damage at locations remote from the site of the primary tumor or metastases. Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer can impair various organ functions and include neurologic, endocrine, dermatologic, rheumatologic, hematologic, and ophthalmological syndromes, as well as glomerulopathy and coagulopathy (Trousseau’s syndrome). The histological type of lung cancer is generally dependent on the associated syndrome, the two most common of which are humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy in squamous cell carcinoma and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in small cell lung cancer. The symptoms often precede the diagnosis of the associated lung cancer, especially when the symptoms are neurologic or dermatologic. The proposed mechanisms of paraneoplastic processes include the aberrant release of humoral mediators, such as hormones and hormone-like peptides, cytokines, and antibodies. Treating the underlying cancer is generally the most effective therapy for paraneoplastic syndromes, and treatment soon after symptom onset appears to offer the best potential for symptom improvement. In this article, we review the diagnosis, potential mechanisms, and treatments of a wide variety of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung cancer. PMID:25114839

  15. Transbronchial Dissemination of Squamous Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Akira; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Ishii, Tomoya; Watanabe, Naoki; Inoue, Takuya; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Bandoh, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of squamous cell lung cancer with transbronchial dissemination in a 73-year-old man. Bronchoscopic examination revealed multiple bronchial mucosal nodules that existed independently of one another. We reviewed 16 previous cases of endobronchial metastasis in lung cancer. All patients were men. Among the reports that described the smoking history, most patients were smokers (6/7), and the most frequent histological type of cancer was squamous cell carcinoma (11/17). Although hematogenous and lymphogenous routes have been reported as metastatic mechanisms, no previous cases involving transbronchial dissemination have been described. Transbronchial dissemination may be an alternative pathway of endobronchial metastasis. PMID:26672760

  16. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  17. Molecular understanding of lung cancers-A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chinnappan Ravinder; Kathiresan, Kandasamy

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is considered to be the most common cancer in the world. The purpose of this paper is to review scientific evidence, particularly epidemiologic evidence of overall lung cancer burden in the world. And molecular understanding of lung cancer at various levels by dominant and suppressor oncogenes. PMID:25183110

  18. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  19. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  20. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  1. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  2. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  3. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  4. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  5. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  6. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  7. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  8. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  9. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  10. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...

  11. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  12. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...

  13. Preoperative evaluation of stage T3, central-type non-small cell lung cancer with double sleeve lobectomy under complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery using spiral computed tomography post-processing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yubao; Huang, Jun; Xia, Tingting; You, Xiaoting; He, Jiaxi

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the estimated value of spiral computed tomography (CT) post-processing techniques in preoperative stage T3, central-type non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with double sleeve lobectomy under complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (c-VATS). Methods Preoperative clinical date and CT reconstructed data of 10 patients who underwent double sleeve lobectomy with upper lobe stage T3, central-type NSCLC were retrospectively analysed and compared to surgical pathological results and cross-sectional CT data. The diagnostic criterions of tumour invasion of pulmonary artery and bronchus were divided into five grades, which included estimation of upper lobe pulmonary arteries and bronchi (40 branches, respectively). Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional CT images of pulmonary artery tumour invasion were 78.57%, 58.33%, 81.48%, 53.85%, and 72.50%, respectively, while the respective values for CT reconstructed images were 93.55%, 87.50%, 96.67%, 70.00%, and 90.00%, showing statistical significance (χ2=4.021, P=0.045). Similarly, the evaluate, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of cross-sectional CT images of bronchial tumour invasion were 82.76%, 45.45%, 80.00%, 50.00%, and 72.50%, respectively, while the respective values for CT reconstructed images were 97.06%, 66.67%, 94.29%, 80.00%, 92.50%; these results were also statistically significant (χ2=5.541, P=0.019). Conclusions The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the spiral CT post-processing techniques were better than cross-sectional CT images in estimating the extent of tumour invasion in the pulmonary arteries and bronchi of central-type NSCLC. CT post-processing techniques are essential tools in preoperative examination and operative method selection of central-type lung cancer with double sleeve

  14. Targeted therapy for squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Rachel G.; Watanabe, Hideo; Meyerson, Matthew; Hammerman, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is the second most common subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer and leads to 40,000–50,000 deaths per year in the USA. Management of non-small-cell lung cancer has dramatically changed over the past decade with the introduction of targeted therapeutic agents for genotypically selected individuals with lung adenocarcinoma. These agents lead to improved outcomes, and it has now become the standard of care to perform routine molecular genotyping of lung adenocarcinomas. By contrast, progress in lung SqCC has been modest, and there has yet to be a successful demonstration of targeted therapy in this disease. Here, we review exciting work from ongoing genomic characterization and biomarker validation efforts that have nominated several likely therapeutic targets in lung SqCCs. These studies suggest that targeted therapies are likely to be successful in the treatment of lung SqCCs and should be further explored in both preclinical models and in clinical trials. PMID:23956794

  15. Intermediate endpoint biomarkers for lung cancer chemoprevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAulay, Calum E.; Lam, Stephen; Klein-Parker, Helga; Gazdar, Adi; Guillaud, Martial; Payne, Peter W.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Band, Pierre; Palcic, Branko

    1998-04-01

    Given the demographics of current and ex-smoking populations in North America, lung cancer will be a major problem in the foreseeable future. Early detection and treatment of lung cancer holds great promise for the management of this disease. Unlike cervical cancer, the physical, complete removal/destruction of all dysplastic lesions in the bronchial tree is not possible; however, treatment of the lesions using a chemopreventive agent is. Intermediate biomarkers have been used to screen promising chemopreventive agents for larger population studies. We have examined the natural history of lung cancer development by following a group of subjects at high risk of developing lung cancer using fluorescence endoscopy to identify the areas of abnormality for biopsy. Approximately 900 biopsies have been collected in this fashion and graded by at least two experienced, expert pathologists. Using an interactive version of the Cyto-Savant (Oncometrics Imaging Corp.), cytometric and tissue architectural data were collected from these biopsies. Using only the data from the normal and invasive cancer biopsies, quantitative morphometric and architectural indices were generated and calculated for all the collected biopsies. These indices were compared with Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) of ten sites commonly associated with cancer. These results and the application of these quantitative measures to two small chemoprevention studies will be reported.

  16. Isolating and Testing Circulating Tumor DNA and Soluble Immune Markers During the Course of Treatment for Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-11

    Lung Cancer; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-small-cell Lung; Adenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  17. Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Targeted therapies have become standard therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with and without bevacizumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with non-squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in efficacy. In patients with NSCLC with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (defined as exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R point mutation), phase III trials of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) compared to platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated superior efficacy in the first-line setting. In patients with NSCLC with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, phase III trials of crizotinib have demonstrated superior efficacy compared to platinum-pemetrexed in the first-line setting and standard chemotherapy in the second-line setting. A second-generation ALK inhibitor, ceritinib, is available for patients who have progressed after or were intolerant of crizotinib. Crizotinib has also demonstrated activity on patients with ROS1 rearrangements, and BRAF inhibitors (dabrafenib, vemurafenib) have demonstrated activity in patients with NSCLC with BRAF V600E mutation. The oncogenic mutations that are susceptible to targeted therapy are mainly found in non-squamous NSCLC. The development of targeted therapy in patients with squamous NSCLC has been more challenging due to the genomic complexity observed in the squamous histology and the low prevalence of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 molecular alterations. A phase III trial of cisplatin and gemcitabine with and without necitumumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival. PMID:27535394

  18. Analysis of the energy balance in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Staal-van den Brekel, A J; Schols, A M; ten Velde, G P; Buurman, W A; Wouters, E F

    1994-12-15

    Previous studies have shown that an elevated resting energy expenditure (REE) frequently occurs in lung cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the balance between REE and dietary intake and to analyze the contributing factors of elevated REE in newly detected lung cancer patients. One hundred newly detected lung cancer patients were evaluated. Measured values of REE were adjusted for the values predicted by the Harris-Benedict formula and for fat-free mass assessed by the bioelectrical impedance method. Dietary intake was measured using a dietary history. A substantial number of patients (30%) had a weight loss of 10% or more from their preillness stable weight. An elevated REE was found in 74% of the patients. Stratification by tumor localization revealed that patients with a central tumor had a significantly higher REE [121 +/- 13% (SD) versus 110 +/- 10% of predicted, P < 0.001] and significantly higher level of C-reactive protein (35 +/- 35 mg/liter versus 16 +/- 26 mg/liter, P = 0.006) compared with patients with a peripheral tumor. Dietary intake was significantly lower in the weight-losing group (1872 +/- 542 kcal/day versus 2169 +/- 782 kcal/day, P < 0.05) compared with the weight-stable group. We conclude that both elevated REE and decreased dietary intake contribute to weight loss in lung cancer patients. Tumor localization and inflammation were found to be contributing factors to the elevated REE. PMID:7987838

  19. Photoradiation Therapy Of Obstructing Endobronchial Lung Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balchum, Oscar J.; Doiron, Daniel R.

    1982-12-01

    Clinical trials of photoradiation therapy (PRT) have been carried out in 32 patients with lung cancer, 10 of which are reported here. The aim is the palliative treatment and control of cancer lesions obstructing an airway, whether in the trachea or in a large bronchus leading to a lung or to a lobe of a lung. The objective or patient benefit is the opening up of the lumen of the airway to improve ventilation to relieve shortness of breath, and to prevent the retention of secretions containing bacteria, that cause lung infections. Immediate results (one to several weeks) were uniformly good. Air passageways were opened up as revealed by subsequent bronchoscopy, after clearing away tumor debris. Short-term (several months) observations were limited in number but indicate potentially good results. Future research is directed toward better criteria for patient selection improved patient evaluation that will reveal potential cardiac and pulmonary complications, and the devising of more suitable laser light delivery techniques.

  20. Successes and limitations of targeted cancer therapy in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Human cancers usually evolve through multistep processes. These processes are driven by the accumulation of abundant genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. However, some lung cancers depend on a single activated oncogene by somatic mutation, termed 'driver oncogenic mutations', for their proliferation and survival. EGFR(epidermal growth factor receptor) mutations and ALK(anaplastic lymphoma kinase) rearrangement are typical examples of such driver oncogenic mutations found in lung adenocarcinomas. EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or ALK-TKIs significantly improved treatment outcomes compared with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with lung cancers harboring EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangement, respectively. Therefore, treatment strategies for lung cancers have dramatically changed from a 'general and empiric' to a 'personalized and evidence-based' approach according to the driver oncogenic mutation. Several novel driver oncogenic mutations, which are candidates as novel targets, such as ERBB2, BRAF, ROS1, and RET, have been discovered. Despite these successes, several limitations have arisen. One example is that some lung cancers do not respond to treatments targeting driver oncogenic mutations, as exemplified in KRAS-mutated lung cancers. Another is resistance to molecular-targeted drugs. Such resistance includes de novo resistance and acquired resistance. A number of molecular mechanisms underlying such resistance have been reported. These mechanisms can be roughly divided into three categories: alteration of the targeted oncogenes themselves by secondary mutations or amplification, activation of an alternative oncogenic signaling track, and conversion of cellular characteristics. Overcoming resistance is a current area of urgent clinical research. PMID:24727987

  1. Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located Early Stage or Isolated Parenchymal Recurrences of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: How to Fly in a “No Fly Zone”

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y.; Li, Qiao-Qiao; Xu, Qing-Yong; Allen, Pamela K.; Rebueno, Neal; Gomez, Daniel R.; Balter, Peter; Komaki, Ritsuko; Mehran, Reza; Swisher, Stephen G.; Roth, Jack A.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: We extended our previous experience with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR; 50 Gy in 4 fractions) for centrally located non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); explored the use of 70 Gy in 10 fractions for cases in which dose-volume constraints could not be met with the previous regimen; and suggested modified dose-volume constraints. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT)-based volumetric image-guided SABR was used for 100 patients with biopsy-proven, central T1-T2N0M0 (n=81) or isolated parenchymal recurrence of NSCLC (n=19). All disease was staged with positron emission tomography/CT; all tumors were within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, trachea, major vessels, esophagus, heart, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body. Endpoints were toxicity, overall survival (OS), local and regional control, and distant metastasis. Results: At a median follow-up time of 30.6 months, median OS time was 55.6 months, and the 3-year OS rate was 70.5%. Three-year cumulative actuarial local, regional, and distant control rates were 96.5%, 87.9%, and 77.2%, respectively. The most common toxicities were chest-wall pain (18% grade 1, 13% grade 2) and radiation pneumonitis (11% grade 2 and 1% grade 3). No patient experienced grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Among the 82 patients receiving 50 Gy in 4 fractions, multivariate analyses showed mean total lung dose >6 Gy, V{sub 20} >12%, or ipsilateral lung V{sub 30} >15% to independently predict radiation pneumonitis; and 3 of 9 patients with brachial plexus D{sub max} >35 Gy experienced brachial neuropathy versus none of 73 patients with brachial D{sub max} <35 Gy (P=.001). Other toxicities were analyzed and new dose-volume constraints are proposed. Conclusions: SABR for centrally located lesions produces clinical outcomes similar to those for peripheral lesions when normal tissue constraints are respected.

  2. Lung cancer: chemoprevention and intermediate effect markers.

    PubMed

    Tockman, M S

    2001-01-01

    Even after smoking cessation, genetic damage in the airways epithelium may lead to focal progression of lung carcinogenesis. Some centres now report as many new lung cancer cases among former smokers as among current smokers. Chemoprevention is a potential approach to diminish the progression of pre-clinical genetic damage. The most intensively studied lung cancer chemoprevention agents are the retinoids, including vitamin A and its synthetic analogues and precursors. While effective in suppressing lung carcinogenesis in animal models, retinoids have failed to inhibit carcinogenesis in human chemoprevention trials with premalignant end-points (sputum atypia, bronchial metaplasia). In trials with lung cancer end-points, administration of retinoids either was ineffective or, in the case of beta-carotene, led to greater lung cancer incidence and mortality. In view of these findings, markers of specific retinoid effect (i.e., levels of RAR-beta) become less relevant. Other markers of genetic instability and proliferation may be useful for both early detection and potentially as intermediate-effect markers for new chemoprevention trials. Cytological atypia, bronchial metaplasia, protein (hnRNP A2/B1) overexpression, ras oncogene activation and tumour-suppressor gene deletion, genomic instability (loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite alterations), abnormal methylation, helical CT detection of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and fluorescent bronchoscopic detection of angiogenic squamous dysplasia offer great promise for molecular diagnosis of lung cancer far in advance of clinical presentation. These end-points can now be evaluated as monitors of response to chemoprevention as potential intermediate-effect markers. PMID:11220665

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung cancer include a cough that doesn't go away and shortness of breath. Sometimes lung cancer ... discomfort or pain. A cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time. Trouble breathing. ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung cancer include a cough that doesn't go away and shortness of breath. Sometimes lung cancer ... discomfort or pain. A cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time. Trouble breathing. ...

  5. Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung cancer include a cough that doesn't go away and shortness of breath. Sometimes lung cancer ... discomfort or pain. A cough that doesn’t go away or gets worse over time. Trouble breathing. ...

  6. Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159289.html Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That Study ... HealthDay News) -- A new smartphone app may help lung cancer patients live longer and better by monitoring ...

  7. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Cancer.gov

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  8. Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159289.html Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That Study found ... HealthDay News) -- A new smartphone app may help lung cancer patients live longer and better by monitoring their ...

  9. Do Too Many Lung Cancer Patients Miss Out on Surgery?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159488.html Do Too Many Lung Cancer Patients Miss Out on Surgery? Study evaluates treatment ... 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many patients with advanced lung cancer might live longer if treated surgically, but few ...

  10. General Information about Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... most patients with non-small cell lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer. If lung ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...